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Sample records for remotely sensed precipitation

  1. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; Ihler, A.

    2015-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remote sensed data using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempt to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from satellite information, such as long wave infrared data. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Stacked denoising auto-encoders (SDAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each hidden layer. SDAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as a denoising auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. The results are compared with satellite precipitation product PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network Cloud Classification System). Based on the results, we have several valuable conclusions: By properly training the neural network, it is able to extract useful information for precipitation estimation. For example, it can reduce the mean squared error of the precipitation by 58% for the summer season in the central United States of the validation period. The SDAE method captures the shape of the precipitation from the cloud shape better compared to the CCS product. Design of

  2. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Data Using Deep Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    This research develops a precipitation estimation system from remotely-sensed observations using state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Compared to ground-based precipitation measurements, satellite-based precipitation estimation products have advantages of temporal resolution and spatial coverage. Also, the massive amount of satellite data contains various measures related to precipitation formation and development. On the other hand, deep learning algorithms were newly developed in the area of machine learning, which was a breakthrough to deal with large and complex dataset, especially to image data. Here, we attempts to engage deep learning techniques to provide hourly precipitation estimation from long wave infrared data from operational geostationary weather satellites. The brightness temperature data from infrared data is considered to contain cloud information. Radar stage IV dataset is used as ground measurement for parameter calibration. Denoising stacked auto-encoders (DSAE) is applied here to build a 4-layer neural network with 1000 hidden nodes for each layer. DSAE involves two major steps: (1) greedily pre-training each layer as an auto-encoder using the outputs of previous trained hidden layer output starting from visible layer to initialize parameters; (2) fine-tuning the whole deep neural network with supervised criteria. Rain/No-rain classification is dealt as the first step of precipitation estimation in this research. Our experiments show that deep neural networks outperform the classic approach originally used in developing the PERSIANN-CCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System). In an experiment over a 3-month summer period focusing on the central U.S with hourly data, the proposed approach's Probability of Detection (POD) increased to 0.433 as compared to PERSIANN-CCS value of 0.403 and decreased the False Alarm Ratio (FAR) to 0.606 as compared to 0

  3. Application of an Object-Oriented Connectivity Algorithm to Remotely Sensed Precipitation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellars, S.; Nguyen, P.; Chu, W.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2012-12-01

    A new object-oriented precipitation database was developed. This dataset treats each precipitation event as four-dimensional objects and describes the spatial-temporal characteristics of the precipitation objects. The purpose of this dataset is to perform precipitation observational product comparison, observation/model verification, climate studies and engineering applications. Engineering applications would include extreme event(s) emulation and simulation for infrastructure planning and impact assessment. The data used for populating the object-oriented data set was the hourly, .25 Degree resolutions Precipitation Estimation using Remote Sensing Information and the Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) product, which covers 60N to 60S from March 1st, 2000 to September 30th, 2009. This product was bias corrected to match monthly precipitation values from the Global Precipitation Climate Project (GPCP). PERSIANN uses neural network techniques to estimate precipitation rates from geostationary infrared imagery, while calibrating it according to microwave imagery. The neural network is calibrated using both infrared and passive microwave data from the different available satellites. Instead of developing a traditional data set, which organizes precipitation at each data point within a defined grid, this poster will demonstrate the application of a connectivity algorithm developed by Dr. Wei Chu (CHRS Researcher), which organizes high resolution (.25 degree) near global precipitation data into four-dimensional objects (latitude, longitude, time, and intensity) and stores the information in a database. This algorithm is designed to ensure that all pixels of precipitation estimates are connected in both space and time (connected pixels), allowing for the feature to be analyzed as a four-dimensional object. Two main criteria are set before the connectivity algorithm is applied to the PERSIANN dataset; 1st) all precipitation pixels must have at least 1mm/hr, and 2nd) the

  4. Comparison of Remotely Sensed Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Products for a Statewide Water Assessment of New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Fernald, A.; Peterson, K.; Walker, S.; Hewitt, I. C.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) are the major components of the water balance in New Mexico. Therefore, it is critical to acquire accurate precipitation and ET data as input into a statewide water balance. Since existing meteorological stations in New Mexico don't cover the entire state and leave many areas without accurate information, we propose to evaluate the accuracy of existing nationwide remotely sensed databases for precipitation and ET to quantify the spatial and temporal distributions of those components in a statewide water balance. In this study we compare five precipitation products and three ET products: the CHIRPS (Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) model, the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service product, the PERSIANN-GCCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network - Global Cloud Classification System) model, the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes) model the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the ALExI (Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse) model, the MOD 16 ( MODIS Global Evapotranspiration Product) model of NASA, and the SSEB (Simplified Surface Energy Balance) model produced by the USGS. Early results show a strong relationship between all precipitation products across the state of New Mexico from 2000 to 2013 with an average depth of 315 mm, except for the PERSIANN model which has a rainfall depth approximately 53% higher (673mm) than the average of the other models. Additionally there is a strong relationship between the ALExI and SSEB ET models yet these models exceed the precipitation in the state by approximately 35%. The MOD 16 ET model has an average ET depth approximately 42% less than the average of the precipitation models and about 60% less than the ALExI and SSEB ET models. Future work includes validation of precipitation and ET models using high density rain gauge networks, as well as METRIC

  5. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  6. Possible near-IR channels for remote sensing precipitable water vapor from geostationary satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, B.-C.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Westwater, Ed R.; Conel, J. E.; Green, R. O.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of troposheric water vapor profiles from current geostationary weather satellites is made using a few broadband infrared (IR) channels in the 6-13 micron region. Uncertainties greater than 20% exist in derived water vapor values just above the surface from the IR emission measurements. In this paper, we propose three near-IR channels, one within the 0.94-micron water vapor band absorption region, and the other two in nearby atmospheric windows, for remote sensing of precipitable water vapor over land areas, excluding lakes and rivers, during daytime from future geostationary satellite platforms. The physical principles are as follows. The reflectance of most surface targets varies approximately linearly with wavelength near 1 micron. The solar radiation on the sun-surface-sensor ray path is attenuated by atmospheric water vapor. The ratio of the radiance from the absorption channel with the radiances from the two window channels removes the surface reflectance effects and yields approximately the mean atmospheric water vapor transmittance of the absorption channel. The integrated water vapor amount from ground to space can be obtained with a precision of better than 5% from the mean transmittance. Because surface reflectances vary slowly with time, temporal variation of precipitable water vapor can be determined reliably. High spatial resolution, precipitable water vapor images are derived from spectral data collected by the Airborne Visable-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, which measures solar radiation reflected by the surface in the 0.4-2.5 micron region in 10-nm channels and has a ground instantaneous field of view of 20 m from its platform on an ER-2 aircraft at 20 km. The proposed near-IR reflectance technique would complement the IR emission techniques for remote sensing of water vapor profiles from geostationary satellite platforms, especially in the boundary layer where most of the water vapor is located.

  7. Aerosols and Precipitation Retrievals over Eureka by Remote Sensing: Validation of Space Based Profiling Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, J. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Hudak, D. R.; Rodriguez, P.; Ivanescu, L.; Eloranta, E.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols and precipitation are among the agents responsible for the ongoing changes in the Arctic climate and the hydrological cycle. The seasonal variations of Arctic aerosols (Arctic haze for e.g.) are linked to the transport efficiency as well as precipitation (wet) scavenging. Aside from affecting aerosol concentrations, precipitation is an important hydrological variable that affects the moisture budget of the atmosphere. Aerosols, in turn, influence the vertical distribution of clouds and this induces changes in the precipitation pattern. The spatial and temporal sparsity of precipitation measurements over the Arctic region means that satellite remote sensing techniques take on an importance that considerably exceeds their role south of the Arctic circle. Radar reflectivity and snow profiles from CloudSat (in support of cloud and precipitation analyses) and backscattering measurements from CALIOP (investigations of aerosol and small cloud particle properties) can be used to study Arctic winter clouds and precipitation and the role of aerosols in their formation. In this study we attempt to validate satellite-based profiling retrievals of precipitation parameters using AHSRL (Arctic High Spectral Resolution Lidar), CRL (CANDAC Raman Lidar) and MMCR (Milli-Meter Cloud Radar) profiles acquired at the PEARL high-Arctic site in Eureka (80 °N, 86 °W), Nunavut, Canada. As part of the process of validating the profiling retrievals we aspire to learn more about the mechanisms controlling aerosol, cloud and precipitation inter-dynamics. In addition, ground-based, high-frequency observations of precipitation will be used for characterizing precipitation totals as well as the conditional probability of the type of precipitation (rain or snow) and thus to help understand and validate comparable information extracted from the satellite retrievals. We also aim to characterize different particle types using AHSRL and CRL depolarization profiles, MMCR Doppler velocity

  8. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ray G.; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of consumptive use of surface water by agriculture are vital for assessing food security, managing water rights, and evaluating anthropogenic impacts on regional hydrology. However, reliable, current, and public data on consumptive use can be difficult to obtain, particularly in international and less developed basins. We combine remotely-sensed precipitation and satellite observations of evapotranspiration and groundwater depletion to estimate surface water consumption by irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley for the 2004-09 water years. We validated our technique against measured consumption data determined from streamflow observations and water export data in the Central Valley. Mean satellite-derived surface water consumption was 291.0 ± 32.4 mm/year while measured surface water consumption was 308.1 ± 6.5 mm/year. The results show the potential for remotely-sensed hydrologic data to independently observe irrigated agriculture's surface water consumption in contested or unmonitored basins. Improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of satellite precipitation, evapotranspiration and gravimetric groundwater observations are needed to reduce the uncertainty in this method and to allow its use on smaller basins and at shorter time scales.

  9. Forecasting Precipitation over the MENA Region: A Data Mining and Remote Sensing Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkadiri, R.; Sultan, M.; Elbayoumi, T.; Chouinard, K.

    2015-12-01

    We developed and applied an integrated approach to construct predictive tools with lead times of 1 to 12 months to forecast precipitation amounts over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The following steps were conducted: (1) acquire and analyze temporal remote sensing-based precipitation datasets (i.e. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission [TRMM]) over five main water source regions in the MENA area (i.e. Atlas Mountains in Morocco, Southern Sudan, Red Sea Hills of Yemen, and Blue Nile and White Nile source areas) throughout the investigation period (1998 to 2015), (2) acquire and extract monthly values for all of the climatic indices that are likely to influence the climatic patterns over the MENA region (e.g., Northern Atlantic Oscillation [NOI], Southern Oscillation Index [SOI], and Tropical North Atlantic Index [TNA]); and (3) apply data mining methods to extract relationships between the observed precipitation and the controlling factors (climatic indices) and use predictive tools to forecast monthly precipitation over each of the identified pilot study areas. Preliminary results indicate that by using the period from January 1998 until August 2012 for model training and the period from September 2012 to January 2015 for testing, precipitation can be successfully predicted with a three-months lead over South West Yemen, Atlas Mountains in Morocco, Southern Sudan, Blue Nile sources and White Nile sources with confidence (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.911, 0.823, 0.807, 0.801 and 0.895 respectively). Future work will focus on applying this technique for prediction of precipitation over each of the climatically contiguous areas of the MENA region. If our efforts are successful, our findings will lead the way to the development and implementation of sound water management scenarios for the MENA countries.

  10. The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer: A new aircraft radiometer for passive precipitation remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Spencer, Roy W.; James, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    Past studies of passive microwave measurements of precipitating systems have yielded broad empirical relationships between hydrometeors and microwave transmission. In general, these relationships fall into two categories of passive microwave precipitation retrievals rely upon the observed effect of liquid precipitation to increase the brightness temperature of a radiometrically cold background such as an ocean surface. A scattering-based method is based upon the effect that frozen hydrometeors tend to decrease the brightness temperature of a radiometrically warm background such as land. One step toward developing quantitative brightness temperature-rain rate relationships is the recent construction of a new aircraft instrument sponsored by National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). This instrument is the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) designed and built by Georgia Tech Research Institute to fly aboard high altitude research aircraft such as the NASA ER-2. The AMPR and its accompanying data acquisition system are mounted in the Q-bay compartment of the NASA ER-2.

  11. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using ANN-Cloud Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2003-12-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, which contain flexible architectures and are capable of discerning the underlying functional relationships from data, are recognized as very useful tools in geophysical applications. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid ANN modeling system to estimate surface rainfall from satellite infrared imagery. The proposed network, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using ANN-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), includes several components: (1) cloud image segmentation, (2) cloud patch feature selection, (3) patch feature classification using a self-organizing feature map network, and (4) patch-based rainfall estimates from a group of multiple nonlinear cloud top temperature and rainfall functions. The PERSIANN-CCS model was first calibrated using observations from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared imagery and the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) rainfall network. To further extend PERSIANN-CCS rainfall estimates over the remote regions, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) microwave rainfall estimates (TMI product 2A12) were used to adjust PERSIANN-CCS model parameters. The calibrated nonlinear cloud top temperature and rainfall (Tb-R) functions of classified cloud patches show highly variability, reflecting the complexity of dominant cloud-precipitation processes over various regions. Case studies show that PERSIANN-CCS captures the variability in rain rate at 12kmx12km grid and 3-hour resolutions, with a standard error of 3.0mm/hr and a correlation coefficient around 0.65. Additional insights into the cloud evolution and precipitation process from the classified PERSIANN-CCS cloud patch features and rainfall distributions are discussed.

  12. Evaluating the performance of remotely sensed and reanalysed precipitation data over West Africa using HBV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jütten, Thomas; Jackisch, Dominik; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Kusche, Jürgen; Eicker, Annette; Springer, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Water is one of the most crucial natural resources in West Africa, where the livelihoods of large parts of the population rely heavily on rain-fed agriculture. Therefore, the modelling of the water balance is an important tool to aid in water resource management. Precipitation is one of most important atmospheric drivers of hydrological models. However, ground-based observation networks are sparse in Western Africa and a further decline in station numbers due to a variety of reasons such as the deterioration of stations or political unrest has been observed in recent years. In ungauged river basins, or basins with insufficiently available precipitation data, several studies have shown that remotely sensed or reanalysed precipitation data may be used to compliment or replace missing information. However, the uncertainties of these datasets over Western Africa are not well examined and a need for further studies is apparent. For validation purposes, precipitation datasets are traditionally compared to in-situ ground measurements. This is not possible in ungauged basins. A new approach to assess the quality of satellite and reanalysis data which is gaining popularity among researchers compares different precipitation datasets using hydrological models. In this so-called hydrological evaluation, ground-truth data is no longer necessary in order to validate a product. The chosen model is calibrated for different precipitation products and the simulated streamflow generated for each product is compared to the measured streamflow. Multiple state of the art satellite and reanalysis precipitation datasets with various spatial resolutions were used in this study, namely: CFSR (0.3125°), CHIRPS (0.05°), CMORPH (0.25°), PERSIANN (0.25°), RFE 2.0 (0.1°), TAMSAT (0.0375°), TRMM 3B42 v7 (0.25°) and TRMM 3B42RT (real time) (0.25°). These datasets were evaluated at the regional as well as local scale using the HBV light conceptual hydrological model for several basins

  13. Cloud and precipitation properties from ground-based remote-sensing instruments in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, I. V.; Kneifel, S.; Maahn, M.; Thiery, W.; Schween, J. H.; Mangold, A.; Crewell, S.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2015-02-01

    A new comprehensive cloud-precipitation-meteorological observatory has been established at Princess Elisabeth base, located in the escarpment zone of Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica. The observatory consists of a set of ground-based remote-sensing instruments (ceilometer, infrared pyrometer and vertically profiling precipitation radar) combined with automatic weather station measurements of near-surface meteorology, radiative fluxes, and snow height. In this paper, the observatory is presented and the potential for studying the evolution of clouds and precipitating systems is illustrated by case studies. It is shown that the synergetic use of the set of instruments allows for distinguishing ice, liquid-containing clouds and precipitating clouds, including some information on their vertical extent. In addition, wind-driven blowing snow events can be distinguished from deeper precipitating systems. Cloud properties largely affect the surface radiative fluxes, with liquid-containing clouds dominating the radiative impact. A statistical analysis of all measurements (in total 14 months mainly during summer-beginning of winter) indicates that these liquid-containing clouds occur during as much as 20% of the cloudy periods. The cloud occurrence shows a strong bimodal distribution with clear-sky conditions 51% of the time and complete overcast conditions 35% of the time. Snowfall occurred during 17% of the cloudy periods with a predominance of light precipitation and only rare events with snowfall >1 mm h-1 water equivalent (w.e.). Three of such intense snowfall events occurred during 2011 contributing to anomalously large annual surface mass balance (SMB). Large accumulation events (>10 mm w.e. day-1) during the radar-measurement period of 26 months were always associated with snowfall, but at the same time other snowfall events did not always lead to accumulation. The multiyear deployment of a precipitation radar in Antarctica allows for assessing the

  14. A monostatic microwave transmission experiment for line integrated precipitation and humidity remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald; Hipp, Susanne; Siart, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Near-surface water vapor and precipitation are central hydrometeorological observables which are still difficult to quantify accurately above the point scale. Both play an important role in modeling and remote sensing of the hydrologic cycle. We present details on the development of a new microwave transmission experiment that is capable of providing line integrated estimates of both humidity and precipitation near the surface. The system is located at a hydrometeorological test site (TERENO-prealpine) in Southern Germany. Path length is kept short at 660 m to minimize the likelihood of different precipitation types and intensities along the path. It uses a monostatic configuration with a combined transmitter/receiver unit and a 70 cm trihedral reflector. The transmitter/receiver unit simultaneously operates at 22.235 GHz and 34.8 GHz with a pulse repetition rate of 25 kHz and alternating horizontal and vertical polarization, which enable the analysis of the impact of the changing drop size distribution on the rain rate retrieval. Due to the coherence and the high phase stability of the system, it allows for a sensitive observation of the propagation phase delay. Thereof, time series of line integrated refractivity can be determined. This proxy is then post-processed to absolute humidity and compared to station observations. We present the design of the system and show an analysis of selected periods for both, precipitation and humidity observations. The theoretically expected dependence of attenuation and differential attenuation on the DSD was reproduced with experimental data. A decreased performance was observed when using a fixed A-R power law. Humidity data derived from the phase delay measurement showed good agreement with in situ measurements.

  15. Evaluation of Merging Methods of Remotely Sensed and Gauged Precipitation for Rainfall Runoff Simulation in Da River Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, B. T.; Ishidaira, H.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation would be one of the major sources of uncertainty for hydrological analysis since precipitation is the main input of the hydrological models, in that sense, is one of the first factors controlling the accuracy of Rainfall Run-off (R-R) modeling. However, sparse meteorological data in un-gauged or poorly gauged basins has been a long concerning issue that bottlenecks the quantification of the hydrological budget. In recent decades, remote sensing techniques with their broad spatial coverage and repeat temporal coverage would grasp well the spatial distribution of precipitation over the river basin. However, remote sensing rainfall estimates are not direct measurements of rainfall that are subjects to variety of error sources and exhibit the limitation for rainfall budget accuracy. Therefore, it is appealing to incorporate the precision of point measurements of the local rainfall stations with the fine spatial distribution of satellite-based rainfall estimates to obtain a good quality of precipitation field in space and time to take the advantages of the both two datasets. The aim of my research is blending the remote sensing satellite precipitation, GsMAP-MVK (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation moving vector with Kalman filter) with a very high spatial distribution, with the local rainfall measurements for improvement of quantitative rainfall estimates and run-off predictions capability. Several satellite-gauge merging methods with various complexity degrees: from linear merging, power transformation merging to geo-statistical merging techniques were utilized to provide the precipitation input for conceptual hydrological model HBV for run-off simulation in Da river basin in Vietnam. The Geo-statistical merging methods give the best results for stream-flow simulation. Key Words: Remote sensed satellite data, hydrological model, un-gauged basin, bias correction.

  16. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network-Cloud Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yang

    Precipitation estimation from satellite information (VISIBLE , IR, or microwave) is becoming increasingly imperative because of its high spatial/temporal resolution and board coverage unparalleled by ground-based data. After decades' efforts of rainfall estimation using IR imagery as basis, it has been explored and concluded that the limitations/uncertainty of the existing techniques are: (1) pixel-based local-scale feature extraction; (2) IR temperature threshold to define rain/no-rain clouds; (3) indirect relationship between rain rate and cloud-top temperature; (4) lumped techniques to model high variability of cloud-precipitation processes; (5) coarse scales of rainfall products. As continuing studies, a new version of Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN), called Cloud Classification System (CCS), has been developed to cope with these limitations in this dissertation. CCS includes three consecutive components: (1) a hybrid segmentation algorithm, namely Hierarchically Topographical Thresholding and Stepwise Seeded Region Growing (HTH-SSRG), to segment satellite IR images into separated cloud patches; (2) a 3D feature extraction procedure to retrieve both pixel-based local-scale and patch-based large-scale features of cloud patch at various heights; (3) an ANN model, Self-Organizing Nonlinear Output (SONO) network, to classify cloud patches into similarity-based clusters, using Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM), and then calibrate hundreds of multi-parameter nonlinear functions to identify the relationship between every cloud types and their underneath precipitation characteristics using Probability Matching Method and Multi-Start Downhill Simplex optimization techniques. The model was calibrated over the Southwest of United States (100°--130°W and 25°--45°N) first and then adaptively adjusted to the study region of North America Monsoon Experiment (65°--135°W and 10°--50°N) using

  17. Remote-Sensing of Precipitation Characteristics Using Multi-frequency Microwave Links and Polarimetric Radar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastment, J. D.; Bradford, W. J.; Goddard, J. W.; Willis, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Radio Communications Research Unit at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) currently operates two separate experimental studies aimed at characterising the properties of rainfall using microwave remote-sensing. The first study involves the use of dual-frequency microwave measurements of precipitation-induced attenuation on a number of radio paths spanning a river catchment area to estimate path-integrated rainfall rate. This data is of interest for hydrological research connected with urban drainage, river level management and flood forecasting. Dual-frequency attenuation measurements have been employed because theoretical modelling showed them to be far less sensitive to rainfall drop-size distribution effects than single-frequency data. The experimental network comprises 9 microwave links spanning the frequency range 13 to 38 GHz installed on 5 different paths covering the catchment area of the rivers Croal and Irwell near Bolton in North-West England. For each transmitter-receiver link, excess path attenuation relative to the clear-air value is determined from measurements of received signal power level at a rate of 1 Hz. These data are logged by local computers at each receiver site, and periodically downloaded by modem to RAL for archiving and quality control. Analysis by colleagues at the Universities of Essex and Salford has shown that, due to the path-integrated nature of the attenuation measurements and the wide area-coverage obtained by a suitable choice of the multiple-path geometry, a small number of dual-frequency links can provide comparable hydrological data to that obtained from the more conventional dense network of rain-gauges. The second study employs a scanning polarimetric Doppler radar developed by RAL to measure the spatial distribution of hydrometeors along various operational microwave and mm-wave communication links within a 50 km radius of the University of St. Andrews in South-East Scotland. The UK Radiocommunications Agency and

  18. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei

    Studies on surface hydrology can generally be classified into two categories, observation for different components of surface water, and modeling their dynamic movements. This study only focuses on observation part of surface water components: snow cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Moreover, instead of discussion on the detailed algorithm and instrument technique behind each component, this dissertation pours efforts on analysis of the standard remotely sensed products and their applications under different settings. First in Chapter 2, validation of MODIS Terra 8-day maximum snow cover composite (MOD10A2) in the Northern Xinjiang, China, from 2000-2006, shows that the 8-day MODIS/Terra product has high agreements with in situ measurements as the in situ snow depth is larger or equal to 4 cm, while the agreement is low for the patchy snow as the in situ snow depth less than 4 cm. According to the in situ observation, this chapter develops an empirical algorithm to separate the cloud-covered pixels into snow and no snow. Continued long-term production of MODIS-type snow cover product is critical to assess water resources of the study area, as well as other larger scale global environment monitoring. Terra and Aqua satellites carry the same MODIS instrument and provide two parallel MODIS daily snow cover products at different time (local time 10:30 am and 1:30 pm, respectively). Chapter 3 develops an algorithm and automated scripts to combine the daily MODIS Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) snow cover products, and to automatically generate multi-day Terra-Aqua snow cover image composites, with flexible starting and ending dates and a user-defined cloud cover threshold. Chapter 4 systematically compares the difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products within a hydrologic year of 2003-2004, validates the MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products using in situ measurements in Northern Xinjiang, and compares the accuracy among the standard MODIS

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing of Tropical Precipitation and Ice Clouds for GCM Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin

    2001-01-01

    This project, supported by the NASA New Investigator Program, has primarily been funding a graduate student, Darren McKague. Since August 1999 Darren has been working part time at Raytheon, while continuing his PhD research. Darren is planning to finish his thesis work in May 2001, thus some of the work described here is ongoing. The proposed research was to use GOES visible and infrared imager data and SSM/I microwave data to obtain joint distributions of cirrus cloud ice mass and precipitation for a study region in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. These joint distributions of cirrus cloud and rainfall were to be compared to those from the CSU general circulation model to evaluate the cloud microphysical amd cumulus parameterizations in the GCM. Existing algorithms were to be used for the retrieval of cloud ice water path from GOES (Minnis) and rainfall from SSM/I (Wilheit). A theoretical study using radiative transfer models and realistic variations in cloud and precipitation profiles was to be used to estimate the retrieval errors. Due to the unavailability of the GOES satellite cloud retrieval algorithm from Dr. Minnis (a co-PI), there was a change in the approach and emphasis of the project. The new approach was to develop a completely new type of remote sensing algorithm - one to directly retrieve joint probability density functions (pdf's) of cloud properties from multi-dimensional histograms of satellite radiances. The usual approach is to retrieve individual pixels of variables (i.e. cloud optical depth), and then aggregate the information. Only statistical information is actually needed, however, and so a more direct method is desirable. We developed forward radiative transfer models for the SSM/I and GOES channels, originally for testing the retrieval algorithms. The visible and near infrared ice scattering information is obtained from geometric ray tracing of fractal ice crystals (Andreas Macke), while the mid-infrared and microwave scattering is computed

  20. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  1. Ultraviolet aurora on outer planets: morphology and remote sensing of electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Claude; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Shematovich, Valery; Soret, Lauriane

    2016-07-01

    The aurora is the result of the interaction between energetic particles and the upper atmosphere of a planet. Generally, energetic particles from the magnetosphere penetrate the atmosphere, partly deposit their energy and are partly reflected. Their collisional interactions with the atmospheric atoms and molecules heat the atmosphere and produce auroral emissions. Consequently, the aurora then bears the signature of both the acceleration mechanism and the atmospheric structure and composition. Jupiter's UV auroral H2 and H emissions are generally divided into several components. The main auroral emission at Jupiter is associated with the giant current loop connecting the region of co-rotation breakdown in the middle magnetosphere with the ionosphere. The polar emissions observed inside the main emission are very variable over short timescales. The observed diffuse emission equatorward of the main emission is most likely related to precipitation resulting from wave-particle interactions. Finally, the satellite magnetic footprints are created by accelerated electrons resulting from the interaction between the Galilean moons and the plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere. Saturn's magnetosphere and its aurorae appear to be both solar wind driven as the terrestrial magnetosphere and rotationally dominated, similarly to Jupiter. In addition to the main auroral ring, transient features have been recently identified. Uranus displays aurorae quite different from the other two with faint small-size structures appearing following solar storm activity. These different processes are probably associated with different energy spectra of the precipitated electrons. We present an overview of recent results concerning the relation between morphology, variability and remote sensing of the auroral electron energy in the different components. We show that mapping the UV color ratio is a powerful tool to globally characterize the electron precipitation and the flux-energy relation

  2. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  3. Quantifying discharge uncertainty from remotely sensed precipitation data products in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, H.; Raoufi, R.; Yoon, Y.; Beighley, E., II; Alshawabkeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth is a serious health issue in the United States that contributes to over one-third of all infant deaths. Puerto Rico being one of the hot spots, preliminary research found that the high preterm birth rate can be associated with exposure to some contaminants in water used on daily basis. Puerto Rico has more than 200 contaminated sites including 16 active Superfund sites. Risk of exposure to contaminants is aggravated by unlined landfills lying over the karst regions, highly mobile and dynamic nature of the karst aquifers, and direct contact with surface water through sinkholes and springs. Much of the population in the island is getting water from natural springs or artesian wells that are connected with many of these potentially contaminated karst aquifers. Mobility of contaminants through surface water flows and reservoirs are largely known and are highly correlated with the variations in hydrologic events and conditions. In this study, we quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of Puerto Rico's surface water stores and fluxes to better understand potential impacts on the distribution of groundwater contamination. To quantify and characterize Puerto Rico's surface waters, hydrologic modeling, remote sensing and field measurements are combined. Streamflow measurements are available from 27 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging stations with drainage areas ranging from 2 to 510 km2. Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is used to simulate hourly streamflow from watersheds larger than 1 km2 that discharge to ocean. HRR model simulates vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface runoff and river discharge. The model consists of 4418 sub-catchments with a mean model unit area (i.e., sub-catchment) of 1.8 km2. Using gauged streamflow measurements for validation, we first assess model results for simulated discharge using three precipitation products: TRMM-3B42 (3 hour temporal resolution, 0.25 degree spatial resolution); NWS stage

  4. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  5. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  6. Watershed streamflow estimation utilizing remote sensing time-series proxies of landscape moisture state and radar precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissling, Blake Paul

    This research conjectures that streamflow in large (> 250 km2) semi-arid watersheds, in south central Texas, can be reasonably estimated with statistical regression methods based on a model solely parameterized by remote-sensing derived proxies for landscape moisture state and radar (NEXRAD) precipitation estimates. The utility of such an approach is obvious: estimating streamflow in watersheds for which no other flow records exist. The structure of the research methodology is based on three stages, (1) test the initial hypothesis that remote-sensing-derived biophysicals of the landscape (in a test watershed) are sensitive to land surface soil moisture state, and compare the resulting model against a benchmark model for streamflow estimation, (2) re-assess the significance of the previous model parameters (and evaluate new parameters) in the same test watershed for an extended calibration and validation period, and (3) test for the transferability of parameters to three regionally proximate watersheds of varying dimension and environmental condition. Chapter 2 reports on the development of the original model, including a discussion of the forward stepwise regression approach for the initial selection of model parameters. Spatially distributed NEXRAD radar precipitation estimates are introduced as an improvement over local gauged estimates. A benchmark comparison model, the Natural Resource Conservation Service curve number method, is built with multiple approaches for assessing antecedent moisture condition. The curve number method model is compared to the remote sensing model, demonstrating that the remote sensing model performs at least as well as the benchmark model, as assessed with standard efficiency criteria. Chapter 3 continues the basic line of research but significantly expands on the evaluation of other remote sensing derived parameters potentially sensitive to landscape moisture status. The effects of deseasonalizing (removing long-term mean seasonal

  7. Precipitation effects on the selection of suitable non-variant targets intended for atmospheric correction of satellite remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Retalis, Adrianos; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Michaelides, Silas

    2013-09-01

    One of the most well-established atmospheric correction methods of satellite imagery is the use of the empirical line method using non-variant targets. Non-variant targets serve as pseudo-invariant targets since their reflectance values are stable across time. A recent adaptation of the empirical line method incorporates the use of ground reflectance measurements of selected non-variant targets. Most of the users are not aware of the existing conditions of the pseudo-invariant targets; i.e., whether they are dry or wet. Any omission of such effects may cause erroneous results; therefore, remote sensing users must be aware of such effects. This study assessed the effects of precipitation on five types of commonly located surfaces, including asphalt, concrete and sand, intended as pseudo-invariant targets for atmospheric correction. Spectroradiometric measurements were taken in wet and dry conditions to obtain the spectral signatures of the targets, from January 2010 to May 2011 (46 campaigns). An atmospheric correction of eleven Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images using the empirical line method was conducted. To identify the effects of precipitation, a comparison was conducted of the atmospheric path radiance component for wet and dry conditions. It was found that precipitation conditions such as rainfall affected the reflectance values of the surfaces, especially sand. Therefore, precipitation conditions need to be considered when using non-variant targets in atmospheric correction methods.

