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Sample records for reliably detect ra

  1. Reliability of pyuria detection method.

    PubMed

    Saito, A; Kawada, Y

    1994-01-01

    The reliability of two methods for the detection of pyuria was studied in a total of 106 urine samples obtained from patients with identifiable underlying urinary tract disease. The coefficient of variation (CV) was significantly higher in the microscopic than in the counting chamber method. The CV obtained with the use of the KOVA slide 10 grid, a disposable and less expensive counting chamber, was identical to that obtained with the Bürker-Türk counting chamber. Only 50% of the patients who were proven to have pyuria of > or = 5 WBCs/HPF by the microscopic method had significant bacteriuria of > or = 10(4) bacteria per ml of urine. On the other hand, 95% and 90% of the patients who were proven to have pyuria of > or = 10 WBCs/mm3 with the Bürker-Türk and Fuchs-Rosenthal counting chambers had significant bacteriuria. It was concluded that the counting chamber provides a reliable method for the detection of pyuria and is highly predictive for the presence of significant bacteriuria. The KOVA slide 10 grid is an acceptable alternative to the regular counting chamber. PMID:7519582

  2. Reliability Studies for Fatigue-Crack Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, B. K.; Rummel, W. D.; Knadler, J.

    1985-01-01

    Reusable test panels available to assess reliability of techniques that use fluorescent penetrant to detect fatigue cracks. Ultrasonic cleaning method developed for removing penetrant from panels prior to reuse.

  3. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis: reliability and construct validation of the OMERACT RA Flare Core Domain Set

    PubMed Central

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H; Lin, Daming; Alten, Rieke; Christensen, Robin; Furst, Daniel E; Hewlett, Sarah; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn; Woodworth, Thasia; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Jamal, Shahin; Keystone, Edward C; Pope, Janet; Tin, Diane; Thorne, J Carter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reliability of concurrent flare identification using 3 methods (patient, rheumatologist and Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 criteria), and construct validity of candidate items representing the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) RA Flare Core Domain Set. Methods Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares was assessed using the agreement coefficient. Construct validity of flare questions was examined: convergent (Spearman's r); discriminant (mean differences between flaring/non-flaring patients); and consequential (proportions with prior treatment reductions and intended therapeutic change postflare). Results The 849 patients were 75% female, 81% white, 42% were in remission/low disease activity (R/LDA), and 16–32% were flaring at the second visit. Agreement of flare status was low–strong (κ's 0.17–0.88) and inversely related to RA disease activity level. Flare domains correlated highly (r's≥0.70) with each other, patient global (r's≥0.66) and corresponding measures (r's 0.49–0.92); and moderately highly with MD and patient-reported joint counts (r's 0.29–0.62). When MD/patients agreed the patient was flaring, mean flare domain between-group differences were 2.1–3.0; 36% had treatment reductions prior to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. Conclusions Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with/without flare and have strong evidence of construct and consequential validity. Ongoing work will identify optimal scoring and cut points to identify RA flares. PMID

  4. Rapid Reagentless Detection of M. tuberculosis H37Ra in Respiratory Effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K L; Steele, P T; Bogan, M J; Sadler, N M; Martin, S; Martin, A N; Frank, M

    2008-01-29

    Two similar mycobacteria, Mycobacteria tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacteria smegmatis are rapidly detected and identified within samples containing a complex background of respiratory effluents using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS). M. tuberculosis H37Ra (TBa), an avirulent strain, is used as a surrogate for virulent tuberculosis (TBv); M. smegmatis (MSm) is utilized as a near neighbor confounder for TBa. Bovine lung surfactant and human exhaled breath condensate are used as first-order surrogates for infected human lung expirations from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This simulated background sputum is mixed with TBa or MSm and nebulized to produce conglomerate aerosol particles, single particles that contain a bacterium embedded within a background respiratory matrix. Mass spectra of single conglomerate particles exhibit ions associated with both respiratory effluents and mycobacteria. Spectral features distinguishing TBa from MSm in pure and conglomerate particles are shown. SPAMS pattern matching alarm algorithms are able to distinguish TBa containing particles from background matrix and MSm for >50% of the test particles, which is sufficient to enable a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate if an adequate number of such particles are present. These results indicate the potential usefulness of SPAMS for rapid, reagentless tuberculosis screening.

  5. Detection of cerebral aneurysms in MRA, CTA and 3D-RA data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschke, Clemens M.; Beuing, Oliver; Nickl, Rosa; Tönnies, Klaus D.

    2012-03-01

    We propose a system to automatically detect cerebral aneurysms in 3D X-ray rotational angiography images (3D-RA), magnetic resonance angiography images (MRA) and computed tomography angiography images (CTA). After image normalization, initial candidates are found by applying a blob-enhancing filter on the data sets. Clusters are computed by a modified k-means algorithm. A post-processing step reduces the false positive (FP) rate on the basis of computed features. This is implemented as a rule-based system that is adapted according to the modality. In MRA, clusters are excluded that are not neighbored to a vessel. As a final step, FP are further reduced by applying a threshold classification on a feature. Our method was tested on 93 angiographic data sets containing aneurysm and non-aneurysm cases. We achieved 95 % sensitivity with an average rate of 2.6 FP per data set (FP/DS) in case of 3D-RA, 89 % sensitivity at 6.6 FP/DS for MRA and 95 % sensitivity at 37.6 FP/DS with CTA, respectively. We showed that our post-processing approach eliminates FP in MRA with only a slight decrease of sensitivity. In contrast to other approaches, our algorithm does not require a vessel segmentation and does not require training of distributional properties.

  6. Detection of faults and software reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Multi-version or N-version programming is proposed as a method of providing fault tolerance in software. The approach requires the separate, independent preparation of multiple versions of a piece of software for some application. These versions are executed in parallel in the application environment; each receives identical inputs and each produces its version of the required outputs. The outputs are collected by a voter and, in principle, they should all be the same. In practice there may be some disagreement. If this occurs, the results of the majority are taken to be the correct output, and that is the output used by the system. A total of 27 programs were produced. Each of these programs was then subjected to one million randomly-generated test cases. The experiment yielded a number of programs containing faults that are useful for general studies of software reliability as well as studies of N-version programming. Fault tolerance through data diversity and analytic models of comparison testing are discussed.

  7. Transition to turbulent thermal convection beyond Ra=1010 detected in numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Alain P.; Yuen, David A.

    2000-05-01

    We have conducted high-resolution two-dimensional calculations for a Boussinesq convection model with a Prandtl number of unity in an aspect-ratio 3 box, going from Rayleigh numbers between 108 to 1014. A grid of 1024×3076 grid points consisting of a cosine-sine basis set has been employed for free-slip boundary conditions. We have found evidence for a transition involving the branching of plumes at a Rayleigh number of 1010. Inside the core of these ``superplumes,'' the structure is extremely complex. There may be another transition at Ra of 1012, where a secondary instability may develop in regions of the local Rayleigh number which becomes supercritical inside the core of the complex ``superplumes.'' For Ra of 108 to 1010, Ra follows a 13 power law in the Nusselt-Rayleigh number relationship. From Ra of 1010 to 1012, Ra follows a 12 power law. Above this value the Nusselt number becomes insensitive to the variation in the global Rayleigh number and this is due to the development of small-scale convection cells vertically aligned in the interior of the extremely high Ra number flow. The global Reynolds number scales as Re~Ra1/4 up to Ra of 1014. Scaling relationships based on global properties would not work in extremely high Ra situations beyond Ra of 1012 because of the complex turbulent layered convection in the core of the flow and the severe degradation of the boundary layers.

  8. Fast wafer-level detection and control of interconnect reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Sean; Molyneaux, James; Mathewson, Alan

    2000-08-01

    Many of the technological advances in the semiconductor industry have led to dramatic increases in device density and performance in conjunction with enhanced circuit reliability. As reliability is improved, the time taken to characterize particular failure modes with traditional test methods is getting substantially longer. Furthermore, semiconductor customers expect low product cost and fast time-to-market. The limits of traditional reliability testing philosophies are being reached and new approaches need to be investigated to enable the next generation of highly reliable products to be tested. This is especially true in the area of IC interconnect, where significant challenges are predicted for the next decade. A number of fast, wafer level test methods exist for interconnect reliability evaluation. The relative abilities of four such methods to detect the quality and reliability of IC interconnect over very short test times are evaluated in this work. Four different test structure designs are also evaluated and the results are bench-marked against conventional package level Median Time to Failure results. The Isothermal test method combine with SWEAT-type test structures is shown to be the most suitable combination for defect detection and interconnect reliability control over very short test times.

  9. Transition to turbulent thermal convection beyond Ra = 10(10) detected in numerical simulations

    PubMed

    Vincent; Yuen

    2000-05-01

    We have conducted high-resolution two-dimensional calculations for a Boussinesq convection model with a Prandtl number of unity in an aspect-ratio 3 box, going from Rayleigh numbers between 10(8) to 10(14). A grid of 1024 x 3076 grid points consisting of a cosine-sine basis set has been employed for free-slip boundary conditions. We have found evidence for a transition involving the branching of plumes at a Rayleigh number of 10(10). Inside the core of these "superplumes," the structure is extremely complex. There may be another transition at Ra of 10(12), where a secondary instability may develop in regions of the local Rayleigh number which becomes supercritical inside the core of the complex "superplumes." For Ra of 10(8) to 10(10), Ra follows a 1/3 power law in the Nusselt-Rayleigh number relationship. From Ra of 10(10) to 10(12), Ra follows a 1/2 power law. Above this value the Nusselt number becomes insensitive to the variation in the global Rayleigh number and this is due to the development of small-scale convection cells vertically aligned in the interior of the extremely high Ra number flow. The global Reynolds number scales as Re approximately Ra1/4 up to Ra of 10(14). Scaling relationships based on global properties would not work in extremely high Ra situations beyond Ra of 10(12) because of the complex turbulent layered convection in the core of the flow and the severe degradation of the boundary layers. PMID:11031571

  10. dRHP-PseRA: detecting remote homology proteins using profile-based pseudo protein sequence and rank aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjie; Long, Ren; Wang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Bin; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Protein remote homology detection is an important task in computational proteomics. Some computational methods have been proposed, which detect remote homology proteins based on different features and algorithms. As noted in previous studies, their predictive results are complementary to each other. Therefore, it is intriguing to explore whether these methods can be combined into one package so as to further enhance the performance power and application convenience. In view of this, we introduced a protein representation called profile-based pseudo protein sequence to extract the evolutionary information from the relevant profiles. Based on the concept of pseudo proteins, a new predictor, called "dRHP-PseRA", was developed by combining four state-of-the-art predictors (PSI-BLAST, HHblits, Hmmer, and Coma) via the rank aggregation approach. Cross-validation tests on a SCOP benchmark dataset have demonstrated that the new predictor has remarkably outperformed any of the existing methods for the same purpose on ROC50 scores. Accordingly, it is anticipated that dRHP-PseRA holds very high potential to become a useful high throughput tool for detecting remote homology proteins. For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a web-server for dRHP-PseRA has been established at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/dRHP-PseRA/. PMID:27581095

  11. MSFIA-LOV system for (226)Ra isolation and pre-concentration from water samples previous radiometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rogelio; Borràs, Antoni; Leal, Luz; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura

    2016-03-10

    An automatic system based on multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) and lab-on-valve (LOV) flow techniques for separation and pre-concentration of (226)Ra from drinking and natural water samples has been developed. The analytical protocol combines two different procedures: the Ra adsorption on MnO2 and the BaSO4 co-precipitation, achieving more selectivity especially in water samples with low radium levels. Radium is adsorbed on MnO2 deposited on macroporous of bead cellulose. Then, it is eluted with hydroxylamine to transform insoluble MnO2 to soluble Mn(II) thus freeing Ra, which is then coprecipitated with BaSO4. The (226)Ra can be directly detected in off-line mode using a low background proportional counter (LBPC) or through a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), after performing an on-line coprecipitate dissolution. Thus, the versatility of the proposed system allows the selection of the radiometric detection technique depending on the detector availability or the required response efficiency (sample number vs. response time and limit of detection). The MSFIA-LOV system improves the precision (1.7% RSD), and the extraction frequency (up to 3 h(-1)). Besides, it has been satisfactorily applied to different types of water matrices (tap, mineral, well and sea water). The (226)Ra minimum detectable activities (LSC: 0.004 Bq L(-1); LBPC: 0.02 Bq L(-1)) attained by this system allow to reach the guidance values proposed by the relevant international agencies e.g. WHO, EPA and EC. PMID:26893088

  12. Reliability evaluation of the Savannah River reactor leak detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Sindelar, R.L. ); Wallace, I.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. The primary degradation mode for the primary coolant loop piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The leak-before-break (LBB) capability of the primary system piping has been demonstrated as part of an overall structural integrity evaluation. One element of the LBB analyses is a reliability evaluation of the leak detection system. The most sensitive element of the leak detection system is the airborne tritium monitors. The presence of small amounts of tritium in the heavy water coolant provide the basis for a very sensitive system of leak detection. The reliability of the tritium monitors to properly identify a crack leaking at a rate of either 50 or 300 lb/day (0.004 or 0.023 gpm, respectively) has been characterized. These leak rates correspond to action points for which specific operator actions are required. High reliability has been demonstrated using standard fault tree techniques. The probability of not detecting a leak within an assumed mission time of 24 hours is estimated to be approximately 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per demand. This result is obtained for both leak rates considered. The methodology and assumptions used to obtain this result are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. dRHP-PseRA: detecting remote homology proteins using profile-based pseudo protein sequence and rank aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junjie; Long, Ren; Wang, Xiao-long; Liu, Bin; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Protein remote homology detection is an important task in computational proteomics. Some computational methods have been proposed, which detect remote homology proteins based on different features and algorithms. As noted in previous studies, their predictive results are complementary to each other. Therefore, it is intriguing to explore whether these methods can be combined into one package so as to further enhance the performance power and application convenience. In view of this, we introduced a protein representation called profile-based pseudo protein sequence to extract the evolutionary information from the relevant profiles. Based on the concept of pseudo proteins, a new predictor, called “dRHP-PseRA”, was developed by combining four state-of-the-art predictors (PSI-BLAST, HHblits, Hmmer, and Coma) via the rank aggregation approach. Cross-validation tests on a SCOP benchmark dataset have demonstrated that the new predictor has remarkably outperformed any of the existing methods for the same purpose on ROC50 scores. Accordingly, it is anticipated that dRHP-PseRA holds very high potential to become a useful high throughput tool for detecting remote homology proteins. For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a web-server for dRHP-PseRA has been established at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/dRHP-PseRA/. PMID:27581095

  14. Assessing the reliability of dose coefficients for ingestion and inhalation of 226Ra and 90Sr by members of the public.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of risk to a population group resulting from internal exposure to a particular radionuclide can be used to assess the reliability of the appropriate International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dose coefficient, E(50), used as a radiation protection device for the specified exposure pathway. An estimate of the uncertainty on the risk is important for informing judgements on reliability. This paper describes the application of parameter uncertainty analysis to quantify uncertainties resulting from internal exposures to radioisotopes of the alkaline earth metals, (90)Sr and (226)Ra, by members of the UK public. The study derives uncertainties in biokinetic model parameter values to calculate the distributions of the effective dose per unit intake using the ICRP Publication 60 formalism. The distributions are used to infer the uncertainty on the mean effective dose per unit intake to inform the derivation of uncertainty factors (UF) for the appropriate ICRP Publication 72 dose coefficients. Here, a UF indicates a 95 % probability that the best estimate of risk per unit intake is within a factor, UF, of the nominal risk associated with the appropriate ICRP dose coefficient, E(50), with respect to uncertainties in the biokinetic model parameter values. Ingestion: it is assumed that exposure occurs through the ingestion of radionuclides present in food and water. The results for both radionuclides suggest a UF of within 3 for all age groups, with median values close to the ICRP values. Inhalation: it is assumed that environmental exposure to radium occurs primarily due to insoluble forms present in fly ash discharged from coal-fired power stations; for strontium, exposure is assumed to occur due to residual aerosols produced as a result of atmospheric nuclear testing and nuclear reactor accidents. The results suggest a UF of around 3 and 6 for inhalation of (90)Sr and (226)Ra, respectively, by members of the public. PMID:23896416

  15. Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Reyss, J-L

    2010-07-01

    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228Ra and 226Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccarès lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223Ra and 224Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes. PMID:20106569

  16. RELIABILITY OF THE DETECTION OF THE BARYON ACOUSTIC PEAK

    SciTech Connect

    MartInez, Vicent J.; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; De la Cruz, Pablo; Saar, Enn; Tempel, Elmo; Pons-BorderIa, MarIa Jesus

    2009-05-01

    The correlation function of the distribution of matter in the universe shows, at large scales, baryon acoustic oscillations, which were imprinted prior to recombination. This feature was first detected in the correlation function of the luminous red galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Recently, the final release (DR7) of the SDSS has been made available, and the useful volume is about two times bigger than in the old sample. We present here, for the first time, the redshift-space correlation function of this sample at large scales together with that for one shallower, but denser volume-limited subsample drawn from the Two-Degree Field Redshift Survey. We test the reliability of the detection of the acoustic peak at about 100 h {sup -1} Mpc and the behavior of the correlation function at larger scales by means of careful estimation of errors. We confirm the presence of the peak in the latest data although broader than in previous detections.

  17. Ultrasound-detected joint inflammation and B cell count: related variables for rituximab-treated RA patients?

    PubMed

    Valor, Lara; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Janta, Iustina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; González-Fernández, Carlos; Del Rio, Tamara; Hernández-Flórez, Diana; Monteagudo, Indalecio; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional observational study aimed to explore the relationship between B cell count and ultrasound (US)-detected synovitis, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab. Thirty-seven consecutive RA patients treated with RTX were recruited for the study. The patients underwent clinical [i.e., Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28)], laboratory, and US assessment of 12 joints. Each joint was semiquantitatively (0-3) scored on B-mode and power Doppler mode. The scores were summed, and a global index was created for BM (BMS) and PD scores (PDI) synovitis. BM subclinical synovitis was evident in all patients, with PD synovial signal detected in 16 patients (43.2 %). No correlation was found between DAS28 and US scores. B cells were detected in 27 (72.9 %) patients, but there was no association in the mean B cell count and disease activity as measured by DAS28 (DAS28 < 2.6 = 34.53, DAS28 > 2.6 = 49.45, p = 0.52) and PDI score (PDI < 1 = 49.48, PDI > 1 = 35.44, p = 0.54). There was no correlation between the B cell count and DAS28, BMS, and PDI (r = 0.020, p = 0.907; r = -0.151, p = 0.371; r = -0.099, p = 0.558, respectively). In RTX-treated RA patients, no relationship could be established between US-detected synovitis and peripheral blood B cell count. PMID:27072348

  18. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  19. Real-time and reliable human detection in clutter scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yumei; Luo, Xiaoshu; Xia, Haiying

    2013-10-01

    To solve the problem that traditional HOG approach for human detection can not achieve real-time detection due to its time-consuming detection, an efficient algorithm based on first segmentation then identify method for real-time human detection is proposed to achieve real-time human detection in clutter scene. Firstly, the ViBe algorithm is used to segment all possible human target regions quickly, and more accurate moving objects is obtained by using the YUV color space to eliminate the shadow; secondly, using the body geometry knowledge can help to found the valid human areas by screening the regions of interest; finally, linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier and HOG are applied to train for human body classifier, to achieve accurate positioning of human body's locations. The results of our comparative experiments demonstrated that the approach proposed can obtain high accuracy, good real-time performance and strong robustness.

  20. Rapid visual tests: fast and reliable detection of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Ingrid; Nabais, Elodie; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews the early detection strategies that have been employed for the rapid monitoring of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of food. OTA, a mycotoxin mainly produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is found in cereals, coffee, wine, pork and grapes. To minimize the entry of this mycotoxin into the food chain, rapid diagnostic tools are required. To this end, the potential use of lateral flow devices has also been developed. In this study, we analyze the robustness of test strips using published methods for colorimetric detection. Different test formats are discussed, and challenges in the development of lateral flow devices for on-site determination of OTA, with requirements such as robustness, speed, and cost-effectiveness, are discussed. PMID:22069682

  1. Towards Reliable Evaluation of Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of research into the effects of environment-induced noise on the evaluation process for anomaly detectors in the cyber security domain. This research was conducted during a 10-week summer internship program from the 19th of August, 2012 to the 23rd of August, 2012 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The research performed lies within the larger context of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Smart Grid cyber security project, a Department of Energy (DoE) funded effort involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and the University of Southern California/ Information Sciences Institute. The results of the present effort constitute an important contribution towards building more rigorous evaluation paradigms for anomaly-based intrusion detectors in complex cyber physical systems such as the Smart Grid. Anomaly detection is a key strategy for cyber intrusion detection and operates by identifying deviations from profiles of nominal behavior and are thus conceptually appealing for detecting "novel" attacks. Evaluating the performance of such a detector requires assessing: (a) how well it captures the model of nominal behavior, and (b) how well it detects attacks (deviations from normality). Current evaluation methods produce results that give insufficient insight into the operation of a detector, inevitably resulting in a significantly poor characterization of a detectors performance. In this work, we first describe a preliminary taxonomy of key evaluation constructs that are necessary for establishing rigor in the evaluation regime of an anomaly detector. We then focus on clarifying the impact of the operational environment on the manifestation of attacks in monitored data. We show how dynamic and evolving environments can introduce high variability into the data stream perturbing detector performance. Prior research has focused on understanding the impact of this

  2. A Foreign Object Detection Method for Turbine Safety and Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Cates, Michael R; Hollerman, William Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A method for detecting blade impacts by foreign object debris (FOD) is described. The rationale derives from the knowledge that FOD is a major source for cost and maintenance penalty as it removes engines from service.1 The method exploits a property of some materials and coatings known as triboluminescence. Triboluminescence is light emission that results when a substance is impacted or fractured.2-4 The goal of this new approach is to accomplish a means of quantifying the received, accumulated flux of incident objects and their energies in order to assess the health of the impacted surface and aid intelligent decisions for maintenance. To effect an impact diagnostic, an amorphous coating of a triboluminescent material is applied to the surface of interest. When a foreign object impacts this surface, the characteristics of the resulting emission will contain information regarding the incident projectile. Some testing in NASA facilities at > 5km/s has indicated the potential for space debris and micrometeorite detection.4 This paper outlines a number of issues that need to be explored in route to a successful implementation for FOD applications.

  3. Reliability considerations of electronics components for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-01

    The reliability of some electronics components for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System is discussed. An introductory overview of engineering concepts and technique for reliability assessment is given. Component reliability is discussed in the contest of major factors causing failures, particularly with respect to physical and chemical causes, process technology and testing, and screening procedures. Failure rates are presented for discrete devices and for integrated circuits as well as for basic electronics components. Furthermore, the military reliability specifications and standards for semiconductor devices are reviewed.

  4. Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

    2009-01-01

    To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. PMID:22291524

  5. Assessment of Interpersonal Motivation in Transcripts (AIMIT): an inter- and intra-rater reliability study of a new method of detection of interpersonal motivational systems in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fassone, G; Valcella, F; Pallini, S; Scarcella, F; Tombolini, L; Ivaldi, A; Prunetti, E; Manaresi, F; Liotti, G

    2012-01-01

    Assessing Interpersonal Motivations in Transcripts (AIMIT) is a coding system aiming to systematically detect the activity of interpersonal motivational systems (IMS) in the therapeutic dialogue. An inter- and intra-rater reliability study has been conducted. Sixteen video-recorded psychotherapy sessions were selected and transcribed according to the AIMIT criteria. Sessions relate to 16 patients with an Axis II diagnosis, with a mean Global Assessment of Functioning of 51. For the intra-rater reliability evaluation, five sessions have been selected and assigned to five independent coders who where asked to make a first evaluation, and then a second independent one 14 days later. For the inter-rater reliability study, the sessions coded by the therapist-coder were jointly revised with another coder and finally classified as gold standard. The 16 standard sessions were sent to other evaluators for the independent coding. The agreement (κ) was estimated according to the following parameters for each coding unit: evaluation units supported by the 'codable' activation of one or more IMS; motivational interaction with reference to the ongoing relation between patient and therapist; an interaction between the patient and another person reported/narrated by the patient; detection of specific IMS: attachment (At), caregiving (CG), rank (Ra), sexuality (Se), peer cooperation (PC); and transitions from one IMS to another were also scored. The intra-rater agreement was evaluated through the parameters 'cod', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC' described above. A total of 2443 coding units were analysed. For the nine parameters on which the agreement was calculated, eight ['coded (Cod)', 'ongoing relation (Rel)', 'narrated relation (Nar)', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC'] have κ values comprised between 0.62 (CG) and 0.81 (Cod) and were therefore satisfactory. The scoring of 'transitions' showed agreement values slightly below desired cut-off (0.56). Intra-rater reliability was

  6. Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

  7. Co-detection: ultra-reliable nanoparticle-based electrical detection of biomolecules in the presence of large background interference.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Ming; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2010-11-15

    An ultra-reliable technique for detecting trace quantities of biomolecules is reported. The technique called "co-detection" exploits the non-linear redundancy amongst synthetically patterned biomolecular logic circuits for deciphering the presence or absence of target biomolecules in a sample. In this paper, we verify the "co-detection" principle on gold-nanoparticle-based conductimetric soft-logic circuits which use a silver-enhancement technique for signal amplification. Using co-detection, we have been able to demonstrate a great improvement in the reliability of detecting mouse IgG at concentration levels that are 10(5) lower than the concentration of rabbit IgG which serves as background interference. PMID:20864327

  8. Assessing Reliability of Medical Record Reviews for the Detection of Hospital Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Ock, Minsu; Lee, Sang-il; Jo, Min-Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Seon-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of medical record review for the detection of hospital adverse events. Methods: We conducted two stages retrospective medical records review of a random sample of 96 patients from one acute-care general hospital. The first stage was an explicit patient record review by two nurses to detect the presence of 41 screening criteria (SC). The second stage was an implicit structured review by two physicians to identify the occurrence of adverse events from the positive cases on the SC. The inter-rater reliability of two nurses and that of two physicians were assessed. The intra-rater reliability was also evaluated by using test-retest method at approximately two weeks later. Results: In 84.2% of the patient medical records, the nurses agreed as to the necessity for the second stage review (kappa, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.83). In 93.0% of the patient medical records screened by nurses, the physicians agreed about the absence or presence of adverse events (kappa, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.97). When assessing intra-rater reliability, the kappa indices of two nurses were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.77) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.87), whereas those of two physicians were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00) and 0.37 (95% CI, -0.16 to 0.89). Conclusions: In this study, the medical record review for detecting adverse events showed intermediate to good level of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Well organized training program for reviewers and clearly defining SC are required to get more reliable results in the hospital adverse event study. PMID:26429290

  9. Reliability and minimal detectable change of the weight-bearing lunge test: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Powden, Cameron J; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-08-01

    Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) is often a point of emphasis during the rehabilitation of lower extremity pathologies. With the growing popularity of weight-bearing DROM assessments, several versions of the weight-bearing lunge (WBLT) test have been developed and numerous reliability studies have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise and synthesize the studies which examined the reliability and responsiveness of the WBLT to assess DROM. A systematic search of PubMed and EBSCO Host databases from inception to September 2014 was conducted to identify studies whose primary aim was assessing the reliability of the WBLT. The Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies assessment tool was utilized to determine the quality of included studies. Relative reliability was examined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and responsiveness was evaluated through minimal detectable change (MDC). A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. Nine included studies assessed inter-clinician reliability and 12 included studies assessed intra-clinician reliability. There was strong evidence that inter-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.80-0.99) as well as intra-clinician reliability (ICC = 0.65-0.99) of the WBLT is good. Additionally, average MDC scores of 4.6° or 1.6 cm for inter-clinician and 4.7° or 1.9 cm for intra-clinician were found, indicating the minimal change in DROM needed to be outside the error of the WBLT. This systematic review determined that the WBLT, regardless of method, can be used clinically to assess DROM as it provides consistent results between one or more clinicians and demonstrates reasonable responsiveness. PMID:25704110

  10. Reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy for detecting internal voids in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of 100 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting internal voids in sintered specimens of silicon nitride and silicon carbide was evaluated. The specimens contained artificially implanted voids and were positioned at depths ranging up to 2 mm below the specimen surface. Detection probability of 0.90 at a 0.95 confidence level was determined as a function of material, void diameter, and void depth. The statistical results presented for void detectability indicate some of the strengths and limitations of SLAM as a nondestructive evaluation technique for structural ceramics.

  11. Reliable motion detection of small targets in video with low signal-to-clutter ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, S.A.; Naylor, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Studies show that vigilance decreases rapidly after several minutes when human operators are required to search live video for infrequent intrusion detections. Therefore, there is a need for systems which can automatically detect targets in live video and reserve the operator`s attention for assessment only. Thus far, automated systems have not simultaneously provided adequate detection sensitivity, false alarm suppression, and ease of setup when used in external, unconstrained environments. This unsatisfactory performance can be exacerbated by poor video imagery with low contrast, high noise, dynamic clutter, image misregistration, and/or the presence of small, slow, or erratically moving targets. This paper describes a highly adaptive video motion detection and tracking algorithm which has been developed as part of Sandia`s Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) program. The AES is a wide-area detection and assessment system for use in unconstrained exterior security applications. The AES detection and tracking algorithm provides good performance under stressing data and environmental conditions. Features of the algorithm include: reliable detection with negligible false alarm rate of variable velocity targets having low signal-to-clutter ratios; reliable tracking of targets that exhibit motion that is non-inertial, i.e., varies in direction and velocity; automatic adaptation to both infrared and visible imagery with variable quality; and suppression of false alarms caused by sensor flaws and/or cutouts.

  12. Reliability of a Simple Method for Determining Salt Taste Detection and Recognition Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Jean-François; de Moura Piovesana, Paula; Proulx-Belhumeur, Alexandra; Doré, Michel; de Lemos Sampaio, Karina; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a rapid analytical method to determine salt taste detection and recognition thresholds based on the ASTM E679 method. Reliability was evaluated according to criterion of temporal stability with a 1-week interval test-retest, with 29 participants. Thresholds were assessed by using the 3-AFC technique with 15 ascending concentrations of salt solution (1-292mM, 1.5-fold steps) and estimated by 2 approaches: individual (geometric means) and group (graphical) thresholds. The proportion of agreement between the test and retest results was estimated using intraclass coefficient correlations. The detection and recognition thresholds calculated by the geometric mean were 2.8 and 18.6mM at session 1 and 2.3 and 14.5mM at session 2 and according to the graphical approach, 2.7 and 18.6mM at session 1 and 1.7 and 16.3mM at session 2. The proportion of agreement between test and retest for the detection and recognition thresholds was 0.430 (95% CI: 0.080-0.680) and 0.660 (95% CI: 0.400-0.830). This fast and simple method to assess salt taste detection and recognition thresholds demonstrated satisfactory evidence of reliability and it could be useful for large population studies. PMID:26733539

  13. Reliability of void detection in structural ceramics by use of scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Klima, S. J.; Kiser, J. D.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting surface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. Specimens of sintered silicon nitride and sintered silicon carbide, seeded with surface voids, were examined by SLAM at an ultrasonic frequency of 100 MHz in the as fired condition and after surface polishing. It was observed that polishing substantially increased void detectability. Voids as small as 100 micrometers in diameter were detected in polished specimens with 0.90 probability at a 0.95 confidence level. In addition, inspection times were reduced up to a factor of 10 after polishing. The applicability of the SLAM technique for detection of naturally occurring flaws of similar dimensions to the seeded voids is discussed. A FORTRAN program listing is given for calculating and plotting flaw detection statistics.

  14. Reliability of void detection in structural ceramics using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Klima, S. J.; Kiser, J. D.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting surface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. Specimens of sintered silicon nitride and sintered silicon carbide, seeded with surface voids, were examined by SLAM at an ultrasonic frequency of 100 MHz in the as fired condition and after surface polishing. It was observed that polishing substantially increased void detectability. Voids as small as 100 micrometers in diameter were detected in polished specimens with 0.90 probability at a 0.95 confidence level. In addition, inspection times were reduced up to a factor of 10 after polishing. The applicability of the SLAM technique for detection of naturally occurring flaws of similar dimensions to the seeded voids is discussed. A FORTRAN program listing is given for calculating and plotting flaw detection statistics.

  15. Reliability of void detection in structural ceramics by use of scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.J.; Klima, S.J.; Kiser, J.D.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting surface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. Specimens of sintered silicon nitride and sintered silicon carbide, seeded with surface voids, were examined by SLAM at an ultrasonic frequency of 100 MHz in the as fired condition and after surface polishing. It was observed that polishing substantially increased void detectability. Voids as small as 100 micrometers in diameter were detected in polished specimens with 0.90 probability at a 0.95 confidence level. In addition, inspection times were reduced up to a factor of 10 after polishing. The applicability of the SLAM technique for detection of naturally occurring flaws of similar dimensions to the seeded voids is discussed. A FORTRAN program listing is given for calculating and plotting flaw detection statistics. 20 references.

  16. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surendra

    2014-02-18

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed “Have Cracks – Will Travel” or in short “Have Cracks” by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974–1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (Gage R and R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using

  17. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra

    2014-02-01

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed "Have Cracks - Will Travel" or in short "Have Cracks" by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974-1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability &Reproducibility (Gage R&R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using Integrated

  18. A novel approach for reliable detection of cathepsin S activities in mouse antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Steimle, Alex; Kalbacher, Hubert; Maurer, Andreas; Beifuss, Brigitte; Bender, Annika; Schäfer, Andrea; Müller, Ricarda; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a eukaryotic protease mostly expressed in professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Since CTSS activity regulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and psoriasis as well as in cancer progression, there is an ongoing interest in the reliable detection of cathepsin S activity. Various applications have been invented for specific detection of this enzyme. However, most of them have only been shown to be suitable for human samples, do not deliver quantitative results or the experimental procedure requires technical equipment that is not commonly available in a standard laboratory. We have tested a fluorogen substrate, Mca-GRWPPMGLPWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2, that has been described to specifically detect CTSS activities in human APCs for its potential use for mouse samples. We have modified the protocol and thereby offer a cheap, easy, reproducible and quick activity assay to detect CTSS activities in mouse APCs. Since most of basic research on CTSS is performed in mice, this method closes a gap and offers a possibility for reliable and quantitative CTSS activity detection that can be performed in almost every laboratory. PMID:26899824

  19. Reliability of the step phase detection using inertial measurement units: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Salvatore; Zecca, Massimiliano; Bartolomeo, Luca; Takashima, Takamichi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-04-01

    The use of inertial sensors for the gait event detection during a long-distance walking, for example, on different surfaces and with different walking patterns, is important to evaluate the human locomotion. Previous studies demonstrated that gyroscopes on the shank or foot are more reliable than accelerometers and magnetometers for the event detection in case of normal walking. However, these studies did not link the events with the temporal parameters used in the clinical practice; furthermore, they did not clearly verify the optimal position for the sensors depending on walking patterns and surface conditions. The event detection quality of the sensors is compared with video, used as ground truth, according to the parameters proposed by the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society. Additionally, the performance of the sensor on the foot is compared with the one on the shank. The comparison is performed considering both normal walking and deviations to the walking pattern, on different ground surfaces and with or without constraints on movements. The preliminary results show that the proposed methodology allows reliable detection of gait events, even in case of abnormal footfall and in slipping surface conditions, and that the optimal location to place the sensors is the shank. PMID:26609406

  20. Potential Biomarkers and Their Applications for Rapid and Reliable Detection of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Priyamvada; Chakma, Babina; Patra, Sanjukta; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-01-01

    Malaria has been responsible for the highest mortality in most malaria endemic countries. Even after decades of malaria control campaigns, it still persists as a disease of high mortality due to improper diagnosis and rapidly evolving drug resistant malarial parasites. For efficient and economical malaria management, WHO recommends that all malaria suspected patients should receive proper diagnosis before administering drugs. It is thus imperative to develop fast, economical, and accurate techniques for diagnosis of malaria. In this regard an in-depth knowledge on malaria biomarkers is important to identify an appropriate biorecognition element and utilize it prudently to develop a reliable detection technique for diagnosis of the disease. Among the various biomarkers, plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase and histidine-rich protein II (HRP II) have received increasing attention for developing rapid and reliable detection techniques for malaria. The widely used rapid detection tests (RDTs) for malaria succumb to many drawbacks which promotes exploration of more efficient economical detection techniques. This paper provides an overview on the current status of malaria biomarkers, along with their potential utilization for developing different malaria diagnostic techniques and advanced biosensors. PMID:24804253

  1. Portable SERS-enabled micropipettes for microarea sampling and reliably quantitative detection of surface organic residues.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xinwei; Chen, Yong; Wan, Liang; Huang, Weihua; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2015-09-15

    We report the first microsampling device for reliably quantitative, label-free and separation-free detection of multicomponents of surface organic residues (SORs) by means of a quality controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-enabled micropipette. The micropipette is comprised of a drawn glass capillary with a tiny orifice (∼50 μm) at the distal tip, where the specially designed nanorattles (NRs) are compactly coated on the inner wall surface. SERS signals of 4-mercapto benzoic acid (MBA) anchored inside the internal gap of NRs could be used to evaluate and control the quality of micropipettes and, therefore, allow us to overcome the limitations of a reliably quantitative SERS assay using traditional substrates without an internal standard. By dropping a trace extraction agent on targeting SORs located on a narrow surface, the capillary and SERS functionalities of these micropipettes allow on-site microsampling via capillary action and subsequent multiplex distinction/detection due to their molecularly narrow Raman peaks. For example, 8 nM thiram (TMTD), 8 nM malachite green (MG), and 1.5 μM (400 ppb) methyl parathion (MPT) on pepper and cucumber peels have been simultaneously detected in a wide detection range. The portable SERS-enabled device could potentially be facilely incorporated with liquid-liquid or solid phase micro-extracting devices for a broader range of applications in rapid and field analysis of food/public/environment security related SORs. PMID:26274894

  2. Reliability of the step phase detection using inertial measurement units: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Salvatore; Zecca, Massimiliano; Bartolomeo, Luca; Takashima, Takamichi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The use of inertial sensors for the gait event detection during a long-distance walking, for example, on different surfaces and with different walking patterns, is important to evaluate the human locomotion. Previous studies demonstrated that gyroscopes on the shank or foot are more reliable than accelerometers and magnetometers for the event detection in case of normal walking. However, these studies did not link the events with the temporal parameters used in the clinical practice; furthermore, they did not clearly verify the optimal position for the sensors depending on walking patterns and surface conditions. The event detection quality of the sensors is compared with video, used as ground truth, according to the parameters proposed by the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society. Additionally, the performance of the sensor on the foot is compared with the one on the shank. The comparison is performed considering both normal walking and deviations to the walking pattern, on different ground surfaces and with or without constraints on movements. The preliminary results show that the proposed methodology allows reliable detection of gait events, even in case of abnormal footfall and in slipping surface conditions, and that the optimal location to place the sensors is the shank. PMID:26609406

  3. Effective confidence interval estimation of fault-detection process of software reliability growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chih-Chiang; Yeh, Chun-Wu

    2016-09-01

    The quantitative evaluation of software reliability growth model is frequently accompanied by its confidence interval of fault detection. It provides helpful information to software developers and testers when undertaking software development and software quality control. However, the explanation of the variance estimation of software fault detection is not transparent in previous studies, and it influences the deduction of confidence interval about the mean value function that the current study addresses. Software engineers in such a case cannot evaluate the potential hazard based on the stochasticity of mean value function, and this might reduce the practicability of the estimation. Hence, stochastic differential equations are utilised for confidence interval estimation of the software fault-detection process. The proposed model is estimated and validated using real data-sets to show its flexibility.

  4. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual) walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1–50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the lowest minimum

  5. Detection of common carotid artery calcifications on panoramic radiographs: prevalence and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Deana, Naira F; Garay, Ivonne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of common carotid artery calcifications (CCAC) detected by panoramic radiographs (PR) in the population and main risk factors with review of the literature. Furthermore, the reliability of PR was verified to detect these calcifications. CCAC detected on PR was powerful markers for future cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. We found that the prevalence of CCAC identified by PR may range from 0.43% to 9.4%, depending on the age and lifestyle of the population studied. In individuals with systemic diseases the prevalence was higher than in the general population, reaching up to 38.8%. The radiopaque masses compatible with CCAC identified by PR were more common in women and occurred unilaterally or both sides, without preference for one or the other. According to the literature reviewed PR had low sensitivity and acceptable accuracy for detecting CCAC. We conclude that calcified atheroma in the common carotid artery can be demonstrated in PR, and this is an important tool for early detection of CCAC. However, it is always necessary to refer the patient to a cardiology service to confirm the findings, determine the real extent of the disease and establish its corresponding treatment. PMID:25232373

  6. Optical biosensor system for the quick and reliable detection of virus infections: VIROSENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proll, Günther; Hartjes, Anja; Sinclair, Alexander; Markovic, Goran; Pröll, Florian; Patel, Pranav; Niedrig, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Viral infections are of special threat because they can induce severe courses of disease but only few medical treatments are available. Because of socio-economic and climate changes, increased worldwide mobility and population growth, the risk of newly occurring and quickly spreading viral pathogens has increased. A diagnosis of these diseases at an early stage is essential for a quick risk assessment and a proper health management as well as patient's treatment in an optimal way. Currently, the diagnosis of such diseases is based on time consuming and costly detection methods that can only be performed by specially trained personnel in laboratories at specific security levels. Aim of the project VIROSENS is the development of a biosensor platform that can specifically detect virus particles as well as virus-specific antibodies out of biological matrices like blood, serum, plasma and other body fluids. For this purpose, a disposable cartridge for such antibody- and virus-arrays is designed and developed within the project. The optical detection of viruses is performed with a portable device that will be benchmarked and evaluated concerning currently used standard detection methods in terms of its analytical performance. Within this project, a novel combination of serological tests and direct detection of virus particles will be developed, which will provide faster and more reliable results than presently available and used test systems.

  7. MOA-2010-BLG-311: A PLANETARY CANDIDATE BELOW THE THRESHOLD OF RELIABLE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, J. C.; Hung, L.-W.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Bond, I. A.; Allen, W.; Monard, L. A. G.; Albrow, M. D.; Fouque, P.; Dominik, M.; Tsapras, Y.; Udalski, A.; Zellem, R.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Dong, Subo; Drummond, J.; Gorbikov, E.; Han, C. E-mail: rzellem@lpl.arizona.edu; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others

    2013-05-20

    We analyze MOA-2010-BLG-311, a high magnification (A{sub max} > 600) microlensing event with complete data coverage over the peak, making it very sensitive to planetary signals. We fit this event with both a point lens and a two-body lens model and find that the two-body lens model is a better fit but with only {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} {approx} 80. The preferred mass ratio between the lens star and its companion is q = 10{sup -3.7{+-}0.1}, placing the candidate companion in the planetary regime. Despite the formal significance of the planet, we show that because of systematics in the data the evidence for a planetary companion to the lens is too tenuous to claim a secure detection. When combined with analyses of other high-magnification events, this event helps empirically define the threshold for reliable planet detection in high-magnification events, which remains an open question.

  8. Reliability of the Ultrasonic Technique Applied to Detection of Pipe Weld Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, J. M. A.; Carvalho, A. A.; Sagrilo, L. V. S.; Soares, S. D.

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the reliability of the ultrasonic nondestructive test technique (NDT), for specific test conditions, using POD (probability of detection) curves developed by experimental procedures. Two classes of defects, lack of penetration (LP) and lack of fusion (LF) were intentionally inserted in 24 weld beads belonging to 4 API X70 steel pipeline specimens with an outer diameter of 254mm and wall thickness of 19.05mm. These specimens were inspected using manual and automatic ultrasonic techniques. The results, besides producing real POD curves, showed the superiority of the automatic techniques over the manual test in the probability of detection of these two classes of defects.

  9. JHUF-5 Steganalyzer: Huffman Based Steganalytic Features for Reliable Detection of YASS in JPEG Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Veena H.; Krishna, S.; Shenoy, P. Deepa; Venugopal, K. R.; Patnaik, L. M.

    Yet Another Steganographic Scheme (YASS) is one of the recent steganographic schemes that embeds data at randomized locations in a JPEG image, to avert blind steganalysis. In this paper we present JHUF-5, a statistical steganalyzer wherein J stands for JPEG, HU represents Huffman based statistics, F denotes FR Index (ratio of file size to resolution) and 5 - the number of features used as predictors for classification. The contribution of this paper is twofold; first the ability of the proposed blind steganalyzer to detect YASS reliably with a consistent performance for several settings. Second, the algorithm is based on only five uncalibrated features for efficient prediction as against other techniques, some of which employs several hundreds of predictors. The detection accuracy of the proposed method is found to be superior to existing blind steganalysis techniques.

