Science.gov

Sample records for remote seasonally inaccessible

  1. Laser Remote Optical Granulometry (LROG), a tool for the textural study of inaccessible outcrops: could this method help to study Martian sedimentary successions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarocchi, Damiano; Bartali, Roberto; Norini, Gianluca; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    We present a new tool for the textural study of inaccessible outcrops of pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits. The new method, called Laser Remote Optical Granulometry (LROG), is based on high resolution tele-photography and stereologic techniques. LROG consists on taking several pictures of the outcrop with a high resolution CCD camera coupled to a small aperture telescope that can be placed several tenths of meters away. The scale of the image is obtained projecting an equilateral triangle with known size on the outcrop by means of three laser beams. The LROG allows the measurement of clasts less than 1 mm in size from a distance of 80 to 100 meters, and can reach much better resolution when operated closer to the outcrop. Perspective distortion can be corrected with the equilateral triangle projected by the lasers. To get high resolution images and remove the effects of air turbulence, hundreds of frames of the same field are captured in rapid sequence and then stacked and averaged with image processing algorithms developed for astronomical imaging. The LROG was validated on the pyroclastic deposits of the Joya Honda maar (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The LROG provided precise granulometric analysis and vertical granulometric profiles of this pyroclastic sequence, useful to recognize the eruptive history of the volcano. This method can be used for the analysis of any kind of sedimentary deposits in the granulometric range of clasts greater than fine sand. We are improving the LROG to obtain other useful textural information like clast shape and apparent fabric. This method, implemented on a robotic probe could be a promising tool to carry out detailed stratigraphic and sedimentological study of Martian sedimentary successions.

  2. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  3. Daily and seasonal dynamics of remotely sensed photosynthetic efficiency in tree canopies.

    PubMed

    Pieruschka, Roland; Albrecht, Hendrik; Muller, Onno; Berry, Joseph A; Klimov, Denis; Kolber, Zbigniew S; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Rascher, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The photosynthesis of various species or even a single plant varies dramatically in time and space, creating great spatial heterogeneity within a plant canopy. Continuous and spatially explicit monitoring is, therefore, required to assess the dynamic response of plant photosynthesis to the changing environment. This is a very challenging task when using the existing portable field instrumentation. This paper reports on the application of a technique, laser-induced fluorescence transient (LIFT), developed for ground remote measurement of photosynthetic efficiency at a distance of up to 50 m. The LIFT technique was used to monitor the seasonal dynamics of selected leaf groups within inaccessible canopies of deciduous and evergreen tree species. Electron transport rates computed from LIFT measurements varied over the growth period between the different species studied. The LIFT canopy data and light-use efficiency measured under field conditions correlated reasonably well with the single-leaf pulse amplitude-modulated measurements of broadleaf species, but differed significantly in the case of conifer tree species. The LIFT method has proven to be applicable for a remote sensing assessment of photosynthetic parameters on a diurnal and seasonal scale; further investigation is, however, needed to evaluate the influence of complex heterogeneous canopy structures on LIFT-measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. PMID:24924438

  4. Remote sensing the phytoplankton seasonal succession of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Raitsos, Dionysios E; Pradhan, Yaswant; Brewin, Robert J W; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  5. Remote Sensing the Phytoplankton Seasonal Succession of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  6. Quality Engineering Tools Focused on Designing Remote Temperature Measurements for Inaccessible Locations by Using Light Components Parameterization of the Heated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rîşteiu, M.; Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Mohammad, A. Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on research dedicated to measure the bucket wheel bearing temperature of the bucket wheel excavator (BWE). It proposes a measurement method for heating friction materials because is difficult to detect the temperature variation in the bearing. The major issue is to detect the generated infrared light according to the material detection. The temperature is considered the major signal of the wheel reliability and a remotely temperature detection method is proposed and because the sleeve bearing is a crucial part of the excavator a predictive measurements system for buckled wheel axis system was designed.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of flash droughts during crop growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Zhuguo; Pan, Ming; Shi, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    Severe short-term droughts frequently occurred over China in recent years, with devastating impacts on crop production. Short-term droughts during the crop growing seasons sometimes occur together with abnormally high temperature, and positive feedbacks between the land and atmosphere often intensify the drought conditions. These droughts are recently termed as "flash droughts" due to their rapid development, unusual intensity and devastating impacts. This study assesses the capability of microwave remote sensing in detecting soil moisture droughts over China and in providing early warnings. The 22-year (1992-2013) satellite surface soil moisture retrievals produced by the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) are compared against the in-situ observations at 312 stations in China, the ERA Interim and GLDAS soil moisture reanalysis, and the observed rainfall deficit. Both the reanalysis and remote sensing products can only detect less than 60% of drought months over most in-situ stations, but they capture the responses of inter-annual drought variations to ENSO at river basin scales quite well. As compared with reanalysis, the satellite products provide independent drought information over sparsely observed regions such as northwestern China, and the active microwave product with better vegetation penetration works the best in southern China. This study suggests that the microwave remote sensing data is useful for soil moisture drought monitor as well as verification for drought modeling or forecasting.

  8. Growing Season Evapotranspiration with Satellite Remote Sensing Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, A.; Ratcliffe, I.; Ranade, P.; Kamble, B.; Mutiibwa, D.; Akasheh, O. Z.; Hydrologic Information System Team

    2010-12-01

    Water is the most important constraint facing agriculture in the most of the Central High Plains of the U.S.A.. Local, state and federal water management regulatory agencies need good quality water use estimates by different land surfaces to assess short and long-term water management, planning, and allocations on a watershed scale. Evapotranspiration (ET) can be defined as the loss of water from the ground, lake or pond, and vegetative surfaces to the atmosphere through vaporization of liquid water. The ability is required to accurately estimate the magnitude of this flux will, therefore, go a long way towards being able to compute the water balance and plan the water resources and regimes.. Furthermore, quantification of this flux on a watershed or a regional scale is much more difficult. In this study we applied the Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with internal calibration (METRIC) to obtain ET maps for Central and Western parts of Nebraska. Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 images were processed for the 2005 and 2007 growing seasons to obtain instantaneous and daily ET. Monthly and Seasonal ET data are rarely presented in previous studies and are often required for quantifying water consumption. In order to produce monthly and seasonal ET maps, individual daily ET maps generated from METRIC were interpolated between dates on a daily basis using a cubic-spline model. Cloud artifacts were removed and filled back in using interpolated ET data and a daily background evaporation adjustment based on the FAO-56 Ke evaporation model. The maps generated by the METRICtm allowed us to follow the seasonal trend in evaporative faction and ET for major land use classes. If calibrated properly, the model could be a viable tool to estimate water use in managed and native ecosystems in sub-humid climates at a large scale. The METRICtm approach presented in this paper illustrated how an ‘off-the-shelf’ model can be applied operationally over a significant time period and

  9. Assessing seasonal features of tropical forests using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifaz-Alfonzo, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    seasonal and vegetation response. In terms of mapping the WDRVI was the index with better performance. Fourier parameters mapping, particularly the first harmonic phase, was sensitive to annual variation of environmental conditions (precipitation). The use of multitemporal observations through remote sensing observations, provide a continuous and dynamic view of tropical regions to support monitoring and sustainable development and management of environmental policies.

  10. Remotely-sensed chlorophyll a observations of the northern Red Sea indicate seasonal variability and influence of coastal reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong; Kempler, Steven

    The biological dynamics of the open northern Red Sea (21.5°-27.5° N, 33.5°-40° E) have not been studied extensively, due in part to both the inaccessibility of this desert region and political considerations. Remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data therefore provide a framework to investigate the primary patterns of biological activity in this oceanic basin. Monthly chlorophyll a data from the 8-year Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, and data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), were analyzed with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) online data analysis system "Giovanni". The data indicate that despite the normal low chlorophyll a concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg m - 3 ) in these oligotrophic waters, there is a characteristic seasonal bloom in March-April in the northernmost open Red Sea (24° to 27.5° N) concurrent with minimum sea surface temperature. The location of the highest chlorophyll concentrations is consistent with a linear box model [Eshel, G., and Naik, N.H., 1997. Climatological coastal jet collision, intermediate water formation, and the general circulation of the Red Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27(7), 1233-1257.] of Red Sea circulation. Two years in the data set exhibited a different seasonal cycle consisting of a relatively weak northern spring bloom and elevated chlorophyll concentrations to the south (21.5° to 24° N). The data also indicate that large coral reef complexes may be sources of either nutrients or chlorophyll-rich detritus and sediment, enhancing chlorophyll a concentration in waters adjacent to the reefs.

  11. Remote possibilities. From the Landsat -- a satellite for all seasons

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report presents Landsat and its big picture from outer space. It explains the concept of remote sensing. The satellite can provide visual imagery of resource problems in the fields of environmental quality, geology water, land use, and agriculture. The data acquired by the satellite is available to everyone to help resolve resource problems.

  12. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  13. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication. PMID:26541597

  14. Acoustic and satellite remote sensing of blue whale seasonality and habitat in the Northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtenshaw, Jessica C.; Oleson, Erin M.; Hildebrand, John A.; McDonald, Mark A.; Andrew, Rex K.; Howe, Bruce M.; Mercer, James A.

    2004-05-01

    Northeast Pacific blue whales seasonally migrate, ranging from the waters off Central America to the Gulf of Alaska. Using acoustic and satellite remote sensing, we have continuously monitored the acoustic activity and habitat of blue whales during 1994-2000. Calling blue whales primarily aggregate off the coast of southern and central California in the late summer, coinciding with the timing of the peak euphausiid biomass, their preferred prey. The northward bloom of primary production along the coast and subsequent northbound movements of the blue whales are apparent in the satellite and acoustic records, respectively, with the calling blue whales moving north along the Oregon and Washington coasts to a secondary foraging area with high primary productivity off Vancouver Island in the late fall. El Ni n˜o conditions, indicated by elevated sea-surface temperature and depressed regional chlorophyll- a concentrations, are apparent in the satellite records, particularly in the Southern California Bight during 1997/1998. These conditions disrupt biological production and alter the presence of calling blue whales in primary feeding locations. Remote sensing using acoustics is well suited to characterizing the seasonal movements and relative abundance of the northeast Pacific blue whales, and remote sensing using satellites allows for monitoring their habitat. These technologies are invaluable because of their ability to provide continuous large-scale spatial and temporal coverage of the blue whale migration.

  15. Remote Sensing of Seasonal Leaf Area Index Across the Oregon Transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, Michael; Johnson, Lee; Miller, John; McCreight, Richard; Freemantle, Jim; Runyon, John; Gong, Peng

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed data acquired from four remote-sensing instruments on three different aircraft platforms over a transect of coniferous forest stands in Oregon were analyzed with respect to seasonal leaf area index (LAI). Data from the four instruments were corrected for the varying seasonal and geographic atmospheric conditions present along the transect. Strong logarithmic relationships were observed between seasonal maximum and minimum LAI and the simple ratio (SR) (near infrared/red reflectance) calculated from the broad-spectral-band Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), as well as from the narrow-spectral-band Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), and a Spectron SE590 spectro-radiometer (R(exp 2) = 0.82-0.97). The TMS SR reached an asymptote at an LAI of approx. 7-8. However, the SE590 and the CASI SR continued to increase up to the maximum LAI of 10.6. The variability of the relationship between the AVIRIS SR and LAI increased at stands with LAIs greater than 7, making a trend in the AVIRIS SR-LAI relationship at LAIs greater than 7 difficult to discern. The SRs of the coniferous forest stands measured by the narrow-spectral-band instruments were higher than they were from the broad-spectral-band TMS. This is attributed partially to the integration of the TMS over a broad wavelength region in the red and more strongly to calibration differences between the sensors. Seasonal TMS SR trends for four time periods for some of the stands deviated from the expected seasonal LAI trends, possibly because of smoke and very low sun angles during some of the acquisition periods. However, the expected SR differences for the seasonal minimum and maximum LAI were observed for all of the sensors for nearly all of the forest stands. This study, demonstrates that remotely, sensed data from both broad- and narrow spectral band instruments can provide estimates of LAI for use in forest ecosystems simulation models

  16. Microwave remote sensing of short-term droughts during crop growing seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Zhuguo; Pan, Ming; Shi, Chunxiang

    2015-06-01

    Severe short-term (monthly to seasonal) droughts frequently occurred over China in recent years, with devastating impacts on crop production. This study assesses the capability of microwave remote sensing in detecting soil moisture (agricultural) droughts over China and in providing early warnings. The 22 year (1992-2013) European Space Agency satellite soil moisture retrievals are compared against the in situ observations at 312 stations in China, the global soil moisture reanalysis, and the observed rainfall deficit. Both the reanalysis and remote sensing products can only detect less than 60% of drought months at in situ station scale, but they capture the interannual variations of short-term drought area at river basin scales quite well. As compared with reanalysis, the passive and merged microwave products have better drought detection over sparsely vegetated regions in northwestern China and the active microwave product with better vegetation penetration works the best in eastern China.

  17. Seasonal Patterns and Remote Spectral Estimation of Canopy Chemistry Across the Oregon Transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Pamela; Johnson, Lee; Billow, Christine; Miller, John; Pu, Ruiliang

    1994-01-01

    We examined seasonal changes in canopy chemical concentrations and content in conifer forests growing along a climate gradient in western Oregon, as part of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) study. The chemical variables were related to seasonal patterns of growth and production. Statistical comparisons of chemical variables with data collected from two different airborne remote-sensing platforms were also carried out. Total nitrogen (N) concentrations in foliage varied significantly both seasonally and among sites; when expressed as content in the forest canopy, nitrogen varied to a much greater extent and was significantly related to aboveground net primary production (r = 0.99). Chlorophyll and free amino acid concentrations varied more strongly than did total N and may have reflected changes in physiological demands for N. Large variations in starch concentrations were measured from pre- to post-budbreak in all conifer sites. Examination of remote-sensing data from two different airborne instruments suggests the potential for remote measurement of some canopy chemicals. Multivariate analysis of high-resolution spectral data in the near infrared region indicated significant correlations between spectral signals and N concentration and canopy N content; the correlation with canopy N content was stronger and was probably associated in part with water absorption features of the forest canopy. The spectral bands that were significantly correlated with lignin concentration and content were similar to bands selected in the other laboratory and airborne studies; starch concentrations were not significantly related to spectral reflectance data. Strong relationships between the spectral position of specific reflectance features in the visible region and chlorophyll were also found.

  18. Methods and tools to enjoy and to study inaccessible Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.

    2014-06-01

    Our research on a multi-purpose survey of cultural Heritage located in UNESCO Historical Centre of Naples has the following goals: to test some innovative strategies to improve public enjoyment for inaccessible sites; to explore the use of some interactive systems to study heritage in remote; to explore how to access the information system through AR applications. In this paper we are going to focus on comparison between interactive system to access 3D data and photogrammetric processing of panoramic images. We investigated on: a. the use of 360° panorama for 3D restitutions; b. the use of 360° panorama as an interface to 3D data to extract real 3D coordinates and accurately measure distances; c. the use of 3D PDF to access a 3D database.

  19. Detecting Land Cover Change by Trend and Seasonality of Remote Sensing Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. C.; Epiphanio, J. N.; Mello, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    seasonal component indicate phenological changes, while changes occurring in the trend component indicate gradual and abrupt change. BFAST can be used to analyze different types of remotely sensed time series and can be applied to other time series such as econometrics, climatology, and hydrology. The algorithm used in this study is available in BFAT package for R from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/package=bfast).; Figure 1 - Number of the phonological change with base in seasonal component.

  20. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  1. Exploring the mid-infrared region for urban remote sensing: seasonal and view angle effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning 3-5 microns, the mid-infrared (MIR) region is the mixing zone between reflected sunlight and emitted earthlight in roughly equal proportions. While the MIR has been utilized in atmospheric remote sensing, its potential in terrestrial remote sensing--particularly urban remote sensing, has yet to be realized. One major advantage of the MIR is the ability to penetrate most anthropogenic haze and smog. Green vegetation appears MIR-dark, urban building materials appear MIR-grey, and bare soil and dried vegetation appear MIR-bright. Thus, there is an intrinsic seasonality in MIR radiance dynamics due both to surface type differences and to seasonal change in insolation. These factors merit exploration into the potential applications of the MIR for monitoring urban change. We investigated MIR radiance dynamics in relation to (1) the spectral properties of land cover types, (2) time of year and (3) sensor view zenith angle (VZA). We used Aqua MODIS daily swaths for band 23 (~ 4.05 μm) at 1 km spatial resolution from 2009-2010 and the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) 30 m product from 2001 and 2006. We found the effects of time of year, sensor VZA, and %ISA to be three principal factors influencing MIR radiance dynamics. We focused on analyzing the relationship between MIR radiance and %ISA over eight major cities in the Great Plains of the USA. This region is characterized by four distinct seasons, relatively flat terrain, and isolated urban centers situated within a vegetated landscape. We used west-east transects beginning in the agricultural areas outside of each city, passing through the urban core and extending back out into the agricultural periphery to observe the spatial pattern of MIR radiance and how it changes seasonally. Sensor VZA influences radiance dynamics by affecting the proportion of surface elements detected--especially pertinent at the coarse spatial resolution (~1 km) of MODIS. For example, smaller VZAs (<30°) capture more

  2. Do BRDF effects dominate seasonal changes in tower-based remote sensing imagery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagol, J. R.; Morton, D. C.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Rishmawi, K.

    2014-12-01

    In situ remote sensing complements data from airborne and space-based sensors, in particular for intensive study sites where optical imagery can be paired with detailed ground and tower measurements. The characteristics of tower-mounted imaging systems are quite different from the nadir viewing geometry of other remote sensing platforms. In particular, tower-mounted systems are quite sensitive to artifacts of seasonal and diurnal sun angle variations. Most systems are oriented in a fixed north or south direction (depending on latitude), placing them in the principal plane at solar noon. The strength of the BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) effect is strongest for images acquired at that time. Phenological metrics derived from tower based oblique angle imaging systems are particularly prone to BRDF effects, as shadowing within and between tree crowns varies seasonally. For sites in the northern hemisphere, the fraction of sunlit and shaded vegetation declines following the June solstice to leaf senescence in September. Correcting tower-based remote sensing imagery for artifacts of BRDF is critical to isolate real changes in canopy phenology and reflectance. Here, we used airborne lidar data from NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral, and Thermal Airborne Imager (G-LiHT) to develop a 3D forest scene for Harvard Forest in the Discrete Anisotrophic Radiative Transfer (DART) model. Our objective was to model the contribution of changes in shadowing and illumination to observations of changes in greenness from the Phenocam image time series at the Harvard Forest site. Diurnal variability in canopy greenness from the Phenocam time series provides an independent evaluation of BRDF effects from changes in illumination and sun-sensor geometries. The overall goal of this work is to develop a look-up table solution to correct major components of BRDF for tower-mounted imaging systems such as Phenocam, based on characteristics of the forest structure (forest

  3. Seasonal Changes in Remote Vegetation Indices and Net Photosynthesis of Japanese Larch Needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Nakaji, T.; Oguma, H.; Fujinuma, Y.