  8. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  9. The quantitative precipitation estimation system for Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban remote sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haonan; Chandrasekar, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) urban radar network consists of a combination of high resolution X band radars and a standard National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system operating at S band frequency. High spatiotemporal-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the important applications of such a network. This paper presents a real-time QPE system developed by the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Engineering Research Center for the DFW urban region using both the high resolution X band radar network and the NWS S band radar observations. The specific dual-polarization radar rainfall algorithms at different frequencies (i.e., S- and X-band) and the fusion methodology combining observations at different temporal resolution are described. Radar and rain gauge observations from four rainfall events in 2013 that are characterized by different meteorological phenomena are used to compare the rainfall estimation products of the CASA DFW QPE system to conventional radar products from the national radar network provided by NWS. This high-resolution QPE system is used for urban flash flood mitigations when coupled with hydrological models.

  10. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  11. SUPERFUND REMOTE SENSING SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...

  12. NARVAL North - Remote Sensing of Postfrontal Convective Clouds and Precipitation over the North Atlantic with the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepp, Christian; Ament, Felix; Bakan, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Hagen, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Jansen, Friedhelm; Konow, Heike; Mech, Mario; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Schäfler, Andreas; Stevens, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The new German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) became recently available for measurement flights in atmospheric research. It's capacity of measuring from a high altitude vertical profiles of all components of atmospheric water - like vapor, liquid and ice, in both cloud and precipitation forms, as well as the aerosol particles upon which cloud droplets form - makes it a unique research platform. The aircraft, equipped with advanced radiometers, radar and lidar technology, the HALO Microwave Package (HAMP), is an initiative by German climate and environmental research institutions and is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). One of the first major missions to exploit the capabilities of HALO was conducted for the NARVAL project (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) during January 2014. After studying subtropical clouds one month before in the first NARVAL phase, the interest of NARVAL North focused on the study of cold air convection and precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Based at Keflavik airport (Iceland), several flights were conducted to examine the specific small-scale precipitation structures behind the backsides of cold fronts over the North Atlantic. This should help to narrow the gap in the understanding of substantial differences between satellite observations and model calculations in such situations. First data analysis of these measurements indicate promising results. The poster will describe the HALO instrument packages as well as the collected observations during the campaign and will present preliminary scientific findings.

  13. Observing wind, aerosol particles, cloud and precipitation: Finland's new ground-based remote-sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; O'Connor, E. J.; Komppula, M.; Korhonen, K.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Wood, C. R.; Bauer-Pfundstein, M.; Poikonen, A.; Karppinen, T.; Lonka, H.; Kurri, M.; Heinonen, J.; Moisseev, D.; Asmi, E.; Aaltonen, V.; Nordbo, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laurila, T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki, has established a new ground-based remote-sensing network in Finland. The network consists of five topographically, ecologically and climatically different sites distributed from southern to northern Finland. The main goal of the network is to monitor air pollution and boundary layer properties in near real time, with a Doppler lidar and ceilometer at each site. In addition to these operational tasks, two sites are members of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS); a Ka-band Doppler cloud radar at Sodankylä will provide cloud retrievals within CloudNet, and a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, POLLYXT (POrtabLe Lidar sYstem eXTended), in Kuopio provides optical and microphysical aerosol properties through EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology). Three C-band weather radars are located in the Helsinki metropolitan area and are deployed for operational and research applications. We carried out two inter-comparison campaigns to investigate the Doppler lidar performance. The aims of the campaigns were to compare the backscatter coefficient and retrieved wind profiles, and to optimise the lidar sensitivity through adjusting the telescope focus and data-integration time to ensure enough signals in low-aerosol-content environments. The wind profiles showed good agreement between different lidars. However, due to inaccurate telescope focus setting and varying receiver sensitivity, backscatter coefficient profiles showed disagreement between the lidars. Harsh Finnish winters could pose problems, but, due to the built-in heating systems, low ambient temperatures had no, or only a minor, impact on the lidar operation: including scanning-head motion. However, accumulation of snow and ice on the lens has been observed, which can lead to formation of a water/ice layer thus attenuating the signal inconsistently

  14. REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies applications research supports the ORD Landscape Sciences Program (LSP) in two separate areas: operational remote sensing, and remote sensing research and development. Operational remote sensing is provided to the LSP through the use of current and t...

  15. Observing wind, aerosol particles, cloud and precipitation: Finland's new ground-based remote-sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; O'Connor, E. J.; Komppula, M.; Korhonen, K.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Wood, C. R.; Bauer-Pfundstein, M.; Poikonen, A.; Karppinen, T.; Lonka, H.; Kurri, M.; Heinonen, J.; Moisseev, D.; Asmi, E.; Aaltonen, V.; Nordbo, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laurila, T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki, has established a new ground-based remote-sensing network in Finland. The network consists of five topographically, ecologically and climatically different sites distributed from southern to northern Finland. The main goal of the network is to monitor air pollution and boundary layer properties in near real time, with a Doppler lidar and ceilometer at each site. In addition to these operational tasks, two sites are members of the Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS); a Ka band cloud radar at Sodankylä will provide cloud retrievals within CloudNet, and a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, PollyXT (POrtabLe Lidar sYstem eXTended), in Kuopio provides optical and microphysical aerosol properties through EARLINET (the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Three C-band weather radars are located in the Helsinki metropolitan area and are deployed for operational and research applications. We performed two inter-comparison campaigns to investigate the Doppler lidar performance, compare the backscatter signal and wind profiles, and to optimize the lidar sensitivity through adjusting the telescope focus length and data-integration time to ensure sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in low-aerosol-content environments. In terms of statistical characterization, the wind-profile comparison showed good agreement between different lidars. Initially, there was a discrepancy in the SNR and attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles which arose from an incorrectly reported telescope focus setting from one instrument, together with the need to calibrate. After diagnosing the true telescope focus length, calculating a new attenuated backscatter coefficient profile with the new telescope function and taking into account calibration, the resulting attenuated backscatter profiles all showed good agreement with each other. It was thought that harsh Finnish

  16. Climatology of clouds and precipitation over East Antarctica using ground-based remote sensing at the Princess Elizabeth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Tricht, Kristof; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    The surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly dependent on the interaction between clouds and precipitation. Our understanding of these processes is challenged by the limited availability of observations over the area and problems in Antarctic climate simulations by state-of-the-art climate models. Improvements are needed in this field, as the Antarctic ice sheet is expected to become a dominant contributor to sea level rise in the 21st century. In 2010, an observational site was established at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) Antarctic station. PE is located in the escarpment area of Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (72°S, 23°E). The instruments consist of several ground-based remote sensing instruments: a ceilometer (measuring cloud-base height and vertical structure), a 24-GHz Micro Rain Radar (MRR; providing vertical profiles of radar effective reflectivity and Doppler velocity), and a pyrometer (measuring effective cloud base temperature). An automatic weather station provides info on boundary-layer meteorology (temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, pressure), as well as broadband radiative fluxes and snow height changes. This set of instruments can be used to infer the role of clouds in the Antarctic climate system, their interaction with radiation and their impact on precipitation. Cloud and precipitation characteristics are derived from 5-year-long measurement series, which is unprecedented for the Antarctic region. Here, we present an overview of the cloud and precipitation climatology. Statistics on cloud occurrence are calculated on annual / seasonal basis and a distinction between liquid / mixed phase and ice clouds is made. One can discriminate between liquid-bearing and ice-only clouds by investigating the ceilometer attenuated backscatter, since liquid phase clouds have a much higher signal. Furthermore, by using pyrometer measurements, we are able to identify the range of temperatures at which liquid / ice clouds are

  17. Global Remote Sensing of Precipitating Electron Energies: A Comparison of Substorms and Pressure Pulse Related Intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) observes aurora responses to incident solar wind pressure pulses and interplanetary shocks such its those associated with coronal mass ejections. Previous observations have demonstrated that the arrival of it pressure pulse at the front of the magnetosphere results in highly disturbed geomagnetic conditions and a substantial increase in both dayside and nightside aurora precipitations. Our observations show it simultaneous brightening over bread areas of the dayside and nightside auroral in response to a pressure pulse, indicating that more magnetospheric regions participate as sources for auroral precipitation than during isolate substorm. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated event to those during isolated substorms. We estimate the characteristic energies of incident auroral electrons using Polar UVI images and compare the precipitation energies during pressure pulse associated events to those during isolated auroral substorms. Electron precipitation during substorms has characteristic energies greater than 10 KeV and is structured both in local time and in magnetic latitude. For auroral intensifications following the arrival of'a pressure pulse or interplanetary shock. Electron precipitation is less spatially structured and has greater flux of lower characteristic energy electrons (Echar less than 7 KeV) than during isolated substorm onsets. These observations quantify the differences between global and local auroral precipitation processes and will provide a valuable experimental check for models of sudden storm commencements and magnetospheric response to perturbations in the solar wind.

  18. Improving Remotely-sensed Precipitation Estimates Over Mountainous Regions For Use In Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.; Akcelik, M.; Kuligowski, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service's (NWS) flash flood warning and heavy precipitation forecast efforts, the NOAA National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) has been providing satellite based precipitation estimates operationally since 1978. Two of the satellite based rainfall algorithms are the Hydro-Estimator (HE) and the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval (SCaMPR). However, unlike the HE algorithm the SCaMPR does not currently make any adjustments for the effects of complex topography on rainfall. This study investigates the potential for improving the SCaMPR algorithm by incorporating an orographic correction and humidity correction based calibration of the SCaMPR against rain gauge transects in northwestern Mexico to identify correctable biases related to elevation, slope, wind direction and humidity. Elevation-dependent bias structure of the SCaMPR algorithm suggest that the rainfall algorithm underestimates precipitation in case of upward atmospheric movements and overestimates rainfall in case of downward atmospheric movements along with mountainous terrain. A regionally dependent empirical elevation-based bias correction technique may help improve the quality of satellite-derived precipitation products. As well as orography, effect of atmospheric indices over precipitation estimates is analyzed. The findings suggest that continued improvement to the developed orographic correction scheme is warranted in order to advance quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain regions for use in weather forecasting and hydrologic applications.

  19. Assessment of Remotely-Sensed precipitation products across the Saudi Arabia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheimi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources controlling, predicting, and decision making require a high resolution and reliable estimates of precipitation. Precipitation events significantly important and have a huge impact on the economy, the environment, and the society, especially in the largely arid countries. Recently, with the leap of developing satellite-retrieved precipitation products with high special resolution and global coverage that resulted in new source of sustainable precipitation estimates. However, the incorporation between satellite- retrieved estimates and the operational decision making are not well recognized due to lack of information towards uncertainties and consistency. In this study, the primary goal was to evaluate the performance of satellite products rainfall estimator (TRMM-3B42) and (PERSSIAN)around Saudi Arabia, by analyzing the TRMM-3B42 product for the period of January 2000- October 2010 and the PERSSIAN product for the period of March 2000 until December 2007. Independent rain gauge data were collected from over 29 local precipitation gauge stations from all thirteen provinces located in Saudi Arabia. After aggregation and interpolation, this data was specifically used to diagnose systematic differences between in-situ based rainfall and satellite derived rainfall using an extensive selection of validation metrics. The results show according to the probability of detecting rainfall amounts and volume of correctly identified precipitation, TRMM data sets led to better estimates and high correlation than PERSIANN product. Whereas in the false alarms ratio is higher in TRMM than in PERSSIAN. In fact, all precipitation products tend to miss a significant amount of rainfall. From the analysis, a recommendation suggested to extend the efforts towards necessary development of algorithms that capture precipitation with more consistency.

  20. A Precipitation Climatology using Satellite Remote Sensing and Water Cycle Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilburn, K.; Wentz, F.

    2009-04-01

    Passive microwave satellite data records have finally reached critical lengths that provide unparalleled climate monitoring capability. In particular, if we are to monitor and understand regional climate changes, the use of satellite data are necessary for much of the planet where in situ observations are infrequent or absent. Using passive microwave data we provide a precipitation climatology and integrate our activities with the NASA Precipitation Measurement Mission (PMM) and the NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS). We obtain geophysical retrievals over the ocean using our Unified Microwave Ocean Retrieval Algorithm (UMORA), which simultaneously retrieves sea surface temperature, surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, columnar cloud liquid water, and surface rain rate from a variety of passive microwave radiometers including SSMI (F08, F10, F11, F13, F14, F15), SSMIS (F16, F17), TMI on TRMM, AMSR (Aqua and Midori-II), and WindSat. In addition to the retrieval algorithm, the other critical component to obtaining a quality precipitation climatology is an accurate radiometer intercalibration at the brightness temperature level. We have spent a great deal of effort intercalibrating the SSM/I series of radiometers. In the most recent version, the SSM/I have been intercalibrated to a precision of 0.1 K and the other sensors have been adjusted to match the SSM/I time series. We are using passive microwave observations to make climatologies of areal precipitation over ocean basins. Our results indicate surprisingly consistent evaporation ratios (ratio of evaporation to precipitation) over large ocean basins. The ratios are around 1.2, meaning that over sufficiently large areas of ocean, evaporation is about 20% larger than precipitation - with the excess finding its way onto land via atmospheric rivers. These results are very different than previous satellite-based estimates, which show great variability from basin to basin. Our results may be due to a number of

  1. Summer cloud and precipitation properties at Utsteinen, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, measured by ground-based remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, I. V.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Kneifel, S.; Maahn, M.; Crewell, S.; Van den Broeke, M.

    2012-04-01

    A unique comprehensive observatory on meteorological-cloud-precipitation interactions has been built at the new Belgian Princess Elisabeth station, situated on the Utsteinen ridge, at the foot of Sør Rondane mountains in East Antarctica (http://ees.kuleuven.be/hydrant). The instruments already installed include an automatic weather station (AWS) and three ground-based cloud and precipitation remote sensing instruments (ceilometer, infra-red pyrometer and 24GHz vertically pointing radar). The cloud and precipitation instruments have been operating during three summer periods (2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012), while the AWS has been operating almost continuously since February 2009 through present time. The measurements are combined in order to obtain basic statistics of clouds properties (height and cloud base temperature), their radiative forcing, as well as frequency and vertical extension of snowfall events, together with the meteorological situation at Utsteinen. Measurements during the first two summer campaigns showed that cloud base temperatures ranged between -200C for low-level clouds (1-1.5 km agl) and -350C - -400C for midlevel clouds (2-4 km agl). The 1-3 km height range was found to have the highest cloud frequency. Synoptic events with and without snowfall have been related to the water vapor transport and local cloud properties. One of the analyzed storms with snowfall in February 2010 showed a two-day evolution with low-level and mid-level clouds observed during the first day, forming multiple layers with short periods of light precipitation, and lowering cloud bases during the second day followed by snowfall and blowing snow. Increase in the cloud base temperature associated both with warm air advection and cloud base lowering (to 1-1.5 km agl) before the snowfall resulted in significant increase in downwelling longwave flux (up to 20 W m-2) recorded by the AWS pyrgeometer. While ceilometer measurements are limited during the storm due to the

  2. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  3. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  4. Understanding mechanisms behind intense precipitation events in East Antarctica: merging modeling and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Maahn, Maximilian; Gallée, Hubert; Kneifel, Stefan; Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Crewell, Susanne; Van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    Large interannual variability has been found in surface mass balance (SMB) over the East Antarctic ice sheet coastal and escarpment zones, with the total yearly SMB strongly depending on occasional intense precipitation events. Thus for correct prediction of the ice sheet climate and SMB, climate models should be capable to represent such events. Not less importantly, models should also correctly represent the relevant mechanisms behind. The coupled land-atmosphere non-hydrostatic regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) is used to simulate climate and SMB of Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica. DML has shown a significant increase in SMB during the last years attributed to only few occasional very intense snowfall events. MAR is run at 5km horizontal resolution using initial and boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim re-analysis atmospheric and oceanic fields. The MAR microphysical scheme predicts the evolution of the mixing ratios of five water species: specific humidity, cloud droplets and ice crystals, raindrops and snow particles. Additional prognostic equation describes the number concentration of cloud ice crystals. The mass and terminal velocity of snow particles are defined as for the graupel-like snowflakes of hexagonal type. These definitions are important to determine single scattering properties for snow hydrometeors used as input (along with cloud particle properties and atmospheric parameters) into the Passive and Active Microwave radiative TRAnsfer model (PAMTRA). PAMTRA allows direct comparison of the radar-measured and climate model-based vertical profiles of the radar reflectivity and Doppler velocity for particular precipitation events. The comparison is based on the measurements from the vertically profiling 24-GHz MRR radar operating as part of the cloud-precipitation-meteorological observatory at Princess Elisabeth (PE) base in DML escarpment zone, from 2010

  5. Potential Applications of Remote Sensing Precipitation Data on Urban Stormwater Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, V.; Tarantola, R.; Ferreira, C.

    2014-12-01

    Although stormwater modeling is widely used to plan, manage and operate stormwater systems in the urban environment, accuracy in model development and calibration is still problematic. Precipitation is the major forcing of stormwater modeling and one of the most important variables for accurate representation of the water cycle in urban areas. However, rainfall data availability in both temporal and spatial adequate scales is scarce. Here we investigate the potential to apply satellite precipitation products to small-scale urban watersheds with a focus on real-time data for operational use and historical data for model calibration and planning. We present a study case in Northern Virginia, part of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan region. We compare several rainfall datasets from satellites, radar and rain gauges during 2002-2008, using two multi-satellite precipitation products. The first one is the NASA TRMM TMPA at daily/0.25° time/space resolution, which is available in two forms: 3B42-Real Time and 3B42-Version 7, where the latter is a post-processed product, corrected with ground-based observations. The second one is the NOAA CMORPH at 3hrs/0.25° time/space resolution. The NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) data and NCEP Stage IV radar-based product are used as reference datasets for TMPA and CMORPH, respectively. Statistical analyses are conducted to compare these datasets: correlation coefficient, RMSE, bias, probability of correct no-rain detection and of false alarm were computed with a focus on Fairfax, VA county. Preliminary results show that the TMPA products outperform CMORPH, when compared to rain gauges and radar data over the county. Moreover, no appreciable difference is detected between TMPA-V7 and TMPA-RT, which demonstrates that real-time data could be used over the urban watershed with results that are comparable to the adjusted product. Analyses are undergoing to investigate higher temporal resolution and to include a comparison with the

  6. Remote sensing of precipitation over Indian land and oceanic regions by synergistic use of multisatellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anoop; Gairola, R. M.; Varma, A. K.; Agarwal, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to estimate rainfall by synergistically analyzing collocated thermal infrared (TIR) brightness temperatures from Meteosat along with rainfall estimates from active microwave precipitation radar (PR) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over Indian land and oceanic regions. In this study, we used broad and frequent TIR measurements from a geostationary satellite for rainfall estimation, calibrating them with sparse but more accurate PR rain rates. To make the algorithm robust, we used a two-step procedure. First, a cloud classification scheme was applied to TIR measurements using the 6.7 μm water vapor channel and TIR radiances to delineate the rain-bearing clouds. Next, the concurrent TIR and PR observations were used to establish a regression relation between them. The relationship thus established was used to estimate rainfall from TIR measurements by applying it to rain-producing systems during southwest and northeast monsoons and tropical cyclones. Comparisons were made with TRMM-merged (3B42 V6) data, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly rain rate data, ground-based rain gauge observations from automatic weather stations, and Doppler weather radar over India. The results from combined infrared and microwave sensors were in very good agreement with the ground-based measurements, TRMM-3B42 V6, as well as GPCP.

  7. Development and application of a probability distribution retrieval scheme to the remote sensing of clouds and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKague, Darren Shawn

    2001-12-01

    The statistical properties of clouds and precipitation on a global scale are important to our understanding of climate. Inversion methods exist to retrieve the needed cloud and precipitation properties from satellite data pixel-by-pixel that can then be summarized over large data sets to obtain the desired statistics. These methods can be quite computationally expensive, and typically don't provide errors on the statistics. A new method is developed to directly retrieve probability distributions of parameters from the distribution of measured radiances. The method also provides estimates of the errors on the retrieved distributions. The method can retrieve joint distributions of parameters that allows for the study of the connection between parameters. A forward radiative transfer model creates a mapping from retrieval parameter space to radiance space. A Monte Carlo procedure uses the mapping to transform probability density from the observed radiance histogram to a two- dimensional retrieval property probability distribution function (PDF). An estimate of the uncertainty in the retrieved PDF is calculated from random realizations of the radiance to retrieval parameter PDF transformation given the uncertainty of the observed radiances, the radiance PDF, the forward radiative transfer, the finite number of prior state vectors, and the non-unique mapping to retrieval parameter space. The retrieval method is also applied to the remote sensing of precipitation from SSM/I microwave data. A method of stochastically generating hydrometeor fields based on the fields from a numerical cloud model is used to create the precipitation parameter radiance space transformation. The impact of vertical and horizontal variability within the hydrometeor fields has a significant impact on algorithm performance. Beamfilling factors are computed from the simulated hydrometeor fields. The beamfilling factors vary quite a bit depending upon the horizontal structure of the rain. The

  8. Recent progresses in atmospheric remote sensing research in China —Chinese national report on atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Chen, Hongbin

    2004-06-01

    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003 are summarily introduced. This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3) remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing, including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  9. Remote Sensing of Precipitation Using Multiparameter Radar: Statistics, Processing Algorithms and Analysis Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li.

    With the advent of the multiparameter weather radar, i.e., dual-polarization, dual-frequency, Doppler radar, radar meteorologists have been able to study physical processes in precipitation in more detail, and the quantitative measurement of rainfall as well as the identification of different types of hydrometeors have become possible. However, the effects of propagation through the rain medium must be carefully considered whenever dual-polarization techniques are considered. The correction of propagation effects such as attenuation, differential attenuation and differential propagation phase in precipitation are very important for quantitative interpretation of echo powers at high frequencies. In this dissertation, a simplified scattering matrix with propagation effects is described. A number of parameters are derived based on the covariance matrix of the scattering element array. The processing techniques for estimating some specific parameters, such as K_{dp }, A_{x} and intrinsic LDR using the CSU-CHILL and CP-2 radar measurements, are discussed. Recent research has suggested that the copolar correlation coefficient termed rho_ {hv}(0) can be used to identify large hail and improve polarization estimates of rainfall. The typical measured values of rho_{hv }(0) at S-band vary between 0.8-1.0. For applications to hail identification the required accuracy should be within +/-0.01 while for rainfall improvement a higher accuracy is necessary, e.g., within +/-0.001. We discuss the statistics of several estimators of rho_{hv }(0) using the Gaussian spectrum approximation from both an analytical approach and via simulations. The standard deviation and bias in rho _{hv}(0) are computed as a function of number of samples, Doppler spectral width and mean rho_{hv}(0). The effect of finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and phase noise are also studied via simulations. Time series data collected with the CSU-CHILL radar are analyzed and compared with the simulations. Antenna

  10. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  11. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  12. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  13. Advancements in rainfall measurement and analysis technology for validating remote sensing observations of precipitation from space and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Otto W.; Short, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of remote sensing by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to determine the reflectivity-rain rate relation for a tropical squall line event is discussed. The implications of the findings for convective-stratiform budget studies are briefly addressed.

  14. The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

  15. Polarization In Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Walter G.

    1988-06-01

    Various aspects of polarization in remote sensing are presented including mathematical treatments and selected experimental observations. The observations are of the percent polarization from Haleakala volcanic ash, basalt powder, rhyolytic oumice. rose quartz, niccolite, ilmenite, black oak leaves. dried red pine needles, a New Haven red pine stand, moist soil, the sky above Mauna Loa Observatory, the sky above Long Island in summer and winter, and cirrus clouds. Also, space based shuttle photographic observations of polarization are described. Instrumental polarization from a Cassegrainian telescope is described as well as the design of an imaging soectropolarimeter for remote sensing. A list is presented of twelve polarimetric properties associated with remote sensing.

  16. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  17. Remote Sensing of Earth Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models that are useful and practical in relating remote sensing data to the important physical parameters characterizing Earth terrain are developed. The development of models that are useful in data analysis and interpretation, scene simulation, and developing new remote sensing approaches and techniques is discussed. Numerous theoretical models that are applicable to the active and passive remote sensing of plowed fields, atmospheric precipitation, vegetation, and snow fields were developed. The radiative transfer theory is used to interpret the active and passive data as a function of rain rate. Both the random medium model and the discrete scatterer model is used to study the remote sensing of vegetation fields. Due to the non-spherical geometry of the scatterers there is strong azimuthal dependence in the observed data. Thus, the anisotropic random medium model and the discrete scatterer model with nonspherical particles was developed. In order to relate the remote sensing data to the actual physical parameters, the scattering of electromagnetic waves from randomly distributed dielectric scatterers was studied. Both the rigorous random discrete scatterer theory and the strong fluctuation theory are used to derive the backscattering cross section in terms of the actual physical parameters and the results agree well with the data obtained from the snow fields.

  18. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  19. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  20. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  1. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  2. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  3. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  5. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  6. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  7. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  8. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  9. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  10. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  11. Assessing Vegetation Structure and Dynamics in a Chihuahuan Grassland-Shrubland Ecotone Using the Relationship Between Remote-Sensed Vegetation Phenology and Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, M.; Diaz-Sierra, R.; Turnbull, L.; Wainwright, J.