  10. Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-detected Lyman-Break Galaxies at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 behind Strong-lensing Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Lemaux, Brian C.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Hoag, Austin; Castellano, Marco; Amorín, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Merlin, Emiliano; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Schrabback, Tim; Treu, Tommaso; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; von der Linden, Anja; Knight, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ˜1.2-5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M1600 are between -21.2 and -18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 108M⊙ and 2.9 × 109M⊙. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at zLyα = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at zLyα = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  11. Validity and reliability of an IMU-based method to detect APAs prior to gait initiation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Martina; Chiari, Lorenzo; Holmstrom, Lars; Salarian, Arash; Horak, Fay B

    2016-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to gait initiation have been largely studied in traditional, laboratory settings using force plates under the feet to characterize the displacement of the center of pressure. However clinical trials and clinical practice would benefit from a portable, inexpensive method for characterizing APAs. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were (1) to develop a novel, automatic IMU-based method to detect and characterize APAs during gait initiation and (2) to measure its test-retest reliability. Experiment I was carried out in the laboratory to determine the validity of the IMU-based method in 10 subjects with PD (OFF medication) and 12 control subjects. Experiment II was carried out in the clinic, to determine test-retest reliability of the IMU-based method in a different set of 17 early-to-moderate, treated subjects with PD (tested ON medication) and 17 age-matched control subjects. Results showed that gait initiation characteristics (both APAs and 1st step) detected with our novel method were significantly correlated to the characteristics calculated with a force plate and motion analysis system. The size of APAs measured with either inertial sensors or force plate was significantly smaller in subjects with PD than in control subjects (p<0.05). Test-retest reliability for the gait initiation characteristics measured with inertial sensors was moderate-to-excellent (0.56

  12. Reliability-aware iterative detection scheme (RAID) for distributed IDM space-time codes in relay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkeit, Florian; Wübben, Dirk; Dekorsy, Armin

    2013-12-01

    In this article, distributed interleave-division multiplexing space-time codes (dIDM-STCs) are applied for multi-user two-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks. In case of decoding errors at the relays which propagate to the destination, severe performance degradations can occur as the original detection scheme for common IDM-STCs does not take any reliability information about the first hop into account. Here, a novel reliability-aware iterative detection scheme (RAID) for dIDM-STCs is proposed. This new detection scheme takes the decoding reliability of the relays for each user into account for the detection at the destination. Performance evaluations show that the proposed RAID scheme clearly outperforms the original detection scheme and that in certain scenarios even a better performance than for adaptive relaying schemes can be achieved.

  13. Development of a cell-based qualitative assay for detection of neutralizing anti-human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (hIL-1Ra) antibodies in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Minmin; Wu, Mingyuan; Tu, Ping; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence of the positive neutralizing anti-human interleukin receptor antagonist (anti-IL-1Ra), a novel assay based on the proliferation of human melanoma A375.S2 cells was developed and validated. In the presence of a growth-limiting concentration of IL-1β, A375.S2 cells were able to regain proliferation following the addition of IL-1Ra in a concentration-dependent manner. This dose-response effect enabled the validation of a standard curve for calculation of the concentration of IL-1Ra or, inversely, the concentration of neutralizing anti-IL-1Ra antibodies in cell culture medium or sera. The assay used CCK-8 as an indicator of proliferation. The dose-response relationship between rhIL-1Ra (dose range of 5-75 ng/ml rhIL-1Ra) and A375.S2 cell proliferation was sigmoidal and fitted a four-parameter logistic model. The percent coefficients of variation (%CVs) of quality control samples were 12.5 and 11.9% for intra-assay repeatability and 14.5 and 19.5% for inter-assay repeatability, while the total accuracy was in the range of 97.2-103.6%. For the neutralization assay, the optimal sample dilution factor was found to be 40-fold and the reasonable standard for positive and negative decision was calculated to be 59.4% neutralization rate. The %CVs of quality control samples were 12.7 and 24.0% for intra-assay repeatability and 11.6 and 30.0% for inter-assay repeatability. Analysis using the assay showed that rats could produce neutralizing anti-IL-1Ra antibodies after repeated intramuscular injection with rhIL-1Ra, and this response was not significantly dependent on the dose injected. PMID:26153108

  14. A simple and reliable methodology to detect egg white in art samples.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca; Cattò, Cristina; Carpen, Aristodemo; Principi, Pamela; Ghezzi, Lisa; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Galano, Eugenio; Pucci, Pietro; Birolo, Leila; Villa, Federica; Forlani, Fabio

    2013-06-01

    A protocol for a simple and reliable dot-blot immunoassay was developed and optimized to test work of art samples for the presence of specific proteinaceus material (i.e. ovalbumin-based). The analytical protocol has been extensively set up with respect, among the other, to protein extraction conditions, to densitometric analysis and to the colorimetric reaction conditions. Feasibility evaluation demonstrated that a commercial scanner and a free image analysis software can be used for the data acquisition and elaboration, thus facilitating the application of the proposed protocol to commonly equipped laboratories and to laboratories of museums and conservation centres. The introduction of method of standard additions in the analysis of fresh and artificially aged laboratory-prepared samples, containing egg white and various pigments, allowed us to evaluate the matrix effect and the effect of sample aging and to generate threshold density values useful for the detection of ovalbumin in samples from ancient works of art. The efficacy of the developed dot-blot immunoassay was proved testing microsamples from 13th-16th century mural paintings of Saint Francesco Church in Lodi (Italy). Despite the aging, the altered conditions of conservation, the complex matrix, and the micro-size of samples, the presence of ovalbumin was detected in all those mural painting samples where mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis unambiguously detected ovalbumin peptides. PMID:23673671

  15. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.

    PubMed

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. PMID:21177031

  16. Multiphoton FLIM: a reliable FRET detection tool in cell biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Ramanujan V.; Biener, Eva; Centonze, Victoria E.; Gertler, Arieh; Herman, Brian A.

    2004-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using multiphoton excitation is emerging as a reliable quantitative tool for measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in living cells. By virtue of being free from spectroscopic artifacts encountered in conventional FRET detection methods, multiphoton FLIM methods offer the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, faster data acquisition and data analysis. We compare the FRET results obtained by two different methods namely (i) multiphoton excitation lifetime-based FRET and (ii) single photon excitation intensity-based acceptor photobleaching FRET. Using the same biological samples, we apply these two different methods in understanding the growth hormone receptor dimerization kinetics at the cell surface of human embryonic kidney cells. We conclude that the multiphoton FLIM using the streak-camera approach provides the best ability to monitor FRET in dynamic situations where high temporal and spatial resolution are required with minimal photodamage/phototoxicity.

  17. Reliable dual-redundant sensor failure detection and identification for the NASA F-8 DFBW aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, J. C.; Desai, M. N.; Deyst, J. J., Jr.; Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    A technique was developed which provides reliable failure detection and identification (FDI) for a dual redundant subset of the flight control sensors onboard the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire (DFBW) aircraft. The technique was successfully applied to simulated sensor failures on the real time F-8 digital simulator and to sensor failures injected on telemetry data from a test flight of the F-8 DFBW aircraft. For failure identification the technique utilized the analytic redundancy which exists as functional and kinematic relationships among the various quantities being measured by the different control sensor types. The technique can be used not only in a dual redundant sensor system, but also in a more highly redundant system after FDI by conventional voting techniques reduced to two the number of unfailed sensors of a particular type. In addition the technique can be easily extended to the case in which only one sensor of a particular type is available.

  18. "Redefining RA": The RA Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2008-01-01

    No one likes being two steps behind, and the fastest way to fall off the pace is by not keeping up with major titles and hot authors. Fortunately, there are numerous resources, both prepublication and postpublication, that can help. It is best when readers' advisory (RA) librarians know what is coming out months ahead of time--in order to think…

  19. Martin RA-30 Baltimore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Martin RA-30 Baltimore: The Martin RA-30 Baltimore was a light bomber ordered by the Royal Air Force. Some examples were retained in the United States as part of a 'Reverse Lend-Lease.' This example was flown by the NACA from June 1943 until March 1944.

  20. Accurate and reliable high-throughput detection of copy number variation in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Fiegler, Heike; Redon, Richard; Andrews, Dan; Scott, Carol; Andrews, Robert; Carder, Carol; Clark, Richard; Dovey, Oliver; Ellis, Peter; Feuk, Lars; French, Lisa; Hunt, Paul; Kalaitzopoulos, Dimitrios; Larkin, James; Montgomery, Lyndal; Perry, George H.; Plumb, Bob W.; Porter, Keith; Rigby, Rachel E.; Rigler, Diane; Valsesia, Armand; Langford, Cordelia; Humphray, Sean J.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Lee, Charles; Hurles, Matthew E.; Carter, Nigel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes a new tool for accurate and reliable high-throughput detection of copy number variation in the human genome. We have constructed a large-insert clone DNA microarray covering the entire human genome in tiling path resolution that we have used to identify copy number variation in human populations. Crucial to this study has been the development of a robust array platform and analytic process for the automated identification of copy number variants (CNVs). The array consists of 26,574 clones covering 93.7% of euchromatic regions. Clones were selected primarily from the published “Golden Path,” and mapping was confirmed by fingerprinting and BAC-end sequencing. Array performance was extensively tested by a series of validation assays. These included determining the hybridization characteristics of each individual clone on the array by chromosome-specific add-in experiments. Estimation of data reproducibility and false-positive/negative rates was carried out using self–self hybridizations, replicate experiments, and independent validations of CNVs. Based on these studies, we developed a variance-based automatic copy number detection analysis process (CNVfinder) and have demonstrated its robustness by comparison with the SW-ARRAY method. PMID:17122085

  1. Ultra reliable infrared absorption water vapor detection through the all-electronic feedback stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Tian, J. Q.; Chang, H. T.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhang, S. S.

    2014-03-01

    Single-beam balanced radiometric detection (BRD) system with all-electronic feedback stabilization has been proposed for high reliability water vapor detection under rough environmental conditions, which is insensitive to the fluctuation of transmission loss of light. The majority of photocurrent attenuation caused by the optical loss can be effectively compensated by automatically adjusting the splitting ratio of probe photocurrent. Based on the Ebers-Moll model, we present a theoretical analysis which can be suppressed the photocurrent attenuation caused by optical loss from 0.5552 dB to 0.0004 dB by using the all-electronic feedback stabilization. The deviation of the single-beam BRD system is below 0.29% with the bending loss of 0.31 dB in fiber, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam BRD system (5.96%) and subtraction system (11.3%). After averaging and filtering, the absorption sensitivity of water vapor at 1368.597 nm has been demonstrated, which is 7.368×10-6.

  2. Three factors limiting the reliable detection of light by retinal ganglion cells of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, H. B.; Levick, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells have been examined with a view to specifying the characteristics that limit the detection of light stimuli. 2. Threshold is defined as the weakest stimulus that can be reliably detected by examination of the output from a retinal ganglion cell; it depends upon (a) the quantum/spike ratio, which is the mean number of additional quantal absorptions required to produce an additional impulse, (b) the temporal course of the response, which determines the time interval within which the maintained discharge is modified, and (c) the statistical distribution of the number of impulses that occur in this time interval in the absence of the stimulus. 3. The quantum/spike ratio changes greatly when adapting luminance is changed, and this is the predominant factor accounting for changes in increment threshold. 4. The time course of the response changes with adaptation level and area of the stimulus. This may account for the changes in temporal integration that occur in analogous psychophysical experiments. 5. Changes in the irregularity of the maintained discharge also affect the threshold of single ganglion cells. This is only a minor factor in the conditions of most of our experiments, but it may be important when unstabilized images and non-equilibrium adaptation conditions are encountered. PMID:5761942

  3. Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

  4. Digital array gas radiometer (DAGR): a sensitive and reliable trace gas detection concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordley, Larry L.; McHugh, Martin J.; Marshall, B. T.; Thompson, Earl

    2009-05-01

    The Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR) concept is based on traditional and reliable Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) for remote trace gas detection and monitoring. GFCR sensors have been successful in many infrared remote sensing applications. Historically however, solar backscatter measurements have not been as successful because instrument designs have been susceptible to natural variations in surface albedo, which induce clutter and degrade the sensitivity. DAGR overcomes this limitation with several key innovations. First, a pupil imaging system scrambles the received light, removing nearly all spatial clutter and permitting a small calibration source to be easily inserted. Then, by using focal plane arrays rather than single detectors to collect the light, dramatic advances in dynamic range can be achieved. Finally, when used with the calibration source, data processing approaches can further mitigate detector non-uniformity effects. DAGR sensors can be made as small as digital cameras and are well suited for downlooking detection of gases in the boundary layer, where solar backscatter measurements are needed to overcome the lack of thermal contrast in the IR. Easily integrated into a satellite platform, a space-based DAGR would provide near-global sensing of climatically important species such as such as CO, CH4, and N2O. Aircraft and UAV measurements with a DAGR could be used to monitor agricultural and industrial emissions. Ground-based or portable DAGRs could augment early warning systems for chemical weapons or toxic materials. Finally, planetary science applications include detection and mapping of biomarkers such as CH4 in the Martian atmosphere.

  5. Non-destructive determination of 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations in drinking water by gamma spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Pravin; Haines, Douglas; Bari, Abdul; Torres, Miguel

    2003-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency mandates that drinking water showing gross alpha-activity greater than 0.19 Bq L(-1) should be analyzed for radium, a known human carcinogen. The recommended testing methods are intricate and laborious. The method reported in this paper is a direct, non-destructive gamma-spectroscopic method for the determination of 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra, the three radium isotopes of environmental concern in drinking water. Large-volume Marinelli beakers (4.1-L capacity), especially designed for measuring radioactive gases, in conjunction with a low-background, high-efficiency (131%) germanium detector were used in this work. It was first established that radon, the gaseous decay product of radium, and its progeny are quantitatively retained in this Marinelli beaker. The 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activity concentrations are determined from the equilibrium activities of their progeny: 212Pb, 214Pb (214Bi), and 228Ac; and the gamma-lines used in the analysis are 238.6, 351.9 (and 609.2), and 911.2 keV, respectively. The 224Ra activity is determined from the first 1,000-min measurement performed after expulsion of radon from the sample. The 226Ra activity is determined from the second, 2,400-min measurement, made 3 to 5 d later, and the 228Ra activity is determined from either the first or the second measurement, depending on its concentration level. The method's minimum detectable activities are 0.017 Bq L(-1), 0.020 Bq L(-1), and 0.027 Bq L(-1) for 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra, respectively, when measured under radioactive equilibrium. These limits are well within the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations required limit of 0.037 Bq L(-1) for 226Ra and for 228Ra. The precision and accuracy of the method, evaluated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Environmental Resource Associates' quality control samples, were found to be within acceptable limits. PMID:14571995

  6. The role of coincidence-detector neurons in the reliability and precision of subthreshold signal detection in noise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueling; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hengtong; Yu, Lianchun; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Subthreshold signal detection is an important task for animal survival in complex environments, where noise increases both the external signal response and the spontaneous spiking of neurons. The mechanism by which neurons process the coding of signals is not well understood. Here, we propose that coincidence detection, one of the ways to describe the functionality of a single neural cell, can improve the reliability and the precision of signal detection through detection of presynaptic input synchrony. Using a simplified neuronal network model composed of dozens of integrate-and-fire neurons and a single coincidence-detector neuron, we show how the network reads out the subthreshold noisy signals reliably and precisely. We find suitable pairing parameters, the threshold and the detection time window of the coincidence-detector neuron, that optimize the precision and reliability of the neuron. Furthermore, it is observed that the refractory period induces an oscillation in the spontaneous firing, but the neuron can inhibit this activity and improve the reliability and precision further. In the case of intermediate intrinsic states of the input neuron, the network responds to the input more efficiently. These results present the critical link between spiking synchrony and noisy signal transfer, which is utilized in coincidence detection, resulting in enhancement of temporally sensitive coding scheme. PMID:23418604

  7. Klebsiella Phage vB_KleM-RaK2 — A Giant Singleton Virus of the Family Myoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Šimoliūnas, Eugenijus; Kaliniene, Laura; Truncaitė, Lidija; Zajančkauskaitė, Aurelija; Staniulis, Juozas; Kaupinis, Algirdas; Ger, Marija; Valius, Mindaugas; Meškys, Rolandas

    2013-01-01

    At 346 kbp in size, the genome of a jumbo bacteriophage vB_KleM-RaK2 (RaK2) is the largest Klebsiella infecting myovirus genome sequenced to date. In total, 272 out of 534 RaK2 ORFs lack detectable database homologues. Based on the similarity to biologically defined proteins and/or MS/MS analysis, 117 of RaK2 ORFs were given a functional annotation, including 28 RaK2 ORFs coding for structural proteins that have no reliable homologues to annotated structural proteins in other organisms. The electron micrographs revealed elaborate spike-like structures on the tail fibers of Rak2, suggesting that this phage is an atypical myovirus. While head and tail proteins of RaK2 are mostly myoviridae-related, the bioinformatics analysis indicate that tail fibers/spikes of this phage are formed from podovirus-like peptides predominantly. Overall, these results provide evidence that bacteriophage RaK2 differs profoundly from previously studied viruses of the Myoviridae family. PMID:23593293

  8. Human reliability-based MC&A models for detecting insider theft.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2010-06-01

    Material control and accounting (MC&A) safeguards operations that track and account for critical assets at nuclear facilities provide a key protection approach for defeating insider adversaries. These activities, however, have been difficult to characterize in ways that are compatible with the probabilistic path analysis methods that are used to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a site's physical protection (security) system (PPS). MC&A activities have many similar characteristics to operator procedures performed in a nuclear power plant (NPP) to check for anomalous conditions. This work applies human reliability analysis (HRA) methods and models for human performance of NPP operations to develop detection probabilities for MC&A activities. This has enabled the development of an extended probabilistic path analysis methodology in which MC&A protections can be combined with traditional sensor data in the calculation of PPS effectiveness. The extended path analysis methodology provides an integrated evaluation of a safeguards and security system that addresses its effectiveness for attacks by both outside and inside adversaries.

  9. A fast and reliable change detection feature from bi-temporal amplitude SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzelli, Andrea; Zoppetti, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a change detection feature for an amplitude SAR image pair, based on both information theoretic (IT) assumptions and a CFAR criterion derived from the probabilistic model of the ratio image. In particular, the proposed method aims to introduce two main improvements with respect to the previous IT-based approaches. The first goal is to find a strategy to adaptively quantize the 2-D scatterplot instead of applying clustering. This is carried out by performing a preliminary partition of the image pixels according to a constant false alarm rate criterion that is based on the probabilistic model of the ratio image. The second goal is to test the proposed method in order to assess reliable performances in case of severe speckle noise and in case of small percentage of change within the scene. Therefore, experimental results have been carried out with simulated changes applied to synthetically-generated 1-look SAR images produced from an optical remote sensing image. True Cosmo-SkyMed SAR images have been also considered on a damage assessment scenario.

  10. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  11. Reliable detection of fluence anomalies in EPID-based IMRT pretreatment quality assurance using pixel intensity deviations

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of {>=}5% in {approx}1 mm{sup 2} areas and {>=}2% in {approx}20 mm{sup 2} areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences ({<=}2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.

  12. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures. PMID:20093760

  13. Reliability and Validity of Standing Back Extension Test for Detecting Motor Control Impairment in Subjects with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P; Eapen, Charu; Mahale, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a chronic health problem with high socioeconomic impact. Specific diagnosis or treatment approach has not yet effectively established to treat chronic low back pain. Standing Back Extension Test is one of the clinical measures to detect the passive extension subgroup of Motor Control Impairment (MCI); which could have an impact on spinal stability leading to recurrent chronic low back pain. Reliability and validity of this test is not fully established. Aim To determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Standing Back Extension Test for detecting MCI of the lumbar spine. Materials and Methods A total of 50 subjects were included in the study, 25 patients with Non Specific Low Back Pain (NSLBP) (12 men, 13 women) and 25 healthy controls (12 men, 13 women) were recruited into the study. All subjects performed the test movement. Two raters blinded to the subjects rated the test performance as either ‘Positive’ or ‘Negative’ based on the predetermined rating protocol. The thickness of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) muscle was assessed using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI). Statistical test used For reliability, the kappa coefficient with percent agreement was calculated and for assessing the validity Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were constructed. Results The standing back extension test showed very good intra-rater (k=0.87 with an agreement of 96%) and good inter-rater (k=0.78 with an agreement of 94%) reliability and high AUC for TrA muscle. Conclusion The standing back extension test was found to be a reliable and a valid measure to detect passive extension subgroup for MCI in subjects with low back pain. PMID:26894091

  14. Ultrasound virtual endoscopy: Polyp detection and reliability of measurement in an in vitro study with pig intestine specimens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Chen, Li-Da; Cai, Hua-Song; Liang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Huang, Yang; Li, Wei; Feng, Shi-Ting; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-De; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present our initial experience regarding the feasibility of ultrasound virtual endoscopy (USVE) and its measurement reliability for polyp detection in an in vitro study using pig intestine specimens. METHODS: Six porcine intestine specimens containing 30 synthetic polyps underwent USVE, computed tomography colonography (CTC) and optical colonoscopy (OC) for polyp detection. The polyp measurement defined as the maximum polyp diameter on two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reformatted (MPR) planes was obtained by USVE, and the absolute measurement error was analyzed using the direct measurement as the reference standard. RESULTS: USVE detected 29 (96.7%) of 30 polyps, remaining a 7-mm one missed. There was one false-positive finding. Twenty-six (89.7%) of 29 reconstructed images were clearly depicted, while 29 (96.7%) of 30 polyps were displayed on CTC with one false-negative finding. In OC, all the polyps were detected. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.876 (95%CI: 0.745-0.940) for measurements obtained with USVE. The pooled absolute measurement errors ± the standard deviations of the depicted polyps with actual sizes ≤ 5 mm, 6-9 mm, and ≥ 10 mm were 1.9 ± 0.8 mm, 0.9 ± 1.2 mm, and 1.0 ± 1.4 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: USVE is reliable for polyp detection and measurement in in vitro study. PMID:27022217

  15. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  16. Using Linkage Analysis to Detect Gene-Gene Interactions. 2. Improved Reliability and Extension to More-Complex Models

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Susan E.; Hager, Valerie R.; Greenberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Detecting gene-gene interaction in complex diseases has become an important priority for common disease genetics, but most current approaches to detecting interaction start with disease-marker associations. These approaches are based on population allele frequency correlations, not genetic inheritance, and therefore cannot exploit the rich information about inheritance contained within families. They are also hampered by issues of rigorous phenotype definition, multiple test correction, and allelic and locus heterogeneity. We recently developed, tested, and published a powerful gene-gene interaction detection strategy based on conditioning family data on a known disease-causing allele or a disease-associated marker allele4. We successfully applied the method to disease data and used computer simulation to exhaustively test the method for some epistatic models. We knew that the statistic we developed to indicate interaction was less reliable when applied to more-complex interaction models. Here, we improve the statistic and expand the testing procedure. We computer-simulated multipoint linkage data for a disease caused by two interacting loci. We examined epistatic as well as additive models and compared them with heterogeneity models. In all our models, the at-risk genotypes are “major” in the sense that among affected individuals, a substantial proportion has a disease-related genotype. One of the loci (A) has a known disease-related allele (as would have been determined from a previous analysis). We removed (pruned) family members who did not carry this allele; the resultant dataset is referred to as “stratified.” This elimination step has the effect of raising the “penetrance” and detectability at the second locus (B). We used the lod scores for the stratified and unstratified data sets to calculate a statistic that either indicated the presence of interaction or indicated that no interaction was detectable. We show that the new method is robust and

  17. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an international collaborative quality control study among 30 laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Noordhoek, G T; van Embden, J D; Kolk, A H

    1996-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens is increasingly used as a laboratory tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, the specificity and sensitivity of these tests may be questioned, and no standardized reagents for quality control assessment are available. To estimate the performance of amplification tests for routine diagnosis, we initiated an interlaboratory study involving 30 laboratories in 18 countries. We prepared blinded panels of 20 sputum samples containing no, 100, or 1,000 mycobacterial cells. Each laboratory was asked to detect M. tuberculosis by their routine method of nucleic acid amplification. Only five laboratories correctly identified the presence or absence of mycobacterial DNA in all 20 samples. Seven laboratories detected mycobacterial DNA in all positive samples, and 13 laboratories correctly reported the absence of DNA in the negative samples. Lack of specificity was more of a problem than lack of sensitivity. Reliability was not found to be associated with the use of any particular method. Reliable detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples by nucleic acid amplification techniques is possible, but many laboratories do not use adequate quality controls. This study underlines the need for good laboratory practice and reference reagents to monitor the performance of the whole assay, including pretreatment of clinical samples. PMID:8880513

  18. The reliability test of center-aperture-detection-type magnetically induced super-resolution magneto-optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Sayoko; Nakatani, Morio; Sumi, Satoshi; Tanemura, Sakae

    2005-01-01

    The Center Aperture Detection (CAD) type Magnetically Induced Super-resolution (MSR) Magneto-optical Disk is one of method to overcome the limitation of optical resolution. For a reliability of the disk, it is important to investigate the stability of the magneto-static coupling between a readout layer and a recording layer through readout characteristics. In this paper, we tested the reliability of CAD tMSR magneto-optical disk. We used iD PHOTO disk for the CAD MSR magneto-optical disk. In the disk, the data is recorded on land and groove with a track pit of 0.6 μm and a bit length of 0.235 μm, by a method of laser pumped magnetic field modulation with an optical pickup of NA=0.62, λ=650 nm. The reliability was examined by PI error lines under the test condition of 80 °C-90 %RH. There were no considerable changes in read/write characteristics up to with an aging time of 2000 hour. The lifetime of the disk was estimated more than 7000 hour under the condition. By a method of the Arrhenius plots, we assumed that the lifetime of the disk would be more than 100 years under the condition of room temperature. We also confirmed that there were no significant changes in mechanical characteristics of the disks. These results show the disk using magneto-static coupling has sufficient reliability for consumer use.

  19. Measurement of patient safety: a systematic review of the reliability and validity of adverse event detection with record review

    PubMed Central

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Vincent, Charles; van Gurp, Petra J; de Vet, Henrica C W; Wollersheim, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Record review is the most used method to quantify patient safety. We systematically reviewed the reliability and validity of adverse event detection with record review. Design A systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library and from their inception through February 2015. We included all studies that aimed to describe the reliability and/or validity of record review. Two reviewers conducted data extraction. We pooled κ values (κ) and analysed the differences in subgroups according to number of reviewers, reviewer experience and training level, adjusted for the prevalence of adverse events. Results In 25 studies, the psychometric data of the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) and the Harvard Medical Practice Study (HMPS) were reported and 24 studies were included for statistical pooling. The inter-rater reliability of the GTT and HMPS showed a pooled κ of 0.65 and 0.55, respectively. The inter-rater agreement was statistically significantly higher when the group of reviewers within a study consisted of a maximum five reviewers. We found no studies reporting on the validity of the GTT and HMPS. Conclusions The reliability of record review is moderate to substantial and improved when a small group of reviewers carried out record review. The validity of the record review method has never been evaluated, while clinical data registries, autopsy or direct observations of patient care are potential reference methods that can be used to test concurrent validity. PMID:27550650

  20. Reliable Detection and Smart Deletion of Malassez Counting Chamber Grid in Microscopic White Light Images for Microbiological Applications.

    PubMed

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In biology, hemocytometers such as Malassez slides are widely used and are effective tools for counting cells manually. In a previous work, a robust algorithm was developed for grid extraction in Malassez slide images. This algorithm was evaluated on a set of 135 images and grids were accurately detected in most cases, but there remained failures for the most difficult images. In this work, we present an optimization of this algorithm that allows for 100% grid detection and a 25% improvement in grid positioning accuracy. These improvements make the algorithm fully reliable for grid detection. This optimization also allows complete erasing of the grid without altering the cells, which eases their segmentation. PMID:26072694

  1. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD. PMID:24490680

  2. Is Commercially Available Point Finder Accurate and Reliable in Detecting Active Auricular Acupuncture Points?

    PubMed Central

    Maranets, Inna; Lin, Eric C.; DeZinno, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was done to determine the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial Pointer Plus (Point finder) in detecting a region of low skin resistance on the ear. Design This was a prospective blinded study. Setting/location The study was done at the Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT. Subjects The subjects were men and women who work at Yale New Haven Hospital. Interventions There were no interventions. Outcome measures Correlations were made between self-reported musculoskeletal pain and the detection of low skin resistance on the ear. Results The positive predictive value for Pointer Plus detecting low skin resistance correlating to the neck region of French auricular map is 0.76 (76%). The positive predictive value for Pointer Plus to detect low skin resistance area correlating to the low back region of French auricular map is 0.25. The positive predictive value for Pointer Plus in detecting any low in skin resistance on the external auricles in patients who complained of more than two musculoskeletal pains is 0.29. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a commercial Pointer Plus (point finder) in detecting a region of low skin resistance on the ear being unreliable, depending on the correlating area based on a published auricular map. Additional assessments are needed to support the clinical practice. PMID:22834870

  3. NDE detectability of fatigue-type cracks in high-strength alloys: NDI reliability assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, Brent K.; Long, Donald L.; Rummel, Ward D.

    1988-01-01

    This program was conducted to generate quantitative flaw detection capability data for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques typically practiced by aerospace contractors. Inconel 718 and Haynes 188 alloy test specimens containing fatigue flaws with a wide distribution of sizes were used to assess the flaw detection capabilities at a number of contractor and government facilities. During this program 85 inspection sequences were completed presenting a total of 20,994 fatigue cracks to 53 different inspectors. The inspection sequences completed included 78 liquid penetrant, 4 eddy current, and 3 ultrasonic evaluations. The results of the assessment inspections are presented and discussed. In generating the flaw detection capability data base, procedures for data collection, data analysis, and specimen care and maintenance were developed, demonstrated, and validated. The data collection procedures and methods that evolved during this program for the measurement of flaw detection capabilities and the effects of inspection variables on performance are discussed. The Inconel 718 and Haynes 188 test specimens that were used in conducting this program and the NDE assessment procedures that were demonstrated, provide NASA with the capability to accurately assess the flaw detection capabilities of specific inspection procedures being applied or proposed for use on current and future fracture control hardware program.

  4. Investigations On The EnviSAT RA2 Tropospheric Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarel, F.; Legresy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Center for the Topography of Oceans and the Hydrosphere (CTOH), the Altimeter Data Service of the LEGOS laboratory pursue an effort to validate and improve ENVISAT RA2 altimetry. We investigate the stability and reliability of different corrections for the altimetric measurements. With the one before last ENVISAT RA2 processing (v1.0), the ICE Validation chain of the CTOH detected some issues with the Dry Tropospheric Correction (DTC) over the Cryosphere. Here we present the validation of the latest reprocessing (v2.1) of ENVISAT data. We observe the limitation of this re-processed DTC, especially the jump observed at cycle 44 over Antarctica which causes significant local trend and suspect changes in the variability of this correction over time. We investigated a solution and re- compute this correction all over the globe with the ERA Interim ECMWF pressure fields and using directly the altimetric range measurement rather than any external digital elevation model (DEM). We present the results of this investigation, the statistics of previous (DTC_v2.1) and new corrections (DTC_ctoh) and in the context of different surfaces. The improvement is significant, and we discuss the aspects and impacts of this improvement, in terms of meteorological-fields, procedure, and location.

  5. Simple, rapid, and reliable detection of Escherichia coli O26 using immunochromatography.

    PubMed

    Yonekita, Taro; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2013-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 has been increasingly associated with diarrheal disease all over the world. We developed an immunochromatographic (ic) strip for the rapid detection of E. coli O26 in food samples. To determine the specificity of the IC strip, pure cultures of 67 E. coli and 22 non-E. coli strains were tested with the IC strip. The IC strip could detect all (18 of 18) E. coli O26 strains tested and did not react with strains of any other E. coli serogroup or non-E. coli strains tested (0 of 71). The minimum detection limits for E. coli O26 were 2.2 × 10(3) to 1.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml. To evaluate the ability of the IC strip to detect E. coli O26 in food, 25-g food samples (ground beef, beef liver, ground chicken, alfalfa sprout, radish sprout, spinach, natural cheese, and apple juice) were spiked with E. coli O26. The IC strip was able to detect E. coli O26 at very low levels (approximately 1 cfu/25 g of food samples) after an 18-h enrichment, and the IC strip results were in 100% agreement with the results of the culture method and pcr assay. When 115 meat samples purchased from supermarkets were tested, 5 were positive for E. coli O26 with the IC strip; these results were confirmed with a pcr assay. These results suggest that the IC strip is a useful tool for detecting E. coli O26 in food samples. PMID:23643115

  6. ISSR: a reliable and cost-effective technique for detection of DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of more and more molecular markers as useful tools in plethora of population genetic and phylogenetic studies, choice of marker system for a particular study has become mind boggling. These marker systems differ in their advantages and disadvantages, so it is imperative to keep in mind all the pros and cons of the technique while selecting one for the problem to be addressed.Here, we have shed light on the ISSR (intersimple sequence repeat) technique, as a marker of choice if one wants to go for properties such as reliability, simplicity, cost effectiveness, and speed, in addition to assessing genetic diversity between closely related individuals. We have outlined here the whole methodology of this technique with an example of Tribulus terrestris as case study. PMID:22419492

  7. On the reliability of the Spatial Scintillation Index to detect earthquake precursors in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masci, F.; Thomas, J. N.

    2015-08-01

    The scientific literature includes many reports of ionospheric phenomena that are retrospectively identified prior to seismic events. These disturbances of the Earth's ionosphere are considered to be possible precursors of the impending earthquakes. However, a causal relationship between ionospheric phenomena and earthquakes has never been definitively demonstrated, and attempts at identifying precursory effects in the ionosphere have been called into question by several studies. Among the candidate indicators of ionospheric precursors there is the Spatial Scintillation Index (SSI) proposed by Pulinets et al. (2007). The usefulness of this index in the search for precursory effects of earthquakes has been criticized by Thomas et al. (2012) and Masci (2013). In a recent report, Pulinets and Davidenko (2014) attempt to briefly respond to the remarks of these researchers. Here we cast doubt that Pulinets and Davidenko (2014) have shown that SSI is a reliable indicator of precursory effects of earthquakes in the ionosphere.

  8. Experimental Designs for Reliable Detection of Linkage Disequilibrium in Unstructured Random Population Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Roderick D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is given for design of experiments to detect associations (linkage disequilibrium) in a random population between a marker and a quantitative trait locus (QTL), or gene, with a given strength of evidence, as defined by the Bayes factor. Using a version of the Bayes factor that can be linked to the value of an F-statistic with an existing deterministic power calculation makes it possible to rapidly evaluate a comprehensive range of scenarios, demonstrating the feasibility, or otherwise, of detecting genes of small effect. The Bayes factor is advocated for use in determining optimal strategies for selecting candidate genes for further testing or applications. The prospects for fine-scale mapping of QTL are reevaluated in this framework. We show that large sample sizes are needed to detect small-effect genes with a respectable-sized Bayes factor, and to have good power to detect a QTL allele at low frequency it is necessary to have a marker with similar allele frequency near the gene. PMID:15781715

  9. Fast and reliable obstacle detection and segmentation for cross-country navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, A.; Manduchi, R.; Rankin, A.; Matthies, L.

    2002-01-01

    Obstacle detection is one of the main components of the control system of autonomous vehicles. In the case of indoor/urban navigation, obstacles are typically defined as surface points that are higher than the ground plane. This characterization, however, cannot be used in cross-country and unstructured environments, where the notion of ground plane is often not meaningful.

  10. FISHing for bacteria in food--a promising tool for the reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria?

    PubMed

    Rohde, Alexander; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Al Dahouk, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne pathogens cause millions of infections every year and are responsible for considerable economic losses worldwide. The current gold standard for the detection of bacterial pathogens in food is still the conventional cultivation following standardized and generally accepted protocols. However, these methods are time-consuming and do not provide fast information about food contaminations and thus are limited in their ability to protect consumers in time from potential microbial hazards. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a rapid and highly specific technique for whole-cell detection. This review aims to summarize the current data on FISH-testing for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in different food matrices and to evaluate its suitability for the implementation in routine testing. In this context, the use of FISH in different matrices and their pretreatment will be presented, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH tests will be considered and the need for automation shall be discussed as well as the use of technological improvements to overcome current hurdles for a broad application in monitoring food safety. In addition, the overall economical feasibility will be assessed in a rough calculation of costs, and strengths and weaknesses of FISH are considered in comparison with traditional and well-established detection methods. PMID:25475309

  11. Reliable Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children for Adequate Hospital Infection Control Management

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter

    2001-01-01

    By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141

  12. Application of classification methods in fault detection and diagnosis of inverter fed induction machine drive: a trend towards reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpha, C.; Diallo, D.; El Hachemi Benbouzid, M.; Marchand, C.

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method of detection and isolation of intermittent misfiring in power switches of a three phase inverter feeding an induction machine drive. The detection and diagnosis procedure is based solely on the output currents of the inverter flowing into the machine windings. The measured currents are transformed in the two dimensional frame obtained with the Concordia transform. The data are then treated by a time-average method. The results even promising lack of accuracy mainly in the fault isolation step. To enhance the fault detection and diagnosis by the use of the information enclosed in the data, a Principal Component Analysis classifier is applied. The detection of a fault occurrence is made by a two-class classifier. The isolation is a two-step approach which uses the Linear Discriminant Analysis; the first is to identify the faulty leg with a three-class classifier and the second one discriminates the faulty power switch. Both methods are evaluated with experimental data and pattern recognition method proves its effectiveness and accuracy in the faulty leg detection and isolation. This article has been submitted as part of “IET Colloquium on Reliability in Electromagnetic Systems”, 24 and 25 May 2007, Paris

  13. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during

  14. Reliable detection of human papillomavirus in recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis and associated carcinoma of archival tissue.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Heinkele, Thomas; Rudack, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP) is, although benign, a challenging disease for both, the patient and the treating physician. Maximum disease control with minimum intervention is considered to be the gold standard. However, patients have to undergo repeating surgical interventions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), mainly so called low risk types, are thought to be responsible for the development of RLP. But, there is still some controversy over the true prevalence of HPV and the virus-specific molecular diagnostic of choice. Therefore archival tissue samples from 44 patients with RLP at laryngeal site, out of which eight developed laryngeal cancer, was screened for presence of HPV through various molecular approaches. Results from these different methodologies were compared between each other and with patient's characteristics. The overall detection rates of HPV with the various methods used in this study were: HPV16 E6/E7 PCR: 0%; GP5+/6+ PCR: 4.5%; CDKN2A/p16 immunohistochemistry: 6.8%; in-situ hybridization for low and high risk HPV types: 52.3%; HPV6/11 L1 PCR: 72.7% and HPV6/11 E6 PCR: 79.5%. Disease progression showed no apparent dependence of the detected HPV type or clinical variables like age at diagnosis, sex, or additional drug application (Cidofovir and Bevacizumab). In conclusion, the broad-spectrum PCRs alone or in combination with immunohistochemistry of CDKN2A/p16 and in-situ hybridization are unsuitable for HPV detection in RLP. Based on the findings presented in this study the type specific PCRs targeting the E6 open reading frame are clearly superior in detection of HPV in this tumor entity. PMID:25650265

  15. Throat swabs are necessary to reliably detect carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Dominik; Frei, Reno; Jaussi, Barbara; Tietz, Andreas; Stebler, Christine; Flückiger, Ursula; Widmer, Andreas F

    2007-08-15

    The anterior nares are the most important screening site of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. We screened 2966 individuals for S. aureus carriage with swabs of both nares and throat. A total of 37.1% of persons were nasal carriers, and 12.8% were solely throat carriers. Screening of throat swabs significantly increases the sensitivity of detection among carriers by 25.7%. PMID:17638197

  16. Reliably Detecting Clinically Important Variants Requires Both Combined Variant Calls and Optimized Filtering Strategies.

    PubMed

    Field, Matthew A; Cho, Vicky; Andrews, T Daniel; Goodnow, Chris C

    2015-01-01

    A diversity of tools is available for identification of variants from genome sequence data. Given the current complexity of incorporating external software into a genome analysis infrastructure, a tendency exists to rely on the results from a single tool alone. The quality of the output variant calls is highly variable however, depending on factors such as sequence library quality as well as the choice of short-read aligner, variant caller, and variant caller filtering strategy. Here we present a two-part study first using the high quality 'genome in a bottle' reference set to demonstrate the significant impact the choice of aligner, variant caller, and variant caller filtering strategy has on overall variant call quality and further how certain variant callers outperform others with increased sample contamination, an important consideration when analyzing sequenced cancer samples. This analysis confirms previous work showing that combining variant calls of multiple tools results in the best quality resultant variant set, for either specificity or sensitivity, depending on whether the intersection or union, of all variant calls is used respectively. Second, we analyze a melanoma cell line derived from a control lymphocyte sample to determine whether software choices affect the detection of clinically important melanoma risk-factor variants finding that only one of the three such variants is unanimously detected under all conditions. Finally, we describe a cogent strategy for implementing a clinical variant detection pipeline; a strategy that requires careful software selection, variant caller filtering optimizing, and combined variant calls in order to effectively minimize false negative variants. While implementing such features represents an increase in complexity and computation the results offer indisputable improvements in data quality. PMID:26600436

  17. Reliably Detecting Clinically Important Variants Requires Both Combined Variant Calls and Optimized Filtering Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Field, Matthew A.; Cho, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    A diversity of tools is available for identification of variants from genome sequence data. Given the current complexity of incorporating external software into a genome analysis infrastructure, a tendency exists to rely on the results from a single tool alone. The quality of the output variant calls is highly variable however, depending on factors such as sequence library quality as well as the choice of short-read aligner, variant caller, and variant caller filtering strategy. Here we present a two-part study first using the high quality ‘genome in a bottle’ reference set to demonstrate the significant impact the choice of aligner, variant caller, and variant caller filtering strategy has on overall variant call quality and further how certain variant callers outperform others with increased sample contamination, an important consideration when analyzing sequenced cancer samples. This analysis confirms previous work showing that combining variant calls of multiple tools results in the best quality resultant variant set, for either specificity or sensitivity, depending on whether the intersection or union, of all variant calls is used respectively. Second, we analyze a melanoma cell line derived from a control lymphocyte sample to determine whether software choices affect the detection of clinically important melanoma risk-factor variants finding that only one of the three such variants is unanimously detected under all conditions. Finally, we describe a cogent strategy for implementing a clinical variant detection pipeline; a strategy that requires careful software selection, variant caller filtering optimizing, and combined variant calls in order to effectively minimize false negative variants. While implementing such features represents an increase in complexity and computation the results offer indisputable improvements in data quality. PMID:26600436

  18. Preoperative prostate biopsy and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: reliability in detecting prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Russo, Filippo; Manfredi, Matteo; Mele, Fabrizio; Fiori, Cristian; Regge, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyse and compare the ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp–MRI) and prostate biopsy (PB) to correctly identify tumor foci in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods 157 patients with clinically localised PCa with a PSA <10 ng/mL and a negative DRE diagnosed on the first (12 samples, Group A) or second (18 samples, Group B) PB were enrolled at our institution. All patients underwent mp-MRI with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI prior to RP. A map of comparison describing each positive biopsy sample was created for each patient, with each tumor focus shown on the MRI and each lesion present on the definitive histological examination in order to compare tumor detection and location. The sensitivity of mp-MRI and PB for diagnosis was compared using Student’s t-test. The ability of the two exams to detect the prevalence of Gleason pattern 4 in the identified lesions was compared using a chi-square test. Results Overall sensitivity of PB and mp-MRI to identify tumor lesion was 59.4% and 78.9%, respectively (p<0.0001). PB missed 144/355 lesions, 59 of which (16.6%) were significant. mp-MRI missed 75/355 lesions, 12 of which (3.4%) were significant. No lesions with a GS≥8 were missed. Sensitivity of PB and mp-MRI to detect the prevalence of Gleason pattern 4 was 88.2% and 97.4%, respectively. Conclusions mp-MRI seems to identify more tumor lesions than PB and to provide more information concerning tumor characteristics. PMID:25928518

  19. DNA methylation status is more reliable than gene expression at detecting cancer in prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Paziewska, A; Dabrowska, M; Goryca, K; Antoniewicz, A; Dobruch, J; Mikula, M; Jarosz, D; Zapala, L; Borowka, A; Ostrowski, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: We analysed critically the potential usefulness of RNA- and DNA-based biomarkers in supporting conventional histological diagnostic tests for prostate carcinoma (PCa) detection. Methods: Microarray profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation was performed on 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 cancerous and non-cancerous prostate samples extracted by radical prostatectomy. The predictive value of the selected biomarkers was validated by qPCR-based methods using tissue samples extracted from the 58 prostates and, separately, using 227 prostate core biopsies. Results: HOXC6, AMACR and PCA3 expression showed the best discrimination between PCa and BPH. All three genes were previously reported as the most promising mRNA-based markers for distinguishing cancerous lesions from benign prostate lesions; however, none were sufficiently sensitive and specific to meet the criteria for a PCa diagnostic biomarker. By contrast, DNA methylation levels of the APC, TACC2, RARB, DGKZ and HES5 promoter regions achieved high discriminating sensitivity and specificity, with area under the curve (AUCs) reaching 0.95−1.0. Only a small overlap was detected between the DNA methylation levels of PCa-positive and PCa-negative needle biopsies, with AUCs ranging between 0.854 and 0.899. Conclusions: DNA methylation-based biomarkers reflect the prostate malignancy and might be useful in supporting clinical decisions for suspected PCa following an initial negative prostate biopsy. PMID:24937670

  20. Lipase-nanoporous gold biocomposite modified electrode for reliable detection of triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Liu, Xueying; Li, Yufei; Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2014-03-15

    For triglycerides biosensor design, protein immobilization is necessary to create the interface between the enzyme and the electrode. In this study, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with lipase-nanoporous gold (NPG) biocomposite (denoted as lipase/NPG/GCE). Due to highly conductive, porous, and biocompatible three-dimensional structure, NPG is suitable for enzyme immobilization. In cyclic voltammetry experiments, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode displayed surface-confined reaction in a phosphate buffer solution. Linear responses were obtained for tributyrin concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg dl(-1) and olive oil concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mg dl(-1). The value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for tributyrin was 10.67 mg dl(-1) and the detection limit was 2.68 mg dl(-1). Further, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode had strong anti-interference ability against urea, glucose, cholesterol, and uric acid as well as a long shelf-life. For the detection of triglycerides in human serum, the values given by the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode were in good agreement with those of an automatic biochemical analyzer. These properties along with a long self-life make the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for the construction of triglycerides biosensor. PMID:24121205

  1. Reliability of Three Disability Scales for Detection of Independence Loss in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bjornestad, Anders; Tysnes, Ole-Bjorn; Larsen, Jan Petter; Alves, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Background. Loss of independence is considered an important outcome measure in Parkinson's disease (PD), but tools to assess dependency have not been tested in PD. Methods. In this study of 158 PD patients, we examined the two most widely used scales and cut-offs for dependency evaluation in PD, the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage > 3 and the Schwab and England (SE) scale score < 80%, against a standardized clinical interview assessing dependency in activities of daily living (ADL). We also examined the performance of the generic Barthel ADL index. In addition, we determined whether alternative cut-offs improved the utility of these tools. Results. Compared to clinical interview as gold standard, HY stage > 3 had 21% sensitivity and 98% specificity in detecting dependency in ADL. Corresponding figures for SE score < 80% were 55% and 92%, respectively. Using alternative cut-off values improved the overall diagnostic accuracy only slightly. Barthel ADL index had 67% sensitivity and 78% specificity in detecting dependency at its optimal cut-off value. Conclusion. Both the disease-specific HY staging and SE scale and the generic Barthel ADL index are suboptimal tools for assessing independence loss in PD. Clinical interview should be the assessment of choice in studies of dependency.