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the seasonal pattern of four kinds of remote vegetation indices (NDVI, PRI, [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] and [(1/rGreen)-(1/rNIR)]) and their correlation to photosynthetic activity in the needle leaves of Japanese larch. In the 42-year-old larch forest (Tomakomai, Japan), the diurnal courses of spectral reflectance and gas exchange rates of larch needles were periodically investigated during early June to late October in 2003. In the Tomakomai larch forest, expansion of short-shoot needles was started from mid-May, and yellow color change of the needle leaves was observed in late October. The seasonal pattern of index value differed among the vegetation indices. For example, daytime mean NDVI showed constant value from late June to early October. The [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] and PRI were increased during summer, and their peak were observed in July and August, respectively. Although the values of NDVI, PRI and [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] were depressed in late October with autumn senescence of the needles, the [(1/rGreen)-(1/rNIR)] in larch needles was not changed even in yellow colored needles. Consequently, correlation of these vegetation indices and seasonal changed photosynthetic parameters such as net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) also differed among the indices. Although the PRI, NDVI and [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] positively correlated with daily maximum Pn and daily means of Pn and LUE, no correlation was found between [(1/rGreen)-(1/rNIR)] and the measured photosynthetic parameters. Based on the results of Pearson_fs correlation test, PRI and [(1/rRedEdge)-(1/rNIR)] were considered to be most useful index for the estimations of seasonal changes in Pn and LUE, respectively.

  4. Seasonal streamflow forecasts in a semi-arid Andean watershed using remotely sensed snow cover data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, M.; McPhee, J.; Vargas, X.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasts of monthly streamflow during the snowmelt season are highly relevant for real-time decision making such as hydropower production scheduling, irrigation planning, and water transfers in market-driven water resource systems. The Chilean water bureau issues such forecasts, for a number of snowmelt-driven watersheds in northern and central Chile, based on measurements from a sparse network of snow course stations. This research aims at improving the accuracy of the government-issued seasonal forecasts by combining streamflow data and remotely sensed snow cover information through a recurrent neural network (RNN). The snow cover area (SCA) obtained from MODIS-Surface Reflectance product (MOD09) and the Normalized Differentiation Snow Index (NDSI), from 2000-2008 period, allow us to understand the variation of the snowmelt and accumulation processes in six different basins located in central Chile (32,5° - 34,5° south latitude; 69,5° -70,5° west longitude). For the three basins located at higher altitudes (> 1800 m.s.l.), after applying a cross-correlation procedure we determined a strong relation (r > 0.7) between SCA and the seasonal hydrograph, lagged around 4 months. The basin SCA, the NDSI at specific points inside the basin and past basin streamflow data are input to the RNN for recognizing the pattern variation of seasonal hydrograph through supervised learning. The determination coefficients for the validation period (r2 > 0.6) indicate a good support for the application of this methodology in normal-humid hydrological years. Particularly for the dryer years we obtain a considerable overestimation (around 30%) of the monthly snowmelt runoff. These results are limited by the availability of data for different types (dry, normal or humid) of hydrological years.

  5. The height and seasonal variation of foliage clumping: implications for the remote sensing retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Clumping index (CI) describes the level of foliage grouping within distinct canopy structures relative to a random distribution. Vegetation foliage clumping significantly alters its radiation environment and affects vegetation growth as well as water and carbon cycles. In moderate to dense forest stands, in-situ measurements near the ground surface may considerably underestimate the overall canopy-level clumping effect. This is because the large gaps between tree crowns at upper levels of the canopy may not be all measured near the ground due to obscurity by lower vegetation of branches. To assess the possible role of the vertical distribution of foliage clumping and the differences from the CI values measured at the forest floor, measurements of CI at different heights were conducted at three different stands: native cloud rainforest stand in Hawai'i, mature birch dominated stand in Jarvselja, Estonia, and boreal evergreen needleleaf stand in Hyytiala, Finland. Additionally, the seasonal variation of foliage clumping at scales larger than the shoot is reported for two RAMI birch and pine sites in Jarvselja, Estonia. This information about height and seasonal variations of CI is shown to be important for correct estimating and validating the foliage clumping from airborne/satellite remote sensing.

  6. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  7. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  8. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  9. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  10. 30 CFR 75.389 - Mining into inaccessible areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining into inaccessible areas. 75.389 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.389 Mining into inaccessible areas. (a) (1) The operator shall develop and follow a plan for mining into areas penetrated...

  11. Remote influence of Atlantic multidecadal variability on Siberian warm season precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Zhao, Sen

    2015-01-01

    The time series of 20th century Siberian warm season (May to October) precipitation (SWP) shows variations over decadal timescales, including a wetting trend since the 1970s. Here, it is shown that the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) can be implicated as a remote driver of the decadal-scale variations in SWP. Observational analysis identifies a significant in-phase relationship between the AMV and SWP, and the SWP decadal variability can be largely explained by the AMV. The physical mechanism for this relationship is investigated using both observations and numerical simulations. The results suggest that North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) warming associated with the positive AMV phase can excite an eastward propagating wave train response across the entire Eurasian continent, which includes an east–west dipole structure over Siberia. The dipole then leads to anomalous southerly winds bringing moisture northward to Siberia; the precipitation increases correspondingly. The mechanism is further supported by linear barotropic modeling and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis. PMID:26593402

  12. Low resolution optical remote sensing applied to the monitoring of seasonal glacier mass balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe; Berthier, Etienne; Swinnen, Else

    2015-04-01

    Mass balance is a key variable to describe the state of health of glaciers, their contribution to sea level rise and, in a few dry regions, their role in water resource. We explore here a new method to retrieve seasonal glacier mass balances from low resolution optical remote sensing. We derive winter and summer snow maps for each year during 1998-2014, using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) computed from visible and SWIR channels available with SPOT/VEGETATION. The NDSI dynamic is directly linked to the area percentage of snow in the VGT kilometric pixel. The combination of 15 years of 10-daily NDSI maps with the SRTM DEM allows us to calculate the altitude of the transition between bare soil and snow. Then, we compare the interannual dynamic of this altitude with in situ measurements of mass balance available for 60 alpine glaciers (Huss et al., 2010; Zemp et al., 2009, 2013) and find promising relationships for winter mass balance. We also explore the possibility of a real-time monitoring of winter mass balance for a selection of alpine glaciers. Finally, we discuss the robustness and genericity of these relationships for their future application in regions where in situ glaciers mass balances are scarce or not available.

  13. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  14. Simulations of Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations in Leaf Inclination Angle Distribution: Implications for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.

    2013-01-01

    The leaf inclination angle distribution (LAD) is an important characteristic of vegetation canopy structure affecting light interception within the canopy. However, LADs are difficult and time consuming to measure. To examine possible global patterns of LAD and their implications in remote sensing, a model was developed to predict leaf angles within canopies. Canopies were simulated using the SAIL radiative transfer model combined with a simple photosynthesis model. This model calculated leaf inclination angles for horizontal layers of leaves within the canopy by choosing the leaf inclination angle that maximized production over a day in each layer. LADs were calculated for five latitude bands for spring and summer solar declinations. Three distinct LAD types emerged: tropical, boreal, and an intermediate temperate distribution. In tropical LAD, the upper layers have a leaf angle around 35 with the lower layers having horizontal inclination angles. While the boreal LAD has vertical leaf inclination angles throughout the canopy. The latitude bands where each LAD type occurred changed with the seasons. The different LADs affected the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with similar relationships between fAPAR and leaf area index (LAI), but different relationships between NDVI and LAI for the different LAD types. These differences resulted in significantly different relationships between NDVI and fAPAR for each LAD type. Since leaf inclination angles affect light interception, variations in LAD also affect the estimation of leaf area based on transmittance of light or lidar returns.

  15. Towards Optimization of Reservoir Operations for Hydropower Production in East Africa: Application of Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, S. S.; Gebremichael, M.; Hopson, T. M.; Riddle, E. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroelectric generation and interconnections are the major priority areas of infrastructure development in Africa. A number of hydropower projects are currently being developed in East Africa in order to meet the energy demands of the fast growing economy in sustainable and climate-resilient manner. However, the performance efficiency of existing hydropower systems in Africa is much lower (about 30% in some cases) than their design capacity. This study proposes a decision support system (DSS) that integrates climate forecasts and remote sensing products into modeling and optimization of the hydropower systems in order to achieve reliable reservoir operations and enhance hydropower production efficiency. The DSS has three main components; climate system, hydrologic and water resources system, and optimization system. The climate system comprises of tools and interfaces for accessing, customizing and integrating climate forecasts and remote sensing data. The North America Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) seasonal retrospective forecasts for the East Africa Power Pool (EAPP) region are compared with the TRMM rainfall estimates and the CPC unified gauged rainfall data. The errors of the NMME seasonal forecasts have portrayed significant spatial and temporal variability in the EAPP region. The root mean square errors of the seasonal forecasts are relatively higher for wetter locations and months. However, the skills of the NMME seasonal forecasts are not significantly depreciating with lead time for the study region. The seasonal forecast errors vary from one model to another. Here, we present the skills of NMME seasonal forecasts, the physical factors and mechanisms that affect the skills. In addition, we discuss our methodology that derives the best seasonal forecasts for the study region from the NMME seasonal forecasts, and show how the climate forecast errors propagate through hydrologic models into hydrological forecasting.

  16. [Monitoring of soil salinization in Northern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang of China in dry and wet seasons based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hong-Nan

    2013-11-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important eco-environment problems in arid area, which can not only induce land degradation, inhibit vegetation growth, but also impede regional agricultural production. To accurately and quickly obtain the information of regional saline soils by using remote sensing data is critical to monitor soil salinization and prevent its further development. Taking the Weigan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis in the northern Tarim River Basin of Xinjiang as test object, and based on the remote sensing data from Landsat-TM images of April 15, 2011 and September 22, 2011, in combining with the measured data from field survey, this paper extracted the characteristic variables modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the third principal component from K-L transformation (K-L-3). The decision tree method was adopted to establish the extraction models of soil salinization in the two key seasons (dry and wet seasons) of the study area, and the classification maps of soil salinization in the two seasons were drawn. The results showed that the decision tree method had a higher discrimination precision, being 87.2% in dry season and 85.3% in wet season, which was able to be used for effectively monitoring the dynamics of soil salinization and its spatial distribution, and to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive management of saline soils in arid area and the rational utilization of oasis land resources. PMID:24564152

  17. Comparison of the remotely sensed start of the season and ground phenology observations of the cereal crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohovic, Roman; Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Bálek, Jan; Trnka, Mirek

    2015-04-01

    Phenology monitoring such as start of the season of agricultural crops are important characteristics observed on the ground basis by the farmers and authorities already for the long time. Due to costs, coverage, site disparities and time demands of ground observations is remote sensing phenology an interesting option. Satellite observations enable monitoring of the ground vegetation already at sufficient resolution and in country and regional scale at the same time. However, ground and remote sensing phenology differ in nature of its object. First is focused on single species and limited individuals at the observation spot. Remote sensing is from its construction definition able to monitor area-wide vegetation communities. To understand these differences and to set the procedures to overcome it is the aim of this study. Case study area covers Czech Republic in Central Europe with typical four season temperate climate that strongly influence the vegetation. Daily MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data in 250 by 250 meters resolution were used to compute NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). Iterative developed method for the filtering of NDVI time series since 2000 up till now is crucial for overcoming missing periods mainly due to atmospheric conditions. From improved curve of NDVI start of the season is derived as absolute threshold value of 50% NDVI. Comparison of remotely sensed start of the season with observations of emergence of spring barley and beginning of leaf sheath elongation for winter wheat was done. Data were correlated at 90 ground stations across Czech Republic between the years 2000 and 2012. Correlations at original 250x250 meters resolution and aggregations of 5x5 km were investigated. Different land cover classes were considered for aggregated areas. Correlation of start of the season shows lower results for spring barley caused by strong influence of winter signal and crop sowing date by farmers

  18. Remote acoustic monitoring of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) reveals seasonal and diel variations in acoustic behavior.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Leanna P; McCordic, Jessica A; Parks, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the "gunshot" sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities. PMID:24646524

  19. Remote sensing of seasonal variability of fractional vegetation cover and its object-based spatial pattern analysis over mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guijun; Pu, Ruiliang; Zhang, Jixian; Zhao, Chunjiang; Feng, Haikuan; Wang, Jihua

    2013-03-01

    Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important indicator of mountain ecosystem status. A study on the seasonal changes of FVC can be beneficial for regional eco-environmental security, which contributes to the assessment of mountain ecosystem recovery and supports mountain forest planning and landscape reconstruction around megacities, for example, Beijing, China. Remote sensing has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful and feasible tools for the investigation of mountain vegetation. However, topographic and atmospheric effects can produce enormous errors in the quantitative retrieval of FVC data from satellite images of mountainous areas. Moreover, the most commonly used analysis approach for assessing FVC seasonal fluctuations is based on per-pixel analysis regardless of the spatial context, which results in pixel-based FVC values that are feasible for landscape and ecosystem applications. To solve these problems, we proposed a new method that incorporates the use of a revised physically based (RPB) model to correct both atmospheric and terrain-caused illumination effects on Landsat images, an improved vegetation index (VI)-based technique for estimating the FVC, and an adaptive mean shift approach for object-based FVC segmentation. An array of metrics for segmented FVC analyses, including a variety of area metrics, patch metrics, shape metrics and diversity metrics, was generated. On the basis of the individual segmented FVC values and landscape metrics from multiple images of different dates, remote sensing of the seasonal variability of FVC was conducted over the mountainous area of Beijing, China. The experimental results indicate that (a) the mean value of the RPB-NDVI in all seasons was increased by approximately 10% compared with that of the atmospheric correction-NDVI; (b) a strong consistency was demonstrated between ground-based FVC observations and FVC estimated through remote sensing technology (R2 = 0.8527, RMSE = 0.0851); and (c

  20. Studies of seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties with use of remote techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Makuch, Przemyslaw

    2014-05-01

    According to the IPCC report, atmospheric aerosols due to their properties -extinction of Sun and Earth radiation and participation in processes of creation of clouds, are among basic "unknowns" in climate studies. Aerosols have large effect on the radiation balance of the Earth which has a significant impact on climate changes. They are also a key issue in the case of remote sensing measurements. The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols depend not only on their type but also on physical parameters such as pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction. The wide range of properties in which atmospheric aerosols affect Earth's climate is the reason of high unrelenting interest of scientists from different disciplines such as physics, chemistry and biology. Numerous studies have dealt with aerosol optical properties, e.g. Dubovik et al. (2002), but only in a few have regarded the influence of meteorological parameters on the optical properties of aerosols in the Baltic Sea area. Studies of aerosol properties over the Baltic were conducted already in the last forty years, e.g. Zielinski T. et. al. (1999) or Zielinski T. & A. Zielinski (2002). The experiments carried out at that time involved only one measuring instrument -e.g. LIDAR (range of 1 km) measurements and they were conducted only in selected areas of the Polish coastal zone. Moreover in those publications authors did not use measurements performed on board of research vessel (R/V Oceania), which belongs to Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Science (IO PAN) or data received from satellite measurements. In 2011 Zdun and Rozwadowska performed an analysis of all data derived from the AERONET station on the Gotland Island. The data were divided into seasons and supplemented by meteorological factors. However, so far no comprehensive study has been carried out for the entire Baltic Sea area. This was the reason to conduct further research of SEasonal Variations of Aerosol optical depth over the Baltic

  1. A Galois connection approach to superposition and inaccessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Jeremy; Melia, Joseph

    1993-12-01

    Working in a quantum logic framework and using the idea of Galois connections, we give a natural sufficient condition for superposition and inaccessibility to give the same closure map on sets of states.

  2. Study on the seasonal migration of surface suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Jian; Ye, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of suspended sediment directly affects the optical properties such as transparency and water color, and aquatic environment as well. This paper selects the Taiwan Strait as study area, establishes inversion mode of suspended sediment by coupling field data with remote sensing reflectance from MODIS data. Monthly-averaged concentrations and seasonal changes of suspended sediment from 2003 to 2012 were calculated and analyzed by the mode. The main results are as follows:(1) remote sensing reflectance at 555nm from MODIS data has high relativity with the field observed turbidity by regression equation of Y =0.8931e123.93x in which Y is TSM concentration, X is Rrs555 and R2 is 0.6836. (2)Suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait has obviously spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, that higher concentration of suspended sediment is in coastal water and decreases from shore to sea, and highest concentration happens in winter.

  3. A model for determining inaccessible pore volume in polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.B. ); Satchwell, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Until now, only imprecise approximation of inaccessible pore volume have been employed in mathematical models of polymer flooding, causing these reservoir models to yield inaccurate results. This paper reports a new model to precisely describe inaccessible pore volume in polymer flow through porous media. The model can also be applied as a screening tool for determining candidate reservoirs for polymer flooding given a typical polymer, or it can be used to screen different polymer types once a candidate reservoir has been chosen. This new model is based on theoretical and actual pore throat entry and polymer molecule size distributions. Both pore throat and polymer size distributions are thoroughly reviewed. Inaccessible pore volume, in this model, is defined as the probability of randomly selected polymer molecules being larger than randomly selected pore throats, and is determined by statistically describing the polymer and pore throats as continuous distributions. Examples of the inaccessible pore volume model employing Uniform, Triangular, and Gamma distributions are included. Results obtained show an adequate match between experimental data and theoretical results. A nomograph for determining inaccessible pore volume in polymer flow through porous media based on pore throat and polymer molecule sizes is presented.

  4. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Seasonally-Acquired Imported Fire Ant Mound Features (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, residential, and commercial settings. Ground-based hyperspectral studies focused on the seasonal monitoring of reflectance characteristics of imported f...

  5. Monitoring Phenological Variability across a Tropical Savanna Aridity Gradient with Remote Sensing across Seasonal to Annualand Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, A.; Eamus, D.; Ma, X.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Boulain, N.; Hutley, L.