    2014-12-01

    Land degradation usually involves largely irreversible vegetation changes in drylands. A typical case of vegetation change is the shrub-encroachment process that has been taking place over the last 150 years in the Chihuahuan Desert, where large areas of grasslands dominated by perennial grass species (black and blue grama) have transitioned to shrublands dominated by woody species (mainly creosotebush and mesquite), accompanied by accelerated water and wind erosion. An array of mechanisms are involved in this process, including external triggering factors such as precipitation variations and land-use change, and endogenous amplifying mechanisms brought about by soil erosion-vegetation feedbacks. We analyze the structure and dynamics of vegetation at an 18-km2 grassland-shrubland ecotone in the northern edge of the Chihuahuan desert (McKenzie Flats, Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico) by investigating the relationship between decade-scale (2000-13) records of medium-resolution remote sensing of vegetation phenology (MODIS NDVI) and precipitation. Our analysis indicates that spatial variations in the NDVI-rainfall relationship reflect functional differences in leaf phenology and water use for herbaceous and shrub vegetation. Herbaceous vegetation shows quick growth pulses associated with short-term (previous 2 months) precipitation, while shrubs show a slow response to medium-term (previous 5 months) precipitation. We use these relationships to (a) determine the broad-scale spatial distribution of dominant vegetation types, and to (b) decompose the NDVI signal into partial net primary production (NPP) components for herbaceous vegetation and shrubs across the study site. We further analyze the influence of inter-annual variations in seasonal precipitation on remotely sensed NPP. Plant growth for herbaceous vegetation is particularly synchronized with monsoonal summer rainfall. For shrubs, annual NPP is better explained by winter plus summer precipitation

  12. Assessing shrub encroachment in a grassland-shrubland desert ecotone using the relationship between remote sensed phenology of vegetation and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Diaz-Sierra, Ruben; Wainwright, John

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and the massive alteration of natural habitats are major drivers of land degradation. Their effects may be especially significant in drylands, where ecosystems are particularly sensitive to degradation, usually involving largely irreversible landscape changes. A paradigmatic case of catastrophic vegetation shift is the shrub-encroachment process that has been taking place over the last 150 years in the Chihuahuan Desert, where large areas of grasslands dominated by perennial grass species (black and blue grama) have shifted to shrublands dominated by woody species (creosotebush and mesquite) accompanied by accelerated water and wind erosion. An array of mechanisms are involved in this process, including external triggering factors such as precipitation and land-use variations, and endogenous amplifying mechanisms brought about by soil erosion-vegetation feedbacks. We track landscape changes at a 20 km2 grasland-shrubland ecotone in the northern edge of the Chihuahuan Desert (McKenzie Flats, Sevilleta LTER site, New Mexico) by studying the relationship between long-term (2000-13) records of medium-resolution remote sensing of landscape phenology (MODIS NDVI) and precipitation. We hypothesize that grass and shrub life-forms exhibit important differences in phenology and water use. Our analysis indicates that herbaceous vegetation (grasses and forbs) shows quick growth pulses associated with short-term (previous 2 months) precipitation, while shrubs show a slow response to medium-term (previous 5 months) precipitation. We use these relationships to (a) determine the broad-scale spatial distribution of herbaceous vegetation and shrubs in our study site, and to (b) decompose and transform the NDVI signal into partial NPP components for herbaceous vegetation and shrubs. We further analyze the influence of inter-annual variations in seasonal precipitation on remotely sensed NPP data. Plant growth for herbaceous vegetation is particularly synchronized with

  13. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  14. Earth surface remote sensing 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi, G.; Zilioli, E.

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of EOS/SPIE Remote Sensing Symposium which was held September 21--24, 1998 in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: geological applications, cultural heritage, and geological hazards; land management; passive remote sensing of the ocean and sea ice; and active remote sensing of the ocean and sea ice.

  15. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  16. WRF simulation of a precipitation event over the Tibetan Plateau, China - an assessment using remote sensing and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussion, F.; Scherer, D.; Finkelnburg, R.; Richters, J.; Yang, W.; Yao, T.

    2011-06-01

    Meteorological observations over the Tibetan Plateau (TiP) are scarce, and precipitation estimations over this remote region are difficult. The constantly improving capabilities of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models offer the opportunity to reduce this problem by providing precipitation fields and other meteorological variables of high spatial and temporal resolution. Longer time periods of years to decades can be simulated by NWP models by successive model runs of shorter periods, which can be described by the term "regional atmospheric reanalysis". In this paper, we assess the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models capacity in retrieving rain- and snowfall on the TiP in such a configuration using a nested approach: the simulations are conducted with three nested domains at spatial resolutions of 30, 10, and 2 km. A validation study is carried out for a one-month period with a special focus on one-week (22-28 October 2008), during which strong rain- and snowfall was observed on the TiP. The output of the model in each resolution is compared to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data set for precipitation and to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data set for snow extent. TRMM and WRF data are then compared to weather-station measurements. Our results suggest an overall improvement from WRF over TRMM with respect to weather-station measurements. Various configurations of the model with different nesting and forcing strategies, as well as physical parameterisation schemes are compared to propose a suitable design for a regional atmospheric reanalysis over the TiP. The WRF model showed good accuracy in simulating snow- and rainfall on the TiP for a one-month simulation period. Our study reveals that there is nothing like an optimal model strategy applicable for the high-altitude TiP, its fringing high-mountain areas of extremely complex topography and the low-altitude land and sea regions from which much of the

  17. A simplified approach of drought risk assessment in Poyang Lake basin using real-time precipitation and multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haixia

    2015-12-01

    Drought risk assessment is critical to drought early-warning and drought relief decision making. Drought risk assessment is defined as the assessment on both probability and degree of damage caused by drought. This study presents a methodology for risk analysis and assessment of drought disaster t in the Poyang Lake Basin, China based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS).The main objectives of the present study are to: (1) Study the relationships among the precipitation, the water area and NDVI. (2) Assess the degree of drought disaster risk in the Poyang Lake Basin by using a method of quantitative risk analysis. The methodology employed in this study can be applied to the drought of the other area.The study introduced a new simplified approach of drought risk assessment using real-time precipitation and multi-source remote sensing data. The following conclusions are presented on the basis of study.(1)The regression shows a high level of correlation among the precipitation, drought and water area. (2)Short-time series of water area play an important role in determining if there is a drought or not or what is the degree of the drought. Further investigations are required in order to improve the precision. This can be reached by investing the relationship between the precipitation and the vegetation cover.

  18. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  19. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  20. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  1. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  2. Integrated use of remote sensing, GIS and precipitation data for the assessment of soil erosion rate in the catchment area of "Yialias" in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an overall methodology for estimating erosion rate in a catchment area in Cyprus with the integrated use of satellite remote sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and precipitation data. Two models were implemented in a river basin in the central part of Cyprus (Yialias River) which is generally prone to erosion processes. The first is a quantitative empirical multi-parametric model which is based both in expert's knowledge and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) while the second is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model which is considered to be a contemporary approach in soil loss assessment. For the implementation of the two different models, high resolution GeoEye-1 satellite images were used in order to extract land cover, soil and topographical information regarding the study area. RUSLE method is based in the estimation of soil loss per unit area and takes into account specific parameters such as precipitation data, topography, soil erodibility, erosivity and runoff. The RUSLE factors were calculated in GIS environment. On the other hand AHP method contributed to the construction of a risk assessment map with the use of almost the same agents with RUSLE methodology. RUSLE and AHP approaches were compared and evaluated for their efficiency. The study indicated that using RS and GIS technologies simultaneously with precipitation data resulted to an effective and accurate assessment of soil erosion in considerable short time and low cost for large watersheds.

  3. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  4. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  5. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  6. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  7. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  8. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  9. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Results are given for three separate investigations of remote sensing over wetlands, including the delineations of roseau cane and mangrove from both Landsat and aircraft MSS data, and the delineation of wetland communities for potential waste assimilation in a coastal river floodplain from Landsat MSS data only. Attention is also given to data processing and analysis techniques of varying levels of sophistication, which must increase with surface cover diversity. All computer processing in these studies was performed on a minicomputer configured with the adequate memory, image display capability, and associated peripherals, using state-of-the-art digital MSS data analysis software.

  10. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  11. Characteristics of annual, seasonal, and diurnal precipitation in the Southeastern United States derived from long-term remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Olivier P.; Nelson, Brian R.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate long-term inter-annual, seasonal, and diurnal rainfall characteristics in the Southeastern United States. In order to capture precipitation features at high resolution, we use precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM); the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TPR 2A25: 0.05° × 0.05°/daily) and the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42: 0.25° × 0.25°/3-h) datasets to create a 13-year rainfall climatology. The higher resolution climatology (2A25) displays a greater ability to capture more localized landform precipitation features when compared with 3B42. On an annual basis, the Southeastern US is characterized by a succession of cold and warm precipitation regimes. The cold season is characterized by higher rain intensity West of 82°W (roughly Atlanta, GA) and the warm season is characterized by higher rain intensity over the coastal areas. The cold/warm rainfall regime duality is modulated by local topographic characteristics that prevail along a W-E direction. During the cold season, the diurnal cycle of precipitation is characterized by a quasi-constant repartition of rain events throughout the day and an absence of land/ocean contrast. On the contrary for summertime there is a strong land/ocean signature with a predominance of late morning/early afternoon (12:00-15:00LST) rainfall over ocean and afternoon/early evening (15:00-18:00LST) precipitation events over land that account for more than 25% of the daily events along the coasts. Differences are observed for the Florida peninsula, where the diurnal cycle displays an afternoon maximum of variable intensity due to sea breeze effects regardless of the season.

  12. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  13. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  14. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  15. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  16. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  17. Three-dimensional aspects of radiative transfer in remote sensing of precipitation: Application to the 1986 COHMEX storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haferman, J. L.; Krajewski, W. F.; Smith, T. F.

    1994-01-01

    Several multifrequency techniques for passive microwave estimation of precipitation based on the absorption and scattering properties of hydrometers have been proposed in the literature. In the present study, plane-parallel limitations are overcome by using a model based on the discrete-ordinates method to solve the radiative transfer equation in three-dimensional rectangular domains. This effectively accounts for the complexity and variety of radiation problems encountered in the atmosphere. This investigation presents result for plane-parallel and three-dimensional radiative transfer for a precipitating system, discusses differences between these results, and suggests possible explanations for these differences. Microphysical properties were obtained from the Colorado State University Regional Atmospehric Modeling System and represent a hailstorm observed during the 1986 Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment. These properties are used as input to a three-dimensional radiative transfer model in order to simulate satellite observation of the storm. The model output consists of upwelling brightness temperatures at several of the frequencies on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager. The radiative transfer model accounts for scattering and emission of atmospheric gases and hydrometers in liquid and ice phases. Brightness temperatures obtained from the three-dimensional model of this investigation indicate that horizontal inhomogeneities give rise to brightness temperature fields that can be quite different from fields obtained using plane-parallel radiative transfer theory. These differences are examined for various resolutions of the satellite sensor field of view. In adddition, the issue of boundary conditions for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer is addressed.

  18. Remote sensing in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gert A.

    1988-07-01

    The "Electronic Age" offers new and attractive opportunities to hydrologists for remote sensing (RS) of hydrological data. A discussion of hydrologically relevant platforms and sensors and the type of electromagnetic signals used by such sensors is followed by an analysis of the structure of mathematical hydrologic models which use RS information either as input or to provide a basis for model parameter estimation. Three examples of RS application in hydrological modeling are given: (1) model parameter estimation with the aid of multispectral Landsat satellite data; (2) computation of historic monthly runoff for design purposes with the aid of a lumped system model using NOAA infrared satellite data as input; and (3) real-time flood forecasting applying a distributed system model using radar rainfall measurements as input. Further applications of RS information in hydrology are discussed in the field of evapotranspiration, soil moisture, rainfall, surface water, snow and ice, sediments and water quality. A brief discussion of RS data availability and the hardware and software required is followed by an assessment of future opportunities. The potential of passive and active microwave sensors for hydrological applications is emphasized.

  19. Effect of microphysics scheme in cloud resolving models in passive microwave remote sensing of precipitation over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Hye; Shin, Dong-Bin; Kummerow, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Physically-based rainfall retrievals from passive microwave sensors often make use of cloud resolving models (CRMs) to build a-priori databases of potential rain structures. Each CRM, however, has its own assumptions on the cloud microphysics. Hence, approximated microphysics may cause uncertainties in the a-priori information resulting in inaccurate rainfall estimates. This study first builds a-priori databases by combining the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) observations and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with six different cloud microphysics schemes. The microphysics schemes include the Purdue Lin (LIN), WRF-Single-Moment 6 (WSM6), Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE), Thompson (THOM), WRF-Double-Moment 6 (WDM6), and Morrison (MORR) schemes. As expected, the characteristics of the a-priori databases are inherited from the individual cloud microphysics schemes. There are several distinct differences in the databases. Particularly, excessive graupel and snow exist with the LIN and THOM schemes, while more rainwater is incorporated into the a-priori information with WDM6 than with any of the other schemes. Major results show that convective rainfall regions are not well captured by the LIN and THOM schemes-based retrievals with correlations of 0.56 and 0.73. Rainfall distributions and their quantities retrieved from the WSM6 and WDM6 schemes-based estimations, however, show relatively better agreement with the PR observations with correlations of 0.79 and 0.81, respectively. Based on the comparisons of the various microphysics schemes in the retrievals, it appears that differences in the a-priori databases considerably affect the properties of rainfall estimations. This study also includes the discrepancy of estimated rain rate from passive radiometer and active radar for two rainfall systems of different cloud microphysics near the Yellow Sea. The first case have high cloud top (HCT) with large ice

  20. High resolution diagnosis and monitoring of extreme precipitation events using multi-sensor multi-platform remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, H. H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Behrangi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The study of extreme precipitation/storm events is of significant value due to their socioeconomic impacts and their applications in aviation and hydroclimatic studies. The emergence of various satellite sensors aboard multiple platforms creates unprecedented opportunities to study storm events statistically and with case studies. High spectral resolution data from the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Temperature Sounder (AMSU) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSRE), were used for a statistical analysis of very deep convective systems. It was found that combination of information from atmospheric window, water vapor and temperature sounding channels can provide strong insights to diagnose such deep convective systems near the tropopause. Associated with deep convective clouds is a local upward displacement of the tropopause , a cold bulge which can be seen directly in the brightness temperatures of AIRS and AMSU channels with weighting functions peaking between 40 and 2 hPa. The bulge is not resolved by the analysis in numerical weather prediction models. Such extreme systems yield very intense precipitation, as indicated by the measurements from AMSRE, and are likely associated with high vertical wind speeds. Since AIRS data can be used to emulate the spectral bands offered by the GOES and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) infrared sensors, we investigate, if such extreme events can be detected and monitored from geostationary platforms, such as GOES and SEVIRI, with very high time and space resolution. As a case study, we discuss the combination of high resolution (time and space) infrared/water vapor data from geostationary platforms and AIRS data to analyze the conditions for the Air France flight 447 crash on June 1, 2009. We present encouraging first results and discuss the future extension of this work.

  1. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  2. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  3. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  4. Managing Uncertainty Due to a Fundamental Error Source Arising from Scatterer Distribution Complexity in Radar Remote Sensing of Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Meneghini, Robert; Mugnai, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that cloud and rain drops are spatially distributed according to a Poisson distribution within a scattering volume probed by a radar being used to estimate precipitation has represented bedrock theory in establishing 'rules of the game' for pulse averaging--the process needed to beat down noise to an acceptable level in the measurement of radar reflectivity factor. Based on relatively recent observations of 'realistic' spatial distributions of hydrometeor scatterers in a cloudy atmosphere motivates a renewed examination of the consequences of using a too simplified assumption underlying volume scattering--particularly in regards to the standard pulse averaging rule. Our investigation addresses two extremes, simple to complex, insofar as allowed for complexities in an underlying scatterer distribution. It is demonstrated that as the spatial distribution ranges from Poisson (a narrow distribution) to multi-fractal (much broader distribution), uncertainty in a measurement increases if the rule for pulse averaging goes unchanged from its Poisson distribution reference county. [A bounded cascade is used for the multi-fractal distribution, a regularly observed distribution vis-a-vis cloud liquid water content.] The resultant measurement uncertainty leads to a fundamental source of error in the estimation of rain rate from radar measurements, one that has been disregarded since the early 1950s when radar sets first began to be used for rainfall measuring. It is shown how this source of error can be 'managed'--under the assumption that number of data analysis experiments would be carried out, experiments involving pulse-by-pulse measurements obtained from a radar set modified to output individual pulses of reflectivity factor. For practical applications, a new parameter called normalized k-sample intensity invariance is developed to enable defining the required pulse average count according to a preferred degree of uncertainty.

  5. Remote sensing for vineyard management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R.; Erb, T. L.; Fernandez, D.; Mcleester, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Cornell's Remote Sensing Program has been involved in a continuing investigation to assess the value of remote sensing for vineyard management. Program staff members have conducted a series of site and crop analysis studies. These include: (1) panchromatic aerial photography for planning artificial drainage in a new vineyard; (2) color infrared aerial photography for assessing crop vigor/health; and (3) color infrared aerial photography and aircraft multispectral scanner data for evaluating yield related factors. These studies and their findings are reviewed.

  6. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  7. Role of precipitation uncertainty in the estimation of hydrologic soil properties using remotely sensed soil moisture in a semi-arid environment 1891

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this study is the role of precipitation uncertainty in determining the accuracy and retrieveability of estimated soil texture and hydraulic properties. This work builds on and extends recent work conducted as part of the ongoing development of the Army Remote Moisture System (ARMS), in...

  8. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  9. Remote Sensing of Rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Ziad S.

    1999-01-01

    The first problem addressed concerns passive-microwave rain retrievals. Most current approaches start by building off-line a cloud-model-derived database. Given data, the retrieval algorithms search the database for the microwave temperatures "closest" to the observed data, then after some fine-tuning (performed in different ways by different implementations) the rain is estimated to be that which corresponds to the selected (and fine-tuned) set of database temperatures. These approaches have three drawbacks: they cannot properly take into account the ambiguities which arise from the fact that several rain scenarios can produce the same observed temperatures; they are quite inefficient since they require manipulating a large database along with often complex "fine-tuning" procedures; and they cannot refine their estimates if additional data is available. This past year we have derived closed formulae relating observed microwave brightness temperatures, T(sub b), and the underlying rain rates, R: average T(sub b) =f (rain) and average rain = g (T(sub b)), along with the corresponding covariance matrices. These results are sufficient to describe the conditional probabilities p(R/T(sub b)) and p(T(sub b)/R) to second order. Progress has also been made towards deriving a robust description of the rain drop size distribution (DSD). The widespread approach consisting in parameterizing the DSD as a gamma-distribution in terms of the drop diameter D suffers from the facts that, in reality, the DSD is not a smooth function of D and that the largely arbitrary Gamma model imposes unintended behavior, which has implications on any quantities derived from the DSD model. We have therefore developed a non-parametric yet practical description of the DSD, which is particularly well-suited for use in remote-sensing applications. The diagram on the left shows a comparison between an actual DSD sample and the truncated non-parametric representation. One figure shows the relation

  10. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  11. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  12. Remote sensing of species invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Nicholas Etienne

    The invasion of the Western United States of America by Bromus tectorum, also known as "cheatgrass" is mapped using techniques of remote sensing. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance using the MODTRAN4 atmospheric simulation model. The results of the radiometric processing were checked against ground reflectances with a portable ASD spectrometer. Landsat TM imagery covering portions of Utah State, USA were obtained at two times for each scene, one in the spring and one in the summer. The imagery was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance. Field data on cheatgrass abundance were collected at the same time period of the Landsat imagery. A variety of regression models were tested for predicting cheatgrass abundance. Prediction variables included the extracted ground reflectance from the multi-temporal imagery and ancillary topographic data. A meta-prediction framework was devised for compositing the results of an ensemble of regression models. Using cross-validation, the method was found to predict cheatgrass abundance (as percent) with approximately 15% Root Mean Square Error. The Landsat based prediction maps were used to scale reference data to 250 meter resolution, for prediction over larger spatial areas using the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps, at 250 meter spatial resolution and bi-monthly data frequency, were assembled over a five year time period spanning 2001-2005. PRISM monthly total precipitation data, a spatially interpolated (4 kilometer) resolution data product, were compiled over the same time period and the same spatial coverage as the MODIS data. Thin plate (Duchon) splines were fit to the time series of precipitation data and MODIS NDVI in order to generate time series of precipitation and NDVI (with an arbitrary number of data points) over the study area. Metrics designed to quantify ecosystem response to

  13. Remote Sensing May Provide Unprecedented Hydrological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Basic hydrological research and water resources management may reap tremendous benefits from remote sensing technology, studies are showing. Satellite coverage may allow unprecedented accuracy in the quantification of the global hydrological cycle, for example. Yet despite such benefits, few hydrologists currently use such data. This is partly because the needed tools and algorithms are not fully developed. Such development requires field experiments that combine remotely sensed data with detailed in situ observations. AGU's Remote Sensing in Hydrology Committee has constructed a Web site (http://Iand.gsfc.nasa.gov/RSHC.html) that gives an overview of many such experiments. Included on the site is information on each experiment's overall goal, the types of in situ and remotely sensed measurements taken, relevant climate and vegetation conditions, and so forth. Links to additional relevant Web sites are included. The site is designed to be a suitable starting point for those interested in learning more about remote sensing in hydrology. It lists members of the committee who can be contacted for further information. Hydrologists have recognized the potential of remote sensing technology since the 1970s. It offers a way to avoid the logistical and economic difficulties associated with obtaining continuous in situ measurements of various hydrological variables, difficulties that are particularly pronounced in remote regions. Microwave instruments in particular can potentially provide all-weather, areally averaged estimates of certain variables (such as precipitation, soil moisture, and snow water content) that have been essentially unattainable in the past. In remote sensing, the conversion of emitted and reflected radiances into useful hydrological data is a complex problem. The measured radiances, for example, reflect the integrated character of a pixel area, a scale inconsistent with the point measurements of traditional hydrology. To develop the needed algorithms

  14. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  15. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  16. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  17. Remote sensing procurement package: Remote Sensing Industry Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.

  18. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  19. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich, (Edited By); King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  20. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  1. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  2. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  3. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  4. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  5. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  6. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  7. Remote sensing data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.

  8. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  10. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  11. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  12. Remote sensing in biological oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The main attribute of remote sensing is seen as its ability to measure distributions over large areas on a synoptic basis and to repeat this coverage at required time periods. The way in which the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, by showing the distribution of chlorophyll a, can locate areas productive in both phytoplankton and fishes is described. Lidar techniques are discussed, and it is pointed out that lidar will increase the depth range for observations.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  14. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Han, Hsiu C.; Lim, Harold H.; Arnold, David V.

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing of earth terrain is examined. The layered random medium model is used to investigate the fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from vegetation. The model is used to interpret the measured data for vegetation fields such as rice, wheat, or soybean over water or soil. Accurate calibration of polarimetric radar systems is essential for the polarimetric remote sensing of earth terrain. A polarimetric calibration algorithm using three arbitrary in-scene reflectors is developed. In the interpretation of active and passive microwave remote sensing data from the earth terrain, the random medium model was shown to be quite successful. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar returns from earth terrain. In the terrain cover classification using the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, the applications of the K-distribution model will provide better performance than the conventional Gaussian classifiers. The layered random medium model is used to study the polarimetric response of sea ice. Supervised and unsupervised classification procedures are also developed and applied to synthetic aperture radar polarimetric images in order to identify their various earth terrain components for more than two classes. These classification procedures were applied to San Francisco Bay and Traverse City SAR images.

  15. Satellite remote sensing. An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.

  16. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  17. UAS remote sensing missions for rangeland applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands cover about 50% of the earth’s land surface, are in remote areas and have low population densities, all of which provide an ideal opportunity for remote sensing applications from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). In this paper, we describe a proven workflow for UAS-based remote sensing, an...

  18. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  19. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  20. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU

    1991-01-01

    In remote sensing, the encountered geophysical media such as agricultural canopy, forest, snow, or ice are inhomogeneous and contain scatters in a random manner. Furthermore, weather conditions such as fog, mist, or snow cover can intervene the electromagnetic observation of the remotely sensed media. In the modelling of such media accounting for the weather effects, a multi-layer random medium model has been developed. The scattering effects of the random media are described by three-dimensional correlation functions with variances and correlation lengths corresponding to the fluctuation strengths and the physical geometry of the inhomogeneities, respectively. With proper consideration of the dyadic Green's function and its singularities, the strong fluctuation theory is used to calculate the effective permittivities which account for the modification of the wave speed and attenuation in the presence of the scatters. The distorted Born approximation is then applied to obtain the correlations of the scattered fields. From the correlation of the scattered field, calculated is the complete set of scattering coefficients for polarimetric radar observation or brightness temperature in passive radiometer applications. In the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems, the development of microwave remote sensing technology and the potential of SAR to measure vegetation structure and biomass have increased effort to conduct experimental and theoretical researches on the interactions between microwave and vegetation canopies. The overall objective is to develop inversion algorithms to retrieve biophysical parameters from radar data. In this perspective, theoretical models and experimental data are methodically interconnected in the following manner: Due to the complexity of the interactions involved, all theoretical models have limited domains of validity; the proposed solution is to use theoretical models, which is validated by experiments, to establish the region in which

  1. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering. PMID:26982438

  2. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  3. Using Remote Sensing to Understand Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.; Gentine, P.

    2014-12-01

    While a major source of uncertainty in global climate model predictions is due to the coarseness of their resolution, a significant amount of error is also generated due to the lack of information regarding the interactions between atmospheric and land parameters over time. When the behavior of a certain parameter is not clearly understood it is frequently estimated as one specific value while in reality it may vary with time and space. Remote sensing is allowing researchers to better estimate each of these parameters so one can see how they change with time. This study is an effort to improve our knowledge of the inter-annual and seasonal variability in radiation, water and the carbon cycle using remote sensing products on a global scale. By examining monthly data over a multi-year period (data parameter and source are listed in Table 1) for fluorescence, groundwater, net radiation, vegetation indices, precipitation, soil moisture and evapotranspiration, we should be able to determine the behavior and interactions between these parameters and better understand how they vary together seasonally, annually and year to year. With this information it is our hope that global climate models can be improved to better understand what is occurring climatologically in the present as well as more accurately make predictions about future conditions. Table 1. Parameters and Sources Parameter Source Fluorescence Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT)1 Groundwater Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Net Radiation Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Vegetation Indices Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/ Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Precipitation Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Soil Moisture Water Cycle Mutimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) Evapotranspiration Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM) 1In future work, we hope to use fluorescence data from

  4. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  5. Analysis of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  6. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  7. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  8. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  9. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  10. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  11. Archeological methodology and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Gumerman, G J; Lyons, T R

    1971-04-01

    We have shown that the different spectral surveying techniques and the resultant imagery vary in their applicability to archeological prediction and exploration, but their applications are far broader than we have indicated. Their full potential, to a considerable extent, still remains unexplored. Table 1 is a chart of the more common sensor systems useful to archeological investigators. Several kinds of photography, thermal infrared imagery, and radar imagery are listed. Checks in various categories of direct and indirect utility in archeological research indicate that the different systems do provide varying degrees of input for studies in these areas. Photography and multispectral photography have the broadest applications in this field. Standard black-and-white aerial photography generally serves the purposes of archeological exploration and site analysis better than infrared scanner imagery, radar, or color photography. However, the real value of remotesensing experimentation lies in the utilization of different instruments and in the comparison and correlation of their data output. It can be stated without doubt that there is no one all-purpose remotesensing device on which the archeologist can rely that will reveal all evidence of human occupations. Remote-sensing data will not replace the traditional ground-based site survey, but, used judiciously, data gathered from aerial reconnaissance can reveal many cultural features unsuspected from the ground. The spectral properties of sites distinguishable by various types of remote sensors may perhaps be one of their most characteristic features, and yet the meaning of the differential discrimnination of features has not been determined for the most part, since such spectral properties are poorly understood at this date. The difficulty in isolating the causes of acceptable definition in certain portion of the spectrum and the lack of acceptable definition in others suggests that the evaluation of remote-sensing

  12. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  13. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  14. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  15. Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts have been focused on understanding the physical properties of planetary surfaces using remote sensing techniques. Specific application has been to the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Our approach has been to use thermal-infrared emission and radar reflectance and scattering as a way of exploring the decimeter-scale structure of these surfaces. At this scale, the techniques are sensitive to physical parameters such as the average or effective particle size of surface materials, the degree of induration or physical bonding between individual regolith grains, and the abundance of rocks of different sizes resting on or admixed in to the surface. The results are relevant to understanding the geological processes that have affected the surface and, in the case of Mars, determining site safety and scientific relevance for planning upcoming lander, rover, and sample-return spacecraft missions. Specific results are discussed below, and publications that have resulted are listed at the end.

  16. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  17. Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground control is required to georeferenced airborne and spaceborne images. The production of ortho-photogrammetric data requires ground control that is traditionally provided as Ground Control Points (GCPs) by GNSS measurements in the field. However, it can be difficult to acquire accurate ground control points due to required turn-around time, high costs or impossible access. CompassData, Inc. a specialist in ground control, has expanded its service to deliver Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points (RSGCPs®). TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X are two satellites with such high accuracy of their orbital positions and SAR data that RSGCPs® can be produced to a sub-meter quality depending on certain parameters and circumstances. The technology and required parameters are discussed in this paper as well as the resulting accuracies.

  18. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  19. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  20. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  1. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  2. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  3. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  4. NASA remote sensing programs: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.

  5. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  6. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  7. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  8. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  9. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  10. Emerging Issues in Land Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes the key questions and issues discussed in three review panels in the 9th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS) held in Oct. 2005 at Beijing. These three panels focused on remote sensing systems and sensors, modeling and inve...

  11. What does remote sensing do for ecology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.

  12. Conference of Remote Sensing Educators (CORSE-78)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.

  13. Some guidelines for remote sensing in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing in the field of hydrology is beginning to be applied to significant problems, such as thermal pollution, in many programs of the Federal and State Governments as well as in operation of many private organizations. The purpose of this paper is to guide the hydrologist to a better understanding of how he may collect, synthesize, and interpret remote sensing data.