  2. A Simple and Reliable Method for Early Pregnancy Detection in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W; Plisch, Erin H; Melberg, Cal G; Sandgren, Eric P; Peter, Jody A; Lipinski, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The study of normal and abnormal development typically requires precise embryonic staging. In mice, this task is accomplished through timed matings and the detection of a copulation plug. However, the presence of a plug is not a definitive indicator of true pregnancy, particularly in inbred mice, in which false-pregnancy rates have been reported to be 50% or higher, depending on the strain. This high rate poses considerable financial and animal use burdens because manipulation of the putative dam is often required before pregnancy can be confirmed by palpation or visual inspection. To address this problem, we examined weight gain in a population of 275 wildtype C57BL/6J mice (age, 12 wk or older) between the time of plug detection and during early embryogenesis (gestational days 7 to 10). In this population, assessing pregnancy according to the presence of a plug alone yielded a 37.1% false-positive rate. Pregnant mice gained an average of 3.49 g, whereas nonpregnant mice gained only 1.15 g. Beginning at gestational day 7.75, implementing an optimal weight-gain discrimination threshold of 1.75 g reduced the false-positive rate to 10.5%, without excluding any pregnant mice. These results were consistent with those from younger (age, 8 wk) wildtype C57BL/6J and FVB/NTac female mice, suggesting broad applicability of this method across age and strain. Our findings provide a simple and effective method for reducing animal use and study costs. PMID:26224435

  3. Ultrasensitive detection in optically dense physiological media: applications to fast reliable biological assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Berndt, Klaus W.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Goldys, Ewa; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2006-02-01

    We present a novel approach for performing fluorescence immunoassay in serum and whole blood using fluorescently labeled anti-rabbit IgG. This approach, which is based on Surface Plasmon-Coupled Emission (SPCE), provides increased sensitivity and substantial background reduction due to exclusive selection of the signal from the fluorophores located near a bio-affinity surface. Effective coupling range for SPCE is only couple of hundred nanometers from the metallic surface. Excited fluorophores outside the coupling layer do not contribute to SPCE, and their free-space emission is not transmitted through the opaque metallic film into the glass substrate. An antigen (rabbit IgG) was adsorbed to a slide covered with a thin silver metal layer, and the SPCE signal from the fluorophore-labeled anti-rabbit antibody, binding to the immobilized antigen, was detected. The effect of the sample matrix (buffer, human serum, or human whole blood) on the end-point immunoassay SPCE signal is discussed. The kinetics of binding could be monitored directly in whole blood or serum. The results showed that human serum and human whole blood attenuate the SPCE end-point signal and the immunoassay kinetic signal only approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively (compared to buffer), resulting in signals that are easily detectable even in whole blood. The high optical absorption of the hemoglobin can be tolerated because only fluorophores within a couple of hundred nanometers from the metallic film contribute to SPCE. Both glass and plastic slides can be used for SPCE-based assays. We believe that SPCE has the potential of becoming a powerful approach for performing immunoassays based on surface-bound analytes or antibodies for many biomarkers directly in dense samples such as whole blood, without any need for washing steps.

  4. Detecting recent positive selection with high accuracy and reliability by conditional coalescent tree.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minxian; Huang, Xin; Li, Ran; Xu, Hongyang; Jin, Li; He, Yungang

    2014-11-01

    Studies of natural selection, followed by functional validation, are shedding light on understanding of genetic mechanisms underlying human evolution and adaptation. Classic methods for detecting selection, such as the integrated haplotype score (iHS) and Fay and Wu's H statistic, are useful for candidate gene searching underlying positive selection. These methods, however, have limited capability to localize causal variants in selection target regions. In this study, we developed a novel method based on conditional coalescent tree to detect recent positive selection by counting unbalanced mutations on coalescent gene genealogies. Extensive simulation studies revealed that our method is more robust than many other approaches against biases due to various demographic effects, including population bottleneck, expansion, or stratification, while not sacrificing its power. Furthermore, our method demonstrated its superiority in localizing causal variants from massive linked genetic variants. The rate of successful localization was about 20-40% higher than that of other state-of-the-art methods on simulated data sets. On empirical data, validated functional causal variants of four well-known positive selected genes were all successfully localized by our method, such as ADH1B, MCM6, APOL1, and HBB. Finally, the computational efficiency of this new method was much higher than that of iHS implementations, that is, 24-66 times faster than the REHH package, and more than 10,000 times faster than the original iHS implementation. These magnitudes make our method suitable for applying on large sequencing data sets. Software can be downloaded from https://github.com/wavefancy/scct. PMID:25135945

  5. Simple pressure measurement is not reliable in detection of access stenosis in native AV fistulas.

    PubMed

    Portová, M; Horení, J; Kremenová, E; Nejedlý, B; Válek, M; Lopot, F

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic arterial and venous pressures (PA, PV) are used as the simplest tools to assess vascular access quality (VAQ). An increased PV over three consecutive dialyses is believed to indicate a stenosis, a rule devised for synthetic grafts (AVG) but not adequately validated for AV fistulas (AVF). In this study dynamic PV and static intra-access pressure (calculated by means of the simplified formula PIA=(PA+PV)/2) changes were evaluated in 46 accesses in which balloon angioplasty had to eventually be performed. The whole group consisted of 30 forearm AVF, 5 upper arm AVF and 11 AVG. Pressures were compared in each patient at a time of satisfactory access flow (QVA) and immediately before the angioplasty and pressure difference over that period (deltaPV, deltaPIA) evaluated. Despite a significant drop in QVA over the follow-up interval in both AVF and AVG, the mean deltaPV and deltaPIA in AVF were only several mm Hg and the chosen threshold limit of 20 mmHg was exceeded in approximately 10% of patients only. The results in the AVG group were, however, very different: The mean deltaPV and deltaPIA were close to 20 mmHg and almost 60% of patients in the AVG group exceeded this limit. Evaluation of PIA did not improve stenosis detection in either group. It is concluded that PV and/or PIA monitoring may be useful to detect a stenosis in AVG but not in AVF. PMID:16363412

  6. A Simple and Reliable Method for Early Pregnancy Detection in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Galen W; Plisch, Erin H; Melberg, Cal G; Sandgren, Eric P; Peter, Jody A; Lipinski, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    The study of normal and abnormal development typically requires precise embryonic staging. In mice, this task is accomplished through timed matings and the detection of a copulation plug. However, the presence of a plug is not a definitive indicator of true pregnancy, particularly in inbred mice, in which false-pregnancy rates have been reported to be 50% or higher, depending on the strain. This high rate poses considerable financial and animal use burdens because manipulation of the putative dam is often required before pregnancy can be confirmed by palpation or visual inspection. To address this problem, we examined weight gain in a population of 275 wildtype C57BL/6J mice (age, 12 wk or older) between the time of plug detection and during early embryogenesis (gestational days 7 to 10). In this population, assessing pregnancy according to the presence of a plug alone yielded a 37.1% false-positive rate. Pregnant mice gained an average of 3.49 g, whereas non-pregnant mice gained only 1.15 g. Beginning at gestational day 7.75, implementing an optimal weight-gain discrimination threshold of 1.75 g reduced the false-positive rate to 10.5%, without excluding any pregnant mice. These results were consistent with those from younger (age, 8 wk) wildtype C57BL/6J and FVB/NTac female mice, suggesting broad applicability of this method across age and strain. Our findings provide a simple and effective method for reducing animal use and study costs. PMID:26224435

  7. Can the comet assay be used reliably to detect nanoparticle-induced genotoxicity?

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hanna L; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Collins, Andrew R; Dusinska, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive method to detect DNA strand breaks as well as oxidatively damaged DNA at the level of single cells. Today the assay is commonly used in nano-genotoxicology. In this review we critically discuss possible interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and the comet assay. Concerns for such interactions have arisen from the occasional observation of NPs in the "comet head", which implies that NPs may be present while the assay is being performed. This could give rise to false positive or false negative results, depending on the type of comet assay endpoint and NP. For most NPs, an interaction that substantially impacts the comet assay results is unlikely. For photocatalytically active NPs such as TiO2 , on the other hand, exposure to light containing UV can lead to increased DNA damage. Samples should therefore not be exposed to such light. By comparing studies in which both the comet assay and the micronucleus assay have been used, a good consistency between the assays was found in general (69%); consistency was even higher when excluding studies on TiO2 NPs (81%). The strong consistency between the comet and micronucleus assays for a range of different NPs-even though the two tests measure different endpoints-implies that both can be trusted in assessing the genotoxicity of NPs, and that both could be useful in a standard battery of test methods. PMID:25488706

  8. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Carmichael, D A; Down, M P; Shillcock, R C; Eagleman, D M; Simner, J

    2015-05-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a single test session. This battery has been widely used but has never been previously validated against conventional long-term retesting, and with a randomly recruited sample from the general population. We recruited 2847 participants to complete The Synesthesia Battery and found the prevalence of grapheme-colour synesthesia in the general population to be 1.2%. This prevalence was in line with previous conventional prevalence estimates based on conventional long-term testing (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). This reproduction of similar prevalence rates suggests that the Synesthesia Battery is indeed a valid methodology for assessing synesthesia. PMID:25734257

  9. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Salmonella in produce.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianru; Wang, Fei; Jones, Kelly L; Meng, Jianghong; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei

    2015-04-01

    Rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Salmonella in produce remains a challenge. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detecting diverse Salmonella serovars in various produce items (cantaloupe, pepper, and several varieties of lettuce, sprouts, and tomato). To mimic real-world contamination events, produce samples were surface-inoculated with low concentrations (1.1-2.9 CFU/25 g) of individual Salmonella strains representing ten serovars and tested after aging at 4 °C for 48 h. Four DNA extraction methods were also compared using produce enrichment broths. False-positive or false-negative results were not observed among 178 strains (151 Salmonella and 27 non-Salmonella) used to evaluate assay specificity. The detection limits for LAMP were 1.8-4 CFU per reaction in pure culture and 10(4)-10(6) CFU per 25 g (i.e., 10(2)-10(4) CFU per g) in produce without enrichment, comparable to those obtained by qPCR. After 6-8 h of enrichment, both LAMP and qPCR consistently detected these low concentrations of Salmonella of diverse serovars in all produce items except sprouts. The PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagent yielded the best results among the four DNA extraction methods. Upon further validation, LAMP may be a valuable tool for routine Salmonella testing in produce. The difficulty of detecting Salmonella in sprouts, whether using LAMP or qPCR, warrants further study. PMID:25475319

  10. Mining for sensitive and reliable species-specific primers for PCR for detection of Cronobacter sakazakii by a bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Qiming, Chen; Tingting, Tao; Xiaomei, Bie; Yingjian, Lu; Fengxia, Lu; Ligong, Zhai; Zhaoxin, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Although several studies have reported PCR assays for distinguishing Cronobacter sakazakii from other species in the genus, reports regarding assay sensitivity and specificity, as well as applications for food testing, are lacking. Hence, the objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR-based method for detection of C. sakazakii by screening for specific target genes. The genome sequence of C. sakazakii in the GenBank database was compared with that of other organisms using BLAST. Thirty-eight DNA fragments unique to C. sakazakii were identified, and primers targeting these sequences were designed. Finally, 3 primer sets (CS14, CS21, and CS38) were found to be specific for C. sakazakii by PCR verification. The detection limit of PCR assays using the 3 pairs of primers was 1.35 pg/μL, 135 fg/μL, and 135 fg/μL, respectively, for genomic DNA, and 5.5×10(5), 5.5×10(3), 5.5×10(3) cfu/mL, respectively, using pure cultures of the bacteria, compared with 13.5 pg/μLand 5.5×10(5) cfu/mLfor primer set SpeCronsaka, which has been previously described. Cronobacter sakazakii were detected in artificially contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF) by PCR using primer sets CS21 and CS38 after 8h of enrichment. The detection limit was 5.5×10(-1) cfu/10g of PIF. Thus, the PCR assay can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of C. sakazakii in PIF. PMID:26074237

  11. Reliable detection of predator cues in afferent spike trains of a katydid under high background noise levels

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Radspieler, Gerald; Römer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Katydid receivers face the problem of detecting behaviourally relevant predatory cues from echolocating bats in the same frequency domain as their own conspecific mating signals. We therefore tested the hypothesis that katydids are able to detect the presence of insectivorous bats in spike discharges at early stages of nervous processing in the auditory pathway by using the temporal details characteristic for responses to echolocation sequences. Spike activity was recorded from an identified nerve cell (omega neuron) under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the preparation was stimulated with sequences of bat calls at different repetition rates typical for the guild of insectivorous bats, in the presence of background noise. The omega cell fired brief high-frequency bursts of action potentials in response to each bat sound pulse. Repetition rates of 18 and 24 Hz of these pulses resulted in a suppression of activity resulting from background noise, thus facilitating the detection of bat calls. The spike activity typical for responses to bat echolocation contrasts to responses to background noise, producing different distributions of inter-spike intervals. This allowed development of a ‘neuronal bat detector’ algorithm, optimized to detect responses to bats in afferent spike trains. The algorithm was applied to more than 24 hours of outdoor omega-recordings performed either at a rainforest clearing with high bat activity or in rainforest understory, where bat activity was low. In 95% of cases, the algorithm detected a bat reliably, even under high background noise, and correctly rejected responses when an electronic bat detector showed no response. PMID:20709932

  12. Reliable detection of predator cues in afferent spike trains of a katydid under high background noise levels.

    PubMed

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Radspieler, Gerald; Römer, Heiner

    2010-09-01

    Katydid receivers face the problem of detecting behaviourally relevant predatory cues from echolocating bats in the same frequency domain as their own conspecific mating signals. We therefore tested the hypothesis that katydids are able to detect the presence of insectivorous bats in spike discharges at early stages of nervous processing in the auditory pathway by using the temporal details characteristic for responses to echolocation sequences. Spike activity was recorded from an identified nerve cell (omega neuron) under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the preparation was stimulated with sequences of bat calls at different repetition rates typical for the guild of insectivorous bats, in the presence of background noise. The omega cell fired brief high-frequency bursts of action potentials in response to each bat sound pulse. Repetition rates of 18 and 24 Hz of these pulses resulted in a suppression of activity resulting from background noise, thus facilitating the detection of bat calls. The spike activity typical for responses to bat echolocation contrasts to responses to background noise, producing different distributions of inter-spike intervals. This allowed development of a 'neuronal bat detector' algorithm, optimized to detect responses to bats in afferent spike trains. The algorithm was applied to more than 24 hours of outdoor omega-recordings performed either at a rainforest clearing with high bat activity or in rainforest understory, where bat activity was low. In 95% of cases, the algorithm detected a bat reliably, even under high background noise, and correctly rejected responses when an electronic bat detector showed no response. PMID:20709932

  13. MLPA: A Rapid, Reliable, and Sensitive Method for Detection and Analysis of Abnormalities of 22q

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, J.A.S.; Jalali, G.R.; Rappaport, E.F.; Hacker, A.M.; Scott, C.; Emanuel, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, essential test characteristics of the recently described multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method are presented, using chromosome 22 as a model. This novel method allows the relative quantification of ~40–45 different target DNA sequences in a single reaction. For the purpose of this study, MLPA was performed in a blinded manner on a training set containing over 50 samples, including typical 22q11.2 deletions, various atypical deletions, duplications (trisomy and tetrasomy), and unbalanced translocations. All samples in the training set have been previously characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid or BAC clones and/or cytogenetic studies. MLPA findings were consistent with cytogenetic and FISH studies, no rearrangement went undetected and repeated tests gave consistent results. At a relative change in comparative signal strength of 30% or more, sensitivity and specificity values were 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. Given that MLPA is likely to be used as an initial screening method, a higher sensitivity, at the cost of a lower specificity, was deemed more appropriate. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the most optimal threshold range, with associated sensitivity and specificity values of 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. Finally, performance of each individual probe was analyzed, providing further useful information for the interpretation of MLPA results. In conclusion, MLPA has proven to be a highly sensitive and accurate tool for detecting copy number changes in the 22q11.2 region, making it a fast and economic alternative to currently used methods. The current study provides valuable and detailed information on the characteristics of this novel method. PMID:16791841

  14. MCT IR detection modules with 15 µm pitch for high-reliability applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Wendler, J.; Lutz, H.; Rutzinger, S.; Schallenberg, T.; Hofmann, K.; Ziegler, J.

    2010-04-01

    Additional to the development of 3rd Gen IR modules like dual-band and dual-color devices AIM is focused on IR FPAs with reduced pitch. These FPAs allow manufacturing of compact low cost IR modules with minimum power consumption for state-of-the-art high performance IR systems. AIM has realized full TV format MCT 640x512 mid-wave and long-wave IR detection modules with a 15 μm pitch to meet the requirements of critical military applications like thermal weapon sights or thermal imagers in UAV applications. In typical configurations like a F/4.6 cold shield for the 640x512 MWIR module an NETD < 25 mK @ 5 ms integration time is achieved, while the LWIR modules achieve an NETD < 38 mK @ F/2 and 180 μs integration time. For the LWIR modules FPAs with a cut-off of 9 and 10 μm have been realized. The modules are available either with different integral rotary cooler configurations for portable applications which require minimum cooling power or a new split linear cooler providing long lifetime with a MTTF > 20,000 h as required e.g. for warning sensors in 24/7 operation. The modules are available with an optional image processing electronics providing non-uniformity correction and further image processing for a complete IR imaging solution. A double field of view FLIR for an upgrade of the German Army UAV LUNA has been developed by AIM using the MCT 640x512 MWIR 15μm pitch engine. The latest results and performance of those modules and their applications are presented.

  15. Spectro-Fluor™ Technology for Reliable Detection of Proteins and Biomarkers of Disease: A Pioneered Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Menaa, Farid; Menaa, Bouzid; Sharts, Olga N.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative characterization of fluorinated molecules represents an important task. Fluorine-based medicinal chemistry is a fast-growing research area due to the positive impact of fluorine in drug discovery, and clinical and molecular imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography). Common detection methods include fluorinated-based labelling using radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes. Nevertheless, these molecular imaging methods can be harmful for health due to the potential instability of fluorochromes and cytoxicity of radioisotopes. Therefore, these methods often require expensive precautionary measures. In this context, we have developed, validated and patented carbon-fluorine spectroscopy (CFS™), recently renamed Spectro-Fluor™ technology, which among a non-competitive family of in-house made devices called PLIRFA™ (Pulsed Laser Isochronic Raman and Fluorescence Apparatus™), allows reliable detection of Carbon-Fluorine (C-F) bonds. C-F bonds are known to be stable and safe labels once incorporated to any type of molecules, cells, compounds or (nano-) materials. In this pioneered research study, we used Spectro-Fluor™ to assess biomarkers. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we have established a three-step protocol intended to rapid protein detection, which simply consisted of: (i) incorporating a sufficient concentration of an aromatic amino-acid (fluorinated versus non-fluorinated) into cultured cells; (ii) simultaneously isolating the fluorinated protein of interest and the non-fluorinated form of the protein (control) by immune-precipitation; (iii) comparatively analyzing the respective spectrum obtained for the two protein forms by Spectro-Fluor™. Thereby, we were able to differentiate, from colon cancer cells HCT-116, the fluorinated and non-fluorinated forms of p21, a key transcriptional factor and downstream target of p53, the so-called “guardian of the genome”. Taken together, our data

  16. A Reliable Protocol for In situ microRNAs Detection in Feeding Sites Induced by Root-Knot Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E.; Barcala, Marta; Engler, Gilbert; Fenoll, Carmen; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Escobar, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Galls induced by Meloidogyne spp. in plant roots are a complex organ formed by heterogeneous tissues; within them there are 5–8 giant cells (GCs) that root-knot nematodes use for their own nurturing. Subtle regulatory mechanisms likely mediate the massive gene repression described at early infection stages in galls, particularly in giant cells. Some of these mechanisms are mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs); hence we describe a reliable protocol to detect miRNAs abundance within the gall tissues induced by Meloidogyne spp. Some methods are available to determine the abundance of specific miRNAs in different plant parts; however, galls are complex organs formed by different tissues. Therefore, detection of miRNAs at the cellular level is particularly important to understand specific regulatory mechanisms operating within the GCs. In situ hybridization (ISH) is a classical, robust and accurate method that allows the localization of specific RNAs directly on plant tissues. We present for the first time an adapted and standardized ISH protocol to detect miRNAs in GCs induced by nematodes based on tissue embedded in paraffin and on-slide ISH of miRNAs. It can be adapted to any laboratory with no more requirements than a microtome and an optical microscope and it takes 10 days to perform once plant material has been collected. It showed to be very valuable for a quick detection of miRNAs expression pattern in tomato. We tested the protocol for miR390, as massive sequencing analysis showed that miR390 was induced at 3 dpi (days post-infection) in Arabidopsis galls and miR390 is 100% conserved between Arabidopsis and tomato. Successful localization of miR390 in tomato GCs constitutes a validation of this method that could be easily extended to other crops and/or syncytia induced by cyst nematodes. Finally, the protocol also includes guidance on troubleshooting. PMID:27458466

  17. A Reliable Protocol for In situ microRNAs Detection in Feeding Sites Induced by Root-Knot Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E; Barcala, Marta; Engler, Gilbert; Fenoll, Carmen; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Escobar, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Galls induced by Meloidogyne spp. in plant roots are a complex organ formed by heterogeneous tissues; within them there are 5-8 giant cells (GCs) that root-knot nematodes use for their own nurturing. Subtle regulatory mechanisms likely mediate the massive gene repression described at early infection stages in galls, particularly in giant cells. Some of these mechanisms are mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs); hence we describe a reliable protocol to detect miRNAs abundance within the gall tissues induced by Meloidogyne spp. Some methods are available to determine the abundance of specific miRNAs in different plant parts; however, galls are complex organs formed by different tissues. Therefore, detection of miRNAs at the cellular level is particularly important to understand specific regulatory mechanisms operating within the GCs. In situ hybridization (ISH) is a classical, robust and accurate method that allows the localization of specific RNAs directly on plant tissues. We present for the first time an adapted and standardized ISH protocol to detect miRNAs in GCs induced by nematodes based on tissue embedded in paraffin and on-slide ISH of miRNAs. It can be adapted to any laboratory with no more requirements than a microtome and an optical microscope and it takes 10 days to perform once plant material has been collected. It showed to be very valuable for a quick detection of miRNAs expression pattern in tomato. We tested the protocol for miR390, as massive sequencing analysis showed that miR390 was induced at 3 dpi (days post-infection) in Arabidopsis galls and miR390 is 100% conserved between Arabidopsis and tomato. Successful localization of miR390 in tomato GCs constitutes a validation of this method that could be easily extended to other crops and/or syncytia induced by cyst nematodes. Finally, the protocol also includes guidance on troubleshooting. PMID:27458466

  18. Reliability and validity of the SPAID-G checklist for detecting psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Marco; Scuticchio, Daniela; Ferrandi, Angela; Lassi, Stefano; Mango, Francesco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Porcelli, Cesare; Bianco, Annamaria; Monchieri, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    SPAID (Psychiatric Instrument for the Intellectually Disabled Adult) is the first Italian tool-package for carrying out psychiatric diagnosis in adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). It includes the "G" form, for general diagnostic orientation, and specific checklists for all groups of syndromes stated by the available classification systems. SPAID was established to provide an easy and quick tool for daily practice of the personnel working with ID. The present study was aimed at evaluating psychometric and psychodiagnostic characteristics of the SPAID-G and at supplying new data on the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in a multicentric Italian sample of people with ID living in different settings. The SPAID-G was randomly applied to 304 participants with ID attending residential facilities or assessment services across Italy. A part of the sample was also consecutively assessed through the use of DASH, PDD-MRS and by the clinical application of the DSM-IV TR criteria. The correlation between SPAID-G scores and those provided by other evaluation tools was over 60%. Additionally, the internal consistency and inter-rater reliability resulted to be good. Psychopathological symptoms were detected in approximately 40% of the sample. Respectively, autistic spectrum disorders, impulse control disorders, mood disorders, and dramatic personality disorders were the diagnostic orientations providing the most prevalent over-threshold scores. SPAID-G seems to be a valid diagnostic tool, quick and easy to use in psychiatric disorders assessment within the Italian population with ID. PMID:22119685

  19. Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates.

    PubMed

    Albini, S; Brodard, I; Jaussi, A; Wollschlaeger, N; Frey, J; Miserez, R; Abril, C

    2008-02-01

    Typing of Clostridium perfringens strains by PCR-based determination of toxin genes proved to be a reliable method for diagnosis of enterotoxaemia in various animal species. We report the establishment and validation of three real-time fluorogenic (TaqMan) multiplex PCRs for the detection of C. perfringens alpha-, beta-, beta2-, epsilon-, entero- and iota-toxin genes. The composition of the PCRs was chosen with regard to robustness of the assays and in order to increase sensitivity compared to the conventional simplex PCRs. The combination of probe dyes selected for the real-time assays (FAM/TAMRA, Cy-5/BHQ-2 and VIC/TAMRA) as well as the designation of the chromosome-borne alpha-toxin as internal positive control allowed the creation of highly specific and sensitive, as well as time and cost effective PCRs. One hundred and three strains of C. perfringens isolated in Switzerland derived from clinical or suspected cases of enterotoxaemia in 10 different animal species were tested. The toxin genotypes were in agreement in both the conventional PCRs and the newly designed multiplex PCRs. Furthermore, the real-time PCR carried out as simplex allows to quantitate the copy numbers of plasmid-borne toxin genes in relation to the chromosomally located alpha-toxin gene. PMID:17855025

  20. Determination of gross alpha, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in drinking water using a single sample preparation procedure.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail P

    2005-12-01

    results were in close agreement with the assigned values. In addition, method comparison results of actual sample analyses agreed well with the ones performed using EPA-approved procedures. With a 3-L sample aliquot and 1,000-min counting time, the average gross alpha minimum detectable concentration (MDC) was about 0.002 Bq L(-1). The average MDC's for 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra were 0.034 Bq L(-1), 0.017 Bq L(-1), and 0.036 Bq L(-1), respectively, based on a 3-L sample aliquot, 85% chemical yield, 40% intrinsic Ge detector, and 1,000-min count time. This method combines and simplifies the analytical procedures and reduces labor while achieving the precision, accuracy, and minimum detection limit requirements of EPA regulations. PMID:16282798

  1. Rule discovery and distance separation to detect reliable miRNA biomarkers for the diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Altered expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) are linked to many diseases including lung cancer. miRNA expression profiling is reproducible and miRNAs are very stable. These characteristics of miRNAs make them ideal biomarker candidates. Method This work is aimed to detect 2-and 3-miRNA groups, together with specific expression ranges of these miRNAs, to form simple linear discriminant rules for biomarker identification and biological interpretation. Our method is based on a novel committee of decision trees to derive 2-and 3-miRNA 100%-frequency rules. This method is applied to a data set of lung miRNA expression profiles of 61 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples and 10 normal tissue samples. A distance separation technique is used to select the most reliable rules which are then evaluated on a large independent data set. Results We obtained four 2-miRNA and three 3-miRNA top-ranked rules. One important rule is that: If the expression level of miR-98 is above 7.356 and the expression level of miR-205 is below 9.601 (log2 quantile normalized MirVan miRNA Bioarray signals), then the sample is normal rather than cancerous with specificity and sensitivity both 100%. The classification performance of our best miRNA rules remarkably outperformed that by randomly selected miRNA rules. Our data analysis also showed that miR-98 and miR-205 have two common predicted target genes FZD3 and RPS6KA3, which are actually genes associated with carcinoma according to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. We also found that most of the chromosomal loci of these miRNAs have a high frequency of genomic alteration in lung cancer. On the independent data set (with balanced controls), the three miRNAs miR-126, miR-205 and miR-182 from our best rule can separate the two classes of samples at the accuracy of 84.49%, sensitivity of 91.40% and specificity of 77.14%. Conclusion Our results indicate that rule discovery followed by distance separation is a

  2. Test-Retest Reliability of Detection Time Data Measured Using a Masseter Electromyogram in Healthy Young Adults: Preliminary Analysis of Data.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Satomi; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have assessed test-retest reliability of flavor detection time in semisolid and solid foods. In this study, test-retest reliability was assessed in 16 healthy young adults (22.6 ± 5.5 years old) on the data collected using a masseter electromyography-based system between two experimental sessions approximately 35 days apart. The overall correlation coefficients were calculated across five test foods; the correlation coefficient for the entire sample was statistically significant. Five correlation coefficients were calculated for individual test foods, but only orange-flavored gummy candy was significantly correlated across the two sessions. These results suggested that flavor detection time measured by the electromyography-based system is basically reliable over time, with considerable variation among flavors. PMID:27166330

  3. An Investigation of the Relationship between Reliability, Power, and the Type I Error Rate of the Mantel-Haenszel and Simultaneous Item Bias Detection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry A.; Evans, John A.

    The relationship between levels of reliability and the power of two bias and differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods is examined. Both methods, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure of P. W. Holland and D. T. Thayer (1988) and the Simultaneous Item Bias (SIB) procedure of R. Shealy and W. Stout (1991), use examinees' raw scores as a…

  4. Reliable and cost-effective serodiagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pieter W A; Ally, Mahmood M T M; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) optimises therapeutic benefit and the probability of achieving disease remission. Notwithstanding clinical acumen, early diagnosis is dependent on access to reliable serodiagnostic procedures, as well as on the discerning application and interpretation of these. In the case of RA, however, no disease-specific serodiagnostic procedure is available due to the multi-factorial and polygenic nature of this autoimmune disorder. This has resulted in the development of an array of serodiagnostic procedures based on the detection of autoantibodies reactive with various putative autoantigens. Other procedures based on measurement of elevations in the concentrations of systemic biomarkers of inflammation, most commonly acute phase reactants and cytokines/chemokines, are used as objective indices of disease activity. Following a brief overview of RA research in African populations, the current review is focused on those autoantibodies/biomarkers, specifically rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and C-reactive protein, which are currently recognised as being the most reliable and cost-effective with respect to disease prediction and diagnosis, as well as in monitoring activity and outcome. PMID:26856871

  5. Radium content and the 226Ra /228Ra activity ratio in groundwater from bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Matti

    1981-08-01

    The relative abundance of 226Ra and 228Ra were determined in the groundwater from 125 drilled wells containing from < 0.1 to 51.3 pCi/l of 226Ra. The determination of 228Ra was carried out with a liquid scintillation counter by measuring only the weakly energetic β particles emitted from 228Ra. Thus the interference from the daughter nuclides of 226Ra was avoided, without specific separation of 228Ac. The direct measurement of 228Ra made the method decisively simpler and faster in terms of the chemistry involved. The concentration of 228Ra was found to be independent of the amount of 226Ra present in the samples. The concentrations of 228Ra were nearly the same over the whole range of 226Ra concentrations and the average sol 226Ra /228Ra ratio sharply increased as the 226Ra content of water increased. The 226Ra /228Ra ratio in the drilled wells varied from 0.3 to 26. Abnormally high 226Ra /228Ra ratios were found in areas with known uranium deposits as well as in several drilled wells at other locations. The abnormally high 226Ra /228Ra ratios present in groundwater suggest that the radioactivity anomaly is caused by uranium deposits and not by common rocks. In samples with a low radioactivity level the average 226Ra /228Ra ratio was slightly below unity, corresponding to the typical U/ Th ratio of granite, the most common kind of rock in the study area. The samples from the rapakivi area proved to be exceptional in that they had a low 226Ra /228Ra ratio independent of the concentration of 226Ra.

  6. Concurrent determination of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 212Pb in a single analysis for drinking water and wastewater: dissolved and suspended fractions.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail

    2004-02-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 2t2Pb concurrently in a single analysis. The procedure can be applied to both drinking water and wastewater, including the dissolved and suspended fractions of a sample. For drinking water samples, using 3-L aliquots, the radium isotopes are isolated by a fast PbSO4 co-precipitation and then quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The radium isotopes 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra are measured through their gamma-ray-emitting decay products, 212Pb, 214Pb (and/or 214Bi), and 228Ac, respectively. Because of the short half-life of 224Ra (T1/2 = 3.66 d), the precipitate should be counted within 4 d of the sample collection date. In case the measurement of unsupported 212Pb (T1/2 = 10.64 h) is required, the gamma-ray analysis should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably on the same day of collection. The counting is repeated after about 21 d to ensure the 226Ra progeny are in equilibrium with their parent. At this point, the 228Ac equilibration with its 228Ra parent is already established. In the case of samples containing suspended materials, an aliquot of sample is filtered and then the filtrate is treated as described above for drinking water samples. The suspended fraction of sample, collected on the filter, is directly analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with no further chemical separation. Aliquots of de-ionized water spiked with various radium standards were analyzed to check the accuracy and precision of the method. In addition, analysis results of actual samples using this method were compared with the ones performed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved procedures, and the measured values were in close agreement. This method simplifies the analytical procedures and reduces the labor while achieving the precision, accuracy, and minimum detection concentration requirements of EPA's Regulations. PMID:14744047

  7. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing as a Reliable Diagnostic Assay for the Detection of Somatic Mutations in Tumours Using Minimal DNA Amounts from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Material

    PubMed Central

    Koudijs, Marco J.; Nijman, Ies; Hinrichs, John W. J.; Cuppen, Edwin; van Lieshout, Stef; Loberg, Robert D.; de Jonge, Maja; Voest, Emile E.; de Weger, Roel A.; Steeghs, Neeltje; Langenberg, Marlies H. G.; Sleijfer, Stefan; Willems, Stefan M.; Lolkema, Martijn P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers a way to implement testing of multiple genetic aberrations in diagnostic pathology practice, which is necessary for personalized cancer treatment. However, no standards regarding input material have been defined. This study therefore aimed to determine the effect of the type of input material (e.g. formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) versus fresh frozen (FF) tissue) on NGS derived results. Moreover, this study aimed to explore a standardized analysis pipeline to support consistent clinical decision-making. Method We used the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform in combination with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to sequence frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes, and validated the NGS detected variants in 250 FFPE samples using standard diagnostic assays. Next, 386 tumour samples were sequenced to explore the effect of input material on variant detection variables. For variant calling, Ion Torrent analysis software was supplemented with additional variant annotation and filtering. Results Both FFPE and FF tissue could be sequenced reliably with a sensitivity of 99.1%. Validation showed a 98.5% concordance between NGS and conventional sequencing techniques, where NGS provided both the advantage of low input DNA concentration and the detection of low-frequency variants. The reliability of mutation analysis could be further improved with manual inspection of sequence data. Conclusion Targeted NGS can be reliably implemented in cancer diagnostics using both FFPE and FF tissue when using appropriate analysis settings, even with low input DNA. PMID:26919633

  8. A System of Deception and Fraud Detection Using Reliable Linguistic Cues Including Hedging, Disfluencies, and Repeated Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Sean LaMarc

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing problem of fraud, crime, and national security threats, assessing credibility is a recurring research topic in Information Systems and in other disciplines. Decision support systems can help. But the success of the system depends on reliable cues that can distinguish deceptive/truthful behavior and on a proven classification…

  9. Development of a reliable and highly sensitive, digital PCR-based assay for early detection of HLB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by a phloem-limited bacterium, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) in the United States. The bacterium often is present at a low concentration and unevenly distributed in the early stage of infection, making reliable and early diagnosis a serious challenge. Conventional d...

  10. Myth of the Master Detective: Reliability of Interpretations for Kaufman's "Intelligent Testing" Approach to the WISC-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmann, Gregg M.; Barnett, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Used computer simulation to examine the reliability of interpretations for Kaufman's "intelligent testing" approach to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd ed.) (WISC-III). Findings indicate that factor index-score differences and other measures could not be interpreted with confidence. Argues that limitations of IQ testing cannot be…

  11. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification suite for the rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in produce.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qianru; Qu, Yinzhi; Meng, Jianghong; Ge, Beilei

    2014-04-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are a leading cause of produce-associated outbreaks in the United States. Rapid, reliable, and robust detection methods are needed to better ensure produce safety. We recently developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) suite for STEC detection. In this study, the STEC LAMP suite was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a large panel of bacterial strains (n = 156) and various produce items (several varieties of lettuce, spinach, and sprouts). To simulate real-world contamination events, produce samples were surface inoculated with a low level (1.2 to 1.8 CFU/25 g) of individual STEC strains belonging to seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) and held at 4°C for 48 h before testing. Six DNA extraction methods were also compared using produce enrichment broths. All STEC targets and their subtypes were accurately detected by the LAMP suite. The detection limits were 1 to 20 cells per reaction in pure culture and 10(5) to 10(6) CFU per 25 g (i.e., 10(3) to 10(4) CFU per g) in produce, except for strains harboring the stx2c, eae-β, and eae-θ subtypes. After 6 to 8 h of enrichment, the LAMP suite achieved accurate detection of low levels of STEC strains of various stx2 and eae subtypes in lettuce and spinach varieties but not in sprouts. A similar trend of detection was observed for qPCR. The PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagent yielded the best results among the six DNA extraction methods. This research provided a rapid, reliable, and robust method for detecting STEC in produce during routine sampling and testing. The challenge with sprouts detection by both LAMP and qPCR calls for special attention to further analysis. PMID:24509927

  12. Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Suite for the Rapid, Reliable, and Robust Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Produce

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qianru; Qu, Yinzhi; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are a leading cause of produce-associated outbreaks in the United States. Rapid, reliable, and robust detection methods are needed to better ensure produce safety. We recently developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) suite for STEC detection. In this study, the STEC LAMP suite was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a large panel of bacterial strains (n = 156) and various produce items (several varieties of lettuce, spinach, and sprouts). To simulate real-world contamination events, produce samples were surface inoculated with a low level (1.2 to 1.8 CFU/25 g) of individual STEC strains belonging to seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) and held at 4°C for 48 h before testing. Six DNA extraction methods were also compared using produce enrichment broths. All STEC targets and their subtypes were accurately detected by the LAMP suite. The detection limits were 1 to 20 cells per reaction in pure culture and 105 to 106 CFU per 25 g (i.e., 103 to 104 CFU per g) in produce, except for strains harboring the stx2c, eae-β, and eae-θ subtypes. After 6 to 8 h of enrichment, the LAMP suite achieved accurate detection of low levels of STEC strains of various stx2 and eae subtypes in lettuce and spinach varieties but not in sprouts. A similar trend of detection was observed for qPCR. The PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagent yielded the best results among the six DNA extraction methods. This research provided a rapid, reliable, and robust method for detecting STEC in produce during routine sampling and testing. The challenge with sprouts detection by both LAMP and qPCR calls for special attention to further analysis. PMID:24509927

  13. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  14. Compilation of Spectroscopic Data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2016-03-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes, and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II, have been compiled. Wavelengths and wavenumbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of even and odd-A isotopes of neutral radium atom and singly ionized radium are included. Experimental lifetimes of the states for both neutral and ionic Ra are also added, where available. The information is beneficial for present and future experiments aimed at different physics motivations using neutral Ra and singly ionized Ra.