    2011-08-01

    Tropical savannas are key components of the global carbon and water cycles and understanding their functioning is critical to understanding ecosystem feedbacks to global climate. By observing broad scale vegetation responses to climatic variability, remote sensing offers powerful insights into the patterns and processes underlying savanna behaviour. However, savannas are highly complex, multi-layer and heterogenous ecosystems composed of C3 (herbaceous) and C4 (woodland) components with asynchronous phenological responses to environmental controls. There are concerns about optimizing the detection of savanna functioning as well as in understanding their environmental controls with remote-sensing data due to their coarse resolution. Furthermore, seasonalphenologic variations in satellite observations need to be sufficiently accurate to ensure confidence in interpreting vegetation responses to interannual climatic variation and to aid in constraining models of carbon and water fluxes. In this study, we analysed several years of high temporal frequency MODIS and TRMM satellite data sets of vegetation dynamics and rainfall, respectively, to seasonal and interannual responses of savanna multifunctional components to climate variability across a tropical savanna aridity gradient (1760 to 580 mm annual rainfall) in northern Australia. We compared our results with a series of eddy covariance (EC) tower flux data of gross primary production and analyzed a wide set of ecosystem processes including photosynthesis, net primary productivity, phenological metrics in timing of the growing season, and rain use efficiencies. We found MODIS satellite measurements to yield highly accurate spatial and temporal variability in ecosystem functioning and able to replicate interannual patterns and responses to rainfall observed with the EC tower data. Although these results appear promising for regional extensions of satelliteflux tower relationships at the landscape level, we also

  6. RETRIEVAL FROM LIMBO, THE INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT OF INACCESSIBLE CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GANTER, GRACE; AND OTHERS

    A CLINIC PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT WITH THE ADVANTAGES OF RESIDENTIAL CARE WHILE THEY REMAINED AT HOME. OF THE 47 SUBJECTS SELECTED (27 AGED 6 TO 9, 20 AGED 9 TO 13), 25 HAD BEEN RECOMMENDED, AND NINE CONSIDERED, FOR RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT. ALL WERE JUDGED INACCESSIBLE BY THE CLINIC…

  7. Seasonal composition of remote and urban fine particulate matter in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Pitchford, M.; Malm, W. C.; Frank, N. H.

    2012-03-01

    Speciated aerosol composition data from the rural Interagency Monitoring for Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and the Environmental Protection Agency's urban/suburban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) were combined to evaluate and contrast the PM2.5 composition and its seasonal patterns at urban and rural locations throughout the United States. We examined the 2005-2008 monthly and annual mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN), particulate organic matter (POM), light-absorbing carbon (LAC), mineral soil, and sea salt from 168 rural and 176 urban sites. Urban and rural AS concentrations and seasonality were similar, and both were substantially higher in the eastern United States. Urban POM and LAC concentrations were higher than rural concentrations and were associated with very different seasonality depending on location. The highest urban and rural POM and LAC concentrations occurred in the southeastern and northwestern United States. Wintertime peaks in AN were common for both urban and rural sites, but urban concentrations were several times higher, and both were highest in California and the Midwest. Fine soil concentrations were highest in the Southwest, and similar regional patterns and seasonality in urban and rural concentrations suggested impacts from long-range transport. Contributions from sea salt to the PM2.5 budget were non-negligible only at coastal sites. This analysis revealed spatial and seasonal variability in urban and rural aerosol concentrations on a continental scale and provided insights into their sources, processes, and lifetimes.

  8. Watershed-Scale Crop Type Classification using Seasonal Trends in Remote Sensing-Derived Vegetation Indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis and simulation of watershed-scale processes requires spatial characterization of land use, including differentiation among crop types. If this crop type information could be obtained accurately from remote sensing data, the effort required would be significantly reduced, especially for larg...

  9. Verification of Satellite Radar Remote Sensing Based Estimates of Boreal and Subalpine Growing Seasons Using an Ecosystem Process Model and Surface Biophysical Measurement Network Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Running, S. W.; Zimmermann, R.

    2002-12-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001. We compare these results with estimates of growing season length derived from a network of surface stations, utilizing BIOME-BGC stand-level ecosystem process model simulations, site sap flow and tower eddy flux net CO2 exchange measurements for a network of mature evergreen coniferous forest stands. Remote sensing based estimates of spatial patterns in the timing of seasonal freeze-thaw vary by more than 8 weeks, while associated estimates of growing season length span more than 14 weeks across the region. Inter-annual variability between 2000 and 2001 is found to be on the order of 1-4 weeks. Remote sensing estimates of growing season initiation and length are found to be well correlated with both site measurements and model simulations. Remote sensing measurements of the end of the seasonal non-frozen period are also found to be consistent with site based temperature measurements, but not with site based estimates of growing season termination. These findings are attributed to a relatively strong dependence of the onset of the growing season to snowmelt and associated soil thaw in spring and the relative importance of additional factors such as light availability and day length in controlling growing season termination. This work was performed at the University of Montana, and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Forecasting corn and soybean yields in the United States utilizing pre- and within-season remotely sensed variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Four timely and broadly available remotely sensed datasets were assessed for inclusion into county-level corn and soybean yield forecasting efforts focused on the Corn Belt region of the central United States (US). Those datasets were the (1) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as derived from the Terra satellite's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), (2) daytime and (3) nighttime land surface temperature (LST) as derived from Aqua satellite's MODIS, and (4) precipitation from the National Weather Service (NWS) Nexrad-based gridded data product. The originating MODIS data utilized were the globally produced 8-day, clear sky composited science products (MOD09Q1 and MYD11A2), while the US-wide NWS data were manipulated to mesh with the MODIS imagery both spatially and temporally by regridding and summing the otherwise daily measurements. The crop growing seasons of 2006 - 2011 were analyzed with each year bounded by 32 8-day periods from mid-February through late October. Land cover classifications known as the Cropland Data Layer as produced annually by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) were used to isolate the input dataset pixels as to corn and soybeans for each of the corresponding years. The relevant pixels were then averaged by crop and time period to produce a county-level estimate of NDVI, the LSTs, and precipitation. They in turn were related to official annual NASS county level yield statistics. For the Corn Belt region as a whole, both corn and soybean yields were found to be positively correlated with NDVI in the middle of the summer and negatively correlated to daytime LST at that same time. Nighttime LST and precipitation showed no correlations to yield, regardless of the time prior or during the growing season. There was also slight suggestion of low NDVI and high daytime LST in the spring being positively related to final yields, again for both crops. Taking only NDVI and daytime LST as inputs, regression

  11. Scale interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and associated remote effects during the Baiu/Meiyu season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Hidetaka; Kawamura, Ryuichi

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and the associated remote impact on East Asian and North Pacific anomalous weather during the Baiu/Meiyu season have been investigated using the Japanese long-term Reanalysis project data aided by the Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System. The typhoons that appeared in July have been categorized into two primary tracks, the Hainan Island course (HC) and the Okinawa Island course (OC). A typhoon gives rise to negative absolute vorticity advection along its eastern periphery, which locally reinforces the western ridge of the North Pacific subtropical high, whereas the resultant anomalous high stimulates the westward (northward) migration of the HC (OC) typhoon through its combination with the background flow. A combined effect of the typhoon and its induced anomalous anticyclonic circulation increases the transportation of moisture into the Baiu/Meiyu frontal zone in the vicinity of Japan. Over the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, northward or northeastward moisture flux is pronounced along the western periphery of the typhoon-induced anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the HC category, triggering heavy rainfall on central Japan's Sea of Japan coast. Similar remote effects also operate in the OC category, which is responsible for the occurrence of extremely heavy rainfall along the Pacific coast of western Japan. When an OC typhoon approaches the Asian jet, it is capable of giving rise to anticyclonic vorticity within the jet, leading to the downstream development of stationary Rossby wave packets via the North Pacific waveguide.

  12. Potential of remotely-sensed data for mapping sediment connectivity pathways and their seasonal changes in dryland environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Saskia; Wilczok, Charlotte; Brosinsky, Arlena; Kroll, Anja; Segl, Karl; Francke, Till

    2014-05-01

    Many drylands are characterized by strong erosion in headwater catchments, where connectivity processes play an important role in the redistribution of water and sediments. Sediment connectivity relates to the physical transfer of sediment through a drainage basin (Bracken and Croke 2007). The identification of sediment source areas and the way they connect to the channel network are essential to environmental management (Reid et al. 2007), especially where high erosion and sediment delivery rates occur. Vegetation cover and its spatial and temporal pattern is one of the main factors affecting sediment connectivity. This is particularly true for patchy vegetation covers typical for dryland environments. While many connectivity studies are based on field-derived data, the potential of remotely-sensed data for sediment connectivity analyses has not yet been fully exploited. Recent advances in remote sensing allow for quantitative, spatially explicit, catchment-wide derivation of surface information to be used in connectivity analyses. These advances include a continuous increase in spatial image resolution to comprise processes at the plot to hillslope to catchment scale, an increase in the temporal resolution to cover seasonal and long-term changes and an increase in the spectral resolution enabling the discrimination of dry and green vegetation fractions from soil surfaces in heterogeneous dryland landscapes. The utilization of remotely-sensed data for connectivity studies raises questions on what type of information is required, how scale of sediment flux and image resolution match, how the connectivity information can be incorporated into water and sediment transport models and how this improves model predictions. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of remotely-sensed data for mapping sediment connectivity pathways and their seasonal change at the example of a mesoscale dryland catchment in the Spanish Pyrenees. Here, sediment connectivity

  13. Optical remote sensing for monitoring evolution of ablation season mountain snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampkin, Derrick J.

    The investigations contained in this body of work detail a viable proof-of-concept model for monitoring seasonal snow pack propensity for melt release based on time-variant snow surface optical and thermal properties. The model has been called the Near Surface Moisture Index-(Snow) (NSMI). The NSMI was developed based on time-variant snow surface optical and thermal properties. This research achieved three primary objectives: (1) development of theoretical foundation and surface moisture sensitive algorithm used to track both surface melt and pack discharge potential; (2) time-dependent phases of coupling and decoupling between snow surface properties and melt discharge were characterized through analysis of long-term surface and sub-surface state variables; and (3) sensitivity of optical satellite systems specifically, EOS TERRA-MODIS, to melting were was examined through radiative transfer simulations. Simulated at-sensor radiance was produced for various grain size changes to determine MODIS capacity to track melt onset. MODIS wavelengths greater than 667nm were sensitive to large changes in grain sizes, particularly bands with coarse spatial resolution (1000m). Longer wavelengths showed greater sensitivity to small changes in smaller grains than to small changes in larger grains. Shorter wavelengths at 500m spatial resolution appeared less effective overall for monitoring changes in grain size. NMSI feature space using Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) on the abscissa and brightness temperature (Tb) on the ordinate was simulated. Simulated NDSI as a function of grain radius saturated approximately around 400--450mum. ASTER derived NSMI demonstrated behavior consistent with simulations with deviations due to topography, vegetation, and regional heterogeneity. We examined NSMI performance during an entire melt season through tracking phases of coupling between snow surface properties and propensity for melt using two ground-base approaches; one with higher

  14. Seasonal Synechococcus and Thaumarchaeal population dynamics examined with high resolution with remote in situ instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Robidart, Julie C; Preston, Christina M; Paerl, Ryan W; Turk, Kendra A; Mosier, Annika C; Francis, Christopher A; Scholin, Christopher A; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Monterey Bay, CA is an Eastern boundary upwelling system that is nitrogen limited much of the year. In order to resolve population dynamics of microorganisms important for nutrient cycling in this region, we deployed the Environmental Sample Processor with quantitative PCR assays targeting both ribosomal RNA genes and functional genes for subclades of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (Thaumarchaeota) populations. Results showed a strong correlation between Thaumarchaea abundances and nitrate during the spring upwelling but not the fall sampling period. In relatively stratified fall waters, the Thaumarchaeota community reached higher numbers than in the spring, and an unexpected positive correlation with chlorophyll concentration was observed. Further, we detected drops in Synechococcus abundance that occurred on short (that is, daily) time scales. Upwelling intensity and blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankton strongly influenced Synechococcus distributions in the spring and fall, revealing what appear to be the environmental limitations of Synechococcus populations in this region. Each of these findings has implications for Monterey Bay biogeochemistry. High-resolution sampling provides a better-resolved framework within which to observe changes in the plankton community. We conclude that controls on these ecosystems change on smaller scales than are routinely assessed, and that more predictable trends will be uncovered if they are evaluated within seasonal (monthly), rather than on annual or interannual scales. PMID:21975596

  15. Assessment of chlorophyll-a variations in high- and low-flow seasons in Apalachicola Bay by MODIS 250-m remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Shuisen; Yang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Elijah

    2014-12-01

    Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) is considered as a primary indicator for water quality and foods for oyster growth in Apalachicola estuarine ecosystem. Assessment of chl-a concentration variation in response to river inflow is important for estuarine environmental research and management. In this study, remote sensing analysis has been conducted to evaluate the effects of river inflow on chlorophyll concentrations in Apalachicola Bay of Florida in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. A remote sensing model for chl-a was improved and applied to map spatial distributions of chl-a by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m resolution imageries in high-flow and low-flow seasons in 2001 and 2008. Chl-a values approximately ranged from the minimum 6 μg/l to the maximum 29 μg/l in the study period. Maximum chl-a concentration in high-flow season was almost twice above that in low-flow season. The averaged mean and minimum chl-a level in the high-flow season were approximately 42 and 28 % higher than those in low-flow season, respectively. The remote sensing mapping of chl-a was able to show spatial variations of chl-a in the entire bay under different flow conditions, which indicated its advantage over the traditional field data sampling for monitoring water quality over a large area of estuary. The MODIS 250-m remote sensing regression model presented from this study can be used to support monitoring and assessment of the spatial chl-a distribution in the bay for environmental research and management in Apalachicola Bay. PMID:25213560

  16. Seasonal Variation in Sea Surface Chlorophll Patterns of the Northern Gulf of Mexico as Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Yuan, J.; Powell, R. T.; Dagg, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The sea surface concentration of chlorophyll in the northern Gulf of Mexico was derived from satellite remote sensing for the period of July 2001 to June of 2002. High resolution (L1A data, with 1 km spatial resolution) Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensors (SeaWiFS) data were used to calculate chlorophyll with the OC4 algorithm for all the clear and partly cloudy days. The chlorophyll pattern shows strong seasonal variation. In offshore areas, a single annual phytoplankton bloom was observed with chlorophyll concentration increasing in fall and winter to reach a maximum of 0.35 mg m-3 in February, and decreasing in spring and summer to a minimum of 0.1 mg m-3 in July. In coastal regions from the Texas shelf through Mississippi Sound, phytoplankton blooms were observed in February and July. During the bloom in summer, patches of high chlorophyll surface waters were injected into offshore waters. The chlorophyll concentration decreased from ~10 mg m-3 near the mouth of the Mississippi River and on the Louisiana shelf to ~5 mg m-3 on the Texas shelf and the Mississippi Sound. The temporal and spatial distribution of the phytoplankton bloom in summer coincides with reported annual hypoxia events.

  17. Closing the Seasonal Ocean Surface Temperature Balance in the Eastern Tropical Oceans from Remote Sensing and Model Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The Eastern tropical ocean basins are regions of significant atmosphere-ocean interaction and are important to variability across subseasonal to decadal time scales. The numerous physical processes at play in these areas strain the abilities of coupled general circulation models to accurately reproduce observed upper ocean variability. Furthermore, limitations in the observing system of important terms in the surface temperature balance (e.g., turbulent and radiative heat fluxes, advection) introduce uncertainty into the analyses of processes controlling sea surface temperature variability. This study presents recent efforts to close the surface temperature balance through estimation of the terms in the mixed layer temperature budget using state-of-the-art remotely sensed and model-reanalysis derived products. A set of twelve net heat flux estimates constructed using combinations of radiative and turbulent heat flux products - including GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-SRF, OAFlux, SeaFlux, among several others - are used with estimates of oceanic advection, entrainment, and mixed layer depth variability to investigate the seasonal variability of ocean surface temperatures. Particular emphasis is placed on how well the upper ocean temperature balance is, or is not, closed on these scales using the current generation of observational and model reanalysis products. That is, the magnitudes and spatial variability of residual imbalances are addressed. These residuals are placed into context within the current uncertainties of the surface net heat fluxes and the role of the mixed layer depth variability in scaling the impact of those uncertainties, particularly in the shallow mixed layers of the Eastern tropical ocean basins.

  18. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research

    PubMed Central

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H. Bart

    2015-01-01

    The study protocol, publications, full study report detailing all analyses, and participant-level dataset constitute the main documentation of methods and results for health research. However, journal publications are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. The protocol, full study report, and participant-level dataset are rarely available. The quality of information provided in study protocols and reports is variable and often incomplete. Inaccessibility of full information for the vast majority of studies wastes billions of dollars, introduces bias, and has a detrimental impact on patient care and research. To help improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. Firstly, it is important that academic institutions and funders reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Secondly, standards for the content of protocols, full study reports, and data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should implement and enforce policies supporting study registration and availability of journal publications, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. PMID:24411650

  19. Time series decomposition of remotely sensed land surface temperature and investigation of trends and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jinling; Zhan, Wenfeng; Chen, Yunhao; Wang, Mengjie; Wang, Jinfei

    2016-03-01

    Previous time series methods have difficulties in simultaneous characterization of seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes of remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). This study proposed a model to decompose LST time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. The trend component indicates long-term climate change and land development and is described as a piecewise linear function with iterative breakpoint detection. The seasonal component illustrates annual insolation variations and is modeled as a sinusoidal function on the detrended data. This model is able to separate the seasonal variation in LST from the long-term (including gradual and abrupt) change. Model application to nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/LST time series during 2000-2012 over Beijing yielded an overall root-mean-square error of 1.62 K between the combination of the decomposed trend and seasonal components and the actual MODIS/LSTs. LST decreased (~ -0.086 K/yr, p < 0.1) in 53% of the study area, whereas it increased with breakpoints in 2009 (~0.084 K/yr before and ~0.245 K/yr after 2009) between the fifth and sixth ring roads. The decreasing trend was stronger over croplands than over urban lands (p < 0.05), resulting in an increasing trend in surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII, 0.022 ± 0.006 K/yr). This was mainly attributed to the trends in urban-rural differences in rainfall and albedo. The SUHII demonstrated a concave seasonal variation primarily due to the seasonal variations of urban-rural differences in temperature cooling rate (related to canyon structure, vegetation, and soil moisture) and surface heat dissipation (affected by humidity and wind).