  14. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of remotely sensed precipitation data from COMS and TRMM: Case study of Korean peninsula in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jongjin; Choi, Minha

    2015-09-01

    While a large amount of quantitative ground-based precipitation data is currently available, many limitations remain when striving to provide data on spatial distribution of precipitation. As satellite-based precipitation data are continuously observed across the globe, they may serve as input data for hydrological models when ground station data is unavailable. The goal of this study was to validate the precipitation data for the Korean peninsula in East Asia at three different time scales (1-h, 3-h, and daily) using several Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and two satellite based precipitation datasets: the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) which is a brand new geostationary satellite, and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The Index of Agreement (IOA) for daily precipitation between the AWS and both the COMS or TRMM averaged 0.65 (ranged from 0.49 to 0.75) and 0.80 (ranged from 0.68 to 0.89), respectively. Bias and RMSE from the COMS (Bias ranged from -2.5 to 3.98 mm, RMSE ranged from 16.78 to 38.2 mm) and TRMM (Bias ranged from -3.37 to 1.84 mm, RMSE ranged from 14.63 to 32.0 mm) also indicated that precipitation data obtained from satellite and AWS showed similar tend on a daily time scale, while the majority of the satellite based datasets exhibited over- or underestimation patterns during pre- or monsoon seasons, respectively. The spatial distribution of data from the TRMM and COMS showed favorable agreement with that of accumulated precipitation at AWS sites. However, TRMM underestimated the precipitation amounts in mountainous areas. Based on these results, COMS data would be helpful for understanding hydrological modeling and spatial-temporal precipitation variability. To improve the discrepancies between the satellite- and ground-based datasets, further validation of satellite algorithms using various climatic and environmental conditions may be required.

  16. Paleovalleys mapping using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibatsha, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    For work materials used multispectral satellite imagery Landsat (7 channels), medium spatial resolution (14,25-90 m) and a digital elevation model (data SRTM). For interpretation of satellite images and especially their infrared and thermal channels allocated buried paleovalleys pre-paleogene age. Their total length is 228 km. By manifestation of the content of remote sensing paleovalleys distinctly divided into two types, long ribbon-like read in materials and space survey highlights a network of small lakes. By the nature of the relationship established that the second type of river paleovalleys flogs first. On this basis, proposed to allocate two uneven river paleosystem. The most ancient paleovalleys first type can presumably be attributed to karst erosion, blurry chalk and carbon deposits foundation. Paleovalleys may include significant groundwater resources as drinking and industrial purposes. Also we can control the position paleovalleys zinc and bauxite mineralization area and alluvial deposits include uranium mineralization valleys infiltration type and placer gold. Direction paleovalleys choppy, but in general they have a north-east orientation, which is controlled by tectonic zones of the foundation. These zones are defined as the burial place themselves paleovalleys and position of karst cavities in areas interfacing with other structures orientation. The association of mineralization to the caverns in the beds paleovalleys could generally present conditions of formation of mineralization and carry it to the "Niagara" type. The term is obviously best reflects the mechanism of formation of these ores.

  17. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahr, Tobias; Peper, Eva; Schubert, Alexander; Warnach, Simon; Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Beirle, Steffen; Mies, Kornelia; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) allows to determine the concentration of trace gases based on their specific absorptions cross-sections along a light path. Since 1995, this principle is employed successfully on satellite-based instruments like GOME, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY for the global measurement of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like ozone and nitrogen oxides. Usually, spectral signatures from the ground, where a big part of the sunlight is reflected, are neglected in the evaluation. This can lead to errors in the trace gas determination. However, these structures offer the opportunity to identify surface properties of the earth and different types of vegetation. To analyse spectral reflectance properties, high resolved reflection spectra (FWHM 0.29 nm) from 95 plants were measured between 350 and 1050 nm. They can serve as a basis for the analysis of satellite data. Including different vegetation reference spectra, it is possible to determine groups of plants with similar optical properties. This allows to derive global maps of the spatio-temporal variation of plant distribution by satellite remote sensing. We present first results of this technique based on SCIAMACHY observations.

  18. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two monographs and 85 journal and conference papers on remote sensing of earth terrain have been published, sponsored by NASA Contract NAG5-270. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric data from earth terrain with polarizations HH, HV, VH, and VV. In this approach, correlated polarizations of radar signals, as characterized by a covariance matrix, are treated as the sum of N n-dimensional random vectors; N obeys the negative binomial distribution with a parameter alpha and mean bar N. Subsequently, and n-dimensional K-distribution, with either zero or non-zero mean, is developed in the limit of infinite bar N or illuminated area. The probability density function (PDF) of the K-distributed vector normalized by its Euclidean norm is independent of the parameter alpha and is the same as that derived from a zero-mean Gaussian-distributed random vector. The above model is well supported by experimental data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the form of polarimetric measurements.

  19. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  20. Parallelized Dilate Algorithm for Remote Sensing Image

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suli; Hu, Haoran; Pan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    As an important algorithm, dilate algorithm can give us more connective view of a remote sensing image which has broken lines or objects. However, with the technological progress of satellite sensor, the resolution of remote sensing image has been increasing and its data quantities become very large. This would lead to the decrease of algorithm running speed or cannot obtain a result in limited memory or time. To solve this problem, our research proposed a parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing Image based on MPI and MP. Experiments show that our method runs faster than traditional single-process algorithm. PMID:24955392

  1. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  2. Remote sensing and urban public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  3. An international organization for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.

    1991-01-01

    A recommendation is presented for the formation of a new commercially oriented international organization to acquire or develop, coordinate or manage, the space and ground segments for a global operational satellite system to furnish the basic data for remote sensing and meteorological, land, and sea resource applications. The growing numbers of remote sensing programs are examined and possible ways of reducing redundant efforts and improving the coordination and distribution of these global efforts are discussed. This proposed remote sensing organization could play an important role in international cooperation and the distribution of scientific, commercial, and public good data.

  4. Needs and emerging trends of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNair, Michael

    2014-06-01

    From the earliest need to be able to see an enemy over a hill to sending semi-autonomous platforms with advanced sensor packages out into space, humans have wanted to know more about what is around them. Issues of distance are being minimized through advances in technology to the point where remote control of a sensor is useful but sensing by way of a non-collocated sensor is better. We are not content to just sense what is physically nearby. However, it is not always practical or possible to move sensors to an area of interest; we must be able to sense at a distance. This requires not only new technologies but new approaches; our need to sense at a distance is ever changing with newer challenges. As a result, remote sensing is not limited to relocating a sensor but is expanded into possibly deducing or inferring from available information. Sensing at a distance is the heart of remote sensing. Much of the sensing technology today is focused on analysis of electromagnetic radiation and sound. While these are important and the most mature areas of sensing, this paper seeks to identify future sensing possibilities by looking beyond light and sound. By drawing a parallel to the five human senses, we can then identify the existing and some of the future possibilities. A further narrowing of the field of sensing causes us to look specifically at robotic sensing. It is here that this paper will be directed.

  5. Application of remote sensing for planning purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.

  6. EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct

  7. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    The International Symposium on Geotechnical Applications of Remote Sensing and Remote Data Transmission was held January 31, 1986, at Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was organized by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and the International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (ICRSDT) of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Cochairs for the symposium were Ivan Johnson of A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Arvada, Colo., and Bernt Pettersson of Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Tex. Johnson is President of ICRSDT and Pettersson is Chairman of ASTM D18 Subcommittee on Surface and Subsurface Reconnaissance.

  8. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  9. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  10. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  11. Information Processing of Remote-Sensing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)

  12. A Teacher's Introduction to Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)

  13. Remote sensing: An inventory of earth's resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1974-01-01

    The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.

  14. Using GPS Reflections for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickler, David

    2000-01-01

    GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.

  15. State remote sensing (LANDSAT) programs catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.

  16. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  17. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  18. Indicators of international remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.

  19. Land remote sensing in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, P. G.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented concerning U.S. governmental funding policy for the Land Remote Sensing programs, in which the Landsat spacecraft and the research and development activities associated with them are essential elements. Even if present program management practices were to be changed in the next 1-2 years, the investment of significant amounts of private capital in land remote sensing may be 3-5 years away, due to the immaturity of the prospective markets for the services rendered and the present state of technological development. It is judged that even if NASA is successful in bringing significant private investment into remote sensing activities by the mid-1980s, government must continue to support basic research and expensive technology development in long term and high risk, but potentially high payoff, areas which the still-developing remote sensing industry cannot afford.

  20. Sources of support for remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past financial support for educational programs in remote sensing came largely in the form of short courses funded by the National Science Foundation. Later NASA began to fund such courses for local and state government and for some university participants in its regional programs. The greater impact came from the funding by a variety of federal agencies for remote sensing research projects at educational institutions throughout the country. Probably the best and most significant example of these programs, from the university standpoint is, and should continue to be, the NASA university affairs programs, which with its long term step funding of a number of institutions has probably done more for remote sensing education than any other federal program in this country. An incomplete listing of federal agencies that support remote sensing research at the university level is presented.

  1. Remote-sensing applications to geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of two day workshop on applications of remote sensing to geology are summarized in report. Topics discussed are environmental analysis, crop classification, plant epidemics and diseases, irrigation reform, and soil surveys.

  2. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures.

  3. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  4. Basic principles of remote sensing. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Forty eight selected bibliographic references dealing with the remote sensing of the environment are given. Emphasis was placed on data that deal with fundamental aspects and principles of the technique.

  5. Remote Sensing of Snow and Evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The use of snowmelt runoff models from both the U.S. and Japan for simulating discharge on basins in both countries is discussed as well as research in snowpack properties and evapotranspiration using remotely sensed data.

  6. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  7. Survey of instructional material for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The contents of 17 major textbooks and reference guides on remote sensing technology are listed and compared. As a group, these books concentrate more on principles of the electromagnetic spectrum, sensors and data processing, than on applications. Secondly, it appears that basic photointerpretation receives considerable attention, but that photogrammetry does not. Four texts which provide well-rounded treatments of the systematics of remote sensing are suggested.

  8. Pilot interministerial operation for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamare, J. M.; Bied-Charreton, M.; Couzy, A.; Jahan, A.; Ledder, J.; Pasquet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of obtaining required information for land and resources management and the possibilities of remote sensing are discussed. The services available, organization and objectives of the pilot operation are presented. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary dialog among designers, builders, operators, interpreters and users in all phases. The principles, operation and practical applications of remote sensing systems and processing systems under the pilot operation are presented.

  9. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  10. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  11. Satellite remote sensing of water turbidity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments obtain an optical measure of water colour and turbidity. Colour increases the absorption of light in water and decreases the remotely sensed signal; turbidity increases the backscatter of light. For low concentrations of suspended materials, spectral reflectance is determined mostly by the absorptance characteristics of water; for higher concentrations, the absorptance characteristics of suspended particles are the most important factors. -from Authorwater colour suspended materials

  12. Remote sensing of coastal processes and resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the coastal zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of coastal vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.

  13. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. Remote Sensing Basics
    A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
    B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
    1. Sp...

  14. Remote sensing data products: types and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and define remote sending data products available for analysis of wildlife management problems. To ascribe characteristics and formats as they relate to a choice of the data product to select for a particular analysis. To identify the various remote sensing data products discussed, displayed, and presented at the symposium.

  15. Laser Remote Sensing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing active remote sensors to monitor the health of Planet Earth and for exploration of other planets. Development and deployment of these remote sensors can have a huge economic impact. Lasers for these active remote sensors span the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared spectral regions. Development activities range from quantum mechanical modeling and prediction of new laser materials to the design, development, and demonstration be deployed in the field.

  16. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weverberg, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  17. The Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) field project: visibility analysis and remote sensing of fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Minnis, P.; Milbrandt, J.; Cober, S. G.; Nguyen, L.; Flynn, C.; Hansen, B.

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of this work is to describe a research project on fog and visibility, and to summarize the results. The Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project was designed to focus on 1) development of microphysical parameterizations for model applications, 2) development of remote sensing methods for fog nowcasting/forecasting, 3) understanding of issues related to instrument capabilities and improvement of the analysis, and 4) integration of model data with observations. The FRAM was conducted over three regions of Canada and US. These locations were: 1) Center for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), Egbert, Ontario 2005-2006, 2) Lunenburg, Nova Scotia June of 2006 and 2007, and 3) U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE) ARM Climate Research Facility at Barrow, Alaska, US during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) field program April of 2008; FRAM C, FRAM-L, and ISDAC-FRAM-B, respectively. FRAM-C was undertaken in a continental fog environment while FRAM-L was in a marine environment. The FRAM-B was undertaken to study ice fog conditions. During the project, numerous in-situ measurements were obtained, including droplet and aerosol spectra, precipitation, and visibility. Analysis of satellite microphysical retrievals and visibility parameterizations suggested that improved scientific understanding of fog formation can lead to better forecasting/nowcasting skills benefiting both aviation and public forecasting applications.

  18. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; Van de water, Peter K.; Levetin, Estelle; Crimmins, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  19. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesev, V.

    2012-07-01

    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  20. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  1. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  2. Remote climate drivers as predictors of precipitation in data sparse regions, an example from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely understood that hydrologic variables, such as precipitation and stream flow can be significantly influenced by large scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Global scale analysis of teleconnection patterns between remote large scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) and hydrologic variables has highlighted the potential for forecasting precipitation anomalies (Dai and Wigley, 2000). Detailed analysis at smaller spatial scales is required to determine the strength of relationships at the catchment scale. These relationships have significant potential for regions with sparse ground based monitoring networks, such as Central Asia. However, sparse observations hinder the determination of relationships between remote climate drivers and patterns of precipitation. The area based nature of remotely sensed precipitation estimates can combat this problem allowing precipitation patterns to be understood at relatively high spatial and temporal scales. Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation estimates, correlation patterns are determined between several remote climate drivers (ENSO, NAO and South Asian Monsoon) and Central Asian precipitation. Preliminary analysis has shown statistically significant negative correlations between Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and winter precipitation over the headwaters of the Amu Darya (Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan). Introducing a lag interval of up to six months increases correlations across Tajikistan, as well as introducing statistically significant correlations over the headwaters of the Syr Darya (Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan). These findings open promising avenues for exploration, including the potential to use remote climate drivers as predictors for seasonal flow forecasting.

  3. Remote sensing and modeling of energetic electron precipitation into the lower ionosphere using VLF/LF radio waves and field aligned current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2015-11-01

    A model for the development of electron density height profiles based on space time distributed ionization sources and reaction rates in the lower ionosphere is described. Special attention is payed to the definition of an auroral oval distribution function for energetic electron energy input into the lower ionosphere based on a Maxwellian energy spectrum. The distribution function is controlled by an activity parameter which is defined proportional to radio signal amplitude disturbances of a VLF/LF transmitter. Adjusting the proportionality constant allows to model precipitation caused VLF/LF signal disturbances using radio wave propagation calculations and to scale the distribution function. Field aligned current (FAC) data from the new Swarm satellite mission are used to constrain the spatial extent of the distribution function. As an example electron precipitation bursts during a moderate substorm on the 12 April 2014 (midnight-dawn) are modeled along the subauroral propagation path from the NFR/TFK transmitter (37.5 kHz, Iceland) to a midlatitude site.

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing and Mesoscale Modeling of Biomass Burning Aerosols over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Climatic Implications of Smokes on Regional Energy Balance, Cloud Formations and Precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.

    2015-12-01

    The influences of anthropogenic aerosols have been suggested as an important reason for climate changes over Southeast Asia (SE Asia, 10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E). Accurate observations and modelling of aerosols effects on the weather and climate patterns is crucial for a better understanding and mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. This study uses NASA satellite observations along with online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate aerosols impacts on climate over SE Asia. We assess the direct and semi-direct radiative effects of smoke particles over this region during September, 2009 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity during the last 15 years. Quantification efforts are made to assess how changes of radiative and non radiative parameters (sensible and latent heat) due to smoke aerosols would affect regional climate process such as precipitations, clouds and planetary boundary layer process. Comparison of model simulations for the current land cover conditions against surface meteorological observations and satellite observations of precipitations and cloudiness show satisfactory performance of the model over our study area. In order to quantitatively validate the model results, several experiments will be performed to test the aerosols radiative feedback under different radiation schemes and with/without considering aerosol effects explicitly in the model. Relevant ground-based data (e.g. AERONET), along with aerosol vertical profile data from CALIPSO, will also be applied.

  5. Remote sensing images fusion based on block compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen-lin; Wan, Guo-bin; Zhang, Bian-lian; Chong, Xin

    2013-08-01

    A novel strategy for remote sensing images fusion is presented based on the block compressed sensing (BCS). Firstly, the multiwavelet transform (MWT) are employed for better sparse representation of remote sensing images. The sparse representations of block images are then compressive sampling by the BCS with an identical scrambled block hadamard operator. Further, the measurements are fused by a linear weighting rule in the compressive domain. And finally, the fused image is reconstructed by the gradient projection sparse reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm. Experiments result analyzes the selection of block dimension and sampling rating, as well as the convergence performance of the proposed method. The field test of remote sensing images fusion shows the validity of the proposed method.

  6. Improved representation of diurnal variability of rainfall retrieved from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager adjusted Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yang; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gao, Xiaogang

    2005-03-01

    Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) is a satellite infrared-based algorithm that produces global estimates of rainfall at resolutions of 0.25° × 0.25° and a half-hour. In this study the model parameters of PERSIANN are routinely adjusted using coincident rainfall derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager (TMI). The impact of such an adjustment on capturing the diurnal variability of rainfall is examined for the Boreal summer of 2002. General evaluations of the PERSIANN rainfall estimates with/without TMI adjustment were conducted using U.S. daily gauge rainfall and nationwide radar network (weather surveillance radar) 1988 Doppler data. The diurnal variability of PERSIANN rainfall estimates with TMI adjustment is improved over those without TMI adjustment. In particular, the amounts of afternoon and morning maximums in rainfall diurnal cycles improved by 14.9% and 26%, respectively, and the original 2-3 hours of time lag in the phase of diurnal cycles improved by 1-2 hours. In addition, the rainfall estimate with TMI adjustment has higher correlation (0.75 versus 0.63) and reduced bias (+8% versus -11%) at monthly 0.25° × 0.25° resolution than that without TMI adjustment and consistently shows higher correlation (0.62 versus 0.51) and lower bias (+22% versus -30%) at daily 0.25° × 0.25° scale. This study provides evidence that the TMI, which measures instantaneous rain rates from the TRMM platform flying on a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, enables PERSIANN to capture more realistic diurnal variations of rainfall. This study also reveals the limitation of current satellite rainfall estimation techniques in retrieving the rainfall diurnal features and suggests that further investigation of precipitation generation in different periods of cloud life cycles might help resolve this limitation.

  7. Geological characteristics in buried coalfields synthetically using remote sensing and non-remote sensing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Silong; Liu, Yurong

    1998-08-01

    With the rapid development of coal industry in China, the emphasis of the geological exploration has been changed from the exposed area to the buried area. Because of the limitation of the geological condition and the exploration methods, it is very difficult to study the geological phenomena in buried coalfield. To the coal geologists in China, to search an effective and practical method has been the important tackle key problem for recent years. In this paper, the authors discussed the characteristics of remote sensing technology in the geological study, and the forming mechanism of remote sensing information in the buried area from the view of agrology and physics, so the important academic evidences were offered for the geological study using remote sensing image in the buried coalfield. The characteristics of the non-remote sensing information, the geophysics information and the basal geological information, were also introduced in the study of buried geological bodies. The authors expounded the general processing method in the investigation of buried geological bodies using remote sensing and non-remote sensing information. At last, the probable distribution area of buried igneous rocks, in Huaibei coalfield in China, were successfully forecasted synthetically using the remote sensing, and non-remote sensing information.

  8. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  9. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosol Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yoram; Ramaprasad, Jaya; Procopio, Aline; Levin, Zev

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud impacts on the earth's climate become a recent hot topic in climate studies. Having near future earth observing satellites, EOS-AM1 (Earth Observing System-AM1), ENVISAT (Environmental Satellites) and ADEOS-2 (Advanced Earth Observation Satellite-2), it will be a good timing to discuss how to obtain and use the microphysical parameters of aerosols and clouds for studying their climate impacts. Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) of the University of Tokyo invites you to 'Symposium on synergy between satellite-remote sensing and climate modeling in aerosol and cloud issues.' Here, we like to discuss the current and future issues in the remote sensing of aerosol and cloud microphysical parameters and their climate modeling studies. This workshop is also one of workshop series on aerosol remote sensing held in 1996, Washington D. C., and Meribel, France in 1999. It should be reminded that NASDA/ADEOS-1 & -2 (National Space Development Agency of Japan/Advanced Earth Observation Satellite-1 & -2) Workshop will be held in the following week (Dec. 6-10, 1999), so that this opportunity will be a perfect period for you to attend two meetings for satellite remote sensing in Japan. A weekend in Kyoto, the old capital of Japan, will add a nice memory to your visiting Japan. *Issues in the symposium: 1) most recent topics in aerosol and cloud remot sensing, and 2) utility of satellite products on climate modeling of cloud-aerosol effects.

  11. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  12. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.

  13. Roundtable Explores Remote Sensing for Disaster Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-07-01

    Against a backdrop of recent natural disasters—including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the 2010 Haiti earthquake—an 8 July roundtable at the U.S. National Academies explored ways to improve the use of remote sensing data before, during, and after disasters. At the “From Reality 2010 to Vision 2020” roundtable in Washington, D. C., speakers from U.S. federal government agencies and the private sector generally agreed that there would likely be continued improvements in remote sensing instrumentation, including reduced size and weight and the capability for more rapid dissemination of remote sensing data. However, they also stressed the need for closer collaboration among agencies and settling political and turf battles, overcoming security and other restrictions such as with sharing high-resolution data, and responding better to user needs.

  14. Support for global science - Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing techniques are discussed. The benefits possible to remote sensing with the new Earth Observing System, which is composed of the Space Station and coorbiting and polar satellite platforms, are examined. Current changes in the remote sensing field, which involve a change from an industrial society to an informational society, force technology to high technology with high touch, short term to long term, centralized to decentralized, hierarchies to networks, and either/or to multiple option systems are studied. The explanatory and objective types of analyses for investigating biophysical, geochemical, and socioeconomic processes are described; the procedures include: morphometric, cause and effect, temporal and functional and ecological system analyses, inventory, mapping, monitoring, and modeling.

  15. Laboratory exercises, remote sensing of the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintzer, O.; Ray, J.

    1981-01-01

    The exercises are designed to convey principles and theory of remote sensing, and methodologies of its application to civil engineering and environmental concerns, including agronomy, geography, geology, wildlife, forestry, hydrology, and other related fields. During the exercises the student is introduced to several types of remote sensing represented by imagery from conventional format: panchromatic, black-and-white infrared, color, and infrared, 35mm aerial photography, thermal infrared, radar, multispectral scanner, and LANDSAT. Upon completion of the exercises the student is expected to know: (1) the electromagnetic spectrum, its various wavelength sub-sections and their uses as sensors, (2) the limitations of each sensor, (3) the interpretation techniques used for extracting data from the various types of imagery, and (4) the cost effectiveness of remote sensing procedures for acquiring and evaluating data of the natural environment.

  16. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  17. Regional Drought Monitoring Based on Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung

    2014-05-01

    Drought originates from the deficit of precipitation and impacts environment including agriculture and hydrological resources as it persists. The assessment and monitoring of drought has traditionally been performed using a variety of drought indices based on meteorological data, and recently the use of remote sensing data is gaining much attention due to its vast spatial coverage and cost-effectiveness. Drought information has been successfully derived from remotely sensed data related to some biophysical and meteorological variables and drought monitoring is advancing with the development of remote sensing-based indices such as the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to name a few. The Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) has also been proposed to be used for humid regions proving the performance of multi-sensor data for agricultural drought monitoring. In this study, remote sensing-based hydro-meteorological variables related to drought including precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture were examined and the SDCI was improved by providing multiple blends of the multi-sensor indices for different types of drought. Multiple indices were examined together since the coupling and feedback between variables are intertwined and it is not appropriate to investigate only limited variables to monitor each type of drought. The purpose of this study is to verify the significance of each variable to monitor each type of drought and to examine the combination of multi-sensor indices for more accurate and timely drought monitoring. The weights for the blends of multiple indicators were obtained from the importance of variables calculated by non-linear optimization using a Machine Learning technique called Random Forest. The case study was performed in the Republic of Korea, which has four distinct seasons over the course of the year and contains complex topography with a variety

  18. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  19. Remote sensing of water vapor convergence, deep convection, and precipitation over the tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1982-1983 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Cuddapah, Prabhakara; Kyle, H. Lee

    1987-12-01

    Deep tropospheric warming and mass flux, produced by the convection associated with organized tropical precipitation, is responsible on monthly and seasonal time scales for the presence of the Hadley and Walker circulations. In El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event years such as 1982-1983, in response to a perturbed sea surface temperature (SST) field in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, a major displacement in the ascending branch of these thermally direct, planetary-scale cells occurs. As the northern winter monsoonal rainfall develops over the tropical Pacific Ocean near the date line, normal precipitation over Indonesia and the Amazon and Congo river valleys is suppressed. Later, as the SST maximum approaches the coast of South America, flooding occurs over Ecuador. As a direct result of the induced anomalies in the general circulation, droughts are caused not only in Indonesia but also in northern Australia and in the northern subtropical Pacific Ocean along an axis from the Phillipines to Hawaii. The scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 7 spacecraft has been used to derive estimates of atmospheric water vapor. The correlation between the satellite and verifying radiosonde data is better than 0.83 at all stations considered. The Earth radiation budget experiment flown on the same satellite observes the terrestrial net radiation, albedo, and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). The OLR fields have been related to the 200-mbar divergence fields in the tropics during the First GARP Global Experiment with a correlation of 0.8. The derived relationship has been successfully extended to realistically map the irrotational flow and divergent circulation present in the troposphere both prior to and during the 1982-1983 ENSO event. Together, the two data sets yield a joint estimate of the convergent flux of water vapor, a critical controlling parameter for organized convection. The derived water vapor flux convergences are analyzed during

  20. Remote sensing of water vapor features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1991-01-01

    The three major objectives of the project are outlined: (1) to describe atmospheric water vapor features as functions of space and time; (2) to evaluate remotely sensed measurements of water vapor content; and (3) to study relations between fine-scale water vapor fields and convective activity. Data from several remote sensors were used. The studies used the GOES/VAS, HIS, and MAMS instruments have provided a progressively finer scale view of water vapor features.

  1. Current remote sensing in natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    2003-08-01

    Natural resource management agencies continue to be one of the heavy users of remote sensing data. From the earliest days of aerial photography, managers have depended upon broad area coverage in various levels of resolution for information needed to conserve and preserve the Earth's resource base. The USDA Forest Service is one agency that has been an active user of remote sensing data since the days when foresters began using aerial photographs to analyze timber crops. To this day, the use of data acquired by aerial reconnaissance is an important part of the tools used to gather information. Last year, in April of 2002, the Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applications Cener with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, sponsored The Ninth Biennial Remote Sensing Applications Conference in San Diego, California. Presentations at that conference demonstrate that airborne reconnaissance techniques continue to be of importance to managers of our natural resources. This paper is an overview of papers presented at the conference with emphasis upon applications that either use or have the potential to use airborne reconnaissance in data collection. Primary areas of interest include data collection for natural resource management and for law enforcement purposes on public lands an other remote, inaccessible back country areas.

  2. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  3. Irrigated lands: Monitoring by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Vitorelli, I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.

  4. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  5. Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A

    2001-05-22

    This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.

  6. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  7. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  8. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  9. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  10. Future Radiometer Systems for Earth Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Njoku, Eni G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe a new exciting concept for using microwave systems for Earth remote sensing. This concept will use a 6-m diameter mesh deployable antenna with active and passive systems to provide moderate spatial resolution images at L and S-band microwave frequencies.

  11. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  12. Remote Sensing Simulation Activities for Earthlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…

  13. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  14. Remote Sensing of Shelf Sea Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Otis B.

    This volume, edited by Nihoul, is a collection of papers by participants in the 15th Liege Colloquium, held in 1983. Although the title is somewhat daunting, the premise is a good one, i.e., “What can one learn about the basic theory of shelf-sea hydrodynamics by using remote sensing?” As with any such collection, some papers hit the mark (e.g., T. Nishimura et al., S. Onishi, and J. Witling), others give focus to the work (e.g., J. Nihoul, R. Pingree), while other work seems but distantly related to the subject at hand (e.g., the contributions of J. Gower and of S. Lin et al.). In the following review, I will try to give the reader a flavor for the volume's 18 sections. The book can be split into four themes: introduction to remote sensing, use of remote sensing and models, use of remote sensing to study oceanic variability, and optical oceanography.

  15. Technology transfer of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic philosophy and some current activities of MSFC Technology Transfer with regard to remote sensing technology are briefly reviewed. Among the problems that may be alleviated through such technology transfer are the scarcity of energy and mineral resources, the alteration of the environment by man, unpredictable natural disasters, and the effect of unanticipated climatic change on agricultural productivity.

  16. Remote Sensing of Arsenic Toxicity in Spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As) contamination of soil is a critical human health issue. Traditional methods of determining the presence and extent of As contamination focus largely on tedious and expensive soil sampling. Remote sensing of plant tissue may provide a practical alternative to detect arsenic contaminati...

  17. Remote sensing of volcanos and volcanic terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.

  18. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  19. Remote sensing of plant functional types.