  15. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  16. Detection of coliforms in drinking water using skin patches: a rapid, reliable method that does not require an external energy source.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sehee; Kim, Min-jeong; Park, MinSun; Kim, Nuri; Lee, Yu-jin; Lee, Gyu-Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The detection of coliforms requires incubation in a laboratory, generally powered using electricity. In many parts of the developing world, however, external energy sources such as electricity are not readily available. To develop a fast, reliable method for detecting coliforms in water without an external energy source, we assessed the efficacy of six test kits for the identification of coliforms in water samples. To assess the possibility of using body temperature as the sole source of heat for incubation, bacterial samples were then mixed with the enzymatic test kit reagent and attached to the human body surface using a patch system. The patches were attached to the bodies of volunteers for 24 hours and the practicality and accuracy of the patches were assessed. Coliforms were detected within 24 hours in all patches. This innovation will facilitate the testing of water quality by researchers and by economically disadvantaged people without electricity. PMID:24420783

  17. Reliable LC3 and p62 autophagy marker detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Schläfli, A M; Berezowska, S; Adams, O; Langer, R; Tschan, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy assures cellular homeostasis, and gains increasing importance in cancer, where it impacts on carcinogenesis, propagation of the malignant phenotype and development of resistance. To date, its tissue-based analysis by immunohistochemistry remains poorly standardized. Here we show the feasibility of specifically and reliably assessing the autophagy markers LC3B and p62 (SQSTM1) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry. Preceding functional experiments consisted of depleting LC3B and p62 in H1299 lung cancer cells with subsequent induction of autophagy. Western blot and immunofluorescence validated antibody specificity, knockdown efficiency and autophagy induction prior to fixation in formalin and embedding in paraffin. LC3B and p62 antibodies were validated on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded cell pellets of treated and control cells and finally applied on a tissue microarray with 80 human malignant and non-neoplastic lung and stomach formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples. Dot-like staining of various degrees was observed in cell pellets and 18/40 (LC3B) and 22/40 (p62) tumors, respectively. Seventeen tumors were double positive for LC3B and p62. P62 displayed additional significant cytoplasmic and nuclear staining of unknown significance. Interobserver-agreement for grading of staining intensities and patterns was substantial to excellent (kappa values 0.60 - 0.83). In summary, we present a specific and reliable IHC staining of LC3B and p62 on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue. Our presented protocol is designed to aid reliable investigation of dysregulated autophagy in solid tumors and may be used on large tissue collectives. PMID:26150155

  18. A New Agility Test for Adults: Its Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change in Untrained Women and Men Aged 28-55.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, Sirpa A; Vaara, Mariitta E; Mäki, P Juhani; Mälkiä, Esko A; Aunola, Sirkka K; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2016-08-01

    Manderoos, SA, Vaara, ME, Mäki, PJ, Mälkiä, EA, Aunola, SK, and Karppi, S-L. A new agility test for adults: its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change in untrained women and men aged 28-55. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2226-2234, 2016-The aims of this study were to present a new Agility Test for Adults (ATA), to investigate its test-retest reliability and to quantify minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval (MDC95). Both the relative and absolute reliabilities were evaluated. Altogether 52 healthy untrained volunteers (25 women: age 43.3 ± 6.6 years; 27 men: age 42.8 ± 7.2 years) were recruited into the study. The subjects performed 3 ATA tests repeated after 2 different intervals: the first test session was baseline, session 2 was a week later, and session 3 was half an hour after session 2. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM of the performance time of ATA were 0.91 and 0.27 seconds (same day), 0.94 and 0.20 seconds (1 week) for women, and 0.95, 0.13 seconds, and 0.94, 0.19 seconds for men, respectively. MDC95 was 0.76 seconds (same day) and 0.56 seconds (1 week) for women, and respectively 0.37 and 0.51 seconds for men. The results showed that ATA is stable and reliable when evaluating agility characteristics in untrained adults. The properties of ATA make it appropriate for screening people to find early signs of declined agility and allow possibility to clinicians and physical trainers to monitor true changes in performance time at agility test by applying the knowledge of MDC95 coefficient. Furthermore, ATA can give tips for planning appropriate exercise programes to prevent clumsiness and falls with more serious consequences among aging people. PMID:26705068

  19. Custom oligonucleotide array-based CGH: a reliable diagnostic tool for detection of exonic copy-number changes in multiple targeted genes

    PubMed Central

    Vasson, Aurélie; Leroux, Céline; Orhant, Lucie; Boimard, Mathieu; Toussaint, Aurélie; Leroy, Chrystel; Commere, Virginie; Ghiotti, Tiffany; Deburgrave, Nathalie; Saillour, Yoann; Atlan, Isabelle; Fouveaut, Corinne; Beldjord, Cherif; Valleix, Sophie; Leturcq, France; Dodé, Catherine; Bienvenu, Thierry; Chelly, Jamel; Cossée, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of disease-related large rearrangements (referred to as copy-number mutations, CNMs) varies among genes, and search for these mutations has an important place in diagnostic strategies. In recent years, CGH method using custom-designed high-density oligonucleotide-based arrays allowed the development of a powerful tool for detection of alterations at the level of exons and made it possible to provide flexibility through the possibility of modeling chips. The aim of our study was to test custom-designed oligonucleotide CGH array in a diagnostic laboratory setting that analyses several genes involved in various genetic diseases, and to compare it with conventional strategies. To this end, we designed a 12-plex CGH array (135k; 135 000 probes/subarray) (Roche Nimblegen) with exonic and intronic oligonucleotide probes covering 26 genes routinely analyzed in the laboratory. We tested control samples with known CNMs and patients for whom genetic causes underlying their disorders were unknown. The contribution of this technique is undeniable. Indeed, it appeared reproducible, reliable and sensitive enough to detect heterozygous single-exon deletions or duplications, complex rearrangements and somatic mosaicism. In addition, it improves reliability of CNM detection and allows determination of boundaries precisely enough to direct targeted sequencing of breakpoints. All of these points, associated with the possibility of a simultaneous analysis of several genes and scalability ‘homemade' make it a valuable tool as a new diagnostic approach of CNMs. PMID:23340513

  20. Vitek2 system: a reliable tool to detect qnr determinants in Enterobacteriaceae without quinolone resistance-determining region modifications.

    PubMed

    Corvec, Stéphane; Crémet, Lise; Reynaud, Alain; Lepelletier, Didier; Caroff, Nathalie

    2009-08-01

    Qnr determinants have now been found worldwide. In 2008, among 6150 Enterobacteriaceae, 12 isolates belonging to different bacterial species showing an unusual quinolone resistance pattern on Vitek2 system were investigated. Of 12, 11 harbored a qnr gene. Without QRDR modifications, qnr genes can be detected based on a Vitek2 resistance phenotype. PMID:19446979

  1. Fusion of multi-sensory NDT data for reliable detection of surface cracks: Signal-level vs. decision-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2016-02-01

    We present and compare two different approaches for NDT multi-sensor data fusion at signal (low) and decision (high) levels. Signal-level fusion is achieved by applying simple algebraic rules to strategically post-processed images. This is done in the original domain or in the domain of a suitable signal transform. The importance of signal normalization for low-level fusion applications is emphasized in regard to heterogeneous NDT data sets. For fusion at decision level, we develop a procedure based on assembling joint kernel density estimation (KDE). The procedure involves calculating KDEs for individual sensor detections and aggregating them by applying certain combination rules. The underlying idea is that if the detections from more than one sensor fall spatially close to one another, they are likely to result from the presence of a defect. On the other hand, single-senor detections are more likely to be structural noise or false alarm indications. To this end, we design the KDE combination rules such that it prevents single-sensor domination and allows data-driven scaling to account for the influence of individual sensors. We apply both fusion rules to a three-sensor dataset consisting in ET, MFL/GMR and TT data collected on a specimen with built-in surface discontinuities. The performance of the fusion rules in defect detection is quantitatively evaluated and compared against those of the individual sensors. Both classes of data fusion rules result in a fused image of fewer false alarms and thus improved defect detection. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of low-level and high-level NDT data fusion with reference to our experimental results.

  2. Preparation of (228)Ra standard solution.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    For the preparation of a standard solution of (228)Ra, (228)Ra was isolated from (232)Th salt. Two simple methods were developed for Th-Ra separation. Both are based on a very good solubility of thorium nitrate in organic solvents. The first one used Ra co-precipitation with Pb in the form of Pb(NO3)2 from acetic acid solution. The second method was based on solvent extraction, remaining Th in the organic phase, while Ra was concentrated in the aqueous phase. The activity of (228)Ra (up to 20kBq) in the standard solution was related to the (232)Th standard by means of gamma ray spectrometry measurement. The obtained uncertainty was less than 0.7% (k=1). The standard solution was free of (232)Th and contained the carrier in the usual concentration (1gL(-1) BaCl2, 10gL(-1) HCl). PMID:26651171

  3. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  4. Combining 3-D plasmonic gold nanorod arrays with colloidal nanoparticles as a versatile concept for reliable, sensitive, and selective molecular detection by SERS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Senlik, Erhan; Biskin, Erhan; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman; Tamer, Ugur; Demirel, Gokhan

    2014-03-28

    The detection of molecules at an ultralow level by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has recently attracted enormous interest for various applications especially in biological, medical, and environmental fields. Despite the significant progress, SERS systems are still facing challenges for practical applications related to their sensitivity, reliability, and selectivity. To overcome these limitations, in this study, we have proposed a simple yet facile concept by combining 3-D anisotropic gold nanorod arrays with colloidal gold nanoparticles having different shapes for highly reliable, selective, and sensitive detection of some hazardous chemical and biological warfare agents in trace amounts through SERS. The gold nanorod arrays were created on the BK7 glass slides or silicon wafer surfaces via the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique without using any template material or lithography technique and their surface densities were adjusted by manipulating the deposition angle (α). It is found that gold nanorod arrays fabricated at α = 10° exhibited the highest SERS enhancement in the absence of colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synergetic enhancement was obviously observed in SERS signals when combining gold nanorod arrays with colloidal gold nanoparticles having different shapes (i.e., spherical, rod, and cage). Due to their ability to produce localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in transverse and longitudinal directions, utilization of colloidal gold nanorods as a synergetic agent led to an increase in the enhancement factor by about tenfold compared to plain gold nanorod arrays. Moreover, we have tested our approach to detect some chemical and biological toxins namely dipicolinic acid (DIP), methyl parathion (MP), and diethyl phosphoramidate (DP). For all toxins, Raman spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios and reproducibility were successfully obtained over a broad concentration range (5 ppm-10 ppb). Our results suggest that the slightly tangled and

  5. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR QUANTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS IN THE POST‐OPERATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Although reliable and valid measures have been described for the non‐operative population one does not exist for the post‐operative population. Study Design: Blinded repeated measures design. Purpose: Investigate the intrarater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST in the post‐operative population. Methods: One investigator performed PST measurements on the operative shoulder of 23 participants. Passive internal and external rotation measurements were performed for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Intrarater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,k was good (ICC = 0.79). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 8 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter‐trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was supported by a statistically significant relationship between PST and internal rotation r = 0.54 and by a relationship between PST and external rotation r = 0.30 which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST in the post‐operative population. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 2b PMID:23316420

  6. Quality assessment of gasoline using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with unfolded partial least squares: A reliable approach for the detection of gasoline adulteration.

    PubMed

    Parastar, Hadi; Mostafapour, Sara; Azimi, Gholamhasan

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionization detection combined with unfolded-partial least squares is proposed as a simple, fast and reliable method to assess the quality of gasoline and to detect its potential adulterants. The data for the calibration set are first baseline corrected using a two-dimensional asymmetric least squares algorithm. The number of significant partial least squares components to build the model is determined using the minimum value of root-mean square error of leave-one out cross validation, which was 4. In this regard, blends of gasoline with kerosene, white spirit and paint thinner as frequently used adulterants are used to make calibration samples. Appropriate statistical parameters of regression coefficient of 0.996-0.998, root-mean square error of prediction of 0.005-0.010 and relative error of prediction of 1.54-3.82% for the calibration set show the reliability of the developed method. In addition, the developed method is externally validated with three samples in validation set (with a relative error of prediction below 10.0%). Finally, to test the applicability of the proposed strategy for the analysis of real samples, five real gasoline samples collected from gas stations are used for this purpose and the gasoline proportions were in range of 70-85%. Also, the relative standard deviations were below 8.5% for different samples in the prediction set. PMID:26541637

  7. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in schizophrenia—can white matter changes be reliably detected with VBM?

    PubMed Central

    Melonakos, Eric; Shenton, Martha; Rathi, Yogesh; Terry, Doug; Bouix, Sylvain; Kubicki, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) is a hypothesis-free, whole-brain, voxel-by-voxel analytic method that attempts to compare imaging data between populations. Schizophrenia studies have utilized this method to localize differences in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) derived Fractional Anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, between patients and healthy controls. The number of publications has grown, although it is unclear how reliable and reproducible this method is, given the subtle white matter abnormalities expected in schizophrenia. Here we analyze and combine results from 23 studies published to date that use VBM to study schizophrenia in order to evaluate the reproducibility of this method in DTI analysis. Coordinates of each region reported in DTI VBM studies published thus far in schizophrenia were plotted onto a Montreal Neurological Institute atlas, and their anatomical locations were recorded. Results indicated that the reductions of FA in patients with schizophrenia were scattered across the brain. Moreover, even the most consistently reported regions were reported independently in less than 35% of the papers studied. Other instances of reduced FA were replicated at an even lower rate. Our findings demonstrate striking inconsistency, with none of the regions reported in much more than a third of the published papers. Poor replication rate suggests that the application of VBM to DTI data may not be the optimal way for studying the subtle microstructural abnormalities that are being hypothesized in schizophrenia. PMID:21684124

  8. 3DQRS: A method to obtain reliable QRS complex detection within high field MRI using 12-lead ECG traces

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique that accurately detects the QRS complex in 1.5T, 3T and 7T MRI scanners.” Theory and Methods During early systole, blood is rapidly ejected into the aortic arch, traveling perpendicular to the MRI’s main field, which produces a strong voltage (VMHD) that eclipses the QRS complex. Greater complexity arises in arrhythmia patients, since VMHD can vary between sinus-rhythm and arrhythmic beats. The 3DQRS method uses a kernel consisting of 6 ECG precordial leads, compiled from a 12-lead ECG performed outside the magnet. The kernel is cross-correlated with signals acquired inside the MRI in order to identify the QRS complex in real time. The 3DQRS method was evaluated against a Vectorcardiogram-based (VCG) approach in 2 Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) and 2 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) patients, a healthy exercising athlete and 8 healthy volunteers, within 1.5T and 3T MRIs, using a prototype MRI-conditional 12 lead ECG system. 2 volunteers were recorded at 7T using a Holter recorder. Results For QRS complex detection, 3DQRS subject-averaged sensitivity levels, relative to VCG were: 1.5T (100% vs. 96.7%), 3T (98.9% vs. 92.2%), 7T (96.2% vs. 77.7%). Conclusions The 3DQRS method was shown to be more effective in cardiac gating than a conventional VCG-based method. PMID:24453116

  9. Validity and reliability of methods for the detection of secondary caries around amalgam restorations in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; Chiarotti, Ana Paula Sturion; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Secondary caries has been reported as the main reason for restoration replacement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of different methods--visual inspection, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent), radiography and tactile examination--for secondary caries detection in primary molars restored with amalgam. Fifty-four primary molars were photographed and 73 suspect sites adjacent to amalgam restorations were selected. Two examiners evaluated independently these sites using all methods. Agreement between examiners was assessed by the Kappa test. To validate the methods, a caries-detector dye was used after restoration removal. The best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (Az), and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the methods were calculated for enamel (D2) and dentine (D3) thresholds. These parameters were found for each method and then compared by the McNemar test. The tactile examination and visual inspection presented the highest inter-examiner agreement for the D2 and D3 thresholds, respectively. The visual inspection also showed better performance than the other methods for both thresholds (Az = 0.861 and Az = 0.841, respectively). In conclusion, the visual inspection presented the best performance for detecting enamel and dentin secondary caries in primary teeth restored with amalgam. PMID:20339722

  10. Effects of perceived reliability and generalization of crime-related information on detection in the concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2010-03-01

    The accuracy of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) in detecting information concealed by informed innocent participants was assessed under varying levels of probability that the obtained information is related to the crime and is therefore correct. For this purpose, 64 participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions that were formed by probability levels that the gathered information is correct and is related to the crime. Either absolutely correct (100% correct), highly correct (80%, correct), highly incorrect (20% correct) or totally incorrect (0%, correct) conditions were created. Response generalization was manipulated by replacing 3 of 6 correct items with related stimuli. The replaced stimuli were related to the correct items either semantically, phonetically, or numerically. Informed innocent participants showed larger electrodermal responses to items with a higher probability of being correct. It was further found that participants elicited stronger responses to correct than to replaced items. Theoretical and practical implications of the present results are discussed. PMID:20093151

  11. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  12. How to reliably detect molecular clusters and nucleation mode particles with Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Mirme, Sander; Mirme, Aadu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-08-01

    To understand the very first steps of atmospheric particle formation and growth processes, information on the size where the atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation occurs, is crucially needed. The current understanding of the concentrations and dynamics of charged and neutral clusters and particles is based on theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This paper gives a standard operation procedure (SOP) for Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) measurements and data processing. With the NAIS data, we have improved the scientific understanding by (1) direct detection of freshly formed atmospheric clusters and particles, (2) linking experimental observations and theoretical framework to understand the formation and growth mechanisms of aerosol particles, and (3) parameterizing formation and growth mechanisms for atmospheric models. The SOP provides tools to harmonize the world-wide measurements of small clusters and nucleation mode particles and to verify consistent results measured by the NAIS users. The work is based on discussions and interactions between the NAIS users and the NAIS manufacturer.

  13. Phosphoproteome and Transcriptome of RA-Responsive and RA-Resistant Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Marilyn; Joint, Mathilde; Lutzing, Régis; Page, Adeline; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active vitamin A metabolite, controls multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation through genomic programs and kinase cascades activation. Due to these properties, RA has proven anti-cancer capacity. Several breast cancer cells respond to the antiproliferative effects of RA, while others are RA-resistant. However, the overall signaling and transcriptional pathways that are altered in such cells have not been elucidated. Here, in a large-scale analysis of the phosphoproteins and in a genome-wide analysis of the RA-regulated genes, we compared two human breast cancer cell lines, a RA-responsive one, the MCF7 cell line, and a RA-resistant one, the BT474 cell line, which depicts several alterations of the “kinome”. Using high-resolution nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry associated to phosphopeptide enrichment, we found that several proteins involved in signaling and in transcription, are differentially phosphorylated before and after RA addition. The paradigm of these proteins is the RA receptor α (RARα), which was phosphorylated in MCF7 cells but not in BT474 cells after RA addition. The panel of the RA-regulated genes was also different. Overall our results indicate that RA resistance might correlate with the deregulation of the phosphoproteome with consequences on gene expression. PMID:27362937

  14. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  15. Reliable and sensitive detection of fragile X (expanded) alleles in clinical prenatal DNA samples with a fast turnaround time.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy; Endels, Kristof; Caljon, Ben; Bonduelle, Maryse; Keymolen, Kathleen; De Rademaeker, Marjan; Ullmann, Urielle; Haentjens, Patrick; Van Berkel, Kim; Van Dooren, Sonia

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated a large set of blinded, previously analyzed prenatal DNA samples with a novel, CGG triplet-repeat primed (TP)-PCR assay (Amplidex FMR1 PCR Kit; Asuragen, Austin, TX). This cohort of 67 fetal DNAs contained 18 full mutations (270 to 1100 repeats, including 1 mosaic), 12 premutations (59 to 150 repeats), 9 intermediate mutations (54 to 58 repeats), and 28 normal samples (17 to 50 repeats, including 3 homozygous female samples). TP-PCR accurately identified FMR1 genotypes, ranging from normal to full- mutation alleles, with a 100% specificity (95% CI, 85.0% to 100%) and a 97.4% sensitivity (95% CI, 84.9% to 99.9%) in comparison with Southern blot analysis results. Exact sizing was possible for a spectrum of normal, intermediate, and premutation (up to 150 repeats) alleles, but CGG repeat numbers >200 are only identified as full mutations. All homozygous alleles were correctly resolved. The assay is also able to reproducibly detect a 2.5% premutation and a 3% full-mutation mosaicism in a normal male background, but a large premutation in a full male mutation background was masked when the amount of the latter was >5%. Implementation of this TP-PCR will significantly reduce reflex testing using Southern blot analyses. Additional testing with methylation-informative techniques might still be needed for a few cases with (large) premutations or full mutations. PMID:22921311

  16. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  17. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Nabli, Mohamed A; Attia, Ahmed; Moualhi, Jamel; Farhat, Najiba; Elloumi, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study were first to assess the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Illinois change of direction (COD) Illinois Agility Test (IAGT) and second to determine whether a relationship with power and speed exists. A total of 105 male team sport athletes participated in this investigation. Repeat measurements in 89 subjects out of the 105 were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in the score between paired observations (minimal detectable change [MDC]95) of the COD IAGT. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM values for the COD IAGT test were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.85-0.98) and 0.19 seconds, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change (0.20 seconds) for the IAGT was greater than its SEM (0.19 seconds). The MDC95 value for the IAGT was 0.52 seconds. Criterion-related validity of the COD IAGT was assessed in the 105 subjects. They performed the COD IAGT and the T-test. Both tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.31 [95% CI, 0.24-0.39]; p < 0.05). The correlation between COD IAGT, acceleration, straight speed, and leg power was analyzed in all the 105 subjects. Pearson moment correlation revealed no association between acceleration and the COD IAGT. However, significant correlations were observed between the COD IAGT and leg power (r = -0.39 [95% CI, -0.26 to -0.44]; p < 0.05), and speed (r = 0.42 [95% CI, 0.37-0.51]; p < 0.05). When controlling for speed with partial correlation, the significant relationship between the COD IAGT and leg power disappeared. In conclusion, the COD IAGT seems to be a reliable and valid test, whose performance is significantly related to speed rather than to acceleration and leg power. PMID:23439329

  18. Development of a sensitive and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for high-throughput analysis of multi-class mycotoxins in Coix seed.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Li, Jun-Yuan; Qiu, Feng; Wei, Jian-He; Xiao, Xiao-He; Zheng, Yuguo; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-10-17

    As an edible and medicinal plant, Coix seed is readily contaminated by more than one group of mycotoxins resulting in potential risk to human health. A reliable and sensitive method has been developed to determine seven mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) simultaneously in 10 batches of Coix seed marketed in China. The method is based on a rapid ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction (USLE) using methanol/water (80/20) followed by immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up, on-line photochemical derivatization (PCD), and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Careful optimization of extraction, clean-up, separation and detection conditions was accomplished to increase sample throughput and to attain rapid separation and sensitive detection. Method validation was performed by analyzing samples spiked at three different concentrations for the seven mycotoxins. Recoveries were from 73.5% to 107.3%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7.7%. The intra- and inter-day precisions, expressed as RSDs, were lower than 4% for all studied analytes. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.01 to 50.2 μg kg(-1), and from 0.04 to 125.5 μg kg(-1), respectively, which were below the tolerance levels for mycotoxins set by the European Union. Samples that tested positive were further analyzed by HPLC tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for confirmatory purposes. This is the first application of USLE-IAC-HPLC-PCD-FLD for detecting the occurrence of multi-class mycotoxins in Coix seed. PMID:24091376

  19. Intra-Rater Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Gait and Half-Squat Tasks on Healthy Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza

    2016-01-01

    Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111

  20. Cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with RA compared to matched non-RA patients

    PubMed Central

    Cawston, Helene; Bourhis, Francois; Al, Maiwenn; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Liao, Katherine P.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. RA is associated with a 50–60% increase in risk of cardiovascular (CV) death. This study aimed to compare management of CV risk factors in RA and matched non-RA patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using UK clinical practice data. Patients presenting with an incident RA diagnosis were matched 1:4 to non-RA patients based on a propensity score for RA, entry year, CV risk category and treatment received at index date (date of RA diagnosis). Patients tested and treated for CV risk factors as well as those attaining CV risk factor management goals were evaluated in both groups. Results. Between 1987 and 2010, 24 859 RA patients were identified and matched to 87 304 non-RA patients. At index date, groups had similar baseline characteristics. Annual blood pressure, lipids and diabetes-related testing were similar in both groups, although CRP and ESR were higher in RA patients at diagnosis and decreased over time. RA patients prescribed antihypertensives increased from 38.2% at diagnosis to 45.7% at 5 years, from 14.0 to 20.6% for lipid-lowering treatments and from 5.1 to 6.4% for antidiabetics. Similar treatment percentages were observed in non-RA patients, although slightly lower for antihypertensives. Modest (2%) but significantly lower attainment of lipid and diabetes goals at 1 year was observed in RA patients. Conclusion. There were no differences between groups in the frequency of testing and treatment of CV risk factors. Higher CV risk in RA patients seems unlikely to be driven by differences in traditional CV risk factor management. PMID:26705329

  1. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  2. Supply of purified Th228 for Ra224 generators. Final CRADA Report .

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    CRADA was terminated when it was determined that the Russians could not perform the terms of the subcontract. It became apparent that the Russians would not be a reliable source of Th228, as a precursor in the decay chain which leads to Ra224. Their government policies will prohibit the export of Th228 in quantities needed for commercial cancer therapy.

  3. atRA-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells involves activation of MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zengli . E-mail: yuzengli@263.net; Xing Ying . E-mail: xingy@zzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    Our previous studies have shown that atRA treatment resulted in cell-cycle block and growth inhibition in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM). In the current study, gestation day (GD) 13 MEPM cells were used to test the hypothesis that the growth inhibition by atRA is due to apoptosis. The effects of atRA on apoptosis were assessed by performing MTT assay, Cell Death Detection ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Data analysis confirmed that atRA treatment induced apoptosis-like cell death, as shown by decreased cell viability and increased fragmented DNA and sub-G1 fraction. atRA-induced apoptosis was associated with upregulation of bcl-2, translocation of bax protein to the mitochondria from the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release into cytosol. atRA-induced apoptosis was abrogated by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, and z-VAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, suggesting that the atRA-induced cell death of MEPM cells occurs through the cytochrome c- and caspase-3-dependent pathways. In addition, atRA treatment caused a strong and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38), as well as an early but transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, atRA-induced DNA fragmentation and capase-3 activation were prevented by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitor (U0126). From these results, we suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways is involved in the atRA-induced apoptosis of MEPM cells.

  4. The CpxRA Two-Component System Is Essential for Citrobacter rodentium Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Zhu, Lei; Gross, Jeremy; Salmon, Kristiana; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Daigle, France; Le Moual, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine intestinal pathogen used as a model for the foodborne human pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. During infection, these pathogens use two-component signal transduction systems to detect and adapt to changing environmental conditions. In E. coli, the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system responds to envelope stress by modulating the expression of a myriad of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that cpxRA was expressed in the colon of C57BL/6J mice infected with C. rodentium. To determine whether CpxRA plays a role during C. rodentium infection, a cpxRA deletion strain was generated and found to have a colonization defect during infection. This defect was independent of an altered growth rate or a defective type III secretion system, and single-copy chromosomal complementation of cpxRA restored virulence. The C. rodentium strains were then tested in C3H/HeJ mice, a lethal intestinal infection model. Mice infected with the ΔcpxRA strain survived infection, whereas mice infected with the wild-type or complemented strains succumbed to infection. Furthermore, we found that the cpxRA expression level was higher during early infection than at a later time point. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system is essential for the in vivo virulence of C. rodentium. In addition, these data suggest that fine-tuned cpxRA expression is important for infection. This is the first study that identifies a C. rodentium two-component transduction system required for pathogenesis. This study further indicates that CpxRA is an interesting target for therapeutics against enteric pathogens. PMID:25712925

  5. Nuclear structure of {sup 231}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Boutami, R.; Fraile, L. M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Lopez-Jimenez, M. J.; Teijeiro, A. G.; Aas, A. J.; Hageboe, E.; Fogelberg, B.; Mach, H.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J. L.; Grant, I. S.; Gulda, K.; Kurcewicz, W.; Loevhoeiden, G.; Tengblad, O.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.

    1999-11-16

    The study of the upper border of the octupole deformation region near A=225, where the octupole deformation vanishes in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field, is of great relevance in order to understand the interplay of octupole and quadrupole collectivities. Within the IS322 collaboration at CERN we carry out a systematic investigation of the heavy Fr-Th nuclei that presently includes {sup 227}Fr, {sup 227,228,229}Ra, {sup 229}Ac and {sup 229,231}Th. The heaviest Ra isotope we have studied so far and in which the fast timing {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been applied is {sup 231}Ra.

  6. Nuclear Structure of {sup 231}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Boutami, R.; Fraile, L.M.; Borge, M.J.G.; Aas, A.J.; Fogelberg, B.; Garcia-Raffi, L.M.; Grant, I.S.; Gulda, K.; Hagebo, E.; Kurcewicz, W.; Lopez-Jimenez, M.J.; Lovhoiden, G.; Mach, H.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Teijeiro, A.G.; Tengblad, O.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.

    1999-12-31

    The study of the upper border of the octupole deformation region near A=225, where the octupole deformation vanishes in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field, is of great relevance in order to understand the interplay of octupole and quadrupole collectivities. Within the IS322 collaboration at CERN we carry out a systematic investigation of the heavy Fr - Th nuclei that presently includes {sup 227}Fr, {sup 227,228,229}Ra, {sup 229}Ac and {sup 229,231}Th. The heaviest Ra isotope we have studied so far and in which the fast timing {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been applied is {sup 231}Ra.

  7. Measuring 226Ra/228Ra in Oceanic Lavas by MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standish, J. J.; Sims, K.; Ball, L.; Blusztajn, J.

    2007-12-01

    238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibrium in volcanic rocks provides an important and unique tool to evaluate timescales of recent magmatic processes. Determination of 230Th-226Ra disequilibria requires measurement of U and Th isotopes and concentrations as well as measurement of 226Ra. While measurement of U and Th by ICPMS is now well established, few published studies documenting 226Ra measurement via ICPMS exist. Using 228Ra as an isotope spike we have investigated two ion-counting methods; a 'peak-hopping' routine, where 226Ra and 228Ra are measured in sequence on the central discrete dynode ETP secondary electron multiplier (SEM), and simultaneous measurement of 226Ra and 228Ra on two multiple ion-counter system (MICS) channeltron type detectors mounted on the low end of the collector block. Here we present 226Ra measurement by isotope dilution using the Thermo Fisher NEPTUNE MC-ICPMS. Analysis of external rock standards TML and AThO along with mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and ocean island basalt (OIB) samples show three issues that need to be considered when making precise and accurate Ra measurements: 1) mass bias, 2) background, and 3) relative efficiencies of the detectors when measuring in MICS mode. Due to the absence of an established 226Ra/228Ra standard, we have used U reference material NBL-112A to monitor mass bias. Although Ball et. al., (in press) have shown that U does not serve as an adequate proxy for Th (and thus not likely for Ra either), measurements of rock standards TML and AThO are repeatedly in equilibrium within the uncertainty of the measurements (where total uncertainty includes propagation of the uncertainty in the 226Ra standard used for calibrating the 228Ra spike). For this application, U is an adequate proxy for Ra mass bias at the 1% uncertainly level. The more important issue is the background correction. Because of the extensive chemistry required to separate and purify Ra (typically fg/g level in volcanic rocks), we observe large

  8. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  9. Development of a reliable dual-gene amplification RT-PCR assay for the detection of Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus in Turkey brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai

    2012-11-01

    The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues. PMID:22705084

  10. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  11. SoRa first flight. Summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, S.; Flamini, E.

    The SoRa (Sounding Radar) experiment was successfully launched from Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway) during the summer 2009 campaign managed by the Italian/Norwegian "Nobile Amundsen / Stratospheric Balloon Centre" (NA/SBC). SoRa is part of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) programs for Long Duration Balloon Flights. Carried by the biggest balloon (800.000 m3) ever launched in polar regions, SoRa main experiment and its three piggyback payloads (DUSTER, ISA and SIDERALE) performed a nominal flight of almost 4 days over the North Sea and Greenland, until the separation, landing and recovery in Baffin Island (Canada). Despite the final destructive event that compromise the scientific main goal of SoRa, the 2009 ASI balloon campaign can be considered an important milestone, because of the obtained scientific and technical results but also for the lesson learned by the science, engineering and managerial teams looking at the future ASI scientific balloon-born activities.

  12. Facial Psoriasis Log-based Area and Severity Index: A valid and reliable severity measurement method detecting improvement of facial psoriasis in clinical practice settings.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Gyeong-Hun; Bae, You In; Kuk, Su Kyung; Suh, Dae Hun; Youn, Jai Il; Kwon, In Ho

    2016-08-01

    Facial psoriasis is often observed in moderate to severe degrees of psoriasis. While we previously demonstrated construct validity of the facial Psoriasis Log-based Area and Severity Index (fPLASI) system for the cross-sectional evaluation of facial psoriasis, its reliability and accuracy to detect clinical improvement has not been confirmed yet. The aim of this study is to analyze whether the fPLASI properly represents the range of improvement for facial psoriasis compared with the existing facial Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (fPASI) after receiving systemic treatments in clinical practice settings. The changing severity of facial psoriasis for 118 patients was calculated by the scales of fPASI and fPLASI between two time points after systemic treatments. Then, percentage changes (ΔfPASI and ΔfPLASI) were analyzed from the perspective of both the Physician's Global Assessment of effectiveness (PGA) and patients' Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). As a result, the distribution of the fPASI was more heavily clustered around the low score range compared with the fPLASI at both first and second visits. Linear regression analysis between ΔfPASI and ΔfPLASI shows that the correlation coefficient was 0.94, and ΔfPLASI represented greater percentage changes than ΔfPASI. Remarkably, degrees of clinical improvement measured by the PGA matched better with ΔfPLASI, while ΔfPASI underestimated clinical improvements compared with ΔfPLASI from treatment-responding groups by the PGA and SGA. In conclusion, the fPLASI represented clinical improvement of facial psoriasis with more sensitivity and reliability compared with the fPASI. Therefore, the PLASI system would be a viable severity measurement method for facial psoriasis in clinical practice. PMID:26992293

  13. Reliability, Agreement and Minimal Detectable Change of the Timed Up & Go and the 10-Meter Walk Tests in Older Patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Marques, Alda; Cruz, Joana; Quina, Sara; Regêncio, Maria; Jácome, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability and agreement and the minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test and the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) in older patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Patients (≥ 60 years old) living in the community were asked to attend 2 sessions with 48-72-hour interval. In session 1, participants completed the TUG and 10MWT twice (2 trials) and were assessed by 2 raters. In session 2, they repeated the tests twice and were assessed by 1 rater. Interrater and intrarater reliability were calculated for the exact scores (using data from trial 1) and mean scores (mean of 2 trials) using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1 and ICC2,2, respectively). Interrater and intrarater agreement were explored with the Bland & Altman method. The MDC95 was calculated from the standard error of measurement. Sixty participants (72.43 ± 6.90 years old) completed session 1 and 41 participants session 2. Excellent ICC values were found for the TUG test (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.997 ICC2,2 = 0.999; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.921 ICC2,2 = 0.964) and 10MWT (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.992 ICC2,2 = 0.997; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.903 ICC2,2 = 0.946). Good interrater and intrarater agreement was also found for both tests. The MDC95 was 2.68 s and 1.84 s for the TUG and 0.40 m/s and 0.30 m/s for the 10MWT considering the exact and mean scores, respectively. Findings suggest that the TUG test and the 10MWT are reliable and have acceptable measurement error. Therefore, these measures may be used to assess functional balance (TUG) and gait (10MWT) deficits in older patients with COPD. PMID:26643361

  14. Distribution and flux of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Key, R.M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Stallard, R.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1985-07-20

    Measurements of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the /sup 226/Ra and approximately 2.6% of the /sup 228/Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine /sup 226/Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine /sup 228/Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone.

  15. Determination of 226Ra and 224Ra in drinking waters by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Manjón, G; Vioque, I; Moreno, H; García-Tenorio, R; García-León, M

    1997-04-01

    A method for the determination of Ra-isotopes in water samples has been developed. Ra is coprecipitated with Ba as sulphate. The precipitate is then dissolved with EDTA and counted with a liquid scintillation system after mixing with a scintillation cocktail. The study of the temporal evolution of the separated activity gives the isotopic composition of the sample, i.e. the 224Ra and 226Ra contribution to the total activity. The method has been applied to some Spanish drinking waters. PMID:9106993

  16. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  17. Quest for a reliable, valid, and sensitive in situ hybridization procedure to detect viral nucleic acids in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tourtellotte, W W; Schmid, P; Pick, P; Verity, N; Martinez, S; Shapshak, P

    1987-06-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) to detect and to quantitate viral nucleic acid sequences in cryopreserved central nervous system (CNS) tissue is a reliable, valid and sensitive molecular technique. On the other hand, utilization of formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue to improve cytomorphology requires fundamental changes in the procedure since it is necessary to cleave the elaborate protein network cross-linked by formaldehyde using elevated concentrations of proteinases in order to permit diffusion of complementary DNA probes to the targets (genomic viral nucleic acid sequences and/or viral mRNA). Adversely, this procedure hydrolyzed the proteinaceous glues generally used to fix tissue to glass slides resulting in loss of tissue sections during the ISH protocol. This report describes the application of a novel procedure utilizing a silano-organic compound to covalently bond to glass slides FFPE sections as well as cryopreserved tissue sections and cultured cells with and without virus infections. This covalent bonding procedure has permitted optimization of the ISH procedure for virus detection and quantification, especially for exploratory studies of specificity and wash stringency in relation to the Tm of the hybridized product. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) caused by an opportunistic papovavirus (JC) was chosen because of the ready availability of tissue, stability of papovavirus nucleic acids, and specificity of 3H- and 35S-radiolabeled JC cloned DNA probes. Further, this laboratory is utilizing the optimized sensitive procedure to search for several virus etiologies in human diseases such as multiple sclerosis, temporal lobe epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease, as well as normal aging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3299127

  18. Reliability of differential PCR for the detection of EGFR and MDM2 gene amplification in DNA extracted from FFPE glioma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.B.; Abbott, K.; Varma, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of 43 human gliomas, consisting of 30 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low grade astrocytomas, 2 ependymomas, and 1 oligodendroglioma, was studied for amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) genes. DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections was analyzed by differential PCR and the results were compared with slot blot examination of DNA extracted from frozen tissue from the same neoplasms. Twelve glioblastomas (40%) showed amplification of the EGFR gene, and overexpression of EGFR was evident in each of these tumors as indicated by the immunoperoxidase technique. Two of the tumors with EGFR gene amplification also revealed amplification of the MDM2 gene, while one additional glioblastoma revealed MDM2 amplification only. A 100% concordance in the detection of amplification was observed between differential PCR and slot blot analysis; consequently these results indicate that differential PCR using DNA extracted front archival tissue sections is a reliable method of demonstrating gene amplifications in glial tumors. 29 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. 228Ra and 226Ra Profiles from the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Chung, Y.; Lin, C.

    2005-05-01

    We previously reported the distributions of 228Ra and 226Ra in the northern South China Sea (SCS) which showed that both nuclides in surface waters were much higher than those in the open oceans because the SCS was enclosed mostly by landmasses which are known as sources of these nuclides. Large temporal and spectial variations were also observed probably due to the monsoons and intrusion of the Kuroshio Current. During a recent cruise conducted in the northern SCS in February, 2004, three vertical 228Ra profiles were measured by gamma spectrometry on the Ra isotopes which were concentrated first by the MnO2-impregnated acrylic fiber and then acid-washed as sample solution for counting. The two deep water 228Ra profiles are remarkably similar, showing high values in the surface layer and fairly uniform at about 10 to 13 dpm/100L below 200m depth but with a clear increase toward the bottom due to input from the underlying sediments. The shallow water profile on the shelf shows higher 228Ra values due to both vertical and horizontal mixing of the shelf water with additional source from the shore zone. Additional 228Ra profiles measured on samples from earlier cruises show that the deep water values may differ significantly (up to 5 dpm/100L) at the same location in different seasons or cruises. The associated 226Ra profiles are also variable but quite comparable to those in the northwest Pacific in deep water. 226Ra activities in the shallow water (less than 1000m depth) are higher in the SCS than in the open oceans. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios vary mostly from about 0.3 to 0.5 in the deep water. These values are much higher than those in the open oceans which are generally less than 0.1.

  20. The Role of Clear Sky Identification in the Study of Cloud Radiative Effects: Combine Analysis from ISCCP and the Scanner of Radiation Budget (ScaRaB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.; Stubenrauch, C. J.; Briand, V.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the effect of clouds on the earth's radiation balance is often estimated as the difference of net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere between all situations and monthly averaged clear sky situations of the same regions, a reliable identification of clear sky is important for the study of cloud radiative effects. The Scanner for Radiation Balance (ScaRaB) radiometer on board the Russian Meteor-3/7 satellite provided earth radiation budget observations from March 1994 to February 1995 with two ERBE-Re broad-band longwave and shortwave channels. Two narrow-band channels, in the infrared atmospheric window and in the visible band, have been added to the ScaRaB instrument to improve the cloud scene identification. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) method for cloud detection and determination of cloud and surface properties uses the same narrow-band channels as ScaRaB, but is employed to a collection of measurements at a better spatial resolution of about 5 km. By applying the original ISCCP algorithms to the ScaRaB data, the clear sky frequency is about 5% lower than the one over quasi-simultaneous original ISCCP data, an indication that the ISCCP cloud detection is quite stable. However, one would expect an about 10 to 20% smaller clear sky occurrence over the larger ScaRaB pixels. Adapting the ISCCP algorithms to the reduced spatial resolution of 60 km and to the different time sampling of the ScaRaB data leads therefore to a reduction of a residual cloud contamination. A sensitivity study with time-space collocated ScaRaB and original ISCCP data at a spatial resolution of 1deg longitude x 1deg latitude shows that the effect of clear sky identification method plays a higher role on the clear sky frequency and therefore on the statistics than on the zonal mean values of the clear sky fluxes. Nevertheless, the zonal outgoing longwave fluxes corresponding to ERBE clear sky are in general about 2 to 10 W/sq m higher than those

  1. 226Ra in the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.

    1987-09-01

    226Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-1978 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10°S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. [15]. Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.

  2. Discovery of radioactive decay of /sup 222/Ra and /sup 224/Ra by /sup 14/C emission

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.; Stevenson, J.D.; Barwick, S.W.; Ravn, H.L.

    1985-01-28

    Using the ISOLDE on-line isotope separator at CERN to produce sources of /sup 221/Fr, /sup 221/Ra, /sup 222/Ra, /sup 223/Ra, and /sup 224/Ra, and using polycarbonate track-recording films sensitive to energetic carbon nuclei but not to alpha particles, we have discovered two new cases of the rare /sup 14/C decay mode: in /sup 222/Ra and /sup 224/Ra. Our results for branching ratios, B, relative to alpha decay are for /sup 221/Fr and /sup 221/Ra, B<4.4 x 10/sup -12/; for /sup 222/Ra, B = (3.7 +- 0.6) x 10/sup -10/; for /sup 223/Ra, B = (6.1 +- 1.0) x 10/sup -10/; for /sup 224/Ra, B = (4.3 +- 1.2) x 10/sup -11/. .AE

  3. Network reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1985-01-01

    Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

  4. Rapid Method for Ra-226 and Ra-228 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III

    2006-02-10

    The measurement of radium isotopes in natural waters is important for oceanographic studies and for public health reasons. Ra-226 (1620 year half-life) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in natural waters can be tedious and time-consuming. Different sample preparation methods are often required to prepare Ra-226 and Ra-228 for separate analyses. A rapid method has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory that effectively separates both Ra-226 and Ra-228 (via Ac-228) for assay. This method uses MnO{sub 2} Resin from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) to preconcentrate Ra-226 and Ra-228 rapidly from water samples, along with Ba-133 tracer. DGA Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) and Ln-Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) are employed in tandem to prepare Ra-226 for assay by alpha spectrometry and to determine Ra-228 via the measurement of Ac-228 by gas proportional counting. After preconcentration, the manganese dioxide is dissolved from the resin and passed through stacked Ln-Resin-DGA Resin cartridges that remove uranium and thorium interferences and retain Ac-228 on DGA Resin. The eluate that passed through this column is evaporated, redissolved in a lower acidity and passed through Ln-Resin again to further remove interferences before performing a barium sulfate microprecipitation. The Ac-228 is stripped from the resin, collected using cerium fluoride microprecipitation and counted by gas proportional counting. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  5. Functional Analysis of the Phycomyces carRA Gene Encoding the Enzymes Phytoene Synthase and Lycopene Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Catalina; Velayos, Antonio; Álvarez, María Isabel; Benito, Ernesto P.; Eslava, Arturo P.