  20. Ground and remote sensing-based measurements of leaf area index in a transitional forest and seasonal flooded forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; Machado, Nadja Gomes; Danelichen, Victor Hugo de Morais; Souza, Maísa Caldas; Vourlitis, George Louis; Nogueira, José de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity and evapotranspiration; however, it is a difficult and labor-intensive variable to measure, making its measurement impractical for large-scale and long-term studies of tropical forest structure and function. In contrast, satellite estimates of LAI have shown promise for large-scale and long-term studies, but their performance has been equivocal and the biases are not well known. We measured total, overstory, and understory LAI of an Amazon-savanna transitional forest (ASTF) over 3 years and a seasonal flooded forest (SFF) during 4 years using a light extinction method and two remote sensing methods (LAI MODIS product and the Landsat-METRIC method), with the objectives of (1) evaluating the performance of the remote sensing methods, and (2) understanding how total, overstory and understory LAI interact with micrometeorological variables. Total, overstory and understory LAI differed between both sites, with ASTF having higher LAI values than SFF, but neither site exhibited year-to-year variation in LAI despite large differences in meteorological variables. LAI values at the two sites have different patterns of correlation with micrometeorological variables. ASTF exhibited smaller seasonal variations in LAI than SFF. In contrast, SFF exhibited small changes in total LAI; however, dry season declines in overstory LAI were counteracted by understory increases in LAI. MODIS LAI correlated weakly to total LAI for SFF but not for ASTF, while METRIC LAI had no correlation to total LAI. However, MODIS LAI correlated strongly with overstory LAI for both sites, but had no correlation with understory LAI. Furthermore, LAI estimates based on canopy light extinction were correlated positively with seasonal variations in rainfall and soil water content and negatively with vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation; however, in some cases satellite-derived estimates of LAI exhibited no correlation with climate variables

  1. Ground and remote sensing-based measurements of leaf area index in a transitional forest and seasonal flooded forest in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; Machado, Nadja Gomes; Danelichen, Victor Hugo de Morais; Souza, Maísa Caldas; Vourlitis, George Louis; Nogueira, José de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity and evapotranspiration; however, it is a difficult and labor-intensive variable to measure, making its measurement impractical for large-scale and long-term studies of tropical forest structure and function. In contrast, satellite estimates of LAI have shown promise for large-scale and long-term studies, but their performance has been equivocal and the biases are not well known. We measured total, overstory, and understory LAI of an Amazon-savanna transitional forest (ASTF) over 3 years and a seasonal flooded forest (SFF) during 4 years using a light extinction method and two remote sensing methods (LAI MODIS product and the Landsat-METRIC method), with the objectives of (1) evaluating the performance of the remote sensing methods, and (2) understanding how total, overstory and understory LAI interact with micrometeorological variables. Total, overstory and understory LAI differed between both sites, with ASTF having higher LAI values than SFF, but neither site exhibited year-to-year variation in LAI despite large differences in meteorological variables. LAI values at the two sites have different patterns of correlation with micrometeorological variables. ASTF exhibited smaller seasonal variations in LAI than SFF. In contrast, SFF exhibited small changes in total LAI; however, dry season declines in overstory LAI were counteracted by understory increases in LAI. MODIS LAI correlated weakly to total LAI for SFF but not for ASTF, while METRIC LAI had no correlation to total LAI. However, MODIS LAI correlated strongly with overstory LAI for both sites, but had no correlation with understory LAI. Furthermore, LAI estimates based on canopy light extinction were correlated positively with seasonal variations in rainfall and soil water content and negatively with vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation; however, in some cases satellite-derived estimates of LAI exhibited no correlation with climate variables

  2. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing of seasonal freeze-thaw processes in theterrestrial high l atitudes : relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  3. Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing of Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Processes in the Terrestrial High Latitudes: Relationships with Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  4. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  5. Closing the Seasonal Ocean Surface Temperature Balance in the Eastern Tropical Oceans from Remote Sensing and Model Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Residual forcing necessary to close the MLTB on seasonal time scales are largest in regions of strongest surface heat flux forcing. Identifying the dominant source of error - surface heat flux error, mixed layer depth estimation, ocean dynamical forcing - remains a challenge in the eastern tropical oceans where ocean processes are very active. Improved sub-surface observations are necessary to better constrain errors. 1. Mixed layer depth evolution is critical to the seasonal evolution of mixed layer temperatures. It determines the inertia of the mixed layer, and scales the sensitivity of the MLTB to errors in surface heat flux and ocean dynamical forcing. This role produces timing impacts for errors in SST prediction. 2. Errors in the MLTB are larger than the historical 10Wm-2 target accuracy. In some regions, a larger accuracy can be tolerated if the goal is to resolve the seasonal SST cycle.

  6. Characteristics of annual, seasonal, and diurnal precipitation in the Southeastern United States derived from long-term remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Olivier P.; Nelson, Brian R.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate long-term inter-annual, seasonal, and diurnal rainfall characteristics in the Southeastern United States. In order to capture precipitation features at high resolution, we use precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM); the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TPR 2A25: 0.05° × 0.05°/daily) and the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42: 0.25° × 0.25°/3-h) datasets to create a 13-year rainfall climatology. The higher resolution climatology (2A25) displays a greater ability to capture more localized landform precipitation features when compared with 3B42. On an annual basis, the Southeastern US is characterized by a succession of cold and warm precipitation regimes. The cold season is characterized by higher rain intensity West of 82°W (roughly Atlanta, GA) and the warm season is characterized by higher rain intensity over the coastal areas. The cold/warm rainfall regime duality is modulated by local topographic characteristics that prevail along a W-E direction. During the cold season, the diurnal cycle of precipitation is characterized by a quasi-constant repartition of rain events throughout the day and an absence of land/ocean contrast. On the contrary for summertime there is a strong land/ocean signature with a predominance of late morning/early afternoon (12:00-15:00LST) rainfall over ocean and afternoon/early evening (15:00-18:00LST) precipitation events over land that account for more than 25% of the daily events along the coasts. Differences are observed for the Florida peninsula, where the diurnal cycle displays an afternoon maximum of variable intensity due to sea breeze effects regardless of the season.

  7. Changes in growing season duration and productivity of northern vegetation inferred from long-term remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taejin; Ganguly, Sangram; Tømmervik, Hans; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Høgda, Kjell-Arild; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Brovkin, Victor; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and understanding climate-induced changes in the boreal and arctic vegetation is critical to aid in prognosticating their future. We used a 33 year (1982–2014) long record of satellite observations to robustly assess changes in metrics of growing season (onset: SOS, end: EOS and length: LOS) and seasonal total gross primary productivity. Particular attention was paid to evaluating the accuracy of these metrics by comparing them to multiple independent direct and indirect growing season and productivity measures. These comparisons reveal that the derived metrics capture the spatio-temporal variations and trends with acceptable significance level (generally p < 0.05). We find that LOS has lengthened by 2.60 d dec‑1 (p < 0.05) due to an earlier onset of SOS (‑1.61 d dec‑1, p < 0.05) and a delayed EOS (0.67 d dec‑1, p < 0.1) at the circumpolar scale over the past three decades. Relatively greater rates of changes in growing season were observed in Eurasia (EA) and in boreal regions than in North America (NA) and the arctic regions. However, this tendency of earlier SOS and delayed EOS was prominent only during the earlier part of the data record (1982–1999). During the later part (2000–2014), this tendency was reversed, i.e. delayed SOS and earlier EOS. As for seasonal total productivity, we find that 42.0% of northern vegetation shows a statistically significant (p < 0.1) greening trend over the last three decades. This greening translates to a 20.9% gain in productivity since 1982. In contrast, only 2.5% of northern vegetation shows browning, or a 1.2% loss of productivity. These trends in productivity were continuous through the period of record, unlike changes in growing season metrics. Similarly, we find relatively greater increasing rates of productivity in EA and in arctic regions than in NA and the boreal regions. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses

  8. Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.

    2010-07-01

    The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

  9. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  10. Seasonal and long-term rainfall and cloud dynamics in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region as observed from local and remote sensing time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Insa; Detsch, Florian; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Nauss, Thomas; Appelhans, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The melting glaciers of Mt. Kilimanjaro have become a synonym for global change. In contrast, the non-glaciated areas receive much less public attention. Aside from a brief examination of air-temperature, in-situ rainfall and remotely sensed cloud dynamics are analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term climate trends in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region in this study. The in-situ air-temperature is based on NOAA'S GSOD datasets, the in-situ rainfall data is obtained from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. Both datasets span from 1973 to 2013. Rainfall data was obtained from two in-situ stations at Moshi and Kilimanjaro Airport, both situated in the Kilimanjaro area, which were considered to be representative at least for the greater region after correlation analysis with in-situ station data from the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. While a temperature increase of about 0.29 K per decade can be identified, no long-term rainfall trends are observable. However, humid and dry decades are evident with so called "short" (with a peak around December) and "long" (March to May) rains. Seasonality has changed especially during the long rains between March and May. As rainfall and cloud cover were analyzed with respect of the status of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) some seasonal dynamics could be linked to these large-scale drivers. Characteristic seasonal patterns related to ENSO and IOD teleconnections show enhanced rainfall in the onset year and in the post-ENSO year for most El Niño events. During La Niña years, rainfall increases in the following year, while for the onset year scenarios must be regarded differentiated. Positive IOD events lead to enhanced rainfall amounts, highlighting the importance of IOD events in modifying ENSO related rainfall dynamics in the Kilimanjaro area Additionally, cloud dynamics have been analyzed using daily Aqua-MODIS cloud products between 2002 and 2013. In contrast to the rainfall dynamics, cloud

  11. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  12. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  13. Spatial distribution and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Azov Sea turbid waters by means of remote sensing and continuous fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprygin, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to apply continuous fluorometric and remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration (Cchl) techniques to complex turbid waters of Azov Sea and explore Cchl temporal variation and spatial pattern. Azov Sea is the shallowest sea in the world with maximum depth below 15 m. Its maximum salinity is about 14%; total suspended solids and chlorophyll-a concentrations reach 120 [tex]g m^{-3}[/tex] and 100 [tex]mg m^{-3}[/tex] respectively in Taganrog Bay, daily production varies up to 3.5 [tex]gC_{org} m^{-3}[/tex]. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were measured in 2008-2010 year-round spectrophotometrically, 446 water samples were taken to calibrate fluorometerical and remote sensing data. The highest recorded concentration was 149.3, the lowest - 0.3 [tex]mg m^{-3}[/tex]. Continuous-flow fluorometer was applied in the course of 3 expeditions to Taganrog Bay to measure chlorophyll-a fluorescence (Fchl) each 30 meters along the ship path. Two-cuvette fluorometer was used to discount the influence of dissolved organic matter. Fchl measurements were calibrated and Cchl profiles derieved to estimate Cchl spatial heterogeneity in close scale. Fchl measurements were also made during moorings each 6 seconds to estimate temporal Cchl variability. Recently published algorithm based on reflectance in the red and the near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions was applied to MERIS data for the remote estimation of Cchl. Taking in account fluorometric Cchl spatial heterogeneity estimation, the algorithm for culling the outliers in Cchl fields derived from satellite data was developed. 74 images were processed to Cchl maps and then averaged monthly. Consequently, Cchl spatial distribution and seasonal variability were studied. Spectrophotometric, flourumetric measurements and values obtained by NIR-red algorithm showed strong correlation in turbid Case II waters of Azov Sea. Fluorometric and remote measurements showed high Cchl variations in short and long terms

  14. The relationship between canopy structure, light dynamics and deciduousness in a seasonal tropical forest in Panama: A multiple scale study using remote sensing and allometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlman, Stephanie Ann

    This dissertation uses two tools, remote sensing and allometry, to quantify canopy structure, phenology and light interception on stand to landscape levels in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama. The remote sensing studies used a multiple scale approach. First relationships between spectral and physiological data were developed on a fine spatial scale. Then the interpretations were verified at a series of plots across the landscape. Finally, interpretation was applied to satellite images of the whole Panama Canal Zone. Using this approach, the applicability of the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) was tested for the first time in a tropical forest. NDVI was more strongly related to changes in the FPAR of the upper canopy than FPAR of the whole canopy profile. Both NDVI and FPAR were driven by the contrast of deciduous and non-deciduous tree crowns in the dry season. On a landscape scale, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) of remotely-sensed images quantified the percent of deciduous tree crowns in the overstory very accurately. Using the map of deciduousness developed from a Landsat image, I found high fine scale variability in deciduousness, highly deciduous patches throughout the canal zone of 4--250 ha in size, and landscape trends related to rainfall and geologic formation. Allometric relationships between stem diameter, tree height and crown size were developed for 65 species on Barro Colorado Island. Tree height was asymptotic with stem diameter, but crown radius was not, continuing to grow at large diameters. Allometric relationships through ontongeny varied among different functional groups. Gap species are taller than shade species when both functional groups were below 10 cm dbh, but have smaller crowns than shade species above 10 cm dbh. Subcanopy species are shorter with larger canopies than tall species. A simple canopy model based on these

  15. ECOMS-UDG. A User-friendly Data access Gateway to seasonal forecast datasets allowing R-based remote data access, visualization-validation, bias correction and downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Cofiño, Antonio; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Fernández, Jesús; Bedia, Joaquín; Vega, Manuel; Herrera, Sixto; Frías, María Dolores; Iturbide, Maialen; Magariño, Maria Eugenia; Manzanas, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal forecasting data from state-or-the-art forecasting systems (e.g. NCEP/CFSv2 or ECMWF/System4) can be obtained directly from the data providers, but the resulting formats, aggregations and vocabularies may not be homogeneous across datasets, requiring some post processing. Moreover, different data policies hold for the various datasets - which are freely available only in some cases - and therefore data access may not be straightforward. Thus, obtaining seasonal climate forecast data is typically a time consuming task. The ECOMS-UDG (User Data Gateway for the ECOMS initiative) has been developed building in the ​User Data Gateway (UDG, http://meteo.unican.es/udg-wiki) in order to facilitate seasonal (re)forecast data access to end users. The required variables have been downloaded from data providers and stored locally in a THREDDS data server implementing fine-grained user authorization. Thus, users can efficiently retrieve the subsets that best suits their particular research aims (typically surface variables for certain regions, periods and/or ensemble members) from a large volume of information. Moreover, an interface layer developed in R allows remote data exploration, access (including homogenization, collocation and sub-setting) and the integration of ECOMS-UDG with a number of R packages developed in the framework of ECOMS for forecast visualization, validation, bias correction and downscaling. This unique framework oriented to climate services allows users from different sectors to easily access seasonal forecasting data (typically surface variables), calibrating and/or downscaling (using upper air information from large scale predictors) this data at local level and validating the different results (using observations). The documentation delivered with the packages includes worked examples showing that the whole visualization, bias correction and/or downscaling tasks requires only a few lines of code and are fully reproducible and adaptable to

  16. Presence and seasonal variation of deep diving foraging odontocetes around Kauai, Hawaii using remote autonomous acoustic recorders.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc O; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were moored off the bottom in relatively deep depths (609-710 m) at five locations around the island of Kauai. Initially, the EARs had an analog-to-digital sample rate of 64 kHz with 30-s recordings every 5 min. After the second deployment the sampling rate was increased to 80 kHz in order to better record beaked whale biosonar signals. The results of the 80 kHz recording are discussed in this manuscript and are the results of three deployments over a year's period (January 2010 to January 2011). Five categories of the biosonar signal detection of deep diving odontocetes were created, short-finned pilot whales, sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and unknown dolphins. During any given day, at least one species of these deep diving odontocetes were detected. On many days, several species were detected. The biosonar signals of short-finned pilot whales were detected the most often with approximately 30% of all the signals, followed by beaked and sperm whales approximately 22% and 21% of all clicks, respectively. The seasonal patterns were not very strong except in the SW location with distinct peak in detection during the months of April-June 2010 period. PMID:24437792

  17. Angular and Seasonal Variation of Spectral Surface Reflectance Ratios: Implications for the Remote Sensing of Aerosol over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Wald, A. E.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1999-01-01

    We obtain valuable information on the angular and seasonal variability of surface reflectance using a hand-held spectrometer from a light aircraft. The data is used to test a procedure that allows us to estimate visible surface reflectance from the longer wavelength 2.1 micrometer channel (mid-IR). Estimating or avoiding surface reflectance in the visible is a vital first step in most algorithms that retrieve aerosol optical thickness over land targets. The data indicate that specular reflection found when viewing targets from the forward direction can severely corrupt the relationships between the visible and 2.1 micrometer reflectance that were derived from nadir data. There is a month by month variation in the ratios between the visible and the mid-IR, weakly correlated to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). If specular reflection is not avoided, the errors resulting from estimating surface reflectance from the mid-IR exceed the acceptable limit of DELTA-rho approximately 0.01 in roughly 40% of the cases, using the current algorithm. This is reduced to 25% of the cases if specular reflection is avoided. An alternative method that uses path radiance rather than explicitly estimating visible surface reflectance results in similar errors. The two methods have different strengths and weaknesses that require further study.

  18. Seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a and oceanographic conditions in Sabah waters in relation to Asian monsoon--a remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hadi, Alaa; Mansor, Shattri; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Tan, C K

    2013-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of Asian monsoon on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content in Sabah waters and to identify the related oceanographic conditions that caused phytoplankton blooms at the eastern and western coasts of Sabah, Malaysia. A series of remote sensing measurements including surface Chl-a, sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomaly, wind speed, wind stress curl, and Ekman pumping were analyzed to study the oceanographic conditions that lead to large-scale nutrients enrichment in the surface layer. The results showed that the Chl-a content increased at the northwest coast from December to April due to strong northeasterly wind and coastal upwelling in Kota Kinabalu water. The southwest coast (Labuan water) maintained high concentrations throughout the year due to the effect of Padas River discharge during the rainy season and the changing direction of Baram River plume during the northeast monsoon (NEM). However, with the continuous supply of nutrients from the upwelling area, the high Chl-a batches were maintained at the offshore water off Labuan for a longer time during NEM. On the other side, the northeast coast illustrated a high Chl-a in Sandakan water during NEM, whereas the northern tip off Kudat did not show a pronounced change throughout the year. The southeast coast (Tawau water) was highly influenced by the direction of the surface water transport between the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and the prevailing surface currents. The study demonstrates the presence of seasonal phytoplankton blooms in Sabah waters which will aid in forecasting the possible biological response and could further assist in marine resource managements. PMID:22930185

  19. Seasonal change detection of riparian zones with remote sensing images and genetic programming in a semi-arid watershed.

    PubMed

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Jiahong

    2009-02-01

    Riparian zones are deemed significant due to their interception capability of non-point source impacts and the maintenance of ecosystem integrity region wide. To improve classification and change detection of riparian buffers, this paper developed an evolutionary computational, supervised classification method--the RIparian Classification Algorithm (RICAL)--to conduct the seasonal change detection of riparian zones in a vast semi-arid watershed, South Texas. RICAL uniquely demonstrates an integrative effort to incorporate both vegetation indices and soil moisture images derived from LANDSAT 5 TM and RADARSAT-1 satellite images, respectively. First, an estimation of soil moisture based on RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images was conducted via the first-stage genetic programming (GP) practice. Second, for the statistical analyses and image classification, eight vegetation indices were prepared based on reflectance factors that were calculated as the response of the instrument on LANDSAT. These spectral vegetation indices were then independently used for discriminate analysis along with soil moisture images to classify the riparian zones via the second-stage GP practice. The practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the Choke Canyon Reservoir Watershed (CCRW), South Texas, which is mostly agricultural and range land in a semi-arid coastal environment. To enhance the application potential, a combination of Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and maximum likelihood supervised classification was also performed for spectral discrimination and classification of riparian varieties comparatively. Research findings show that the RICAL algorithm may yield around 90% accuracy based on the unseen ground data. But using different vegetation indices would not significantly improve the final quality of the spectral discrimination and classification. Such practices may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies

  20. Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis

  1. Probing the environment of an inaccessible system by a qubit ancilla

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.; Paternostro, M.; Kim, M. S.; Bose, S.