    PubMed

    Ustin, Susan L; Gamon, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conceptually, plant functional types represent a classification scheme between species and broad vegetation types. Historically, these were based on physiological, structural and/or phenological properties, whereas recently, they have reflected plant responses to resources or environmental conditions. Often, an underlying assumption, based on an economic analogy, is that the functional role of vegetation can be identified by linked sets of morphological and physiological traits constrained by resources, based on the hypothesis of functional convergence. Using these concepts, ecologists have defined a variety of functional traits that are often context dependent, and the diversity of proposed traits demonstrates the lack of agreement on universal categories. Historically, remotely sensed data have been interpreted in ways that parallel these observations, often focused on the categorization of vegetation into discrete types, often dependent on the sampling scale. At the same time, current thinking in both ecology and remote sensing has moved towards viewing vegetation as a continuum rather than as discrete classes. The capabilities of new remote sensing instruments have led us to propose a new concept of optically distinguishable functional types ('optical types') as a unique way to address the scale dependence of this problem. This would ensure more direct relationships between ecological information and remote sensing observations. PMID:20569415

  20. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  2. Application of remote sensing in forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in forestry studies is investigated. In particular, inventory, monitoring, detection, and management are discussed. Data show that infrared imagery appears to be the best technique for forestry studies. Data also show that color photographs are more easily interpreted than black and white ones.

  3. Thermal remote sensing: theory, sensors, and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...

  4. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Michael A.; Groffman, Peter M.

    1992-11-01

    The effects of topography and the level of soil moisture on the variability of soil moisture within remote sensing pixels were assessed during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) during 1987 and 1989. Soil moisture data from flat, sloped, and valley-shaped pixels were obtained over a wide range of moisture conditions. Relative elevation data were obtained for each study area to create digital elevation models with which to quantify topographic variability. Within-pixel soil moisture variability was shown to increase with increased topographic heterogeneity. The flat pixel had significantly lower standard deviations and fewer outlier points than the slope and valley pixels. Most pixel means had a positive skewness, indicating that most pixels will have areas of markedly higher than average soil moisture. Soil moisture variability (as indicated by the coefficient of variation) decreased as soil moisture levels increased. However, the absolute value of the standard deviation of soil moisture was independent of wetness. The data suggest that remote sensing will reflect soil moisture conditions less accurately on pixels with increased topographic variability and less precisely when the soil is dry. These differences in the inherent accuracy and precision of remote sensing soil moisture data should be considered when evaluating error sources in analyses of energy balance or biogeochemical processes that utilize soil moisture data produced by remote sensing.

  5. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  6. Remote Sensing for Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is being used more and more for decision-making and policy development. Specific examples are: (1) Providing constraints on climate models used in IPCC assessments (2) Framing discussions about greenhouse gas monitoring (3) Providing support for hazard assessment and recovery.

  7. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  8. WATERSHED SCALE REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH IN HYDROMETEOROLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper provides an overview of watershed scale remote sensing research in hydrometeorology with an emphasis on the major contributions that have been made by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). The major contributions are separated into deriving fr...

  9. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.

  10. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  11. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  12. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  13. Second Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.

  14. Semiconductor laser technology for remote sensing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor injection lasers are required for implementing virtually all spaceborne remote sensing systems. Their main advantages are high reliability and efficiency, and their main roles are envisioned in pumping and injection locking of solid state lasers. In some shorter range applications they may even be utilized directly as the sources.

  15. Remotely sensing homochirality, a powerful generic biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Hough, J. H.; Kolokolova, L.; Germer, T.; Robb, F.

    2014-03-01

    A high quality biosignature arises uniquely from biological processes. If a biosignature can additionally be used in remote sensing, then it can be useful for future telescopic studies of extrasolar planets where remote sensing is a necessity. The remarkable phenomenon of homochirality may be such a biosignature. The optical activity of biological molecules, together with their handedness, can yield a unique signature in circular polarization. Photosynthesis, a surface phenomenon relying on strong polarization-sensitive transitions in the visible, where light from the host star is abundant, is a natural remote sensing target for this approach. Both microbial photosynthesis, which has dominated terrestrial life for much of the history of Earth, and macroscopic vegetation, may in principle be observed. Precision polarimetry from space is likely to be needed, and we describe a promising, innovative approach to acquire sensitive full Stokes polarimetry with a compact, robust configuration well-suited to space application. The homochirality phenomenon is likely to be generic to all biochemical life, and pure in that abiotic processes do not result in homochirality nor do abiotic processes produce circular polarization features with similar character to the biological ones. This uniquely powerful biosignature is amenable to remote sensing, in principle, through circular polarization spectroscopy.

  16. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  17. Remote sensing of geobotanical relations in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arden, D. D., Jr.; Westra, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to geological investigations, with special attention to geobotanical factors, was evaluated. The general areas of investigation included: (1) recognition of mineral deposits; (2) geological mapping; (3) delineation of geological structure, including areas of complex tectonics; and (4) limestone areas where ground withdrawal had intensified surface collapse.

  18. [Biogeocenosis thermodynamics based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Sandlerskiĭ, R B; Puzachenko, Iu G

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues in the studies of spatial and temporal variations in the energy conversion are shown to be solvable on the basis of information thermodynamic approach using the remote sensing techniques. A possibility of evaluation of the main components of the energy balance of a biogeocenosis, considered as an open thermodynamic system maintaining its structure through the conversion of solar energy, is demonstrated by analysis of the southern taiga landscapes of Valdai Hills. Analysis of the ratio of thermodynamic variables for the different types of biogeocenosis shows that the energy flow absorbed by the surface, is being redistributed among balance components by various mechanisms, and it depends on the structure of the redistribution system expressed by the non-equilibrium. Non-equilibrium of the solar energy transformation is determined before all by the energy costs in the synthesis of biological products, and has a little impact on exergy of the solar radiation, i.e., the cost of energy to evaporation. Invariance of energy conversion by landscape as a whole and generalized types of biogeocenoses are estimated. The ability of the taiga landscapes to maintain energy absorbed invariants, exergy and temperatures forms a naturally determined series similar to a succession trend: meadows--falls--deciduous forests--coniferous forest. Anthropogenic objects are shown to possess the weakest autoregulation ability. Raised bogs keep high heating of the territory and preserve precipitation in the subsurface runoff, in contrast to the forests carrying out moisture transport from the soil into the atmosphere. The bog's ability to maintain the level of biological production is comparable to that of coniferous forests. The role of forest vegetation in climate regulation is estimated; it is shown that the absence of forests increases the surface temperature by 4 degrees C. PMID:19425350

  19. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  20. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-01-15

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N. PMID:23213258

  2. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  3. Remote sensing of ocean currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Zebker, H. A.; Barnett, T. P.

    1989-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring near-surface ocean currents with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The apparatus consists of a single SAR transmitter and two receiving antennas. The phase difference between SAR image scenes obtained from the antennas forms an interferogram that is directly proportional to the surface current. The first field test of this technique against conventional measurements gives estimates of mean currents accurate to order 20 percent, that is, root-mean-square errors of 5 to 10 centimeters per second in mean flows of 27 to 56 centimeters per second. If the full potential of the method could be realized with spacecraft, then it might be possible to routinely monitor the surface currents of the world's oceans.

  4. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-12

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series ... Quality Applications Webinar Series Beginning in July, NASA’s Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET) will host a 5-part ...

  5. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  6. Feasibility of remote evaporation and precipitation estimates. [by stereo images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, W. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing by means of stereo images obtained from flown cameras and scanners provides the potential to monitor the dynamics of pollutant mixing over large areas. Moreover, stereo technology may permit monitoring of pollutant concentration and mixing with sufficient detail to ascertain the structure of a polluted air mass. Consequently, stereo remote systems can be employed to supply data to set forth adequate regional standards on air quality. A method of remote sensing using stereo images is described. Preliminary results concerning the planar extent of a plume based on comparison with ground measurements by an alternate method, e.g., remote hot-wire anemometer technique, are supporting the feasibility of using stereo remote sensing systems.

  7. Superflux I, II, and III experiment design: Remote sensing aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Esaias, W. E.; Hypes, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay plume study called Superflux is described. The study was initiated to incorporate the disciplines of both resources management and remote sensing in accomplishing the following objectives: (1) process oriented research to understand the impact of estuarine outflows on continental shelf ecosystems; (2) monitoring and assessment to delineate the role of remote sensing in future monitoring and assessment programs; and (3) remote sensing research: to advance the state of the art in remote sensing systems as applied to sensing of the marine environment, thereby hastening the day when remote sensing can be used operationally for monitoring and assessment and for process oriented research.

  8. Remote sensing using MIMO systems

    DOEpatents

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-04-28

    A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.

  9. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  10. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission Using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, R.; Adimi, F.; Nigro, J.

    2007-01-01

    Meteorological and environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters can most conveniently be obtained using remote sensing. Selected provinces and districts in Thailand and Indonesia are used to illustrate how remotely sensed meteorological and environmental parameters may enhance the capabilities for malaria surveillance and control. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  11. On Creating Global Gridded Terrestrial Water Budget Estimates from Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing availability and reliability of satellite remote sensing products [e.g., precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), and the total water storage change (TWSC)] make it feasible to estimate the global terrestrial water budget at fine spatial resolution. In this study, we start from a reference water budget dataset that combines all available data sources, including satellite remote sensing, land surface model (LSM) and reanalysis, and investigate the roles of different non-satellite remote sensing products in closing the terrestrial water budget through a sensitivity analysis by removing/replacing one or more categories of products during the budget estimation. We also study the differences made by various satellite products for the same budget variable. We find that the gradual removal of non-satellite data sources will generally worsen the closure errors in the budget estimates, and remote sensing retrievals of P, ET, and TWSC together with runoff (R) from LSM give the worst closure errors. The gauge-corrected satellite precipitation helps to improve the budget closure (4.2-9 % non-closure errors of annual mean precipitation) against using the non-gauge-corrected precipitation (7.6-10.4 % non-closure errors). At last, a data assimilation technique, the constrained Kalman filter, is applied to enforce the water balance, and it is found that the satellite remote sensing products, though with worst closure, yield comparable budget estimates in the constrained system to the reference data. Overall, this study provides a first comparison between the water budget closure using the satellite remote sensing products and a full combination of remote sensing, LSM, and reanalysis products on a quasi-global basis. This study showcases the capability and potential of the satellite remote sensing in closing the terrestrial water budget at fine spatial resolution if properly constrained.

  12. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  13. Reflections on Earth--Remote-Sensing Research from Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the uses of remote sensing in different areas, and introduces the program "Reflections on Earth" which provides access to basic and instructional information on remote sensing to students and teachers. Introduces students to concepts related to remote sensing and measuring distances. (YDS)

  14. History and future of remote sensing technology and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  15. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  16. Application of remote sensing to arthropod vector surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Washino, R K; Wood, B L

    1994-01-01

    A need exists to further develop new technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems analysis, for estimating arthropod vector abundance in aquatic habitats and predicting adult vector population outbreaks. A brief overview of remote sensing technology in vector surveillance and control is presented, and suggestions are made on future research opportunities in light of current and proposed remote sensing systems. PMID:8024079

  17. An introduction to quantitative remote sensing. [data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Russell, J.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative approach to remote sensing is discussed along with the analysis of remote sensing data. Emphasis is placed on the application of pattern recognition in numerically oriented remote sensing systems. A common background and orientation for users of the LARS computer software system is provided.

  18. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  19. Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

  20. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  1. Monitoring vegetation responses to drought -- linking Remotely-sensed Drought Indices with Meteorological drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.; Liu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Effectively monitoring vegetation drought is of great significance in ecological conservation and agriculture irrigation at the regional scale. Combining meteorological drought indices with remotely sensed drought indices can improve tracking vegetation dynamic under the threat of drought. This study analyzes the dynamics of spatially-defined Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and temporally-defined Vegetation Health Index (VHI) from remotely sensed NDVI and LST datasets in the dry spells in Southwest China. We analyzed the correlation between remotely sensed drought indices and meteorological drought index of different time scales. The results show that TVDI was limited by the spatial variations of LST and NDVI, while VHI was limited by the temporal variations of LST and NDVI. Station-based buffering analysis indicates that the extracted remotely sensed drought indices and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) could reach stable correlation with buffering radius larger than 35 km. Three factors affect the spatiotemporal relationship between remotely sensed drought indices and SPI: i) different vegetation types; ii) the timescale of SPI; and iii) remote sensing data noise. Vegetation responds differently to meteorological drought at various time scales. The correlation between SPI6 and VHI is more significant than that between SPI6 and TVDI. Spatial consistency between VHI and TVDI varies with drought aggravation. In early drought period from October to December, VHI and TVDI show limited consistency due to the low quality of remotely sensed images. The study helps to improve monitoring vegetation drought using both meteorological drought indices and remotely sensed drought indices.

  2. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  3. Remote sensing of ionosphere by using ultraviolet and visible emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, C.I.; Huffman, R.E.; Skrivanek, R.A.; Strickland, D.J.; Daniell, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to remotely sense ionospheric conditions for improved operation of communications and radar systems has been a long term goal of some DOD programs. This capability now appears to be possible through improvements in computer models of the ionosphere and in UV remote-sensing methods. The approach is to use passive ultraviolet optical measurements and in-situ ion-density measurements as inputs to a comprehensive ionospheric model, which will calculate the electron-density measurements as inputs to a comprehensive ionospheric model which will calculate the electron-density profile. A novel feature of this approach is the use of naturally occurring airglow and auroral ultraviolet radiation. This method can be used for the mid-latitude day ionosphere (90 to 800 km) and the night auroral E layer. Eventually, extensions of the technique will cover the night mid-latitude as well. The remote-sensing measurement can also be used to locate regions of ionospheric irregularity, and hence probable phase scintillation, in both equatorial and polar-cap regions and to locate the real-time position of the auroral-oval particle precipitation.

  4. The California Cooperative Remote Sensing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.

    1988-01-01

    The USDA, the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), the Remote Sensing Research Program of the University of California (UCB) and NASA have completed a 4-yr cooperative project on the use of remote sensing in monitoring California agriculture. This report is a summary of the project and the final report of NASA's contribution to it. The cooperators developed procedures that combined the use of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery and digital data with good ground survey data for area estimation and mapping of the major crops in California. An inventory of the Central Valley was conducted as an operational test of the procedures. The satellite and survey data were acquired by USDA and UCB and processed by CDWR and NASA. The inventory was completed on schedule, thus demonstrating the plausibility of the approach, although further development of the data processing system is necessary before it can be used efficiently in an operational environment.

  5. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  6. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  8. Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.

    PubMed

    Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2010-01-01

    A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics. PMID:21096379

  9. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  10. Remote sensing for disaster mitigation of Sinabung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, T.; Yanti, J.

    2016-05-01

    Indonesia, a country with many active volcanoes, potentially occur natural disaster due to eruptions. One of volcanoes at Indonesia was Sinabung mountain, that located on Karo Regency, North Sumatera 3°10'12″ N 98°23'31" E, 2,460 masl. A fasile and new observation method for mapping the erupted areas was remote sensing. the remote sensing consisted of Landsat 8 OLI that was published on February 8th 2015 as input data ENVI 4.7 and ArcGIS 10 as mapping tools. The Land surface temperature (LST) was applied on mapping this resulted. The highest LST was 90.929657 °C. In addition, the LST distribution indicated that the flowing lava through south east. Therefore, the south east areas should be considered as mitigated areas.

  11. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.

  12. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  13. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. PMID:24759508

  14. Remote sensing analysis instrumentation for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    Detailed analysis of remotely sensed imagery is an important first step in determining the viability of an area for geothermal interest. Advances in quality and quantity of imagery require that the analysis process be improved. Where gross information is required, computer programs scan imagery, measure gray scale levels, and correlate density information to previously defined subjects. In areas of geothermal interest, detailed analysis of small information elements is required. Instrumentation consists of imagery support, transport and illumination, stereoscopic viewer, and graphic information transfer device. Instrumentation must support the human operator from one of the geothermal disciplines. New and fully capable analysis exploitation and equipment is available and should be used if the total economies of remote sensing are to be realized in geothermal studies.

  15. Operational LANDSAT remote sensing system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of $121.6 million dollars from NOAA's LANDSAT development program for FY 1982, and the shortened time period for transferring remote sensing technology to the private sector resulted in changes in the Agency's plans for managing the operational system. Proposed legislation for congressional consideration or enactment to establish conditions under which this private sector transfer will occur, and the expected gradual rise in the price of data products are discussed. No money exists for capital investment and none is projected for investing in an operational data handling system for the LANDSAT D satellite. Candidates knowledgeable of various aspects of the needs and uses of remote sensing are urged to consider participation in NOAA's advisory committee.

  16. Other remote sensing systems: Retrospect and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The history of remote sensing is reviewed and the scope and versatility of the several remote sensing systems already in orbit are discussed, especially those with sensors operating in other EM spectral modes. The multisensor approach is examined by interrelating LANDSAT observations with data from other satellite systems. The basic principles and practices underlying the use of thermal infrared and radar sensors are explored and the types of observations and interpretations emanating from the Nimbus, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, and SEASAT programs are examined. Approved or proposed Earth resources oriented missions for the 1980's previewed include LANDSAT D, Stereosat, Gravsat, the French satellite SPOT-1, and multimission modular spacecraft launched from space shuttle. The pushbroom imager, the linear array pushbroom radiometer, the multispectral linear array, and the operational LANDSAT observing system, to be designed the LANDSAT-E series are also envisioned for this decade.

  17. NORSEX 1979 microwave remote sensing data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne microwave remote sensing measurements obtained by NASA Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment (NORSEX) are summarized. The objectives of NORSEX were to investigate the capabilities of an active/passive microwave system to measure ice concentration and type in the vicinity of the marginal ice zone near Svalbard, Norway and to apply microwave techniques to the investigation of a thermal oceanic front near Bear Island, Norway. The instruments used during NORSEX include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer, airborne microwave scatterometer, precision radiation thermometer and metric aerial photography. The data are inventoried, summarized, and presented in a user-friendly format. Data summaries are presented as time-history plots which indicate when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration. All data are available on nine-track computer tapes in card-image format upon request to the NASA Langley Technical Library.

  18. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  19. Remote vehicle emissions sensing feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rendahl, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Previous papers have addressed quality assurance efforts with regard to collecting data of known quality, data validation, and preliminary analysis of Wisconsin`s Remote Vehicle Emissions Sensing (RVES) project conducted in 1993 and 1994. This paper will analyze in greater detail the field data collected over the two years of studies. This analysis included making comparisons of mass emissions of total hydrocarbon emissions with respect to vehicle model year and total contribution to tropospheric ozone forming emissions in Southeastern Wisconsin. A simple analysis of errors of commission and errors of omission as a function of varying RVES cut points will be reviewed. And finally, potential emission reductions gained from the use of remote vehicle sensing will also be explored. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The Texas Remote Sensing Training Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The project was designed to train federal, state and regional agency managers, scientists and engineers. A one-week seminar was designed and implemented to build vocabulary, introduce technical subject areas and give students enough training to allow them to relate remote sensing technology to operational agency projects. The seminar was designed to perform the dual function of conveying enough remote sensing information to be of value as a stand-alone and preparing students for detailed pattern recognition training. The LARSYS III portion of the training project was executed exactly as designed in the LARSYS training materials package; the LARSYS package did not contain a LANDSAT training module. Two LANDSAT training modules were developed using Texas LANDSAT data. One module contained central Texas data and the second module contained coastal zone data.

  1. Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing at SDSM&T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price Maribeth H.

    1999-01-01

    The College of Earth Systems at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology established a Center for Remote Sensing to consolidate and coordinate the educational and research thrusts from different parts of campus into unified center with a focus on applications of remote sensing data in integrated environmental assessments. The threefold mission objectives of the Center are: 1) To educate students and the community in the principles and applications of remote sensing 2) To facilitate use of remote sensing in research coupling earth modeling, monitoring, and GIS 3) To distribute remote sensing data and expertise to regional federal, state, tribal, and local agencies.

  2. Remote Sensing of Global Wetland Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; Prigent, Catherine; Birkett, Charon; Coe, Mike; Hasen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although natural wetlands only cover about 4% of the earth's ice-free land surface, they are the world's largest methane (CH4) source and the only one dominated by climate. In addition, wetlands affect climate by modulating temperatures and heat fluxes, storing water, increasing evaporation, and altering the seasonality of runoff and river discharge to the oceans. Current CH4 emissions from wetlands are relatively well understood but the sensitivity of wetlands and their emissions to climate variations remains the largest uncertainty in the global CH4 cycle and could strongly influence predictions of future climate. Therefore, characterizing climate-sensitive processes prevailing in the world's wetlands is crucial to understanding and predicting physical and biogeochemical responses of wetlands to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Recent research has resulted in the first generation of models to predict methane emissions from wetlands but the models must still be applied to static data on wetland distributions. Moreover, no models currently exist to realistically predict the distribution and dynamics of wetlands themselves for the current, or any other, climate. The dominant obstacle to modeling wetland dynamics has been lack of remote sensing techniques and data useful for characterizing quantitatively the seasonal and interannual variations of wetlands. We report on initial remote sensing studies undertaken to validate a global hydrological model linking rivers, takes and wetlands. Using a combination of SSM/I microwave and TOPEX Poseidon altimetry data sets, we developed and applied techniques to quantify inundation extent and duration for several large wetlands in tropical Africa and South America. Our initial results indicate that seasonally-inundated wetlands can be well characterized over large spatial scales and at monthly time scales using these remote sensing data. The results also confirm that currently available remote sensing products can

  3. Recognizing thrust faults on remote sensing images

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, G.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This article examines the geomorphic evidence for thrusting and compares it to the expression of other faults and unconformities on remote sensing images. No single feature identifies thrusting, but rather the coincidence of several factors builds a case for a thrust interpretation. An example from Pakistan illustrates the geomorphic criteria in an area with excellent exposures and classic thrust features. The structure interpretation is supported by construction of cross sections; together these are used to suggest areas of exploration interest.

  4. Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanowski, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which

  5. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  6. Highlights: US Commercial Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation profiles the US remote sensing industry based on responses to a survey by 1450 industry professionals. The presentation divides the industry into three sectors: academic, commercial, and government; the survey results from each are covered in a section of the presentation. The presentation also divides survey results on user needs into the following sectors: spatial resolution, geolocation accuracy; elevation accuracy, area coverage, imagery types, and timeliness. Data, information, and software characteristics are also covered in the presentation.

  7. Approaches to remote sensing data analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To present an overview of the essential steps in the remote sensing data analysis process, and to compare and contrast manual (visual) and automated analysis methods Rationale: This overview is intended to provide a framework for choosing a manual of digital analysis approach to collecting resource information. It can also be used as a basis for understanding/evaluating invited papers and poster sessions during the Symposium

  8. Structural analysis techniqes for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    The structural analysis of remotely sensed imagery is defined and basic techniques for implementing the process are described. Structural analysis uses knowledge of the properties of an entity, its parts and their relationships, and the relationships in which it participates at a higher level to locate and recognize objects in a visual scene. The representation of structural knowledge, the development of algorithms for using the knowledge to help analyze an image, and techniques for storage and retrieval of relational models are addressed.

  9. Imaging spectrometers for remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, M. P.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Macenka, S. A.; Page, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three imaging spectrometers and two camera systems for remote sensing are described. Two of the imaging spectrometers are versions of the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) for Mars Observer and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The other spectrometer is the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is currently under construction. The optical imaging systems are the wide angle and narrow angle cameras for the CRAF mission.

  10. Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.

  11. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  12. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  13. Remote sensing on Indian and public lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.; Woll, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques by the Bureaus of Indian Affairs and Land Management in planning resource problems, making decisions, writing environmental impact statements, and monitoring their respective programs is investigated. For Indian affairs, data cover the Papago, Fort Apache, San Carlos, and South Dakota Reservations. For the Land Management Office, data cover cadastral surveys, California desert study, range watersheds, and efforts to establish a natural resources information system.

  14. Improved microwave radiometry for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leber, A.; Flattau, T.

    1979-01-01

    Significant improvements in the gain stability and overall performance of microwave radiometers have been achieved with the use of a self-balancing gain modulation technique. This technique, in combination with automatic thermal calibration, is particularly well suited for remote sensing radiometric applications. The essential features of such a radiometer, including typical data obtained from a spaceborne satellite, is presented to show the instrument's utility.

  15. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  16. CLIMATE FEEDBACKS AND FUTURE REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, J.

    2009-12-01

    Water vapor and cloud - climate feedbacks are two fundamental feedbacks in the context of climate change. Although more realistic in terms of water vapor, present-day climate models fail to properly represent the physical processes associated with cloud-climate feedbacks. Remote sensing from space of these small-scale processes, such as clouds, turbulence and convection, is notoriously difficult and is still not good enough in order to provide the necessary constraints that would lead to a better understanding of the climate system and to improved climate prediction. A Program on ‘Climate Feedbacks and Future Remote Sensing Observations’ was organized under the auspices of the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS). The goals of this Program were: i) To bring together scientists from different branches of the climate research community (theory, models, observations) to address key problems in the physics of climate feedbacks; ii) To promote the use of remote sensing observational data in the climate physics and climate modeling community; iii) To provide guidance on future research and future missions regarding the physics of climate change. The main conclusions and recommendations from this KISS Program will be presented in detail.

  17. Modeling of pulsed lasers for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed lasers are useful for remote sensing of wind and greenhouse gases to better understand the atmosphere and its impact on weather patterns and the environment. It is not always practical to develop and optimize new laser systems empirically due to the time and expense associated with such endeavors. A practical option is to use a laser model to predict various performance parameters and compare these with the needs required for a particular remote sensing application. This approach can be very useful in determining the efficacy of potential laser systems, saving both time and money before proceeding with the actual construction of a laser device. As a pedagogical example, the modeling of diode pumped Tm:Ho:YLF and Tm:Ho:LuLF lasers are examined. Tm:Ho lasers operating around 2.0 μm have been used for wind measurements such as clear air turbulence and wake vortices. The model predictions for the laser systems examined here are compared to the actual laser performance, validating the usefulness of the modeling approach. While Tm:Ho fluoride lasers are used as a pedagogical example, the model is applicable to any lanthanide series pulsed laser system. This provides a useful tool for investigating potential laser systems that meet the requirements desired for a variety of remote sensing applications.

  18. Application of Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, Jan

    2014-12-01

    With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.

  19. Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2006-05-01

    Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures

  20. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  1. Estimating Riparian ET through Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Z.; Bawazir, S.; Bleiweiss, M.; Skaggs, R.; Schmugge, T.

    2005-12-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) along the Rio Grande River has become a major hydrological as well as political issue in New Mexico. The State of New Mexico has spent millions of dollars in recent years to eradicate riparian vegetation without being able to quantify the change in regional ET. Many studies have focused on measuring evapotranspiration of individual riparian vegetation types, mainly saltcedar and native cottonwood. However, the riparian vegetation on the Middle Rio Grande varies in density and species.. Spatial variation in climate, soil type and depth to groundwater causes variation in ET, as well. It is obvious that in order to obtain more accuracy in measurements, multiple sampling points are needed; thus, making the process costly and impractical An alternative solution, which is also cost-effective, is measuring ET by using remote sensing technology. Remote sensing combines regional satellite data with localized ET measurement to calculate regional ET. REEM (Regional ET Estimation Model) is a process that uses the energy balance at the top of the canopy to estimate ET. REEM has been using ASTER images for values of surface temperature, albedo and NDVI to calculate net radiation (Rn), ground heat flux (G) and sensible heat flux (H). The ET is then calculated as residual of the energy components. The REEM model is being used to calculate regional ET values for the Riparian vegetation of the Middle Rio Grande. The paper compares the ET values for various vegetation types using remote sensing and ET derived from Eddy Covariance Flux Towers.

  2. Compositing multitemporal remote sensing data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, J.; Huete, A.R.; Hood, J.; Kerr, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To eliminate cloud and atmosphere-affected pixels, the compositing of multi temporal remote sensing data sets is done by selecting the maximum vale of the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) within a compositing period. The NDVI classifier, however, is strongly affected by surface type and anisotropic properties, sensor viewing geometries, and atmospheric conditions. Consequently, the composited, multi temporal, remote sensing data contain substantial noise from these external conditions. Consequently, the composited, multi temporal, remote sensing data contain substantial noise from these external effects. To improve the accuracy of compositing products, two key approaches can be taken: one is to refine the compositing classifier (NDVI) and the other is to improve existing compositing algorithms. In this project, an alternative classifier was developed and an alternative pixel selection criterion was proposed for compositing. The new classifier and the alternative compositing algorithm were applied to an advanced very high resolution radiometer data set of different biome types in the United States. The results were compared with the maximum value compositing and the best index slope extraction algorithms. The new approaches greatly reduced the high frequency noises related to the external factors and repainted more reliable data. The results suggest that the geometric-optical canopy properties of specific biomes may be needed in compositing. Limitations of the new approaches include the dependency of pixel selection on the length of the composite period and data discontinuity.