    2011-01-01

    Phycomyces carRA gene encodes a protein with two domains. Domain R is characterized by red carR mutants that accumulate lycopene. Domain A is characterized by white carA mutants that do not accumulate significant amounts of carotenoids. The carRA-encoded protein was identified as the lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase enzyme by sequence homology with other proteins. However, no direct data showing the function of this protein have been reported so far. Different Mucor circinelloides mutants altered at the phytoene synthase, the lycopene cyclase or both activities were transformed with the Phycomyces carRA gene. Fully transcribed carRA mRNA molecules were detected by Northern assays in the transformants and the correct processing of the carRA messenger was verified by RT-PCR. These results showed that Phycomyces carRA gene was correctly expressed in Mucor. Carotenoids analysis in these transformants showed the presence of ß-carotene, absent in the untransformed strains, providing functional evidence that the Phycomyces carRA gene complements the M. circinelloides mutations. Co-transformation of the carRA cDNA in E. coli with different combinations of the carotenoid structural genes from Erwinia uredovora was also performed. Newly formed carotenoids were accumulated showing that the Phycomyces CarRA protein does contain lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities. The heterologous expression of the carRA gene and the functional complementation of the mentioned activities are not very efficient in E. coli. However, the simultaneous presence of both carRA and carB gene products from Phycomyces increases the efficiency of these enzymes, presumably due to an interaction mechanism. PMID:21858003

  6. An improved method for the simultaneous determination of /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in water, soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The naturally occurring concentrations of radium (/sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra) in public and private water supplies have been studied for many years. Both general surveys ad local studies have established the geographical regions where well waters exceed 3 pCi/L (1-17). In general, the /sup 226/Ra was determined by the emanation method, while the /sup 228/Ra was determined from the beta activity of the /sup 228/Ac daughter. In a recent review (18) of the methods used ''a number of approved analytic methods can bear improvement, especially the method for 228Ra.'' The purpose of the work described here was to develop an improved method for the simultaneous determination of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Spontaneous secretion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) by cells isolated from herniated lumbar discal tissue after discectomy.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Reinecke, J A; Meijer, H; Wehling, P

    1998-09-01

    In the study presented, cells of a herniated lumbar disc were cultivated in vitro and analysed for interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) production. The objective of this study was the detection of IL-1beta and IL-1Ra secreted by herniated lumbar discal cells after discectomy. The involvement of cytokines in the degeneration of intervertebral discs and in the pathophysiology of radiculopathy is established. Antagonizing proteins, e.g. IL-1Ra are thought to have considerable therapeutic potential. In the present study, a 51-year-old male with massive sequestrated lumbar disc herniation at L5/S1 was treated by microsurgical discectomy. Discal cells were isolated, cultures and culture supernatants immunochemically analysed for IL-1beta and IL-1Ra secretion. Spontaneous secretion of IL-1Ra was found. IL-1beta was not detected. Our findings might contradict recent studies on the role of IL-1beta and IL-1Ra. A possible therapeutic role of exogenous IL-1Ra in disc degeneration needs further research. PMID:9770331

  8. Enhanced Reliability and Accuracy for Field Deployable Bioforensic Detection and Discrimination of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, Causal Agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis Using Razor Ex Technology and TaqMan Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Melcher, Ulrich; Ochoa Corona, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, accurate and rapid multigene-based assay combining real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex) was validated for detection of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp, a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]). CVC, which is exotic to the United States, has spread through South and Central America and could significantly impact U.S. citrus if it arrives. A method for early, accurate and sensitive detection of Xfp in plant tissues is needed by plant health officials for inspection of products from quarantined locations, and by extension specialists for detection, identification and management of disease outbreaks and reservoir hosts. Two sets of specific PCR primers and probes, targeting Xfp genes for fimbrillin and the periplasmic iron-binding protein were designed. A third pair of primers targeting the conserved cobalamin synthesis protein gene was designed to detect all possible X. fastidiosa (Xf) strains. All three primer sets detected as little as 1 fg of plasmid DNA carrying X. fastidiosa target sequences and genomic DNA of Xfp at as little as 1 - 10 fg. The use of Razor Ex facilitates a rapid (about 30 min) in-field assay capability for detection of all Xf strains, and for specific detection of Xfp. Combined use of three primer sets targeting different genes increased the assay accuracy and broadened the range of detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a field-deployable rapid and reliable bioforensic detection and discrimination method for a bacterial phytopathogen based on multigene targets. PMID:24312333

  9. The estimation and potential radiobiological significance of the intake of 228Ra by early Ra dial workers in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Keane, A T; Lucas, H F; Markun, F; Essling, M A; Holtzman, R B

    1986-09-01

    We made radiochemical determinations of 226Ra and the 228Ra-decay product, 228Th, in samples of bone from former Ra dial workers who belonged to a major cohort of Ra-exposed persons under study for health effects at our institution. Most of the former workers were long-term residents of two communities supplied with drinking water containing elevated natural levels of 228Ra and 226Ra, so determinations also were made of radioactivity in samples of bone from long-term residents not occupationally exposed to Ra. The 228Th activity of the bones of the former workers, after correction for the presence of natural radioactivity, showed that some had significant occupational intakes of 228Ra, contrary to published reports that 228Ra was never used by the Illinois company that had employed the cohort of early workers. For 14 workers hired in the years 1920-23, the calculated ratio of the occupational intake of 228Ra to 226Ra activity averaged 0.15 (coefficient of variation 0.65), whereas for three workers hired in 1924, it was not significantly different from zero (mean 0.05, coefficient of variation 1.5). The risk of radiogenic cancer for the typical worker hired before 1924 may have been nearly twice that incurred in the absence of the 228Ra component of the Ra intakes. PMID:3744831

  10. Relationship between air pollution and positivity of RA-related autoantibodies in individuals without established RA: a report on SERA

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ryan W; Deane, Kevin D; Zerbe, Gary O; Demoruelle, M Kristen; Weisman, Michael H; Buckner, Jane H; Gregersen, Peter K; Mikuls, Ted R; O’Dell, James R; Keating, Richard M; Holers, V Michae; Norris, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies suggest that respiratory exposures including smoking, proximity to traffic and air pollution might be associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA-related autoantibodies are predictive of the development of RA. Objective We evaluated the relationship between RA-related autoantibodies and exposure to particulate matter (PM), a measure of air pollution of interest to health, in individuals without RA. Methods The Studies of the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) is a multicentre study following first-degree relatives (FDRs) of a proband with RA. FDRs are without the 1987 ACR (American College of Rheumatology) classifiable RA at enrolment and are followed for the development of RA-related autoimmunity. RA-related autoantibody outcomes as well as tender and swollen joint outcomes were assessed. Exposure to PM was assigned using ambient air pollution monitoring data and interpolated with inverse distance weighting spatial analyses using Geographic Information Systems. PM exposures were linked to FDR’s residential zip codes. Results RA-related autoantibodies as well as tender or swollen joints are not associated with ambient PM concentrations. Discussion While other respiratory exposures may be associated with increased risk of RA, our data suggest that ambient PM is not associated with autoantibodies and joint signs among individuals without RA, but at increased risk of developing RA. PMID:23572338

  11. Error-control and processes optimization of (223/224)Ra measurement using Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC).

    PubMed

    Xiaoqing, Cheng; Lixin, Yi; Lingling, Liu; Guoqiang, Tang; Zhidong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    RaDeCC has proved to be a precise and standard way to measure (224)Ra and (223)Ra in water samples and successfully made radium a tracer of several environmental processes. In this paper, the relative errors of (224)Ra and (223)Ra measurement in water samples via a Radium Delayed Coincidence Count system are analyzed through performing coincidence correction calculations and error propagation. The calculated relative errors range of 2.6% ∼ 10.6% for (224)Ra and 9.6% ∼ 14.2% for (223)Ra. For different radium activities, effects of decay days and counting time on final radium relative errors are evaluated and the results show that these relative errors can decrease by adjusting the two measurement factors. Finally, to minimize propagated errors in Radium activity, a set of optimized RaDeCC measurement parameters are proposed. PMID:26233651

  12. The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre for detecting activity in the deep abdominal muscles: is this clinical tool reliable and valid?

    PubMed Central

    Kaping, Karsten; Äng, Björn O; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) is a common clinical tool for manually assessing whether a preferential activation of the deep abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain (LBP) is ‘correct’ or not. The validity and reliability of manual assessment of the ADIM are, however, as yet unknown. This study evaluated the concurrent and discriminative validity and reliability of the manually assessed ADIM. Design Single-blinded cross-sectional study. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 38 participants seeking care for LBP, and 15 healthy subjects. Measures The manual ADIM was assessed as correct or not following a standard procedure. Ultrasound imaging (USI) was used as the concurrent reference (gold standard) for the manually assessed ADIM by calculating a ratio of the change in muscle thickness between the resting and the contracted states: the correlation between manual test and USI was calculated. Discriminative validity was analysed by calculating sensitivity and specificity. A sample of 24 participants was analysed with κ coefficients for interobserver reliability between two raters. Results The concurrent validity between the manual ADIM and the ADIM–USI ratios showed poor correlations (r=0.13–0.40). The discriminative validity of the manually assessed ADIM to predict LBP showed a sensitivity/specificity of 0.30/0.73, while the ADIM–USI ratio to predict LBP showed 0.19/0.87. The interobserver reliability for the manually assessed ADIM revealed substantial agreement: K=0.71, CI (95%) 0.41 to 1.00. Conclusions Although the interobserver reliability of the manually assessed ADIM was high, the concurrent and discriminative validity were both low for examining the preferential activity of the deep abdominal muscles. Neither the manually assessed ADIM nor the ultrasound testing discriminated between participants with LBP and healthy subjects regarding preferential activity of

  13. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  14. Reliability and Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test Service Bulletin, 1952

    1952-01-01

    Some aspects of test reliability are discussed. Topics covered are: (1) how high should a reliability coefficient be?; (2) two factors affecting the interpretation of reliability coefficients--range of talent and interval between testings; (3) some common misconceptions--reliability of speed tests, part vs. total reliability, reliability for what…

  15. A novel molecular diagnostic tool for improved sensitivity and reliability detection of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”, bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitive and accurate detection is a prerequisite for efficient management and regulatory responses to prevent the introduction and spread of HLB-associated “Candidatus Liberibacter species to unaffected areas. To improve the current detection limit of HLB-associated “Ca. Liberibacter” spp, we deve...

  16. Reliable VLSI sequential controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.; Shamanna, M.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI architecture for synchronous sequential controllers is presented that has attractive qualities for producing reliable circuits. In these circuits, one hardware implementation can realize any flow table with a maximum of 2(exp n) internal states and m inputs. Also all design equations are identical. A real time fault detection means is presented along with a strategy for verifying the correctness of the checking hardware. This self check feature can be employed with no increase in hardware. The architecture can be modified to achieve fail safe designs. With no increase in hardware, an adaptable circuit can be realized that allows replacement of faulty transitions with fault free transitions.

  17. Detecting and measuring deprivation in primary care: development, reliability and validity of a self-reported questionnaire: the DiPCare-Q

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Thomas; Diserens, Esther-Amélie; Herzig, Lilli; Meystre-Agustoni, Giovanna; Panese, Francesco; Favrat, Bernard; Sass, Catherine; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Advances in biopsychosocial science have underlined the importance of taking social history and life course perspective into consideration in primary care. For both clinical and research purposes, this study aims to develop and validate a standardised instrument measuring both material and social deprivation at an individual level. Methods We identified relevant potential questions regarding deprivation using a systematic review, structured interviews, focus group interviews and a think-aloud approach. Item response theory analysis was then used to reduce the length of the 38-item questionnaire and derive the deprivation in primary care questionnaire (DiPCare-Q) index using data obtained from a random sample of 200 patients during their planned visits to an ambulatory general internal medicine clinic. Patients completed the questionnaire a second time over the phone 3 days later to enable us to assess reliability. Content validity of the DiPCare-Q was then assessed by 17 general practitioners. Psychometric properties and validity of the final instrument were investigated in a second set of patients. The DiPCare-Q was administered to a random sample of 1898 patients attending one of 47 different private primary care practices in western Switzerland along with questions on subjective social status, education, source of income, welfare status and subjective poverty. Results Deprivation was defined in three distinct dimensions: material (eight items), social (five items) and health deprivation (three items). Item consistency was high in both the derivation (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR20) =0.827) and the validation set (KR20 =0.778). The DiPCare-Q index was reliable (interclass correlation coefficients=0.847) and was correlated to subjective social status (rs=−0.539). Conclusion The DiPCare-Q is a rapid, reliable and validated instrument that may prove useful for measuring both material and social deprivation in primary care. PMID:22307103

  18. Assessment of NDE reliability data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Couchman, J. C.; Chang, F. H.; Packman, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty sets of relevant nondestructive test (NDT) reliability data were identified, collected, compiled, and categorized. A criterion for the selection of data for statistical analysis considerations was formulated, and a model to grade the quality and validity of the data sets was developed. Data input formats, which record the pertinent parameters of the defect/specimen and inspection procedures, were formulated for each NDE method. A comprehensive computer program was written and debugged to calculate the probability of flaw detection at several confidence limits by the binomial distribution. This program also selects the desired data sets for pooling and tests the statistical pooling criteria before calculating the composite detection reliability. An example of the calculated reliability of crack detection in bolt holes by an automatic eddy current method is presented.

  19. High-Speed RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  20. Ra-224 and Ra-226: A New Method for Measuring Groundwater Seepage in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K. R.; Buyan, A. C.; Waples, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    Radium isotopes have been used to estimate groundwater discharge (GWD) in coastal marine waters for decades, but this technique has never before been used in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we used a RAD7 radon-in-air monitor to measure naturally-occurring radium isotopes Ra-224 (half-life= 3.64 d) and Ra-226 (half-life = 1600 a) in groundwater and three shallow water sites along Lake Michigan's Wisconsin coastline. Radium-224 activities in groundwater ranged from 1153 dpm m-3 in a deep aquifer (New Berlin well no.7) to 31 dpm m-3 in a shallow aquifer (Pryor well). Nearshore Lake Michigan measurements of Ra-224 were lowest at Red Arrow Beach (0.2 dpm m-3), higher in the Milwaukee harbor (GLWI slip, 1.1 dpm m-3) and highest at Harrington Beach (4.1 dpm m-3) and correspond well with groundwater seepage estimates made by Cherkauer et al. (1990) using alternate methods (i.e., where higher radium activity is indicative of higher GWD). These Ra-224 measurements are the first ever made in Lake Michigan (and presumably any of the Great Lakes) and we conclude that, by sampling offshore radium activity gradients, this RAD7 technique is a viable method for directly measuring GWD in Lake Michigan and other freshwater systems.

  1. Evaluation of accuracy and reliability of the plaque reduction neutralization test (micro-PRNT) in detection of yellow fever virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Simões, Marisol; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Miranda, Emily Hime; Cajaraville, Ana Carolina R A; da Silva Freire, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    Yellow fever is a disease caused by the prototype virus of the genus Flavivirus and remains endemic in tropical forest regions from Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. These are capable of inducing a rapid specific immune response, with the formation of neutralizing antibodies that appear early, are protective and long lasting. The Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test is considered the most sensitive and specific test for quantification of neutralizing antibodies, and the reference method for assessing the protective immune response after vaccination. This study evaluated the reliability (repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy (sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy) of micro-PRNT50 and compared its performance with the micro-PRNT90. Although the micro-PRNT50 has showed satisfactory levels of reliability (ICCs ranged from 0.62 to 0.NorNormas e Manuais Técnicosas e Manuais Técnicos6 for repeatability and 0.72 for reproducibility) and accuracy (sensitivity of 91.1%, specificity of 72.9% and overall accuracy of 78%), the micro-PRNT90 showed higher performance, with ICCs for repeatability ranged from 0.78 to 0.79 and 0.81 for reproducibility, sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94.7% and overall accuracy of 95%. Modifications in the test methodology and changes in the classification criteria in the readings of the results obtained will be important to improve the accuracy of micro-PRNT. PMID:23034357

  2. Effect of 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) on progesterone and estradiol secretion and RA receptor expression in the chicken ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Katarzyna; Sechman, Andrzej; Suchanek, Iwona; Grzegorzewska, Agnieszka; Rzasa, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that retinoids, derivates of vitamin A, affect reproductive function in birds, however, the mechanism of their action in the ovary is still unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed (i) to show whether in the domestic hen 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), one of the retinoids, influences steroid secretion in vitro by white and yellow chicken ovarian follicles, and (ii) to detect expression of retinoic acid RXR receptor mRNA in these follicles. The white follicles (small: 1-4 mm, medium: 4-6 mm and large 6-8 mm in diameter) and the three largest yellow preovulatory follicles (F3-F1; 25-37 mm) were isolated from the ovary 3 h before ovulation. The granulosa layer was separated from the theca layer in the preovulatory follicles, which were subsequently divided into 4 equal pieces. The isolated whole white follicles or parts of the granulosa or theca layers were incubated for 24 h at 38 degrees C in Eagle's medium in the following 4 groups: control, ovine LH (oLH; 10 ng/ml), 9-cis RA (100 ng/ml) and 9-cis RA + oLH. After incubation, the medium was collected for estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) determination while tissues were saved for protein assay. It was found that 9-cis RA affects steroid secretion from chicken ovarian follicles. It decreased E2 secretion from white follicles and from the theca layer of the two largest (F2 and F1) preovulatory follicles. 9-cis RA had no effect on oLH-stimulated E2 secretion by the white follicles and yellow F2 and F1 follicles, but it diminished E2 secretion by F3 follicles. As regards P4, the effect of 9-cis RA was opposite; it increased P4 secretion from the granulosa layer of all preovulatory follicles. 9-cis RA did not change oLH-stimulated P4 secretion by granulosa layers ofF3 and F2 follicles, however, it inhibited oLH-enhanced P4 secretion from the F1 granulosa layer. In a separate experiment, the presence of mRNA encoding RXR was found in the stroma and all follicles of the

  3. Brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) detection in vivo with the J-editing (1) H MRS technique: a comprehensive methodological evaluation of sensitivity enhancement, macromolecule contamination and test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Shungu, Dikoma C; Mao, Xiangling; Gonzales, Robyn; Soones, Tacara N; Dyke, Jonathan P; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Abnormalities in brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, in vivo GABA detection by (1) H MRS presents significant challenges arising from the low brain concentration, overlap by much stronger resonances and contamination by mobile macromolecule (MM) signals. This study addresses these impediments to reliable brain GABA detection with the J-editing difference technique on a 3-T MR system in healthy human subjects by: (i) assessing the sensitivity gains attainable with an eight-channel phased-array head coil; (ii) determining the magnitude and anatomic variation of the contamination of GABA by MM; and (iii) estimating the test-retest reliability of the measurement of GABA with this method. Sensitivity gains and test-retest reliability were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas MM levels were compared across three cortical regions: DLPFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the occipital cortex (OCC). A three-fold higher GABA detection sensitivity was attained with the eight-channel head coil compared with the standard single-channel head coil in DLPFC. Despite significant anatomical variation in GABA + MM and MM across the three brain regions (p < 0.05), the contribution of MM to GABA + MM was relatively stable across the three voxels, ranging from 41% to 49%, a non-significant regional variation (p = 0.58). The test-retest reliability of GABA measurement, expressed as either the ratio to voxel tissue water (W) or to total creatine, was found to be very high for both the single-channel coil and the eight-channel phased-array coil. For the eight-channel coil, for example, Pearson's correlation coefficient of test vs. retest for GABA/W was 0.98 (R(2)  = 0.96, p = 0.0007), the percentage coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.25% and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Similar reliability was also found for the co-edited resonance

  4. Quantifying bone weathering stages using the average roughness parameter Ra measured from 3D data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietti, Laura A.

    2016-09-01

    Bone surface texture is known to degrade in a predictable fashion due to subaerial exposure, and can thus act as a relative proxy for estimating temporal information from modern and ancient bone assemblages. To date, the majority of bone weathering data is collected on a categorical scale based on descriptive terms. While this qualitative classification of weathering data is well established, textural analyses of bone surfaces may provide means to quantify weathering stages but have yet to be tested. Here, I examined the suitability of textural analyses for bone weathering studies by first establishing bone surface regions most appropriate for weathering analyses. I then measured and compared the roughness texture of weathered bones at different stages. To establish regions of bone most suitable for textural analyses, Ra was measured from 3D scans of dorsal ribs of four adult ungulate taxa. Results indicate that the rib-shafts from unweathered ungulate skeletons were similar and are likely good candidates because differences in surface texture will not be due to differences in initial bone texture. To test if textural measurements could reliably characterize weathering stages, the average roughness values (Ra) were measured from weathered ungulate rib-shafts assigned to four descriptive weathering stages. Results from analyses indicate that the Ra was statistically distinct for each weathering stage and that roughness positively correlates with the degree of weathering. As such, results suggest that textural analyses may provide the means for quantifying bone-weathering stages. Using Ra and other quantifiable texture parameters may enable more reliable and comparative taphonomic analyses by reducing inter-observer variations and by providing numerical data more compatible for multivariate statistics.

  5. Gene expression analysis in RA: towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Burska, A N; Roget, K; Blits, M; Soto Gomez, L; van de Loo, F; Hazelwood, L D; Verweij, C L; Rowe, A; Goulielmos, G N; van Baarsen, L G M; Ponchel, F

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression has recently been at the forefront of advance in personalized medicine, notably in the field of cancer and transplantation, providing a rational for a similar approach in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a prototypic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a poorly understood etiopathogenesis. Inflammation is the main feature of RA; however, many biological processes are involved at different stages of the disease. Gene expression signatures offer management tools to meet the current needs for personalization of RA patient's care. This review analyses currently available information with respect to RA diagnostic, prognostic and prediction of response to therapy with a view to highlight the abundance of data, whose comparison is often inconclusive due to the mixed use of material source, experimental methodologies and analysis tools, reinforcing the need for harmonization if gene expression signatures are to become a useful clinical tool in personalized medicine for RA patients. PMID:24589910

  6. Performance Characterization of RaPToRS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Krieger, M.; Fallica, J.; Henchen, R.; Pogozelski, E.; Padalino, S.; SUNY Geneseo Collaboration; LaboratoryLaser Energetics at University of Rochester Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system can quickly and efficiently move radioactive materials from their activation site to a counting station. Facilities such as the NIF and LLE are considering these systems while NRL is currently using one. The system is essentially a 10 cm diameter pneumatic tube with a cylindrical sample carrier. The performance of the system depends on many factors, including the mass of the carrier, length of the tube, angle and difference in height of the tube's endpoints, the carrier's physical design, and the number, type, and distribution of blowers attached to the tube. These factors have been systematically examined to develop the fastest and most reliable system. The most significant factors are the mass and the vertical travel of the carrier. When the carrier mass is low, moving air supports the carrier in the tube, resulting in low friction. The terminal velocity ranges from 13.5 to 2.5 m/s for masses varying from 1 kg to 3 kg. Using a single 1100 W blower, the initial force exerted on the carrier was 11.3 N. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the LLE.

  7. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in solitary fibrous tumor can be reliably detected by anchored multiplexed PCR for targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Natalya V; Tanas, Munir R; Stence, Aaron A; Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Schade, Jenna C; Bossler, Aaron D; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Ma, Deqin

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor of fibroblastic origin, which can affect any region of the body. 10-15% of SFTs metastasize and metastatic tumors are uniformly lethal with no effective therapies. The behavior of SFT is difficult to predict based on morphology. Recently, an intrachromosomal gene fusion between NAB2 and STAT6 was identified as the defining driving genetic event of SFT and different fusion types correlated with tumor histology and behavior. Due to the proximity of NAB2 and STAT6 on chromosome 12, this fusion may be missed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. We evaluated 12 SFTs from 10 patients. All tumors showed strong nuclear staining for STAT6 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks for IHC were used for gene fusion detection by a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay. Targeted RNA fusion sequencing for gene fusions was performed using the Universal RNA Fusion Detection Kit, the Archer(™) FusionPlex(™) Sarcoma Panel and the Ion Torrent PGM, and data were analyzed using the Archer Analysis Pipeline 3.3. All tumors were positive for NAB2-STAT6 fusion. Six types of fusions were detected: NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2, NAB2ex2-STAT6ex5, NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16, NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17, NAB2ex3-STAT6ex18 and NAB2intron6-STAT6Ex17. The NGS findings were confirmed by RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. No STAT6 fusion was detected in selected morphologic mimics of SFT. The assay also allows for detection of novel fusions and can detect NAB2-STAT6 fusions at a single-base resolution. PMID:27292373

  8. RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with an internal standard enables reliable detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical scrapings and urine samples.

    PubMed Central

    Morré, S A; Sillekens, P; Jacobs, M V; van Aarle, P; de Blok, S; van Gemen, B; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J; van den Brule, A J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the suitability of RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated. When comparing different primer sets for their sensitivities in NASBA, use of both the plasmid and omp1 targets resulted in a detection limit of 1 inclusion-forming unit (IFU), while the 16S rRNA appeared to be the most sensitive RNA target for amplification (10(-3) IFU). In contrast, for DNA amplification by PCR, the plasmid target was optimal (10(-2) IFU), which is 10 times less sensitive than rRNA NASBA. To exclude false negativity in NASBA detection because of inhibition of amplification and/or inefficient sample preparation, an internal standard was developed. The internal control was added prior to sample preparation. This 16S rRNA NASBA with an internal control was compared with a plasmid DNA PCR by using a group of C. trachomatis-negative (n = 41) and -positive (n = 37) cervical scrapings, as determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In addition, urine samples from the EIA-positive women were tested (n = 17). Both NASBA and PCR assays were able to detect C. trachomatis in all EIA-positive cervical scrapings, the corresponding urine samples, and two samples from the EIA-negative group. The internal NASBA standard was found clearly in all EIA-negative samples. In conclusion, these results indicate that detection of C. trachomatis by RNA amplification by NASBA with an internal standard is a suitable and highly sensitive detection method, with potential use in the diagnosis of urogenital C. trachomatis infections with cervical scrapings as well as urine specimens. PMID:8940456

  9. Preparing concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Volynskii, L.D.; Garbuzov, V.M.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1988-05-01

    A scheme has been devised for processing large amounts of old thorium salts to obtain concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra preparations. The process includes simple regeneration of the original thorium salt. The main stages in concentrating the /sup 228/Ra are precipitation and separation of thorium peroxide, isolating the radium with a carrier, ion-exchange separation of the radium from the carrier, and final purification by electrolysis. The /sup 228/Ra recovery is 70%.

  10. [Evaluation of joint inflammation by MRI in patients with RA].

    PubMed

    Sumida, Takayuki; Sugihara, Makoto; Hirota, Tomoya; Horikoshi, Masanobu; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    We compared the characteristics of MRI imaging and US imaging on joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) . MRI imaging is worth for diagnosis of RA at the early stage, evaluation of drug treatment effects, and a new measure for true remission. US imaging is also useful for estimation of therapy and a criteria for complete remission, and cheep machine. We hope that both imaging technologies will be a standard for diagnosis and therapy evaluation in RA patients. PMID:22298072

  11. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horsemeat demonstrates its reliability for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel (DSF) procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horsemeat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. It consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue followed by two sequential ...

  12. Reliable detection of deamidated peptides from lens crystallin proteins using changes in reversed-phase elution times and parent ion masses.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Surendra; Wilmarth, Phillip A; Rustvold, D Leif; Riviere, Michael A; Nagalla, Srinivasa R; David, Larry L

    2007-09-01

    Identifying deamidated peptides using low-resolution mass spectrometry is difficult because traditional database search programs cannot accurately detect modified peptides when the mass differences are only 0.984 Da. In this study, we utilized differential reversed-phase elution behavior of deamidated and corresponding unmodified peptide forms to significantly improve deamidation detection on a low-resolution LCQ ion trap instrument. We also improved the mass measurements of unmodified and deamidated peptide forms by averaging survey scans across each chromatogram peak. Tryptic digests of a series of normal (3-day old, 2-year old, 18-year old, 35-year old, and 70-year old) and cataractous (93-year old) human lens samples were used to produce large numbers of potentially deamidated peptides. The complex peptide mixtures were separated by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography followed by reversed-phase (RP) chromatography. Synthetic peptides were used to show that unmodified and deamidated peptides coeluted during the SCX separation and were completely resolved with the RP conditions used. Retention time shifts (RTS) and mass differences (DeltaM) of deamidated lens peptides and their corresponding unmodified forms were manually determined for the 70-year old lens sample. These values were used to assign correct or incorrect deamidation identifications from SEQUEST searches where deamidation was specified as a variable modification. Manual validation of SEQUEST identifications from synthetic peptides, 3-day old, and 70-year old samples had an overall 42% deamidation detection accuracy. Filtering SEQUEST identifications using RTS and DeltaM constraints resulted in >93% deamidation detection accuracy. An algorithm was developed to automate this method, and 72 Crystallin deamidation sites, 18 of which were not previously reported in human lens tissue, were detected. PMID:17696381

  13. Reliability measure for segmenting algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    Segmenting is a key initial step in many computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. Our purpose is to develop a method to estimate the reliability of segmenting algorithm results. We use a statistical shape model computed using principal component analysis. The model retains a small number of eigenvectors, or modes, that represent a large fraction of the variance. The residuals between the segmenting result and its projection into the space of retained modes are computed. The sum of the squares of residuals is transformed to a zero-mean, unit standard deviation Gaussian random variable. We also use the standardized scale parameter. The reliability measure is the probability that the transformed residuals and scale parameter are greater than the absolute value of the observed values. We tested the reliability measure with thirty chest x-ray images with "leave-out-one" testing. The Gaussian assumption was verified using normal probability plots. For each image, a statistical shape model was computed from the hand-digitized data of the rest of the images in the training set. The residuals and scale parameter with automated segment results for the image were used to compute the reliability measure in each case. The reliability measure was significantly lower for two images in the training set with unusual lung fields or processing errors. The data and Matlab scripts for reproducing the figures are at http://www.aprendtech.com/papers/relmsr.zip Errors detected by the new reliability measure can be used to adjust processing or warn the user.

  14. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  15. Routine use of Zenit RA, a novel chemiluminescent immunoanalyzer in autoimmune disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghillani, P; Dufat, L; Himeur, S; Miyara, M; Amoura, Z; Musset, L

    2012-04-01

    The detection of antibodies is useful to diagnose and/or to classify autoimmune diseases as connective tissue diseases and vasculitis. Zenit RA is a fully automated immunoanalyzer. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive and discriminative performance of the Zenit RA anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β 2 glycoprotein 1 (aB2GP1) tests to conventional ELISAs on clinically well-defined groups of patients and to daily evaluate the determination of anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA), anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA), anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) and anti-proteinase 3 (PR3) antibodies in a hospital laboratory. Reagents available on Zenit RA analyzer exhibit good diagnostic performances, regarding sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Global agreements between Zenit RA and conventional tests were from 90 to 98 % (Kappa-values ranging 0.56-0.94): 96 % for anti-CCP, 90-94 % for aCL and aB2GP1, 94 % for anti-dsDNA, 97 % for anti-ENA, 98 % for anti-MPO and 95 % for anti-PR3 antibodies. Zenit RA analyzer is easy to rapidly detect the most common autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases. This system has a potential to provide clinically useful data within a short time. Because of the flexibility of its work modalities, it is well adapted to determine antigenic specificities in daily practice. PMID:26000125

  16. An experiment in software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a software reliability experiment conducted in a controlled laboratory setting are reported. The experiment was undertaken to gather data on software failures and is one in a series of experiments being pursued by the Fault Tolerant Systems Branch of NASA Langley Research Center to find a means of credibly performing reliability evaluations of flight control software. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of radar tracking software having ultra-reliability requirements and uses n-version programming for error detection, and repetitive run modeling for failure and fault rate estimation. The experiment results agree with those of Nagel and Skrivan in that the program error rates suggest an approximate log-linear pattern and the individual faults occurred with significantly different error rates. Additional analysis of the experimental data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults. This phenomenon may provide one explanation for software reliability decay.

  17. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  18. Is Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI real-time PCR a reliable tool for fast detection of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in periprosthetic joint infections?

    PubMed

    Lourtet-Hascoëtt, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E

    2015-09-01

    Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are frequently caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Cultures remain the gold standard but often require a few days. Thus, a rapid test could be interesting to guide antibiotic strategy earlier. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performances of RT-PCR Xpert® MRSA/SA technique for the detection of methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) from deep samples in patients with PJIs. RT-PCR was tested on 72 samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RT-PCR method were 0.36, 0.98, 0.90, and 0.74, respectively. Although RT-PCR may allow early microbial diagnosis of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA), the low sensitivity and the high cost of this method to detect MRCoNS could limit its use in this field. PMID:26052062

  19. Melting Curve Analysis after T Allele Enrichment (MelcaTle) as a Highly Sensitive and Reliable Method for Detecting the JAK2V617F Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Soji; Takahashi, Kochi; Araki, Marito; Hironaka, Yumi; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Edahiro, Yoko; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the JAK2V617F mutation is essential for diagnosing patients with classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). However, detection of the low-frequency JAK2V617F mutation is a challenging task due to the necessity of discriminating between true-positive and false-positive results. Here, we have developed a highly sensitive and accurate assay for the detection of JAK2V617F and named it melting curve analysis after T allele enrichment (MelcaTle). MelcaTle comprises three steps: 1) two cycles of JAK2V617F allele enrichment by PCR amplification followed by BsaXI digestion, 2) selective amplification of the JAK2V617F allele in the presence of a bridged nucleic acid (BNA) probe, and 3) a melting curve assay using a BODIPY-FL-labeled oligonucleotide. Using this assay, we successfully detected nearly a single copy of the JAK2V617F allele, without false-positive signals, using 10 ng of genomic DNA standard. Furthermore, MelcaTle showed no positive signals in 90 assays screening healthy individuals for JAK2V617F. When applying MelcaTle to 27 patients who were initially classified as JAK2V617F-positive on the basis of allele-specific PCR analysis and were thus suspected as having MPNs, we found that two of the patients were actually JAK2V617F-negative. A more careful clinical data analysis revealed that these two patients had developed transient erythrocytosis of unknown etiology but not polycythemia vera, a subtype of MPNs. These findings indicate that the newly developed MelcaTle assay should markedly improve the diagnosis of JAK2V617F-positive MPNs. PMID:25794279

  20. Reliable SERS detection of nitrite based on pH and laser irradiance-dependent diazotization through a convenient sampling micro-chamber.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengyue; Fang, Wei; Ren, Jiaqiang; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2016-08-15

    Nitrites (NO2(-) ions) in food and drink play an important role in human health but require complicated operations before detection. Herein, we present a rationally designed SERS-enabled micro-chamber that comprised a drawn glass capillary with a tiny orifice (∼50 μm) at the distal tip, wherein the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are compactly coated on the inner wall surface. In this chamber, nitrites specifically trigger a pH and laser irradiance-dependent diazotization starting from p-aminothiophenol (PATP) absorbed onto the surface of Au NPs to form p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) molecules, in which the presence of NO2(-) ions above 30.7 μM (1.38 ppm) in the siphoned liquid sample can be identified relying on SERS peak (1141 cm(-1)) intensity of the emerging azo moiety. Except for pH conditions, laser irradiance is more important but easily neglected in previous studies, which is capable of preventing generation of errors when the detection sensitivity was pursued through increasing the laser power. In this case, several real samples (rather than simple water samples), including honey, pickled vegetable and fermented bean curd, had been successfully detected accurately through such a convenient sampling micro-chamber. The SERS-enabled device could potentially be facilely incorporated with portable Raman instruments for a special application of food inspection in rapid and field analysis of NO2(-) ions. PMID:27435510

  1. Inventory of metal complexes circulating in plant fluids: a reliable method based on HPLC coupled with dual elemental and high-resolution molecular mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Flis, Paulina; Ouerdane, Laurent; Grillet, Louis; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    Description of metal species in plant fluids such as xylem, phloem or related saps remains a complex challenge usually addressed either by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, X-ray analysis or computational prediction. To date, none of these techniques has achieved a complete and true picture of metal-containing species in plant fluids, especially for the least concentrated complexes. Here, we present a generic analytical methodology for a large-scale (> 10 metals, > 50 metal complexes) detection, identification and semiquantitative determination of metal complexes in the xylem and embryo sac liquid of the green pea, Pisum sativum. The procedure is based on direct injection using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with dual detection by elemental (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and molecular (high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry) mass spectrometric detection. Numerous and novel complexes of iron(II), iron(III), copper(II), zinc, manganese, cobalt(II), cobalt(III), magnesium, calcium, nickel and molybdenum(IV) with several ligands including nicotianamine, citrate, malate, histidine, glutamine, aspartic acid, asparagine, phenylalanine and others are observed in pea fluids and discussed. This methodology provides a large inventory of various types of metal complexes, which is a significant asset for future biochemical and genetic studies into metal transport/homeostasis. PMID:27111838

  2. Dual-emissive Polymer Dots for Rapid Detection of Fluoride in Pure Water and Biological Systems with Improved Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Chuanqi; Liu, Shujuan; Liu, Yahong; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Jiang, Jiayang; Xu, Wenjuan; Yang, Tianshe; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    It is of paramount importance to develop new probes that can selectively, sensitively, accurately and rapidly detect fluoride in aqueous media and biological systems, because F- is found to be closely related to many health and environmental concerns. Herein, a dual-emissive conjugated polyelectrolyte P1 containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was designed and synthesized, which can form ultrasmall polymer dots (Pdots) in aqueous media. The F--responsive tert-butyldiphenylsilyl moiety was introduced into iridium(III) complex as the signaling unit for sensing F- with the quenched phosphorescence. Thus, the dual-emissive Pdots can rapidly and accurately detect F- in aqueous media and live cells as a ratiometric probe by measuring the change in the ratio of the F--sensitive red phosphorescence from iridium(III) complex to the F--insensitive blue fluorescence from polyfluorene. Moreover, the interaction of Pdots with F- also changes its emission lifetime, and the lifetime-based detection of F- in live cells has been realized through photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the first time. Both the ratiometric luminescence and lifetime imaging have been demonstrated to be resistant to external influences, such as the probe’s concentration and excitation power. This study provides a new perspective for the design of promising Pdots-based probes for biological applications.

  3. Dual-emissive Polymer Dots for Rapid Detection of Fluoride in Pure Water and Biological Systems with Improved Reliability and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Chuanqi; Liu, Shujuan; Liu, Yahong; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Jiang, Jiayang; Xu, Wenjuan; Yang, Tianshe; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is of paramount importance to develop new probes that can selectively, sensitively, accurately and rapidly detect fluoride in aqueous media and biological systems, because F(-) is found to be closely related to many health and environmental concerns. Herein, a dual-emissive conjugated polyelectrolyte P1 containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was designed and synthesized, which can form ultrasmall polymer dots (Pdots) in aqueous media. The F(-)-responsive tert-butyldiphenylsilyl moiety was introduced into iridium(III) complex as the signaling unit for sensing F(-) with the quenched phosphorescence. Thus, the dual-emissive Pdots can rapidly and accurately detect F(-) in aqueous media and live cells as a ratiometric probe by measuring the change in the ratio of the F(-)-sensitive red phosphorescence from iridium(III) complex to the F(-)-insensitive blue fluorescence from polyfluorene. Moreover, the interaction of Pdots with F(-) also changes its emission lifetime, and the lifetime-based detection of F(-) in live cells has been realized through photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the first time. Both the ratiometric luminescence and lifetime imaging have been demonstrated to be resistant to external influences, such as the probe's concentration and excitation power. This study provides a new perspective for the design of promising Pdots-based probes for biological applications. PMID:26552859

  4. Dual-emissive Polymer Dots for Rapid Detection of Fluoride in Pure Water and Biological Systems with Improved Reliability and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Chuanqi; Liu, Shujuan; Liu, Yahong; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Jiang, Jiayang; Xu, Wenjuan; Yang, Tianshe; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is of paramount importance to develop new probes that can selectively, sensitively, accurately and rapidly detect fluoride in aqueous media and biological systems, because F- is found to be closely related to many health and environmental concerns. Herein, a dual-emissive conjugated polyelectrolyte P1 containing phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was designed and synthesized, which can form ultrasmall polymer dots (Pdots) in aqueous media. The F--responsive tert-butyldiphenylsilyl moiety was introduced into iridium(III) complex as the signaling unit for sensing F− with the quenched phosphorescence. Thus, the dual-emissive Pdots can rapidly and accurately detect F− in aqueous media and live cells as a ratiometric probe by measuring the change in the ratio of the F−-sensitive red phosphorescence from iridium(III) complex to the F−-insensitive blue fluorescence from polyfluorene. Moreover, the interaction of Pdots with F− also changes its emission lifetime, and the lifetime-based detection of F− in live cells has been realized through photoluminescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the first time. Both the ratiometric luminescence and lifetime imaging have been demonstrated to be resistant to external influences, such as the probe’s concentration and excitation power. This study provides a new perspective for the design of promising Pdots-based probes for biological applications. PMID:26552859

  5. Rapid and Reliable Detection of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Gene Mutations in Han Chinese Using High-Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing-bin; Xu, Hong-ping; Xiong, Can; Ren, Zhao-rui; Tian, Guo-li; Zeng, Fanyi; Huang, Shu-zhen

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked inherited disease, is one of the most common enzymopathies and affects over 400 million people worldwide. In China at least 21 distinct point mutations have been identified so far. In this study high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to screen for G6PD mutations in 260 unrelated Han Chinese individuals, and the rapidity and reliability of this method was investigated. The mutants were readily differentiated by using HRM analysis, which produced distinct melting curves for each tested mutation. Interestingly, G1388A and G1376T, the two most common variants accounting for 50% to 60% of G6PD deficiency mutations in the Chinese population, could be differentiated in a single reaction. Further, two G6PD mutations not previously reported in the Chinese population were identified in this study. One of these mutations, designated “G6PD Jiangxi G1340T,” involved a G1340T substitution in exon 11, predicting a Gly447Val change in the protein. The other mutation involved a C406T substitution in exon 5. The frequencies of the common polymorphism site C1311T/IVS (intervening sequence) XI t93c between patients with G6PD and healthy volunteers were not significantly different. Thus, HRM analysis will be a useful alternative for screening G6PD mutations. PMID:20203002

  6. Rapid and reliable detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations in Han Chinese using high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-bin; Xu, Hong-ping; Xiong, Can; Ren, Zhao-rui; Tian, Guo-li; Zeng, Fanyi; Huang, Shu-zhen

    2010-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked inherited disease, is one of the most common enzymopathies and affects over 400 million people worldwide. In China at least 21 distinct point mutations have been identified so far. In this study high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to screen for G6PD mutations in 260 unrelated Han Chinese individuals, and the rapidity and reliability of this method was investigated. The mutants were readily differentiated by using HRM analysis, which produced distinct melting curves for each tested mutation. Interestingly, G1388A and G1376T, the two most common variants accounting for 50% to 60% of G6PD deficiency mutations in the Chinese population, could be differentiated in a single reaction. Further, two G6PD mutations not previously reported in the Chinese population were identified in this study. One of these mutations, designated "G6PD Jiangxi G1340T," involved a G1340T substitution in exon 11, predicting a Gly447Val change in the protein. The other mutation involved a C406T substitution in exon 5. The frequencies of the common polymorphism site C1311T/IVS (intervening sequence) XI t93c between patients with G6PD and healthy volunteers were not significantly different. Thus, HRM analysis will be a useful alternative for screening G6PD mutations. PMID:20203002

  7. Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest–skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Meng, Fan-Yun; Lu, Tsung-Hsien; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high–skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high–skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest–skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The χ{sup 2} and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas.