    2010-05-15

    We study the conditions for probing the environment affecting an inaccessible system by means of continuous interaction and measurements performed only on a probe. The scheme exploits the statistical properties of the probe at its steady state and simple data postprocessing. Our results, highlighting the roles played by interaction and entanglement in this process, are both pragmatically relevant and fundamentally interesting.

  2. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  3. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  4. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  5. 14 CFR 382.57 - What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What services must carriers provide if their automated kiosks are inaccessible? 382.57 Section 382.57 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Airport Facilities § 382.57 What services...

  6. The Prevalence and Inaccessibility of Internet References in the Biomedical Literature at the Time of Publication

    PubMed Central

    Aronsky, Dominik; Madani, Sina; Carnevale, Randy J.; Duda, Stephany; Feyder, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and inaccessibility of Internet references in the bibliography of biomedical publications when first released in PubMed®. Methods During a one-month observational study period (Feb 21 to Mar 21, 2006) the Internet citations from a 20% random sample of all forthcoming publications released in PubMed during the previous day were identified. Attempts to access the referenced Internet citations were completed within one day and inaccessible Internet citations were recorded. Results The study included 4,699 publications from 844 different journals. Among the 141,845 references there were 840 (0.6%) Internet citations. One or more Internet references were cited in 403 (8.6%) articles. From the 840 Internet references, 11.9% were already inaccessible within two days after an article’s release to the public. Conclusion The prevalence of Internet citations in journals included in PubMed is small (<1%); however, the inaccessibility rate at the time of publication is considered substantial. Authors, editors, and publishers need to take responsibility for providing accurate and accessible Internet references. PMID:17213493

  7. Seasonal behavior of PM2.5 deliquescence, crystallization, and hygroscopic growth in the Po Valley (Milan): Implications for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Casati, Marco; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Ferrero, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols deliquescence and crystallization relative humidity (DRH and CRH) are rarely measured compared to the worldwide number of hygroscopicity measurements; this feature comes from the lack of an efficient method able to capture the whole complexity of chemical composition of aerosols. Despite this, the knowledge of both DRH and CRH are crucial for a correct parameterization of the aerosol hygroscopic growth used in different applications, among which the remote sensing is very important. In this paper, a newly developed technique (direct current conductance method) was applied in an aerosol chamber to Milan PM2.5 samples, to identify aerosol DRH and CRH both during winter and summer. These results were compared with those independently obtained by gravimetric measurements conducted in the chamber using a microbalance. Microbalance data allowed also the determination of the mass hygroscopic growth factor on the collected PM2.5 samples. Results evidenced first a good agreement between the two methods (RMSE = 2.7% and 2.3% for DRH and CRH, respectively). Collected data evidenced the hysteresis behavior of ambient particles and variability in both DRH and CRH between the two seasons. Summer samples showed higher DRH and CRH (on average 71.4 ± 1.0% RH and 62.6 ± 1.2% RH, respectively) than the winter ones (on average 55.2 ± 0.7% RH and 46.9 ± 0.6% RH). This behavior was related to the higher content of sulfates during the summer season. Conversely, the mass hygroscopic growth factor at 90% RH was higher for winter samples (2.76 ± 0.06) with respect to the summer ones (1.91 ± 0.11). Since hysteresis behavior affects optical properties of aerosols, when RH conditions are within the loop, the hygroscopic growth factor could be assigned in a wrong way. Thus, the growth factor was calculated within the hysteresis loop for both upper and lower branches: results showed that difference in hygroscopic growth factor could reach up the 24%.

  8. Posterior tibial artery access using transradial techniques: retrograde approach to inaccessible lower extremity lesions.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Juan Carlos; Singh, Vikas; Martinez, Claudia A

    2012-06-01

    Percutaneous intervention of chronic limb ischemia is often limited by vascular access especially in patients with previous surgical interventions. This warrants development of alternative endovascular techniques, particularly for patients in whom traditional ipsilateral antegrade or contralateral retrograde access has failed or is not possible. We describe a novel approach to the posterior tibial artery using retrograde access with transradial techniques including closure devices in two patients with inaccessible antegrade access. PMID:21432983

  9. Buccal swab as a reliable predictor for X inactivation ratio in inaccessible tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Hoon, Bas; Monkhorst, Kim; Riegman, Peter; Laven, Joop S E; Gribnau, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the epigenetic phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) every woman is a mosaic of cells with either an inactive paternal X chromosome or an inactive maternal X chromosome. The ratio between inactive paternal and maternal X chromosomes is different for every female individual, and can influence an X-encoded trait or disease. A multitude of X linked conditions is known, and for many of them it is recognised that the phenotype in affected female carriers of the causative mutation is modulated by the XCI ratio. To predict disease severity an XCI ratio is usually determined in peripheral blood samples. However, the correlation between XCI ratios in peripheral blood and disease affected tissues, that are often inaccessible, is poorly understood. Here, we tested several tissues obtained from autopsies of 12 female individuals for patch size and XCI ratio. Methods XCI ratios were analysed using methyl-sensitive PCR-based assays for the AR, PCSK1N and SLITRK4 loci. XCI patch size was analysed by testing the XCI ratio of tissue samples with decreasing size. Results XCI patch size was analysed for liver, muscle, ovary and brain samples and was found too small to confound testing for XCI ratio in these tissues. XCI ratios were determined in the easily accessible tissues, blood, buccal epithelium and hair follicle, and compared with ratios in several inaccessible tissues. Conclusions Buccal epithelium is preferable over peripheral blood for predicting XCI ratios of inaccessible tissues. Ovary is the only inaccessible tissue showing a poor correlation to blood and buccal epithelium, but has a good correlation to hair follicle instead. PMID:26220467

  10. Verification of satellite radar remote sensing based estimates of boreal and subalpine growing seasons using an ecosystem process model and surface biophysical measurement network information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmerman, R.

    2002-01-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001.

  11. Inaccessibility of reinforcement increases persistence and signaling behavior in the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger).

    PubMed

    Delgado, Mikel M; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2016-05-01

    Under natural conditions, wild animals encounter situations where previously rewarded actions do not lead to reinforcement. In the laboratory, a surprising omission of reinforcement induces behavioral and emotional responses described as frustration. Frustration can lead to aggressive behaviors and to the persistence of noneffective responses, but it may also lead to new behavioral responses to a problem, a potential adaptation. We assessed the responses to inaccessible reinforcement in free-ranging fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We trained squirrels to open a box to obtain food reinforcement, a piece of walnut. After 9 training trials, squirrels were tested in 1 of 4 conditions: a control condition with the expected reward, an alternative reinforcement (a piece of dried corn), an empty box, or a locked box. We measured the presence of signals suggesting arousal (e.g., tail flags and tail twitches) and found that squirrels performed fewer of these behaviors in the control condition and increased certain behaviors (tail flags, biting box) in the locked box condition, compared to other experimental conditions. When faced with nonreinforcement, that is, frustration, squirrels increased the number of interactions with the apparatus and spent more time interacting with the apparatus. This study of frustration responses in a free-ranging animal extends the conclusions of captive studies to the field and demonstrates that fox squirrels show short-term negatively valenced responses to the inaccessibility, omission, and change of reinforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078081

  12. Guided ultrasonic wave propagation through inaccessible damage in a folded plate using sensor-actuator network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolappan Geetha, G.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2013-04-01

    Rapid diagnostics and virtual imaging of damages in complex structures like folded plate can help reduce the inspection time for guided wave based NDE and integrated SHM. Folded plate or box structure is one of the major structural components for increasing the structural strength. Damage in the folded plate, mostly in the form of surface breaking cracks in the inaccessible zone is a usual problem in aerospace structures. One side of the folded plate is attached (either riveted or bonded) to adjacent structure which is not accessible for immediate inspection. The sensor-actuator network in the form of a circular array is placed on the accessible side of the folded plate. In the present work, a circular array is employed for scanning the entire folded plate type structure for damage diagnosis and wave field visualization of entire structural panel. The method employs guided wave with relatively low frequency bandwidth of 100-300 kHz. Change in the response signal with respect to a baseline signal is used to construct a quantitative relationship with damage size parameters. Detecting damage in the folded plate by using this technique has significant potential for off-line and on-line SHM technologies. By employing this technique, surface breaking cracks on inaccessible face of the folded plate are detected without disassembly of structure in a realistic environment.

  13. Remote access astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-05-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this opportunity to their students. Compromises for a town-based school or college might be to view only bright objects such as planets, or stars of magnitude 4 or brighter because of light pollution, but you would still require a knowledgeable teacher or astronomer and equipment to take outside with the students. Remote access astronomy using robotic telescopes can partly provide a solution to these problems and also opens up the doors to exciting projects that may otherwise be inaccessible to schools and colleges.

  14. Medical performance and the 'inaccessible' experience of illness: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Weitkamp, Emma; Mermikides, Alex

    2016-09-01

    We report a survey of audience members' responses (147 questionnaires collected at seven performances) and 10 in-depth interviews (five former patients and two family members, three medical practitioners) to bloodlines, a medical performance exploring the experience of haematopoietic stem-cell transplant as treatment for acute leukaemia. Performances took place in 2014 and 2015. The article argues that performances that are created through interdisciplinary collaboration can convey otherwise 'inaccessible' illness experiences in ways that audience members with personal experience recognise as familiar, and find emotionally affecting. In particular such performances are adept at interweaving 'objectivist' (objective, medical) and 'subjectivist' (subjective, emotional) perspectives of the illness experience, and indeed, at challenging such distinctions. We suggest that reflecting familiar yet hard-to-articulate experiences may be beneficial for the ongoing emotional recovery of people who have survived serious disease, particularly in relation to the isolation that they experience during and as a consequence of their treatment. PMID:27466255

  15. Towards a Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Land Susceptibility to Degradation: Examining Seasonal Variation in Land Use-Land Cover for Modelling Land Degradation in a Semi-Arid Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashame, Gofamodimo; Akinyemi, Felicia

    2016-06-01

    Land degradation (LD) is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC) and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Organization of Standardization (ISO) code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22%) of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  16. Estimation of the fluorescence lifetime for optically inaccessible exciplexes in nonpolar solutions under ionizing irradiation.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Anatoly R; Kalneus, Evgeny V; Korolev, Valeri V; Sherin, Peter S; Borovkov, Vsevolod I; Stass, Dmitri V

    2016-06-01

    X-irradiation of nonpolar solutions likely provides a possibility to create exciplexes for any donor-acceptor pair that would energetically and sterically allow this. Thorough study and characterization of X-radiation generated exciplexes usually cannot be carried out with conventional methods because of the complex and non-exponential formation and decay dynamics of these species. In this paper, we present a simple and universal experimental approach for the estimation of fluorescence lifetimes (τF) of X-radiation generated exciplexes. The suggested procedure is based on the comparison of quenching of the exciplex emission band and the emission band from a standard luminophore with a known excited state lifetime by dissolved oxygen. Using this approach we report the τF values for two systems with optically inaccessible exciplexes, diphenylacetylene-N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) and p-terphenyl-DMA, and for two typical exciplex forming systems, naphthalene-DMA and anthracene-DMA. All the found τF values for the X-radiation generated exciplexes lie in the range of 50-70 ns. The accuracy of this approach was checked by time-resolved measurements under X- or near-UV irradiation for those pairs, whose properties make this feasible. The proposed method gives a possibility to avoid a complex numerical evaluation of the non-exponential kinetics of recombination luminescence, and can be used to estimate the characteristic τF values for luminophores and excited complexes formed under X-radiation. PMID:27142284

  17. Repair of Inaccessible Ventral Dural Defect in Thoracic Spine: Double Layered Duraplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Ill; Park, Ki-Su; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a double layered (intradural and epidural patch) duraplasty that utilizes Lyoplant and Duraseal. We examined a 47-year-old woman after decompression for thoracic ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in another hospital. On postoperative day 7, she complained of weakness in both legs. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection with cord compression. In the operative field, we found 2 large dural defects on the ventral dura mater. We performed a conventional fat graft with fibrin glue. However, the patient exhibited neurologic deterioration, and a postoperative MRI again showed CSF collection. We performed dorsal midline durotomy and inserted a intradural and epidural Lyoplant patch. She immediately experienced diminishing back pain postoperatively. Her visual analog scale and motor power improved markedly. Postoperative MRIs performed at 2 and 16 months showed no spinal cord compression or CSF leakage to the epidural space. We describe a new technique for double layered duraplasty. Although we do not recommend this technique for all dural repairs, double-layered duraplasty may be useful for repairing large inaccessible dural tears in cases of persistent CSF leakage refractory to conventional management. PMID:27437022

  18. Repair of Inaccessible Ventral Dural Defect in Thoracic Spine: Double Layered Duraplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Park, Jeong-Ill; Park, Ki-Su; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2016-06-01

    We propose a double layered (intradural and epidural patch) duraplasty that utilizes Lyoplant and Duraseal. We examined a 47-year-old woman after decompression for thoracic ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in another hospital. On postoperative day 7, she complained of weakness in both legs. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection with cord compression. In the operative field, we found 2 large dural defects on the ventral dura mater. We performed a conventional fat graft with fibrin glue. However, the patient exhibited neurologic deterioration, and a postoperative MRI again showed CSF collection. We performed dorsal midline durotomy and inserted a intradural and epidural Lyoplant patch. She immediately experienced diminishing back pain postoperatively. Her visual analog scale and motor power improved markedly. Postoperative MRIs performed at 2 and 16 months showed no spinal cord compression or CSF leakage to the epidural space. We describe a new technique for double layered duraplasty. Although we do not recommend this technique for all dural repairs, double-layered duraplasty may be useful for repairing large inaccessible dural tears in cases of persistent CSF leakage refractory to conventional management. PMID:27437022

  19. SURROGATE TISSUE ANALYSIS: MONITORING TOXICANT EXPOSURE AND HEALTH STATUS OF INACCESSIBLE TISSUES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIBLE TISSUES AND CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surrogate Tissue Analysis: Monitoring Toxicant Exposure And Health Status Of Inaccessible Tissues Through The Analysis Of Accessible Tissues And Cells*
    John C. Rockett1, Michael E. Burczynski 2, Albert J. Fornace, Jr.3, Paul.C. Herrmann4, Stephen A. Krawetz5, and David J. Dix1...

  20. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to…

  1. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ACCESSIBLE SURROGATE TISSUES TO MONITOR MOLECULAR CHANGES IN INACCESSIBLE TARGET TISSUES FOLLOWING TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling Of Accessible Surrogate Tissues To Monitor Molecular Changes In Inaccessible Target Tissues Following Toxicant Exposure
    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology ...

  2. High-frequency remote monitoring of large lakes with MODIS 500 m imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based remote monitoring programs of regional lake water quality largely have relied on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) owing to its long image archive, moderate spatial resolution (30 m), and wide sensitivity in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, despite some notable limitations such as temporal resolution (i.e., 16 days), data pre-processing requirements to improve data quality, and aging satellites. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Aqua/Terra platforms compensate for these shortcomings, although at the expense of spatial resolution. We developed and evaluated a remote monitoring protocol for water clarity of large lakes using MODIS 500 m data and compared MODIS utility to Landsat-based methods. MODIS images captured during May–September 2001, 2004 and 2010 were analyzed with linear regression to identify the relationship between lake water clarity and satellite-measured surface reflectance. Correlations were strong (R² = 0.72–0.94) throughout the study period; however, they were the most consistent in August, reflecting seasonally unstable lake conditions and inter-annual differences in algal productivity during the other months. The utility of MODIS data in remote water quality estimation lies in intra-annual monitoring of lake water clarity in inaccessible, large lakes, whereas Landsat is more appropriate for inter-annual, regional trend analyses of lakes ≥ 8 ha. Model accuracy is improved when ancillary variables are included to reflect seasonal lake dynamics and weather patterns that influence lake clarity. The identification of landscape-scale drivers of regional water quality is a useful way to supplement satellite-based remote monitoring programs relying on spectral data alone.

  3. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  4. Is the Wilkins Ice Shelf a Firn Aquifer? Spaceborne Observation of Subsurface Winter Season Liquid Meltwater Storage on the Antarctic Peninsula using Multi-Frequency Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Scambos, T.; Forster, R. R.; Long, D. G.; Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface liquid meltwater on ice shelves has been inferred to influence ice shelf stability if it induces hydrofracture and is linked to disintegration events on the Larsen B and the Wilkins ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula during the summer months. While the initial Wilkins disintegration event occurred in March of 2009, two smaller disintegration events followed in May and in July of that year. It has long been assumed meltwater refreezes soon after surface melt processes cease. Given this assumption, an earlier hypothesis for the two winter season disintegration events was hydrofracture via a brine infiltration layer. Two lines of evidence supported this hypothesis 1) early airborne radar surveys did not record a reflection from the bottom of the ice shelf, and 2) a shallow core drilled in 1972 on the Wilkins encountered liquid water at a depth of ~7 m. The salinity of the water and the temperature at the base of the core, however, were not described. The recent discovery of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Greenland ice sheet has changed perceptions on meltwater longevity at depth in firn. Evidence of Greenland's firn aquifer includes liquid meltwater encountered in shallow firn cores at 5 m depth and a lack of reflections from the base of the ice sheet in airborne surveys. Thus, previous lines of evidence suggesting brine infiltration may alternatively suggest the presence of a perennial firn aquifer. We recently demonstrated the capability for observation of Greenland's firn aquifer from space using multi-frequency active and passive microwave remote sensing. This research exploits the retrieval technique developed for Greenland to provide the first spaceborne mappings of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Wilkins. We combine L-band brightness temperature and backscatter data from the MIRAS instrument (1.4 GHz) aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission and the radar (1.3 GHZ) and radiometer(1.4 GHz) aboard NASA

  5. Monitoring the occurrence of seasonal low-oxygen events off the Changjiang Estuary through integration of remote sensing, buoy observations, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyu; Ni, Xiaobo; Liu, Mingliang; Chen, Jianfang; Mao, Zhihua; Jin, Haiyan; Pan, Delu

    2014-08-01

    Bottom water hypoxia occurs frequently during the summer off the Changjiang Estuary. To estimate its spatial extent and investigate how climatic variations and extreme events may affect its occurrence, we developed a regional statistical model that combines satellite and buoy observations via empirical and statistical relationships. The estimated results were validated using cruise data off the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent areas. First, we quantified the linkage between the observed dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the bottom water and the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations at the surface. With the help of the model, the bottom layer DO concentrations in the region lacking in situ measurements were estimated using the observations near the buoys and the satellite-derived Chl-a concentrations. Comparisons between the modeled results and surveys conducted between 2006 and 2011 indicate that the error of the estimated extent of low-oxygen bottom water was less than 26% and that the bias in the estimated minimum DO concentration was less than 0.5 mg L-1. Both buoy observations and modeled results indicate that the strength of water stratification and the amount of labile organic matter added to the bottom water are the two main factors that control the occurrence and the magnitude of seasonal low-oxygen events off the Changjiang Estuary.

  6. Percutaneous Transhepatic Drainage of Inaccessible Abdominal Abscesses Following Abdominal Surgery Under Real-Time CT-Fluoroscopic Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Takeda, Kan

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses retrospectively under real-time computed tomographic (CT) guidance. For abdominal abscesses, 12 consecutive patients received percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Abscesses were considered inaccessible using the usual access route because they were surrounded by the liver and other organs. The maximum diameters of abscesses were 4.6-9.5 cm (mean, 6.7 {+-} 1.4 cm). An 8-Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the liver parenchyma using real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance. Safety, feasibility, procedure time, and clinical utility were evaluated. Drainage catheters were placed with no complications in abscess cavities through the liver parenchyma in all patients. The mean procedure time was 18.8 {+-} 9.2 min (range, 12-41 min). All abscesses were drained. They shrank immediately after catheter placement. In conclusions, this transhepatic approach under real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance is a safe, feasible, and useful technique for use of drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreaticobiliary intervention in patients with surgically altered anatomy and inaccessible papillae: A review of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Aaron; Kistler, Charles Andrew; Wrobel, Piotr; Yang, Juliana F.; Siddiqui, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    The management of pancreaticobiliary disease in patients with surgically altered anatomy is a growing problem for gastroenterologists today. Over the years, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the treatment of pancreaticobiliary disease. Patient anatomy has become increasingly complex due to advances in surgical resection of pancreaticobiliary disease and EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failed cannulation or when the papilla is inaccessible such as in gastric obstruction or duodenal obstruction. The current article gives a comprehensive review of the current literature for EUS-guided intervention of the pancreaticobiliary tract in patients with altered surgical anatomy. PMID:27386471

  8. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  9. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  10. Low power reactor for remote applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, K.L.; Palmer, R.G.; Kirchner, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    A compact, low power reactor is being designed to provide electric power for remote, unattended applications. Because of the high fuel and maintenance costs for conventional power sources such as diesel generators, a reactor power supply appears especially attractive for remote and inaccessible locations. Operating at a thermal power level of 135 kWt, the power supply achieves a gross electrical output of 25 kWe from an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine. By intentional selection of design features stressing inherent safety, operation in an unattended mode is possible with minimal risk to the environment. Reliability is achieved through the use of components representing existing, proven technology. Low enrichment uranium particle fuel, in graphite core blocks, cooled by heat pipes coupled to an ORC converter insures long-term, virtually maintenance free, operation of this reactor for remote applications. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Low power reactor for remote applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, K. L.; Palmer, R. G.; Kirchner, W. L.

    1985-05-01

    A compact, low power reactor is being designed to provide electric power for remote, unattended applications. Because of the high fuel and maintenance costs for conventional power sources such as diesel generators, a reactor power supply appears especially attractive for remote and inaccessible locations. Operating at a thermal power level of 135 kWt, the power supply achieves a gross electrical output of 25 kWe from an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engine. By intentional selection of design features stressing inherent safety, operation in an unattended mode is possible with minimal risk to the environment. Reliability is achieved through the use of components representing existing, proven technology. Low enrichment uranium particle fuel, in graphite core blocks, cooled by heat pipes coupled to an ORC converter insures long term, virtually maintenance free, operation of this reactor for remote applications.

  12. The remotely piloted vehicle as an earth science research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean S.; Bufton, Jack L.

    1991-01-01

    A brief study was conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center to identify existing remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) capabilities and to determine if the use of an RPV was advantageous and practical for Earth science investigations. A total of 17 instrument systems were identified. It was found that RPV's were considered especially valuable for dangerous missions, e.g., flights through volcano plumes and hurricanes, long duration profiles over inaccessible regions such as the Antarctic, and very low altitude ocean profiling missions.

  13. Heat-pipe sensor for remote leveling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    System gives level readings in inaccessible areas. Level sensor is equipped with three thermocouples used to measure temperature differences that arise when pipe is tilted. When platform on which pipe is resting is level, three thermocouple recordings are identical. When readings are unequal, platform is leveled by remote control. System can replace expensive optical equipment and can function in cold, vacuum, and hot humid environments that produce nonlinear expansion and contraction in conventional equipment. Other advantages include low cost, no moving parts, and operation in toxic environments.

  14. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks Stabilize Solution-Inaccessible Cobalt Catalysts for Highly Efficient Broad-Scope Organic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Manna, Kuntal; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-03-01

    New and active earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed to replace precious metal-based catalysts for sustainable production of commodity and fine chemicals. We report here the design of highly robust, active, and reusable cobalt-bipyridine- and cobalt-phenanthroline-based metal-organic framework (MOF) catalysts for alkene hydrogenation and hydroboration, aldehyde/ketone hydroboration, and arene C-H borylation. In alkene hydrogenation, the MOF catalysts tolerated a variety of functional groups and displayed unprecedentedly high turnover numbers of ∼2.5 × 10(6) and turnover frequencies of ∼1.1 × 10(5) h(-1). Structural, computational, and spectroscopic studies show that site isolation of the highly reactive (bpy)Co(THF)2 species in the MOFs prevents intermolecular deactivation and stabilizes solution-inaccessible catalysts for broad-scope organic transformations. Computational, spectroscopic, and kinetic evidence further support a hitherto unknown (bpy(•-))Co(I)(THF)2 ground state that coordinates to alkene and dihydrogen and then undergoing σ-complex-assisted metathesis to form (bpy)Co(alkyl)(H). Reductive elimination of alkane followed by alkene binding completes the catalytic cycle. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for discovering new base-metal molecular catalysts and exhibit enormous potential in sustainable chemical catalysis. PMID:26864496

  16. A network perspective on the calamity, induced inaccessibility of communities and the robustness of centralized, landbound relief efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Jesus Felix; Legara, Erika Fille; Fu, Xiuju; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; de Souza, Robert; Monterola, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    We examine the robustness of centralized, landbound relief operations' capability to promptly reach areas affected by a disaster event from a network perspective. We initially look at two idealized road networks: a two-dimensional grid and a scale-free network, and compare them to an actual road network obtained from OpenStreetMap. We show that, from a node designated as the center for relief operations (a "relief center"), damage to a road network causes a substantial fraction of the other nodes (about 20% in the three networks we examined) to become initially inaccessible from any relief effort, although the remaining majority can still be reached readily. Furthermore, we show the presence of a threshold in the two idealized road networks but not in the real one. Below this threshold, all nodes can robustly be reached in a short span of time, and above it, not only the partitioning mentioned above sets in, but also the time needed to reach the nodes becomes susceptible to the amount of damage sustained by the road network. Under damage sustained by random segments of the network, this threshold is higher in the scale-free network compared to the grid, due to the robustness of the former against random attacks. Our results may be of importance in formulating contingency plans for the logistics of disaster relief operations.

  17. The tip-of-the-tongue heuristic: How tip-of-the-tongue states confer perceptibility on inaccessible words.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Claxton, Alexander B

    2015-09-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to have previously appeared darker and clearer (Experiment 1a), and larger (Experiment 1b). They also judged an unretrieved word as more likely to be a high frequency word (Experiment 2). This was not because greater fluency or word perceptibility at encoding led to later TOT states: Increased fluency or perceptibility of a word at encoding did not increase the likelihood of a TOT state for it when its retrieval later failed; moreover, the TOT state was not diagnostic of an unretrieved word's fluency or perceptibility when it was last seen. Results instead suggest that TOT states themselves are used as a heuristic for inferring the likely characteristics of unretrieved words. During the uncertainty of retrieval failure, TOT states are a source of information on which people rely in reasoning about the likely characteristics of the unretrieved information, choosing characteristics that are consistent with greater fluency of processing. PMID:25621870

  18. Regional Characterization of Landscape Freeze/Thaw Transitions Using Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.

    2005-12-01

    Boreal forests contain much of the Earth's terrestrial carbon storage in vegetation and seasonally frozen and permafrost soils. The annual freeze/thaw cycle drives the length of the growing season in these landscapes and is a major factor determining annual productivity and associated CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. Satellite microwave remote sensing is sensitive to landscape freeze/thaw state and is an effective tool for this purpose since large inaccessible areas can be monitored regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of the seasonal freeze/thaw transition across Alaska and Canada using time series spaceborne radar backscatter measurements from ERS (C-band, 100m, VV-polarization) and JERS (L-band, 100m, HH-polarization), and SeaWinds on QuikSCAT (Ku-band, 25km, HH and VV polarization) sensors. We examined remote sensing based freeze/thaw dynamics in relation to terrain, elevation and land cover complexity, and the relative effects of fire disturbance on these processes, as well as sensor frequency and spatial scale on sensor retrieval accuracy. All sensors examined were sensitive to landscape freeze/thaw state transitions, though sensitivity varies by sensor frequency and landscape component (e.g. vegetation, snow). The study regions analyzed exhibit high spatial heterogeneity in freeze/thaw dynamics associated with complex topography, surface water and land cover composition. Freeze/thaw spatial heterogeneity was detected at high (100m) resolution data. The backscatter freeze-thaw response was inversely proportional to elevation, with the seasonal thaw wave initiating at lower elevations and extending to higher elevations. The observed radar thaw signal also varied by aspect and land cover, with south-facing and deciduous forest sites thawing earlier relative to north-facing and coniferous forest sites. Relatively coarse resolution (25km) SeaWinds data provide for daily assessment of

  19. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  20. IMPROVED COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS FOR MSW BURN-MANAGEMENT UNIT APPLICABLE TO REMOTE COMMUNITIES IN ALASKA - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 180 to 225 very remote communities, the bulk inaccessible by road, with populations averaging 200 to 500 people, are located in Alaska for which the open burning of municipal solid waste is prevalent, inevitable, and necessary to minimize environmental health con...

  1. Operant behavior can be triggered by the position of the rat relative to objects rotating on an inaccessible platform.

    PubMed

    Pastalkova, E; Kelemen, E; Bures, J

    2003-02-18

    The present study describes a task testing the ability of rats to trigger operant behavior by their relative spatial position to inaccessible rotating objects. Rats were placed in a Skinner box with a transparent front wall through which they could observe one or two adjacent objects fixed on a slowly rotating arena (d = 1 m) surrounded by an immobile black cylinder. The direction of arena rotation was alternated at a sequence of different time intervals. Rats were reinforced for the first bar-press that was emitted when a radius separating the two adjacent objects or dividing a single object into two halves (pointing radius) entered a 60 degrees sector of its circular trajectory defined with respect to the stationary Skinner box (reward sector). Well trained rats emitted 62.1 +/- 3.6% of responses in a 60 degrees sector preceding the reward sector and in the first 30 degrees of the reward sector. Response rate increased only when the pointing radius was approaching the reward sector, regardless of the time elapsed from the last reward. In the extinction session, when no reward was delivered, rats responded during the whole passage of the pointing radius through the former reward sector and spontaneously decreased responding after the pointing radius left this area. This finding suggests that rats perceived the reward sector as a continuous single region. The same results were obtained when the Skinner box with the rat was orbiting around the immobile scene. It is concluded that rats can recognize and anticipate their position relative to movable objects. PMID:12578961

  2. Current remote sensing in natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    2003-08-01

    Natural resource management agencies continue to be one of the heavy users of remote sensing data. From the earliest days of aerial photography, managers have depended upon broad area coverage in various levels of resolution for information needed to conserve and preserve the Earth's resource base. The USDA Forest Service is one agency that has been an active user of remote sensing data since the days when foresters began using aerial photographs to analyze timber crops. To this day, the use of data acquired by aerial reconnaissance is an important part of the tools used to gather information. Last year, in April of 2002, the Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applications Cener with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, sponsored The Ninth Biennial Remote Sensing Applications Conference in San Diego, California. Presentations at that conference demonstrate that airborne reconnaissance techniques continue to be of importance to managers of our natural resources. This paper is an overview of papers presented at the conference with emphasis upon applications that either use or have the potential to use airborne reconnaissance in data collection. Primary areas of interest include data collection for natural resource management and for law enforcement purposes on public lands an other remote, inaccessible back country areas.

  3. A hydrological model for the Sudd wetland using remotely sensed and ground data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondi, Federica; Georgakakos, Aris P.; Castelletti, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Modeling of wetland hydrology and quantification of water inputs and outputs are requisites to understand flooding dynamics, to determine wetland vulnerability to change, and to better inform water-related decision-making. Located in the Upper Nile river basin in South Sudan, the Sudd wetland is one of the largest floodplain swamps in the world. Its complex system is characterized by a seasonal inundation that is essential to the hydroecological functioning of the Sudd but is also the main cause for intensive water losses (nearly half of the inflow) by evaporation in the Nile river basin. The hydrologically characterization of the area is therefore key to assess and predict the water balance in the region The main difficulties in modeling the system are due to the inaccessibility of the area, to the vast extension, to the complexity of the dynamic behavior throughout the year (permanent and seasonal flooded areas), and to the political and institutional setting. This study integrated hydrologic data and remote sensing techniques to analyze the dynamics and spatial response of the wetlands. A new methodology using MODIS data and MNDWI-Modified Normalized Difference Water Index was designed to profile the area of the wetland throughout the years. In particular, the threshold for the MNDWI values was obtained using average annual land cover data and their temporal trends were analyzed to classify the different types of wetland (permanent, seasonal and non-wetland). A characterization of wetland dynamics was then achieved over the 10-years period Jan 2000-Dec 2009. In the second step of the research, other driving forces of the system were studied: new hydrological models were created for the Torrents and Sobat basins, existing river routing models were computed for the reach of Mongalla and Malakal, and estimates on precipitation and evapotranspiration rates were acquired from different projects based on remotely sensed data. All these information were then used to

  4. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  5. An Assessment of Remote Visual Testing System Capabilities for the Detection of Service Induced Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-09-01

    Remote visual testing is typically employed to ascertain the condition of materials in components that are inaccessible for direct examination. In the power and petrochemical industries, remote visual testing is used to assess whether service-related degradation is being manifested that, if left unchecked, may eventually impair the structural reliability of a component. Several codes and standards require that visual examinations be periodically conducted. Many of these inspections must be performed remotely due to harsh environments or design geometries of the subject components. This paper describes the attributes and limitations of remote visual testing, performance demonstration standards for camera systems, typical dimensions for service-induced cracking phenomena, and an assessment of the reliability of remote video camera systems at finding cracks. Because many forms of service-induced cracks have very small crack opening dimensions, the reliability of remote visual testing may not be adequate to ensure component integrity, given the capabilities of current camera systems and application practices.

  6. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  7. Evaluation of the satellite derived snow cover area - Runoff forecasting models for the inaccessible basins of western Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the existing seasonal snow cover area runoff forecasting models of the Indus, Kabul, Sutlej and Chenab basins were evaluated with the concurrent flow correlation model for the period 1975-79. In all the basins under study, correlation of concurrent flow model explained the variability in flow better than by the snow cover area runoff models. Actually, the concurrent flow correlation model explained more than 90 percent of the variability in the flow of these rivers. Compared to this model, the snow cover area runoff models explained less of the variability in flow. In the Himalayan river basins under study and at least for the period under observation, the concurrent flow correlation model provided a set of results with which to compare the estimates from the snow cover area runoff models.

  8. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  9. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  10. Large-scale vapor transport of remotely evaporated seawater by a Rossby wave response to typhoon forcing during the Baiu/Meiyu season as revealed by the JRA-55 reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Tadasuke; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Hirata, Hidetaka; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-07-01

    The modulation of large-scale moisture transport from the tropics into East Asia in response to typhoon-induced heating during the mature stage of the Baiu/Meiyu season is investigated using the Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55), aided by a Rayleigh-type global isotope circulation model (ICM). We highlighted the typhoons that migrate northward along the western periphery of the North Pacific subtropical high and approach the vicinity of Japan. Anomalous anticyclonic circulations to the northeast and southeast of typhoons and cyclonic circulation to their west become evident as they migrate toward Japan, which could be interpreted as a Rossby wave response to typhoon heating. These resultant anomalous circulation patterns form moisture conveyor belt (MCB) stretching from the South Asian monsoon region to East Asia via the confluence region between the monsoon westerlies and central Pacific easterlies. The ICM results confirm that the well-defined nature of the MCB leads to penetration of the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Pacific Ocean water vapors into western Japan. The typhoons have the potential to accumulate large amounts of moisture from distant tropical oceans through the interaction of their Rossby wave response with the background flow. In the case of a typical typhoon, the total precipitable water around the typhoon center as it approaches Japan is maintained by the moisture supply from distant oceans rather than from the underlying ocean, which indirectly leads to the occurrence of heavy rainfall over western Japan.

  11. For everything there is a season, including Amazonian tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.; Nelson, B. W.; Tavares, J. V.; Albert, L.; Prohaska, N.; Guan, K.; da Silva, R.; De Araujo, A. C.; Nobre, A. D.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Huete, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonality of productivity in tropical forests gives insight into the ecological question of resource limitation in these important high-biomass, climatically sensitive habitats. Diverse evidence from ecological studies, eddy-flux towers, and satellites had accumulated by the mid-2000s suggesting that many tropical forests are more light- than water-limited, and hence "green-up" during higher-sunlight annual dry seasons. Recent work, however, argues that the satellite-based evidence (from MODIS) of dry-season green-up in Amazon forests is an artifact of seasonal variations in sun-sensor geometry. Here we review three lines of evidence to address this new controversy about Amazon forest seasonality: first, we show that even after correcting for sun-sensor geometry artifacts, remotely sensed MODIS data significantly rejects the null hypothesis of no seasonal change in canopy greenness; second we use a re-analysis of eddy flux measurements at four towers across the equatorial Amazon to show that dry season increases in canopy-scale photosynthetic capacity are robust, independent of seasonal variations of climatic drivers. Finally, tower-mounted cameras at two of the eddy flux sites provide new independent evidence for "green-up" by showing that crown-scale leaf-flushing events are concentrated in dry seasons. This work shows that remote sensing observations remain consistent with those from ground-based towers in support of the conclusion that many Amazon forests green-up with sunlight in the dry season.

  12. Estimating seasonal evapotranspiration from temporal satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Verma, Shashi B.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) has many applications in water resources planning and management, including hydrological and ecological modeling. Availability of satellite remote sensing images is limited due to repeat cycle of satellite or cloud cover. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of different methods namely cubic spline, fixed, and linear for estimating seasonal ET from temporal remotely sensed images. Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model in conjunction with the wet METRIC (wMETRIC), a modified version of the METRIC model, was used to estimate ET on the days of satellite overpass using eight Landsat images during the 2001 crop growing season in Midwest USA. The model-estimated daily ET was in good agreement (R2 = 0.91) with the eddy covariance tower-measured daily ET. The standard error of daily ET was 0.6 mm (20%) at three validation sites in Nebraska, USA. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) among the cubic spline, fixed, and linear methods for computing seasonal (July–December) ET from temporal ET estimates. Overall, the cubic spline resulted in the lowest standard error of 6 mm (1.67%) for seasonal ET. However, further testing of this method for multiple years is necessary to determine its suitability.

  13. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  14. Salinity and water temperature observations from the inaccessible waters beneath the dense ice mélange and tidewater glacier margins in Greenland obtained using instrumented ringed seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Holland, David M.; Holland, Denise; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu

    2015-04-01

    Observations obtained by ringed seals (Pusa hispida) near tidewater glacier margins in Ilulissat Icefjord and Sermilik Fjord provide a novel platform to examine the otherwise inaccessible waters beneath the dense ice melangé within the first 0-10 km of the calving front - to advance our understanding of the hydrographic conditions of the waters near the outlet glaciers. CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) Oceanography SRDL (Satellite Relay Data Logger) instruments were mounted on ringed seals with the aim of continuously measuring water salinity, depth, and the location (coordinates) of the seals. Instruments were mounted in August and September to illustrate the non-summer month's variability. A clear link, for example, in the north and south arms of Ilulissat Icefjord is shown after spikes in ice sheet melt water runoff on salinity changes in the upper water column. Small-amplitude runoff variability during the recession of runoff in late-summer did not create a clear signal in fjord salinity variability. The effect of runoff spikes on fjord salinity is less pronounced near the ice-margin of Jakobshavn Glacier than in the north and south arms. The vertically uneven change in salinity in days after a runoff peak indicate uneven vertical distribution of runoff draining through the glacier margin, where most runoff entered the fjord in the upper 50 m (the amount of englacial runoff decreased from the water surface and downwards). The seal-dive salinity profiles did not capture any signal of englacial freshwater entering the fjord across the grounding line. Even though, the seal observations seems to advance our understanding of hydrographic changes in the inaccessible waters beneath the dense ice mélange at the tide water margins.

  15. On the vertical distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin scale and seasonal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, H.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Ribera D'Alcalà, M.; Claustre, H.; Sauzède, R.; Gacic, M.

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a]) in the Mediterranean Sea, which is mainly obtained from satellite surface observations or from scattered in situ experiments, is updated by analyzing a database of fluorescence profiles calibrated into [Chl a]. The database, which includes 6790 fluorescence profiles from various origins, was processed with a dedicated quality control procedure. To ensure homogeneity between the different data sources, 65% of fluorescence profiles have been inter-calibrated on the basis of their concomitant satellite [Chl a] estimation. The climatological pattern of [Chl a] vertical profile in four key sites of the Mediterranean Sea has been analyzed. Climatological results confirm previous findings on the range of [Chl a] values and on the main Mediterranean trophic regimes. It also provides new insights on the seasonal variability of the shape of the vertical [Chl a] profile, inaccessible from remote sensing observations. An analysis based on the recognition of the general shape of the fluorescence profile was also performed. Although the shape of [Chl a] vertical distribution characterized by a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is ubiquitous during summer, different forms are observed during winter, suggesting thus that factors affecting the vertical distribution of the biomass are complex and highly variable. The [Chl a] distribution in the Mediterranean Sea mimics, at smaller scales, what is observed in the Global Ocean. As already evidenced by analyzing satellite surface observations, mid-latitude and subtropical like phytoplankton dynamics coexist in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the Mediterranean DCM variability appears characterized by patterns already observed at global scale.

  16. On the vertical distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin-scale and seasonal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, H.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Ribera D'Alcalà, M.; Claustre, H.; Sauzède, R.; Gacic, M.

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a]) in the Mediterranean Sea, mainly obtained from satellite surface observations or from scattered in situ experiments, is updated by analyzing a database of fluorescence profiles converted into [Chl a]. The database, which includes 6790 fluorescence profiles from various origins, was processed with a specific quality control procedure. To ensure homogeneity between the different data sources, 65 % of fluorescence profiles have been intercalibrated on the basis of their concomitant satellite [Chl a] estimation. The climatological pattern of [Chl a] vertical profiles in four key sites of the Mediterranean Sea has been analyzed. Climatological results confirm previous findings over the range of existing [Chl a] values and throughout the principal Mediterranean trophic regimes. They also provide new insights into the seasonal variability in the shape of the vertical [Chl a] profile, inaccessible through remote-sensing observations. An analysis based on the recognition of the general shape of the fluorescence profile was also performed. Although the shape of [Chl a] vertical distribution characterized by a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is ubiquitous during summer, different forms are observed during winter, thus suggesting that factors affecting the vertical distribution of the biomass are complex and highly variable. The [Chl a] spatial distribution in the Mediterranean Sea mimics, on smaller scales, what is observed in the global ocean. As already evidenced by analyzing satellite surface observations, midlatitude- and subtropical-like phytoplankton dynamics coexist in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the Mediterranean DCM variability appears to be characterized by patterns already observed on the global scale.

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  18. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  19. Utilizing the Cyberforest live sound system with social media to remotely conduct woodland bird censuses in Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ueta, Mutsuyuki; Kurosawa, Reiko; Fujiwara, Akio; Kobayashi, Hill Hiroki; Nakayama, Masaya; Toko, Ayako; Nagahama, Kazuyo

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a system that streams and archives live sound from remote areas across Japan via an unmanned automatic camera. The system was used to carry out pilot bird censuses in woodland; this allowed us to examine the use of live sound transmission and the role of social media as a mediator in remote scientific monitoring. The system has been streaming sounds 8 h per day for more than five years. We demonstrated that: (1) the transmission of live sound from a remote woodland could be used effectively to monitor birds in a remote location; (2) the simultaneous involvement of several participants via Internet Relay Chat to listen to live sound transmissions could enhance the accuracy of census data collection; and (3) interactions through Twitter allowed members of the public to engage or help with the remote monitoring of birds and experience inaccessible nature through the use of novel technologies. PMID:26508345

  20. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  1. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  2. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  3. Revolutionizing Remote Exploration with ANTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S.; Truszkowski, W.

    2002-05-01

    We are developing the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) architecture based on an insect colony analogue for the cost-effective, efficient, systematic survey of remote or inaccessible areas with multiple object targets, including planetary surface, marine, airborne, and space environments. The mission context is the exploration in the 2020s of the most compelling remaining targets in the solar system: main belt asteroids. Main belt asteroids harbor important clues to Solar System origins and evolution which are central to NASA's goals in Space Science. Asteroids are smaller than planets, but their number is far greater, and their combined surface area likely dwarfs the Earth's. An asteroid survey will dramatically increase our understanding of the local resources available for the Human Exploration and Development of Space. During the mission composition, shape, gravity, and orbit parameters could be returned to Earth for perhaps several thousand asteroids. A survey of this area will rival the great explorations that encircled this globe, opened up the New World, and laid the groundwork for the progress and challenges of the last centuries. The ANTS architecture for a main belt survey consists of a swarm of as many as a thousand or more highly specialized pico-spacecraft that form teams to survey as many as one hundred asteroids a month. Multi-level autonomy is critical for ANTS and the objective of the proposed study is to work through the implications and constraints this entails. ANTS couples biologically inspired autonomic control for basic functions to higher level artificial intelligence that together enable individual spacecraft to operate as specialized, cooperative, social agents. This revolutionary approach postulates highly advanced, but familiar, components integrated and operated in a way that uniquely transcends any evolutionary extrapolation of existing trends and enables thousand-spacecraft missions.

  4. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  5. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  6. Forecasting Seasonal Water Needs Under Current and Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisni, A.; Pratizzoli, W.; Tomei, F.; Mariani, M. C.; Villani, G.; Pavan, V.; Tomozeiu, R.; Marletto, V.

    2010-12-01

    This work outlines the complex strategy being developed at ARPA-SIMC for the integrated exploitation of remote sensing, soil water modelling, seasonal forecasting and climate projections, in view of better monitoring and management of water in agriculture at the scale of the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. Remote sensing and field surveys are being used to map crops early in the season, a geographical soil water model uses the crop map together with a soil map and weather data to simulate soil water status up to the beginning of the irrigation season. Downscaled seasonal forecasts are then used to assess the summer irrigation needs. This operational framework is also used to evaluate the impacts of climate change for years 2021-2050 relative to current climate conditions. First tests on kiwifruit in the Romagna subregion show a modest increase in irrigation water demand.

  7. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  8. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  9. Geological remote sensing signatures of terrestrial impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Schnetzler, C.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geological remote sensing techniques can be used to investigate structural, depositional, and shock metamorphic effects associated with hypervelocity impact structures, some of which may be linked to global Earth system catastrophies. Although detailed laboratory and field investigations are necessary to establish conclusive evidence of an impact origin for suspected crater landforms, the synoptic perspective provided by various remote sensing systems can often serve as a pathfinder to key deposits which can then be targetted for intensive field study. In addition, remote sensing imagery can be used as a tool in the search for impact and other catastrophic explosion landforms on the basis of localized disruption and anomaly patterns. In order to reconstruct original dimensions of large, complex impact features in isolated, inaccessible regions, remote sensing imagery can be used to make preliminary estimates in the absence of field geophysical surveys. The experienced gained from two decades of planetary remote sensing of impact craters on the terrestrial planets, as well as the techniques developed for recognizing stages of degradation and initial crater morphology, can now be applied to the problem of discovering and studying eroded impact landforms on Earth. Preliminary results of remote sensing analyses of a set of terrestrial impact features in various states of degradation, geologic settings, and for a broad range of diameters and hence energies of formation are summarized. The intention is to develop a database of remote sensing signatures for catastrophic impact landforms which can then be used in EOS-era global surveys as the basis for locating the possibly hundreds of missing impact structures. In addition, refinement of initial dimensions of extremely recent structures such as Zhamanshin and Bosumtwi is an important objective in order to permit re-evaluation of global Earth system responses associated with these types of events.

  10. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

    PubMed Central

    Olgan, Safak; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Bozdag, Gurkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs) from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2) on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.86, p = 0.001) that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients. PMID:27123444

  11. Structural Determinants of Nitroxide Motion in Spin-labeled Proteins: Tertiary Contact and Solvent-inaccessible Sties in Helix G of T4 Lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Guo,Z.; Cascio, D.; Hideg, K.; Kalai, T.; Hubbell, W.

    2007-01-01

    A nitroxide side chain (R1) has been substituted at single sites along a helix-turn-helix motif in T4 lysozyme (residues 114-135). Together with previously published data, the new sites reported complete a continuous scan through the motif. Mutants with R1 at sites 115 and 118 were selected for crystallographic analysis to identify the structural origins of the corresponding two-component EPR spectra. At 115, R1 is shown to occupy two rotamers in the room temperature crystal structure, one of which has not been previously reported. The two components in the EPR spectrum apparently arise from differential interactions of the two rotamers with the surrounding structure, the most important of which is a hydrophobic interaction of the nitroxide ring. Interestingly, the crystal structure at 100 K reveals a single rotamer, emphasizing the possibility of rotamer selection in low-temperature crystal structures. Residue 118 is at a solvent-inaccessible site in the protein core, and the structure of 118R1, the first reported for the R1 side chain at a buried site, reveals how the side chain is accommodated in an overpacked core.

  12. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

    PubMed

    Olgan, Safak; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Bozdag, Gurkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs) from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2) on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.86, p = 0.001) that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients. PMID:27123444

  13. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  14. Potential Use of Remote Telesonography as a Transformational Technology in Underresourced and/or Remote Settings

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Linping; Gillman, Lawrence M.; McBeth, Paul B.; Xiao, Zhengwen; Ball, Chad G.; Blaivas, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity from traumatic injury are twofold higher in rural compared to urban areas. Furthermore, the greater the distance a patient resides from an organized trauma system, the greater the likelihood of an adverse outcome. Delay in timely diagnosis and treatment contributes to this penalty, regardless of whether the inherent barriers are geographic, cultural, or socioeconomic. Since ultrasound is noninvasive, cost-effective, and portable, it is becoming increasingly useful for remote/underresourced (R/UR) settings to avoid lengthy patient travel to relatively inaccessible medical centers. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent, technical skill, and many, if not most, front-line care providers will not have this advanced training. This is particularly true if care is being provided by out-of-hospital, “nontraditional” providers. The human exploration of space has forced the utilization of information technology (IT) to allow remote experts to guide distant untrained care providers in point-of-care ultrasound to diagnose and manage both acute and chronic illness or injuries. This paradigm potentially brings advanced diagnostic imaging to any medical interaction in a setting with internet connectivity. This paper summarizes the current literature surrounding the development of teleultrasound as a transformational technology and its application to underresourced settings. PMID:23431455

  15. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Osborn J, Raetz J, Kost A. Seasonal ...

  16. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  17. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  18. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  19. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  20. SUPERFUND REMOTE SENSING SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...

  1. [Use of Remote Sensing for Crop and Soil Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.

  2. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  3. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  4. REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies applications research supports the ORD Landscape Sciences Program (LSP) in two separate areas: operational remote sensing, and remote sensing research and development. Operational remote sensing is provided to the LSP through the use of current and t...

  5. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  8. Cross-Product Comparison of Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing Data Sets Supporting Global Mapping of Inundated Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Pinto, N.; Willacy, K.; Whitcomb, J.; Moghaddam, M.; Hess, L. L.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-12-01

    Inundated vegetation and open water bodies are common features across the landscape and exert major impacts on hydrologic processes and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange. Their carbon dioxide and methane emissions can have a large impact on global climate. It is therefore of great importance to assess their spatial extent and temporal variations in order to improve upon carbon balance estimates. Despite their importance in the global cycling of carbon and water and climate forecasting, they remain poorly characterized and modeled, primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote sensing data for characterizing wetlands distribution and dynamics. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is particularly sensitive to surface water and to vegetation structure, and it allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are assembling a multi-year Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of global inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is comprised of (1) fine-resolution (100m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation extent, derived from L-band SAR data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR) and the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) SAR, for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions, and (2) global multi-temporal mappings of inundation extent at 25 km resolution derived from data sets from combined passive and active microwave remote sensing instruments (AMSR-E, QuikSCAT). We present a comparative analysis of the high-resolution SAR-based data sets and the coarse resolution inundation data sets for wetland ecosystems in the Amazonian tropics and the northern high latitudes of Alaska, Canada, and Eurasia. We compare information content

  9. The application of remote sensing techniques to the study of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing methods are a powerful tool for detailed geologic analysis, especially in inaccessible regions of the earth's surface. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands are shown to provide spectral information bearing on the lithologic, structural, and geochemical character of rock bodies such as ophiolites, allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of the lithologies present, their stratigraphic relationships, and geochemical character. Most remote sensing data are widely available for little or no cost, along with user-friendly software for non-specialists. In this paper we review common remote sensing systems and methods that allow for the discrimination of solid rock (lithologic) components of ophiolite complexes and their structural relationships. Ophiolites are enigmatic rock bodies which associated with most, if not all, plate collision sutures. Ophiolites are ideal for remote sensing given their widely recognized diversity of lithologic types and structural relationships. Accordingly, as a basis for demonstrating the utility of remote sensing techniques, we briefly review typical ophiolites in the Tethyan tectonic belt. As a case study, we apply integrated remote sensing studies of a well-studied example, the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, located in Balochistan, western Pakistan. On this basis, we attempt to demonstrate how remote sensing data can validate and reconcile existing information obtained from field studies. The lithologic and geochemical diversity of Muslim Bagh are representative of Tethyan ophiolites. Despite it's remote location it has been extensively mapped and characterized by structural and geochemical studies, and is virtually free of vegetative cover. Moreover, integrating the remote sensing data with 'ground truth' information thus offers the potential of an improved template for interpreting remote sensing data sets of other ophiolites for which little or no field information is available.

  10. Remote Sensing of Global Wetland Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; Prigent, Catherine; Birkett, Charon; Coe, Mike; Hasen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although natural wetlands only cover about 4% of the earth's ice-free land surface, they are the world's largest methane (CH4) source and the only one dominated by climate. In addition, wetlands affect climate by modulating temperatures and heat fluxes, storing water, increasing evaporation, and altering the seasonality of runoff and river discharge to the oceans. Current CH4 emissions from wetlands are relatively well understood but the sensitivity of wetlands and their emissions to climate variations remains the largest uncertainty in the global CH4 cycle and could strongly influence predictions of future climate. Therefore, characterizing climate-sensitive processes prevailing in the world's wetlands is crucial to understanding and predicting physical and biogeochemical responses of wetlands to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Recent research has resulted in the first generation of models to predict methane emissions from wetlands but the models must still be applied to static data on wetland distributions. Moreover, no models currently exist to realistically predict the distribution and dynamics of wetlands themselves for the current, or any other, climate. The dominant obstacle to modeling wetland dynamics has been lack of remote sensing techniques and data useful for characterizing quantitatively the seasonal and interannual variations of wetlands. We report on initial remote sensing studies undertaken to validate a global hydrological model linking rivers, takes and wetlands. Using a combination of SSM/I microwave and TOPEX Poseidon altimetry data sets, we developed and applied techniques to quantify inundation extent and duration for several large wetlands in tropical Africa and South America. Our initial results indicate that seasonally-inundated wetlands can be well characterized over large spatial scales and at monthly time scales using these remote sensing data. The results also confirm that currently available remote sensing products can

  11. Controlling Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of asthma and allergic diseases. Immune Tolerance Network (ITN): The ITN is an international ... mold spores can cause seasonal allergic reactions. The immune system is ... Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ( ...

  12. PMC from 2009 Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (AIM-CIPS) instrument for the 2009 season in the northern polar region. The North Pole (90N...

  13. Seasonality of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-02-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  14. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  15. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the United States without compromising the national security to the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct- use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring system, and discuss the impacts that remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries.

  16. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  17. Analysis of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  18. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1985-09-12

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-along monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients. 4 figs.

  19. Remote reset circuit

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russell E.

    1987-01-01

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-alone monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients.

  20. Remote Sensing Crop Leaf Area Index Using Unmanned Airborne Vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) has more potential for within-season crop management than conventional satellite imagery because: (1) pixels have very high resolution, (2) cloud cover would not prevent acquisition during critical periods of growth, and (3) quick delivery of inf...

  1. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  2. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  3. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  4. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.; Croessmann, C.D.; Horton, R.D.; Matter, J.C.; Czajkowski, A.F.; Sheely, K.B.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the US without compromising the national security of the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct-use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries.

  5. Application of remote sensing to land and water resource planning: The Pocomoke River Basin, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildesen, S. E.; Phillips, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Because of the size of the Pocomoke River Basin, the inaccessibility of certain areas, and study time constraints, several remote sensing techniques were used to collect base information on the river corridor, (a 23.2 km channel) and on a 1.2 km wooded floodplain. This information provided an adequate understanding of the environment and its resources, thus enabling effective management options to be designed. The remote sensing techniques used for assessment included manual analysis of high altitude color-infrared photography, computer-assisted analysis of LANDSAT-2 imagery, and the application of airborne oceanographic Lidar for topographic mapping. Results show that each techniques was valuable in providing the needed base data necessary for resource planning.

  6. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  7. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. G.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2004-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity during the last three hundred years reveals that volcanic eruptions exhibit seasonality to a statistically significant degree. This remarkable pattern is observed primarily along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and locally at some individual volcanoes. Globally, seasonal fluctuations amount to 18% of the historical average monthly eruption rate. In some regions, seasonal fluctuations amount to as much as 50% of the average eruption rate. Seasonality principally reflects the temporal distribution of the smaller, dated eruptions (volcanic explosivity index of 0-2) that dominate the eruption catalog. We suggest that the pattern of seasonality correlates with the annual Earth surface deformation that accompanies the movement of surface water mass during the annual hydrological cycle and illustrate this with respect to global models of surface deformation and regional measurements of annual sea level change. For example, seasonal peaks in the eruption rate of volcanoes in Central America, the Alaskan Peninsula, and Kamchatka coincide with periods of falling regional sea level. In Melanesia, in contrast, peak numbers of volcanic eruptions occur during months of maximal regional sea level and falling regional atmospheric pressure. We suggest that the well-documented slow deformation of Earth's surface that accompanies the annual movements of water mass from oceans to continents acts to impose a fluctuating boundary condition on volcanoes, such that volcanic eruptions tend to be concentrated during periods of local or regional surface change rather than simply being distributed randomly throughout the year. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment and volcanoclimate feedback mechanisms.

  8. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  9. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  10. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  11. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  12. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  13. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  14. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  15. Teaching Science: Eclipse Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for a three-dimensional model as an aid for teaching students why eclipses do not occur every two weeks, as falsely indicated by two-dimensional models such as books, chalkboards, and computer screens. Describes procedure to construct the model. Indicates question related to seasons likely to arise from such a model and…

  16. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  17. Assessing hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.

  18. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  19. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  20. Remote sensing application possibilities on groundwater characterization in arid regions at the example of the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallast, U.; Siebert, C.; Gloaguen, R.; Wagner, B.; Schwonke, F.; Rödiger, T.; Geyer, S.; Krieg, R.; Sauter, M.; Kühn, F.; Merz, R.

    2012-04-01

    In arid regions like the Dead Sea (DS) water supply mostly relies on restricted groundwater resources, which are in many cases defined by large inaccessible areas with scarce in-situ data. However, particularly in these regions it is essential to obtain detailed information of this precious resource in order to develop a sustainable water management - one of the main aims of the BMBF-funded multilateral SUMAR (Sustainable Management of Arid and Semiarid Regions) project. The usage of remote sensing offers different indicators and directly sensed patterns from different platforms providing important data where practical alternatives or simply spatial data are not available (Becker, 2006). One application possibility regards the identification of lineaments which are simple or composite linear features of a surface and which have been proven to reflect general groundwater flow-paths (Sander, 1997). In a previous study we derived lineaments using a freely available digital elevation model (30 m spatial resolution) and developed a semi-automatic approach composed of low pass and 2nd order Laplace linear filtering and a subsequent object based classification. Based on these lineaments we could identify general groundwater flow-paths with striking directional trends towards known spring areas along the DS (Mallast et al., 2011). With the knowledge of both, location of spring areas and a given temperature contrast between ground- and DS water, we derived by using thermal remote sensing from satellite and airborne platforms a second application possibility. Satellite based thermal remote sensing with Landsat ETM+ images allowed us to identify groundwater discharge pattern, which highly correlate in location with the previously derived flow-paths, but also enabled us to relatively quantify also seasonal varying groundwater discharge over a time period of 12 years (2000-2011). The drawback remains in the spatial resolution of 30 m (resampled from United States Geological

  1. Polarization In Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Walter G.

    1988-06-01

    Various aspects of polarization in remote sensing are presented including mathematical treatments and selected experimental observations. The observations are of the percent polarization from Haleakala volcanic ash, basalt powder, rhyolytic oumice. rose quartz, niccolite, ilmenite, black oak leaves. dried red pine needles, a New Haven red pine stand, moist soil, the sky above Mauna Loa Observatory, the sky above Long Island in summer and winter, and cirrus clouds. Also, space based shuttle photographic observations of polarization are described. Instrumental polarization from a Cassegrainian telescope is described as well as the design of an imaging soectropolarimeter for remote sensing. A list is presented of twelve polarimetric properties associated with remote sensing.

  2. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  3. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  4. Remote Raman Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Donald A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  5. Remote Magnetomechanical Nanoactuation.

    PubMed

    Vavassori, Paolo; Pancaldi, Matteo; Perez-Roldan, Maria J; Chuvilin, Andrey; Berger, Andreas

    2016-02-24

    A novel approach to nanoactuation that relies on magnetomechanics instead of the conventional electromechanics utilized in micro and nanoactuated mechanical systems is devised and demonstrated. Namely, nanoactuated magnetomechanical devices that can change shape on command using a remote magnetic external stimulus, with a control at the subnanometer scale are designed and fabricated. In contrast to micro and nanoactuated electromechanical systems, nanoactuated magnetomechanical remote activation does not require physical contacts. Remote activation and control have a tremendous potential in bringing vast technological capabilities to more diverse environments, such as liquids or even inside living organisms, opening a clear path to applications in biotechnology and the emerging field of nanorobotics. PMID:26766300

  6. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  7. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  8. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  9. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  10. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  11. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  12. Remote manipulator dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, E. C.; Donges, P. K.; Garand, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simulator to generate the real time visual scenes required to perform man in the loop investigations of remote manipulator application and design concepts for the space shuttle is described. The simulated remote manipulator consists of a computed display system that uses a digital computer, the electronic scene generator, an operator's station, and associated interface hardware. A description of the capabilities of the implemented simulation is presented. The mathematical models and programs developed for the simulation are included.

  13. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  14. Remotely induced atmospheric lasing

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, Phillip; Penano, Joseph; Gordon, Daniel; Hafizi, Bahman; Scully, Marlan

    2011-05-23

    We propose and analyze a remote atmospheric lasing configuration which utilizes a combination of an ultrashort pulse laser to form a plasma filament (seed electrons) by tunneling ionization and a heater pulse which thermalizes the seed electrons. Electrons collisionally excite nitrogen molecules and induce lasing in the ultraviolet. The lasing gain is sufficiently high to reach saturation within the length of the plasma filament. A remotely generated ultraviolet source may have applications for standoff detection of biological and chemical agents.

  15. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  16. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  17. Archeological methodology and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Gumerman, G J; Lyons, T R

    1971-04-01

    -sensing devices discussed in this article is not always applicable to all environmental zones at all times and for all types of cultural features. The uncontrollable variables of terrain, ground cover, weather, types of archeological manifestations, and other factors all play an important role in the utility of the imagery to the archeologist. Factors within the control of the photographer or archeolgist, such as altitude, position of the sun, and the direction of flight, can greatly influence the utility of the sensor data. In addition, the variables should not be considered solely as they affect resolution. Resolution, per se, although an important photogrammetric parameter of remote-sensing imagery, is by no means the only important factor in data analysis. The synoptic overview, which is provided by aerial imagery, is frequently as necessary in interpretation as the spotting and identification of individual cultural features. Stated more simply, we might say: "To understand, one most certainly must see the forest as well as the individual trees." For maximum data retrieval, it is necessary that the archeologist attempt to utilize as many different types of remote-sensing devices under as many variable seasonal and climatic conditions as his resources and skill will allow. Only then he can select the most efficient system for the purpose in his area of study. PMID:17735216

  18. Season and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stallybrass, C. O.

    1928-01-01

    The seasonal variations in disease, as is the case in the spread of infective diseases generally, depend upon three primary factors: (1) the presence of the micro-organisms of adequate virulence and infectivity; (2) the means of transmission to (3) the susceptible tissues of the susceptible individual. All other factors, in this relation largely climatic, can act directly only through these three primary factors and are therefore termed secondary. The paper is largely an attempt to express the effect of the variations in the secondary factors in terms of the alterations they produce in the primary factors. The total effect of the three primary factors in the spread of infection is termed “dispersability” and a ratio or measure of dispersability is described. This ratio emphasizes occurrences in the pre-epidemic period. The relationship of temperature and humidity to the alimentary, respiratory and percutaneous diseases and to the ectodermoses, is investigated. In the autumnal group of infections, attention is drawn to the action of carriers in causing a rise in dispersability in the spring and the frequent occurrence of a double wave of dispersability. The effect of climatic changes is often cumulative, and this is most evident in the autumnal group of infections, the seasonal occurrence of which cannot be directly explained by temperature changes, or even by the action of light on phagocytes. The possibility of vitamin deficiency or excess producing cumulative effects is considered. Secular changes in seasonal periodicities are investigated and these are associated with other changes, such as the intrinsic periodicities, mode of spread, etc., the combined changes being described by the terms aggradation and degradation of disease. Slides covering the majority of the infective diseases of temperate climates and exhibiting the secular changes in Liverpool, and various geographical differences, in some 175 curves displayed. PMID:19986502

  19. Remote sensing of biomass burning in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tucker, Compton J.; Fung, Inez Y.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for assessing the effects of biomass burning on the climate is described. This method is based on the analysis of remote sensing data for the emitted particulates. The relationship between particulates and trace gases is studied. The assessment technique is applied to the 1987 burning season in Brazil. It is noted that during the dry season there may be up to 5000 fires per day which emit 200 ton/hr CO2, 20 ton/hr CO, and 0.5 ton/hr of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  20. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  1. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  2. Seasonal influenza: an overview.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity are estimated to cost US$10.4 billion in direct medical expenses and US$16.4 billion in lost potential earnings. Given the enormous burden of seasonal influenza and the important role that school-age children play in the cycle of disease, school nurses need to be knowledgeable about all aspects of this condition, including its clinical course and how it is transmitted; the range of options for preventing and treating the disease; and steps that can be taken to improve the rates of immunization against influenza. School nurses also can help by making sure that they themselves are vaccinated in a timely manner. PMID:19197008

  3. Remote connector development study

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90{degree} bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90{degree} bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators.

  4. Remote water monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Haynes, D. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A remote water monitoring system is described that integrates the functions of sampling, sample preservation, sample analysis, data transmission and remote operation. The system employs a floating buoy carrying an antenna connected by lines to one or more sampling units containing several sample chambers. Receipt of a command signal actuates a solenoid to open an intake valve outward from the sampling unit and communicates the water sample to an identifiable sample chamber. Such response to each signal receipt is repeated until all sample chambers are filled in a sample unit. Each sample taken is analyzed by an electrochemical sensor for a specific property and the data obtained is transmitted to a remote sending and receiving station. Thereafter, the samples remain isolated in the sample chambers until the sampling unit is recovered and the samples removed for further laboratory analysis.

  5. Modeling the seasonal circulation in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.; Jenter, Harry L.; Blumberg, Alan F.

    1994-01-01

    An 18 month simulation of circulation was conducted in Massachusetts Bay, a roughly 35 m deep, 100??50 km embayment on the northeastern shelf of the United States. Using a variant of the Blumberg-Mellor (1987) model, it was found that a continuous 18 month run was only possible if the velocity field was Shapiro filtered to remove two grid length energy that developed along the open boundary due to mismatch in locally generated and climatologically forced water properties. The seasonal development of temperature and salinity stratification was well-represented by the model once ??-coordinate errors were reduced by subtracting domain averaged vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density before horizontal differencing was performed. Comparison of modeled and observed subtidal currents at fixed locations revealed that the model performance varies strongly with season and distance from the open boundaries. The model performs best during unstratified conditions, and in the interior of the bay. The model performs poorest during stratified conditions and in the regions where the bay is driven predominantly by remote fluctuations from the Gulf of Maine.

  6. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  7. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  8. Remote vehicle controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, John J.

    1992-06-01

    A remote control system is disclosed for use with vehicles having radios. A first vehicle has a controller attached to the radio for use in sending signals to a second vehicle. The second, remotely controlled, vehicle has a receiver connected to the vehicle radio which receives commands from the first radio to effect the desired motion and action of the second vehicle. The receiver and controller have circuitry which allows them to be reprogrammed to function on various military vehicles and also be attached to the different radio systems in use by the U.S. Military.

  9. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  10. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  11. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  12. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in

  13. Monitoring and modeling growing season dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael Aaron

    Phenology, the study of recurring biological cycles and their connection to climate, is a growing field of global change research. Vegetation phenology exerts a strong control over carbon cycles, weather, and global radiation partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes. Phenological monitors of the timing and length of the growing season can also be used as barometers of vegetation responses to climatic variability. In the following chapters, I present research investigating the monitoring and interpretation of growing season dynamics. Ecological modeling is limited more by data availability than by model theory. In particular, the description of vegetation functional types (biomes) for distributed modeling has been lacking. In chapter 1, I present a documented description and sensitivity analysis of the 34 parameters used in the ecosystem model, BIOME-BGC, for major temperate biomes. I applied BIOME-BGC in the eastern U.S. deciduous broad leaf forest and found that minor phenological variation created large impacts on simulated net ecosystem exchange of carbon (chapter 2). In addition to simulating the effects of growing season variability, it is also important to develop accurate field monitoring techniques, both as a means of testing modeling activities and as a validation of satellite remote sensing estimates. I conducted an intercomparison of field techniques that could be used to monitor phenological dynamics in and ecosystems (chapter 3). I found that methodological barriers to rapid, low cost monitoring were severe, but that a digital camera with both visible and near-infrared channels was a viable option. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means of obtaining consistent estimates of phenological variation at a global scale, yet our understanding of these data has been limited by a lack of ground observations. To address this problem, I proposed, developed, and wrote a phenology measurement protocol for the Global Learning and Observations

  14. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  15. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  16. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  17. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  18. Remote Inspection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

  19. Remote Access Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this…

  20. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  1. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  2. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  3. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  4. Remote systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.

  5. A Modified Synthetic Pathway for the Synthesis of so far Inaccessible N1-Functionalized Tetrazole Ligands – Synthesis and Characterization of the 1D Chain-Type Spin Crossover Compound [Fe(3ditz)3](BF4)2

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Stöger, Berthold; Artner, Werner; Reissner, Michael; Weinberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A modified phase-transfer-catalyst-assisted synthetic pathway was developed that widens the pool of accessible 1-substituted tetrazoles, which are possible ligands for iron(II) spin-crossover compounds. Within the family of α,ω-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)alkanes, a series of ligands and their respective iron(II) spin-crossover compounds were synthesized and structurally and spectroscopically characterized in the past. The classical route to prepare these ligands is based on the respective amino-precursors. Hence the pool of accessible compounds is limited by the commercial or synthetical availability of α,ω-diaminoalkanes. Furthermore, the concomitant transformation to the tetrazole moieties turns out to be easier for diamino-alkanes with an even number of carbon atoms than for those with an odd number. In line with this observation, the shortest odd-numbered homologues such as 1,1-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)methane (1ditz) and 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)propane (3ditz) were inaccessible so far. In this paper, we report the successful preparation and characterisation of the classically inaccessible 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)propane (3ditz) and of its spin-crossover complex [Fe(3ditz)3](BF4)2, which features an abrupt and almost complete spin transition at T = 159 K. The single-crystal X-ray structure of the low-spin and the high-spin species is presented. The magnetic data are supported by variable-temperature IR, UV/Vis/NIR, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. PMID:23487581

  6. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  7. Evaluation of the Use of Remote Laboratories for Secondary School Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David; Newcombe, Peter; Stumpers, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experimentation is generally considered central to science-based education. Allowing students to "experience" science through various forms of carefully designed practical work, including experimentation, is often claimed to support their learning and motivate their engagement while fulfilling specific curriculum requirements. However, logistical constraints (most especially related to funding) place significant limitations on the ability of schools to provide and maintain high-quality science laboratory experiences and equipment. One potential solution that has recently been the subject of growing interest is the use of remotely accessible laboratories to either supplant, or more commonly to supplement, conventional hands-on laboratories. Remote laboratories allow students and teachers to use high-speed networks, coupled with cameras, sensors, and controllers, to carry out experiments on real physical laboratory apparatus that is located remotely from the student. Research has shown that when used appropriately this can bring a range of potential benefits, including the ability to share resources across multiple institutions, support access to facilities that would otherwise be inaccessible for cost or technical reasons, and provide augmentation of the experimental experience. Whilst there has been considerable work on evaluating the use of remote laboratories within tertiary education, consideration of their role within secondary school science education is much more limited. This paper describes trials of the use of remote laboratories within secondary schools, reporting on the student and teacher reactions to their interactions with the laboratories. The paper concludes that remote laboratories can be highly beneficial, but considerable care must be taken to ensure that their design and delivery address a number of critical issues identified in this paper.

  8. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  9. Accessing, Utilizing and Visualizing NASA Remote Sensing Data for Malaria Modeling and Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the use of NASA remote sensing data that can be used to extract environmental information for modeling malaria transmission. The authors discuss the remote sensing data from Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Earth Observing One (EO-1), Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner (SIESIP) dataset.

  10. Future of Land Remote Sensing: What is Needed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the future of land remote sensing and the new technologies needed for clear views of the Earth is shown. The contents include: 1) Viewing the Earth; 2) Multi-Imagery; 3) May Missions and Sensors; 4) What is Needed; 5) Things to Think About; 6) Global Land Remote Sensing in Landsat 7 Era; 7) Seasonality; 8) Cloud Contamination; 9) NRC Decadal Study; 10) Atmospheric Attenuation; 11) Geo-Registration; 12) Orthorectification Required; 13) Band Registration with OLI; and 14) Things to Do. A viewgraph presentation describing the future of land remote sensing and the new technologies needed for clear views of the Earth is shown. The contents include: 1) Viewing the Earth; 2) Multi-Imagery; 3) May Missions and Sensors; 4) What is Needed; 5) Things to Think About; 6) Global Land Remote Sensing in Landsat 7 Era; 7) Seasonality; 8) Cloud Contamination; 9) NRC Decadal Study; 10) Atmospheric Attenuation; 11) Geo-Registration; 12) Orthorectification Required; 13) Band Registration with OLI; and 14) Things to Do.