  3. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng

    2015-07-10

    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications. PMID:26193414

  4. The cross time and space features in remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Song, W. L.; Qu, W.; Fu, J. E.; Pang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    Remote sensing is one subject of the modern geomatics, with a high priority for practical applications in which cross time and space analysis is one of its significant features. Object recognition and/or parameter retrieval are normally the first step in remote sensing applications, whereas cross time and space change analysis of those surface objects and/or parameters will make remote sensing applications more valuable. Based on a short review on the historic evolution of remote sensing and its current classification system, the cross time and space features commonly existing in remote sensing applications were discussed. The paper, aiming at improving remote sensing applications and promoting development of the remote sensing subject from a new vision, proposed a methodology based subject classification approach for remote sensing and then suggest to establish the theory of cross time and space remote sensing applications. The authors believe that such a new cross time and space concept meets the demand for new theories and new ideas from remote sensing subject and is of practical help to future remote sensing applications.

  5. Simulation of Peak Flows Using Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Hernández, F.; Ba, K. M.; Guerra-Cobián, V.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we utilized remotely sensed data (radar and satellite precipitation products) to simulate the peak discharges of some storm events of the Escondido River. This is a poorly gauged watershed located in Northern Mexico, in the State of Coahuila and is a sub-basin of Rio Bravo, known also as Río Grande. The radar data are from NOAA (Radar KDFX located in Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas). We used two satellite product estimates PERSIANN and CMORPH. These three estimated precipitation products have been compared using the hydrologic model HEC-HMS to simulate the peak discharge. The results of the simulations show the importance of the use of this type of data in hydrologic modeling.

  6. The Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote-Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, J.; Riebeek, H.; Ledley, T. S.; Herring, D.; Lloyd, S.

    2008-12-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observational research and data collection conducted by non- professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local and regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote-sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museums and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  7. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  8. Rain, Snow, Hurricanes, and Blizzards: Remote Sensing of Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick

    2004-01-01

    Hurricanes, blizzards and other weather events are important to understand not only for disaster preparation, but also to track the global energy balance and to improve weather and climate forecasts. For several decades, passive radiometers and active radars on aircraft and satellites have been employed to remotely sense rain rates and the properties of liquid particles. In the past few years the relationships between frozen particles and millimeter-wave observations have become understood well enough to estimate the properties of ice in clouds. This colloquium will start with a broad background of the use of remote sensing of precipitation and then focus on recent research in the estimation of frozen cloud properties, both for ice that will eventually melt into rain and for solid precipitation falling in northern climates. The electromagnetic absorption and scattering properties of liquid rain and frozen particles will be explained. Retrieved cloud particle contents and size distributions for Hurricane Erin (2001 ) and the March 5-6, 2001 New England regional blizzard will be discussed. Future directions and challenges of this work will also be presented.

  9. Hyperspectral and multispectral sensors for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Kullar, Sukhbir; Cochrane, David; O, Nixon; Lomako, Andrey; Draijer, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Remote Hyperspectral and Multispectral sensors have been developed using modern CCD and CMOS fabrication techniques combined with advanced dichroic filters. The resulting sensors are more cost effective while maintaining the high performance needed in remote sensing applications. A single device can contain multiple imaging areas tailored to different multispectral bandwidths in a highly cost effective and reliable package. This paper discusses a five band visible to near IR scanning sensor. By bonding advanced dichroic filters onto the cover glass and directly in the imaging path a highly efficient multispectral sensor is achieved. Up to 12,000 linear pixel arrays are possible1 with this advanced filter technology approach. Individual imaging areas on the device are designed to have unique pixel sizes and clocking to enable tailored imaging performance for the individual spectral bands. Individual elements are also based on high resolution Time Delay and Integration technology2,3 (TDI) to maximize sensitivity and throughput. Additionally for hyperspectral imagers, a split frame CCD design is discussed using high sensitivity back side illuminated (BSI) processes that can achieve high quantum efficiency. As these sensors are used in remote sensing applications, device robustness and radiation tolerance was required.

  10. The 1994 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 1994)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium focus on remote sensing, particularly on global monitoring of the earth with emphasis on the solution of environmental problems. Topics discussed include remote sensing of clouds and earth troposphere, sea ice remote sensing, optical remote sensing, land monitoring and thermal sensing, atmospheric sounding and monitoring, atmospheric correction, and satellite imaging data. Other subject areas are ecosystems and vegetation monitoring; ocean winds and surface scattering; ocean waves, currents and bathymetry; satellite oceanography; SAR for remote sensing; neural nets application to remote sensing; geographical information systems; and electromagnetic wave propagation. Also discussed environmental monitoring using ERS-1; Topex/Poseidon results; spaceborne instruments; image processing and classification algorithms; and future space missions.

  11. Recent advances in land data assimilation for remote sensing observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a number of decades, remote sensing observations have been used to define static model parameters and/or forcing inputs for a range of land surface models. However, recent advances in remote sensing theory have also enabled the remote retrieval of dynamic land model states (e.g. leaf area inde...

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing Hyperspectral Data Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A.; Li, H.; Wu, W.; Kizer, S.; Huang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperspectral data from satellite remote sensors provide abundant information on atmospheric temperature, water, trace gases, clouds, and surface. Fast and accurate radiative transfer models are needed to perform and link GCM Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) with remote sensing data. We have developed a Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model, which is capable of simulating Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiance (or reflectance) from far-IR to UV-VIS spectral region. It is 3-4 orders of magnitude faster than line-by-line radiative transfer models. For example, it takes about 10 miliseconds to simulate one IASI spectrum with 8461 spectral channels in IR spectral region. It is about 900 times faster than MODTRAN fast model to simulate SCHIAMACHY data in solar spectral region. It has been validated using real satellite data such as AIRS, IASI, CrIS, and SCHIAMACHY satellite data and it can be easily applied to other satellite data.

  13. International Models and Methods of Remote Sensing Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.

    A classification of remote sensing courses throughout the world, the world-wide need for sensing instruction, and alternative instructional methods for meeting those needs are discussed. Remote sensing involves aerial photointerpretation or the use of satellite and other non-photographic imagery; its focus is to interpret what is in the photograph…

  14. Remote Sensing as a Demonstration of Applied Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Robert N.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the field of remote sensing, including discussions of geo-synchronous and sun-synchronous remote-sensing platforms, the actual physical processes and equipment involved in sensing, the analysis of images by humans and machines, and inexpensive, small scale methods, including aerial photography. (CS)

  15. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  16. Spectroscopic data for thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Nemtchinov, V.; Li, Z.

    1995-01-01

    There has been extensive world-wide use of chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFC's), especially CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2), hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's), HCFC-22 (CHFCl2) in particular, and sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) in numerous many industrial applications. These chemicals possess either a strong ozone-depletion potential or a global-warming potential, or both, and pose a threat to the inhabitability of our planet. Recognition of this fact has led to significant curtailment, if not total banishment, of their use globally. However, as recent satellite observations have shown, decline in their atmospheric concentrations may not be immediate. The marked depletion of ozone which has been observed in recent years at high latitudes has made infrared remote sensing of the atmosphere an activity of high priority. The success of any infrared remote sensing experiment conducted in the atmosphere depends upon the availability of accurate, high-resolution, spectroscopic data that are applicable to that experiment. This paper presents a preliminary phase of a multi-faceted work using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which is in progress in our laboratory. The concept of how laboratory-borne measurements can be geared toward obtaining a database that is directly applicable to satellite-borne remote sensing missions is the main thrust of this paper which addresses itself to ongoing or planned international space missions. Spectroscopic data on the unresolvable bands of the above mentioned as well as several other man-made gases and on the individual spectral lines of such naturally present trace gases as CO2, N2O, NH3, and CH4 are presented. There is often significant overlap between the isolated lines of better known bands of the more abundant species and the weaker absorption features identifiable as bands of the currently less abundant CFC's, HCFC's, and SF6.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  18. Remote Sensing And Surface Hydrocarbon Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. D.; Jones, V. T.; Richers, D. M.

    1984-08-01

    The Geosat oil and gas test site program stimulated interest in the interaction between surface hydrocarbon concentrations and interpretation of remote sensing data. The test case results suggested that lineaments correspond to avenues of preferential hydrocarbon seepage and that this seepage affects vegetation health and populations at Patrick Draw field in Wyoming and potentially at Lost River field, West Virginia. These two areas were selected for additional surface hydrocarbon surveys in order to test these hypotheses. The Patrick Draw study shows that a zone of stressed vegetation, visible on thematic mapper data, definitely coincides with an area of marked leakage of hydrocarbons and that the composition of these gases would predict an intermediate type oil and gas reservoir such as exists in the area. The study further indicates that the leakage is in large part controlled by the presence of fractures/faults recognized as lineaments on the remote sensing images. The Lost River study specifically investigated the possible existence of hydrocarbon leakage causing anomalous populations of maple trees in a climax oak forest. These maples were first recognized by study of thematic mapper simulator data. The soil gas hydrocarbon concentrations are above average in several of the maple anomalies over the field. This supports the inference that the maples are present because they are more tolerant of soil conditions where hydrocarbon seepage is active. The crest of the field has low soil gas magnitudes, but high values occur to the updip eastern edge of the field along a fault/fracture that was detected in the seismic data. The conclusion that preferential pathways of hydrocarbon leakage are recognized in spectral and textural analysis of remote sensing data is supported by other studies and integrated into a suggested exploration/hydrocarbon migration model.

  19. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  20. Remote sensing of Mississippi River characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, J. F.; Skinner, M. M.; Winkley, B. R.; Simons, D. B.; Dorratcague, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A data collection program initiated by the Vicksburg District, to develop a workable knowledge of the principles relating to the transport of water and sediment to gain a better understanding of the Mississippi River characteristics is introduced. Aerial photographs and thermal infrared imagery were collected over two test reaches at low and high water stages. Qualitative interpretation of the data relates to the river characteristics such as flow patterns, relative velocities, sediment concentration distribution, water-depth effects, and effects of man made structures. Ground truth information is correlated with the remotely sensed data.

  1. Identification of Terrestrial Reflectance From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Nolf, Scott R.; Stacy, Kathryn (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Correcting for atmospheric effects is an essential part of surface-reflectance recovery from radiance measurements. Model-based atmospheric correction techniques enable an accurate identification and classification of terrestrial reflectances from multi-spectral imagery. Successful and efficient removal of atmospheric effects from remote-sensing data is a key factor in the success of Earth observation missions. This report assesses the performance, robustness and sensitivity of two atmospheric-correction and reflectance-recovery techniques as part of an end-to-end simulation of hyper-spectral acquisition, identification and classification.

  2. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale-Bannister, Mary A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Guinness, Edward E.; Slavney, Susan H.; Stein, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Field measurements for the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) were concentrated in the Lunar Lake area of Nevada. The GRSFE data are meant to be used in a variety of investigations, including tests of multispectral radiative transfer models for scattering and emission from planetary surfaces in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan Missions. Studies will also be pursued to establish the neotectonic and paleoclimatic history of the arid southwestern United States. The data will also be used to support Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  3. Spatial reasoning in remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J.; Ehrich, R. W.; Elliott, D.; Haralick, R. M.; Wang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Photointerpreters employ a variety of implicit spatial models to provide interpretations from remotely sensed aerial or satellite imagery. In this paper one application is illustrated: how ridges and valleys can be automatically interpreted from Landsat imagery of a mountainous area, and how a relative elevation terrain model can be constructed from this interpretation. How to examine valleys for the possible presence of streams or rivers is shown, and how a spatial relational model can be set up to make a final interpretation of the river drainage network is explored.

  4. Atmospheric Science and Remote Sensing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas; Bowdie, David

    1988-01-01

    During the contract year, scientific research on lightning and lightning hazards was carried out for the Atmospheric Electricity Group in the MSFC Remote Sensing Branch (ED43). These tasks included research on modeling the interaction of lightning optical pulses and cloud particles, estimating lightning hazard threats to the STS system, a small field project to determine the charge structure of winter and stratiform thunderstorms, and analysis of optical pulse data. These activities were performed in conjunction with the ED43 mission to develop a lightning mapper to be placed on one of the GOES-next operational satellites.

  5. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  6. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  7. Earth Science Remote Sensing Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    From instruments to data access, the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) develops technologies that enable a full range of scientific measurements, operational requirements, and practical applications that benefit society at large. The Advanced Sensors Group leads developments in remote sensing technologies through the Advanced Component Technologies and Instrument Incubator Programs. The Advanced Information Systems Group pursues sensor webs, computing, automation, interoperability, networking, communication protocols, and other technologies to enhance the production, collection, handling, transmission, analysis, and comprehension of data. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the ESTO and serve as a "kick-off " session for the Frontiers in Advanced Information Systems and Earth System Observation Technology session.

  8. Shape saliency for remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Hong, Huo; Fang, Tao; Li, Deren

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a shape saliency measure for only shape feature of each object in the image is described. Instead biologically-inspired bottom-up Itti model, the dissimilarity is measured by the shape feature. And, Fourier descriptor is used for measuring dissimilarity in this paper. In the model, the object is determined as a salient region, when it is far different from others. Different value of the saliency is ranged to generate a saliency map. It is shown that the attention shift processing can be recorded. Some results from psychological images and remote sensing images are shown and discussed in the paper.

  9. Minimum distance classification in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wacker, A. G.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The utilization of minimum distance classification methods in remote sensing problems, such as crop species identification, is considered. Literature concerning both minimum distance classification problems and distance measures is reviewed. Experimental results are presented for several examples. The objective of these examples is to: (a) compare the sample classification accuracy of a minimum distance classifier, with the vector classification accuracy of a maximum likelihood classifier, and (b) compare the accuracy of a parametric minimum distance classifier with that of a nonparametric one. Results show the minimum distance classifier performance is 5% to 10% better than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The nonparametric classifier is only slightly better than the parametric version.

  10. Remote sensing for control of tsetse flies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Remotely sensed information is discussed which has potential for aiding in the control or eradication of tsetse flies. Data are available from earth resources meteorological, and manned satellites, from airborne sensors, and possibly from data collection platforms. A new zone discrimination technique, based on data from meteorological satellites may also allow the identification of zones hospitable to one or another species of tsetse. For background, a review is presented of the vegetation of Tanzania and Zanzibar, and illustrations presented of automatic processing of data from these areas. In addition, a review is presented of the applicability of temperature data to tsetse areas.

  11. Optical remote sensing of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.; Barnes, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    In the present assessment of the contributions of optical earth resources remote sensing in the 0.4-15.0 micron region, attention is given to underlying principles, applications to scientific disciplines such as geology, hydrology and oceanography, the recent development history of the requisite sensors, and sensor development trends. Development status characterizations are given for thematic mapping, modular optoelectronic multispectral scanning, the telescope/CCD 'SPOT' program of France, the thermal IR multispectral scanner for mineral signature identification, airborne imaging spectrometry, and the Advanced Visible and IR Imaging Spectrometer that is nearing deployment. Technology development trends and the capabilities they portend are projected.

  12. Applications of remote sensing to estuarine management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.; Hennigar, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was used in the resolution of estuarine problems facing federal and Virginia governmental agencies. A prototype Elizabeth River Surface Circulation Atlas was produced from photogrammetry to aid in oil spill cleanup and source identification. Aerial photo analysis twice led to selection of alternative plans for dredging and spoil disposal which minimized marsh damage. Marsh loss due to a mud wave from a highway dyke was measured on sequential aerial photographs. An historical aerial photographic sequence gave basis to a potential Commonwealth of Virginia legal claim to accreting and migrating coastal islands.

  13. Imaging spectrometry for earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Vane, G.; Solomon, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results of the novel remote earth sensing technique of imaging spectrometry, which is technically feasible from both spacecraft and aircraft platforms, indicate that the direct identification of surface materials on a picture-element basis is possible through proper sampling of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum. Sensors of this type are able to acquire images simultaneously in 100-200 contiguous spectral bands. Computerized data reduction and storage techniques are available for the large data sets thus generated, and novel analytic techniques are under development to maximize information content extraction.

  14. Non-Imaging Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spectrometric, radiometric and polarimetric remote sensing observations of wavelengths from gamma-rays to microwaves are addressed. The basic form of the data is one dimensional arrays. At the high energy end of the spectrum, data are typically presented as pulse count versus energy, and at lower energies, as intensity versus wavelength. High spectral resolution measurements (better 1% of wavelength) are particularly useful for identifying atomic, molecular, and ionic species while broader band measurements are adequate for identifying minerals and for determining total energy fluxes. Polarization data permit the study of finely divided material such as clouds and surfaces.

  15. Remote Sensing for Farmers and Flood Watching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Sciences Directorate, part of NASA s Science Mission Directorate, makes use of the Agency s remote-sensing capabilities to acquire detailed information about our home planet. It uses this information for a variety of purposes, ranging from increasing agricultural efficiency to protecting homeland security. Sensors fly over areas of interest to detect and record information that sometimes is not even visible from the ground with the human eye. Scientists analyze these data for a variety of purposes and make maps of the areas. These maps are often used to answer questions about the environment, weather, natural resources, community growth, and natural disasters.

  16. Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

  17. Satellite remote sensing facility for oceanograhic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. H.; Kent, S. S.; Seidman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The project organization, design process, and construction of a Remote Sensing Facility at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at LaJolla, California are described. The facility is capable of receiving, processing, and displaying oceanographic data received from satellites. Data are primarily imaging data representing the multispectral ocean emissions and reflectances, and are accumulated during 8 to 10 minute satellite passes over the California coast. The most important feature of the facility is the reception and processing of satellite data in real time, allowing investigators to direct ships to areas of interest for on-site verifications and experiments.

  18. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  19. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  20. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-02

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  1. Monitoring drought for grassland and cropland using multi-sensor microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Jia, G.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing drought indices derived from optical and infrared bands have been successfully used in monitoring drought throughout the world; however the application of microwave remote sensing sensor in drought monitoring has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we propose a microwave remote sensing drought index, the Microwave Integrated Drought Index (MIDI), especially for short-term drought monitoring over northern China. The index combined three variables: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture (SM) obtained by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (VUA-NASA) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on-board Aqua satellite. The microwave remotely sensed variables were linearly scaled from 0 to 1 for each pixel based on absolute minimum and maximum values for each variable over time, in order to discriminate the weather-related component from the ecosystem component. The microwave indices were evaluated with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), an in-situ meteorological data based drought index. Pearson correlation analyses were performed between the remotely sensed drought indices values and different time scale SPI values for the growing season from 2003 to 2010 to assess the capability of remotely sensed drought indices in monitoring drought over three different climate regions in northern China. There was significant spatial variability in the correlations between remote sensing drought indices and SPI, generally, the Precipitation Condition Index (PCI) showed the highest correlation with 1-month SPI (r around 0.70) whether compared to remote sensing drought indices or different time scale SPI; while correlations between Soil Moisture Condition Index (SMCI), Land Surface Temperature (TCI) and SPI exhibited different trends among three climate regions. The MIDI with proper weights of three components nearly possessed the

  2. Proceedings of the eighth thematic conference on geologic remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing. This meeting was held April 29-May 2, 1991, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The conference was organized by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in Cooperation with an international program committee composed primarily of geologic remote sensing specialists. The meeting was convened to discuss state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing as well as research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The presentations in these volumes address the following topics: Spectral Geology; U.S. and International Hydrocarbon Exploration; Radar and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing; Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; Minerals Exploration; Remote Sensing for Marine and Environmental Applications; Image Processing and Analysis; Geobotanical Remote Sensing; Data Integration and Geographic Information Systems.

  3. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  4. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  5. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  6. Remote sensing utility in a disaster struck urban environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.

    1974-01-01

    A project to determine the ways in which remote sensing can contribute to solutions of urban public health problems in time of natural disaster is discussed. The objectives of the project are to determine and describe remote sensing standard operating procedures for public health assistance during disaster relief operations which will aid the agencies and organizations involved in disaster intervention. Proposed tests to determine the validity of the remote sensing system are reported.

  7. [A review on polarization information in the remote sensing detection].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies. PMID:20545168

  8. Expedition Earth and Beyond: An Introduction to Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current usages of remote sensing, and the science of remote sensing. Included as examples of remote sensing, are emissivity (i.e., infrared) and reflectance (i.e., visible to shortwave infrared) graphs of several minerals, and vegetation spectra. Also, there are pictures of several places on Earth from the photographs that were taken by Astronauts during the earliest missions to later missions.

  9. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  10. Remote Sensing Studies of Lunar Crater Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Blewett, D. T.; Bell, J. F., III; Lucey, P. G.; Campbell, B. A.; Robinson, M. S.

    1996-03-01

    The nature and origin of lunar crater rays has long been the source of major controversy. Some lunar scientists have proposed that rays are dominated by primary crater ejecta, while others have emphasized the role of secondary craters in producing rays. Pieters et al. (1985) presented the results of a remote sensing study of a portion of the ray system north of Copernicus. They provided evidence that the present brightness of the Copernicus rays in this sector is due largely to the presence of a component of highland ejecta intimately mixed with local mare basalt and that an increasing component of local material is observed in the rays at progressively greater radial distances from the parent crater. These results have been questioned and the origin of lunar rays is still uncertain [e.g., Schultz and Gault (1985)]. In an effort to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar rays, we have utilized a variety of remote sensing data to study selected rays associated with Olbers A, the Messier crater complex, and Tycho. The data include near-IR reflectance spectra (0.6-2.5 um) and 3.8- and 70-cm radar maps.

  11. Remote sensing techniques for mining waste characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.; Miclos, S. I.; Tautan, M. N. M.

    2009-09-01

    Environmental monitoring is essential information routinely required by the mining industry and regulators to demonstrate that the environment is not adversely impacted by exploration and mining. New mining technologies can not only exploit low-grade ores but also produce high volumes of tailings as mining wastes. Satellite remote sensing imagery provided by Landsat TM and ETM sensors is an important investigation tool of mining waste cover screening, mapping and monitoring at local and regional scales of areas containing multiple sources of mining-related heavy metals. By this, satellite remote sensing data can help to rapidly assess the dimension of mining waste risk and therefore better manage such a geohazard as well as for remediation programs. Based on Landsat TM, ETM satellite data over 1989-2007 period, was possible to be achieved a discrimination between weathered materials and other prone to acidification as well as to perform a spatio temporal landcover change detection analysis in some mining waste areas in Maramures County, Romania. Accuracy of image processing results (mineralogical classification) was confirmed through ground sampling and analysis of reflectance spectra with portable GER 2600 spectroradiometer.

  12. Foreland Basin Structures and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Rocky Mountain foreland basins are somewhat unique in that the basins may exhibit a variety of structural styles. It is generally agreed that shortening has occurred in the foreland basement but the cause is controversial: vertical vs compressional horizontal tectonics. Even when shortening is attributed to compression, the attitude (dip) of the fault plane and whether the horizontal or vertical component of movement is dominant is unconstrained. The controversy is difficult to resolve from surface data alone due to the variety of possible interpretations. Detailed surface mapping and geologic modeling are needed to constrain subsurface interpretations. In many areas of the Wind River and Bighorn basins detailed geologic maps do not exist. State-of-the-art remote sensing data could potentially provide an efficient means of mapping surface geology. State-of-the-art remote sensing systems now provide geometrically correct data at 30 meter pixel size and increased spectral coverage, capable of more detailed geologic analyses. These data can be photographically enlarged to 1:24,000 scale and combined with 7 1/2' uses topographic quads to provide an excellent base map for geologic interpretations.

  13. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  14. Theme Issue "Multitemporal remote sensing data analysis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Clément; Chehata, Nesrine; Mercier, Grégoire

    2015-09-01

    The remote sensing and photogrammetric community has witnessed significant evolution during the last decade and is facing today a new paradigm in data processing and analysis. Indeed, the development of new satellite remote sensing missions leads to an increasing amount of multi-temporal data, with improved spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, available at various scales (Berger and Aschbacher, 2012; Belward and Skøien, 2015). In parallel, data becomes available for free, often through dedicated infrastructures, with the opening of satellite and aerial image archives (Landsat and Spot World Heritage, Sentinel missions (Wulder and Coops, 2014)) and with the growing power of benchmark contests, more focused on very high resolution data provision (Benedek and Szirányi, 2009; Rottensteiner et al., 2014; Vallet et al., 2015) or on data fusion (Debes et al., 2014). Consequently, it has never been so easy to collect multiple observations for large areas of the Earth's surface, which has significantly raised the interest of the scientific community and permitted the development of innovative methods for handling and analysing temporal series of (multimodal) datasets (Bovolo et al., 2013).

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosol Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yoram; Ramaprasad, Jaya; Procopio, Aline; Levin, Zev

    1999-01-01

    The role of aerosol forcing remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimating man's impact on the global climate system. One school of thought suggests that remote sensing by satellite sensors will provide the data necessary to narrow these uncertainties. While satellite measurements of direct aerosol forcing appear to be straightforward, satellite measurements of aerosol indirect forcing will be more complicated. Pioneering studies identified indirect aerosol forcing using AVHRR data in the biomass burning regions of Brazil. We have expanded this analysis with AVHRR to include an additional year of data and assimilated water vapor fields. The results show similar latitudinal dependence as reported by Kaufman and Fraser, but by using water vapor observations we conclude that latitude is not a proxy for water vapor and the strength of the indirect effect is not correlated to water vapor amounts. In addition to the AVHRR study we have identified indirect aerosol forcing in Brazil at much smaller spatial scales using the MODIS Airborne Simulator. The strength of the indirect effect appears to be related to cloud type and cloud dynamics. There is a suggestion that some of the cloud dynamics may be influenced by smoke destabilization of the atmospheric column. Finally, this study attempts to quantify remote sensing limitations due to the accuracy limits of the retrieval algorithms. We use a combination of numerical aerosol transport models, ground-based AERONET data and ISCCP cloud climatology to determine how much of the forcing occurs in regions too clean to determine from satellite retrievals.

  16. Remote sensing evaluation of CLMCN GPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Thornton, P. E.; Shi, X.; Levis, S.

    2010-12-01

    CLMCN is the carbon-nitrogen biogeochemical component of the CESM1, which is one of the major fully coupled earth system models for the IPCC AR5. Accurate simulation and prediction of terrestrial carbon cycles are considerably important to reduce the uncertainty of the carbon-climate feedbacks to global warming. In comparison with other estimations and models, recent work (Beer et al., 2010) showed the systematic overestimation of GPP from CLMCN particularly over the tropical ecosystem. Remote sensing is a versatile tool that is suited to provide the long-term and large scale geography products for model evaluation. In this research, we calibrated and evaluated the CLMCN GPP by the use of improved MODIS GPP and LAI between 2001 and 2009. Compared to the remote sensing data, we found earlier growing timing for most deciduous PFTs, which partly accounts for the errors of global GPP. After modifications of phenology parameters, we improved the GPP and related carbon variables over different temporal and spatial scales.

  17. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  18. Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Moller, Delwyn K.

    Flooding is one of the most costly natural disasters and thus mapping, modeling and forecasting flood events at various temporal and spatial scales is important for any flood risk mitigation plan, disaster relief services and the global (re-)insurance markets. Both computer models and observations (ground-based, airborne and Earth-orbiting) of flood processes and variables are of great value but the amount and quality of information available varies greatly with location, spatial scales and time. It is very well known that remote sensing of flooding, especially in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, can complement ground-based observations and be integrated with flood models to augment the amount of information available to end-users, decision-makers and scientists. This paper aims to provide a concise review of both the science and applications of microwave remote sensing of flood inundation, focusing mainly on synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in a variety of natural and man-made environments. Strengths and limitations are discussed and the paper will conclude with a brief account on perspectives and emerging technologies.

  19. Wetlands Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Myers, D. A.; Anderson, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    The application of remote sensing methods to estimate evapotranspiration has the advantage of good spatial resolution and excellent spatial coverage, but may have the disadvantage of infrequent sampling and considerable expense. The GOES satellites provide enhanced temporal resolution with hourly estimates of solar radiation and have a spatial resolution that is significantly better than that available from most ground-based pyranometer networks. As solar radiation is the primary forcing variable in wetland evapotranspiration, the opportunity to apply GOES satellite data to wetland hydrologic analyses is great. An accuracy assessment of the remote sensing product is important and the subsequent validation of the evapotranspiration estimates are a critical step for the use of this product. A wetland field experiment was conducted in the Paynes Prairie Preserve, North Central Florida during a growing season characterized by significant convective activity. Evapotranspiration and other surface energy balance components of a wet prairie community dominated by Panicum hemitomon (maiden cane), Ptilimnium capillaceum (mock bishop's weed), and Eupatorium capillifolium (dog fennel) were investigated. Incoming solar radiation derived from GOES-8 satellite observations, in combination with local meteorological measurements, were used to model evapotranspiration from a wetland. The satellite solar radiation, derived net radiation and estimated evapotranspiration estimates were compared to measured data at 30-min intervals and daily times scales.

  20. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  1. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  2. Spatial Inference for Distributed Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, A. J.; Katzfuss, M.; Nguyen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data are inherently spatial, and a substantial portion of their value for scientific analyses derives from the information they can provide about spatially dependent processes. Geophysical variables such as atmopsheric temperature, cloud properties, humidity, aerosols and carbon dioxide all exhibit spatial patterns, and satellite observations can help us learn about the physical mechanisms driving them. However, remote sensing observations are often noisy and incomplete, so inferring properties of true geophysical fields from them requires some care. These data can also be massive, which is both a blessing and a curse: using more data drives uncertainties down, but also drives costs up, particularly when data are stored on different computers or in different physical locations. In this talk I will discuss a methodology for spatial inference on massive, distributed data sets that does not require moving large volumes of data. The idea is based on a combination of ideas including modeling spatial covariance structures with low-rank covariance matrices, and distributed estimation in sensor or wireless networks.

  3. Acoustic Remote Sensing of Extreme Sea States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Extreme sea states from storms, landslides, ice-quakes, meteorite fall, submarines explosions, and earthquakes, are associated with a sudden change in water pressure. Consequently, acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) may radiate carrying information on those states at the speed of sound. Using remote sensing of AGWs, we propose an early detection system for such extreme sea states. We show that the AGW pressure signature for a small circularly symmetric sinusoidal component of oscillation of the free surface preserves the frequency but modifies the amplitude of the component. Further tests indicate that this amplitude is independent of the frequency but depends on the radial distance from the source, as expected. Therefore, an input spectrum for a sea state will give rise to a similar spectrum shape for the AGW pressure signal with an amplitude modulation function that can be estimated from the model. This then leads to a robust method to remote sense sea state spectra from measurements of their induced AGW pressure spectra.

  4. Remotely Sensing the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern

    2015-01-01

    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside the leaves in a stand of plants. Developed by Gamon et al., (1990 and 1992), PRI evolved from laboratory measurements of the reflectance of individual leaves (Bilger et al.,1989). Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We conducted laboratory experiments comparing values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. We illuminated single detached leaves using a current controlled light source (Oriel model 66881) and measured the leaf weight using an analytical balance (Mettler model AE 260) and the light reflected and transmitted by the leaf during dry down using two Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometers. Polarizers on the incident and reflected light beams allowed us to divide the leaf reflectance into two parts: a polarized surface reflectance and a non-polarized 'leaf interior' reflectance. Our results underscore the importance when calculating PRI of removing the leaf surface reflection, which contains no information about physiological processes ongoing in the leaf interior. The results show that the leaf physiology information is in the leaf interior reflectance, not the leaf transmittance. Applied to a plant stand, these results suggest use of polarization measurements in sun-view directions that minimize the number of sunlit transmitting leaves in the sensor field of view.

  5. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  6. Provenance Analysis of Surface Sediments in the Chew Bahir Basin (Ethiopia) using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesche, N.; Trauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Provenance analysis is an essential discipline for describing the generation and dispersal of sediments and yields a fundamental understanding of hydrological and sedimentological processes. Chew Bahir basin is a hardly accessible terrain in southern Ethiopia, which is barely investigated by sedimentological studies until today. In this work, those studies were conducted via remotely sensed digital image analysis (ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Worldview-1 and SRTM) combined with a climatological approach through precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Besides remote sensing, sedimentological investigations were achieved from a highly resolved paleo-climate record through a short drill-core from Chew Bahir basin. In order to identify and localize potential source areas and to describe the dispersal of sediments, different processing methodologies were applied (achievement of sediment composition, land-surface classification, digital terrain analysis and generation of remote sensing time series). The result of this work demonstrates two different source rocks, which belong to two distinct source localities. Hence, the analysis of remote sensed digital imaginary provides an effective tool for studying the provenance of sediments, especially in remote regions such as Chew Bahir basin. Moreover, remotely sensed time series provide important insights into climatologically induced variations in the uppermost sediment-layer. However, fully automated analysis of remotely sensed imaginary cannot replace fieldwork, but provides outstanding contributions to interdisciplinarity.

  7. Proceedings of the Conference on Practical Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.

  8. Communicating remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, R.

    1981-01-01

    Although remote sensing is currently multidisciplinary in its applications, many of its terms come from the engineering sciences, particularly from the field of pattern recognition. Scholars from fields such as the social sciences, botany, and biology, may experience initial difficulty with remote sensing terminology, even though parallel concepts exist in their own fields. Some parallel concepts and terminologies from nonengineering fields, which might enhance the understanding of remote sensing concepts in an interdisciplinary situation are identified. Feedbacks which this analogue strategy might have on remote sensing itself are explored.

  9. The availability of conventional forms of remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturdevant, James A.; Holm, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    For decades Federal and State agencies have been collecting aerial photographs of various film types and scales over parts of the United States. More recently, worldwide Earth resources data acquired by orbiting satellites have inundated the remote sensing community. Determining the types of remotely sensed data that are publicly available can be confusing to the land-resource manager, planner, and scientist. This paper is a summary of the more commonly used types of remotely sensed data (aircraft and satellite) and their public availability. Special emphasis is placed on the National High-Altitude Photography (NHAP) program and future remote-sensing satellites.

  10. Application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached concerning the applications of remote sensing to water resources problems: (1) Remote sensing methods provide the most practical method of obtaining data for many water resources problems; (2) the multi-disciplinary approach is essential to the effective application of remote sensing to water resource problems; (3) there is a correlation between the amount of suspended solids in an effluent discharged into a water body and reflected energy; (4) remote sensing provides for more effective and accurate monitoring, discovery and characterization of the mixing zone of effluent discharged into a receiving water body; and (5) it is possible to differentiate between blue and blue-green algae.

  11. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  12. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  13. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  14. Applications of Remote Sensing to Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Laguette, S.; Seelan, S.; Lawrence, R.; Henry, M.; Maynard, C.; Dalsted, K.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has changed agricultural practices in the following ways: (1) farmers and ranchers have become partners with, not clients of, researchers; (2) experiments are carried out in the field rather than on small experimental plots; (3) the field is considered an agro-ecosystem, with all the complexities of multiple interactions, rather than attempting to isolate certain parameters and vary only a few; (4) both economic benefit to the producer and sound environmental stewardship for society are achievable. This approach has revealed that information is as significant an input to farm or ranch management as seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage. Accurate, timely information equips producers with the ability to make decisions during a growing season that optimize the yield at harvest time. An invaluable source of in-season information is imagery acquired from sensors on satellites or aircraft. In addition to sensing reflected sunlight in wavebands outside the visible, remote sensing's overview also reveals anomalous patterns in the vegetation cover that are difficult to spot on the ground. Anomalies can be caused by weeds, disease, water stress, inadequate nutrients, or other causes. Often, anomalies must be detected early or they spread too quickly to be addressed. The paper will demonstrate how remote sensing has been applied to (1) define management zones in farm fields, (2) prescribe variable rate applications of fertilizer, (3) detect pest infestations, and (4) manage cattle grazing according to forage available. The applications were possible because data were processed within 4-5 days of acquisition by the satellite, and then delivered by high-bandwidth satellite links to farmers, ranchers, and tribal government officials in minimal transit time. The applications research described was part of NASA's Synergy Program.

  15. Aircraft Remote Sensing Measurements of Arctic Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bower, K.; Muller, J.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Vance, A.; Newman, S.; Kent, J.; Harlow, C.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of aircraft in-situ measurements of Arctic methane (CH4) concentrations is well understood, providing not only spatially resolved and accurate concentration data, but also essential validation for ground-based and satellite remote sensing instrumentation. The role of airborne remote sensing instruments is equally important in building up an accurate quantitative and process-driven understanding of atmospheric CH4, where the added benefit of a larger spatial coverage and potential for near surface measurements results in a better characterization of potential localized emission sources. As part of the Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling (MAMM) campaign, the Manchester Airborne Retrieval Scheme (MARS) has been developed to produce well-characterized retrievals of atmospheric CH4 from spectra measured by the UK Met Office Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES), a Fourier transform spectrometer that is mounted on the NERC Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft. Data retrieved from ARIES spectra for methane (and other greenhouse gas) concentration profiles measured during MAMM will be presented, highlighting the utility of airborne nadir FTIR sensing for near-surface and partial-column mapping over local emission sources and in climatological sampling over wide areas. We shall demonstrate the validation of ARIES profile results against in-situ measurements, with error characterization suggesting that the retrieval bias is of the order of 1-2%. Because of the relative sensitivity to the surface when flying at low altitudes, these retrievals can be used to better characterize both the natural and industrial sources of Arctic CH4 and long-range inputs to the area, as well as being used to detect potential seabed CH4 seepage events.

  16. A Remotely Sensed Global Terrestrial Drought Severity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Q.; Zhao, M.; Kimball, J. S.; McDowell, N. G.; Running, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    Regional drought and flooding from extreme climatic events are increasing in frequency and severity, with significant adverse eco-social impacts. Detecting and monitoring drought at regional to global scales remains challenging, despite the availability of various drought indices and widespread availability of potentially synergistic global satellite observational records. We developed a method to generate a near-real-time remotely sensed Drought Severity Index (DSI) to monitor and detect drought globally at 1-km spatial resolution and regular 8-day, monthly and annual frequencies. The new DSI integrates and exploits information from current operational satellite based terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) and Vegetation greenness Index (NDVI) products, which are sensitive to vegetation water stress. Specifically, our approach determines the annual DSI departure from its normal (2000-2011) using the remotely sensed ratio of ET to potential ET (PET) and NDVI. The DSI results were derived globally and captured documented major regional droughts over the last decade, including severe events in Europe (2003), the Amazon (2005 and 2010), and Russia (2010). The DSI corresponded favorably (r=0.43) with the precipitation based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), while both indices captured similar wetting and drying patterns. The DSI was also correlated with satellite based vegetation net primary production (NPP) records, indicating that the combined use of these products may be useful for assessing water supply and ecosystem interactions, including drought impacts on crop yields and forest productivity. The remotely-sensed global terrestrial DSI enhances capabilities for near-real-time drought monitoring to assist decision makers in regional drought assessment and mitigation efforts, and without many of the constraints of more traditional drought monitoring methods.

  17. Estimation of Insulator Contaminations by Means of Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Cui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is critical to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. The traditional evaluation method of insulator contaminations (IC) is based sparse manual in-situ measurements, resulting in insufficient spatial representativeness and poor timeliness. Filling that gap, we proposed a novel evaluation framework of IC based on remote sensing and data mining. Varieties of products derived from satellite data, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), digital elevation model (DEM), land use and land cover and normalized difference vegetation index were obtained to estimate the severity of IC along with the necessary field investigation inventory (pollution sources, ambient atmosphere and meteorological data). Rough set theory was utilized to minimize input sets under the prerequisite that the resultant set is equivalent to the full sets in terms of the decision ability to distinguish severity levels of IC. We found that AOD, the strength of pollution source and the precipitation are the top 3 decisive factors to estimate insulator contaminations. On that basis, different classification algorithm such as mahalanobis minimum distance, support vector machine (SVM) and maximum likelihood method were utilized to estimate severity levels of IC. 10-fold cross-validation was carried out to evaluate the performances of different methods. SVM yielded the best overall accuracy among three algorithms. An overall accuracy of more than 70% was witnessed, suggesting a promising application of remote sensing in power maintenance. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to introduce remote sensing and relevant data analysis technique into the estimation of electrical insulator contaminations.

  18. Remote sensing for crop water use management: Present status and challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. Remote sensing based agrometeorological models are presently most suited for estimating crop water use at both field and regional scales. Numerous ET ...

  19. Remote sensing based energy balance algorithms for mapping ET: Current status and future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on crop land. Remote sensing based agrometeorological models are presently most suited for estimating crop water use at both field and regional scales. Numerous ET...

  20. Remote sensing of an agricultural soil moisture network in Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Usually soil moisture sensors are added to existing precipitation networks which have as a singular requiremen...

  1. Developing a flood monitoring system from remotely sensed data for the Limpopo basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asante, K.O.; Macuacua, R.D.; Artan, G.A.; Lietzow, R.W.; Verdin, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of remotely sensed precipitation to the monitoring of floods in a region that regularly experiences extreme precipitation and flood events, often associated with cyclonic systems. Precipitation data, which are derived from spaceborne radar aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's infrared-based products, are used to monitor areas experiencing extreme precipitation events that are defined as exceedance of a daily mean areal average value of 50 mm over a catchment. The remotely sensed precipitation data are also ingested into a hydrologic model that is parameterized using spatially distributed elevation, soil, and land cover data sets that are available globally from remote sensing and in situ sources. The resulting stream-flow is classified as an extreme flood event when flow anomalies exceed 1.5 standard deviations above the short-term mean. In an application in the Limpopo basin, it is demonstrated that the use of satellite-derived precipitation allows for the identification of extreme precipitation and flood events, both in terms of relative intensity and spatial extent. The system is used by water authorities in Mozambique to proactively initiate independent flood hazard verification before generating flood warnings. The system also serves as a supplementary information source when in situ gauging systems are disrupted. This paper concludes that remotely sensed precipitation and derived products greatly enhance the ability of water managers in the Limpopo basin to monitor extreme flood events and provide at-risk communities with early warning information. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  2. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  3. An introduction of remotely sensed drought estimation in the Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, C.; Choi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, natural disaster like flood and drought has become more frequent and severer due to climate change. Since period of drought is ambiguous and its quantification is difficult, the related researches are rarely performed. To analyze drought processes, an intercomparison among conventional and remote sensing based drought indices was conducted using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imageries, during the period from 2003 to 2012. Conventional ground-based drought indices had a serious limitation which was large spatio-temporal heterogeneity. As an alternative, remote sensing technology was used to assess drought events more accurately. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) represents ratio of actual evapotranspiration (AET) to potential ET (PET) mapped using satellite imageries. The conducted ESI for these various ground observation were compared with other drought indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI; and Standardized Precipitation Index, SPI) during 2003-2012. The results indicate that the ESI characterized groundwater response and surface water variations as well as or better than the conventional drought indices. It also had a merit of providing drought information at a higher spatial resolution.

  4. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Lewis, Mark (David); Bosch, David D.; Giraldo, Mario; Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Sullivan, Dana G.; Kincaid, Russell; Luna, Ronaldo; Allam, Gopala Krishna; Kvien, Craig; Williams, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment of soil moisture is critical to understanding the hydrological cycle at the regional scale and in broad-scale studies of biophysical processes affected by global climate changes in temperature and precipitation. Traditional efforts to measure soil moisture have been principally restricted to in situ measurements, so remote sensing techniques are often employed. Hyperspectral sensors with finer spatial resolution and narrow band widths may offer an alternative to traditional multispectral analysis of soil moisture, particularly in landscapes with high spatial heterogeneity. This preliminary research evaluates the ability of remotely sensed hyperspectral data to quantify soil moisture for the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW), Georgia. An airborne hyperspectral instrument with a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sensor was flown in 2005 and 2007 and the results were correlated to in situ soil moisture values. A significant statistical correlation (R 2 value above 0.7 for both sampling dates) for the hyperspectral instrument data and the soil moisture probe data at 5.08 cm (2 inches) was determined. While models for the 20.32 cm (8 inches) and 30.48 cm (12 inches) depths were tested, they were not able to estimate soil moisture to the same degree.

  5. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, M.; Lewis, M.; Bosch, D.; Giraldo, Mario; Yamamoto, K.; Sullivan, D.; Kincaid, R.; Luna, R.; Allam, G.; Kvien, Craig; Williams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape assessment of soil moisture is critical to understanding the hydrological cycle at the regional scale and in broad-scale studies of biophysical processes affected by global climate changes in temperature and precipitation. Traditional efforts to measure soil moisture have been principally restricted to in situ measurements, so remote sensing techniques are often employed. Hyperspectral sensors with finer spatial resolution and narrow band widths may offer an alternative to traditional multispectral analysis of soil moisture, particularly in landscapes with high spatial heterogeneity. This preliminary research evaluates the ability of remotely sensed hyperspectral data to quantify soil moisture for the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW), Georgia. An airborne hyperspectral instrument with a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) sensor was flown in 2005 and 2007 and the results were correlated to in situ soil moisture values. A significant statistical correlation (R2 value above 0.7 for both sampling dates) for the hyperspectral instrument data and the soil moisture probe data at 5.08 cm (2 inches) was determined. While models for the 20.32 cm (8 inches) and 30.48 cm (12 inches) depths were tested, they were not able to estimate soil moisture to the same degree.

  6. Remote Sensing Characteristics of Wave Breaking Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, M. C.; Catalan, P.

    2006-12-01

    The wave roller has a primary influence on the balances of mass and momentum in the surf zone (e.g. Svendsen, 1984; Dally and Brown, 1995; Ruessink et al., 2001). In addition, the roller area and its angle of inclination on the wave front are important quantities governing the dissipation rates in breaking waves (e.g Madsen et al., 1997). Yet, there have been very few measurements published of individual breaking wave roller geometries in shallow water. A number of investigators have focused on observations of the initial jet-like motion at the onset of breaking before the establishment of the wave roller (e.g. Basco, 1985; Jansen, 1986), while Govender et al. (2002) provide observations of wave roller vertical cross-sections and angles of inclination for a pair of laboratory wave conditions. Nonetheless, presently very little is known about the growth, evolution, and decay of this aerated region of white water as it propagates through the surf zone; mostly due to the inherent difficulties in making the relevant observations. The present work is focused on analyzing observations of the time and space scales of individual shallow water breaking wave rollers as derived from remote sensing systems. Using a high-resolution video system in a large-scale laboratory facility, we have obtained detailed measurements of the growth and evolution of the wave breaking roller. In addition, by synchronizing the remote video with in-situ wave gages, we are able to directly relate the video intensity signal to the underlying wave shape. Results indicate that the horizontal length scale of breaking wave rollers differs significantly from the previous observations of Duncan (1981), which has been a traditional basis for roller model parameterizations. The overall approach to the video analysis is new in the sense that we concentrate on individual breaking waves, as opposed to the more commonly used time-exposure technique. In addition, a new parameter of interest, denoted Imax, is

  7. A hybrid classifier for remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, G S; Schardt, M; Balzuweit, G; Hussain, M

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents a hybrid-unsupervised and supervised-classifier for land use classification of remote sensing images. The entire satellite image is quantized by an unsupervised Neural Gas process and the resulting codebook is labeled by a supervised majority voting process using the ground truth. The performance of the classifier is similar to that of Maximum Likelihood and is only a little worse than Multilayer Perceptions while training and classifying requires no expert knowledge after collecting the ground truth. The hybrid classifier is much better suited to classifications with complex non-normally distributed classes than Maximum Likelihood. The main advantage of the Neural Gas classifier, however, is that it requires much less user interaction than other classifiers, especially Maximum Likelihood. PMID:9228578

  8. Applications of remote sensing to hydrologic planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H., Jr.; Fowler, T.; Castruccio, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transfer of LANDSAT remote sensing technology from the research sector to user operational applications requires demonstration of the utility and accuracy of LANDSAT data in solving real problems. This report describes such a demonstration project in the area of water resources, specifically the estimation of non-point source pollutant loads. Non-point source pollutants were estimated from land cover data from LANDSAT images. Classification accuracies for three small watersheds were above 95%. Land cover was converted to pollutant loads for a fourth watershed through the use of coefficients relating significant pollutants to land use and storm runoff volume. These data were input into a simulator model which simulated runoff from average rainfall. The result was the estimation of monthly expected pollutant loads for the 17 subbasins comprising the Magothy watershed.

  9. Gyrocopter-Based Remote Sensing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, I.; Jenal, A.; Kneer, C.; Bongartz, J.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper the development of a lightweight and highly modularized airborne sensor platform for remote sensing applications utilizing a gyrocopter as a carrier platform is described. The current sensor configuration consists of a high resolution DSLR camera for VIS-RGB recordings. As a second sensor modality, a snapshot hyperspectral camera was integrated in the aircraft. Moreover a custom-developed thermal imaging system composed of a VIS-PAN camera and a LWIR-camera is used for aerial recordings in the thermal infrared range. Furthermore another custom-developed highly flexible imaging system for high resolution multispectral image acquisition with up to six spectral bands in the VIS-NIR range is presented. The performance of the overall system was tested during several flights with all sensor modalities and the precalculated demands with respect to spatial resolution and reliability were validated. The collected data sets were georeferenced, georectified, orthorectified and then stitched to mosaics.

  10. Land border monitoring with remote sensing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw

    2010-09-01

    The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.

  11. Method to analyze remotely sensed spectral data

    DOEpatents

    Stork, Christopher L.; Van Benthem, Mark H.

    2009-02-17

    A fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm is applied to remotely sensed spectral data. The algorithm is applicable in the solar-reflective spectral region, comprising the visible to the shortwave infrared (ranging from approximately 0.4 to 2.5 .mu.m), midwave infrared, and thermal emission spectral region, comprising the thermal infrared (ranging from approximately 8 to 15 .mu.m). For example, employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, MCR can be used to successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. Further, MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of a gas plume component near the minimum detectable quantity.

  12. Remote sensing and characterization of anomalous debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, R.; Beavers, W.; Lambour, R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.; Kansky, J.; Stansbery, E.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of orbital debris data shows a band of anomalously high debris concentration in the altitude range between 800 and 1000 km. Analysis indicates that the origin is the leaking coolant fluid from nuclear power sources that powered a now defunct Soviet space-based series of ocean surveillance satellites. A project carried out to detect, track and characterize a sample of the anomalous debris is reported. The nature of the size and shape of the sample set, and the possibility of inferring the composition of the droplets were assessed. The technique used to detect, track and characterize the sample set is described and the results of the characterization analysis are presented. It is concluded that the nature of the debris is consistent with leaked Na-K fluid, although this cannot be proved with the remote sensing techniques used.

  13. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  14. Remote sensing of some sedimentary rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. A.; Lintz, J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks including varying sized clastics and carbonates were overflown by aircraft between 1966 and 1971 producing data in the ultraviolet to microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reports that multispectral analysis increases the ease and rapidity of discrimination of rock types having subtle differences in physical characteristics, but fails to enhance and may degrade distinctions where physical characteristics are significantly different. Brief resumes of color and color IR photographic data are presented. Thermal infrared is found to be useful in the mapping of rock units, but limitations such as moisture variation, soil cover, and vegetation may exceed in one formation the distinction between differing lithologies. A brief review of previously published SLAR data is included for completeness. Remote sensing techniques should reduce field geological effort by as much as 50%.

  15. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Do; Harvey, Neal; Theile, James

    2010-01-01

    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  16. Remote sensing of snow and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews remote sensing of snow and ice, techniques for improved monitoring, and incorporation of the new data into forecasting and management systems. The snowcover interpretation of visible and infrared data from satellites, automated digital methods, radiative transfer modeling to calculate the solar reflectance of snow, and models using snowcover input data and elevation zones for calculating snowmelt are discussed. The use of visible and near infrared techniques for inferring snow properties, microwave monitoring of snowpack characteristics, use of Landsat images for collecting glacier data, monitoring of river ice with visible imagery from NOAA satellites, use of sequential imagery for tracking ice flow movement, and microwave studies of sea ice are described. Applications of snow and ice research to commercial use are examined, and it is concluded that a major problem to be solved is characterization of snow and ice in nature, since assigning of the correct properties to a real system to be modeled has been difficult.

  17. Remote sensing of potential aircraft icing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Nakhtigalova, Daria P.; Shelekhov, Alexander P.; Shelekhova, Evgeniya A.; Baranov, Nikolay A.; Kizhner, Lubov I.

    2015-11-01

    Remote sensing technique of detection of potential aircraft icing areas based on temperature profile measurements, using meteorological temperature profiler, and the data of the Airfield Measuring and Information System (AMIS-RF), was proposed, theoretically described and experimentally validated during the field project in 2012 - 2013 in the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport. Spatial areas of potential aircraft icing were determined using the RAP algorithm and Godske formula. The equations for the reconstruction of profiles of relative humidity and dew point using data from AMIS-RF are given. Actual data on the aircraft icing for the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport on 11 October 2012 and 17 March 2013 are presented in this paper. The RAP algorithm and Godske formula show similar results for the location of spatial areas of potential icing. Though, the results obtained using the RAP algorithm are closer to the actual data on the icing known from aircraft crew reports.

  18. Multisource Data Integration in Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the workshop on Multisource Data Integration in Remote Sensing are compiled. The full text of these papers is included. New instruments and new sensors are discussed that can provide us with a large variety of new views of the real world. This huge amount of data has to be combined and integrated in a (computer-) model of this world. Multiple sources may give complimentary views of the world - consistent observations from different (and independent) data sources support each other and increase their credibility, while contradictions may be caused by noise, errors during processing, or misinterpretations, and can be identified as such. As a consequence, integration results are very reliable and represent a valid source of information for any geographical information system.

  19. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  20. Visualization of Remotely-Sensed Heliospheric Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, M.; Hick, P. P.; Wang, C.; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.

    2002-12-01

    We demonstrate a software application designed for the display and real-time manipulation of 3D heliospheric volume data, such as solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. The software exploits the capabilities of the Volume Pro 1000 (from TeraRecon, Inc.), a low-cost 64-bit PCI board capable of rendering a 512-cubed array of volume data in real time at up to 30 frames per second on a standard PC. The application allows stereo and perspective views, and animations of time-sequences. We show several examples of three-dimensional heliospheric volume data derived from tomographic reconstructions based on heliospheric remote sensing observations of the heliospheric density and velocity structure (e.g. Thomson scattering and interplanetary scintillation observations). This work was supported through NASA grant NAG5-9423 and Air Force MURI grant F49620-01-0359.

  1. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  2. Basic studies in microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Adrian K.; Bredow, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Scattering models were developed in support of microwave remote sensing of earth terrains with particular emphasis on model applications to airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of forest. Practically useful surface scattering models based on a solution of a pair of integral equations including multiple scattering effects were developed. Comparisons of these models with controlled scattering measurements from statistically known random surfaces indicate that they are valid over a wide range of frequencies. Scattering models treating a forest environment as a two and three layered media were also developed. Extensive testing and comparisons were carried out with the two layered model. Further studies with the three layered model are being carried out. A volume scattering model valid for dense media such as a snow layer was also developed that shows the appropriate trend dependence with the volume fraction of scatterers.

  3. Global habitability and earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1960, when NASA launched the Tiros satellite to study the atmosphere of the earth, great advances have been made in the study of the earth system by means of remote sensing. It is felt that the time has come for assembling the separate pieces into a coherent whole. Work has, therefore, been conducted to develop a concept called 'global habitability'. The objective of the considered program is to investigate long-term physical, chemical, and biological trends and changes in the earth's environment, including its atmosphere, land masses, and oceans. The program is specifically concerned with a study of the effects of natural and human activities on the earth's environment, and with the future effects on biological productivity and habitability of the earth by man and by other species.

  4. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  5. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  6. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the large contrast between the dielectric constant of liquid water and that of dry soil at microwave wavelength, there is a strong dependence of the thermal emission and radar backscatter from the soil on its moisture content. This dependence provides a means for the remote sensing of the moisture content in a surface layer approximately 5 cm thick. The feasibility of these techniques is demonstrated from field, aircraft and spacecraft platforms. The soil texture, surface roughness, and vegetative cover affect the sensitivity of the microwave response to moisture variations with vegetation being the most important. It serves as an attenuating layer which can totally obscure the surface. Research indicates that it is possible to obtain five or more levels of moisture discrimination and that a mature corn crop is the limiting vegetation situation.

  7. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  8. Remote sensing of the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Randall, Cora E.; Alexander, M. Joan; Mccollom, Thomas M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers investigated the physical properties of the Martian surface as inferred from a combination of orbiting and earth-based remote sensing observations and in-situ observations. This approach provides the most detailed and self-consistent view of the global and regional nature of the surface. Results focus on the areas of modeling the diurnal variation of the surface temperature of Mars, incorporating the effects of atmospheric radiation, with implications for the interpretation of surface thermal inertia; modeling the thermal emission from particulate surfaces, with application to observations of the surfaces of the Earth, Moon, and Mars; modeling the reflectance spectrum of Mars in an effort to understand the role of particle size in the difference between the bright and dark regions; and determining the slope properties of different terrestrial surfaces and comparing them with planetary slopes derived from radar observations.

  9. Remote sensing of water vapor features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    Water vapor plays a critical role in the atmosphere. It is an important medium of energy exchange between air, land, and water; it is a major greenhouse gas, providing a crucial radiative role in the global climate system; and it is intimately involved in many regional scale atmospheric processes. Our research has been aimed at improving satellite remote sensing of water vapor and better understanding its role in meteorological processes. Our early studies evaluated the current GOES VAS system for measuring water vapor and have used VAS-derived water vapor data to examine pre-thunderstorm environments. Much of that research was described at the 1991 Research Review. A second research component has considered three proposed sensors--the High resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS), the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). We have focused on MAMS and AMSU research during the past year and the accomplishments made in this effort are presented.

  10. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.

  11. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  12. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  13. Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

  14. Snowmelt-runoff Model Utilizing Remotely-sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1985-01-01

    Remotely sensed snow cover information is the critical data input for the Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM), which was developed to simulatke discharge from mountain basins where snowmelt is an important component of runoff. Of simple structure, the model requires only input of temperature, precipitation, and snow covered area. SRM was run successfully on two widely separated basins. The simulations on the Kings River basin are significant because of the large basin area (4000 sq km) and the adequate performance in the most extreme drought year of record (1976). The performance of SRM on the Okutadami River basin was important because it was accomplished with minimum snow cover data available. Tables show: optimum and minimum conditions for model application; basin sizes and elevations where SRM was applied; and SRM strengths and weaknesses. Graphs show results of discharge simulation.

  15. Acoustic Remote Sensing of Rogue Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    We propose an early warning system for approaching rogue waves using the remote sensing of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) - progressive sound waves that propagate at the speed of sound in the ocean. It is believed that AGWs are generated during the formation of rogue waves, carrying information on the rogue waves at near the speed of sound, i.e. much faster than the rogue wave. The capability of identifying those special sound waves would enable detecting rogue waves most efficiently. A lot of promising work has been reported on AGWs in the last few years, part of which in the context of remote sensing as an early detection of tsunami. However, to our knowledge none of the work addresses the problem of rogue waves directly. Although there remains some uncertainty as to the proper definition of a rogue wave, there is little doubt that they exist and no one can dispute the potential destructive power of rogue waves. An early warning system for such extreme waves would become a demanding safety technology. A closed form expression was developed for the pressure induced by an impulsive source at the free surface (the Green's function) from which the solution for more general sources can be developed. In particular, we used the model of the Draupner Wave of January 1st, 1995 as a source and calculated the induced AGW signature. In particular we studied the AGW signature associated with a special feature of this wave, and characteristic of rogue waves, of the absence of any local set-down beneath the main crest and the presence of a large local set-up.

  16. Magnetic Remote Sensing of Ocean Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, R.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that ocean flow generates weak magnetic fields that are detected by land and satellite magnetic observatories, and that there is thereby a potentially important opportunity to develop a new method for the remote sensing of ocean/climate variability. Based on the physical relationship between the magnetic fields and flow sources, it could be argued that in principle this method could become the method of choice for inferring large-scale flow integrals. There are, however, substantial challenges in the practical implementation. We review both the opportunities and challenges in developing this new method of magnetic remote sensing of ocean flow in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial applications. We describe past examples of ocean flow generated magnetic signals associated with swell, ocean tides, tsunamis, and circulation. We discuss the spatio-temporal statistics of ocean flow generated signals and their overlap with other sources in an effort to explain how some oceanic signals are readily identified while others have been illusive. We also present an extraction of tidal magnetic signals using a recent version of the NASA-GSFC/DTU Comprehensive Model of the Earth's magnetic field, and we present an inversion of this signal to produce the global distribution (amplitude and phase) of the Earth's M2 ocean tide. This example of ocean flow (tides, in this case) obtained from magnetic data provides a proof in concept in the terrestrial application which shall be further developed. In extra-terrestrial applications of oceans on icy satellites in the Outer Solar System basic descriptions of the tides are still unavailable and the methods shown may be of more immediate practical application.

  17. Data Fusion for Earth Science Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has supported the development of an international network of ground-based remote sensing installations for the measurement of greenhouse gas columns. This collaboration has been successful and is currently used in both carbon cycle investigations and in the efforts to validate the GOSAT space-based column observations of CO2 and CH4. With the support of a grant, this research group has established a network of ground-based column observations that provide an essential link between the satellite observations of CO2, CO, and CH4 and the extensive global in situ surface network. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) was established in 2004. At the time of this report seven sites, employing modern instrumentation, were operational or were expected to be shortly. TCCON is expected to expand. In addition to providing the most direct means of tying the in situ and remote sensing data sets together, TCCON provides a means of testing the retrieval algorithms of SCIAMACHY and GOSAT over the broadest variation in atmospheric state. TCCON provides a critically maintained and long timescale record for identification of temporal drift and spatial bias in the calibration of the space-based sensors. Finally, the global observations from TCCON are improving our understanding of how to use column observations to provide robust estimates of surface exchange of C02 and CH4 in advance of the launch of OCO and GOSAT. TCCON data are being used to better understand the impact of both regional fluxes and long-range transport on gradients in the C02 column. Such knowledge is essential for identifying the tools required to best use the space-based observations. The technical approach and methodology of retrieving greenhouse gas columns from near-IR solar spectra, data quality and process control are described. Additionally, the impact of and relevance to NASA of TCCON and satellite validation and carbon science are addressed.

  18. Remote sensing monitoring of the global ozonosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, S.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.

    2013-10-01

    The use of CFCs, which are the main responsible for the ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere and the formation of the so-called "ozone hole" over Antarctic Region, was phase out by Montreal Protocol (1989). CFCs' concentration is recently reported to decrease in the free atmosphere, but severe episodes of ozone depletion in both Arctic and Antarctic regions are still occurring. Nevertheless the complete recovery of the Ozone layer is expected by about 2050. Recent simulation of perturbations in stratospheric chemistry highlight that circulation, temperature and composition are strictly correlated and they influence the global climate changes. Chemical composition plays an important role in the thermodynamic of the atmosphere, as every gaseous species can absorb and emit in different wavelengths, so their different concentration is responsible for the heating or cooling of the atmosphere. Therefore long-term observations are required to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. Measurements from satellite remote sensing instruments, which provide wide coverage, are supplementary to selective ground-based observations which are usually better calibrated, more stable in time and cover a wider time span. The combination of the data derived from different space-borne instruments calibrated with ground-based sensors is needed to produce homogeneous and consistent long-term data records. These last are required for robust investigations and especially for trend analysis. Here, we perform a review of the major remote-sensing techniques and of the principal datasets available to study the evolution of ozone layer in the past decades and predict future behavio

  19. MODIS Direct Broadcast and Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard both Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). Equipped with direct broadcast capability, the MODIS measurements can be received worldwide real time. There are 82 ingest sites (over 900 users, listed on the Direct Readout Portal) around the world for Terra/Aqua-MODIS Direct Broadcast DB) downlink. This represents 27 (6 from EOS science team members) science research organizations for DB land, ocean and atmospheric processing, and 53 companies that base their application algorithms and value added products on DB data. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of aerosol/cloud optical properties, especially optical thickness and effective particle size. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional-to-global climatic effects.

  20. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 1 - Microwave remote sensing fundamentals and radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The three components of microwave remote sensing (sensor-scene interaction, sensor design, and measurement techniques), and the applications to geoscience are examined. The history of active and passive microwave sensing is reviewed, along with fundamental principles of electromagnetic wave propagation, antennas, and microwave interaction with atmospheric constituents. Radiometric concepts are reviewed, particularly for measurement problems for atmospheric and terrestrial sources of natural radiation. Particular attention is given to the emission by atmospheric gases, clouds, and rain as described by the radiative transfer function. Finally, the operation and performance characteristics of radiometer receivers are discussed, particularly for measurement precision, calibration techniques, and imaging considerations.

  1. Future Opportunities and Challenges in Remote Sensing of Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardlow, Brian D.; Anderson, Martha C.; Sheffield, Justin; Doorn, Brad; Zhan, Xiwu; Rodell, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The value of satellite remote sensing for drought monitoring was first realized more than two decades ago with the application of Normalized Difference Index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for assessing the effect of drought on vegetation. Other indices such as the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) were also developed during this time period, and applied to AVHRR NDVI and brightness temperature data for routine global monitoring of drought conditions. These early efforts demonstrated the unique perspective that global imagers such as AVHRR could provide for operational drought monitoring through their near-daily, global observations of Earth's land surface. However, the advancement of satellite remote sensing of drought was limited by the relatively few spectral bands of operational global sensors such as AVHRR, along with a relatively short period of observational record. Remote sensing advancements are of paramount importance given the increasing demand for tools that can provide accurate, timely, and integrated information on drought conditions to facilitate proactive decision making (NIDIS, 2007). Satellite-based approaches are key to addressing significant gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage of current surface station instrument networks providing key moisture observations (e.g., rainfall, snow, soil moisture, ground water, and ET) over the United States and globally (NIDIS, 2007). Improved monitoring capabilities will be particularly important given increases in spatial extent, intensity, and duration of drought events observed in some regions of the world, as reported in the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report (IPCC, 2007). The risk of drought is anticipated to further increase in some regions in response to climatic changes in the hydrologic cycle related to evaporation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow cover (Burke et al., 2006; IPCC, 2007; USGCRP, 2009). Numerous national, regional, and

  2. Remote sensing of forest dynamics and land use in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, Michael Paul

    The rich, vast Amazonian ecosystem is directly and indirectly threatened by human activities; remote sensing serves as an essential tool for monitoring, understanding and mitigating these threats. A multi-faceted body of work is described here, addressing three major issues that employ and advance remote sensing techniques for the study of Amazonia and other tropical rainforest regions. In Chapter 2, canopy reflectance modeling and satellite observations were used to quantify the effect of epiphylls on remote sensing of humid forests. Modeling simulations demonstrated sensitivity of canopy-level near infrared and green reflectance to epiphylls on leaves. Time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data corroborated the modeling results, suggesting a degree of coupling between epiphyll cover and vegetation indices which must be accounted for when using optical remote sensing in humid forests. In Chapter 4, 11 years (2000--2010) of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data covering the entire Amazon basin were used to ascertain the role of heat stress during droughts in 2005 and 2010. Preliminary accuracy assessments showed that LST data provided reasonably accurate estimates of daytime air temperatures (RMSE = 1.45°C; Chapter 3). There were moderate to strong correlations between LST-based air temperature estimates and tower measurements (mean r = 0.64), illustrating a sensitivity to temporal variability. During both droughts, MODIS LST data detected anomalously high daytime and nighttime canopy temperatures throughout drought-affected regions. Multivariate linear models of LST and precipitation anomalies explained 65.1% of the variability in forest biomass losses, as determined from a wide network of forest inventory plots. These results suggest that models should incorporate both heat and moisture to predict drought effects on tropical forests. In Chapter 5, I performed high spatial and temporal resolution modeling of carbon stocks and fluxes

  3. Groundwater inventory and monitoring technical guide: Remote sensing of groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of remotely sensed data in conjunction with in situ data greatly enhances the ability of the USDA Forest Service to meet the demands of field staff, customers, and others for groundwater information. Generally, the use of remotely sensed data to inventory and monitor groundwater reso...

  4. Remote sensing for mined area reclamation: Application inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Applications of aerial remote sensing to coal mined area reclamation are documented, and information concerning available data banks for coal producing areas in the east and midwest is given. A summary of mined area information requirements to which remote sensing methods might contribute is included.

  5. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Zhaorong; Yao, Yigang

    2015-08-01

    With the development of network information, the era of big data is coming, and this has high demand to the information quantity and the diversity of the remote sensing images. Currently the available remote sensing system focuses on the convenience and the celerity of the acquiring images, and lacking the remote sensing system which can acquire the image with the diversity and large amount of information. In this paper, a new small light multifunction integrated remote sensing and the remote sensing information network system of multi-sensor are proposed to meet the new developing requirements of the current network information. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system consists of a load platform, the integrated sensor system, the airborne control system, the stabilized platform, the transmission system and the ground processing system. The components, function and the principle of the system are introduced, and the key technologies of the integrated remote sensing system are analyzed, in the last the applications of the system are described in order to make a contribution to the industrialization of the big data remote sensing.

  6. Hydrological Application of Remote Sensing: Surface States -- Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.

  7. Elementary Age Children and Remote Sensing: Research from Project Omega.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing technology use in teaching elementary school students about science and social studies. Reviews findings dealing with the use of remote sensing and considering children's abilities, teacher training, computer applications, gifted children, and sex-related differences. Concludes that children as young as grade three can…

  8. Satellites, Remote Sensing, and Classroom Geography for Canadian Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that remote sensing images are a powerful tool for teaching geography. Discusses the use of remote sensing images in the classroom and provides a number of sources for them, some free, many on the World Wide Web. Reviews each source's usefulness for different grade levels and geographic topics. (DSK)

  9. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  10. Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

  11. Feasibility study ASCS remote sensing/compliance determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggan, I. E.; Minter, T. C., Jr.; Moore, B. H.; Nosworthy, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A short-term technical study was performed by the MSC Earth Observations Division to determine the feasibility of the proposed Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Automatic Remote Sensing/Compliance Determination System. For the study, the term automatic was interpreted as applying to an automated remote-sensing system that includes data acquisition, processing, and management.

  12. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  13. Remote sensing education in NASA's technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing is a principal focus of NASA's technology transfer program activity with major attention to remote sensing education the Regional Program and the University Applications Program. Relevant activities over the past five years are reviewed and perspective on future directions is presented.

  14. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  15. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1980-01-01

    Citations of 165 selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications on remote sensing applications for wildlife management are presented in a bibliography. These materials summarize developments in the use of remotely sensed data for wildlife habitat mapping, habitat inventory, habitat evaluation, and wildlife census. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1947 and 1979.

  16. Applications of remote sensing in resource management in Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    The project is reported for studying the application of remote sensing in land use classification and delineation of major tectonic lineaments in Nebraska. Other research reported include the use of aircraft and ERTS-1 satellite imagery in detecting and estimating the acreage of irrigated land, and the application of remote sensing in estimating evapotranspiration in the Platte River Basin.

  17. Remote sensing - A new view for public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.; Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the technology of remote sensing can be of great importance to the field of public health. This possibility is based on the deepened understanding of the biologies and ecologies of the vector/organism/host interelationships of arthropod-, soil-, and water-borne diseases to result from the information that remote sensing can provide.

  18. Preprocessing remotely-sensed data for efficient analysis and classification

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.M.; White, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    Interpreting remotely-sensed data typically requires expensive, specialized computing machinery capable of storing and manipulating large amounts of data quickly. In this paper, we present a method for accurately analyzing and categorizing remotely-sensed data on much smaller, less expensive platforms. Data size is reduced in such a way an efficient, interactive method of data classification.

  19. Remote Sensing Data Visualization, Fusion and Analysis via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  20. Analysis of Coastal Dunes: A Remote Sensing and Statistical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, J. Richard

    1985-01-01

    Remote sensing analysis and statistical methods were used to analyze the coastal dunes of Plum Island, Massachusetts. The research methodology used provides an example of a student project for remote sensing, geomorphology, or spatial analysis courses at the university level. (RM)

  1. Bringing remote sensing technology to the user community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Davis, S. M.; Morrison, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The procedures and services available for educating and training potential users of remote sensing technology are discussed along with approaches for achieving an in-house capability for the analysis of remotely sensed data using numerical techniques based on pattern recognition principles. Cost estimates are provided where appropriate.

  2. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  3. Assimilation of Satellite Remote Sensing Retrievals into Land Surface Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For at least two decades, remote sensing observations have been used to define static model parameters and/or forcing inputs for a range of land surface models. However, recent advances in remote sensing theory have also enabled the satellite-based retrieval of dynamic land model states (e.g. leaf ...

  4. Background and principle applications of remote sensing in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, J. A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing, or the collection of information from objectives at a distance, crystallizes the interest in implementing techniques which assist in the search for solutions to the problems raised by the detection, exploitation, and conservation of the natural resources of the earth. An attempt is made to present an overview of the studies and achievements which have been obtained with remote sensing in Mexico.

  5. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing Signatures of Impact Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1995-09-01

    On Earth the impact record is preserved in the form of ~140 landforms [1], although current cratering flux estimates [2] suggest that hundreds of structures remain undiscovered on the terrestrial continents. A primary focus of our ongoing research efforts in this area has necessarily emphasized the geologically most recent impact events, especially those which formed in the last few million years. For example, we have comprehensively examined the orbital remote sensing characteristics of the Zhamanshin impact feature of Kazakhstan, a ~ 14 km diameter complex crater which apparently formed only ~870,000 years ago in a mixed sedimentary target [3]. In this case, we have been most fortunate to have available TM, SPOT Panchromatic (i.e, 10 m spatial resolution), SRL-1 and SRL-2 multiparameter SAR, and a ~ 90 m horizontal resolution DEM, along with excellent field data. The orbital multispectral data (TM) allowed us to discriminate the larger deposits of allogenic breccias at this youthful feature from erosionally emplaced surficial units, and a subtle signature of those areas covered with lag deposits of impact-related glass (zhamanshinites) was also identified [3,4]. As part of an ongoing collaboration with SRL scientists R. Greeley and D. Blumberg, we have also observed that L-band orbital SAR data clearly reveals the subtleties of the drainage networks that developed as a consequence of the cratering event, and which are apparently controlled by crater-related structures and deposit porosities [5]. When the geomorphically subtle Zhamanshin feature is compared against the Bosumtwi crater of Ghana, which apparently formed in crystalline shield rocks at around the same time (~ 1 million years ago), it appears that target rock properties have strongly influenced the level of preservation of these craters. Indeed, SPOT XS remote sensing data for Bosumtwi reveals a relatively pristine "lunar-like" complex crater with a raised rim, a quasi-polygonal outline, and a deep

  7. Remote infrared thermal sensing of sewer voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Many sewers in America's cities are more than 125 years old and are subject to structural failure. In one year alone, St. Louis, Missouri had 4,000 sewer collapses that carried an astronomical repair tag. When a sewer caves in, it often takes the street, sidewalks, and surrounding buildings along with it endangering public health and safety. The ideal situation would be to repair a sewer before such cave-ins occur, as emergency repairs are far more costly than preventive measures. The question addressed by this paper is how to detect unseen problem areas in sewer systems before collapses occur. At the present, progressive sewer administrations may use crawl crews or remote controlled video cameras to inspect sewers at suspected problem locations. This can be extremely costly, dangerous, and not very accurate, as a void around the outside of the sewer is often invisible from within. Thus, even a crawl crew can fail to detect most voids. Sewer districts and independent engineering firms have found infrared thermography, a nondestructive testing method, to be extremely accurate in finding sewer voids, and accompanying pipeline leaks, before they can cause expensive and dangerous problems. Infrared thermography is a non-contact, remote sensing method, with the potential for surveying large areas quickly and efficiently.

  8. Polarimetric remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snik, Frans

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols constitute the largest unknown factor within climate change, and may pose severe health hazards. Remote sensing of aerosols can be performed by analyzing the sunlight that has been scattered by them. Many aerosol properties are accessible by measuring the polarization of the scattered light as a function of scattering angle and wavelength. Information on the number density, size distribution and the chemical composition (through the refractive index) can thus be obtained. I provide an overview of ground-based and space-based polarimetric instrumentation that is built for remote observations of aerosols. In particular, I introduce our range of SPEX instruments. One version currently operates on the ground, and the development for operation of SPEX on a satellite platform is ongoing. Now we also have a version that operates on a smartphone: iSPEX. In the summer of 2013 we will organize a large citizen science experiment in the Netherlands during which thousands of participants perform a polarimetric measurement of the blue sky. The goal is to create a flexible measurement network that can produce detailed maps of aerosols.

  9. Locusts and remote sensing: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latchininsky, Alexandre V.

    2013-01-01

    A dozen species of locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are a major threat to food security worldwide. Their outbreaks occur on every continent except Antarctica, threatening the livelihood of 10% of the world's population. The locusts are infamous for their voracity, polyphagy, and capacity for long-distance migrations. Decades of research revealed very complex bio-ecology of locusts. They exist in two, inter-convertible and density-dependent states, or "phases." Despite the evident progress in understanding locust behavior, our ability to predict and manage locust outbreaks remains insufficient, as evidenced by locust plagues still occurring during the 21st century. One of the main reasons is that locusts typically inhabit remote and scarcely populated areas, and their distribution ranges often spread across continents. This creates tremendous obstacles for locust population monitoring and control. Traditional ground locust surveys are inadequate to address the enormous spatial scale of the locust problem in a limited window of time dictated by the pest's development. Remote sensing (satellite information) appears a promising tool in locust monitoring. Satellite data are increasingly used for monitoring and forecasting two locust species, the desert and the Australian plague locust. However, applications of this geospatial technology to other locust species remain rare.

  10. Review of oil spill remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Brown, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    Remote-sensors for application to oil spills are reviewed. The capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets is the most important assessment criterion. A common sensor is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions oil is not detected. The laser fluorosensor is recommended because of its unique capability to identify oil on most backgrounds. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing. Radar is costly and requires a dedicated aircraft. Radar is prone to many interferences. Equipment operating in the visible spectrum, such as a camera or scanner, is useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It is not useful beyond this, because oil shows no spectral characteristics in the visible region.

  11. International Space Station Remote Sensing Pointing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric and disturbance aspects of utilizing the International Space Station for remote sensing of earth targets. The proposed instrument (in prototype development) is SHORE (Station High-Performance Ocean Research Experiment), a multiband optical spectrometer with 15 m pixel resolution. The analysis investigates the contribution of the error effects to the quality of data collected by the instrument. This analysis supported the preliminary studies to determine feasibility of utilizing the International Space Station as an observing platform for a SHORE type of instrument. Rigorous analyses will be performed if a SHORE flight program is initiated. The analysis begins with the discussion of the coordinate systems involved and then conversion from the target coordinate system to the instrument coordinate system. Next the geometry of remote observations from the Space Station is investigated including the effects of the instrument location in Space Station and the effects of the line of sight to the target. The disturbance and error environment on Space Station is discussed covering factors contributing to drift and jitter, accuracy of pointing data and target and instrument accuracies.

  12. Integrating remote sensing and spatially explicit epidemiological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Flavio; Knox, Allyn; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Bompangue, Didier; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Spatially explicit epidemiological models are a crucial tool for the prediction of epidemiological patterns in time and space as well as for the allocation of health care resources. In addition they can provide valuable information about epidemiological processes and allow for the identification of environmental drivers of the disease spread. Most epidemiological models rely on environmental data as inputs. They can either be measured in the field by the means of conventional instruments or using remote sensing techniques to measure suitable proxies of the variables of interest. The later benefit from several advantages over conventional methods, including data availability, which can be an issue especially in developing, and spatial as well as temporal resolution of the data, which is particularly crucial for spatially explicit models. Here we present the case study of a spatially explicit, semi-mechanistic model applied to recurring cholera outbreaks in the Lake Kivu area (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The model describes the cholera incidence in eight health zones on the shore of the lake. Remotely sensed datasets of chlorophyll a concentration in the lake, precipitation and indices of global climate anomalies are used as environmental drivers. Human mobility and its effect on the disease spread is also taken into account. Several model configurations are tested on a data set of reported cases. The best models, accounting for different environmental drivers, and selected using the Akaike information criterion, are formally compared via cross validation. The best performing model accounts for seasonality, El Niño Southern Oscillation, precipitation and human mobility.

  13. Towards Remotely Sensed Composite Global Drought Risk Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dercas, Nicholas; Dalezios, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Drought is a multi-faceted issue and requires a multi-faceted assessment. Droughts may have the origin on precipitation deficits, which sequentially and by considering different time and space scales may impact soil moisture, plant wilting, stream flow, wildfire, ground water levels, famine and social impacts. There is a need to monitor drought even at a global scale. Key variables for monitoring drought include climate data, soil moisture, stream flow, ground water, reservoir and lake levels, snow pack, short-medium-long range forecasts, vegetation health and fire danger. However, there is no single definition of drought and there are different drought indicators and indices even for each drought type. There are already four operational global drought risk monitoring systems, namely the U.S. Drought Monitor, the European Drought Observatory (EDO), the African and the Australian systems, respectively. These systems require further research to improve the level of accuracy, the time and space scales, to consider all types of drought and to achieve operational efficiency, eventually. This paper attempts to contribute to the above mentioned objectives. Based on a similar general methodology, the multi-indicator approach is considered. This has resulted from previous research in the Mediterranean region, an agriculturally vulnerable region, using several drought indices separately, namely RDI and VHI. The proposed scheme attempts to consider different space scaling based on agroclimatic zoning through remotely sensed techniques and several indices. Needless to say, the agroclimatic potential of agricultural areas has to be assessed in order to achieve sustainable and efficient use of natural resources in combination with production maximization. Similarly, the time scale is also considered by addressing drought-related impacts affected by precipitation deficits on time scales ranging from a few days to a few months, such as non-irrigated agriculture, topsoil moisture

  14. Field Data Collection: an Essential Element in Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    Field data collected in support of remote sensing projects are generally used for the following purposes: (1) calibration of remote sensing systems, (2) evaluation of experimental applications of remote sensing imagery on small test sites, and (3) designing and evaluating operational regional resource studies and inventories which are conducted using the remote sensing imagery obtained. Field data may be used to help develop a technique for a particular application, or to aid in the application of that technique to a resource evaluation or inventory problem for a large area. Scientists at the Forestry Remote Sensing Laboratory have utilized field data for both purposes. How meaningful field data has been collected in each case is discussed.

  15. Use of Openly Available Satellite Images for Remote Sensing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.-K.

    2011-09-01

    With the advent of Google Earth, Google Maps, and Microsoft Bing Maps, high resolution satellite imagery are becoming more easily accessible than ever. It have been the case that the college students may already have wealth experiences with the high resolution satellite imagery by using these software and web services prior to any formal remote sensing education. It is obvious that the remote sensing education should be adjusted to the fact that the audience are already the customers of remote sensing products (through the use of the above mentioned services). This paper reports the use of openly available satellite imagery in an introductory-level remote sensing course in the Department of Geomatics of National Cheng Kung University as a term project. From the experience learned from the fall of 2009 and 2010, it shows that this term project has effectively aroused the students' enthusiastic toward Remote Sensing.

  16. Strategies for using remotely sensed data in hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, E. L.; Keefer, T. N.; Johnson, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Present and planned remote sensing capabilities were evaluated. The usefulness of six remote sensing capabilities (soil moisture, land cover, impervious area, areal extent of snow cover, areal extent of frozen ground, and water equivalent of the snow cover) with seven hydrologic models (API, CREAMS, NWSRFS, STORM, STANFORD, SSARR, and NWSRFS Snowmelt) were reviewed. The results indicate remote sensing information has only limited value for use with the hydrologic models in their present form. With minor modifications to the models the usefulness would be enhanced. Specific recommendations are made for incorporating snow covered area measurements in the NWSRFS Snowmelt model. Recommendations are also made for incorporating soil moisture measurements in NWSRFS. Suggestions are made for incorporating snow covered area, soil moisture, and others in STORM and SSARR. General characteristics of a hydrologic model needed to make maximum use of remotely sensed data are discussed. Suggested goals for improvements in remote sensing for use in models are also established.

  17. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-01-30

    Spectroscopic chemical sensing research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing advanced sensors for detecting the production of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons; use of chemical weapons; or the presence of explosives, firearms, narcotics, or other contraband of significance to homeland security in airports, cargo terminals, public buildings, or other sensitive locations. For most of these missions, the signature chemicals are expected to occur in very low concentrations, and in mixture with ambient air or airborne waste streams that contain large numbers of other species that may interfere with spectroscopic detection, or be mistaken for signatures of illicit activity. PNNL’s emphasis is therefore on developing remote and sampling sensors with extreme sensitivity, and resistance to interferents, or selectivity. PNNL’s research activities include: 1. Identification of signature chemicals and quantification of their spectral characteristics, 2. Identification and development of laser and other technologies that enable breakthroughs in sensitivity and selectivity, 3. Development of promising sensing techniques through experimentation and modeling the physical phenomenology and practical engineering limitations affecting their performance, and 4. Development and testing of data collection methods and analysis algorithms. Close coordination of all aspects of the research is important to ensure that all parts are focused on productive avenues of investigation. Close coordination of experimental development and numerical modeling is particularly important because the theoretical component provides understanding and predictive capability, while the experiments validate calculations and ensure that all phenomena and engineering limitations are considered.

  18. Laser Remote Sensing: FY07 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, Jason S.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2007-09-30

    Standoff detection and characterization of chemical plumes using Frequency Modulated Differential Absorption Lidar (FM-DIAL) is a promising technique for the detection of nuclear proliferation activities. For the last several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been developing an FM-DIAL based remote sensing system as part of PNNL's Infrared Sensors project within NA-22's Enabling Technologies portfolio. In FY06 the remote sensing effort became a stand-alone project within the Plutonium Production portfolio with the primary goal of transitioning technology from the laboratory to the user community. Current systems remotely detect trace chemicals in the atmosphere over path lengths of hundreds of meters for monostatic operation (without a retro-reflector target) and up to ten kilometers for bistatic operation (with a retro-reflector target). The FM-DIAL sensor is sensitive and highly selective for chemicals with narrow-band absorption features on the order of 1-2 cm-1; as a result, the FM-DIAL sensors are best suited to simple di-atomic or tri-atomic molecules and other molecules with unusually narrow absorption features. A broadband sensor is currently being developed. It is designed to detect chemicals with spectral features on the order of several 10s of wavenumbers wide. This will expand the applicability of this technology to the detection of more complicated molecules. Our efforts in FY07 focused on the detection of chemicals associated with the PUREX process. The highest value performance measure for FY07, namely the demonstration of the Broadband Laser Spectrometer (BLS) during chemical release experiments, was successfully achieved in June, July and August of this year. Significant advancements have been made with each of the other tasks as well. A short-wave infrared version of the miniature FM-DIAL (FM-Mini) instrument was successfully demonstrated during field tests in June. During FY07 another version of the FM-Mini was built using

  19. The role of computer networks in remote sensing data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Phillips, T. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that computer networks can be used to make data processing facilities available to the remote sensing community both quickly and effectively. An experiment to test this hypothesis is being conducted by the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing at Purdue University, with the participation of potential users at several remote sites. Initial indications have been highly favorable, although final evaluation awaits further experience and the accumulation of usage data.

  20. Commercial future: making remote sensing a media event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Ian

    1999-12-01

    The rapid growth of commercial remote sensing has made high quality digital sensing data widely available -- now, remote sensing must become and remain a strong, commercially viable industry. However, this new industry cannot survive without an educated consumer base. To access markets, remote sensing providers must make their product more accessible, both literally and figuratively: Potential customers must be able to find the data they require, when they require it, and they must understand the utility of the information available to them. The Internet and the World Wide Web offer the perfect medium to educate potential customers and to sell remote sensing data to those customers. A well-designed web presence can provide both an information center and a market place for companies offering their data for sale. A very high potential web-based market for remote sensing lies in media. News agencies, web sites, and a host of other visual media services can use remote sensing data to provide current, relevant information regarding news around the world. This paper will provide a model for promotion and sale of remote sensing data via the Internet.