  8. Laser trapping of 225Ra and 226Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Guest, J R; Scielzo, N D; Ahmad, I; Bailey, K; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Lu, Z-T; O'Connor, T P; Potterveld, D H

    2007-03-01

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral 225Ra and 226Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition 1S0-->3P1 is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the 3D1-->1P1 transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable 3P0 level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the 3D1-->1P1 transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the 3D1 level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries. PMID:17359153

  9. An energy-efficient rate adaptive media access protocol (RA-MAC) for long-lived sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O'Rourke, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application's link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment. PMID:22219675

  10. An Energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Protocol (RA-MAC) for Long-lived Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O’Rourke, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application’s link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment. PMID:22219675

  11. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for rapid and reliable serodiagnosis of human tularemia and detection of Francisella tularensis-specific antibodies in sera from different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Splettstoesser, W; Guglielmo-Viret, V; Seibold, E; Thullier, P

    2010-05-01

    Tularemia is a highly contagious infectious zoonosis caused by the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis. Serology is still considered to be a cornerstone in tularemia diagnosis due to the low sensitivity of bacterial culture and the lack of standardization in PCR methodology for the direct identification of the pathogen. We developed a novel immunochromatographic test (ICT) to efficiently detect F. tularensis-specific antibodies in sera from humans and other mammalian species (nonhuman primate, pig, and rabbit). This new tool requires none or minimal laboratory equipment, and the results are obtained within 15 min. When compared to the method of microagglutination, which was shown to be more specific than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the ICT had a sensitivity of 98.3% (58 positive sera were tested) and a specificity of 96.5% (58 negative sera were tested) on human sera. On animal sera, the overall sensitivity was 100% (22 positive sera were tested) and specificity was also 100% (70 negative sera were tested). This rapid test preferentially detects IgG antibodies that may occur early in the course of human tularemia, but further evaluation with human sera is important to prove that the ICT can be a valuable field test to support a presumptive diagnosis of tularemia. The ICT can also be a useful tool to monitor successful vaccination with subunit vaccines or live vaccine strains containing lipopolysaccharide (e.g., LVS) and to detect seropositive individuals or animals in outbreak situations or in the context of epidemiologic surveillance programs in areas of endemicity as recently recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:20220165

  12. Paraprofessional Staff in Transition: The Sophomore RA Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt Brecheisen, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    The sophomore resident assistant (RA) experience exists at the point where the sophomore experience and the RA position intersect. Sophomore students contend with specific transition struggles and challenges unique to their class standing as they make decisions about their sense of purpose and future career, and those who choose to become RAs face…

  13. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  14. A Multi-Center Pilot Evaluation of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) Therapeutic Response Measures: Feasibility, Inter-rater Reliability, and Minimum Detectable Change

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Jacobsohn, David; Thormann Powers, Kimberly E.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Cowen, Edward W.; Schubert, Mark; Turner, Maria; Lee, Stephanie J.; Martin, Paul; Bishop, Michael R.; Baird, Kristin; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Boyd, Kevin; Fall-Dickson, Jane M.; Gerber, Lynn H.; Guadagnini, Jean-Pierre; Imanguli, Matin; Krumlauf, Michael C.; Lawley, Leslie; Li, Li; Reeve, Bryce B.; Clayton, Janine Austin; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of standardized criteria for measuring therapeutic response is a major obstacle to the development of new therapeutic agents for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for evaluating therapeutic response were published in 2006. We report the results of four consecutive pilot trials evaluating the feasibility and estimating the inter-rater reliability and minimum detectable change of these response criteria. Hematology-oncology clinicians with limited experience in applying the NIH cGVHD response criteria (n=34), participated in a 2.5 hour training session on response evaluation in cGVHD. Feasibility and inter-rater reliability between subspecialty cGVHD experts and this panel of clinician raters were examined in a sample of 25 children and adults with cGVHD. The minimum detectable change was calculated using the standard error of measurement. Clinicians’ impressions of the brief training session, the photo atlas, and the response criteria documentation tools were generally favorable. Performing and documenting the full set of response evaluations required a median of 21 minutes (range 12 to 60 minutes) per rater. The Schirmer tear test required the greatest time of any single test (median 9 minutes). Overall, inter-rater agreement for skin and oral manifestations was modest, however, in the third and fourth trials, the agreement between clinicians and experts for all dimensions except movable sclerosis approached satisfactory values. In the final two trials, the threshold for defining change exceeding measurement error was 19–22% body surface area (BSA) for erythema, 18–26% BSA for movable sclerosis, 17–21% BSA for nonmovable sclerosis, and 2.1–2.6 points on the 15 point NIH Oral cGHVD scale. Agreement between clinician-expert pairs was moderate to substantial for the measures of functional capacity and for the gastrointestinal and global cGVHD rating scales. These results suggest that

  15. Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as KR-20 coefficients and…

  16. HELIOS Critical Design Review: Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoehr, H. C.; Herholz, J.; Prem, H.; Mann, D.; Reichert, L.; Rupp, W.; Campbell, D.; Boettger, H.; Zerwes, G.; Kurvin, C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents Helios Critical Design Review Reliability form October 16-20, 1972. The topics include: 1) Reliability Requirement; 2) Reliability Apportionment; 3) Failure Rates; 4) Reliability Assessment; 5) Reliability Block Diagram; and 5) Reliability Information Sheet.

  17. Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, G.; Burnett, W.C.; Dulaiova, H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn (218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  18. Assessment of NDE Reliability Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Chang, F. H.; Covchman, J. C.; Lemon, G. H.; Packman, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty sets of relevant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) reliability data have been identified, collected, compiled, and categorized. A criterion for the selection of data for statistical analysis considerations has been formulated. A model to grade the quality and validity of the data sets has been developed. Data input formats, which record the pertinent parameters of the defect/specimen and inspection procedures, have been formulated for each NDE method. A comprehensive computer program has been written to calculate the probability of flaw detection at several confidence levels by the binomial distribution. This program also selects the desired data sets for pooling and tests the statistical pooling criteria before calculating the composite detection reliability. Probability of detection curves at 95 and 50 percent confidence levels have been plotted for individual sets of relevant data as well as for several sets of merged data with common sets of NDE parameters.

  19. Rainfall Manipulation Plot Study (RaMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blair, John [Kansas State University; Fay, Phillip [USDA-ARS; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University; Collins, Scott [University of New Mexico; Smith, Melinda [Yale University

    Rainfall Manipulation Plots facility (RaMPs) is a unique experimental infrastructure that allows us to manipulate precipitation events and temperature, and assess population community, and ecosystem responses in native grassland. This facility allows us to manipulate the amount and timing of individual precipitation events in replicated field plots at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Questions we are addressing include: • What is the relative importance of more extreme precipitation patterns (increased climatic variability) vs. increased temperatures (increased climatic mean) with regard to their impact on grassland ecosystem structure and function? Both projected climate change factors are predicted to decrease soil water availability, but the mechanisms by which this resource depletion occurs differ. • Will altered precipitation patterns, increased temperatures and their interaction increase opportunities for invasion by exotic species? • Will long-term (6-10 yr) trajectories of community and ecosystem change in response to more extreme precipitation patterns continue at the same rate as initial responses from years 1-6? Or will non-linear change occur as potential ecological thresholds are crossed? And will increased temperatures accelerate these responses? Data sets are available as ASCII files, in Excel spreadsheets, and in SAS format. (Taken from http://www.konza.ksu.edu/ramps/backgrnd.html

  20. A Fast, Reliable, and Sensitive Method for Detection and Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Products by MPN-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pasquale; Botticella, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Massa, Salvatore; Spano, Giuseppe; Beneduce, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we developed a MPN quantitative real-time PCR (MPN-qPCR) method for a fast and reliable detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed vegetables. In order to validate the proposed technique, the results were compared with conventional MPN followed by phenotypic and biochemical assays methods. When L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were artificially inoculated in fresh-cut vegetables, a concentration as low as 1 CFU g−1 could be detected in 48 hours for both pathogens. qPCR alone allowed a limit of detection of 101 CFU g−1 after 2 hours of enrichment for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7. Since minimally processed ready-to-eat vegetables are characterized by very short shelf life, our method can potentially address the consistent reduction of time for microbial analysis, allowing a better management of quality control. Moreover, the occurrences of both pathogenic bacteria in mixed salad samples and fresh-cut melons were monitored in two production plants from the receipt of the raw materials to the early stages of shelf life. No sample was found to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. One sample of raw mixed salad was found positive to an H7 enterohemorrhagic serotype. PMID:24949460

  1. Revisiting the STEC Testing Approach: Using espK and espV to Make Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Detection More Reliable in Beef.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D; Ison, Sarah A; Webb, Hattie E; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of "false positive" results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC strains of greater clinical significance in industrialized countries. Of the 1739 beef enrichments tested, 180 were positive for both stx and eae genes. Ninety (50%) of these tested negative for espK, espV, ureD, and Z2098, but 12 out of these negative samples were positive for the CRISPRO26:H11 gene marker specific for a newly emerging virulent EHEC O26:H11 French clone. We show that screening for stx, eae, espK, and espV, in association with the CRISPRO26:H11 marker is a better approach to narrow down the EHEC screening step in beef enrichments. The number of potentially positive samples was reduced by 48.88% by means of this alternative strategy compared to the European and American reference methods, thus substantially improving the discriminatory power of EHEC screening systems. This approach is in line with the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) opinion on pathogenic STEC published in 2013. PMID:26834723

  2. Validation of sensitivity and reliability of GPR and microgravity detection of underground cavities in complex urban settings: Test case of a cellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromčák, Jakub; Grinč, Michal; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Vajda, Peter; Kubová, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We test here the feasibility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and microgravity methods in identifying underground voids, such as cellars, tunnels, abandoned mine-workings, etc., in complex urban conditions. For this purpose, we selected a cellar located under a private lot in a residential quarter of the town of Senec in Western Slovakia, which was discovered by chance when a small sinkhole developed on the yard just two meters away from the house. The size of our survey area was limited 1) by the presence of a technical room built at the back of the yard with a staircase leading to the garden, and 2) by the small width of the lot. Therefore the geophysical survey was carried out only in the backyard of the lot as we were not permitted to measure on neighbouring estates. The results from the GPR measurements obtained by the GSSI SIR-3000 system with 400 MHz antenna were visualized in the form of 2D radargrams with the corresponding transformed velocity model of studied cross-sections. Only the profiles running over the pavement next to the house yielded interpretable data because the local geological situation and the regular watering of the lawn covering prevailingly the backyard caused significant attenuation of the emitted GPR signal. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a distinctive negative anomaly indicating the presence of a shallow underground void. The quantitative interpretation by means of Euler deconvolution was utilized to validate the depth of the center and location of the cellar. Comparison with the gravitational effect of the cellar model calculated in the in-house program Polygrav shows a quite good correlation between the modelled and observed fields. Only a part of the aerial extent of the anomaly could be traced by the used geophysical methods due to accessibility issues. Nevertheless, the test cellar was successfully detected and interpreted by both methods, thus confirming their applicability in similar environmental and geotechnical

  3. Revisiting the STEC Testing Approach: Using espK and espV to Make Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Detection More Reliable in Beef

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D.; Ison, Sarah A.; Webb, Hattie E.; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of “false positive” results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC strains of greater clinical significance in industrialized countries. Of the 1739 beef enrichments tested, 180 were positive for both stx and eae genes. Ninety (50%) of these tested negative for espK, espV, ureD, and Z2098, but 12 out of these negative samples were positive for the CRISPRO26:H11 gene marker specific for a newly emerging virulent EHEC O26:H11 French clone. We show that screening for stx, eae, espK, and espV, in association with the CRISPRO26:H11 marker is a better approach to narrow down the EHEC screening step in beef enrichments. The number of potentially positive samples was reduced by 48.88% by means of this alternative strategy compared to the European and American reference methods, thus substantially improving the discriminatory power of EHEC screening systems. This approach is in line with the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) opinion on pathogenic STEC published in 2013. PMID:26834723

  4. Raman spectroscopy for the detection of explosives and their precursors on clothing in fingerprint concentration: a reliable technique for security and counterterrorism issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, S.; Botti, S.; Cantarini, L.; Palucci, A.; Puiu, A.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.

    2013-10-01

    In this work we report the results of RS measurements on some common military explosives and some of the most common explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, such as polyester, leather and denim cotton at concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint. RS Spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope, focusing the light of a solid state GaAlAs laser emitting at 785 nm. A maximum exposure time of 10 s was used, focusing the beam in a 45 μm diameter spot on the sample. The substances were deposited starting from commercial solutions with a Micropipetting Nano-Plotter, ideal for generating high-quality spots by non-contact dispensing of sub-nanoliter volumes of liquids, in order to simulate a homogeneous stain on the fabric surface. Images acquired with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope provided further details of the deposition process showing single particles of micrometric volume trapped or deposited on the underlying tissues. The spectral features of each substance was clearly identified and discriminated from those belonging to the substrate fabric or from the surrounding fluorescence. Our results show that the application of RS using a microscope-based apparatus can provide interpretable Raman spectra in a fast, in-situ analysis, directly from explosive particles of some μm3 as the ones that it could be found in a single fingerprint, despite the contribution of the substrate, leaving the sample completely unaltered for further, more specific and propaedeutic laboratory analysis. The same approach can be envisaged for the detection of other illicit substances like drugs.

  5. Cloning and sequence analysis of a class A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, C J; Unsal, I; Chambers, H F

    1997-01-01

    A cosmid library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra was introduced into Mycobacterium smegmatis, and eight recombinant clones with increased resistance to cefoxitin were identified. Isoelectric focusing detected an M. tuberculosis-derived beta-lactamase in one of these recombinant clones. A sequence analysis identified it as a class A beta-lactamase whose expression correlated with the increased resistance phenotype. PMID:9145897

  6. Reliability of the Deployment Resiliency Assessment.

    PubMed

    Simon, Samuel E; Stewart, Kate; Kloc, Michelle; Williams, Thomas V; Wilmoth, Margaret C

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the reliability of the instruments embedded in a mental health screening instrument designed to detect risky drinking, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder among members of the Armed Forces. The instruments were generally reliable, however, the risky drinking screen (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) had unacceptable reliability (α = 0.58). This was the first attempt to assess psychometric properties of a screening and assessment instrument widely used for members of the Armed Forces. PMID:27391616

  7. Consistent SMARCB1 Homozygous Deletions in Epithelioid Sarcoma and in a Subset of Myoepithelial Carcinomas can be Reliably Detected by FISH in Archival Material

    PubMed Central

    Le Loarer, Francois; Zhang, Lei; Fletcher, Christopher D; Ribeiro, Agnes; Singer, Samuel; Italiano, Antoine; Neuville, Agnes; Houlier, Aurélie; Chibon, Frederic; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2014-01-01

    , confirming the SMARCB1 and other SWI/SNF genes copy numbers detected by FISH. Our study confirms the shared pathogenesis of proximal and distal ES, showing consistent SMARCB1 homozygous deletions. Additionally we report the first ES case associated with a SMARCB1 constitutional deletion, establishing a previously undocumented link with ATRT. Alternative mechanisms of SMARCB1 inactivation in SMARCB1-disomic ES remain to be identified, but appear unrelated to large genomic abnormalities in other SWI/SNF subunits. PMID:24585572

  8. 6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)Carbazole (FICZ) Modulates the Signalsome Responsible for RA-Induced Differentiation of HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica P.; LaTocha, Dorian H.; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) is a photoproduct of tryptophan and an endogenous high affinity ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). It was previously reported that, in patient-derived HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation is driven by a signalsome containing c-Cbl and AhR. FICZ enhances RA-induced differentiation, assessed by expression of the membrane differentiation markers CD38 and CD11b, cell cycle arrest and the functional differentiation marker, inducible oxidative metabolism. Moreover, FICZ augments the expression of a number of the members of the RA-induced signalsome, such as c-Cbl, Vav1, Slp76, PI3K, and the Src family kinases Fgr and Lyn. Pursuing the molecular signaling responsible for RA-induced differentiation, we characterized, using FRET and clustering analysis, associations of key molecules thought to drive differentiation. Here we report that, assayed by FRET, AhR interacts with c-Cbl upon FICZ plus RA-induced differentiation, whereas AhR constitutively interacts with Cbl-b. Moreover, correlation analysis based on the flow cytometric assessment of differentiation markers and western blot detection of signaling factors reveal that Cbl-b, p-p38α and pT390-GSK3β, are not correlated with other known RA-induced signaling components or with a phenotypic outcome. We note that FICZ plus RA elicited signaling responses that were not typical of RA alone, but may represent alternative differentiation-driving pathways. In clusters of signaling molecules seminal to cell differentiation, FICZ co-administered with RA augments type and intensity of the dynamic changes induced by RA. Our data suggest relevance for FICZ in differentiation-induction therapy. The mechanism of action includes modulation of a SFK and MAPK centered signalsome and c-Cbl-AhR association. PMID:26287494

  9. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  10. Progress toward an EDM measurement in {sup225}Ra.

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R. J.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sulai, I. A.; Trimble, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are a signature of time-reversal and parity violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped {sup 225}Ra atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, {sup 225}Ra is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than {sup 199}Hg, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss progress toward realizing a first EDM measurement for {sup 225}Ra.

  11. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  12. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  13. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  14. Microbial release of 226Ra2+ from (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludges from uranium mine wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, P M; Westlake, D W; Anders, C; Kratochvil, B; Motkosky, N; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    1986-01-01

    226Ra2+ is removed from uranium mine effluents by coprecipitation with BaSO4. (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludge samples from two Canadian mine sites were found to contain active heterotrophic populations of aerobic, anaerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Under laboratory conditions, sulfate reduction occurred in batch cultures when carbon sources such as acetate, glucose, glycollate, lactate, or pyruvate were added to samples of (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludge. No external sources of nitrogen or phosphate were required for this activity. Further studies with lactate supplementation showed that once the soluble SO4(2-) in the overlying water was depleted, Ba2+ and 226Ra2+ were dissolved from the (Ba,Ra)SO4 sludge, with the concurrent production of S2-. Levels of dissolved 226Ra2+ reached approximately 400 Bq/liter after 10 weeks of incubation. Results suggest that the ultimate disposal of these sludges must maintain conditions to minimize the activity of the indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria to ensure that unacceptably high levels of 226Ra2+ are not released to the environment. PMID:3752993

  15. Techniques for improving reliability of computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, W. C.; Mccarthy, C. E.; Jessep, D. C.; Wadia, A. B.; Milligan, F. G.; Bouricius, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Modular design techniques improve methods of error detection, diagnosis, and recovery. Theoretical computer (MARCS (Modular Architecture for Reliable Computer Systems)) study deals with postulated and modeled technology indigenous to 1975-1980. Study developments are discussed.

  16. Business of reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  17. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  18. Predicting software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlewood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed look is given to software reliability techniques. A conceptual model of the failure process is examined, and some software reliability growth models are discussed. Problems for which no current solutions exist are addressed, emphasizing the very difficult problem of safety-critical systems for which the reliability requirements can be enormously demanding.

  19. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  20. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using 226Ra and 228Ra as tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hougham, A.L.; Moran, S.B.; Masterson, J.P.; Kelly, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal southern Rhode Island was estimated from measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600??y) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.75??y). Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January 2002 to August 2003; additional porewater samples were collected in August 2005. Surface water activities ranged from 12-83??dpm 100??L- 1 (60??dpm = 1??Bq) and 21-256??dpm 100??L- 1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Porewater 226Ra activities ranged from 16-736??dpm 100??L- 1 (2002-2003) and 95-815??dpm 100??L- 1 (2005), while porewater 228Ra activities ranged from 23-1265??dpm 100??L- 1. Combining these data with a simple box model provided average 226Ra-based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from 11-159??L m- 2 d- 1 and average 228Ra-derived fluxes of 15-259??L m- 2 d- 1. Seasonal changes in Ra-derived SGD were apparent in all ponds as well as between ponds, with SGD values of 30-472??L m- 2 d- 1 (Winnapaug Pond), 6-20??L m- 2 d- 1 (Quonochontaug Pond), 36-273??L m- 2 d- 1 (Ninigret Pond), 29-76??L m- 2 d- 1 (Green Hill Pond), and 19-83??L m- 2 d- 1 (Pt. Judith-Potter Pond). These Ra-derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra-based SGD studies in Rhode Island. This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow (recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater) determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  2. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  3. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoishi; Ueno, Kaoru; Hinoide, Moriyo; Ohkubo, Yoshiteru

    1994-11-01

    {sup 226}Ra concentrations in human teeth from several cities, mainly Tokyo, Japan, were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 226}Ra by alpha-ray spectrometry following chemical separation. No appreciable differences in {sup 226}Ra concentration were found among various permanent teeth samples of different age groups in Tokyo. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration for Tokyo was 0.51 {+-} 0.06 mBq (g CA){sup -1}. {sup 226}Ra concentration [mean: 0.67 {+-} 0.11 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in teeth in western regions of the country was statistically higher than that [mean: 0.48 {+-} 0.09 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in eastern ones. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration [0.51 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] in teeth from Tokyo was less than the concentration [1.11 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] reported for vertebral bone samples of this city. 27 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-04-01

    Radium isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra) are excellent tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). To estimate SGD magnitudes, information on the end-member values of Ra concentrations in groundwater is critical; however, the distribution characteristics of Ra in coastal aquifers are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ra concentrations in coastal groundwater are primarily dependent on salinity based on the data (n > 500) obtained from global coastal aquifers, although previous end-member calculations averaged all Ra concentrations without considering salinity. If we assume that SGD is composed mainly of seawater infiltrating the aquifer, previous estimates of SGD for the Atlantic Ocean and the global ocean were overestimated twofold to threefold. This may be similar for other applications using different Ra isotopes. Our study highlights that the end-members of Ra isotopes in groundwater should be carefully considered when estimating SGD using Ra isotope mass balances in the ocean.

  5. Coding for reliable satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaarder, N. T.; Lin, S.

    1986-01-01

    This research project was set up to study various kinds of coding techniques for error control in satellite and space communications for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. During the project period, researchers investigated the following areas: (1) decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis; (2) concatenated and cascaded error control coding schemes for satellite and space communications; (3) use of hybrid coding schemes (error correction and detection incorporated with retransmission) to improve system reliability and throughput in satellite communications; (4) good codes for simultaneous error correction and error detection, and (5) error control techniques for ring and star networks.

  6. HLA-D region genes and rheumatoid arthritis (RA): importance of DR and DQ genes in conferring susceptibility to RA.

    PubMed Central

    Singal, D P; Green, D; Reid, B; Gladman, D D; Buchanan, W W

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of HLA-D region antigens was studied in three groups (I, IIa, and IIb) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA): group I comprised 43 patients with mild, non-progressive RA, controlled by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs without progression or erosions; group II comprised 94 patients with severe disease, who had earlier been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and all had incomplete response requiring treatment with gold (sodium aurothiomalate). Of these, 46 patients (group IIa) responded to gold and the disease was well controlled, and the remaining 48 patients (group IIb) did not respond to gold and developed gold induced toxic reactions, including thrombocytopenia or proteinuria, or both. HLA-D region antigens were defined by serological and molecular (Southern blot analysis and oligonucleotide typing) techniques. The results show that DR4 was significantly increased in all three groups of patients. The prevalence of DR1, or DR1 in DR4 negative patients, and DR3 and DR4 associated DQw7 specificities, however, showed differences in these three groups of patients. The prevalence of DR1 and of DR1 in DR4 negative patients was increased only in patients with mild (group I) RA, but not in patients with severe (groups IIa and IIb) disease. On the other hand, the prevalence of DR4 associated DQw7 was significantly increased in patients with severe disease, but not in patients with mild RA. In addition, DR3 was significantly increased only in patients with severe disease who developed gold induced toxic reactions (group IIb). These data suggest that the HLA-D region genes which cause susceptibility to mild RA may be different from those causing susceptibility to severe RA. The results suggest that both DR and DQ (A, B) genes may be important in conferring susceptibility to RA: DR in mild disease and DQ in severe RA. Images PMID:1371662

  7. Detection of faults and software reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Specific topics briefly addressed include: the consistent comparison problem in N-version system; analytic models of comparison testing; fault tolerance through data diversity; and the relationship between failures caused by automatically seeded faults.

  8. Detection of faults and software reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Multiversion or N-version programming was proposed as a method of providing fault tolerance in software. The approach requires the separate, independent preparation of multiple versions of a piece of software for some application. Specific topics addressed are: failure probabilities in N-version systems, consistent comparison in N-version systems, descriptions of the faults found in the Knight and Leveson experiment, analytic models of comparison testing, characteristics of the input regions that trigger faults, fault tolerance through data diversity, and the relationship between failures caused by automatically seeded faults.

  9. New agents for targeting of IL-13RA2 expressed in primary human and canine brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Debinski, Waldemar; Dickinson, Peter; Rossmeisl, John H; Robertson, John; Gibo, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13RA2) is over-expressed in a vast majority of human patients with high-grade astrocytomas like glioblastoma. Spontaneous astrocytomas in dogs resemble human disease and have been proposed as translational model system for investigation of novel therapeutic strategies for brain tumors. We have generated reagents for both detection and therapeutic targeting of IL-13RA2 in human and canine brain tumors. Peptides from three different regions of IL-13RA2 with 100% sequence identity between human and canine receptors were used as immunogens for generation of monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant canine mutant IL-13 (canIL-13.E13K) and canIL-13.E13K based cytotoxin were also produced. The antibodies were examined for their immunoreactivities in western blots, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and cell binding assays using human and canine tumor specimen sections, tissue lysates and established cell lines; the cytotoxin was tested for specific cell killing. Several isolated MAbs were immunoreactive to IL-13RA2 in western blots of cell and tissue lysates from glioblastomas from both human and canine patients. Human and canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas were also positive for IL-13RA2 to various degrees. Interestingly, both human and canine meningiomas also exhibited strong reactivity. Normal human and canine brain samples were virtually negative for IL-13RA2 using the newly generated MAbs. MAb 1E10B9 uniquely worked on tissue specimens and western blots, bound live cells and was internalized in GBM cells over-expressing IL-13RA2. The canIL-13.E13K cytotoxin was very potent and specific in killing canine GBM cell lines. Thus, we have obtained several monoclonal antibodies against IL-13RA2 cross-reacting with human and canine receptors. In addition to GBM, other brain tumors, such as high grade oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas and canine choroid plexus papillomas, appear to express the receptor at high levels and thus may be

  10. New Agents for Targeting of IL-13RA2 Expressed in Primary Human and Canine Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Debinski, Waldemar; Dickinson, Peter; Rossmeisl, John H.; Robertson, John; Gibo, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13RA2) is over-expressed in a vast majority of human patients with high-grade astrocytomas like glioblastoma. Spontaneous astrocytomas in dogs resemble human disease and have been proposed as translational model system for investigation of novel therapeutic strategies for brain tumors. We have generated reagents for both detection and therapeutic targeting of IL-13RA2 in human and canine brain tumors. Peptides from three different regions of IL-13RA2 with 100% sequence identity between human and canine receptors were used as immunogens for generation of monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant canine mutant IL-13 (canIL-13.E13K) and canIL-13.E13K based cytotoxin were also produced. The antibodies were examined for their immunoreactivities in western blots, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and cell binding assays using human and canine tumor specimen sections, tissue lysates and established cell lines; the cytotoxin was tested for specific cell killing. Several isolated MAbs were immunoreactive to IL-13RA2 in western blots of cell and tissue lysates from glioblastomas from both human and canine patients. Human and canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas were also positive for IL-13RA2 to various degrees. Interestingly, both human and canine meningiomas also exhibited strong reactivity. Normal human and canine brain samples were virtually negative for IL-13RA2 using the newly generated MAbs. MAb 1E10B9 uniquely worked on tissue specimens and western blots, bound live cells and was internalized in GBM cells over-expressing IL-13RA2. The canIL-13.E13K cytotoxin was very potent and specific in killing canine GBM cell lines. Thus, we have obtained several monoclonal antibodies against IL-13RA2 cross-reacting with human and canine receptors. In addition to GBM, other brain tumors, such as high grade oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas and canine choroid plexus papillomas, appear to express the receptor at high levels and thus may be

  11. High levels of the soluble form of CD30 molecule in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are expression of CD30+ T cell involvement in the inflamed joints.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Muscat, C; Bistoni, O; Falini, B; Tomassini, C; Agea, E; Tognellini, R; Biagini, P; Bertotto, A

    1995-12-01

    The CD30 is a surface molecule expressed by Th2-type lymphokine-producing T cells upon activation. CD30-expressing activated T cells release a soluble form of the molecule, which can be detectable both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, high levels of soluble CD30 were found in peripheral blood and synovial fluid from patients with RA. However, CD30+ CD3+ cells, either CD4+ or CD8+, were significantly present in synovial fluid, but not in peripheral blood, of RA patients. Serum values of soluble CD30 were higher in active than inactive RA patients and directly correlated with rheumatoid factor serum titres. These data strongly support an involvement of CD30+ T cells in the immune processes of rheumatoid synovitis, and may suggest a relationship between Th2-type cytokine-secreting T cells and the pathological response in RA. PMID:8536371

  12. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12. Each unit contains teacher…

  13. Human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach.

  14. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1989-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predictions for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates produced by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  15. Software Reliability 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    In FY01 we learned that hardware reliability models need substantial changes to account for differences in software, thus making software reliability measurements more effective, accurate, and easier to apply. These reliability models are generally based on familiar distributions or parametric methods. An obvious question is 'What new statistical and probability models can be developed using non-parametric and distribution-free methods instead of the traditional parametric method?" Two approaches to software reliability engineering appear somewhat promising. The first study, begin in FY01, is based in hardware reliability, a very well established science that has many aspects that can be applied to software. This research effort has investigated mathematical aspects of hardware reliability and has identified those applicable to software. Currently the research effort is applying and testing these approaches to software reliability measurement, These parametric models require much project data that may be difficult to apply and interpret. Projects at GSFC are often complex in both technology and schedules. Assessing and estimating reliability of the final system is extremely difficult when various subsystems are tested and completed long before others. Parametric and distribution free techniques may offer a new and accurate way of modeling failure time and other project data to provide earlier and more accurate estimates of system reliability.

  16. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1990-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predicitons for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates prodcued by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rojas, J. V.; Woodward, J. D.; Chen, N.; Rondinone, A. J.; Castano, C. H.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2015-03-19

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs)more » were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.« less

  18. Statistical Tests of Reliability of NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Roth, Don J.; Kiser, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Capabilities of advanced material-testing techniques analyzed. Collection of four reports illustrates statistical method for characterizing flaw-detecting capabilities of sophisticated nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Method used to determine reliability of several state-of-the-art NDE techniques for detecting failure-causing flaws in advanced ceramic materials considered for use in automobiles, airplanes, and space vehicles.

  19. An experimental analysis of the contribution of 224Ra and 226Ra and progeny to the gross alpha-particle activity of water samples.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael F; West, Lynn E

    2008-05-01

    The gross alpha-particle activity of water samples analyzed by EPA Method 900.0 is investigated as a function of residue mass and geometry, time between sample collection and analysis, and time between sample preparation and analysis for samples containing 224Ra, 212Pb, and 226Ra. It is shown that the gross alpha-particle activity due to 224Ra and its progeny can be up to 10 times the 224Ra activity at collection time and that due to 212Pb progeny can be up to 3 times the 212Pb activity at collection time. In samples with roughly equal activities of 224Ra and 226Ra analyzed soon after collection, it is shown that the gross alpha-particle activity is approximately constant with time because the decay of 224Ra and its progeny is offset by the ingrowth of 226Ra progeny. PMID:18403967

  20. Test-Retest Reliability and Inter-Tester Reliability of Kinematic Data from a Three-Dimensional Gait Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meg E; McGinley, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and inter-tester reliability of kinematic measures in a three-dimensional gait analysis system. Using a VICON 140™ three-dimensional motion analysis system, kinematic data for lower extremities during walking were collected by 2 testers (senior physical therapists) for 6 unimpaired adults (age = 20 to 52; mean = 35.2 ± 6.2). The study was conducted using a repeated measures design consisting of two testing sessions per day on two separate testing days. The reliability of joint angle data collected by two different testers on two different days was compared for 2 sessions (days) × 2 testers × 5 trials. Skin markers were placed on 15 defined pelvis and lower body locations in accordance with the VICON Clinical Manager model. Prior to the study commencing, the two physical therapists practiced marker placement for a 3 month period. The first measurements (T1) were carried out by two testers on the same day. The second measurement session (T2) was performed within two weeks using an identical procedure. Coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated to evaluate the consistency between the kinematic variables across testers and sessions. Both test-retest and inter-tester reliability were high for motion in the sagittal plane (Ra= 0.971 to 0.994), the frontal plane (Ra= 0.759 to 0.977), and the transverse plane (Ra= 0.729 to 0.899), excluding pelvic tilt. Reduction of variability of marker placement appears possible with standardization and understanding of the placement method. These findings provide evidence of the reliability of using three-dimensional motion analysis for measuring human gait. PMID:25792928

  1. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  2. Determination of 226Ra in urine samples by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kehagia, K; Potiriadis, C; Bratakos, S; Koukouliou, V; Drikos, G

    2007-01-01

    A radiation protection system to assess the internal contamination of workers during decontamination activities in an abounded fertilizer industry in the region of Attika, Greece, has been implemented. This system concerns, among other radionuclides, 226Ra. Because of the low 226Ra activities in urine, alpha spectrometry was used as the determination method after radiochemical separation. Radium was co precipitated with lead sulphate and purified using anion and cation exchange techniques. The source for the alpha spectrometric measurement was prepared by the electrodeposition of radium, from an aqueous/ethanol solution, onto stainless steel. The tracer used was 229Th. The chemical yield and the activity concentration were calculated via its daughter radionuclide 217At. Using the time-evolution formulas to calculate the 217At growth from its parent radionuclide 225Ra, a computer software was developed. This software was incorporated in a database, which automatically calculates and stores the results. PMID:17827131

  3. Soil to rice transfer factors for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs: a study on rice grown in India.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Kumara, Sudeep; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is an essential component of the diet for a majority of the population in India. However, detailed studies aimed at the evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F(v)) for the rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents the soil to rice transfer factors for natural ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K, and (210)Pb) and artificial ((137)Cs) radionuclides for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant and the water required for this field was drawn from the cooling water discharge canal of the power plant. For a comparative study of the radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The study showed that the (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were below detection levels in different organs of the rice plant. The soil to un-hulled rice grain (40)K transfer factor varied in the range of 6.5 × 10(-1) to 2.9 with a mean of 0.15 × 10(1), and of (210)Pb varied in the range of <1.2 × 10(-2) to 8.1 × 10(-1) with a mean of 1.4 × 10(-1), and of (137)Cs varied in the range of 6.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-1) with a mean of 2.1 × 10(-1). The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F(r)) were 0.12 for (40)K, 0.03 for (210)Pb, and 0.14 for (137)Cs. Using these processing retention factors, the soil to white rice transfer factors were estimated and these were found to have mean values of 1.8 × 10(-1), 4.2 × 10(-3), and 3.0 × 10(-2) for (40)K, (210)Pb, and (137)Cs, respectively. The study has shown that the transfer of (40)K was higher for above the ground organs than for the root, but (210)Pb and (137)Cs were retained in the root and their transfer to above the ground organs of the rice plant is significantly lower. PMID:23266913

  4. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-01-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any

  5. Process waste assessment: Color print processing (RA-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Catlett, P.

    1994-05-01

    The Kodak RA-4 process is used to develop prints and overhead transparencies from photographic negatives. The assessment was based on usage, effluent discharge, and final disposition of waste generated by the process. Two options explored were bleach-fix regeneration and the conversion to a digital image processing system. The RA-4 process is process is environmentally sound and generates a relatively small amount of waste. The bleach-fix option would provide only a small effluent reduction. The digital imaging conversion option, if fully implemented, could greatly reduce waste generated in the photo lab.

  6. Concentration of 226Ra in rocks of the southern part of Lower Silesia (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a preliminary description of rocks in the southern part of Lower Silesia and the Sudety Mountains in particular, with regard to 226Ra content. The research demonstrates that the average content of this isotope was 40.4 Bq/kg in the rocks of the southern part of Lower Silesia, and 41.7 Bq/kg in the rocks of the Sudetes. These values are slightly higher than the mean 226Ra content in the upper part of the Earth's crust, while the measured maximum content of this isotope (244 Bq/kg) is more than twice as high as the upper range of the values most frequently recorded in the upper part of the Earth's crust. The minimum values were lower than the detection limit, which was about 1 Bq/kg. These results reflect the mosaic-like geological structure of Lower Silesia, and particularly the Sudety Mountains, the occurrence of SiO2-rich igneous rocks and the products of their metamorphism, as well as numerous manifestations of uranium mineralisation or even deposital concentrations of this element. The rocks with the highest 226Ra contents include (in decreasing order): aplites, granites, gneisses and leucogranites, granite-gneisses, granodiorites and rhyolites, and, finally, mudstones. The lowest values of 226Ra content, on the other hand, were measured in sandstones, marls and conglomerates, and extremely low-in marbles and quartzites. The results show that background values of 226Ra content in the rocks of the southern part of Lower Silesia fall within a range from several to about 100 Bq/kg, which is the same as the range most frequently recorded in the upper part of the Earth's crust. Distribution of these values has log-normal character. The research demonstrates that the southern part of Lower Silesia, and the Sudetes in particular, may be marked by an increased radon potential. Particularly liable areas are: the Karkonosze granite massif, especially in its border zones, the Ladek-Snieznik and the Izera massifs, especially in their

  7. Photovoltaic system reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C.; Greenberg, D.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  8. The activity ratio of 228Th to 228Ra in bone tissue of recently deceased humans: a new dating method in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Zinka, Bettina; Kandlbinder, Robert; Schupfner, Robert; Haas, Gerald; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Graw, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of time since death in human skeletons or single bones often is limited by methodically difficulties. Determination of the specific activity ratio of natural radionuclides, in particular of 232Th (Thorium), 228Th and 228Ra (Radium) seems to be a new appropriate method to calculate the post mortem interval. These radionuclides are incorporated by any human being, mainly from food. So with an individual's death the uptake of radionuclides ends. But the decay of 232Th produces 228Ra and 228Th due to its decay series, whereas 228Th is continuously built up in the human's bones. Thus, it can be concluded that in all deceased humans at different times after death different activity ratios of 228Th to 228Ra will develop in bone. According to this fact it should be possible to calculate time since death of an individual by first analysing the specific activities of 228Th and 228Ra in bones of deceased and then determining the 228Th/228Ra activity ratio, which can be assigned to a certain post-mortem interval. PMID:22606910

  9. Do nuclei go pear-shaped? Coulomb excitation of 220Rn and 224Ra at REX-ISOLDE (CERN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck, M.; Gaffney, L. P.; Butler, P. A.; Hayes, A. B.; Wenander, F.; Albers, M.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Boenig, S.; Bree, N.; Cederkall, J.; Chupp, T.; Cline, D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Grahn, T.; Herzan, A.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D. G.; Joss, D. T.; Kesteloot, N.; Konki, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kroell, Th.; Kwan, E.; Lutter, R.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radeck, D.; Reiter, P.; Reynders, K.; Rigby, S. V.; Robledo, L. M.; Rudigier, M.; Sambi, S.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Stora, T.; Thoele, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M. J.; von Schmid, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wimmer, K.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Wu, C. Y.; Zielinska, M.

    2015-05-01

    The IS475 collaboration conducted Coulomb-excitation experiments with post-accelerated radioactive 220Rn and 224Ra beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. The beam particles (Ebeam: 2.83 MeV/u) were Coulomb excited using 60Ni, 114Cd, and 120Sn scattering targets. De-excitation γ-rays were detected employing the Miniball array and scattered particles were detected in a silicon detector. Exploiting the Coulomb-excitation code GOSIA for each nucleus several matrix elements could be obtained from the measured γ-ray yields. The extracted ‹3-||E3||0+› matrix element allows for the conclusion that, while 220Rn represents an octupole vibrational system, 224Ra has already substantial octupole correlations in its ground state. This finding has implications for the search of CP-violating Schiff moments in the atomic systems of the adjacent odd-mass nuclei.

  10. U-isotopes and (226)Ra as tracers of hydrogeochemical processes in carbonated karst aquifers from arid areas.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, José Luis; Vallejos, Ángela; Cerón, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Sierra de Gádor is a karst macrosystem with a highly complex geometry, located in southeastern Spain. In this arid environment, the main economic activities, agriculture and tourism, are supported by water resources from the Sierra de Gádor aquifer system. The aim of this work was to study the levels and behaviour of some of the most significant natural radionuclides in order to improve the knowledge of the hydrogeochemical processes involved in this groundwater system. For this study, 28 groundwater and 7 surface water samples were collected, and the activity concentrations of the natural U-isotopes ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U) and (226)Ra by alpha spectrometry were determined. The activity concentration of (238)U presented a large variation from around 1.1 to 65 mBq L(-1). Elevated groundwater U concentrations were the result of oxidising conditions that likely promoted U dissolution. The PHREEQC modelling code showed that dissolved U mainly existed as uranyl carbonate complexes. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were higher than unity for all samples (1.1-3.8). Additionally, these ratios were in greater disequilibrium in groundwater than surface water samples, the likely result of greater water-rock contact time. (226)Ra presented a wide range of activity concentrations, (0.8 up to about 4 × 10(2) mBq L(-1)); greatest concentrations were detected in the thermal area of Alhama. Most of the samples showed (226)Ra/(234)U activity ratios lower than unity (median = 0.3), likely the result of the greater mobility of U than Ra in the aquifer system. The natural U-isotopes concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolution of sulphate evaporites (mainly gypsum). (226)Ra had a more complex behaviour, showing a strong correlation with water salinity, which was particularly evident in locations where thermal anomalies were detected. The most saline samples showed the lowest (234)U/(238)U activity ratios, probably due to fast uniform bulk mineral dissolution

  11. Apollo experience report: Reliability and quality assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sperber, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    The reliability of the Apollo spacecraft resulted from the application of proven reliability and quality techniques and from sound management, engineering, and manufacturing practices. Continual assessment of these techniques and practices was made during the program, and, when deficiencies were detected, adjustments were made and the deficiencies were effectively corrected. The most significant practices, deficiencies, adjustments, and experiences during the Apollo Program are described in this report. These experiences can be helpful in establishing an effective base on which to structure an efficient reliability and quality assurance effort for future space-flight programs.

  12. "LJ" Series "Redefining RA": Keeping up with Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Genre is a hot issue in readers' advisory (RA) circles right now. Many people are looking at how genre functions and morphs. Studying a genre is not a new idea. Over two decades ago, and even longer in less formal ways, librarians began gathering to study genres--asking such questions as in what genre does this book fit and why, what are its…

  13. Observation of the negative ions: Ra[sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.; Nadeau, M.; Garwan, M.A.; Kilius, L.R.; Litherland, A.E. )

    1993-11-01

    The negative ions of the isotopes [sup 226]Ra, [sup 231]Pa, and [sup 244]Pu have been observed by means of accelerator mass spectrometry and their properties compared with the negative ions of Th and U. The electron affinities of all these elements have been estimated to be similar and greater than 50 meV.

  14. Improved experimental limit on the EDM of 225Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Tom P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2015-10-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in fundamental and composite particles are sensitive probes of beyond-standard-model symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225Ra (t1/2 = 15d, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its large nuclear octupole deformation, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large atomic mass make 225Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. We have developed an experiment to measure the EDM of 225Ra and demonstrated the first ``proof-of-principle'' measurement, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5E-22 e-cm. After implementing a vacuum upgrade, we have observed nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement over our earlier results - and have lowered the 225Ra EDM limit by over an order of magnitude. Upcoming experimental upgrades have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. Genome Sequence of Avirulent Riemerella anatipestifer Strain RA-JLLY

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Luo, Qingping; Wen, Guoyuan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Honglin; Luo, Ling; Wang, Hongcai

    2015-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is an important bacterial pathogen associated with epizootic infections in waterfowl and various other birds. Riemerella anatipestifer strain RA-JLLY is an avirulent strain, isolated from the brain of an old duck in Hubei province, China. Here, we report the genome sequence of this species. PMID:26404587

  16. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry W.

    1989-01-01

    The longterm goal of this research is to identify or create a model for use in analyzing the reliability of flight control software. The immediate tasks addressed are the creation of data useful to the study of software reliability and production of results pertinent to software reliability through the analysis of existing reliability models and data. The completed data creation portion of this research consists of a Generic Checkout System (GCS) design document created in cooperation with NASA and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) experimenters. This will lead to design and code reviews with the resulting product being one of the versions used in the Terminal Descent Experiment being conducted by the Systems Validations Methods Branch (SVMB) of NASA/Langley. An appended paper details an investigation of the Jelinski-Moranda and Geometric models for software reliability. The models were given data from a process that they have correctly simulated and asked to make predictions about the reliability of that process. It was found that either model will usually fail to make good predictions. These problems were attributed to randomness in the data and replication of data was recommended.

  17. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  18. Sequence analysis and expression regulation of rbp4 by 9-cis-RA in Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengxia; Huang, Chunxiao; Chen, Nan; Wu, Xinjie; Zhu, Kecheng; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Huanling

    2015-04-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (rbp4) is mainly synthesized in the liver, where it binds retinol and then enters the bloodstream, delivering retinol to cells. The full-length cDNA coding rbp4 was cloned from Megalobrama amblycephala. The amino acid sequence showed strong homology with the homologues of other vertebrates, and all structural and functional domains were highly conserved. The mRNA levels in different tissues and development stages detected by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that M. amblycephala rbp4 was highly expressed in liver (P < 0.001), but the lower levels were also detected in eyes, kidney, intestine, and spleen. During the different development stages, the rbp4 mRNA appeared until 28 hours post-fertilization (hpf), underwent a slight drop, and then gradually increased after 50 hpf. In addition, the promoter sequence of M. amblycephala rbp4 was obtained using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Two single nucleotide polymorphism sites (-385A>G and -329C>T) were found in the promoter. Transfection with recombinant plasmids of two different haplotypes (GT, AC) showed that 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) increased the promoter activity, but the AC haplotype was more sensitive to RA. PMID:25274419

  19. Improved limit on the 225Ra electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Parker, Richard H.; Bailey, Kevin G.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Singh, Jaideep T.; Dietrich, Matthew R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Octupole-deformed nuclei, such as that of 225Ra, are expected to amplify observable atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs) that arise from time-reversal and parity-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015 we reported the first "proof-of-principle" measurement of the 225Ra atomic EDM. Purpose: This work reports on the first of several experimental upgrades to improve the statistical sensitivity of our 225Ra EDM measurements by orders of magnitude and evaluates systematic effects that contribute to current and future levels of experimental sensitivity. Method: Laser-cooled and trapped 225Ra atoms are held between two high-voltage electrodes in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber at the center of a magnetically-shielded environment. We observe Larmor precession in a uniform magnetic field using nuclear-spin-dependent laser light scattering and look for a phase shift proportional to the applied electric field, which indicates the existence of an EDM. The main improvement to our measurement technique is an order-of-magnitude increase in spin-precession time, which is enabled by an improved vacuum system and a reduction in trap-induced heating. Results: We have measured the 225Ra atomic EDM to be less than 1.4 ×10-23e cm (95 % confidence upper limit), which is a factor of 36 improvement over our previous result. Conclusions: Our evaluation of systematic effects shows that this measurement is completely limited by statistical uncertainty. Combining this measurement technique with planned experimental upgrades, we project a statistical sensitivity at the 1 ×10-28e cm level and a total systematic uncertainty at the 4 ×10-29e cm level.

  20. Feature selection and classifier parameters estimation for EEG signals peak detection using particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Adam, Asrul; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Tumari, Mohd Zaidi Mohd; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. PMID:25243236

  1. Feature Selection and Classifier Parameters Estimation for EEG Signals Peak Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Asrul; Mohd Tumari, Mohd Zaidi; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. PMID:25243236

  2. Sulfuric acid vapor in the atmosphere of Venus as observed by the Venus Express Radio Science experiment VeRa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschlisniok, Janusz; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia; Bird, Mike; Andert, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The cloud deck within Venus' atmosphere, which covers the entire planet between approx. 50 and 70 km altitude, consists mostly of liquid and gaseous sulfuric acid. The gaseous part increases strongly just below the main clouds and builds an approx. 15 km thick haze layer of H2SO4. This region is responsible for a strong absorption of radio waves as seen in VeRa radio science observations. The amount of the absorption, which is used to derive the abundance of gaseous sulfuric acid, depends on the signal frequency. VeRa probed the atmosphere of Venus between 2006 and 2015 with radio signals at 13 cm (S-band) and 3.6 cm (X-band) wavelengths. We present H2SO4 profiles derived from S-band and X-band absorption during the first occultation season in 2006. The comparison of the H2SO4 profiles derived from both frequency bands provides a reliable picture of the H2SO4 abundance. Distinct differences in the S- and X-band profiles may give a clue to increased SO2 abundances. The derived VeRa results shall be compared with results provided by other experiments onboard Venus Express as well as with previous missions.

  3. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  4. Statistical modelling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

  5. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  6. Proposed reliability cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  7. Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, D. Phillip

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

  8. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  9. The comparative kinetics of Ca, Sr, And Ra in a freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of {sup 45}Ca, {sup 47}Ca, {sup 88}Sr, and {sup 226}Ra was studied in the yellow-bellied slider, a common freshwater turtle of the Southeastern US. The author was particularly interested in testing the hypothesis of competitive inhibition, a concept whereby decreasing the intake of a stable dietary element increases the absorption and retention of chemically similar radionuclides. He established four specific hypotheses and examined the processes of absorption and elimination as a function of stable dietary calcium (2 and 20 mg g{sup {minus}1}), season (summer, fall, winter and spring), and age and sex of the animals (hatchlings, juveniles, adult males, adult females, and gravid females). Turtles were gavaged with radionuclides and the gamma-emitting isotopes were detected during serial whole-body counts performed on the live animals for up to 480 d. The analysis of the beta-emitting {sup 45}Ca was accomplished by chemical separation procedures. Data were fit to a two-component exponential retention model by nonlinear regression. The 10-fold reduction in dietary Ca did not affect the elimination rate constants, and increased the assimilation of Sr and Ra only within juveniles. For all animals the absorption of Ca was significantly greater than Sr, and likewise, Sr was greater than Ra. Mean absorptions were generally higher than values reported for other organisms. Unlike many other organisms, absorption rates did not decline at maturity. He suspects that high Ca demands in constructing and maintaining the massive shell, necessitated by the turtle's survival strategy, may contribute to the high absorption, as well as the lack of a decline at maturity. Elimination rate constants were greatest in the summer and declined to levels that were generally not distinguishable from zero in the spring, winter, and fall seasons.

  10. Comparison of radon fluxes with gamma-radiation exposure rates and soil /sup 226/Ra concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, V.W.

    1984-04-01

    Radon fluxes and contact gamma-radiation-exposure rates were measured at the grid points of rectangular grids on three properties in Edgemont, South Dakota that were known to have deposits of residual radioactivity relatively near to the surface. The coefficient of determination, r/sup 2/, between the radon fluxes and the contact gamma-radiation-exposure rates varied from 0.89 to 0.31 for the three properties. The property having the highest fluxes and residual radioactivity of relatively uniform depth showed the highest correlation between fluxes and exposure rates, and the property having residual radioactivity that varied considerably in depth showed the lowest. Correlations between fluxes and /sup 226/Ra concentrations measured in boreholes that varied in depth from 60 to 195 cm were lower than those between fluxes and exposure rates, indicating that exposure rates are better than /sup 226/Ra measurements for detecting elevated radon fluxes from near-surface deposits. Measurements made on one property at two different times indicated that if the average flux were determined from a large number (40) of measurements at one time, the average flux at a later time could be estimated from a few measurements using the assumption that the change in the flux at individual locations will be equal to the change in the average flux. Flux measurements around two buildings showing elevated indoor radon-daughter concentrations, but around which no residual radioactivity had been discovered by /sup 226/Ra and gamma-radiation measurements, provided no clear indication of the presence of such material, possibly because none was present.

  11. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  12. Software reliability perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry; Shen, Wenhui

    1987-01-01

    Software which is used in life critical functions must be known to be highly reliable before installation. This requires a strong testing program to estimate the reliability, since neither formal methods, software engineering nor fault tolerant methods can guarantee perfection. Prior to the final testing software goes through a debugging period and many models have been developed to try to estimate reliability from the debugging data. However, the existing models are poorly validated and often give poor performance. This paper emphasizes the fact that part of their failures can be attributed to the random nature of the debugging data given to these models as input, and it poses the problem of correcting this defect as an area of future research.

  13. Plasma IL-1Ra: linking hyperapoB to risk factors for type 2 diabetes independent of obesity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, S; Saint-Pierre, N; Lamantia, V; Cyr, Y; Wassef, H; Faraj, M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: Plasma apoB predicts the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the link between apoB-linpoproteins and risks for T2D remain unclear. Insulin resistance (IR) and compensatory hyperinsulinemia characterize prediabetes, and the involvement of an activated interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, mainly IL-1β and its receptor antagonist (IL-Ra), is well documented. ApoB-lipoproteins were reported to promote IL-1β secretion in immune cells; however, in vivo evidence is lacking. We hypothesized that obese subjects with hyperapoB have an activated IL-1 system that explains hyperinsulinemia and IR in these subjects. Subjects/Methods: We examined 81 well-characterized normoglycemic men and postmenopausal women (⩾27 kg m−2, 45–74 years, non-smokers, sedentary, free of chronic disease). Insulin secretion and sensitivity were measured by the gold-standard Botnia clamp, which is a combination of a 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) followed by 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Results: Plasma IL-1β was near detection limit (0.071–0.216 pg ml−1), while IL-1Ra accumulated at 1000-folds higher (77–1068 pg ml−1). Plasma apoB (0.34–1.80 g l−1) associated significantly with hypersinsulinemia (totalIVGTT: C-peptide r=0.27, insulin r=0.22), IR (M/I=−0.29) and plasma IL-1Ra (r=0.26) but not with IL-1β. Plasma IL-1Ra associated with plasma IL-1β (r=0.40), and more strongly with hyperinsulinemia and IR than apoB, while the association of plasma IL-1β was limited to second phase and total insulin secretion (r=0.23). Adjusting the association of plasma apoB to hyperinsulinemia and IR for IL-1Ra eliminated these associations. Furthermore, despite equivalent body composition, subjects with hyperapoB (⩾80th percentile, 1.14 g l−1) had higher C-peptide secretion and lower insulin sensitivity than those with low plasma apoB (⩽20th percentile, 0.78 g l−1). Adjustment for plasma IL-1 Ra eliminated all

  14. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  15. Materials reliability issues in microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.R. ); Yost, F.G. ); Ho, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of a MRS symposium on materials reliability in microelectronics. Topics include: electromigration; stress effects on reliability; stress and packaging; metallization; device, oxide and dielectric reliability; new investigative techniques; and corrosion.

  16. 76 FR 63701 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Johan Zoffany RA: Society...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed,''...

  17. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Susan J.; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Duncan, Trisha; DeLeon, Elaine; Ruffing, Victoria; Clegg-Smith, Katherine; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Consecutive patients (N = 177) in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs) and a short form (SF) assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach’s alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA. Results Participants were mostly female (82%) and white (83%) with mean (SD) age of 56 (13) years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho’s ≥ 0.68) with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725–.883, and Cronbach’s alpha from .906–.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger. Conclusions These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes. PMID:26379233

  18. An interactive program for software reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, W. H.; Smith, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    With the tremendous growth in computer software, the demand has arisen for producing cost effective reliable software. Over the last 10 years an area of research has developed which attempts to address this problem by estimating a program's current reliability by modeling either the times between error detections or the error counts in past testing periods. A new tool for interactive software reliability analysis using the computer is described. This computer program allows the user to perform a complete reliability analysis using any of eight well-known models appearing in the literature. Some of the capabilities of the program are illustrated by means of an analysis of a set of simulated error data.

  19. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in /sup 225/Ra, /sup 225/Ac, and /sup 227/Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in /sup 225/Ra and /sup 225/Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in /sup 227/Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  20. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  1. Designing reliability into accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ``factories,`` reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis.

  2. Designing reliability into accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis.

  3. Software reliability report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry

    1991-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Unfortunately, the models appear to be unable to account for the random nature of the data. If the same code is debugged multiple times and one of the models is used to make predictions, intolerable variance is observed in the resulting reliability predictions. It is believed that data replication can remove this variance in lab type situations and that it is less than scientific to talk about validating a software reliability model without considering replication. It is also believed that data replication may prove to be cost effective in the real world, thus the research centered on verification of the need for replication and on methodologies for generating replicated data in a cost effective manner. The context of the debugging graph was pursued by simulation and experimentation. Simulation was done for the Basic model and the Log-Poisson model. Reasonable values of the parameters were assigned and used to generate simulated data which is then processed by the models in order to determine limitations on their accuracy. These experiments exploit the existing software and program specimens which are in AIR-LAB to measure the performance of reliability models.

  4. Software Reliability Measurement Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a recent study of software reliability measurement methods that was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The first section of the chapter, sections 8.1, summarizes the study, characterizes the participating projects, describes the available data, and summarizes the tudy's results.

  5. Reliable solar cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Magney, G.K.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the activities of SERVE, a Christian relief and development agency, to introduce solar ovens to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. It has provided 5,000 solar cookers since 1984. The experience has demonstrated the potential of the technology and the need for a durable and reliable product. Common complaints about the cookers are discussed and the ideal cooker is described.

  6. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  7. Nonparametric Methods in Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Myles; Peña, Edsel A.

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic and statistical models for the occurrence of a recurrent event over time are described. These models have applicability in the reliability, engineering, biomedical and other areas where a series of events occurs for an experimental unit as time progresses. Nonparametric inference methods, in particular, the estimation of a relevant distribution function, are described. PMID:16710444

  8. An improved limit on the EDM of 225 Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2016-05-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) are sensitive probes of symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225 Ra (t1/2 = 15 days, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its octupole-deformed nucleus, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large nuclear charge make 225 Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015, we reported the first ``proof of principle'' measurement of the 225 Ra EDM, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5* 10-22 e-cm; representing the first EDM measurement using laser-trapped atoms as well as the first EDM measurement of an atom with an octupole-deformed nucleus. After implementing upgrades to our apparatus, we now observe nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement. A new EDM measurement based on the upgraded system improved the 95% confidence upper limit by a factor of 36. We also report on the progress of current experimental upgrades that have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Search for a Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of 225Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Mukut Ranjan

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in a non-degenerate system would indicate the violation of discrete symmetries of Time reversal (T) or combined application of Charge (C) and Parity (P) symmetry violation through the CPT theorem. The diamagnetic 225Ra atom with nuclear spin I=1/2 is a favorable candidate for an EDM search. Experimental sensitivity to its EDM is enhanced due to its high atomic mass and the increased Schiff moment of its octupole deformed nucleus. An experimental setup is developed where laser cooled neutral radium atoms are collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The collected atoms are transported 1 meter with a far off-resonant optical dipole trap (ODT) and then the atoms are transferred to a second standing-wave ODT in an experimental chamber. The atoms are then optically polarized and allowed to Larmor precess in parallel and antiparallel electric and magnetic fields. The difference between the Larmor precession frequency for parallel and antiparallel fields is experimentally determined to measure the EDM. This thesis is about the first measurement of the EDM of the 225Ra atom where an upper limit of |d(225Ra)| < 5.0 x 10-22 e·cm (95% confidence) is reached. Keywords: Permanent EDM, CP violation, laser cooling and trapping, rare isotopes, radium.

  10. Human IL2RA null mutation mediates immunodeficiency with lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Goudy, Kevin; Aydin, Didem; Barzaghi, Federica; Gambineri, Eleonora; Vignoli, Marina; Mannurita, Sara Ciullini; Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Assanelli, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto; Brigida, Immacolata; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Martino, Silvana; Olek, Sven; Aiuti, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Cell-surface CD25 expression is critical for maintaining immune function and homeostasis. As in few reported cases, CD25 deficiency manifests with severe autoimmune enteritis and viral infections. To dissect the underlying immunological mechanisms driving these symptoms, we analyzed the regulatory and effector T cell functions in a CD25 deficient patient harboring a novel IL2RA mutation. Pronounced lymphoproliferation, mainly of the CD8+ T cells, was detected together with an increase in T cell activation markers and elevated serum cytokines. However, Ag-specific responses were impaired in vivo and in vitro. Activated CD8+STAT5+ T cells with lytic potential infiltrated the skin, even though FOXP3+ Tregs were present and maintained a higher capacity to respond to IL-2 compared to other T-cell subsets. Thus, the complex pathogenesis of CD25 deficiency provides invaluable insight into the role of IL2/IL-2RA-dependent regulation in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23416241

  11. Activity standardisation of ²²⁶Ra by 4πα liquid scintillation counting method.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav; Bluďovský, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4πα liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1. The sources were prepared from solution with known (226)Ra mass concentration, from which, immediately before LS counting, (222)Rn and its daughter nuclides were removed by solvent extraction. LS counting results were corrected practically only for a <0.6% loss of radium from measured sample and for the ingrowth of (222)Rn and (218)Po concentrations in the sample after the separation was completed. The combined relative standard uncertainty was estimated to be lower than 0.34%. PMID:23602705

  12. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  13. The Effect of Stopping Smoking on Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Data from BARFOT, a Multicenter Study of Early RA

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria LE; Bergman, Stefan; Söderlin, Maria K

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We studied the effect of stopping smoking on disease activity in patients with RA. Methods: Between 1992 and 2005, 2,800 adult patients were included in the BARFOT early RA study in Sweden. Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28), C-reactive protein (CRP), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-CCP, general health and pain visual analog scales (VAS), EULAR response and treatment were registered at inclusion and at follow-up 2, 5 and 8 years. In 2010, a self-completion postal questionnaire was sent to 2,102 patients, enquiring about lifestyle factors, including cessation of smoking. Results: A total of 1,460 adult RA patients with disease duration ≤2 years were included in this study. Seventeen percent smoked in 2010. In total, 127 patients stopped smoking after inclusion in the study. Smoking cessation after inclusion in the study was negatively associated with EULAR good outcome at 8 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22–0.86, p=0.02), controlled for age, disease duration, sex, socioeconomic class, smoking status, RF, and DAS28 at inclusion. Conclusion: Seventeen percent of the RA patients smoked in 2010 in this large Swedish RA cohort. Stopping smoking after onset of RA did not change the poor prognosis of smokers with RA, but all RA patients need to stop smoking because of the high risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and the association of smoking with vasculitis and noduli in RA. PMID:23115602

  14. Family-based association study of interleukin 10 (IL10) and interleukin 10 receptor alpha (IL10RA) functional polymorphisms in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2016-08-15

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder and its etiology remains incompletely elucidated. Among possible causes, immunological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis and course. Interleukin-10 (IL10) and it's receptor IL10RA may play an important role for immunological aspects in etiologies of major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to perform a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on a group of 146 schizophrenia trios from the Polish population. Functional polymorphisms from IL10 (rs1800872, rs1800871, rs1800896, rs1800890, and rs6676671) and IL10RA (rs3135932 and rs2229113) genes were analyzed. A lack of association with schizophrenia was detected for IL10 and IL10RA single polymorphisms and haplotypes. PMID:27397081

  15. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  16. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Comparison of Canal Transportation after Preparation with BioRaCe and Mtwo Rotary Instruments and Hand K-Flexofiles

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Niknami, Mahdi; Sohrabi, Aydin; Habibivand, Ehsan; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Zand, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the transportation of mesiobuccal canals of mandibular first molars prepared with either BioRaCe or Mtwo rotary instruments or hand K-Flexofile, by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Forty-five mandibular molars were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n=15). Mesiobuccal roots of these teeth were prepared by BioRaCe, Mtwo, or hand K-Flexofile. Transportation was measured by pre- and post-operative CBCT images. Two-way ANOVA analysis was applied to detect any differences between the groups followed by the post hoc Tukey’s tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The non-parametric Friedman test was used to compare the behavior of each file at 3-, 6- and 9-mm levels. There were no significant differences between different levels in Mtwo group (P=0.15); however, the differences in K-Flexofile and BioRaCe groups were significant (P>0.05). The post hoc Tukey’s test revealed significant differences between BioRaCe and K-Flexofile and also between Mtwo and K-Flexofile, both in the 3-mm depths (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, BioRaCe and Mtwo rotary instruments are considered suitable for canal preparation to greater apical sizes provided that the recommended sequences are observed. PMID:25031590

  17. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  18. Data networks reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallager, Robert G.

    1988-10-01

    The research from 1984 to 1986 on Data Network Reliability had the objective of developing general principles governing the reliable and efficient control of data networks. The research was centered around three major areas: congestion control, multiaccess networks, and distributed asynchronous algorithms. The major topics within congestion control were the use of flow control algorithms. The major topics within congestion control were the use of flow control to reduce congestion and the use of routing to reduce congestion. The major topics within multiaccess networks were the communication properties of multiaccess channels, collision resolution, and packet radio networks. The major topics within asynchronous distributed algorithms were failure recovery, time vs. communication tradeoffs, and the general theory of distributed algorithms.

  19. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  20. Reliability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of photovoltaic modules, four categories of known array failure and degradation mechanisms are discussed, and target reliability allocations have been developed within each category based on the available technology and the life-cycle-cost requirements of future large-scale terrestrial applications. Cell-level failure mechanisms associated with open-circuiting or short-circuiting of individual solar cells generally arise from cell cracking or the fatigue of cell-to-cell interconnects. Power degradation mechanisms considered include gradual power loss in cells, light-induced effects, and module optical degradation. Module-level failure mechanisms and life-limiting wear-out mechanisms are also explored.

  1. Compact, Reliable EEPROM Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2010-01-01

    A compact, reliable controller for an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has been developed specifically for a space-flight application. The design may be adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for reliability in general and, in particular, for prevention of inadvertent writing of data in EEPROM cells. Inadvertent writes pose risks of loss of reliability in the original space-flight application and could pose such risks in other applications. Prior EEPROM controllers are large and complex and do not provide all reasonable protections (in many cases, few or no protections) against inadvertent writes. In contrast, the present controller provides several layers of protection against inadvertent writes. The controller also incorporates a write-time monitor, enabling determination of trends in the performance of an EEPROM through all phases of testing. The controller has been designed as an integral subsystem of a system that includes not only the controller and the controlled EEPROM aboard a spacecraft but also computers in a ground control station, relatively simple onboard support circuitry, and an onboard communication subsystem that utilizes the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD- 1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) The intent was to both maximize reliability while minimizing the size and complexity of onboard circuitry. In operation, control of the EEPROM is effected via the ground computers, the MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem, and the onboard support circuitry, all of which, in combination, provide the multiple layers of protection against inadvertent writes. There is no controller software, unlike in many prior EEPROM controllers; software can be a major contributor to unreliability, particularly in fault

  2. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  3. Reliability and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Reliability and its interdependence with testing are important topics for development and manufacturing of successful products. This generally accepted fact is not only a technical statement, but must be also seen in the light of 'Human Factors.' While the background for this paper is the experience gained with electromechanical/electronic space products, including control and system considerations, it is believed that the content could be also of interest for other fields.

  4. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  5. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  6. Reliability of Trunk Muscle Electromyography in the Loaded Back Squat Exercise.

    PubMed

    Clark, D; Lambert, M I; Hunter, A M

    2016-06-01

    Trunk muscle activation (TMA) has been reported during back squat exercise, however reliability and sensitivity to different loads alongside kinematic measures has not. Hence the aim was to determine the interday reliability and load sensitivity of TMA and kinematics during back squats. 10 males performed 3 test sessions: 1) back squat 1RM, 2) and 3) 3 reps at 65, 75, 85 and 95% of system mass max (SMmax). Kinematics were measured from an electrogoniometer and linear transducer, and surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded 4 muscles of the trunk: rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES) and lumbar sacral erector spinae (LSES), and a reference leg muscle, the vastus lateralus (VL). sEMG amplitude was root mean squared (RMS). No differences (p>0.05) found between tests for any kinematic and RMS data. CV demonstrated moderate interday reliability (~16.1%) for EO, LSES and ULES but not RA (29.4%) during the velocity-controlled eccentric phase; whereas it was moderately acceptable for just LSES and ULES (~17.8%) but not RA and EO (27.9%) during the uncontrolled concentric phase. This study demonstrated acceptable interday reliability for kinematic data while sEMG for most trunk muscle sites was moderately acceptable during controlled contraction. sEMG responded significantly to load. PMID:26928915

  7. 226Ra or 226Ra/Ba dating of Holocene volcanic rocks: application to Mt. Etna and Merapi volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condomines, M.; Gauthier, P. J.; Tanguy, J. C.; Gertisser, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Berthommier, P.; Camus, G.

    2005-02-01

    This paper shows how 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria can be used to date Holocene volcanic rocks from some well selected volcanoes. A systematic study of these disequilibria on historical or well-dated volcanic samples is indeed first required to test the applicability of this method. Two examples are described here to illustrate its potential. In the case of Mt. Etna, the good correlation observed between ( 226Ra) 0 activities at the time of eruption and Th contents in lava flows from the last two millennia [M. Condomines, J.C. Tanguy, V. Michaud, Magma dynamics at Mt. Etna: constraints from U-Th-Ra-Pb radioactive disequilibria and Sr isotopes in historical lavas, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 132 (1995) 25-41] is used to infer the ages of several newly analysed lava flows. The calculated ages are in good agreement with those deduced from the archaeomagnetic curve describing the variation of the geomagnetic field direction in southern Italy [J.C. Tanguy, I. Bucur, J.F.C. Thompson, Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mt. Etna, Nature 318 (1985) 453-455, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, C. Principe, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Variation séculaire de la direction du champ géomagnétique enregistrée par les laves de l'Etna et du Vésuve pendant les deux derniers millénaires, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 329 (1999) 557-564, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, C. Principe, S. Arrighi, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Archaeomagnetic dating of Mediterranean volcanics of the last 2100 years: validity and limits. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 211 (2003) 111-124]. We also present a whole set of new U-series data on historical, recent, and older samples from Merapi (Indonesia), and show that the ( 226Ra)/Ba ratio has probably maintained a quasi-steady state value during at least the past four millennia, and can be used to infer the ( 226Ra) 0/Ba ratio of old volcanics at the time of eruption, and thus their ages. Comparison with

  8. Hearing Pygmalion's Kiss: A Scientific Object at the Paris Opéra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    In 1748, in his acte de ballet Pygmalion, composer and music theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau arranged the Paris Opéra orchestra to play "nature's chord," harmonies that reproduced the overtones an expert ear could detect in every natural musical vibrating body. The following year Rameau presented his music theory to the French Royal Academy of Sciences for their endorsement. Disillusionment with the promise of Cartesian mechanics as a source of a unified understanding of nature opened up the possibility that matter might have properties beyond extension and motion, such as aversion, desire, and memory. Speculations about this material sensibility also coincided with increasing claims about the authority of spontaneous emotion and feeling. The experience of music at the opera was a significant resource for claims about the cultural authority of sensibility.

  9. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-07

    The concentration of the radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  10. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-186 (Radium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-186 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 186).

  12. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  13. CR reliability testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.

  14. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in soil samples from Garhwal Himalaya, India, and its radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Badoni, Manjari; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Ramachandran, T V

    2008-09-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Natural radionuclides are widely distributed in various geological formations and ecosystems such as rocks, soil groundwater and foodstuffs. In the present study, the distribution of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was measured in soil samples collected from different lithological units of the Thauldhar and Budhakedar regions of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The collected soil samples were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in these soil samples were found to vary from below detection level (BDL) to 131 +/- 18 Bq kg(-1), 9 +/- 6 to 384 +/- 53 Bq kg(-1) and 471 +/- 96 to 1406 +/- 175 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The distribution of radionuclides depends upon the rock formation and chemical properties within the earth. The activity concentrations vary widely depending on the sample origin. The external absorbed gamma dose rates due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to vary from 49 to 306 nGy h(-1). The average radium equivalent activity from these soil samples was 300 Bq kg(-1). PMID:18714132

  15. Ferrite logic reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)

  16. Fault Tree Reliability Analysis and Design-for-reliability

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-05

    WinR provides a fault tree analysis capability for performing systems reliability and design-for-reliability analyses. The package includes capabilities for sensitivity and uncertainity analysis, field failure data analysis, and optimization.

  17. On Component Reliability and System Reliability for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Sampson, Michael J.; Hodson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliability analysis and system reliability analysis need to be evaluated at the same time, and the limitations of each analysis and the relationship between the two analyses need to be understood.

  18. Reliability of thermal quantitative sensory testing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Niamh A; Hall, Toby M; Doody, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    The use of quantitative sensory testing (QST) has become more widespread, with increasing focus on describing somatosensory profiles and pain mechanisms. However, the reliability of thermal QST has yet to be established. We systematically searched the literature using key medical databases. Independent reviewers evaluated reliability data using the Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies checklist. Of the 21 studies we included in this review, we deemed 5 to have high methodological quality. Narrative analysis revealed that estimates of reliability varied considerably, but overall, the reliability of cold and warm detection thresholds ranged from poor to excellent, while heat and cold pain thresholds ranged from fair to excellent. The methodological quality of research investigating the reliability of thermal QST warrants improvement, particularly in terms of appropriate blinding. The results from this review showed considerable variability in the reliability of each thermal QST parameter. PMID:22773522

  19. Determination of the real effect of genes identified in GWAS: the example of IL2RA in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Babron, Marie-Claude; Perdry, Hervé; Handel, Adam E; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Damotte, Vincent; Fontaine, Bertrand; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Ebers, George C; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), although efficient to detect genes involved in complex diseases, are not designed to measure the real effect of the genes. This is illustrated here by the example of IL2RA in multiple sclerosis (MS). Association between IL2RA and MS is clearly established, although the functional variation is still unknown: the effect of IL2RA might be better described by several SNPs than by a single one. This study investigates whether a pair of SNPs better explains the observed linkage and association data than a single SNP. In total, 522 trio families and 244 affected sib-pairs were typed for 26 IL2RA SNPs. For each SNP and pairs of SNPs, the phased genotypes of patients and controls were compared to determine the SNP set offering the best risk discrimination. Consistency between the genotype risks provided by the retained set and the identical by descent allele sharing in affected sib-pairs was assessed. After controlling for multiple testing, the set of SNPs rs2256774 and rs3118470, provides the best discrimination between the case and control genotype distributions (P-corrected=0.009). The relative risk between the least and most at-risk genotypes is 3.54 with a 95% confidence interval of [2.14-5.94]. Furthermore, the linkage information provided by the allele sharing between affected sibs is consistent with the retained set (P=0.80) but rejects the SNP reported in the literature (P=0.006). Establishing a valid modeling of a disease gene is essential to test its potential interaction with other genes and to reconstruct the pathophysiological pathways. PMID:22085902

  20. Influence of melatonin on IL-1Ra gene and IL-1 expression in rats with liver ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, HONG; JIANG, CHUNHUI; GU, LEI; LIU, YE; SUN, LONGCI; XU, QING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of melatonin (MT) on rats with liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and its mechanism. A total of 66 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: i) Normal control group, ii) ischemia reperfusion group (IR group) and iii) melatonin treatment group (MT group). Rats in the MT group were administered an intraperitoneal injection of MT (10 mg/kg, 1 ml) at 70 and 35 min before ischemia, early reperfusion, and 1 and 2 h after reperfusion, respectively. Blood was removed at the normal time-point (prior to any processes), 35 min before ischemia, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after reperfusion. Subsequently the rats were sacrificed. The pathological changes of liver tissues, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene and IL-1 expression levels were detected. There were no evident differences between the immediate reperfusion and 2 h IR group and MT group. The liver structure injury of the 4, 8 and 24 h MT groups were improved to various differences compared to the corresponding IR group; liver IL-1β of the MT group at 35 min after ischemia, and 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after reperfusion was evidently lower than that of the IR group (P<0.05); IL-1Ra mRNA expression in the 2 h MT group was higher compared to the 2 h IR group by 4.85-fold; and IL-1Ra mRNA expression in the 4 h MT group was higher compared to the 4 h IR group by 9.34-fold. Differences between two groups at other time-points were <2-fold. In conclusion, MT can upregulate IL-1Ra gene expression by reducing generation of IL-1 thus reducing IRI. PMID:27284404

  1. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  2. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  3. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  4. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  5. 226Ra/238U disequilibrium in an upland organic soil exhibiting elevated natural radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Mark; O'Dea, John

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into the anomalous 226Ra/238U disequilibrium (226Ra/238U of 0.5-9) exhibited by an upland organic soil in Co. Donegal, Ireland. Radiochemical speciation of 226Ra, 238U and 225Ra indicates that in this organic soil the high 226Ra/238U ratio is due to loss of 235U relative to 226Ra via oxidation and mobilisation of 238U in the upper layers of the soil and subsequent loss in solution. At the lower, more reducing depths of the soil profile, 238U and 226Ra are essentially in equilibrium. Loss of 238U appears to occur primarily from the easily oxidised organic and iron oxide fractions of the soil, samples exhibiting high 226Ra/238U ratios displaying significantly lower 238U levels in these fractions than samples whose ratio is below the average value for the soil of the valley. Selective enrichment of 226Ra by plants or preferential leaching of 226Ra from the underlying rock is not supported by the results of this study. PMID:11848154

  6. Smoking and Subclinical ILD in RA versus the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheilonda; Giles, Jon T; Bathon, Joan; Lederer, David; Hoffman, Eric A; Barr, R Graham; Danoff, Sonye K

    2016-01-01

    A population-based cohort showed an association between cigarette smoking and subclinical parenchymal lung disease defined as regions of increased computed tomography (CT) lung densitometry. This technique has not been applied to the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population where associated ILD is highly prevalent. The association between cumulative cigarette smoking and volume of areas of high attenuation (HAA: >-600 and <-250 Hounsfield Units) on full inspiratory CT was compared in 172 RA participants and 3,969 controls in a general population sample. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for demography, anthropometrics, percent emphysema, and CT parameters. The mean cumulative cigarette smoking exposure was 25 (IQR 10-42) and 15(IQR 5-31) pack-years for the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Mean HAA was 153(±57) cm3 and 129(±50) cm3 in the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Each 10 cigarette pack-year increment was associated with a higher HAA by 0.03% (95% CI, 0.007-0.05%) in RA patients and by 0.008% (95% CI, 0.003-0.01%) in those without RA (interaction p = 0.001). Cigarette smoking was associated with higher lung attenuation; with a magnitude of association more pronounced in those with RA than in the general population. These data suggest that cigarette smoking may be a more potent ILD risk factor for RA patients than in the general population. PMID:27050433

  7. Smoking and Subclinical ILD in RA versus the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cheilonda; Giles, Jon T.; Bathon, Joan; Lederer, David; Hoffman, Eric A.; Barr, R. Graham; Danoff, Sonye K.

    2016-01-01

    A population-based cohort showed an association between cigarette smoking and subclinical parenchymal lung disease defined as regions of increased computed tomography (CT) lung densitometry. This technique has not been applied to the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population where associated ILD is highly prevalent. The association between cumulative cigarette smoking and volume of areas of high attenuation (HAA: >-600 and <-250 Hounsfield Units) on full inspiratory CT was compared in 172 RA participants and 3,969 controls in a general population sample. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for demography, anthropometrics, percent emphysema, and CT parameters. The mean cumulative cigarette smoking exposure was 25 (IQR 10–42) and 15(IQR 5–31) pack-years for the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Mean HAA was 153(±57) cm3 and 129(±50) cm3 in the RA and non-RA cohorts, respectively. Each 10 cigarette pack-year increment was associated with a higher HAA by 0.03% (95% CI, 0.007–0.05%) in RA patients and by 0.008% (95% CI, 0.003–0.01%) in those without RA (interaction p = 0.001). Cigarette smoking was associated with higher lung attenuation; with a magnitude of association more pronounced in those with RA than in the general population. These data suggest that cigarette smoking may be a more potent ILD risk factor for RA patients than in the general population. PMID:27050433

  8. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  9. Formal methods and software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2004-01-01

    In this position statement I briefly describe how the software reliability problem has changed over the years, and the primary reasons for the recent creation of the Laboratory for Reliable Software at JPL.

  10. Further discussion on reliability: the art of reliability estimation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B

    2015-01-01

    Sijtsma and van der Ark (2015) focused in their lead article on three frameworks for reliability estimation in nursing research: classical test theory (CTT), factor analysis (FA), and generalizability theory. We extend their presentation with particular attention to CTT and FA methods. We first consider the potential of yielding an overly negative or an overly positive assessment of reliability based on coefficient alpha. Next, we discuss other CTT methods for estimating reliability and how the choice of methods affects the interpretation of the reliability coefficient. Finally, we describe FA methods, which not only permit an understanding of a measure's underlying structure but also yield a variety of reliability coefficients with different interpretations. On a more general note, we discourage reporting reliability as a two-choice outcome--unsatisfactory or satisfactory; rather, we recommend that nursing researchers make a conceptual and empirical argument about when a measure might be more or less reliable, depending on its use. PMID:25738627

  11. Making Reliability Arguments in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Giron, Tilia

    2006-01-01

    Reliability methodology needs to evolve as validity has done into an argument supported by theory and empirical evidence. Nowhere is the inadequacy of current methods more visible than in classroom assessment. Reliability arguments would also permit additional methodologies for evidencing reliability in classrooms. It would liberalize methodology…

  12. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  13. Installation and performance testing of an XtRa-NaI(Tl) Compton Suppression System at the NED-NTUA.

    PubMed

    Savva, M I; Karfopoulos, K L; Karangelos, D J; Anagnostakis, M J; Simopoulos, S E

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the Compton Suppression System, recently installed at the Nuclear Engineering Department of NTUA. The system consists of an XtRa Ge detector coupled with a NaI(Tl) guard detector. The electronic set-up allows for the simultaneous collection of both the suppressed and the unsuppressed spectra. System performance is investigated using certified point and volume sources. Parameters such as Peak Suppression Factors, peak-to-Compton ratios and minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are determined. PMID:24315283

  14. Study of soil-plant transfer of 226Ra under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benesová, Dagmar; Kotyza, Jan; Vágner, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Vanek, Tomás

    2010-06-01

    A soil-plant transfer study was performed using soil from a former uranium ore processing factory in South Bohemia. We present the results from greenhouse experiments which include estimates of the time required for phytoremediation. The accumulation of (226)Ra by different plant species from a mixture of garden soil and contaminated substrate was extremely variable, ranging from 0.03 to 2.20 Bq (226)Ra/g DW. We found differences in accumulation of (226)Ra between plants from the same genus and between cultivars of the same plant species. The results of (226)Ra accumulation showed a linear relation between concentration of (226)Ra in plants and concentration of (226)Ra in soil mixtures. On the basis of these results we estimated the time required for phytoremediation, but this appears to be too long for practical purposes. PMID:18823682

  15. IL2RA and IL7RA genes confer susceptibility for multiple sclerosis in two independent European populations.

    PubMed

    Weber, F; Fontaine, B; Cournu-Rebeix, I; Kroner, A; Knop, M; Lutz, S; Müller-Sarnowski, F; Uhr, M; Bettecken, T; Kohli, M; Ripke, S; Ising, M; Rieckmann, P; Brassat, D; Semana, G; Babron, M-C; Mrejen, S; Gout, C; Lyon-Caen, O; Yaouanq, J; Edan, G; Clanet, M; Holsboer, F; Clerget-Darpoux, F; Müller-Myhsok, B

    2008-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory neurologic disorder diagnosed in young adults and, due to its chronic course, is responsible for a substantial economic burden. MS is considered to be a multifactorial disease in which both genetic and environmental factors intervene. The well-established human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association does not completely explain the genetic impact on disease susceptibility. However, identification and validation of non-HLA-genes conferring susceptibility to MS has proven to be difficult probably because of the small individual contribution of each of these genes. Recently, associations with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL2RA gene (rs12722489, rs2104286) and one SNP in the IL7RA gene (rs6897932) have been reported by several groups. These three SNPs were genotyped in a French and a German population of MS patients using the hME assay by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight technology (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). We show that these SNPs do contribute to the risk of MS in these two unrelated European MS patient populations with odds ratios varying from 1.1 to 1.5. The discovery and validation of new genetic risk factors in independent populations may help toward the understanding of MS pathogenesis by providing valuable information on biological pathways to be investigated. PMID:18354419

  16. Laser-trapping of {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.; Physics; Enrico Fermi Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-02-27

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 1} is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 0} level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  17. Thermoluminescence and excess 226Ra decay dating of late Quaternary fluvial sands, East Alligator River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew; Wohl, Ellen; East, Jon

    1992-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was applied to seven samples of siliceous fluvial sands from the East Alligator River of Northern Australia, giving ages ranging from modern to 6000 yr B.P. Two methods of estimating the equivalent dose (ED), total bleach and regenerative, were applied to the 90- to 125-μm quartz fraction of the samples in order to determine the reliability and internal consistency of the technique. High-resolution γ and α spectroscopy were used to measure radionuclide contents; these measurements revealed an excess 226Ra activity compared with 230Th. This excess decreased with depth, and was used directly to derive mean sedimentation rates, and thus sediment ages. Both this method and one 14C date confirmed the validity of the TL values, which increased systematically with depth and were consistent with site stratigraphy. TL was of limited use in the dating of these late Holocene deposits because of age uncertainties of 500 to 1600 yr, resulting from a significant residual ED. This residual probably resulted from incomplete bleaching during reworking upstream of the sampling site. For Pleistocene deposits, the residual ED will be less significant because of higher total EDs, and TL dates will be correspondingly more accurate.

  18. Production of Ra225 precursor for Ac225/Bi213 generators. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    Russian subcontractors shipped two small deliveries of Ra225 to PNNL for evaluation. The activity was close to the requisite amount in the subcontract. The first labeled properly; the second did not. This showed that the Russians could supply Ra225 to the US; however they proved unable to meet future demands for larger amounts of activity. The US DOE attempts to get Ra225 from Russian should be terminated; the Russians, under Rosatom, are not interested in this business.

  19. Monolithic ceramic capacitors for high reliability applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornley, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic multi-layer ceramic dielectric capacitors are widely used in high reliability applications in spacecraft, launch vehicles, and military equipment. Their relatively low cost, wide range of values, and package styles are attractive features that result in high usage in electronic circuitry in these applications. Design and construction of monolithic ceramic dielectric capacitors, defects that can lead to failure, and methods for defect detection that are being incorporated in military specifications are discussed.

  20. Flow rates and reaction rates in the Galapagos Rise spreading center hydrothermal system as inferred from 228Ra/226Ra in vesicomyid clam shells

    PubMed Central

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    1986-01-01

    The 228Ra/226Ra ratios in a previously dated vesicomyid clam shell were used to determine that seawater was in contact with mid-oceanic-ridge basalt glass for 22-45 years prior to arrival to the surface at 350°C at the Galapagos Rise Spreading Center. The minimum rate of reaction for the 45-year sojourn time, based on a water/rock ratio of 2.8 derived from 226Ra concentrations, is 8 g of basalt altered per kg of seawater per year. PMID:16593746

  1. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, Franziska; Jahn, Patrick; Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk; Jordan, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  2. Fault tolerant highly reliable inertial navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeerage, Mahesh; Boettcher, Kevin

    This paper describes a development of failure detection and isolation (FDI) strategies for highly reliable inertial navigation systems. FDI strategies are developed based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT). A relationship between detection threshold and false alarm rate is developed in terms of the sensor parameters. A new method for correct isolation of failed sensors is presented. Evaluation of FDI performance parameters, such as false alarm rate, wrong isolation probability, and correct isolation probability, are presented. Finally a fault recovery scheme capable of correcting false isolation of good sensors is presented.

  3. ENVISAT RA-2/MWR Cross-Calibration and Validation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Ra-2/Mwr Cross-Calibration; Validation Team

    2003-04-01

    ESA launched its environmental research satellite, ENVISAT, on 1 March 2002. It carries a suite of 10 instruments offering opportunities for a broad range of scientific research and applications. In particular ENVISAT carries a radar altimeter (RA-2), a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a precise tracking system (DORIS). The evaluation of the quality of the ENVISAT Altimetry geophysical data products, the validation against in-situ data and models and the cross-calibration on ERS-2 and other flying altimeters has been performed during the commissioning phase within a team of scientists drawn up from the pre-launch announcement of opportunity. An overview of the objective and approach will be recalled and the results obtained from this teamwork will be presented.

  4. Massive Resurfacing of the Ionian Volcano Ra Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Four views of the volcano Ra Patera on Jupiter's moon Io showing changes seen on June 27th, 1996 by the Galileo spacecraft as compared to views seen by the Voyager spacecraft during the 1979 flybys. Clockwise from upper left is a Voyager 1 high resolution image, a Voyager 1 color image, a Galileo color image, and a Voyager 2 color image. North is to the top of the picture. Observations obtained by J. Spencer and others with the Hubble Space Telescope had indicated a major change in recent years. The Galileo images reveal the detailed morphology of new deposits. Dark materials, previously confined to a summit caldera, appear to have overflowed the caldera walls to produce a small flow to the south and a larger flow to the southeast. New bright deposits covering an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (the size of New Jersey) surround the dark materials. The morphology of the bright materials suggests emplacement as lava flows rather than pyroclastics. Notice the lobate margins and how the bright materials embay a plateau in the upper left. The Voyager 1 images also reveal relatively bright lava flows emanating from Ra Patera, especially to the northeast. The colors of the flows match those of sulfur plus SO2 frost. Images are 953 km wide. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. Computational methods for efficient structural reliability and reliability sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments in efficient structural reliability analysis methods. The paper proposes an efficient, adaptive importance sampling (AIS) method that can be used to compute reliability and reliability sensitivities. The AIS approach uses a sampling density that is proportional to the joint PDF of the random variables. Starting from an initial approximate failure domain, sampling proceeds adaptively and incrementally with the goal of reaching a sampling domain that is slightly greater than the failure domain to minimize over-sampling in the safe region. Several reliability sensitivity coefficients are proposed that can be computed directly and easily from the above AIS-based failure points. These probability sensitivities can be used for identifying key random variables and for adjusting design to achieve reliability-based objectives. The proposed AIS methodology is demonstrated using a turbine blade reliability analysis problem.

  6. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Barthold, W.P.

    1992-07-01

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.

  7. U, Ra and Ba incorporation during precipitation of hydrothermal carbonates: Implications for {sup 226}Ra-Ba dating of impure travertines

    SciTech Connect

    Rihs, S.; Condomines, M.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2000-02-01

    The authors studied U, Ra and Ba incorporation in calcite in a natural CO{sub 2}-rich hydrothermal area from the French Massif Central. Along the western border of the Limagne graben, several springs are exploited for the petrification of various artifacts with calcite. These sites offer the opportunity to sample the water and the calcite layers downflow from the spring, and thus to follow the evolution of their U, Ra and Ba contents as precipitation proceeds. Results show that the apparent partition coefficients of U, Ra and Ba between water and calcite decrease during precipitation for the three elements. The authors found no direct relation between this variation and the main factors able to influence the partition coefficient, such as precipitation rate, which suggests that the incorporation of these trace elements could result from a composite process of adsorption and coprecipitation. Ra and Ba have a similar behavior, with an apparent partition coefficient decreasing from 0.80 to 0.47 for Ra and 0.96 to 0.68 for Ba, resulting in a small ({le}10%) variation of the Ra/Ba ratio. The apparent partition coefficient of U decreases from 0.38 to 0.20. These apparent coefficients are much higher than equilibrium values but might be applicable to natural systems with high precipitation rates. The authors also investigated the possibility of using the decay of the {sup 226}Ra-excess, or the decrease of the ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba ratio to date older deposits. Whereas the {sup 226}Ra initial activity at the time of deposition has not remained constant, and cannot be used for dating, the ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba method gives better results, when appropriate corrections for detrital contamination in Ba are made. Mixing diagrams using Th as an indicator of contamination allow calculation of the ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba ratio of the pure carbonate component. The calculated ages of five travertine layers range from 330 to 800 years, suggesting a mean deposition rate of about 1 cm/yr. The

  8. Distribution of (223)Ra and (224)Ra in the Bo Sea embayment in Tianjin and its implication of submarine groundwater discharge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Yi, Lixin; Cheng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. In this study, in order to analyze the distribution of naturally occurring short-lived radium isotopes and the relative SGD effect in Bo Sea embayment, (223)Ra and (224)Ra were measured in three parts of the embayment with the radium-delayed coincidence counting (RaDeCC) system. Subsequently, the mixing process was studied by the calculation of diffusion coefficients (Kx and Kz) and advection velocities (Vx and Vz) based on the 2D advection-diffusion model. Additionally, the apparent residence ages and SGD flux were quantified based on the (224)Ra and (223)Ra activities. The results showed that the Ra activities exponentially decreased with the distance offshore, and both the Kx and Vx took the order of northern part > southern part > middle part. In vertical direction, there was the maximum value of Vz and minimum Kz in middle part and the maximum Kz and minimum Vz in southern part. The average ages for the northern, middle and southern parts were 4.28, 7.38 and 3.73 days, respectively. The final SGD flux yielded by (224)Ra was 0.09, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in the northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The SGD flux yielded by (223)Ra was 0.08, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The result indicates that there is the fastest exchange rate and the biggest SGD flux in the southern part in Bo Sea embayment. PMID:26318773

  9. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  10. Large 224Ra and 228Ra disequilibrium indicates intense groundwater processes in the Cabo Frio coastal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Giovana; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel; Sanders, Christian; Marques, Eduardo; Caldeira, Pedro; Santos, Luiz Eduardo; Kutter, Vinicius; Smoak, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Input of subterranean water, referred to as Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), typically is a mixture of infiltrated seawater and terrestrially derived freshwater and includes all advective fluid flow between the land and the continental shelf, regardless of the source or composition of the fluids (Smoak et al., 2013; Burnett et al., 2003). A substantial flow of nutrient and metal input via SGD, which may contribute to coastal eutrophication, has been document in recent studies (Sanders et al., 2012; Santos et al., 2008). Direct measurements (e.g. seepage meters) of SGD are difficult on a regional scale. However, radium isotopes have been shown to be powerful tools to quantify SGD fluxes and indicate the sources (Sanders et al., 2012). The direct parent of each radium isotope is a thorium isotope. Thorium is strongly adsorbed to sediment and provides a source of radium, which is generated on a range of time scales. In freshwater, radium is strongly adsorbed to particles. However, under reducing conditions, low pH and/or increasing salinity, radium can be released into solution. These characteristics make radium an excellent tracer of brackish SGD and a net flux of nutrients and metals to the ocean. The coastal plain in the region of Cabo Frio and its surroundings consist of Quaternary deposits of continental sediments, coastal lagoons and marine sands forming a large coastal aquifer. During the winter of 2012 and summer of 2013 was performed a physicochemical characterization and measurements of radio isotopes in groundwater along a transect perpendicular to the beach. The high radio activities associated with the imbalance exists between the 224Ra and 228Ra can be useful tools in understanding the role of submarine groundwater discharge in this region highly productive and high marine biodiversity.

  11. Reliability of wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  12. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  13. Measurement of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs in foodstuffs samples collected from coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2016-05-01

    This study represents a total of 245 samples collected. The activities of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in samples of vegetables, tea, cereal (rice, wheat and corn), meat, poultry, freshwater product, seafood and seaweed that collected from the 30km safety zone of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) area. All the samples radionuclide activities were quantified by using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.13, 0.16, 0.11, 68 and 0.02, respectively. The arithmetic mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.34, 0.65, 0.32, 111 and 0.09, respectively. Results of this study were compared with others, the measured values are the same with those of a previous investigation. Radiation doses due to the consumption of these foodstuffs to humans are estimated to comprise around 37-46% of the annual dose limit for public. PMID:26926376

  14. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  15. US electric power system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Electric energy supply, transmission and distribution systems are investigated in order to determine priorities for legislation. The status and the outlook for electric power reliability are discussed.

  16. A correlation between soil descriptions and {sup 226}Ra concentrations in Florida soils

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1992-12-31

    The soil radium content in Florida is highly variable. The range in radium concentrations, where the samples involved in this study are concerned, is from 0.1 pCi/g to 18.5 pCi/g. Low {sup 226}Ra concentrations (0.1 to 5 pCi/g) are evidenced in sands, moderate concentrations (5 to 11 pCi/g) are found in silt and gravel, and high {sup 226}Ra concentrations (>11 pCi/g) are found in soil horizons with shell, clay, and strata with phosphate. Strata containing phosphate yields a high concentration of {sup 226}Ra. The information obtained in this study, soil descriptions with their corresponding {sup 226}Ra concentrations, comes from geological cores drilled by geotechnical consultants with gamma spectrometry analysis performed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Concentration; of {sup 226}Ra generally increase with depth. These cores are usually terminated at 20 feet deep, with some cores being shallower than this due to hitting bedrock or encountering the water table. These frequency distributions give the core-logging geologist an approximate concentration of {sup 226}Ra based on the description of the soil. Since the correlation of {sup 226}Ra and soil descriptions can be used as a tool in assigning indoor radon potential, this study is of importance to land managers, contractors, developers, and regulating agencies who are attempting to place standards on tracts of land with {sup 226}Ra concentration used as a criterion.

  17. 238U- 230Th- 226Ra disequilibrium in young Mt. Shasta andesites and dacites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Alan M.

    1992-11-01

    The paper describes 238U-series nuclides and 230Th/ 232Th ratios measured by mass spectrometry in mineral separates of young Mt. Shasta andesites and dacites. The results constrain the timing of recent calc-alkaline magma fractionation at this volcano. Hotlum, Misery Hill and Black Butte rocks show small, < 13% 230Th- 238U and < 6% 226Ra- 230Th, disequilibria. Plagioclase have 7-26% 226Ra excesses, magnetite and groundmass have 4-5% 226Ra deficits, and pyroxenes have equilibrium ( 226Ra/ 230Th) activity ratios. Internal ( 230Th)-( 238U)and Ba-normalized ( 226Ra)-( 230Th) isotope diagrams for Hotlum and Black Butte dacites suggest that closed-system Th-U and Ra-Th fractionation occurred less than 10,000 years ago. Significant 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria in the Black Butte dacite strongly suggests that this rock erupted more recently than 9400 years ago. Results for Hotlum andesites suggest a longer pre-eruption crystal residence time compared to the dacites. There may also have been recent open Ra-Th system changes in the melt composition. Initial Th/U ratios for the rocks are low (2.43-2.57), similar to those in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and preclude significant assimilation of crust with markedly different Th-U composition.

  18. Draft Genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Tami L; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 from Lake Washington sediment is announced. From the genome content, a versatile life-style is predicted, but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25676775

  19. Draft Genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the genome of Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 from Lake Washington sediment is announced. From the genome content, a versatile life-style is predicted, but not bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Janthinobacterium sp. RA13 presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25676775

  20. IL-1Ra and its delivery strategies: inserting the association in perspective.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory antagonist of interleukin-1 family of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The broad spectrum anti-inflammatory effects of IL-1Ra have been investigated against various auto-immune diseases such as diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis. Despite of its outstanding broad spectrum anti-inflammatory effects, IL-1Ra has short biological half-life (4-6 h) and to cope with this problem, up till now, many delivery strategies have been applied either to extend the half-life and/or prolong the steady-state sustained release of IL-1Ra from its target site. Here in our present paper, we have provided an overview of all approaches attempted to prolong the duration of therapeutic effects of IL-1Ra either by fusing IL-1Ra using fusion protein technology to extend the half-life and/or development of new dosage forms using various biodegradable polymers to prolong its steady-state sustained release at the site of administration. These approaches have been characterized by their intended impact on either in vitro release characteristics and/or pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of IL-1Ra. We have also compared these delivery strategies with each other on the basis of bioactivity of IL-1Ra after fusion with fusion protein partner and/or encapsulation with biodegradable polymer. PMID:23794040

  1. Search for Electric dipole moment (EDM) in laser cooled and trapped 225Ra atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Mukut; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew; Green, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Lemke, Nathan; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Tom; Parker, Richard; Singh, Jaideep; Trimble, Will; Argonne National Laboratory Collaboration; University Of Chicago Collabration; University Of Kentucky Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We are searching for an EDM of the diamagnetic 225Ra atom. 225Ra has nuclear spin I =1/2. Experimental sensitivity to its EDM is enhanced due to its heavy mass and the increased Schiff moment of its octupole deformed nucleus. Our experiment involves collecting laser cooled Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), transporting them 1 meter with a far off-resonant optical dipole trap (ODT) and then transferring the atoms to a second standing-wave ODT in our experimental chamber. We will report our recent experiences in polarizing and observing Larmor precession of 225Ra atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields in a magnetically shielded region and progress towards a first measurement of the EDM of 225Ra. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and contract No. DE-FG02-99ER41101.

  2. Reliability of Radiographic Inspection of Steel Pipeline Girth Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Carvalho, A. A.; Smid, J.

    2008-02-01

    In this work, the radiographic NDT technique was employed for the detection of defects in girth welds of steel pipelines used by the offshore oil industry. Simulation was used to calculate the size of the smallest detectable defect and the corresponding radiographic parameters. The method developed showed good reliability.

  3. The reliability of a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based tool for the evaluation of forefoot bursae in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the FFB score

    PubMed Central

    King, Leonard; Thomas, Matthew; Roemer, Frank; Culliford, David; Bowen, Catherine J.; Arden, Nigel K.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of an MRI-based score that evaluates forefoot bursae (FFBs) in patients with RA. Methods. Items for inclusion, grading criteria and MRI sequences were determined iteratively. The score was evaluated in 30 patients with established RA. Reader agreement was evaluated using the percentage of exact/close agreement, Bland–Altman plots, kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient analyses. Results. The FFB score assesses nine forefoot regions and contains four items: presence, shape, enhancement and magnetic resonance characteristics. The FFB score showed moderate to good intra- and interreader agreement (κ range = 0.5–0.9 and 0.47–0.87, respectively). Conclusion. The FFB score is adequately reliable in the evaluation of bursa-like lesions of the forefoot in patients with RA. PMID:24907157

  4. Stirling Convertor Fasteners Reliability Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor; Kovacevich, Tiodor; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Onboard Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) being developed for NASA s deep-space science and exploration missions require reliable operation for up to 14 years and beyond. Stirling power conversion is a candidate for use in an RPS because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced inventory of radioactive material. Structural fasteners are responsible to maintain structural integrity of the Stirling power convertor, which is critical to ensure reliable performance during the entire mission. Design of fasteners involve variables related to the fabrication, manufacturing, behavior of fasteners and joining parts material, structural geometry of the joining components, size and spacing of fasteners, mission loads, boundary conditions, etc. These variables have inherent uncertainties, which need to be accounted for in the reliability assessment. This paper describes these uncertainties along with a methodology to quantify the reliability, and provides results of the analysis in terms of quantified reliability and sensitivity of Stirling power conversion reliability to the design variables. Quantification of the reliability includes both structural and functional aspects of the joining components. Based on the results, the paper also describes guidelines to improve the reliability and verification testing.

  5. Avionics design for reliability bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A bibliography with abstracts was presented in support of AGARD lecture series No. 81. The following areas were covered: (1) program management, (2) design for high reliability, (3) selection of components and parts, (4) environment consideration, (5) reliable packaging, (6) life cycle cost, and (7) case histories.

  6. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  7. The Reliability of Density Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Data from a land-use study of small- and medium-sized towns in New Zealand are used to ascertain the relationship between official and effective density measures. It was found that the reliability of official measures of density is very low overall, although reliability increases with community size. (Author/RLV)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J. V.; Woodward, J. D.; Chen, N.; Rondinone, A. J.; Castano, C. H.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2015-03-19

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.

  9. Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples - RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalino, S.; Barrios, M.; Sangster, C.

    2005-10-01

    Some ICF neutron activation diagnostics require quick retrieval of the activated sample. Minimizing retrieval times is particularly important when the half-life of the activated material is on the order of the transport time or the degree of radioactivity is close to the background counting level. These restrictions exist in current experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, thus motivating the development of the RaPToRS system. The system has been designed to minimize transportation time while requiring no human intervention during transport or counting. These factors will be important if the system is to be used at the NIF where radiological hazards will be present during post activation. The sample carrier is pneumatically transported via a 4 inch ID PVC pipe to a remote location in excess of 100 meters from the activation site at a speed of approximately 7 m/s. It arrives at an end station where it is dismounted robotically from the carrier and removed from its hermetic package. The sample is then placed by the robot in a counting station. This system is currently being developed to measure back-to-back gamma rays produced by positron annihilation which were emitted by activated graphite. Funded in part by the U.S. DOE under sub contract with LLE at the University of Rochester.

  10. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  11. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986-1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  12. Statistical modeling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    This working paper discusses the statistical simulation part of a controlled software development experiment being conducted under the direction of the System Validation Methods Branch, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment uses guidance and control software (GCS) aboard a fictitious planetary landing spacecraft: real-time control software operating on a transient mission. Software execution is simulated to study the statistical aspects of reliability and other failure characteristics of the software during development, testing, and random usage. Quantification of software reliability is a major goal. Various reliability concepts are discussed. Experiments are described for performing simulations and collecting appropriate simulated software performance and failure data. This data is then used to make statistical inferences about the quality of the software development and verification processes as well as inferences about the reliability of software versions and reliability growth under random testing and debugging.

  13. Practical Issues in Implementing Software Reliability Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.; Schneidewind, Norman F.; Everett, William W.; Munson, John C.; Vouk, Mladen A.; Musa, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Many ways of estimating software systems' reliability, or reliability-related quantities, have been developed over the past several years. Of particular interest are methods that can be used to estimate a software system's fault content prior to test, or to discriminate between components that are fault-prone and those that are not. The results of these methods can be used to: 1) More accurately focus scarce fault identification resources on those portions of a software system most in need of it. 2) Estimate and forecast the risk of exposure to residual faults in a software system during operation, and develop risk and safety criteria to guide the release of a software system to fielded use. 3) Estimate the efficiency of test suites in detecting residual faults. 4) Estimate the stability of the software maintenance process.

  14. Determination of (210)Pb and (226)Ra/(228)Ra in continental water using HIDEX 300SL LS-spectrometer with TDCR efficiency tracing and optimized α/β-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Jäggi, M

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for determination of (210)Pb, (226)Ra and (228)Ra is presented based on adsorption on 3M Empore RadDiscs, and measurement applying liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) after elution. The LSC measurement was performed with optimized α/β-discrimination and isotope standardization using the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR). The consistency of measurement results between radioactive parent-daughter pairs (210)Pb/(210)Bi, (226)Ra/(222)Rn and (228)Ra/(228)Ac was checked in long-term counting experiments and the influence ofinterference of in-growing daughters from (226)Ra into the β-spectrum of (228)Ra+(228)Ac was studied as well. Recommendations for optimized LSC (228)Ra measurement besides presence of (226)Ra are given. PMID:24637085

  15. Effects of Phosphorylatable Short Peptide-Conjugated Chitosan-Mediated IL-1Ra and igf-1 Gene Transfer on Articular Cartilage Defects in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ronglan; Peng, Xiaoxiang; Li, Qian; Song, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported an improvement in the transfection efficiency of the plasmid DNA-chitosan (pDNA/CS) complex by the utilization of phosphorylatable short peptide-conjugated chitosan (pSP-CS). In this study, we investigated the effects of pSP-CS-mediated gene transfection of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1Ra) combined with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rabbit chondrocytes and in a rabbit model of cartilage defects. pBudCE4.1-IL-1Ra+igf-1, pBudCE4.1-IL-1Ra and pBudCE4.1-igf-1 were constructed and combined with pSP-CS to form pDNA/pSP-CS complexes. These complexes were transfected into rabbit primary chondrocytes or injected into the joint cavity. Seven weeks after treatment, all rabbits were sacrificed and analyzed. High levels of IL-1Ra and igf-1 expression were detected both in the cell culture supernatant and in the synovial fluid. In vitro, the transgenic complexes caused significant proliferation of chondrocytes, promotion of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen II synthesis, and inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. In vivo, the exogenous genes resulted in increased collagen II synthesis and reduced NO and GAG concentrations in the synovial fluid; histological studies revealed that pDNA/pSP-CS treatment resulted in varying degrees of hyaline-like cartilage repair and Mankin score decrease. The co-expression of both genes produced greater effects than each single gene alone both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that pSP-CS is a good candidate for use in gene therapy for the treatment of cartilage defects and that igf-1 and IL-1Ra co-expression produces promising biologic effects on cartilage defects. PMID:25390659

  16. Anti-hnRNP B1 (RA33) Autoantibodies Are Associated with the Clinical Phenotype in Russian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Maslyanskiy, Aleksey; Lazareva, Natalya; Olinek, Polina; Schierack, Peter; Cuccato, Juliane; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Lapin, Sergey V.

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are potent autoantigenic targets in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD). Loss of tolerance to the RA33 complex consisting of hnRNP A2 and its alternatively spliced variants B1 and B2 has been the interest of rheumatologists. A novel ELISA for the detection of anti-hnRNP B1 autoantibodies has been developed to investigate the prevalence thereof in 397 patients with SARD, including patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathy (SPA), juvenile chronic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), in comparison to 174 controls. Anti-hnRNP B1 autoantibodies were significantly more prevalent in patients with SARD than controls (47/397, 11.8% versus 2/174, 1.1%; P < 0.001). In particular, anti-hnRNP B1 were found more frequently in the disease cohorts than in the controls and were present in 24/165 (14.5%) patients with RA, 6/58 (10.3%) SPA, 11/65 (16.9%) SSc, and 4/50 (8.0%) SLE. In RA patients, anti-hnRNP B1 autoantibodies correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while in patients with SSc it was associated with features of arterial wall stiffness and presence of hypertension. Anti-hnRNP B1 autoantibodies occur in SARD and seem to be correlated with distinct clinical characteristics in patients with RA and SSc. PMID:24883333

  17. Evaluation of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB genetic variants influence on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, different genetic variants located within the IL2/IL21 genetic region as well as within both IL2RA and IL2RB loci have been associated to multiple autoimmune disorders. We aimed to investigate for the first time the potential influence of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB most associated polymorphisms with autoimmunity on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Methods A total of 196 patients with endogenous non-anterior uveitis and 760 healthy controls, all of them from Caucasian population, were included in the current study. The IL2/IL21 (rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs907715), IL2RA (2104286, rs11594656 and rs12722495) and IL2RB (rs743777) genetic variants were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays. Results A statistically significant difference was found for the rs6822844 (IL2/IL21 region) minor allele frequency in the group of uveitis patients compared with controls (P-value=0.02, OR=0.64 CI 95%=0.43-0.94) although the significance was lost after multiple testing correction. Furthermore, no evidence of association with uveitis was detected for the analyzed genetic variants of the IL2RA or IL2RB loci. Conclusion Our results indicate that analyzed IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB polymorphisms do not seem to play a significant role on the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition although further studies are needed in order to clear up the influence of these loci on the non-anterior uveitis susceptibility. PMID:23676143

  18. Mapping the spatial distribution and activity of (226)Ra at legacy sites through Machine Learning interpretation of gamma-ray spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Radium ((226)Ra) contamination derived from military, industrial, and pharmaceutical products can be found at a number of historical sites across the world posing a risk to human health. The analysis of spectral data derived using gamma-ray spectrometry can offer a powerful tool to rapidly estimate and map the activity, depth, and lateral distribution of (226)Ra contamination covering an extensive area. Subsequently, reliable risk assessments can be developed for individual sites in a fraction of the timeframe compared to traditional labour-intensive sampling techniques: for example soil coring. However, local heterogeneity of the natural background, statistical counting uncertainty, and non-linear source response are confounding problems associated with gamma-ray spectral analysis. This is particularly challenging, when attempting to deal with enhanced concentrations of a naturally occurring radionuclide such as (226)Ra. As a result, conventional surveys tend to attribute the highest activities to the largest total signal received by a detector (Gross counts): an assumption that tends to neglect higher activities at depth. To overcome these limitations, a methodology was developed making use of Monte Carlo simulations, Principal Component Analysis and Machine Learning based algorithms to derive depth and activity estimates for (226)Ra contamination. The approach was applied on spectra taken using two gamma-ray detectors (Lanthanum Bromide and Sodium Iodide), with the aim of identifying an optimised combination of detector and spectral processing routine. It was confirmed that, through a combination of Neural Networks and Lanthanum Bromide, the most accurate depth and activity estimates could be found. The advantage of the method was demonstrated by mapping depth and activity estimates at a case study site in Scotland. There the method identified significantly higher activity (<3 Bq g(-1)) occurring at depth (>0.4m), that conventional gross counting algorithms

  19. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective...

  20. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective...

  1. Metrological Determination of Natural Radioactive Isotopes {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb by Means of Ge Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Maria Candida M. de; Delgado, Jose U.; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Silva, Ronaldo L. da

    2008-08-07

    A metrological method to determine the activity per mass unity (activity concentration) of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb ({sup 238}U decay series) and {sup 228}Ra ({sup 232}Th series) by gamma-ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure coaxial germanium detector was developed. In the soil the {sup 22}Ra (half-life = 1600 years) exhibits the same level of radioactivity as {sup 238}U (half-life 4.5x10{sup 9} years) because of a natural phenomenon called secular equilibrium. {sup 226}Ra decays into {sup 222}Rn (half-life = 3.8 days), a radioactive inert gas. After several days, the {sup 222}Rn naturally decays to {sup 218}Po (half-life = 3 minutes), where finally {sup 210}Pb (half-life = 22 years) is produced. The metrological capability of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental levels is showed, with emphasis on the use of 2 mL standard sources volume in a glass ampoule. Source preparation and calibration procedures are described. Radionuclide standards in an activity range of 10 to 250 Bq/g were produced which can be applied in a variety of environmental sample analysis (water, plant material, sediment, etc.). Uncertainties for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb around 3% (k = 1) were obtained.

  2. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    SciTech Connect

    Morzinski, Jerome; Anderson - Cook, Christine M; Klamann, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  3. A reliable multicast for XTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Bert J.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    Multicast services needed for current distributed applications on LAN's fall generally into one of three categories: datagram, semi-reliable, and reliable. Transport layer multicast datagrams represent unreliable service in which the transmitting context 'fires and forgets'. XTP executes these semantics when the MULTI and NOERR mode bits are both set. Distributing sensor data and other applications in which application-level error recovery strategies are appropriate benefit from the efficiency in multidestination delivery offered by datagram service. Semi-reliable service refers to multicasting in which the control algorithms of the transport layer--error, flow, and rate control--are used in transferring the multicast distribution to the set of receiving contexts, the multicast group. The multicast defined in XTP provides semi-reliable service. Since, under a semi-reliable service, joining a multicast group means listening on the group address and entails no coordination with other members, a semi-reliable facility can be used for communication between a client and a server group as well as true peer-to-peer group communication. Resource location in a LAN is an important application domain. The term 'semi-reliable' refers to the fact that group membership changes go undetected. No attempt is made to assess the current membership of the group at any time--before, during, or after--the data transfer.

  4. The CpxRA two-component system contributes to Legionella pneumophila virulence.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jennifer R; Li, Laam; Faucher, Sébastien P; Brassinga, Ann Karen C

    2016-06-01

    The bacterium Legionella pneumophila is capable of intracellular replication within freshwater protozoa as well as human macrophages, the latter of which results in the serious pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. A primary factor involved in these host cell interactions is the Dot/Icm Type IV secretion system responsible for translocating effector proteins needed to establish and maintain the bacterial replicative niche. Several regulatory factors have been identified to control the expression of the Dot/Icm system and effectors, one of which is the CpxRA two-component system, suggesting essentiality for virulence. In this study, we generated cpxR, cpxA and cpxRA in-frame null mutant strains to further delineate the role of the CpxRA system in bacterial survival and virulence. We found that cpxR is essential for intracellular replication within Acanthamoeba castellanii, but not in U937-derived macrophages. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CpxRA regulates a large number of virulence-associated proteins including Dot/Icm effectors as well as Type II secreted substrates. Furthermore, the cpxR and cpxRA mutant strains were more sodium resistant than the parental strain Lp02, and cpxRA expression reaches maximal levels during postexponential phase. Taken together, our findings suggest the CpxRA system is a key contributor to L. pneumophila virulence in protozoa via virulence factor regulation. PMID:26934669

  5. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  6. 228Ra flux in the northwestern Pacific marginal seas: Implications for disproportionally large submarine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2015-06-01

    To determine the fluxes of 228Ra (half life: 5.75 years) to the northwestern Pacific marginal seas, 228Ra data were compiled for the East China Sea, Yellow Sea, South Sea, and East/Japan Sea. Most of the 228Ra data in the East Sea were newly obtained through the onboard surveys in July 2012, October 2012, and March 2013. A 228Ra mass balance model was established by considering the input fluxes from the Pacific Ocean, river, atmosphere, sediments, and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the output fluxes by radioactive decay and to the Pacific Ocean and the deep East Sea through vertical mixing. Using this model, the 228Ra flux through SGD was estimated to be at least 2.3 × 1015 dpm yr-1 in the entire area of these marginal seas, which is about 20% of the total 228Ra input flux to this region. This SGD-driven 228Ra flux to this region accounts for about 2% of that to the global oceans. This result implies that the magnitude of SGD in this region could be disproportionally larger than those in general oceanic margins. We suggest that SGD may play a critical role in the delivery of terrestrial materials to these large marginal seas, perhaps due to large tidal pumping.

  7. Reliability analysis of interdependent lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limiao, Zhang; Daqing, Li; Pengju, Qin; Bowen, Fu; Yinan, Jiang; Zio, Enrico; Rui, Kang

    2016-06-01

    Network reliability analysis has drawn much attention recently due to the risks of catastrophic damage in networked infrastructures. These infrastructures are dependent on each other as a result of various interactions. However, most of the reliability analyses of these interdependent networks do not consider spatial constraints, which are found important for robustness of infrastructures including power grid and transport systems. Here we study the reliability properties of interdependent lattices with different ranges of spatial constraints. Our study shows that interdependent lattices with strong spatial constraints are more resilient than interdependent Erdös-Rényi networks. There exists an intermediate range of spatial constraints, at which the interdependent lattices have minimal resilience.

  8. Behavior of /sup 226/Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Scott, M.R.

    1986-12-15

    The behavior of /sup 226/Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone is strongy nonconservative and includes desorption similar to that for the Hudson, Pee Dee, and Amazon rivers. However, dissolved and desorbed /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the Mississippi are 2 to 5 times greater than in the other rivers at the same salinity. Radium concentrations vary inversely with the water discharge rate. The /sup 226/Ra desorption maximum occurs at a salinity of 5.0, much lower than the 18 to 28 salinity values for the maxima of the other three rivers. High concentrations of dissolved /sup 226/Ra (up to 82 dpm per 100 L) and the low salinity values for the desorption maximum in the Mississippi River result from three major factors. Suspended sediments include a large fraction of montmorillonite, which gives the sediment a high cation exchange capacity. 0.54 meq/g. The average suspended sediment load is large, about 510 mg/L, and contains 1.9 dpm g desorbable /sup 226/Ra. The dissolved /sup 226/Ra river water end-member (9.6 dpm per 100 L) is higher than in surface seawater. The annual contribution of /sup 226/Ra to the ocean from the Mississippi River is 3.7 x 10/sup 14/ dmp/yr based on data from three cruises. Evidence of flux of /sup 226/Ra from estuarine and shelf sediments is common in vertical profile sampling of the deltaic waters but is not reflected in calculations made with an ''apparent'' river water Ra value extrapolated to zero salinity.

  9. RA induces the neural-like cells generated from epigenetic modified NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ming; Su, Dong-Ju; Wang, Ning; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Jin, Lian-Hong; Lei, Lei

    2010-03-01

    Recently, differentiated somatic cells had been reprogrammed to pluripotential state in vitro, and various tissue cells had been elicited from those cells. Epigenetic modifications allow differentiated cells to perpetuate the molecular memory needed for the cells to retain their identity. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are important patterns involved in epigenetic modification, which take critical roles in regulating DNA expression. In this study, we dedifferentiated NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichstatin A (TSA) combination, and detected gene expression pattern, DNA methylation level, and differentiation potential of reprogrammed cells. As the results, embryonic marker Sox2, klf4, c-Myc and Oct4 were expressed in reprogrammed NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Total DNA methylation level was significant decreased after the treatment. Moreover, exposure of the reprogrammed cells to all trans-retinoic acid (RA) medium elicited the generation of neuronal class IIIbeta-tubulin-positive, neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-positive, nestin-positive, and neurofilament light chain (NF-L)-positive neural-like cells. PMID:19263240

  10. scAAVIL-1ra dosing trial in a large animal model and validation of long-term expression with repeat administration for osteoarthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, L R; Grieger, J C; Phillips, J N; Khan, N; Gray, S J; McIlwraith, C W; Samulski, R J

    2015-07-01

    A gene therapeutic approach to treat osteoarthritis (OA) appears to be on the horizon for millions of people who suffer from this disease. Previously we described optimization of a scAAVIL-1ra gene therapeutic vector and initially tested this in an equine model verifying long-term intrasynovial IL-1ra protein at therapeutic levels. Using this vector, we carried out a dosing trial in six horses to verify protein levels and establish a dose that would express relevant levels of therapeutic protein for extended periods of time (8 months). A novel arthroscopic procedure used to detect green fluorescence protein (GFP) fluorescence intrasynovially confirmed successful transduction of the scAAVGFP vector in both the synovial and cartilage tissues. No evidence of intra-articular toxicity was detected. Immune responses to vector revealed development of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) within 2 weeks of administration, which persisted for the duration of the study but did not lower protein expression intra-articularly. Re-dosing with a different serotype to attain therapeutic levels of protein confirmed establishment of successful transduction. This is the first study in an equine model to establish a dosing/redosing protocol, as well as examine the Nab response to capsid and supports further clinical investigation to determine the clinical efficacy of scAAVIL-1ra to treat OA. PMID:25902762

  11. {sup 40}K, {sup 115}Cs and {sup 226}Ra Soil and Plant Content in Seminatural Grasslands of Central Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, R. H.; Rizzotto, M.; Quintana, E.; Aguiar, J.

    2008-08-07

    Activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs have been analyzed in soil and plant samples, collected in permanent grassland in central Argentina. Two near areas (A1 and A2) under field conditions with soil undisturbed at least in the last four decades were selected. For each of the three studied radionuclides we do not find differences in the inventories between both areas. The inventories range from 143 kBq m{sup -2} to 197 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 40}K and from 13 kBq m{sup -2} to 18 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra. The vertical distributions of {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra are uniform through de soil profile. For {sup 137}Cs the inventories range from 0.33 kBq m{sup -2} to 0.73 kBq m{sup -2}. In spite of {sup 137}Cs inventories are similar in both areas the distribution through vertical profile is different. {sup 137}Cs activity concentration has a maximum for layers 5-10 cm depth in A1 and 10-15 cm depth in A2. For deeper layers both areas show similar activity concentrations. The diffusion coefficient (D{sub s}) and convection velocity (v{sub s}) are estimated with a convection-diffusion model. D{sub s} values are in the range reported in the bibliography, while v{sub s} values are one order of magnitude higher. After 40 years most {sup 137}Cs fallout is still in the layer 10-15 cm depth. The great penetration of {sup 137}Cs (25 cm) in these soils may be the result of a high sand and low fine materials content. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra were not detected in grass samples. Activity concentration of {sup 40}K in vegetal samples ranges from 116 Bq kg{sup -1} to 613 Bq kg{sup -1}. The TF values obtained for {sup 40}K show a lognormal distribution and ranges from 0.05 to 0.42.

  12. Quantitative metal magnetic memory reliability modeling for welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Haiyan; Dang, Yongbin; Wang, Ben; Leng, Jiancheng

    2016-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory(MMM) testing has been widely used to detect welded joints. However, load levels, environmental magnetic field, and measurement noises make the MMM data dispersive and bring difficulty to quantitative evaluation. In order to promote the development of quantitative MMM reliability assessment, a new MMM model is presented for welded joints. Steel Q235 welded specimens are tested along the longitudinal and horizontal lines by TSC-2M-8 instrument in the tensile fatigue experiments. The X-ray testing is carried out synchronously to verify the MMM results. It is found that MMM testing can detect the hidden crack earlier than X-ray testing. Moreover, the MMM gradient vector sum K vs is sensitive to the damage degree, especially at early and hidden damage stages. Considering the dispersion of MMM data, the K vs statistical law is investigated, which shows that K vs obeys Gaussian distribution. So K vs is the suitable MMM parameter to establish reliability model of welded joints. At last, the original quantitative MMM reliability model is first presented based on the improved stress strength interference theory. It is shown that the reliability degree R gradually decreases with the decreasing of the residual life ratio T, and the maximal error between prediction reliability degree R 1 and verification reliability degree R 2 is 9.15%. This presented method provides a novel tool of reliability testing and evaluating in practical engineering for welded joints.

  13. Evaluation of 224Ra as a tracer for submarine groundwater discharge in Long Island Sound (NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Orellana, J.; Cochran, J. K.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Daniel, J. W. R.; Rodellas, V.; Heilbrun, C.

    2014-09-01

    The approach to quantify submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotopes generally involves developing a Ra mass balance in an estuary, bay or lagoon. In this work we present a 224Ra mass balance used to evaluate the importance of the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Long Island Sound (NY, US), the third most important estuary in US, located between Long Island and Connecticut that is usually affected by summertime hypoxia in the western basin. Three surveys were conducted between April 2009 and August 2010 where 25 water stations were sampled for Ra isotopes, oxygen and Mn. Stations were oriented along 4 transects: one axial extending from the western to the eastern Sound and three longitudinal transects in the western, central and eastern Sound. The inventory of 224Ra in the water column in summer was circa 2 times greater than in winter, suggesting an increased 224Ra flux to the Sound in summer. A mass balance for 224Ra was constructed considering tidal exchange, inputs from rivers, desorption from resuspended particles, diffusive fluxes (including bioirrigation) from bottom sediments and radioactive decay in the water column. Fluxes of 224Ra from bottom sediments were measured by incubating cores under oxic conditions in a continuous flow mode such that the overlying water was circulated through a Mn-oxide fiber to maintain a constant activity of 224Ra. Fluxes from muddy sediments (comprising ∼67% of the Sound bottom) ranged from 127 to 312 dpm m-2 d-1 and were ∼60 dpm m-2 d-1 in sandy sediments (33% of the Sound). Incubations under hypoxic conditions showed variable fluxes depending on reduction and mobilization of Mn. The 224Ra mass balance shows a net input of Ra to the Sound of 106 ± 50 × 1012 dpm y-1 in spring and 244 ± 112 × 1012 dpm y-1 in the summer that is attributed to SGD. Elevated 224Ra values were observed near shore and in the pore fluids of the coarse beach sands along the Long Island and Connecticut coasts, suggesting that SGD

  14. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  15. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  16. Failure Analysis for Improved Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sood, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Outline: Section 1 - What is reliability and root cause? Section 2 - Overview of failure mechanisms. Section 3 - Failure analysis techniques (1. Non destructive analysis techniques, 2. Destructive Analysis, 3. Materials Characterization). Section 4 - Summary and Closure

  17. GaAs Reliability Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, T.; Gonzalez, S.; Kayali, S.

    1993-01-01

    The database consists of two main sections, the data references and the device reliability records. The reference section contains 8 fields: reference number, date of publication, authors, article title, publisher, volume, and page numbers.

  18. Photovoltaics Performance and Reliability Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  19. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  20. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Marques, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The reliability is a value of the degree of trust in a given measurement. We analyze and compare: ML (Classical Maximum Likelihood), MLE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Entropy), MLR (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability), MLRE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability and Entropy), DS (Credibility Plausibility), DSR (DS weighted by reliabilities). The analysis is based on a model of a dynamical fusion process. It is composed of three sensors, which have each it's own discriminatory capacity, reliability rate, unknown bias and measurement noise. The knowledge of uncertainties is also severely corrupted, in order to analyze the robustness of the different fusion operators. Two sensor models are used: the first type of sensor is able to estimate the probability of each elementary hypothesis (probabilistic masses), the second type of sensor delivers masses on union of elementary hypotheses (DS masses). In the second case probabilistic reasoning leads to sharing the mass abusively between elementary hypotheses. Compared to the classical ML or DS which achieves just 50% of correct classification in some experiments, DSR, MLE, MLR and MLRE reveals very good performances on all experiments (more than 80% of correct classification rate). The experiment was performed with large variations of the reliability coefficients for each sensor (from 0 to 1), and with large variations on the knowledge of these coefficients (from 0 0.8). All four operators reveal good robustness, but the MLR reveals to be uniformly dominant on all the experiments in the Bayesian case and achieves the best mean performance under incomplete a priori information.

  1. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  2. 112. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 NOTCHING in STUDS for OLD WINDOW FRAMES, NORTH WALL, ORIGINAL KITCHEN, LOOKING NORTH - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  3. 100. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 STUDS & SLOTS for FORMER WINDOW, SOUTH WALL, WEST BAY, 2nd FLOOR LOOKING SOUTH - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  4. 79. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ATTIC FLOOR TIMBER in LEAN-TO INVERTED - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  5. 73. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SOUTH END of WEST PLATE (INVERTED) - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  6. First Measurement of the Atomic Electric Dipole Moment of (225)Ra.

    PubMed

    Parker, R H; Dietrich, M R; Kalita, M R; Lemke, N D; Bailey, K G; Bishof, M; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Korsch, W; Lu, Z-T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Singh, J T

    2015-06-12

    The radioactive radium-225 ((225)Ra) atom is a favorable case to search for a permanent electric dipole moment. Because of its strong nuclear octupole deformation and large atomic mass, (225)Ra is particularly sensitive to interactions in the nuclear medium that violate both time-reversal symmetry and parity. We have developed a cold-atom technique to study the spin precession of (225)Ra atoms held in an optical dipole trap, and demonstrated the principle of this method by completing the first measurement of its atomic electric dipole moment, reaching an upper limit of |d((225)Ra)|<5.0×10(-22)  e cm (95% confidence). PMID:26196797

  7. Release of 226Ra from uranium mill tailings by microbial Fe(III) reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings were anaerobically incubated in the presence of H2 with Alteromonas putrefaciens, a bacterium known to couple the oxidation of H2 and organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of Fe(III) reduction and the accumulation of dissolved 226Ra. In sterile tailings in which Fe(III) was not reduced, there was negligible leaching of 226Ra. The behavior of Ba was similar to that of Ra in inoculated and sterile systems. These results demonstrate that under anaerobic conditions, microbial reduction of Fe(III) may result in the release of dissolved 226Ra from uranium mill tailings. ?? 1991.

  8. 45. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of WEST END LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  9. 43. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of WEST ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  10. 62. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 WEST END of 2nd FLOOR EAST SUMMER BEAM - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  11. 59. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 POST SHOWING CUT & TENON SLOT for GIRTS - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  12. 44. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of WEST END LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  13. 80. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of PURLIN onto RAFTER, EAST BAY LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  14. 74. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION RAFTER & PLATES SOUTH WEST CORNER of MAIN HOUSE - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  15. 42. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of WEST ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  16. 83. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SPLICING of PURLINS over INTERMEDIATE RAFTER in LEAN-TO LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  17. 66. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 INTERIOR CENTER BAY REAR WALL of MAIN HOUSE 2nd FLOOR LOOKING NORTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  18. 75. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 INTERMEDIATE RAFTER & PLATES LOOKING NORTH EAST, REAR RAFTER MAIN HOUSE - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  19. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 2nd FLOOR EAST CHIMNEY GIRT, NORTH END FRAMING INTO POST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  20. 84. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 END GIRT & POST, NORTH WEST CORNER MAIN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  1. 53. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SOUTH WEST POST Last of Structure to be taken down. Looking East - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  2. 96. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 NORTH & WEST SILLS of MAIN HOUSE - LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  3. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of SOUTH & EAST ELEVATIONS LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  4. 49. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 STRUCTURE of WEST BAY of MAIN HOUSE, PLATES & RAFTERS REMOVED LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  5. 95. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 NORTH & WEST SILLS of MAIN HOUSE-LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  6. 101. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 DADO & PLASTER in SOUTH EAST CORNER of KITCHEN SHOWING HORIZONTAL BOARDING UNDER PLASTER & LATHS - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  7. 65. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 EAST CHIMNEY GIRT & FLOOR FRAMING 2nd FLOOR LOOKING EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  8. 51. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 STRUCTURE MAIN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH EAST, ATTIC FLOOR FRAMING & ROOF FRAMING REMOVED - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  9. 81. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING JOINT PURLIN over RAFTER, EAST BAY LOOKING SOUTH - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  10. 60. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 SOUTH WEST CORNER POST & GIRT SHOWING TENON ON GIRT LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  11. 55. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 REAR WEST INTERMEDIATE POST LOOKING SOUTH EAST, 2nd FLOOR - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  12. 41. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of SOUTH & EAST ELEVATIONS LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  13. 50. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 REAR POST & CHIMNEY GIRT, WEST BAY LOOKING WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  14. 64. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 WEST END of WEST SUMMER BEAM - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  15. 54. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 POST & GIRT NORTH WEST CORNER LOOKING EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  16. 63. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 TENON & PINS on WEST END of EAST SUMMER BEAM - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  17. 98. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of SUMMER BEAM INTO SILL ALSO NUMERALS ON SILL - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  18. 70. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION FRAMING of NORTH WEST CORNER LEAN-TO LOOKING SOUTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  19. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of EAST END LOOKING SOUTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  20. 99. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 NORTH & SOUTH RAFTERS & RIDGE ON WEST END LOOKING WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  1. 71. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 RAFTER on REAR PLATE (INTERMEDIATE RAFTER LEAN-TO) - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  2. 56. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 REAR WEST INTERMEDIATE POST LOOKING WEST, 2nd FLOOR - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  3. 37. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 WEST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR, NORTH WALL - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  4. 78. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 REAR PLATE, LEAN-TO SHOWING NOTCHING for ATTIC FLOOR BEAM - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  5. 77. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 PLAN of PLATES & CORNER POST, SOUTH WEST CORNER, MAIN HOUSE - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  6. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION of STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  7. 58. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 East INTERMEDIATE POST on FRONT of MAIN HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH EAST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  8. 69. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CORNER POST & RAFTER LOOOKING SOUTH WEST (NORTH WEST CORNER LEAN-TO) - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  9. 52. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING CUT IN FRONT SILL - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  10. 72. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 SOUTH END of WEST PLATE AFTER REMOVAL from BUILDING MAIN HOUSE - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  11. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 Structure of MAIN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH WEST, ATTIC FLOOR FRAMING & ROOF FRAMING REMOVED - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  12. 76. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION of INTERMEDIATE RAFTER in LEAN-TO - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  13. 48. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of EAST END MAIN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH WEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  14. 134. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION 1st. FLOOR WEST FIREPLACE AS IT WAS BEING TORN OUT - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  15. 124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CHAIR RAIL FOUND AS HOUSE WAS BEING TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  16. 142. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 LEAN-TO OVENS-SECTION WITH FRONT WALL TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  17. 123. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 LOOM STRETCHER FOUND AS HOUSE WAS BEING TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  18. 132. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION, 1st. FLOOR WEST FIREPLACE LATEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  19. 128. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION, 1st FLOOR, EAST FIREPLACE LATEST - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  20. 146. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION, 2nd. FLOOR FIREPLACE, EAST ROOM LATEST WITH PLASTER FACE - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH