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Sample records for renal net acid

  1. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity calculated from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was equivalent to that calculated based on complete aqueous speciation of FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in the pH, alkalinity, and metals concentrations, the Hot Acidities were comparable for fresh and most aged samples. A meaningful "net" acidity can be determined from a measured Hot Acidity or by calculation from the pH, alkalinity, and dissolved metals concentrations. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Hot Aciditymeasured) to design mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a standard method "hot peroxide" acidity titration, provided that labs report negative values. The authors recommend the third approach; i.e., net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal metabolism of amino acids and ammonia in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Tizianello, A; De Ferrari, G; Garibotto, G; Gurreri, G; Robaudo, C

    1980-01-01

    The net renal metabolism of amino acids and ammonia in the post absorptive state was evaluated in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with chronic renal insufficiency by measuring renal uptake and release, and urinary excretion of free amino acids and ammonia. In normal subjects the kidney extracts glutamine, proline, citrulline, and phenylalanine and releases serine, arginine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine, ornithine, lysine, and perhaps alanine. The renal uptake of amino acids from arterial blood occurs by way of plasma only, whereas approximately a half of amino acid release takes place by way of blood cells. Glycine is taken up from arterial plasma, while similar amounts of this amino acid are released by way of blood cells. In the same subjects total renal ammonia production can be largely accounted for by glutamine extracted. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency (a) the renal uptake of phenylalanine and the release of taurine and ornithine disappear; (b) the uptake of glutamine and proline, and the release of serine and threonine are reduced by 80--90%; (c) the uptake of citrulline and the release of alanine, arginine, tyrosine, and lysine are reduced by 60--70%; (d) no exchange of glycine is detectable either by way of plasma or by way of blood cells; (e) exchange of any other amino acid via blood cells disappears, and (f) total renal ammonia production is reduced and not more than 35% of such production can be accounted for by glutamine extracted, so that alternative precursors must be used. A 140% excess of nitrogen release found in the same patients suggests an intrarenal protein and peptide breakdown, which eventually provides free amino acids for ammonia production. PMID:7364943

  4. Renal handling of terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and renal microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Imig, John D

    2013-01-01

    The development of pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical tools have allowed for detailed studies to determine the contribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolites of arachidonic acid to renal microvascular function. Renal microvessels can generate CYP hydroxylase metabolites including 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and CYP epoxygenase metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). 20-HETE constricts afferent arterioles and contributes to renal blood flow autoregulation. EETs act as endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) on the renal microcirculation. 20-HETE inhibits whereas EETs activate renal microvascular smooth muscle cell large-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (KCa). Likewise, 20-HETE renal microvascular actions are pro-hypertensive and EET actions are anti-hypertensive. These findings in the renal microvasculature and those of others have provided impetus for the development of enzymatic inhibitors, agonists, and antagonists for 20-HETE and EETs to determine their potential therapeutic value. Initial genetic studies and experimental studies with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors to increase EETs, EET analogs, and 20-HETE inhibitors have demonstrated improved renal microvascular function in hypertension. These findings have demonstrated the important contributions that 20-HETE and EETs play in the regulation of renal microvascular function. PMID:23333581

  6. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Schuette, S.; Rose, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of (/sup 3/H)nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM (/sup 14/C)nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of /sup 14/C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo.

  7. Antiglucocorticoid RU38486 reduces net protein catabolism in experimental acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Mondry, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background In acute renal failure, a pronounced net protein catabolism occurs that has long been associated with corticoid action. By competitively blocking the glucocorticoid receptor with the potent antiglucocorticoid RU 38486, the present study addressed the question to what extent does corticoid action specific to uremia cause the observed muscle degradation, and does inhibition of glucocorticoid action reduce the protein wasting? Methods RU 38486 was administered in a dose of 50 mg/kg/24 h for 48 h after operation to fasted bilaterally nephrectomized (BNX) male adult Wistar rats and sham operated (SHAM) controls. Protein turnover was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of amino acid efflux in sera from isolated perfused hindquarters of animals treated with RU 38486 versus untreated controls. Results Administration of RU 38486 reduces the total amino acid efflux (TAAE) by 18.6% in SHAM and 15.6% in BNX and efflux of the indicator of net protein turnover, phenylalanine (Phe) by 33.3% in SHAM and 13% in BNX animals as compared to the equally operated, but untreated animals. However, the significantly higher protein degradation observed in BNX (0.6 0.2 nmol/min/g muscle) versus SHAM (0.2 0.1 nmol/min/g muscle) rats, as demonstrated by the marker of myofribrillar proteolytic rate, 3-Methylhistidine (3 MH) remains unaffected by administration of RU 38486 (0.5 0.1 v. 0.2 0.1 nmol/min/g muscle in BNX v. SHAM). Conclusion RU 38486 does not act on changes of muscular protein turnover specific to uremia but reduces the effect of stress- stimulated elevated corticosterone secretion arising from surgery and fasting. A potentially beneficial effect against stress- induced catabolism in severe illness can be postulated that merits further study. PMID:15715918

  8. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Uditha; Gnanathasan, Christeine Ariaranee

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32?year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  9. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32?year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  10. Comparison of renal ultrasonography and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Noroozian, Elham; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Barikani, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) are essential for the prevention or restriction of permanent damage to the kidneys in children. The aim of this study was to compare renal ultrasonography (US) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in the diagnosis of patients with febrile urinary tract infection. This study involved the medical records of children with febrile urinary tract infection who were admitted to the children's hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and abnormal DMSA renal scans. The criteria for abnormality of renal US were an increase or a decrease in diffuse or focal parenchymal echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, kidney position irregularities, parenchymal reduction and increased kidney size. Of the 100 study patients, 23% had an abnormal US and 46% had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Of the latter patients, 15 had concurrent abnormal US (P value ≤ 0.03, concordance rate: 18%). Renal US had a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 65% and negative predictive value of 60%. Of the 77 patients with normal US, 31 (40.2%) had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Despite the benefits and accessibility of renal US, its value in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis is limited. PMID:26700082

  11. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  12. Longitudinal relationships between diet-dependent renal acid load and blood pressure development in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Danika; Shi, Lijie; Remer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diets high in sulfur-rich protein and low in fruits and vegetables affect human acid-base balance adversely. Corresponding subclinical forms of metabolic acidosis have been linked to hypertension in adults. We longitudinally examined relations of dietary acid load with blood pressure in 257 healthy prepuberty children with 3 or more parallel 3-day weighed dietary records, 24-h urine, and blood pressure measurements. Urinary net acid excretion and the potential renal acid load (PRAL), determined as the difference of major urinary nonbicarbonate anions and mineral cations, were used to predict dietary acid load. PRAL was also calculated from dietary data. In repeated-measures regression analyses, adjusted for body size and dietary fiber, an intraindividual increase of 10 mEq above the 'usual' net acid excretion or urine PRAL were each significantly related to a 0.6-0.7 mm Hg increased systolic blood pressure. Differences in urine PRAL among the children also significantly predicted between-person differences in systolic blood pressure. A higher individual net acid excretion or urine PRAL and intraindividual increase in urine PRAL were significantly related to higher diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure associations were nonsignificant for dietary PRAL and urinary sodium. Thus, in healthy children, renal biomarker analyses reveal an association of proton load with higher blood pressure. Especially for systolic blood pressure, a more alkalizing nutrition may be beneficial for blood pressure development within a given individual. Experimental confirmation of a causal acid load-blood pressure link is required. PMID:24025638

  13. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  14. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized -aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur.

  15. Renal acid excretion and intracellular pH in salt-sensitive genetic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Batlle, D C; Sharma, A M; Alsheikha, M W; Sobrero, M; Saleh, A; Gutterman, C

    1993-05-01

    Acid-base status and renal acid excretion were studied in the Dahl/Rapp salt-sensitive (S) rat and its genetically salt-resistant counterpart (R). S rats developed hypertension while on a very high salt diet (8%) and while on a more physiological salt diet (1%) and remained normotensive while on a very low salt diet (0.08%). Under the high salt diet, intracellular pH measured in freshly isolated thymic lymphocytes using 2',7'-bis (carboxyethyl)-5 (6)-carboxyfluorescein acetomethyl ester, a pH-sensitive dye, was lower in S than in R rats both when measured in the presence of HCO3/CO2 (7.32 +/- 0.02 vs. 7.38 +/- 0.02, respectively, P < 0.05) and in its absence (7.18 +/- 0.04 vs. 7.27 +/- 0.02, respectively, P < 0.05). Under the high salt diet, net acid excretion was higher in S than R rats (1,777 +/- 111 vs. 1,017 +/- 73 muEq/24 h per 100 g body wt, respectively, P < 0.001), and this difference was due to higher rates of both titratable acid and ammonium excretion. Directionally similar differences in intracellular pH and net acid excretion between S and R rats were also observed in salt-restricted animals. In S and R rats placed on a normal salt intake (1%) and strictly pair-fed to control food intake as a determinant of dietary acid, net acid excretion was also higher in S than in R rats (562 +/- 27 vs. 329 +/- 21 muEq/24 h per 100 g, respectively, P < 0.01). No significant difference in either blood pH or bicarbonate levels were found between S and R rats on either the 0.08%, 1%, or 8% salt diets. We conclude that renal acid excretion is augmented in the salt-sensitive Dahl/Rapp rat. Enhanced renal acid excretion may be a marker of increased acid production by cells from subjects with salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:8486783

  16. NETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1993-01-01

    NETS development tool provides environment for simulation and development of neural networks - computer programs that "learn" from experience. Written in ANSI standard C, program allows user to generate C code for implementation of neural network.

  17. 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning and excretory urography in diagnosis of renal scars in children

    SciTech Connect

    McLorie, G.A.; Aliabadi, H.; Churchill, B.M.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L. )

    1989-09-01

    We compared the ability of excretory urography (without tomography) and 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scanning to detect renal scars in 32 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. These children did not have hydronephrosis, renal failure or urinary tract obstruction. In all cases both studies were conducted within a 10-month period. The findings from both modalities were in agreement for 51 of the 64 renal units evaluated (80%). Evaluation of the excretory urogram indicated 6 cases of diffuse and 2 of focal scarring that were not detected by evaluation of the renal scan. The sensitivity of excretory urography to detect renal scars was 84% and the specificity was 83%. The 99mtechnetium-dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan showed 5 cases of focal renal scarring not detected by excretory urography. The sensitivity of the renal scan to detect renal scars was 77% and the specificity was 75%. We conclude that neither study alone could effectively replace the other for the detection of renal scars, and recommend that both be included in the initial evaluation and followup of patients with renal scars.

  18. Uric acid, hypertension, and cardiovascular and renal complications.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the biologic interference of uric acid with the cardiovascular (CV) system and the kidney has been intensively investigated, and several experimental studies in animal models and in vitro documented that hyperuricemia may trigger hypertension and incite endothelial dysfunction, vascular damage and renal disease. A substantial proportion of epidemiological studies are compatible with the hypothesis that hyperuricemia may be noxious to the CV system and the kidney as well. However, there are still no well-powered trials testing whether uric acid-lowering interventions may reduce BP or attenuate the risk for adverse CV and renal outcomes. Evidence still remains largely insufficient to recommend changes in the current policy of not prescribing uric acid-lowering drugs to individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. PMID:24072559

  19. STANDARDIZING TERMINOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE DIET-DEPENDENT NET ACID LOAD TO THE METABOLIC SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contemporary Western diets contain acid precursors in excess of base precursors, yielding a daily systemic net acid load of varying amounts, depending on the specific composition of the diet. Increasing evidence suggests that differences in daily net acid load, resulting predominantly from differen...

  20. Influence of urate-lowering therapies on renal handling of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Wei, Lei; Chen, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhuojun; Yu, Qiang; Ji, Zongfei; Jiang, Lindi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of urate-lowering therapies (ULTs) on renal uric acid excretion in gout patients. This prospective observational study involved 106 primary gout patients and 51 healthy controls. Gout patients received ULT with either xanthine oxidase inhibitors or the uricosuric agent benzbromarone. Parameters such as 24-h urinary uric acid, creatinine clearance, uric acid clearance, glomerular filtration load of uric acid, fractional excretion of uric acid, excretion of uric acid per volume of glomerular filtration, and urinary uric acid to urinary creatinine ratio were used to evaluate the pre- and post-treatment renal capacity for uric acid clearance in gout patients and were compared with the values in the healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, gout patients had higher glomerular filtration load of uric acid and lower uric acid clearance, creatinine clearance, and fractional uric acid excretion. After ULT, both the xanthine oxidase inhibitor group and benzbromarone group patients showed reduction in glomerular filtration load of uric acid. Creatinine clearance was significantly improved in the xanthine oxidase inhibitor group. Excretion function was remarkably enhanced in patients who reached the treatment target (serum uric acid <6 mg/dl). Changes in glomerular uric acid filtration load were significantly correlated with changes in serum urate levels. Gout patients have impaired renal uric acid excretion. ULTs reduce renal urate load and enhance the renal capacity of uric acid clearance. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors showed superiority over benzbromarone in improving renal function. PMID:25373449

  1. Diet-dependent net acid load and risk of incident hypertension in United States women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luxia; Curhan, Gary C; Forman, John P

    2009-10-01

    Animal and human studies suggest a potential link between acid-base status and blood pressure. Contemporary Western diets yield a daily systemic acid load of varying amounts, yet the association with hypertension has never been explored. We prospectively examined the association between the diet-dependent net acid load (also known as the estimated net endogenous acid production) and the risk of incident hypertension among 87 293 women without a history of hypertension in the Nurses' Health Study II. We also used the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake as an alternative evaluation of diet-dependent net acid load. We identified 15 385 incident cases of hypertension during 995 239 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load had an increased risk of hypertension (relative risk: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.24; P for trend=0.01) compared with women in the bottom decile. To test whether the association between estimated diet-dependent net acid load and hypertension is independent of its individual components, an additional adjustment for intakes of protein and potassium was made and resulted in a relative risk of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.41; P for trend=0.003) for the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load. Results of the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake were similar with those of estimated diet-depend net acid load. In conclusion, a high diet-dependent net acid load is independently associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension. PMID:19667248

  2. Altered expression of renal acid-base transporters in rats with lithium-induced NDI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hee; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Christensen, Birgitte M; Nielsen, Jakob; Wall, Susan M; Madsen, Kirsten M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren

    2003-12-01

    Prolonged lithium treatment of humans and rodents often results in hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. This is thought to be caused by diminished net H+ secretion and/or excessive back-diffusion of acid equivalents. To explore whether lithium treatment is associated with changes in the expression of key renal acid-base transporters, semiquantitative immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry were performed using kidneys from lithium-treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) rats. Rats treated with lithium for 28 days showed decreased urine pH, whereas no significant differences in blood pH and plasma HCO3- levels were observed. Immunoblot analysis revealed that lithium treatment induced a significant increase in the expression of the H+-ATPase (B1-subunit) in cortex (190 +/- 18%) and inner stripe of the outer medulla (190 +/- 9%), and a dramatic increase in inner medulla (900 +/- 104%) in parallel to an increase in the expression of type 1 anion exchanger (400 +/- 40%). This was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy, which also revealed increased density of intercalated cells. Moreover, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the expression of the type 1 electrogenic Na+-HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) in cortex (200 +/- 23%) and of the electroneutral NBCn1 in inner stripe of the outer medulla (250 +/- 54%). In contrast, there were no changes in the expression of Na+/H+ exchanger-3 or of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger pendrin. These results demonstrate that the expression of specific renal acid-base transporters is markedly altered in response to long-term lithium treatment. This is likely to represent direct or compensatory effects to increase the capacity for HCO3- reabsorption, NH4+ reabsorption, and proton secretion to prevent the development of systemic metabolic acidosis. PMID:12944321

  3. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F; Zhou, Yuehan

    2010-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3-). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3- is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3- buffers in the lumen, in the process creating "new HCO3-" for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT - along with more distal renal segments - is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3-]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid-base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3- and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid-base composition of the blood plasma. PMID:21170887

  4. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-mediated renal vasodilation to arachidonic acid is enhanced in SHR.

    PubMed

    Pomposiello, S I; Carroll, M A; Falck, J R; McGiff, J C

    2001-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase-independent vasodilation produced by arachidonic acid (AA) is mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and is blunted in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). At normal perfusion pressure (PP; 70 to 90 mm Hg), AA constricted the renal vasculature in both SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, an effect abolished by cyclooxygenase inhibition, and converted to vasodilation when PP was raised to approximately 200 mm Hg. Unexpectedly, renal vasodilation elicited by AA was greater in the SHR at high PP; for example, 2.5, 5, and 10 microg of AA produced PP declines of 54+/-9, 92+/-10, and 112+/-5 mm Hg, respectively, in SHR compared with 26+/-3, 45+/-5, and 77+/-6 mm Hg in Wistar-Kyoto rats (P:<0.01). However, the renal vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (0.1 microg) and sodium nitroprusside (1 microg) did not differ between strains, indicating that vascular responsiveness to AA was independent of intrinsic changes in vascular smooth muscle. Hyperresponsiveness of the renal vasculature to AA may be unique for the SHR, because it did not occur in Sprague-Dawley rats with angiotensin II-induced hypertension. 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA; 4 micromol/L), an inhibitor of all AA pathways, attenuated the vasodilator responses to AA, as did treatment with stannous chloride, which depletes cytochrome P450 enzymes, suggesting that a cytochrome P450 AA metabolite mediated the renal vasodilation. N:-Methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-en-amide (DDMS; 2 micromol/L), a selective omega-hydroxylase inhibitor, did not affect AA-induced vasodilation, whereas selective inhibition of epoxygenases with either miconazole (0.3 micromol/L) or N:-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH; 12 micromol/L) did, indicating that one or more EETs were involved in the renal vasodilator action of AA at high PP. This conclusion was supported by the demonstration that AA greatly enhanced the renal efflux of EETs at high PP but not at basal PP. PMID:11244013

  5. Characterization of Renal Toxicity in Mice Administered the Marine Biotoxin Domoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jason A.; Janech, Michael G.; Dillon, Joshua C.; Bissler, John J.; Siroky, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA), an excitatory amino acid produced by diatoms belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, is a glutamate analog responsible for the neurologic condition referred to as amnesic shellfish poisoning. To date, the renal effects of DA have been underappreciated, although renal filtration is the primary route of systemic elimination and the kidney expresses ionotropic glutamate receptors. To characterize the renal effects of DA, we administered either a neurotoxic dose of DA or doses below the recognized limit of toxicity to adult Sv128/Black Swiss mice. DA preferentially accumulated in the kidney and elicited marked renal vascular and tubular damage consistent with acute tubular necrosis, apoptosis, and renal tubular cell desquamation, with toxic vacuolization and mitochondrial swelling as hallmarks of the cellular damage. Doses≥0.1 mg/kg DA elevated the renal injury biomarkers kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and doses≥0.005 mg/kg induced the early response genes c-fos and junb. Coadministration of DA with the broad spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid inhibited induction of c-fos, junb, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. These findings suggest that the kidney may be susceptible to excitotoxic agonists, and renal effects should be considered when examining glutamate receptor activation. Additionally, these results indicate that DA is a potent nephrotoxicant, and potential renal toxicity may require consideration when determining safe levels for human exposure. PMID:24511141

  6. [Side effects of nalidixic acid in a patient with severe renal failure. Clinical study and proposal of a pharmacokinetic model].

    PubMed

    Mobbs, J P; Balant, L; Revillard, C; Favre, H

    1977-03-01

    Side effects due to ingestion of nalidixic acid in a 46 year old patient with phenacetine-induced interstitial nephritis and severe renal failure are reported. This observation underlines the point that, besides the direct neurotoxic effect of nalidixic acid, disturbance of the acid-basic equilibrium could be seen in patients with renal failure in particular. A hypothetical pharmacokinetic model suggests that two metabolites of nalidixic acid could provide enough hydrogen ion to induce acidosis in cases of renal failure. PMID:847456

  7. Phosphate loading attenuates renal tubular dysfunction induced by maleic acid in the dog.

    PubMed

    Al-Bander, H; Etheredge, S B; Paukert, T; Humphreys, M H; Morris, R C

    1985-04-01

    The metabolic pathogenesis of the complex renal tubular dysfunction of type II renal tubular acidosis and Fanconi's syndrome (RTA II/FS) acutely induced by maleic acid could depend on the occurrence of a positive feedback loop in cells of the proximal renal tubule: impaired mitochondrial oxidation----increased glucose uptake----increased formation and concentration of phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates----limitation on availability of cellular inorganic phosphate----more severely impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. To test this hypothesis we intravenously administered maleic acid both alone and after initiating intravenously administered neutral sodium phosphate, sodium sulfate, or sodium chloride to 10 unanesthetized trained female dogs undergoing water diuresis. We made the following observations: 1) Administration of maleic acid alone predictably induced dose-dependent increments in urine flow (V) and in renal clearance of HCO3-, Na+, K+, and alpha-aminonitrogen and a pronounced increase in the renal clearance and excretion of citrate. 2) Prior phosphate loading, which increased the plasma concentration of phosphate from 2.5 +/- 0.20 to 11.3 +/- 2 mg/dl: a) attenuated the increment in renal clearance of HCO3- by one-half even though the filtered load of bicarbonate was higher by 37%, owing to the higher values of both GFR and plasma bicarbonate concentration that obtained with phosphate loading; b) prevented the increment in renal clearance and excretion of alpha-aminonitrogen; c) significantly attenuated the increments in V and renal clearance of K+; but d) did not affect the increment in renal clearance and excretion of citrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3985158

  8. Dietary linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid differentially affect renal oxylipins and phospholipid fatty acids in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Love, Karin; Winter, Tanja; Gauthier, Joy; Taylor, Carla G; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Zahradka, Peter; Aukema, Harold M

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of oxylipins derived from fatty acids may provide insight into the biological effects of dietary lipids beyond their effects on tissue fatty acid profiles. We have previously observed that diets with higher amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) are associated with reduced obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Therefore, to examine the renal oxylipin profile, the effects of dietary linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and ALA on oxylipins and renal phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the relationship between oxylipins and ORG, diet-induced obese rats displaying ORG were fed 8 different diets for 8 wk as follows (oil/oil = combination of two oils) [shown as ALA/LA (in g) per 100 g oil]: canola/flax (20/18), canola (8/18), soy (9/53), high-oleic canola/canola (5/16), high-oleic canola (2/15), lard/soy (1/8), and safflower (0.2/73). Targeted lipidomic analysis by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that LA and ALA oxylipins comprised 60% of the total renal oxylipin profile examined. Of the >60 oxylipins screened, only those derived either directly or indirectly from ALA were associated with less glomerulomegaly, indicative of reduced ORG progression. Both the amount and ratio of dietary LA and ALA influenced renal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); in contrast, only fatty acid amount altered oxylipins derived from these fatty acids, but there was no apparent competition by LA or ALA on their formation. Dietary LA incorporation into renal phospholipids was higher than for ALA, but ALA oxylipin:ALA ratios were higher than the analogous LA ratios for select lipoxygenase reactions. This indicates that the effect of dietary ALA on renal oxylipins exceeded what was reflected in renal PUFA composition. In conclusion, dietary LA and ALA have differential effects on renal oxylipins and PUFAs, and ALA-derived oxylipins are associated with renoprotection in this model of ORG. PMID:23902961

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid Prevents Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibition of Apoptosis and Complement Activation

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Bart; Matthijsen, Robert A.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A. J. H. M.; Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Buurman, Wim A.

    2003-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of acute renal failure as observed after renal transplantation, major surgery, trauma, and septic as well as hemorrhagic shock. We previously showed that the inhibition of apoptosis is protective against renal I/R injury, indicating that apoptotic cell-death is an important feature of I/R injury. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an endogenous phospholipid growth factor with anti-apoptotic properties. This tempted us to investigate the effects of exogenous LPA in a murine model of renal I/R injury. LPA administered at the time of reperfusion dose dependently inhibited renal apoptosis as evaluated by the presence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage. I/R-induced renal apoptosis was only present in tubular epithelial cells with evident disruption of brush border as assessed by immunohistochemistry for active caspase-7 and filamentous actin, respectively. LPA treatment specifically prevented tubular epithelial cell apoptosis but also reduced the I/R-induced loss of brush-border integrity. Besides, LPA showed strong anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting the renal expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and abrogating the influx of neutrophils. Next, LPA dose dependently inhibited activation of the complement system. Moreover, treatment with LPA abrogated the loss of renal function in the course of renal I/R. This study is the first to show that administration of the phospholipid LPA prevents I/R injury, abrogating apoptosis and inflammation. Moreover, exogenous LPA is capable of preventing organ failure because of an ischemic insult and thus may provide new means to treat clinical conditions associated with I/R injury in the kidney and potentially also in other organs. PMID:12819010

  10. Lithospermic acid B isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Gill; Oh, Hyuncheol; Sohn, Eun Jin; Hur, Tae Young; Lee, Kang Chang; Kim, Kwang Jin; Kim, Tai Yo; Lee, Ho Sub

    2004-08-27

    The present study was designed to examine whether lithospermic acid B (LSB) isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza has an ameliorative effect on renal functional parameters in association with the expression of aquaporin 2 (AQP 2) and Na,K-ATPase in the ischemia-reperfusion induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. LSB showed strong antioxidant activity against production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-induced hemolysis, and production of lipid peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. Polyuria caused by down-regulation of renal AQP 2 in the ischemia-reperfusion induced ARF rats was partially restored by administration of LSB (40 mg/kg, i.p.), restoring expression of AQP 2, in renal inner and outer medulla. The expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit in outer medulla of the ARF rats was also restored in the ARF rats by administration of LSB, while beta1 subunit level was not altered. The renal functional parameters including creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and solute-free reabsorption were also partially restored in ischemia-ARF rats by administration of LSB. Histological study also showed that renal damages in the ARF rats were abrogated by administration of LSB. Taken together, these data indicate that LSB ameliorates renal defects in rats with ischemia-reperfusion induced ARF, most likely via scavenging of ROS. PMID:15302225

  11. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  12. Al18F-NODA-butyric acid: biological evaluation of a new PET renal radiotracer

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Shetty, Dinesh; Nye, Jonathon A.; Shim, Hyunsuk; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Renal scintigraphy is an important imaging modality for the diagnosis and management of a variety of renal diseases including obstruction and renovascular hypertension as well as the evaluation of absolute and relative kidney function. The goal of this work was to evaluate Al18F-NODA-butyric acid (Al18F-1) as a potential PET tracer to image the kidneys and monitor renal function by comparing its pharmacokinetic properties with those of 131I-o-iodohippurate (131I-OIH), the radioactive standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. Methods Al18F-1 was prepared in aqueous conditions using a one-pot Al18F-radiofluorination method and its radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. Biodistribution studies, using 131I-OIH as an internal control, were performed in normal rats and in rats with renal pedicle ligation. In vitro stability and metabolism of Al18F-1 were analyzed by HPLC. Dynamic microPET/CT studies were conducted in normal rats. Results Al18F-1 showed excellent stability in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in normal rats and in rats with simulated renal failure confirmed that Al18F-1 was exclusively cleared through the renal-urinary pathway and that the hepatic/gastrointestinal activity was less for Al18F-1 than for 131I-OIH both at 10 and 60 min. Dynamic PET showed a rapid transit of Al18F-1 through the kidneys into the bladder. Conclusion These results suggest that the easily labeled Al18F-based compounds provide a highly promising approach for the development of a PET renal radiotracer that combines superior imaging qualities with a reliable measure of effective renal plasma flow. PMID:24533986

  13. Nephroprotective Effect of Ursolic Acid in a Murine Model of Gentamicin-Induced Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Preethi G.; Chamari Nawarathna, Savindika; Kulkarni, Avdhooth; Habeeba, Umma; Reddy C., Sudarshan; Teerthanath, Srinivas; Shenoy, Jnaneshwara P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nephroprotective effects of ursolic acid in a murine model of gentamicin induced renal damage. Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 150–200 g were divided into 5 groups; normal saline, gentamicin 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 8 days, ursolic acid at 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, per oral for 8 days, ursolic acid administered 3 days prior and concurrently with gentamicin for 5 days. Blood urea, serum creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen analyses and microscopic examination of kidney were performed. Gentamicin treatment caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by marked elevation in serum urea, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (162.33 ± 9.92 mg/dL, 3.13 ± 0.12 mg/dL, 6.85 ± 0.35 mg/dL and 75.86 ± 4.64 mg/dL; resp.) when compared to the saline treated groups. Co-administration of ursolic acid with gentamicin decreased the rise in these parameters in a dose dependent manner. Histopathological analysis revealed epithelial loss with intense granular degeneration in gentamicin treated rats, whereas ursolic acid mitigated the severity of gentamicin-induced renal damage. To conclude, our data suggest that ursolic acid exhibits renoprotective effect in gentamicin induced renal damage and further studies on its mechanis of action are warranted. PMID:22811930

  14. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets

    PubMed Central

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Shi, Lijie; Schloetter, Monique; Sebastian, Anthony; Remer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for "Paleolithic-type" (Paleo) diets – which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here we compare measured NAEs with established NAE-estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Thirteen subjects with well controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. 24-hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate, and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically-derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Results Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA diet (+31±22 vs. 112±52 mEq/day, p=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52–0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary organic acid production. Conclusions Paleo diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources. PMID:23859996

  15. Teaching renal physiology in the 21st century: focus on acid-base physiology.

    PubMed

    Leehey, David J; Daugirdas, John T

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of renal physiology, and in particular acid-base physiology, is essential for an understanding of nephrology. Difficulties in both teaching and learning this material are major impediments to attracting medical trainees into nephrology. Approaches to teaching renal physiology include collaborative learning, computer-based learning and laboratory-based learning. Computer-based learning applications are becoming increasingly popular and can be useful, but are most successful when they incorporate interactive components. Students also note that the presence of a live instructor remains desirable. Some concepts of renal and in particular acid-base physiology can be taught using structured self-experimentation, a practice with a long tradition that possibly should be revitalized. PMID:26985388

  16. Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) and Bone Mineral Density in Men and Women: The Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the short term, bone may buffer excess acid by releasing calcium. It has been proposed that diets high in protein, which have high potential renal acid load, may contribute to low BMD. In contrast, some evidence indicates higher protein intake may be beneficial for bone health, possibly by enhanc...

  17. The First Observation of Domoic Acid in Plankton Net Samples from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Fuat; Yurdun, Türkan; Ünlü, Selma

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first evidence of domoic acid (DA), an algal neurotoxin produced by the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, from plankton net samples collected in the Sea of Marmara in December, 2010 and February, 2011. DA concentrations of plankton net samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using the fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl fluorescence derivatization technique (detection limit 0.2 ng DA). The biotoxin concentrations in samples from coastal waters varied between 0.96 and 5.25 µg DA/mL. We also investigated possible correlations between physicochemical parameters and DA concentration. The DA levels appear to be correlated negatively with silica and nitrite concentrations for both sampling periods. These data may be used to evaluate the probability of finding similar conditions in coastal waters of the Sea of Marmara in order to determine the potential risks to local aquaculture and fisheries. PMID:26615530

  18. The effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Banaei, Shokofeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) contributes to the development acute renal failure. Oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of IR injury (IRI). This study was designed to investigate the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is known antioxidant agent, in IR-induced renal injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h of reperfusion. 5-ASA (300 mg/kg, i.p) was administered prior to ischemia. After 24 h reperfusion, urine and blood samples were collected for the determination of creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and renal samples were taken for the histological evaluation. Results: Treatment with 5-ASA significantly decreased serum Cr and NO levels, also significantly increased urinary Cr level and decreased histopathological changes induced by IR. Conclusion: Treatment with 5-ASA had a beneficial effect on renal IRI. These results may indicate that 5-ASA exerts nephroprotective effects in renal IRI. PMID:27127324

  19. Dietary starch sources affect net portal appearance of amino acids and glucose in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, T-J; Dai, Q-Z; Yin, Y-L; Zhang, J; Huang, R-L; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z; Xie, M

    2008-05-01

    Four male pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; average initial (mean ± SEM) BW = 22.5 ± 1.1 kg), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein and carotid artery, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design to measure the effect of dietary starch sources on the net portal appearance of glucose and amino acids. Dietary starch sources were resistant starch (RS), maize, sticky rice and brown rice. Diets were provided at 0730, 1530 and 2330 h during a 6-day adjustment period and 1-day collection period. On day 7 of each period, blood samples were collected from the portal vein and carotid artery at 0730 h (prior to feeding) and hourly up to 8 h after meal. Blood samples were used to determine glucose, amino acid, packed cell volume and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). When calculated per 100 g feed intake, cumulative portal glucose appearance was lower (P < 0.05) for resistant starch than for maize, sticky rice or brown rice up to 8 h after the meal. Cumulative portal glucose appearance was higher (P < 0.05) for sticky rice and brown rice than for other diets until 4 h after the meal, but maize had higher cumulative glucose appearance after 4 h. Net cumulative portal concentrations of most amino acids for resistant starch were also reduced (P < 0.05) than for the other starch sources. Cumulative portal appearance of amino acid represented 48.39%, 63.76%, 61.80% and 59.18% of dietary intake for resistant starch, maize, sticky rice and brown rice, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary starch sources substantially affect the appearance of amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation. PMID:22443597

  20. Luteolin ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetic acid induced renal toxicity and tumor promotional response in rat.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Sarwat; Prasad, Lakshmi; Jahangir, Tamanna

    2009-05-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe-NTA) (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, i.p.) caused significant depletion in the detoxification and antioxidant enzyme armory with concomitant elevation in renal lipidperoxidation, serum toxicity markers viz. creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide generation, ornithine decarboxylase activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into renal DNA in wistar rats. However, pretreatment of animals with luteolin (10 and 20 micromol/kg body weight) for 7 consecutive days resulted in significant decrease in above parameters level. Renal glutathione content, glutathione metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level. The enhanced reduced glutathione level and enzyme activities involved in xenobiotic metabolism and maintaining antioxidant status of cells is suggestive of a chemopreventive efficacy of luteolin against Fe-NTA mediated oxidative stress, toxicity and cell proliferation response in rats. PMID:19579801

  1. Pharmacokinetic modeling of enterohepatic circulation of mycophenolic acid in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Colom, Helena; Lloberas, Núria; Andreu, Franc; Caldés, Ana; Torras, Joan; Oppenheimer, Federico; Sanchez-Plumed, Jaime; Gentil, Miguel A; Kuypers, Dirk R; Brunet, Mercè; Ekberg, Henrik; Grinyó, Josep M

    2014-06-01

    Several factors contribute to mycophenolic acid (MPA) between-patient variability. Here we characterize the metabolic pathways of MPA and quantify the effect of combining genetic polymorphism of multidrug-resistant-associated protein-2, demographics, biochemical covariates, co-medication (cyclosporine (CsA) vs. macrolides), and renal function on MPA, 7-O-MPA-glucuronide (MPAG), and acyl-glucuronide (AcMPAG) disposition, in renal transplant recipients, after mycophenolate mofetil. Complete pharmacokinetic profiles from 56 patients (five occasions) were analyzed. Enterohepatic circulation was modeled by transport of MPAG to the absorption site. This transport significantly decreased with increasing CsA trough concentrations (CtroughCsA). MPAG and AcMPAG plasma clearances significantly decreased with renal function. No significant influence of multidrug-resistant-associated protein-2 C24T single-nucleotide polymorphism was found. The model adequately predicted the increase in MPAG/AcMPAG exposures in CsA and macrolide patients with decreased renal function. This resulted in higher MPA exposures in macrolide patients versus CsA patients, and increased MPA exposures with renal function from 25 to 10 ml/min, in macrolide patients, owing to enhanced MPAG enterohepatic circulation. Lower-percentage enterohepatic circulation occurred with higher CtroughCsA and renal function values. The lack of MPA protein-binding modeling did not permit evaluation of the impact of renal function and CtroughCsA on MPA exposures in CsA patients. Thus, dose tailoring of covariates is recommended for target MPA exposure. PMID:24402086

  2. Repercussion of acetylsalicylic acid during fetal development on later renal hemodynamics of rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Lucena-Júnior, José M; Barreto, Izabel S S; Angelim, José L C; Paixão, Ana D O

    2008-08-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) during pregnancy reaches the fetus. It seems important to know possible repercussions of ASA on later renal function of the offspring, as well as repercussions of this drug on factors that may influence fetal development, such as maternal plasma volume and placental oxidative stress. It was evaluated whether ASA changes maternal plasma volume and/or placental oxidative stress, fetal weight and renal function of the offspring at adult life. ASA (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., dissolved in ETOH 10%) or ETOH 10% was administered to Wistar rat dams, from the day 7 to day 20 of pregnancy/parturition. Plasma volume and the placental oxidative stress were evaluated on day 20 of pregnancy, using, respectively, the Evans blue dye and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances methods. Mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated in the anesthetized offspring, at the age of 90 days, using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance respectively. Plasma volume was 76% (P < 0.05) higher in ASA compared with that in control dams, but placental oxidative stress was the same for both groups. Fetal body weight, the number of nephrons, GFR, RBF and renal vascular resistance were similar for the same gender among the offspring of the two groups. However, reduced hematocrit (9.8%, P < 0.05), increased renal plasma flow (27%, P < 0.05) and reduced filtration fraction (32%, P < 0.05) were seen in the female offspring. In conclusion, although ASA had increased maternal plasma volume, it did not change nephrogenesis nor GFR in the adult offspring. The changes in renal plasma flow and filtration fraction seen in the ASA female offspring might partially be due to the reduced hematocrit. PMID:18705748

  3. Antitumor effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and topotecan in renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akinori; Asano, Takako; Horiguchi, Akio; Ito, Keiichi; Sumitomo, Makoto; Asano, Tomohiko

    2011-01-01

    The treatment modality for advanced renal cancer is limited. The development of novel systemic therapies has long been waited for. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is one of the most potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are promising novel anticancer agents. SAHA has already been tested in phase II clinical trials; however, its effectiveness has been found to be limited. Recently, the combination of SAHA and topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan, was shown to be effective, but this treatment strategy has not been tested in renal cancer cells. In the present study, we found that the combination of SAHA and topotecan effectively inhibited the growth of renal cancer cells by suppressing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and cyclin D1, and promoting retinoblastoma protein (Rb) dephosphorylation. Furthermore, the combination therapy was found to inhibit both the function and expression of HDACs, which may be one of the main mechanisms of the combination therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that has revealed the combined beneficial effect of SAHA and topotecan on renal cancer cells. Combining SAHA and topotecan is thus a promising approach to the treatment of renal cancer. PMID:21542457

  4. Valproic Acid Prevents Renal Dysfunction and Inflammation in the Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Costalonga, Elerson C.; Silva, Filipe M. O.; Noronha, Irene L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major contributor to acute kidney injury (AKI). At present, there are no effective therapies to prevent AKI. The aim of this study was to analyse whether valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties, prevents renal IRI. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: SHAM rats were subjected to a SHAM surgery, IRI rats underwent bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min, and IRI + VPA rats were treated with VPA at 300 mg/kg twice daily 2 days before bilateral IRI. Animals were euthanized at 48 hours after IRI. VPA attenuated renal dysfunction after ischemia, which was characterized by a decrease in BUN (mg/dL), serum creatinine (mg/dL), and FENa (%) in the IRI + VPA group (39 ± 11, 0.5 ± 0.05, and 0.5 ± 0.06, resp.) compared with the IRI group (145 ± 35, 2.7 ± 0.05, and 4.9 ± 1, resp.; p < 0.001). Additionally, significantly lower acute tubular necrosis grade and number of apoptotic cells were found in the IRI + VPA group compared to the IRI group (p < 0.001). Furthermore, VPA treatment reduced inflammatory cellular infiltration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that VPA prevents the renal dysfunction and inflammation that is associated with renal IRI. PMID:27195290

  5. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

    1988-04-01

    We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

  6. A rapid food screener ranks potential renal acid load of renal stone formers similarly to a diet history questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Dietary acid load was reported to be inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The calcium renal stone formers (RSFs) should be recommended to lower their dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) to reduce stone recurrence. Reduction of dietary PRAL also showed a promising role for the prevention of other metabolic diseases. However, clinicians often fail to provide nutritional screening and counseling due to lack of simple tools to obtain a reliable dietary history. A one-page food screener (LAKE score) was recently designed to obtain a reliable measure of dietary PRAL in short time. We report the testing of such an instrument in the evaluation of PRAL: in a population of 135 healthy subjects (60 males, 75 females; age range 18-73), living in the area of Milan, Italy. Each participant received both the one-page LAKE food screener and an extensive 24-h dietary questionnaire. We examined agreement between the LAKE food screener scores, and estimates of PRAL and other nutrients produced by the computerized processing of thorough 24-h dietary histories. Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (r > 0.50) showed that LAKE score ranked subjects quite well with respect to dietary PRAL. LAKE positive subscore ranked patients with respect to dietary intake of total protein (r = 0.642) and phosphate (r = 0.648). We also obtained an excellent correlation of LAKE negative subscore with potassium intake (r = -0.531) and vitamin C (r = -0.554) as estimated by 24 h recalls. The LAKE score ranked patients similar to the estimates of 24-h dietary recalls, used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of dietary PRAL. This rapid, simple and inexpensive food screener for the evaluation of dietary PRAL could provide a "snapshot" of the diet of the RSFs to allow an immediate feedback to the patient during office consultation. PMID:23532416

  7. Roles of organic anion transporters in the renal excretion of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hatsuki; Hirata, Taku; Terada, Tomohiro; Jutabha, Promsuk; Miura, Daisaku; Harada, Kouji H; Inoue, Kayoko; Anzai, Naohiko; Endou, Hitoshi; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Koizumi, Akio

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid, an environmental contaminant, is found in both wild animals and human beings. There are large species and sex differences in the renal excretion of perfluorooctanoic acid. In the present study, we aimed to characterize organic anion transporters 1-3 (OAT1-3) in human beings and rats to investigate whether the species differences in the elimination kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid from the kidneys can be attributed to differences in the affinities of these transporters for perfluorooctanoic acid. We used human (h) and rat (r) OAT transient expression cell systems and measured the [(14)C] perfluorooctanoic acid transport activities. Both human and rat OAT1 and OAT3 mediated perfluorooctanoic acid transport to similar degrees. Specifically, the kinetic parameters, K(m), were 48.0 +/- 6.4 microM for h OAT1; 51.0 +/- 12.0 microM for rOAT1; 49.1 +/- 21.4 microM for hOAT3 and 80.2 +/- 17.8 microM for rOAT3, respectively. These data indicate that both human and rat OAT1 and OAT3 have high affinities for perfluorooctanoic acid and that the species differences in its renal elimination are not attributable to affinity differences in these OATs between human beings and rats. In contrast, neither hOAT2 nor rOAT2 transported perfluorooctanoic acid. In conclusion, OAT1 and OAT3 mediated perfluorooctanoic acid transport in vitro, suggesting that these transporters also transport perfluorooctanoic acid through the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells in vivo in both human beings and rats. Neither human nor rat OAT2 mediated perfluorooctanoic acid transport. Collectively, the difference between the perfluorooctanoic acid half-lives in human beings and rats is not likely to be attributable to differences in the affinities of these transporters for perfluorooctanoic acid. PMID:18373647

  8. Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario; Montanaro, Domenico; Risaliti, Andrea; Terrosu, Giovanni; Sponza, Massimo; Bresadola, Fabrizio

    2005-12-15

    Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss.

  9. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition in human renal tubular epithelial cell death induced by aristolochic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Xinming; Cai Yan; Gong Likun; Liu Linlin; Chen Fangping; Xiao Ying; Wu Xiongfei; Li Yan; Xue Xiang |; Ren Jin . E-mail: cdser_simm@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2007-07-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), a natural nephrotoxin and carcinogen, can induce a progressive tubulointerstitial nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which AA causes renal injury remains largely unknown. Here we reported that the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays an important role in the renal injury induced by aristolochic acid I (AAI). We found that in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}, AAI caused mitochondrial swelling, leakage of Ca{sup 2+}, membrane depolarization, and release of cytochrome c in isolated kidney mitochondria. These alterations were suppressed by cyclosporin A (CsA), an agent known to inhibit MPT. Culture of HK-2 cell, a human renal tubular epithelial cell line for 24 h with AAI caused a decrease in cellular ATP, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and increase of caspase 3 activity. These toxic effects of AAI were attenuated by CsA and bongkrekic acid (BA), another specific MPT inhibitor. Furthermore, AAI greatly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in isolated mitochondria. We suggested that ANT may mediate, at least in part, the AAI-induced MPT. Taken together, these results suggested that MPT plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HK-2 cell injury induced by AAI and implied that MPT might contribute to human nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid.

  10. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  11. Renal clearance of uric acid is linked to insulin resistance and lower excretion of sodium in gout patients.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles; Herrero-Beites, Ana María; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Erauskin, Gorka Garcia; Merriman, Toni

    2015-09-01

    Inefficient renal excretion of uric acid is the main pathophysiological mechanism for hyperuricemia in gout patients. Polymorphisms of renal tubular transporters linked with sodium and monosaccharide transport have yet to be demonstrated. We intended to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance, evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), through a transversal study of non-diabetic patients with gout, with normal renal function, not treated with any medication but colchicine as prophylaxis. One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated. Clearance of uric acid was inversely correlated with insulin resistance and directly correlated with fractional excretion of sodium. In multivariate analysis, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, in addition to insulin resistance and fractional excretion of sodium, were associated with renal clearance of uric acid. HOMA cutoff for efficient versus inefficient renal handling of uric acid was 2.72, close to that observed in studies of reference population. The impact of insulin resistance and renal handling of sodium on renal clearance of uric acid may help to explain why hyperuricemia is more commonly associated with diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25763991

  12. Mechanisms of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to improve cardiac remodeling in chronic renal failure disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Ju; Zhang, Huanji; Chen, Jie; Zuo, Zhiyi; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-02-15

    Both clinical and basic science studies have demonstrated that cardiac remodeling in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is very common. It is a key feature during the course of heart failure and an important risk factor for subsequent cardiac mortality. Traditional drugs or therapies rarely have effects on cardiac regression of CRF and cardiovascular events are still the first cause of death. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are the products of arachidonic acids metabolized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. It has been found that EETs have important biological effects including anti-hypertension and anti-inflammation. Recent data suggest that EETs are involved in regulating cardiomyocyte injury, renal dysfunction, chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related risk factors and signaling pathways, all of which play key roles in cardiac remodeling induced by CRF. This review analyzes the literature to identify the possible mechanisms for EETs to improve cardiac remodeling induced by CRF and indicates the therapeutic potential of EETs in it. PMID:23313758

  13. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  14. Reduced Tc-99m DMSA uptake in a patient with renal tubular acidosis: effect of acid-base imbalance.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Meltem; Topaloğlu, Rezan

    2002-11-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used as a renal cortical imaging agent to detect parenchymal abnormalities especially in children. Kidney uptake of DMSA provides an index for evaluation of a functional tubular mass, which depends on the renal blood flow and proximal tubular cell membrane transport function. We here report a boy with renal tubular acidosis, which has noticeably reduced uptake on his Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy, despite a totally normal Tc-99m MAG-3 study. The case reported here clearly demonstrates a situation in which renal uptake of DMSA may be dissociated from a functional renal mass and the importance of acid-base balance which alters Tc-99m DMSA uptake. PMID:12508844

  15. Renal calcium and magnesium excretion during vasopressin administration into sheep with acid or alkaline urine.

    PubMed Central

    Beal, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. The proposition that changes in renal calcium excretion during vasopressin administration are positively correlated with concurrent changes in urine hydrogen ion concentration was tested by administration of vasopressin into twelve conscious diuresing sheep receiving either alkalinizing or acidifying infusions. 2. Vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in sheep with alkaline urine was associated with significant increases in urinary pH and decreases in the rate of calcium excretion whereas antidiuresis in sheep with acid urine was associated with significant decreases in urinary pH and no consistent effect on calcium excretion. 3. Magnesium excretion increased during vasopressin administration in most experiments regardless of urinary pH changes. 4. Vasopressin administration did not significantly alter the rate of excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphate or the rates of sodium, potassium, chloride, inulin, para-aminohippurate and osmolal clearance in sheep with either acid or alkaline urine. Potassium excretion and clearance in sheep with alkaline ruine was higher than that of sheep with acid urine during vasopressin infusion. 5. The results support the hypothesis that changes in renal tubular hydrogen ion concentration or bicarbonate concentration caused by water reabsorption from the collecting duct and possibly the late distal tubule could be part of the explanation for changes in renal calcium excretion which occur during vasopressin-induced antidiuresis. PMID:41939

  16. Higher estimated net endogenous Acid production may be associated with increased prevalence of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in chinese adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with reduced growth hormone levels and signaling. Such hormonal changes also occur in metabolic acidosis. Since mild metabolic acidosis can be diet induced, diet-induced acid load may constitute a nutritional factor with possible influence on NAFLD development. This study explored whether a higher diet-induced acid load is associated with an increased likelihood of NAFLD. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (330 male, 463 female) aged 19-72 years were recruited through population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. Estimated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) was calculated using Frassetto's method and potential renal acid load (PRAL) was calculated using Remer's method based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at >5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Possible advanced fibrosis was defined as liver stiffness at >7.9 kPa by transient elastography. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each measure of dietary acid load and prevalent NAFLD or possible advanced fibrosis with adjustment for potential anthropometric and lifestyle factors. 220 subjects (27.7%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Estimated NEAP was positively associated with the likelihood of having NAFLD after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, current drinker status and the presence of metabolic syndrome [OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.02-1.52), p = 0.022]. The association was slightly attenuated but remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other dietary variables. No association between PRAL and NAFLD prevalence was observed. Both estimated NEAP and PRAL were not associated with the presence of possible advance fibrosis. Our findings suggest that there may be a modest association between diet-induced acid load and NAFLD. More studies are needed to ascertain the link between diet-induced acid load and NAFLD and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25905490

  17. The effect of acetylsalicylic acid on renal function in the Pekin duck.

    PubMed

    Gray, D A; Langrieger, N; Reschmaier, J; Simon, E

    1984-06-01

    The acute effects of intravenously administered lysine-acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on renal function in the Pekin duck have been studied with special reference to possible interactions with the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasotocin (AVT), in the control of renal water and solute output. ASA produces an immediate increase in urine flow rate which is dose-related in the range 25 to 100 mg kg-1 and is associated with a slight reduction in urine osmolality, but an overall increase in renal osmolal excretion affecting Na+, Cl- and K+ to approximately equal extents. The effects, which are similar in both saltwater and freshwater adapted ducks infused with hyposmotic saline or glucose solution, can also be produced by similar doses of sodium salicylate (SA). The mechanism of action is probably not related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthetases. There is no change in the glomerular filtration rate or peripheral blood pressure following the ASA injection. There is no change in the circulating level of AVT; however, preliminary studies do not exclude the possibility of a partial antagonism of salicylate to AVT at the renal level. PMID:6428501

  18. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Attenuates Renal Injury in Rats with Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Dolrawee; Thamprasert, Kamthorn

    2013-01-01

    This study was established to determine the possible protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a powerful antioxidant, on renal injury in obstructive nephropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into sham-operated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and UUO treated with ALA groups. ALA 60 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 days before UUO induction and continued afterward for 7 days. Renal function, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide, transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-β1), and histological changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Obstruction of the ureter resulted in renal dysfunction as indicated by significant increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Nonobstructed contralateral kidneys in all groups examined did not show any morphological or biochemical alterations. In untreated UUO group, the obstructed kidney developed marked hydronephrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and severe interstitial fibrosis. These functional and structural changes were associated with significant increases in tissue levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and TGF-β1 but decreases in reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment with ALA significantly minimized all the changes elicited by ureteral obstruction. These findings demonstrate that ALA supplementation attenuates renal injury in rats with obstructive nephropathy and further suggest that oxidative stress inhibition is likely to be involved in the beneficial effects of this compound. PMID:24288661

  19. The effect of acetylsalicylic acid on renal function in the Pekin duck.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. A.; Langrieger, N.; Reschmaier, J.; Simon, E.

    1984-01-01

    The acute effects of intravenously administered lysine-acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on renal function in the Pekin duck have been studied with special reference to possible interactions with the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasotocin (AVT), in the control of renal water and solute output. ASA produces an immediate increase in urine flow rate which is dose-related in the range 25 to 100 mg kg-1 and is associated with a slight reduction in urine osmolality, but an overall increase in renal osmolal excretion affecting Na+, Cl- and K+ to approximately equal extents. The effects, which are similar in both saltwater and freshwater adapted ducks infused with hyposmotic saline or glucose solution, can also be produced by similar doses of sodium salicylate (SA). The mechanism of action is probably not related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthetases. There is no change in the glomerular filtration rate or peripheral blood pressure following the ASA injection. There is no change in the circulating level of AVT; however, preliminary studies do not exclude the possibility of a partial antagonism of salicylate to AVT at the renal level. PMID:6428501

  20. Effect of amino acid infusion as an index of renal vasodilatory capacity in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Baylis, C

    1988-05-01

    Experiments were performed in midterm pregnant and virgin Munich-Wistar rats to investigate how the chronically vasodilated kidney of a gravid animal would respond to a further acute vasodilatory stimulus, in the form of a 90-min intravenous infusion of the amino acid glycine (at 0.167 mmol.kg-1.min-1). In young adult midterm pregnant rats studied in the base-line state, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), single-nephron GFR, renal plasma flow (RPF), and glomerular plasma flow were significantly greater (by approximately 30%) than in virgins due to a gestational renal vasodilation. Despite the underlying chronic renal vasodilation of pregnancy, the kidney of the gravid rat displays a marked further renal vasodilation (with consequent further increases in GFR and RPF) in response to acute glycine loading; the percent increase in GFR and RPF was similar to that seen in the relatively vasoconstricted virgin. This ability to further acutely increase the GFR in the pregnant rat was not limited to animals maintained on a normal protein diet but was also seen in older pregnant rats subjected to the additional chronic vasodilatory stimulus of long-term high-protein feeding, although in these older animals the gestational vasodilation was blunted. PMID:3364576

  1. Photovoltage kinetics of the acid-blue and acid-purple forms of bacteriorhodopsin: evidence for no net charge transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Moltke, S; Heyn, M P

    1995-01-01

    Time-resolved photovoltage measurements were performed with the acid-blue (bR605A) and acid-purple (bR565A) forms of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in the time range from 25 ns to 100 s. The bR605A and bR565A pigments were formed by titration with H2SO4 in the absence and presence of 150 mM KCI, respectively. Qualitatively the kinetics of the charge displacement in these two states are similar and consist of two fast phases in one direction (100 ns bandwidth limited and approximately 1 microsecond) followed by a decay in the opposite direction via one component for bR605A (4.4 +/- 0.6 ms) or two components for bR565A (33 +/- 8 microseconds and 3.6 +/- 0.5 ms). The transient photovoltage signal returns exactly to the initial value after several milliseconds, well before the passive discharge of the electrical measuring system at 2 s. We conclude that no net charge transfer occurs in either bR605A or bR565A. The direction of the fast components is opposite that of net proton translocation in bR at pH 7. So, if the charge that moves back and forth is due to a proton, it moves first in the direction of the cytoplasmic side of the membrane (< 1 microsecond) and returns to its initial position via the 4.4 ms (bR605A) or the 33 microseconds and 3.6 ms (bR565A) decay components. The amplitude of the charge motion in both low pH forms is too large to be due to isomerization alone and is comparable to one of the major components in bR at pH 7.2 PMID:8580350

  2. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandin synthesis on renal function.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, P; Ghezzi, F; Bastagli, L; Grimaldi, R; Cavazza, M; Minelli, C; Fontana, F; Clo', C; Ventura, C; Capelli, M

    1986-05-01

    The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (phosphatidylcholine) on renal function in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure, with liver cirrhosis, and with heart failure were studied. The drug was administered at 3.5 mg/kg i.v. (Linoleic acid 1.24 mg/kg). In all cases, the administration of the drug caused an increased excretion of sodium and especially of water with a reduction in basal urinary hypertonicity. The polyuria was caused by the higher glomerular filtration rate not being counterbalanced by an increase in tubular water reabsorption. The water reabsorption was mostly anisosmotic. The presence of urinary hypertonicity excluded an inhibition of ADH secretion by this drug. The sodium excretion was probably caused by an increase of the glomerular filtration rate whereas no significant changes in the tubular reabsorption of sodium were seen. We found a significant (p 0.05) increase in PGE2 urinary excretion after phosphatidylcholine administration. Lysine - acetylsalicylate injection after phosphatidylcholine, in other trials in the same patients, prevented the effects previously reported. Therefore we suggest that the effects of this drug are mediated by an increased availability of renal prostaglandins. PMID:3088601

  3. Renal cell carcinomas of chronic kidney disease patients harbor the mutational signature of carcinogenic aristolochic acid

    PubMed Central

    Jelakovi?, Bojan; Castells, Xavier; Tomi?, Karla; Ardin, Maude; Karanovi?, Sandra; Zavadil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent dietary cytotoxin and carcinogen, and an established etiological agent underlying severe human nephropathies and associated upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, collectively designated aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Its genome-wide mutational signature, marked by predominant A:T > T:A transversions occurring in the 5?-CpApG-3? trinucleotide context and enriched on the nontranscribed gene strand, has been identified in human upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas from East Asian patients and in experimental systems. Here we report a whole-exome sequencing screen performed on DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal cell carcinomas (RCC) arising in chronic renal disease patients from a Balkan endemic nephropathy (EN) region. In the EN regions, the disease results from the consumption of bread made from wheat contaminated by seeds of Aristolochia clematitis, an AA-containing plant. In five of eight (62.5%) tested RCC tumor specimens, we observed the characteristic global mutational signature consistent with the mutagenic effects of AA. This signature was absent in the control RCC samples obtained from patients from a nonendemic, metropolitan region. By identifying a new tumor type associated with the AA-driven genome-wide mutagenic process in the context of renal disease, our results suggest new epidemiological and public health implications for the RCC incidence worldwide, particularly for the high-risk regions with unregulated use of AA-containing traditional herbal medicines. PMID:25403517

  4. Alteration of Fatty Acid Oxidation in Tubular Epithelial Cells: From Acute Kidney Injury to Renal Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Noémie; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Renal proximal tubular cells are the most energy-demanding cells in the body. The ATP that they use is mostly produced in their mitochondrial and peroxisomal compartments, by the oxidation of fatty acids. When those cells are placed under a biological stress, such as a transient hypoxia, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is shut down for a period of time that outlasts injury, and carbohydrate oxidation does not take over. Facing those metabolic constraints, surviving tubular epithelial cells exhibit a phenotypic switch that includes cytoskeletal rearrangement and production of extracellular matrix proteins, most probably contributing to acute kidney injury-induced renal fibrogenesis, thence to the development of chronic kidney disease. Here, we review experimental evidence that dysregulation of FAO profoundly affects the fate of tubular epithelial cells, by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and eventually interstitial fibrosis. Restoring physiological production of energy is undoubtedly a possible therapeutic approach to unlock the mesenchymal reprograming of tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. In this respect, the benefit of the use of fibrates is uncertain, but new drugs that could specifically target this metabolic pathway, and, hopefully, attenuate renal fibrosis merit future research. PMID:26301223

  5. Renal D-amino acid oxidase mediates chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Zhou, Xiang-Jun; Cheng, Xi; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    N(G)-nitro-d-arginine (d-NNA), i.v. injected into rats, produced a pressor response, and was presumed to act via chiral inversion into N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. We examined the possible role of renal d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in the chiral inversion of d-NNA to l-NNA. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, l-NNA was detected via capillary electrochromatography in the blood immediately after i.v. injection of d-NNA. The time course of appearance of l-NNA paralleled the increase in blood pressure elicited by d-NNA. Unilateral renal ligation partially, and bilateral ligation completely, blocked the pressor response as well as the conversion of d-NNA to l-NNA. Furthermore, injection into conscious rats of sodium benzoate, a selective DAAO inhibitor, completely blocked the pressor response to naive d-NNA, but not pressor response to d-NNA preincubated with homogenates of the kidney. Homogenates of the kidneys, liver (lesser degree), and brain (much lesser degree) converted d-NNA to l-NNA, and the chiral inversion was blocked by the addition of benzoate. Moreover, d-NNA chiral inversion correlates with the activity of DAAO. Our results reveal a novel pathway of chiral inversion of d-amino acids where the renal DAAO plays an essential role that accounts for the biological activity of d-NNA. PMID:15496613

  6. Endocytotic Uptake of Zoledronic Acid by Tubular Cells May Explain Its Renal Effects in Cancer Patients Receiving High Doses of the Compound

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Anja; Sun, Shuting; McKenna, Charles E.; D’Haese, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Zoledronic acid, a highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate used for the treatment of pathological bone loss, is excreted unmetabolized via the kidney if not bound to the bone. In cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound renal excretion may be associated with acute tubular necrosis. The question of how zoledronic acid is internalized by renal tubular cells has not been answered until now. In the current work, using a primary human tubular cell culture system, the pathway of cellular uptake of zoledronic acid (fluorescently/radiolabeled) and its cytotoxicity were investigated. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that this primary cell culture model consistently mimics the physiological characteristics of molecular uptake/transport of the epithelium in vivo. Zoledronic acid was found to be taken up by tubular cells via fluid-phase-endocytosis (from apical and basolateral side) as evidenced by its co-localization with dextran. Cellular uptake and the resulting intracellular level was twice as high from the apical side compared to the basolateral side. Furthermore, the intracellular zoledronic acid level was found to be dependent on the administered concentration and not saturable. Cytotoxic effects however, were only seen at higher administration doses and/or after longer incubation times. Although zoledronic acid is taken up by tubular cells, no net tubular transport could be measured. It is concluded that fluid-phase-endocytosis of zoledronic acid and cellular accumulation at high doses may be responsible for the acute tubular necrosis observed in some cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound. PMID:25756736

  7. Increased plasma phenylacetic acid in patients with end-stage renal failure inhibits iNOS expression

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, J.; van der Giet, M.; Jankowski, V.; Schmidt, S.; Hemeier, M.; Mahn, B.; Giebing, G.; Tölle, M.; Luftmann, H.; Schlüter, H.; Zidek, W.; Tepel, M.

    2003-01-01

    NO prevents atherogenesis and inflammation in vessel walls by inhibition of cell proliferation and cytokine-induced endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Reduced NO production due to inhibition of either eNOS or iNOS may therefore reinforce atherosclerosis. Patients with end-stage renal failure show markedly increased mortality due to atherosclerosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that uremic toxins are responsible for reduced iNOS expression. LPS-induced iNOS expression in mononuclear leukocytes was studied using real-time PCR. The iNOS expression was blocked by addition of plasma from patients with end-stage renal failure, whereas plasma from healthy controls had no effect. Hemofiltrate obtained from patients with end-stage renal failure was fractionated by chromatographic methods. The chromatographic procedures revealed a homogenous fraction that inhibits iNOS expression. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, this inhibitor was identified as phenylacetic acid. Authentic phenylacetic acid inhibited iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. In healthy control subjects, plasma concentrations were below the detection level, whereas patients with end-stage renal failure had a phenylacetic acid concentration of 3.49 ± 0.33 mmol/l (n = 41). It is concluded that accumulation of phenylacetic acid in patients with end-stage renal failure inhibits iNOS expression. That mechanism may contribute to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with end-stage renal failure. PMID:12865413

  8. Age-related changes in the renal dopaminergic system and expression of renal amino acid transporters in WKY and SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João; Silva, Elisabete; Simão, Sónia; Cabral, José Miguel; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Gomes, Pedro; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in renal dopaminergic activity and expression of amino acid transporters potentially involved in renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Aging (from 13 to 91 weeks) was accompanied by increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both WKY and SHR. The sum of urinary dopamine and DOPAC and the urinary dopamine/l-DOPA ratio were increased in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. The urinary dopamine/renal delivery of l-DOPA ratio was increased in both rat strains with aging. LAT2 abundance was increased in aged WKY and SHR. The expression of 4F2hc was markedly elevated in aged SHR but not in aged WKY. ASCT2 was upregulated in both aged WKY and SHR. Plasma aldosterone levels and urinary noradrenaline levels were increased in aged WKY and SHR though levels of both entities were more elevated in aged SHR. Activation of the renal dopaminergic system is more pronounced in aged SHR than in aged WKY and is associated with an upregulation of renal cortical ASCT2 in WKY and of LAT2/4F2hc and ASCT2 in SHR. This activation may be the consequence of a counter-regulatory mechanism for stimuli leading to sodium reabsorption. PMID:21699911

  9. The role of p66shc in renal toxicity of oleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Istvan; Clark, Jeb S; Reed, Dustin K; Juncos, Luis A; Dixit, Mehul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adult and childhood obesity is an independent risk factor in development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). Pathologic consequences of obesity include non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced oxidative stress and consequent injury. Since the serine36 phosphorylated p66shc is a newly recognized mediator of oxidative stress and kidney injury, we studied its role in oleic acid (OA)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial depolarization and injury in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs). Methods RPTCs were used and treated with oleic acid (OA): ROS production, mitochondrial depolarization as well as injury were determined. Transcriptional effects of OA on the p66shc gene were determined in a reporter luciferase assay. The role of p66shc in adverse effects of OA was determined using knockdown, p66shc serine36 phosphorylation and cytochrome c-binding deficient cells. Results We found that OA increased ROS production via the mitochondria –and in less extent via the NADPH oxidase- resulting in ROS-dependent mitochondrial depolarization and consequent injury. Interestingly, OA also stimulated the promoter of p66shc. Hence, knockdown of p66shc, impairment its Ser36 phosphorylation (mutation of Ser36 residue to alanine) or cytochrome c binding (W134F mutation) significantly attenuated OA-dependent lipotoxicity. Conclusion These results offer a novel mechanism by which obesity may lead to renal tubular injury and consequently development of CKD. Manipulation of this pathway may offer therapeutic means to ameliorate obesity-dependent renal lipotoxicity. PMID:23988748

  10. Variability of mycophenolic acid elimination in the renal transplant recipients – population pharmacokinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila M; Janković, Slobodan M; Milovanović, Jasmina R; Catić-Đorđević, Aleksandra K; Spasić, Ana A; Stefanović, Nikola Z; Džodić, Predrag Lj; Šmelcerović, Andrija A; Cvetković, Tatjana P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for clearance of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in adult renal transplant recipients, to quantify the PK parameters and the influence of covariates on the MPA pharmacokinetic parameters. Parameters associated with plasma concentrations of MPA at steady-state were analyzed in 70 renal transplant recipients (mean age 42.97 years; mean total body weight 75.33 kg) using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM). Characteristics of patients screened for influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters were gender, age, body weight, time after transplantation, whether the patient was diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus, organ source (living or deceased donor), biochemical parameters and co-therapy (tacrolimus, cyclosporine, prednisolone, omeprazole, bisoprolol, carvedilol, nifedipine). A validation set of 25 renal transplant recipients was used to estimate the predictive performance of population pharmacokinetic model. Typical mean value of MPA oral clearance, estimated by base model (without covariates) was 0.741 L h(-1). During population modeling, the full model showed that clearance of the MPA was significantly influenced by age, total daily dose of MPA, creatinine clearance, albumin level, status and gender of a donor, and the nifedipine and tacrolimus co-therapy. In the final model, clearance of MPA was reported to be significantly influenced by age, total daily dose of MPA and thenifedipine co-therapy. The derived model describes adequately MPA clearance in terms of characteristics of our patients, offering basis for individual pharmacotherapy approach. PMID:25707517

  11. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium‐treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium‐treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium‐treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium‐treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg. PMID:25501430

  12. Renal acid-base excretion in normotensive salt-sensitive humans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A M; Cetto, C; Schorr, U; Spies, K P; Distler, A

    1993-12-01

    Reduced extracellular pH and bicarbonate levels recently have been reported in normotensive salt-sensitive subjects. To assess the possible role of altered renal acid-base handling in the perturbation of acid-base status in these individuals, we measured the renal acid-base excretion after an acute oral administration of either an alkali or acid load in normotensive salt-sensitive and salt-resistant men. Twenty-four young (22 to 29 years old), healthy male volunteers were placed on a low-salt diet (20 mmol NaCl per day) for 2 weeks with either 220 mmol NaCl or placebo added to the low-salt diet for 1 week each in a randomized single-blind crossover order. Salt sensitivity was defined as a significant drop in mean arterial pressure (> 3 mm Hg, mean of 60 readings taken on the seventh day of each diet, P < .05) during the low-salt diet. On the fifth and seventh days of each week, subjects were given an oral load of either sodium citrate (0.7 mmol/kg) or ammonium chloride (2.2 mmol/kg), respectively, in a randomized order, and arterial and urinary acid-base status was assessed at baseline and followed for 8 hours thereafter. According to the above definition, 13 subjects were considered salt sensitive. During the high-salt diet, mean arterial pressure was higher in the salt-sensitive than in the salt-resistant group (P < .01). Cumulative urinary bicarbonate excretion after the administration of sodium citrate was lower in the salt-sensitive than in the salt-resistant subjects during both the low-salt (46%, P < .001) and high-salt (32%, P < .01) diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8244521

  13. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  14. Treatment of renal uric acid stone by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with sodium bicarbonate: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Yong; Lian, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Yan; Song, Peng; Yan, Yi; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid stone is the most comment radiolucent renal stone with high recurrence rate, which would further cause acute upper urinary tract obstruction and kidney failure. Here we report two cases of renal uric acid stone from December 2012 to April 2013. One 43-year-old male patient suffered from chronic uric acid nephrolithiasis caused by the long-term indwelling of bilateral double-J stent. Another 69-year-old patient was also diagnosed with uric acid nephrolithiasis at the right kidney. Both patients were first treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), followed by 1.5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. After a week of the treatment, the uric acid stones in both patients were completely dissolved without retrograde infection. In summary, the use of ESWL and sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy as a combined modality is a safe, effective, inexpensive treatment for uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:26550383

  15. Treatment of renal uric acid stone by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with sodium bicarbonate: 2 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Yong; Lian, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Yan; Song, Peng; Yan, Yi; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid stone is the most comment radiolucent renal stone with high recurrence rate, which would further cause acute upper urinary tract obstruction and kidney failure. Here we report two cases of renal uric acid stone from December 2012 to April 2013. One 43-year-old male patient suffered from chronic uric acid nephrolithiasis caused by the long-term indwelling of bilateral double-J stent. Another 69-year-old patient was also diagnosed with uric acid nephrolithiasis at the right kidney. Both patients were first treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), followed by 1.5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. After a week of the treatment, the uric acid stones in both patients were completely dissolved without retrograde infection. In summary, the use of ESWL and sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy as a combined modality is a safe, effective, inexpensive treatment for uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:26550383

  16. Serum uric acid and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Bardin, Thomas; Dawson, Jesse; Dominiczak, Anna; Kielstein, Jan T; Manolis, Athanasios J; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. This highlights the need for greater attention to serum uric acid levels when profiling patients, and suggests that the threshold above which uricemia is considered abnormal is 6  mg/dl, in light of the available evidence. Another important question is whether lowering serum uric acid can improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes, and what therapeutic mechanism of action could provide more clinical benefits to patients; the available literature shows a trend toward improvement associated with administration of urate-lowering drugs, in particular for the xanthine oxidase inhibitors. The demonstrated efficacy of urate-lowering therapy on outcomes other than gout flares leads to the consideration that treatment may be beneficial even in the absence of overt gout when hyperuricemia accompanies other clinical conditions, such as urate deposition, advanced CKD or cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26136207

  17. Evidence for renal kinins as mediators of amino acid-induced hyperperfusion and hyperfiltration in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffa, A A; Vio, C P; Silva, R H; Vavrek, R J; Stewart, J M; Rust, P F; Mayfield, R K

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the role of tissue kallikrein and kinins in renal vasodilation produced by infusion of amino acids (AA). In rats fed a 9% protein diet for 2 wk, intravenous infusion of a 10% AA solution over 60-90 min reduced total renal vascular resistance and increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 25-40% and renal plasma flow (RPF) by 23-30% from baseline. This was associated with a two- to threefold increase in urinary kinin excretion rate. Acute treatment of rats with aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor, resulted in deposition of immunoreactive aprotinin in kallikrein-containing connecting tubule cells and inhibited renal kallikrein activity by 90%. A protinin pretreatment abolished the rise in urinary kinins and prevented significant increases in GFR and RPF in response to AA. In a second group of rats pretreated with a B2 kinin receptor antagonist, [DArg Hyp3, Thi5,8 D Phe7]bradykinin, AA infusion raised urinary kinins identically as in untreated controls, but GFR and RPF responses were absent. Aprotinin or the kinin antagonist produced no consistent change in renal function in rats that were not infused with AA.AA-induced increases in kinins were not associated with an increase in renal kallikrein activity. Notably, tissue active kallikrein level fell 50% in AA-infused rats. These studies provide evidence that kinins generated in the kidney participate in mediating renal vasodilation during acute infusion of AA. Images PMID:1373739

  18. Fatty Acid Labeling from Glutamine in Hypoxia Can Be Explained by Isotope Exchange without Net Reductive Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Flux

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Shlomi, Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA is an important anabolic precursor for lipid biosynthesis. In the conventional view of mammalian metabolism, acetyl-CoA is primarily derived by the oxidation of glucose-derived pyruvate in mitochondria. Recent studies have employed isotope tracers to show that in cancer cells grown in hypoxia or with defective mitochondria, a major fraction of acetyl-CoA is produced via another route, reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate (catalyzed by reverse flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH). Here, we employ a quantitative flux model to show that in hypoxia and in cells with defective mitochondria, oxidative IDH flux persists and may exceed the reductive flux. Therefore, IDH flux may not be a net contributor to acetyl-CoA production, although we cannot rule out net reductive IDH flux in some compartments. Instead of producing large amounts of net acetyl-CoA reductively, the cells adapt by reducing their demand for acetyl-CoA by importing rather than synthesizing fatty acids. Thus, fatty acid labeling from glutamine in hypoxia can be explained by spreading of label without net reductive IDH flux. PMID:24030823

  19. Higher estimates of daily dietary net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the elderly as compared to the young in a healthy, free-living elderly population of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Iftikhar; Alam, Ibrar; Paracha, Parvez I; Pawelec, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake has been shown to influence the acid-base balance in human subjects; however, this phenomenon is poorly understood and rarely reported for the least well-studied segment of older people in a developing country. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify estimates of daily net endogenous acid production (NEAP) (mEq/d) in a sample of otherwise healthy elderly aged 50 years and above; and (2) compare NEAP between the elderly and young to determine the effects of aging, which could contribute to changes in the acid-base balance. Analyses were carried out among 526 elderly and 131 young participants (aged 50-80 and 23-28 years, respectively), all of whom were free of discernible disease, nonsmokers, and not on any chronic medication. Selected anthropometric factors were measured and 24-hour dietary recall was recorded. We used two measures to characterize dietary acid load: (1) NEAP estimated as the dietary potential renal acid load plus organic acid excretion, the latter as a multiple of estimated body surface area; and (2) estimated NEAP based on protein and K. For the young and elderly, the ranges of NEAP were 12.1-67.8 mEq/d and 2.0-78.3 mEq/d, respectively. Regardless of the method used, the mean dietary acid-base balance (NEAP) was significantly higher for the elderly than the young (P = 0.0035 for NEAP [elderly, 44.1 mEq/d versus young 40.1 mEq/d]; and P = 0.0035 for the protein:potassium ratio [elderly, 1.4 mEq/d versus young 1.1 mEq/d]). A positive and significant correlation was found between NEAP and energy, protein, and phosphorus (P < 0.05 for all trends). The findings from this study provide evidence of the relatively higher production of NEAP in older people, possibly as an effect of higher consumption of certain acid-producing foods by the elderly. PMID:23271903

  20. Estimates of daily net endogenous acid production in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Richard H T; Millward, D Joe; Brown, Jonathan E; Macdonald, Helen M; Lovell, David P; Frassetto, Lynda A; Remer, Thomas; Lanham-New, Susan A

    2008-09-01

    Dietary intake has been shown to influence acid-base balance in human subjects under tightly controlled conditions. However, the net effect of food groups on alkali/acid loading in population groups is unclear. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify estimates of daily net endogenous acid production (NEAP) (mEq/d) in a representative group of British elderly aged 65 years and older; (2) compare and characterise NEAP by specific nutrients and food groups likely to influence dietary acid loading; (3) determine whether geographical location influenced NEAP. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey dataset, consisting of a 4 d weighed record and anthropometric data, was used to estimate dietary acidity. Dietary under-reporters were excluded by analysing only subjects with energy intakes >/= 1.2 x BMR. NEAP was estimated as the dietary potential renal acid load+organic acid excretion, the latter as a multiple of estimated body surface area. NEAP was lower in women compared with men (P < 0.001), and lower than values reported in a Swedish elderly cohort. Lower dietary acidity was significantly associated with higher consumption of fruit and potatoes and lower consumption of meat, bread and eggs (P < 0.02 to P < 0.001). Lower intakes of fish and cheese were associated with lower NEAP in men only (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001). There were regional differences for NEAP, with higher intakes in Scotland/Northern regions compared with Central/South-Western and London/South-Eastern regions (P = 0.01). These data provide an insight into the acid-generating potential of the diet in the British elderly population, which may have important consequences in this vulnerable group. PMID:18394215

  1. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  2. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid activates Arf6 to promote the mesenchymal malignancy of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shigeru; Mikami, Shuji; Sugino, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Hashimoto, Ari; Onodera, Yasuhito; Furukawa, Shotaro; Handa, Haruka; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu; Sabe, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of mesenchymal properties by cancer cells is critical for their malignant behaviour, but regulators of the mesenchymal molecular machinery and how it is activated remain elusive. Here we show that clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently utilize the Arf6-based mesenchymal pathway to promote invasion and metastasis, similar to breast cancers. In breast cancer cells, ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases employ GEP100 to activate Arf6, which then recruits AMAP1; and AMAP1 then binds to the mesenchymal-specific protein EPB41L5, which promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition and focal adhesion dynamics. In renal cancer cells, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates Arf6 via its G-protein-coupled receptors, in which GTP-Gα12 binds to EFA6. The Arf6-based pathway may also contribute to drug resistance. Our results identify a specific mesenchymal molecular machinery of primary ccRCCs, which is triggered by a product of autotaxin and it is associated with poor outcome of patients. PMID:26854204

  4. Aristolochic acid exposure in Romania and implications for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Dana; Jinga, Viorel; Harnden, Patricia; Banks, Rosamonde E; Blanche, Helene; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Chopard, Priscilia; Letourneau, Louis; Lathrop, G Mark; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aristolochic acid (AA) is a nephrotoxicant associated with AA nephropathy (AAN) and upper urothelial tract cancer (UUTC). Whole-genome sequences of 14 Romanian cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) recently exhibited mutational signatures consistent with AA exposure, although RCC had not been previously linked with AAN and AA exposure was previously reported only in localised rural areas. Methods: We performed mass spectrometric measurements of the aristolactam (AL) DNA adduct 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl) aristolactam I (dA-AL-I) in nontumour renal tissues of the 14 Romanian RCC cases and 15 cases from 3 other countries. Results: We detected dA-AL-I in the 14 Romanian cases at levels ranging from 0.7 to 27 adducts per 108 DNA bases, in line with levels reported in Asian and Balkan populations exposed through herbal remedies or food contamination. The 15 cases from other countries were negative. Interpretation: Although the source of exposure is uncertain and likely different in AAN regions than elsewhere, our results demonstrate that AA exposure in Romania exists outside localised AAN regions and provide further evidence implicating AA in RCC. PMID:26657656

  5. Human bone morphogenetic protein-7 does not counteract aristolochic acid-induced renal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Debelle, Frédéric; Piccirilli, Julie; El Kaddouri, Fadoua; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Mies, Frédérique; Bourgeade, Marie-Françoise; Nortier, Joëlle L

    2015-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AA) are nephrotoxic and profibrotic agents, leading to chronic kidney disease. As some controversial studies have reported a nephroprotective effect of exogenous recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-7 in several models of renal fibrosis, we investigated the putative effect of rhBMP-7 to prevent progressive tubulointerstitial damage after AA intoxication in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the toxicity of AA on renal tubular cells was demonstrated by an increase in vimentin as well as a decrease in β-catenin expressions, reflecting a dedifferentiation process. Increased fibronectin and interleukin-6 levels were measured in the supernatants. Enhanced α-SMA mRNA levels associated to decreased E-cadherin mRNA levels were also measured. Incubation with rhBMP-7 only prevented the increase in vimentin and the decrease in β-catenin expressions. In vivo, in a rat model of AA nephropathy, severe tubulointerstitial lesions induced by AA after 10 and 35 days (collagen IV deposition and tubular atrophy), were not prevented by the rhBMP-7 treatment. Similarly, rhBMP-7 did not ameliorate the significant increase in urinary concentrations of transforming growth factor-β. In summary, our in vitro data demonstrated a poor beneficial effect of rhBMP-7 to reverse cell toxicity while, in vivo, there was no beneficial effect of rhBMP-7. Therefore, further investigations are needed to confirm the exact role of BMP-7 in progressive chronic kidney disease. PMID:25663515

  6. Preoperative and postoperative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by /sup 99m/technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, J.; Itoh, H.; Okada, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Yoshida, O.; Fujita, T.; Torizuka, K.

    1983-09-01

    /sup 99m/Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, consisting of the cortical image and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate, was used to assess preoperative and postoperative renal function in 55 patients with staghorn calculi. In 14 of 20 patients who had undergone extended pyelolithotomy and in 4 of 22 who had undergone nephrolithotomy there was an increase or no change in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the surgically treated kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake in the patients who had undergone pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight per cent of the preoperative dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake rate in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting the postoperative recovery of renal function. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal images provide evidence of morphological changes in the cortex of the kidney with stones and the dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake rate is a useful adjunct for quantitative assessments of preoperative and postoperative residual cortical function.

  7. Deletion of the pH Sensor GPR4 Decreases Renal Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuming; Yang, Li V.; Tiegs, Brian C.; Arend, Lois J.; McGraw, Dennis W.; Penn, Raymond B.

    2010-01-01

    Proton receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that accept protons as ligands and function as pH sensors. One of the proton receptors, GPR4, is relatively abundant in the kidney, but its potential role in acid-base homeostasis is unknown. In this study, we examined the distribution of GPR4 in the kidney, its function in kidney epithelial cells, and the effects of its deletion on acid-base homeostasis. We observed GPR4 expression in the kidney cortex, in the outer and inner medulla, in isolated kidney collecting ducts, and in cultured outer and inner medullary collecting duct cells (mOMCD1 and mIMCD3). Cultured mOMCD1 cells exhibited pH-dependent accumulation of intracellular cAMP, characteristic of GPR4 activation; GPR4 knockdown attenuated this accumulation. In vivo, deletion of GPR4 decreased net acid secretion by the kidney and resulted in a nongap metabolic acidosis, indicating that GPR4 is required to maintain acid-base homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that GPR4 is a pH sensor with an important role in regulating acid secretion in the kidney collecting duct. PMID:20798260

  8. Role of organic anion and amino acid carriers in transport of inorganic mercury in rat renal basolateral membrane vesicles: influence of compensatory renal growth.

    PubMed

    Lash, Lawrence H; Hueni, Sarah E; Putt, David A; Zalups, Rudolfs K

    2005-12-01

    Susceptibility to renal injury induced by inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) increases significantly as a result of compensatory renal growth (following reductions of renal mass). We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related in part to increased basolateral uptake of Hg(2+) by proximal tubular cells. To determine the mechanistic roles of various transporters, we studied uptake of Hg(2+), in the form of biologically relevant Hg(2+)-thiol conjugates, using basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles isolated from the kidney(s) of control and uninephrectomized (NPX) rats. Binding of Hg(2+) to membranes, accounted for 52-86% of total Hg(2+) associated with membrane vesicles exposed to HgCl(2), decreased with increasing concentrations of HgCl(2), and decreased slightly in the presence of sodium ions. Conjugation of Hg(2+) with thiols (glutathione, L-cysteine (Cys), N-acetyl-L-cysteine) reduced binding by more than 50%. Under all conditions, BLM vesicles from NPX rats exhibited a markedly lower proportion of binding. Of the Hg(2+)-thiol conjugates studied, transport of Hg-(Cys)(2) was fastest. Selective inhibition of BLM carriers implicated the involvement of organic anion transporter(s) (Oat1 and/or Oat3; Slc22a6 and Slc22a8), amino acid transporter system ASC (Slc7a10), the dibasic amino acid transporter (Slc3a1), and the sodium-dicarboxylate carrier (SDCT2 or NADC3; Slc13a3). Uptake of each mercuric conjugate, when factored by membrane protein content, was higher in BLM vesicles from uninephrectomized (NPX) rats, with specific increases in transport by the carriers noted above. These results support the hypothesis that compensatory renal growth is associated with increased uptake of Hg(2+) in proximal tubular cells and we have identified specific transporters involved in the process. PMID:16162843

  9. [A survey of the dosage of zoledronic acid and investigation of the relationship between renal function and adverse events].

    PubMed

    Yanae, Masashi; Nakao, Mariko; Fujiwara, Kimiko; Kawaguchi, Akinori; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Chiba, Yasutaka; Morita, Tetsuya; Yamazoe, Yuzuru; Nishida, Shozo

    2012-07-01

    Zoledronic acid(ZA)dosage should be adjusted according to the risk it poses for renal impairment. The recommended dosage for patients with creatinine clearance(Ccr)of less than 60mL/min was established on the basis of an area under the curve analysis, but is doubted because it was calculated without performing a clinical trial. Creatinine secretion from the renal tubule affects Ccr; therefore, using Ccr as the basis for dosage adjustment may be inappropriate since this can cause an overestimation of the glomerular filtration rate(GFR). The Japanese Society of Nephrology recommends using the estimated GFR(eGFR)for evaluating renal function. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between renal function before and adverse events(AEs)after ZA administration. The dosage of only 3 of the 47 patients with Ccr less than 60mL/min could be adjusted on the basis of Ccr. During ZA therapy(3 courses), the blood urea nitrogen level and occurrence of hypokalemia were higher in the non-adjusted group than in the adjusted group, but the total number of AEs was equivalent for both groups. For all the patients, Ccr and eGFR were used as parameters for investigating AEs; the total number of AEs was equivalent for patients with differing levels of renal function. Therefore, we suggest that AEs observed during ZA therapy did not depend on the renal function level before ZA administration. PMID:22790045

  10. Mechanistic toxicokinetic model for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: inhibition of active renal reabsorption as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Felmlee, Melanie A; Wang, Qi; Cui, Dapeng; Roiko, Samuel A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2010-09-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, exhibits saturable renal clearance and capacity-limited metabolism. The objectives of this study were to construct a mechanistic toxicokinetic (TK) model describing saturable renal reabsorption and capacity-limited metabolism of GHB and to predict the effects of inhibition of renal reabsorption on GHB TK in the plasma and urine. GHB was administered by iv bolus (200-1,000 mg/kg) to male Sprague-Dawley rats and plasma and urine samples were collected for up to 6 h post-dose. GHB concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. GHB plasma concentration and urinary excretion were well-described by a TK model incorporating plasma and kidney compartments, along with two tissue and two ultrafiltrate compartments. The estimate of the Michaelis-Menten constant for renal reabsorption (K (m,R)) was 0.46 mg/ml which is consistent with in vitro estimates of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated uptake of GHB (0.48 mg/ml). Simulation studies assessing inhibition of renal reabsorption of GHB demonstrated increased time-averaged renal clearance and GHB plasma AUC, independent of the inhibition mechanism assessed. Co-administration of GHB (600 mg/kg iv) and L: -lactate (330 mg/kg iv bolus plus 121 mg/kg/h iv infusion), a known inhibitor of MCTs, resulted in a significant decrease in GHB plasma AUC and an increase in time-averaged renal clearance, consistent with the model simulations. These results suggest that inhibition of renal reabsorption of GHB is a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GHB overdoses. Furthermore, the mechanistic TK model provides a useful in silico tool for the evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20461486

  11. Acetic Acid as a Sclerosing Agent for Renal Cysts: Comparison with Ethanol in Follow-Up Results

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Tae-Seok; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Joo Won; Park, Seong Jin; Chang, Sung-Goo; Jeon, Yang Hyeon

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To compare follow-up results of sclerotherapy for renal cyst using 50% acetic acid with those using 99% ethanol as sclerosing agents.Methods: Eighty-one patients underwent sclerotherapy and 58 patients, 23 males, 35 females, aged 6-76 years, having a total of 60 cysts, were included in this study; the others were lost to follow-up. The renal cysts were diagnosed by sonography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sclerotherapy was performed using 50% acetic acid for 32 cysts in 31 patients and 99% ethanol for 28 cysts in 27 patients. Under fluoroscopic guidance, cystic fluid was aspirated as completely as possible. After instillation of a sclerosing agent corresponding to 11.7%-25% (4-100 ml) of the aspirated volume, the patient changed position for 20 min and then the agent was removed. Patients were followed up by sonography for a period of 1-49 months. The volume of the renal cyst after sclerotherapy was compared with that of the renal cyst calculated before sclerotherapy. Medical records were reviewed to analyze complications.Results: The mean volume after sclerotherapy of the 17 cysts followed for 3-4 months in the acetic acid group was 5.1% of the initial volume, and for the 14 cysts in the ethanol group it was 10.2%. Complete regression during follow-up was shown in 21 cysts (66%) in the acetic acid group; the mean volume of these cysts before the procedure was 245 ml. The mean volume of the nine (32%) completely regressed cysts in the ethanol group was 184 ml. Mild flank pain, which occurred in three patients in each group, was the only complication and resolved the next day.Conclusion: Acetic acid was an effective and safe sclerosing agent for renal cysts, tending to induce faster and more complete regression than ethanol.

  12. Efficacy of Single-Session Percutaneous Drainage and 50% Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of Simple Renal Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong Seo, Tae-Seok; Park, Ho Chul

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, and to compare the therapeutic results of 5 and 20 min sclerosant dwell techniques. Methods. During the past 9 years, 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy was performed on 67 cysts in 66 patients. An acetic acid volume corresponding to a mean of 23% of the aspirated cyst volume was injected into the cysts. A 20 min dwell time with position changes was performed in 32 cysts (31 patients; group I) and 8% of volume for a 5 min dwell time in 35 cysts (35 patients; group II). Three- and 6-month sonographic or CT follow-up was performed for a minimum of 1 year. Complete regression was defined as no remaining cyst measurable on sonography with or without a scar at the renal cortex. Partial regression was defined as a decreased cyst volume compared with that before sclerotherapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the therapeutic results between the two groups. Results. For 67 simple renal cysts, complete regression on follow-up was observed in 21 of 32 cysts (66%; group I) and 22 of 35 cysts (63%; group II); the remaining 24 cysts all showed partial regression. The partial reduction rate of the cyst's volume was 97.4% (91.3-99.4%) in group I and 96.9% (90.8-99.5 %) in group II. There were no procedure-related major complications, and no statistically significant differences in the complete regression and partial volume reduction rates between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Fifty percent acetic acid is an effective and safe sclerosing agent for simple renal cysts. Fifty percent acetic acid sclerotherapy with a 5 min sclerosant dwell time, using a volume of about 10% of the aspirated volume, is sufficient for satisfactory results of simple renal cyst sclerotherapy.

  13. Does Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) Estimated from Diet Vary with Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Men and Women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acid-base balance may influence skeletal health in humans. Animal and plant-based foods provide acid and alkaline precursors respectively, which contribute to net acid-base balance. Algorithms for estimating NEAP from dietary protein and potassium levels have been published, but it is unknown if age...

  14. Net flux of nutrients across the rumen wall of lactating dairy cows as influenced by dietary supplements of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Benchaar, C; Chiquette, J; Desrochers, A

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether a dietary supplementation of folic acid, at levels used in our previous studies, would affect ruminal fermentation and the net flux of nutrients across the rumen wall of lactating dairy cows. Approximately 4 wk after calving, 5 lactating multiparous cows were surgically equipped with a ruminal cannula, an ultrasonic flow probe around the right ruminal artery, and indwelling catheters in the right ruminal vein and the ileocolic artery. Cows were fed a total mixed ration served in 7 equal meals per d (i.e., every 3.4 h). The experimental design was an unbalanced crossover arrangement with 3 periods of 4 wk each. The vitamin supplement, incorporated in equal amounts into each meal, was supplied at 0, 3, or 6 mg of folic acid per kg of BW per d. During the last week of each experimental period, blood samples were taken simultaneously from the 2 catheters every 30 min and rumen fluid was collected every 60 min during 2 consecutive meal intervals. Dietary supplementation with folic acid had no effect on milk production (27.2 +/- 1.3 kg/d) or DMI (19.9 +/- 0.7 kg/d), but milk concentrations and yields of total solids, fat, and protein increased linearly with increasing doses of folic acid ingested. Concentrations of folates in rumen fluid and arterial plasma, averaged over time, increased linearly with the dose of folic acid ingested but the net flux of folates across the rumen wall was not different from zero. Concentrations of butyrate in ruminal fluid decreased quadratically with the daily supply in folic acid. Dietary supplements of folic acid had no effect on pH and osmolality of ruminal fluid, nor on ruminal concentrations of lactate, ammonia, acetate, or propionate, total VFA, or microbial counts. The uptake of urea-N by the rumen wall tended to increase quadratically with the dose ingested but net fluxes of other nutrients were not affected by treatments. These results suggest that the effects of folic acid supplements on lactational performance cannot be explained by effects on rumen metabolism. PMID:19923614

  15. Targeting the fatty acid transport protein CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, in the treatment of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hideki; Yanagita, Motoko

    2016-04-01

    Augmentation of the CD36 pathway, which involves the uptake of several endogenous ligands including free fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, contributes to the damage of proximal tubules and podocytes, whereas ablation of CD36 attenuates renal injury. Souza et al. demonstrate that 5A peptide can inhibit CD36 signaling, attenuate chronic kidney disease progression, and ameliorate inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis by reducing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting the therapeutic potential of 5A peptide against CD36-mediated renal injury. PMID:26994570

  16. Net transfer and incorporation of yolk n-3 fatty acids into developing chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Sim, J S

    1993-01-01

    The effect of egg yolk fatty acid composition on the uptake and utilization of essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids by the developing chick embryo was studied. Eggs were enriched with n-9, n-3, or n-6 fatty acids by incorporating sunflower seed high in oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), flax seed rich in linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), or sunflower seed high in linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) into the laying hen diets. Fertile eggs were collected and incubated. The fatty acid composition of eggs and newly hatched chicks were compared. Feeding diets containing flax seed increased (P < .05) total n-3 fatty to 528.4 mg compared with 53.9 and 39.3 mg for eggs from hens fed diets with high oleic acid or regular sunflower seed, respectively. Levels of C18:2 n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in eggs from hens fed diets containing regular or high oleic acid sunflower seeds. Dietary fat did not influence the total lipid content of the egg yolk or total lipids of chick tissues. The fatty acid composition of the hatched progeny was significantly altered by egg yolk lipids. However, the percentage incorporation of essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids into the progeny increased when yolk sources of these fatty acids were low. The developing chick embryo appeared to preferentially take up docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid from the yolk lipids. Evidence also suggests that conversion of C18:2 n-6 and C18:2 n-3 to longer chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids occurs during the incubation period. PMID:8426851

  17. Hepatic and renal Bcrp transporter expression in mice treated with perfluorooctanoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Eldasher, Lobna M.; Wen, Xia; Little, Michael S.; Bircsak, Kristin M.; Yacovino, Lindsay L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) is an efflux transporter that participates in the biliary and renal excretion of drugs and environmental chemicals. Recent evidence suggests that pharmacological activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) can up-regulate the hepatic expression of Bcrp. The current study investigated the regulation of hepatic and renal Bcrp mRNA and protein in mice treated with the PPARα agonist perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and the ability of PFOA to alter human BCRP function in vitro. Bcrp mRNA and protein expression were quantified in the livers and kidneys of male C57BL/6 mice treated with vehicle or PFOA (1 or 3 mg/kg/day oral gavage) for 7 days. PFOA treatment increased liver weights as well as the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the PPARα target gene, cytochrome P450 4a14. Compared to vehicle-treated control mice, PFOA increased hepatic Bcrp mRNA and protein between 1.5- and 3-fold. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed enhanced canalicular Bcrp staining in liver sections from PFOA-treated mice. The kidney expression of cytochrome P450 4a14 mRNA, but not Bcrp, was increased in mice treated with PFOA. Micromolar concentrations of PFOA decreased human BCRP ATPase activity and inhibited BCRP-mediated transport in inverted membrane vesicles. Together, these studies demonstrate that PFOA induces hepatic Bcrp expression in mice and may inhibit human BCRP transporter function at concentrations that exceed levels observed in humans. PMID:23435180

  18. Pretransplant uric acid levels may be predictive for prognosis of renal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Kulah, Eyup

    2016-05-01

    Background The living kidney donor counseling prior to the operation may be helpful to learn how to properly care for the remaining single kidney for the rest of their lives. Worsening kidney function is associated with elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels. In this study, we compared the baseline laboratory findings of renal transplant donors with their follow-up laboratory values. Methods The study consisted of 173 adult donors including 91 females and 82 males with a mean age of 46.82 ± 11.31 years. The follow-up clinical and laboratory examinations were performed on the third day at the end of the first and the sixth months of the surgery. According to donor's creatinine levels we constituted two groups: high creatinine and normal creatinine. Results Patients within the high creatinine group had significantly higher mean serum UA levels when compared with the normal creatinine group. In multivariate analysis, among the other effective variables, UA level alone was found to be the most effective parameter predicting the post-transplant creatinine levels (p = 0.004, odds ratio: 12.4, 95% CI: 2.3-68.3) at sixth month post-transplantation. In the ROC analysis for the effects of UA, the following cutoff values were found: >6 mg/dL in men (sensitivity 81.3%, specificity 76.9%, positive predictive value 89.7%, negative predictive value 62.5%, accuracy 80%) and ≥5 mg/dL in women (sensitivity 72.2, specificity 74.4%, positive predictive value 89.7%, negative predictive value 62.5%, accuracy: 73.7%). Conclusion Pretransplant serum UA levels can give important clues regarding the renal functions of the donors during the postoperative period. PMID:26888379

  19. Retinoic acid improves recovery after nephrectomy and decreases renal TGF-β1 expression. Gender-related effects.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Dealmy; Barbier, Olivier; Sierra, Gerardo; Reyes, Jose L

    2014-04-01

    End-stage renal disease is a cause for death worldwide. Renal transplant is a therapeutic alternative, restricted by the scant number of donors. Function of the donor kidney is under risk of adverse circumstances such as fibrosis, where profibrotic effect of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role. Efforts to diminish risks of damage in the remnant kidney of the donor are required. Vitamin A represents one alternative. It has beneficial effects on some nephropathies, mainly those related to oxidative stress. It also participates in normal intrauterine renal development. We studied the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), active form of vitamin A, on postnephrectomy compensatory growth, in male or female rats. Compensatory growth and renal function were evaluated on four experimental groups: Control without treatment (CTL), ATRA-treated intact rats (CTL + RA), nephrectomized rats (NFX), and ATRA-treated nephrectomized rats (NFX + RA). We evaluated glomerular function (inulin clearance), tubular function (fractional excretions of sodium and potassium), and urinary flow. Renal mass was also estimated. In ATRA-treated animals, compensatory growth was higher than in nephrectomized rats without treatment. Hyperfiltration after nephrectomy was less intense in ATRA-treated female than in male rats. In tubular functions, effect of ATRA was more evident in female than in male rats. Glomerular expression of TGF-β1 was lower in ATRA-treated animals than in controls. ATRA reduced intensity and duration of compensatory changes after nephrectomy, improving recovery. PMID:23190197

  20. Effect of routine doses of antacid on renal acidification.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, C L; Oster, J R; Vaamonde, C A; Perez, G O; Rogers, A I

    1986-07-01

    Ten healthy volunteers took a magnesium and aluminium hydroxide antacid for 4 days, and their urinary acid excretion was measured. During antacid ingestion, blood bicarbonate levels did not change significantly, but there were highly significant rises in urine pH and bicarbonate excretion and falls in the 24 h excretion of titratable acid, ammonium, and net acid; the average change in net acid excretion was 41 +/- 4 mmol (72 +/- 9%) per 24 h. This large reduction in net acid excretion appears to result from neutralisation of more hydrochloric acid than sodium bicarbonate in the gastrointestinal tract rather than from absorption of exogenous alkali. Although metabolic alkalosis does not occur with their use in normal individuals, these antacids should not be termed "non-systemic". They might cause important changes in renal drug handling, solubility of excreted substances, or acid-base status in patients at risk. PMID:2873325

  1. In vitro fatty acid enrichment of macrophages alters inflammatory response and net cholesterol accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary omega (omega)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and omega–6 PUFA are thought to have unique benefits with respect to cardiovascular disease. Macrophages (M phi) differentiated from human monocytic cell line THP-1 were used to assess the effect of omega-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]...

  2. Net flux of amino acids across splanchnic tissues of ewes during abomasal protein and glucose infusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Studies in sheep (MacRae et al., 1997) and in pigs (Stoll et al., 1998) indicated approximately one-third of the amino acids absorbed by the enterocyte are metabolized within the enterocyte and are never released into the blood. Of those amino acids that are metabolized, 60% are appar...

  3. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  4. Aristolochic acids — Induced transcriptomic responses in rat renal proximal tubule cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Katarzyna M.; Evans, Andrew; Lock, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are the active components of herbal drugs derived from Aristolochia species that have been used for medicinal purposes since antiquity. However, AAs have recently been discovered to be highly nephrotoxic and induced urothelial cancer in humans and malignant tumors in the kidney and urinary tract of rodents. In this study, we exposed rat renal proximal tubule cells in vitro to a sub-cytotoxic level of AAs at three different time points (6 h, 24 h and 72 h). We then analyzed the gene expression profile after the compound exposure. Functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and DAVID tools revealed that at the late time point (72 h) there are many significantly altered genes involved in cancer-related pathways such as p53 signaling. MIAMI-compliant microarray data are deposited in the NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE68687 and can be found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE68687. PMID:26484264

  5. Aristolochic acids - Induced transcriptomic responses in rat renal proximal tubule cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Katarzyna M; Evans, Andrew; Lock, Edward A

    2015-09-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are the active components of herbal drugs derived from Aristolochia species that have been used for medicinal purposes since antiquity. However, AAs have recently been discovered to be highly nephrotoxic and induced urothelial cancer in humans and malignant tumors in the kidney and urinary tract of rodents. In this study, we exposed rat renal proximal tubule cells in vitro to a sub-cytotoxic level of AAs at three different time points (6 h, 24 h and 72 h). We then analyzed the gene expression profile after the compound exposure. Functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and DAVID tools revealed that at the late time point (72 h) there are many significantly altered genes involved in cancer-related pathways such as p53 signaling. MIAMI-compliant microarray data are deposited in the NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE68687 and can be found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE68687. PMID:26484264

  6. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value. PMID:7395791

  7. Shuttle Net, Tuna Net

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Rockwell International, NASA's prime contractor for the Space Shuttle, asked West Coast Netting (WCN) to develop a safety net for personnel working on the Shuttle Orbiter. This could not be an ordinary net, it had to be relatively small, yet have extraordinary tensile strength. It also had to be fire resistant and resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light. After six months, WCN found the requisite fiber, a polyester-like material called NOMEX. The company was forced to invent a more sophisticated twisting process since conventional methods did not approach specified breaking strength. The resulting product, the Hyperester net, sinks faster and fishes deeper, making it attractive to fishing fleets. A patented treatment for UV protection and greater abrasion resistance make Hyperester nets last longer, and the no-shrink feature is an economic bonus.

  8. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for the Management of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Imbalances in Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, Lenar; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2016-05-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is used to manage electrolyte and acid-base imbalances in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Although a standard solution and prescription is acceptable in most clinical circumstances, specific disorders may require a tailored approach such as adjusting fluid composition, regulating CRRT dose, and using separate intravenous infusions to mitigate and correct these disturbances. Errors in fluid prescription, compounding, or delivery can be rapidly fatal. This article provides an overview of the principles of acid-base and electrolyte management using CRRT. PMID:27113697

  9. Treatment of renal fibrosis by rebalancing TGF-β/Smad signaling with the combination of asiatic acid and naringenin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Ren, Gui-ling; Li, Jun; Lan, Hui Yao

    2015-11-10

    We recently showed that imbalance of TGF-β/Smad signaling with over-activation of Smad3 but lower levels of Smad7 is a central mechanism of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we report here that inhibition of Smad3 with naringenin (NG) and upregulation of Smad7 with asiatic acid (AA) produced an additive effect on inhibition of renal fibrosis in a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy. We found that AA, a triterpene from Centella Asiatica, functioned as a Smad7 agonist and suppressed TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis by inducing Smad7. Whereas, NG, a flavonoid from grapefruits and citrus fruits, was a Smad3 inhibitor that inhibited renal fibrosis by blocking Smad3 phosphorylation and transcription. The combination of AA and NG produced an additive effect on inhibition of renal fibrosis by blocking Smad3 while upregulating Smad7. Thus, rebalancing the disorder of TGF-β/Smad signaling by treatment with AA and NG may represent as a novel and effective therapy for chronic kidney disease associated with fibrosis. PMID:26474462

  10. Treatment of renal fibrosis by rebalancing TGF-β/Smad signaling with the combination of asiatic acid and naringenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Ren, Gui-ling; Li, Jun; Lan, Hui Yao

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that imbalance of TGF-β/Smad signaling with over-activation of Smad3 but lower levels of Smad7 is a central mechanism of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we report here that inhibition of Smad3 with naringenin (NG) and upregulation of Smad7 with asiatic acid (AA) produced an additive effect on inhibition of renal fibrosis in a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy. We found that AA, a triterpene from Centella Asiatica, functioned as a Smad7 agonist and suppressed TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis by inducing Smad7. Whereas, NG, a flavonoid from grapefruits and citrus fruits, was a Smad3 inhibitor that inhibited renal fibrosis by blocking Smad3 phosphorylation and transcription. The combination of AA and NG produced an additive effect on inhibition of renal fibrosis by blocking Smad3 while upregulating Smad7. Thus, rebalancing the disorder of TGF-β/Smad signaling by treatment with AA and NG may represent as a novel and effective therapy for chronic kidney disease associated with fibrosis. PMID:26474462

  11. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  12. Altered 1-/sup 14/C arachidonic acid metabolism in arterial wall from patients with renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neri Serneri, G.G.; Abbate, R.; Gensini, G.F.; Panetta, A.; Casolo, G.C.; Costantini, A.; Carini, M.; Selli, C.

    1986-05-01

    The metabolism of 1-/sup 14/C arachidonic acid (AA) by arterial wall in patients with renal cell carcinoma and in control patients undergoing nephrectomy was investigated by a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. No differences in 1-/sup 14/C AA uptake and in the total amount of metabolites were found between the two groups, whereas the amounts of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathway (COP and LOP) metabolites produced by patients with renal cell carcinoma were significantly lower and, respectively, higher than those produced by the control group. The COP/LOP ratio was 7.2 +/- 5.5 in the control group in comparison to 1.9 +/- 0.5 in renal cell carcinoma patients. The decrease in COP metabolites was due to a markedly reduced synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2), with no changes in thromboxane B2 (TxB2), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The changes in PGI2 and 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) (metabolite of LOP) vascular production were not related to tumor dimension. The decrease in PGI2 synthesis may represent a factor favoring metastasis and thrombosis in neoplastic patients.

  13. Renal handling of drugs in renal failure. I: Differential effects of uranyl nitrate- and glycerol-induced acute renal failure on renal excretion of TEAB and PAH in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.H.; Lin, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    Two etiologically different models of experimental acute renal failure were induced in rats by administration of either glycerol or uranyl nitrate. Both compounds caused a substantial decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the net tubular secretion of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). The degree of renal impairment induced by uranyl nitrate and glycerol appeared to be dose related. Deprivation of drinking water 24 hr before the administration of glycerol potentiated the renal damage. In uranyl nitrate-induced renal failure, the decline of the net tubular secretion for TEAB and PAH was not proportional to the decrease in GFR; the secretion process deteriorated faster than the GFR. For example, when 0.5 mg/kg uranyl nitrate was administered, GFR fell to approximately 65% of normal, whereas the net tubular secretion was decreased to 30% of normal. These results suggest that the tubular transport was preferentially affected by uranyl nitrate. In contrast, in glycerol-induced renal failure, the decline of TEAB secretion fell in a parallel fashion with the GFR, suggesting that the glomeruli and the proximal tubules were equally damaged by glycerol. However, in this latter model, the decline of PAH secretion did not parallel the decrease in GFR, contradicting the proposal that glycerol affects equally the glomeruli and the proximal tubules. This discrepancy may be due to the selective competitive inhibition of PAH secretion by the accumulation of naturally occurring organic acids.

  14. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Pieter A J G; Standing, Joseph F; Barker, Charlotte I S; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G; Delanghe, Joris R; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].). PMID:26349821

  15. Augmented Renal Clearance Implies a Need for Increased Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Dosing in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Joseph F.; Barker, Charlotte I. S.; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G.; Delanghe, Joris R.; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].) PMID:26349821

  16. Evaluation of equations predicting the net portal appearance of amino acid nitrogen in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Côrtes, C; Ortigues-Marty, I; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2014-03-01

    A better assessment of digestible protein and AA flows is required to improve the predictions of animal performance in ruminants (e.g., growth and yields of milk and milk protein). In that respect, 2 recent meta-analyses were conducted in our laboratory to establish the relationships between net portal appearance of AA nitrogen (NPA-AAN) and dietary characteristics either from the National Research Council (Washington, DC) or Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA; St Genès Champanelle, France). Three prediction equations were selected from these meta-analyses: one equation based only on N intake (NI) and 2 equations based on NI, the intake of neutral detergent fiber, plus the dietary concentration of either total digestible nutrients or digestible organic matter. In the current meta-analysis, 2 new equations were developed to predict NPA-AAN from the estimated supply of metabolizable protein (MP) and the protein truly digestible in the intestine (PDI). The reliability of these 5 equations to predict NPA-AAN was evaluated using an independent database. On average, NPA-AAN predictions based on the supply of MP or PDI had the highest coefficient of determination and the lowest root of mean square prediction error and mean and regression biases compared with predictions based on dietary characteristics, suggesting better reliability with the former. No major difference was detected between NPA-AAN predictions based on parameters from the National Research Council or INRA, except that predictions based on MP had the lowest mean and regression biases. In each equation, mean of residual NPA-AAN (observed NPA-AAN minus predicted values) was lowest and negative for sheep compared with dairy cows, suggesting that NPA-AAN were overpredicted in sheep. Many continuous variables biased NPA-AAN predictions based on NI only, but none of the tested variables biased the predictions based on the supply of MP or PDI, corroborating the better reliability for the prediction equations based on the supply of digestible protein. Of the tested continuous variables, only the dietary concentration of crude protein (CP) biased NPA-AAN predictions based on NI plus dietary characteristics. The NPA-AAN responses to dietary CP concentration were overpredicted as dietary CP concentration increased and underpredicted as CP decreased, suggesting that ruminants were more efficient at converting ingested N into digestible protein when fed low-CP diets compared with high-CP diets. PMID:24472125

  17. Indispensable but insufficient role of renal D-amino acid oxidase in chiral inversion of NG-nitro-D-arginine.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Li, Xin; Hao, Bin; Gong, Nian; Sun, Wen-Qiang; Konno, Ryuichi; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Unidirectionally chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine (D-NNA) to its L-enantiomer (L-NNA) occurred in rats, and it was blocked markedly (ca. 80%) by renal vascular ligation, and entirely (100%) by the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) inhibitor sodium benzoate, suggesting that renal DAO is essential for the inversion. However, the doses of sodium benzoate administrated were extremely high (e.g., 400 mg/kg) due to its low potency. It is thus possible that sodium benzoate-mediated blockade of D-NNA inversion might be due to its nonspecific (or non-DAO-related) effects. In addition, after D-NNA was incubated with the pure enzyme of DAO in vitro without tissue homogenates, L-NNA was not produced, even though D-NNA was disposed. We propose that this occurred because D-NNA was first converted to its corresponding alpha-keto acid by DAO and then to L-NNA by transaminase(s); however, there was no direct evidence for this process. The goal of this study is to further elucidate the process of D-NNA chiral inversion both in vivo and in in vitro tissue homogenates by comparing mutant ddY/DAO(-/-) mice that lack DAO activity entirely compared to normal ddY/DAO(+/+) mice and Swiss mice. Furthermore, the ability to produce L-NNA from D-NNA-corresponding alpha-keto acids (N(G)-nitroguanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) produced by porcine kidney-derived DAO (pkDAO) was also studied in the DAO inhibitor-pretreated rats. We found that D-NNA chiral inversion occurred in Swiss mice and ddY/DAO(+/+) mice both in vivo and in in vitro kidney homogenates, but not in ddY/DAO(-/-) mice, correlated to their DAO activities. The alpha-keto acid (N(G)-nitro-guanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) from D-NNA was able to produce L-NNA, and subsequent vasoconstriction and pressor responses. These results indicate that the role of renal DAO is indispensible but insufficient for chiral inversion of D-NNA and other neutral and polar D-amino acids, and unidentified aminotransferase(s) are involved in a subsequent mechanism for the process of chiral inversion. PMID:20564560

  18. [The effect of therapy with small doses of mega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on renal reserve and metabolic disturbances in patients with primary IGA glomerulopathy].

    PubMed

    Sulikowska, Beata; Manitius, Jacek; Niewegłowski, Tomasz; Szydłowska-łysiak, Wiesława; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2002-08-01

    Renal reserve is believed to be diagnostic dynamic method for accessing both early renal failure and renal vascular reactivity. The aim of our study was to follow renal reserve during 12 month therapy with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 was given orally of a: 540 mg of eicosapentaenic acid and 810 mg of docosaheksenic acid daily. Before and after 12 month of therapy renal reserve (expressed as % change of basal creatinine clearance) was estimated during i.v. dopamine infusion in dose 2 ug/min/b.w. Twelve month therapy was associated with increase of renal reserve (respectively 14.86 +/- 16.35 vs 30.25 +/- 14.27%), HDL cholesterol (respectively 47.55 +/- 11.49 vs 58.05 +/- 7.89 mg/dl) and decrease 24 hrs proteinuria (respectively 3.31 +/- 2.01 vs 1.31 +/- 1.37 g/24 h), total cholesterol TCH (respectively 251.15 +/- 50.91 vs 214.15 +/- 24.09 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (respectively 170.0 +/- 47.22 vs 124.15 +/- 17.93 mg/dl), serum uric acid (respectively 7.53 +/- 1.01 vs 5.59 +/- 0.88 mg/dl), fasting insulinemia (respectively 11.27 +/- 5.28 vs 9.20 +/- 4.80 U/ml) for p < 0.05. The statistically significant correlation coefficient were found only between following parameters: % renal reserve vs insulin (r = -0.55, p < 0.05), delta 24 h proteinuria vs delta TCH (r = 0.69, p < 0.05), delta 24 h proteinuria vs delta LDL (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). Our study suggest that omega-3 therapy improves renal reserve and its effect is to some extend related to improvement of some metabolic disturbances. Also this therapy ameliorate proteinuria which is linked with lipid lowering effect of omega-3. PMID:12476895

  19. In vivo effects of high-dose steroids on nucleic acid content of immunocompetent cells of renal allograft recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Walle, A.J.; Wong, G.Y.; Suthanthiran, M.; Rubin, A.L.; Stenzel, K.H.

    1988-03-01

    High-dose steroids administered to renal allograft recipients for treatment of acute graft rejection episodes may affect cell cycle progression of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. DNA synthesis and cellular DNA and RNA contents of PBM cells were measured in 8 patients during clinically stable periods, and in another 10 patients both during acute rejection episodes and during 7 days of administration of high-dose steroids. Improved renal function documented successful reversal of the rejection episodes in the 10 patients. Compared with the stable patients, the rejecting patients had higher numbers of cells undergoing clonal expansion--namely, higher proportions of G1-cells and of proliferating, or S, G2, and M (SG2M) cells. Steroid treatment had no acute effects on proportions of G1 or SG2M cells in vivo or on incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine by PBM cells in vitro. However, cells in the prereplicative compartment of the cell cycle (G0/1 cells) had significantly lower RNA content within 7 days of treatment with high doses of steroids. The results suggest that steroids do not acutely influence the posttranscriptional synthesis and the contents of nucleic acids of cells undergoing clonal expansion in vivo. The prereplicative phase of allogeneically stimulated PBM cells of renal allograft recipients may therefore be the cell cycle phase most sensitive to steroids in vivo.

  20. Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein protects against tubulointerstitial injury in aldosterone-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Hoshino, Seiko; Katayama, Kimie; Igarashi-Migitaka, Junko; Hirata, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2015-01-15

    To demonstrate the renoprotective function of human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) expressed in proximal tubules in aldosterone (Aldo)-induced renal injury, hL-FABP chromosomal transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice received systemic Aldo infusions (Tg-Aldo and WT-Aldo, respectively) were given 1% NaCl water for 28 days. In this model, elevation of systolic blood pressure, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, macrophage infiltration in the interstitium, tubulointerstitial damage, and depositions of type I and III collagens were observed. Elevation of systolic blood pressure did not differ in WT-Aldo vs. Tg-Aldo animals, however, renal injury was suppressed in Tg-Aldo compared with WT-Aldo mice. Dihydroethidium fluorescence was used to evaluate reactive oxidative stress, which was suppressed in Tg-Aldo compared with WT-Aldo mice. Gene expression of angiotensinogen in the kidney was upregulated, and excretion of urinary angiotensinogen was increased in WT-Aldo mice. This exacerbation was suppressed in Tg-Aldo mice. Expression of hL-FABP was upregulated in proximal tubules of Tg-Aldo mice. Urinary excretion of hL-FABP was significantly greater in Tg-Aldo than in Tg-control mice. In conclusion, hL-FABP ameliorated the tubulointerstitial damage in Aldo-induced renal injury via reducing oxidative stress and suppressing activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. PMID:25339700

  1. Renal effects of a novel endogenous natriuretic agent xanthurenic acid 8-o-?-d-glucoside in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron; Okun-Gurevich, Marina; Ovcharenko, Elena; Goltsman, Ilia; Karram, Tony; Cain, Cristopher; Abassi, Zaid; Winaver, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Xanthurenic acid 8-o-?-d-glucoside is an endogenous derivative of tryptophan metabolism, isolated from urine of patients with chronic renal disease. This compound was suggested previously to act as a natriuretic hormone based on its ability to block short circuit currents in a frog skin assay and to induce a sustained natriuresis when injected into rats (C. D. Cain et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007: 1787317878). The present communication describes the effects of the compound on renal clearance and hemodynamic parameters in male SpragueDawley rats maintained on a normal salt (0.40.5%) diet. Intravenous administration of synthetic xanthurenic acid 8-o-?-d-glucoside in two consecutive incremental doses (6.3 and 31.5 nmol) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05), in urine flow (43.91 6.31 ?L/min vs. 10.54 2.21 ?L/min), absolute rate of sodium excretion (3.99 0.95 ?Eq/min vs. 1.15 ?Eq/min), and percentage sodium excretion (1.63 0.46% vs. 0.37 0.12%, peak response vs. baseline, respectively). The natriuretic/diuretic effect was associated also with a significant increase in potassium excretion. These effects were not related to changes in renal hemodynamics or in arterial blood pressure. Pretreatment with the sodium channel blocker, amiloride, completely abolished the natriuretic and kaluretic actions of the compound. Administration of the xanthurenic acid derivative caused a dose-related increase in urinary nitrite/nitrate excretion. Moreover, under chronic nitric oxide blockade by l-NG-Nitro-Arginine-Methyl-Esther (l-NAME) sodium excretion was similar in rats treated or untreated with the compound. Our data demonstrate that xanthurenic acid 8-o-?-d-glucoside has significant diuretic/natriuretic and kaluretic properties. An intact amiloride-sensitive sodium channel is required for the renal effects of the compound. The data further suggest that the natriuretic effect is mediated in part by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. PMID:24400157

  2. Urinary Excretion of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 is Associated with Albuminuria and Renal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Marenao; Mita, Tomohiro; Fuseya, Takahiro; Ishimura, Shutaro; Watanabe, Yuki; Hoshina, Kyoko; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP), in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated. Methods Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226) were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was followed up one year later. Results In 93 (23.7%) of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4), triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1) and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001). Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile. Conclusions Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage. PMID:25506691

  3. Renal effects of long-term treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harshna; Barr, Aiala; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed N

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of case reports link the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to interstitial nephritis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the long-term use of 5-ASA has harmful effects on renal function in patients with IBD. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 171 consecutive outpatients with Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis was conducted. Serum creati-nine levels and body weight were measured before and after treatment to calculate the creatinine clearance (CrCl) rate. RESULTS: In 171 patients (93 women, 78 men), the mean ( SD) dose of 5-ASA was 3.650.85 g/day with a cumulative dose of 117.7 kg over an interval of 8.45.9 years. Serum creatinine concentrations increased from 76.8 ?mol/L to 88.7 ?mol/L (n=171; P<0.0001) and the CrCl rate fell significantly from 104.6 mL/min to 93.1 mL/min (n=81; P<0.0001). There was one case of interstitial nephritis reported. Treatment groups included mesalamine (74.3%), sulfasalazine (15.2%) and combination (sulfalsalazine/mesalamine [10.5%]) with treatment durations of 7.24.5, 12.38.7 and 11.26.7 years, respectively. The duration of treatment was the most important covariate for change in CrCl and when analyzed by treatment group, those treated with sulfasazine had a strong correlation (r=?0.54, P=0.0145), while nonsignificant in the mesalamine group (r=0.06, P=0.7017). The decline in CrCl was negatively correlated with the pretreatment CrCl rate (r=?0.34; P=0.0024) and positively correlated with the mean daily dose of 5-ASA (r=0.32; P=0.0034). CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to demonstrate a significant dose- and treatment duration-dependant decline in CrCl. The risks need to be further evaluated because 5-ASA is widely used for long-term maintenance therapy in patients with IBD. PMID:19319380

  4. Electrophysiological analysis of rat renal sugar and amino acid transport. I. Basic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Frömter, E

    1982-04-01

    The electrical events associated with the absorption of D-glucose or L-amino acids in renal proximal tubules were studied in microperfusion experiments on rat kidneys in vivo. Intratubular application of these substrates led concomitantly to: 1) a shift of the transepithelial potential into lumen negative direction, 2) a partial depolarization of the tubular cell membranes and 3) a reduction of the electrical resistance of the brushborder membrane. By means of rapid perfusion experiments it was possible to discern two phases in the potential response to substrate perfusion, a fast initial response which reflects a substrate-induced Na+ ion current from lumen to cell, and a slower secondary response which reflects the relaxation of the intracellular ion and substrate concentrations towards new steady states. A quantitative analysis of the data yielded estimates of 1) the apical (Ra) and basal (Rb) cell membrane resistances and of the shunt resistance, Rs, of rat proximal tubule of approximately Ra = 255 omega cm2, Rb = 92 omega cm2 and Rs = 5 omega cm2 (all referred to the quasi macroscopic surface area of the tubular lumen), 2) the conductance of the Na+ and glucose cotransport pathway and 3) the driving forces acting on the cotransport mechanism in the brushborder membrane. The latter were found to be a) the electrical cell membrane potential of -74 mV, b) the Na+ ion concentration gradient between the tubular lumen (clumNa = 145 mmol/l) and the cytoplasm (ccellNa approximately 33 mmol/l) which corresponds to an additional equivalent potential of 51 mV and c) the substrate concentration gradient, which varies according to the experimental conditions. Moreover the analysis provided a quantitative estimate of the relationship between the substrate-induced changes in transepithelial potential or short circuit current and the actual cotransport current in the brushborder membrane. Based on this analysis it is concluded that the stoichiometry of Na+ and glucose flux coupling in the brushborder membrane of rat proximal tubule is close to 1.0. PMID:7099920

  5. Positive net movements of amino acids in the hindlimb after overnight food deprivation contribute to sustaining the elevated anabolism of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the neonatal period, high protein breakdown rate is a metabolic process inherent to elevated rates of protein accretion in skeletal muscle. To determine the relationship between hindlimb net movements of essential and nonessential amino acids in the regulation of hindlimb protein breakdown du...

  6. Regulation of renal 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in diabetes by angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M.; Abadir, Peter M.; Siragy, Helmy M.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased production of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE]. The mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia and angiotensin II (ANG II) regulate renal 12(S)-HETE production via a balance between angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors activities. Using a microdialysis technique, renal interstitial fluid (RIF) levels of ANG II and 12(S)-HETE were monitored in normal control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at baseline and then weekly thereafter for 12 wk. In a second group of normal and diabetic rats, 3 wk after development of diabetes, we monitored RIF 12(S)-HETE levels in response to acute AT1 receptor blockade with valsartan or AT2 receptor blockade with PD123319 individually or combined. Two weeks after induction of diabetes there was a 404% increase in ANG II (P < 0.05), a 149% increase in 12S-HETE (P < 0.05), and a 649% increase in urinary albumin excretion (P < 0.05). These levels remained elevated throughout the study. PD123319 given alone had no effect on 12(S)-HETE. Valsartan decreased 12(S)-HETE by 61.6% (P < 0.0001), a response that was abrogated when PD123319 was given with valsartan. These data demonstrate that hyperglycemia increases renal ANG II and 12(S)-HETE levels. The increase in 12(S)-HETE is mediated via AT1 receptor. The attenuation of the effects of AT1 receptor blockade by PD123319 suggests that AT2 receptor contributes to the downregulation of renal 12(S)-HETE production. PMID:18799632

  7. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan Formation, west and northwest of the Silverton caldera, and (b) the Picayune Megabreccia Member of Sapinero Mesa Tuff along the western San Juan caldera margin. Sultan Mountain stock, composed of granitoid intrusive rocks, was shown to have low ANC and moderate NAP. Sequential leachate analyses on a suite of whole-rock samples from the current and a previous study indicate that host rock composition and mineralogy control leachate compositions. The most mafic volcanic samples had high leachate concentrations for Mg, Fe, and Ca, whereas silicic volcanic samples had lower ferromagnesiun compositions. Samples with high chlorite abundance also had high leachable Mg concentrations. Trace-element substitution, such as Sr for Ca in plagioclase, controls high Sr concentrations in those samples with high plagioclase abundance. High Ti abundance in leachate was observed in those samples with high magnetite concentrations. This is likely due to samples containing intergrown magnetite-ilmenite. Whole rocks having high trace-element concentrations have relatively high leachate trace-element abundances. Some lavas of the San Juan Formation and Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics had elevated Zn-, Cd-, and Pb-leachate concentrations. Manganese was also elevated in one San Juan Formation sample. Other San Juan Formation and Burns Member lavas had low to moderate trace-element abundances. One sample of the pyroxene andesite member of the Silverton Volcanics had elevated concentrations for As and Mo. Most other pyroxene andesite member samples had low leachate trace-element abundances. Mine-waste-leachate analyses indicated that one mine-waste sample had elevated concentrations of Cu (1.5 orders of magnitude), Zn (1 order of magnitude), As (1 order of magnitude), Mo (1.5 to 2 orders of magnitude), Cd (1 to 2 orders of magnitude), and Pb (2 to 3 orders of magnitude) compared to whole rocks. These data indicate the importance of whole-rock geochemistry or leachate analys

  8. Dietary flax oil rich in α-linolenic acid reduces renal disease and oxylipin abnormalities, including formation of docosahexaenoic acid derived oxylipins in the CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Nagao, Shizuko; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-03-01

    The CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis displays reduced renal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and alterations in renal cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase oxylipins derived from n-6 fatty acids. Since dietary flax oil ameliorates disease progression, its effect on renal fatty acids and oxylipins was examined. Sixteen weeks of feeding resulted in reduced disease progression and enrichment of renal phospholipid α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, reduction in arachidonic acid (AA), but no change in linoleic acid (LA) or DHA. In diseased kidneys, flax oil feeding mitigated the elevated levels of renal cyclooxygenase derived oxylipins formed from AA and the lowered lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 derived oxylipins formed from ALA and DHA. Increased DHA oxylipins occurred with flax feeding despite not altering DHA levels. Dietary flax oil may therefore reduce disease progression via mitigation of oxylipin abnormalities. This study also provides evidence of in vivo ALA conversion to DHA in amounts necessary to restore DHA oxylipin levels. PMID:25512022

  9. Positive net movements of amino acids in the hindlimb after overnight food deprivation contribute to sustaining the elevated anabolism of neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Thivierge, M Carole; Bush, Jill A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Orellana, Renan A; Burrin, Douglas G; Jahoor, Farook; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-12-01

    During the neonatal period, high protein breakdown rate is a metabolic process inherent to elevated rates of protein accretion in skeletal muscle. To determine the relationship between hindlimb net movements of essential and nonessential amino acids in the regulation of hindlimb protein breakdown during an overnight fasting-feeding cycle, we infused overnight-food-deprived 10- and 28-day-old piglets with [1-(13)C]phenylalanine and [ring-(2)H(4)]tyrosine over 7 h (during 3 h of fasting and then during 4 h of feeding). Extraction rates for aspartate and glutamate after an overnight fast were 15% and 51% in the 10-day-old compared with 6% and 25% in the 28-day-old (P < 0.05) piglets, suggesting an altered requirement for precursors of amino acids to shuttle nitrogen to the liver as early life progresses. This occurred simultaneously with marginal positive hindlimb net balance of essential amino acids after an overnight fast, with negative net release of many nonessential amino acids, such as alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, and proline. This suggests that newborn muscle does not undergo significant protein mobilization after a short period of fasting in support of an elevated rate of protein accretion. Furthermore, tyrosine efflux from hindlimb breakdown between overnight fasting and feeding periods was not different in the 10-day-old piglets, for which tyrosine was limiting, but when tyrosine supply balanced requirements in the 28-day-old piglet, hindlimb efflux was increased (P = 0.01). The results of the present study indicate that proteolysis and net movements of amino acids are coordinated mechanisms that sustain the elevated rate of net protein accretion during overnight feeding-fasting cycles in the neonate. PMID:18801965

  10. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dev; Singla, Surinder K; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI), which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI). Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC) lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI. PMID:25559736

  11. The Restrained Expression of NF-kB in Renal Tissue Ameliorates Folic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dev; Singla, Surinder K.; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI), which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI). Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC) lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI. PMID:25559736

  12. Sulfenic Acid Modification of Endothelin B Receptor is Responsible for the Benefit of a Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist in Renal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Prince, Sonia; Fadel, Fouad; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Warnock, David G; Kolkhof, Peter; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    AKI is associated with high mortality rates and the development of CKD. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is an important cause of AKI. Unfortunately, there is no available pharmacologic approach to prevent or limit renal IR injury in common clinical practice. Renal IR is characterized by diminished nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced renal blood flow; however, the mechanisms leading to these alterations are poorly understood. In a rat model of renal IR, we investigated whether the administration of the novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist BR-4628 can prevent or treat the renal dysfunction and tubular injury induced by IR. Renal injury induced by ischemia was associated with increased oxidant damage, which led to a cysteine sulfenic acid modification in endothelin B receptor and consequently decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. These modifications were efficiently prevented by nonsteroidal MR antagonism. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the protective effect of BR-4628 against IR was lost when a selective endothelin B receptor antagonist was coadministered. These data describe a new mechanism for reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation during renal IR that can be blocked by MR antagonism with BR-4628. PMID:26361797

  13. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity. PMID:25455896

  14. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and ascorbic acid against oxytetracycline-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Ghazy, Emad W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic widely used for treatment of a wide range of infections. However, its improper human and animal use leads to toxic effects, including hepatonephrotoxicity. Our objective was to evaluate protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and/or ascorbic acid (AA), against OTC-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Forty male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups of eight each. The 1st group (control) was given saline. The 2nd group was given OTC (200 mg/kg, orally). The 3rd and 4th groups were orally administered NSO and AA (2 ml/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively) 1 hr before OTC administration at the same dose regimen used for the 2nd group. Both NSO and AA were given in combination for the 5th group along with OTC administration. Serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney injury were evaluated, and lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant markers in hepatic and renal tissues were examined. Results: OTC-treated animals revealed significant alterations in serum biochemical hepato-renal injury markers, and showed a markedly increase in hepato-renal lipid peroxidation and inhibition in tissue antioxidant biomarkers. NSO and AA protect against OTC-induced serum and tissue biochemical alterations when each of them is used alone or in combination along with OTC treatment. Furthermore, both NSO and AA produced synergetic hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The present study revealed the preventive role of NSO and/or AA against the toxic effects of OTC through their free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activities. PMID:25945233

  15. Evaluation of Renal Toxicity by Combination Exposure to Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji Yeon; Kang, Yoon Jong; Kim, Kyeong Seok; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lim, Sung Kwang; Lim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Choi, Dal Woong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Byung Mu

    2014-01-01

    Melamine-induced nephrotoxicity is closely associated with crystal formation in the kidney caused by combined exposure to melamine (Mel) and cyanuric acid (CA). However, there are few dosage-finding studies for toxicological evaluation of chronic co-exposure to Mel and CA. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which a Mel and CA mixture lead to renal toxicity in rats. Mel and CA were co-administered to rats via oral gavage for 50 days. Nephrotoxicity was determined by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) levels. Relative kidney weights were significantly increased in rats after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) mixtures. BUN and sCr levels were significantly increased after Mel and CA co-exposure. Taken together, significant increase in KIM-1, NGAL, and calbindin levels were observed in the urine of rats exposed to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) compared with the corresponding control group. Histological analysis revealed epithelial degeneration and necrotic cell death in the proximal tubules of the kidney after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg). Our data suggest that Mel-mediated renal toxicity may be influenced by CA concentrations in Mel-contaminated milk or foods. PMID:25071919

  16. A Diet High in Meat Protein and Potential Renal Acid Load Increases Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Calcium, As Well As Serum IGF-I in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of increasing protein and potential renal acid load (PRAL) on Ca retention and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, twenty postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one low protein, low PRAL (LPLP) and one high pr...

  17. The Role of Platelets and ε-Aminocaproic Acid in Arthrogryposis, Renal Dysfunction, and Cholestasis (ARC) Syndrome Associated Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Angela C; Lombel, Rebecca M; Pipe, Steven W; Shavit, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome is a rare disorder associated with platelet abnormalities resembling gray platelet syndrome. Affected patients have normal platelet numbers but abnormal morphology and function. Bleeding symptomatology ranges from postprocedural to spontaneous life-threatening hemorrhage. We report a patient with ARC syndrome and compound heterozygous mutations in VPS33B (vacuolar protein sorting 33B) who presented with significant bleeding requiring numerous admissions and transfusions. She was treated with prophylactic platelet transfusions and ε-aminocaproic acid. This was well-tolerated and significantly decreased transfusion requirements and admissions for bleeding. Our experience provides support for consideration of prophylactic measures in these patients as well as the possibility of using prophylaxis in related disorders. PMID:26505894

  18. Chinese Herbs Containing Aristolochic Acid Associated with Renal Failure and Urothelial Carcinoma: A Review from Epidemiologic Observations to Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA) have been designated to be a strong carcinogen. This review summarizes major epidemiologic evidence to argue for the causal association between AA exposure and urothelial carcinoma as well as nephropathy. The exposure scenarios include the following: Belgian women taking slimming pills containing single material Guang Fang Ji, consumptions of mixtures of Chinese herbal products in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure in Taiwan, occupational exposure in Chinese herbalists, and food contamination in farming villages in valleys of the Danube River. Such an association is corroborated by detecting specific DNA adducts in the tumor tissue removed from affected patients. Preventive actions of banning such use and education to the healthcare professionals and public are necessary for the safety of herbal remedies. PMID:25431765

  19. An acidic peptide sequence of nucleolin-related protein can mediate the attachment of calcium oxalate to renal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Elena A; Wesson, Jeffrey A; Kleinman, Jack G

    2004-08-01

    Crystals that form in tubular fluid must be retained in the kidney to become stones. Nucleolin-related protein (NRP) is found on the surface of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells in culture (cIMCD) and selectively adsorbs to calcium oxalate (CaOx). We proposed that NRP mediates attachment to the renal tubular epithelium of Ca stone crystals through an electrostatic interaction with a highly acidic region (acidic fragment [AF]) similar to those of other proteins that have been reported to affect urinary crystal formation. The current studies demonstrate that nucleolin is expressed on both apical and basolateral cell surfaces of cIMCD, reaching a peak in the late stages of mitosis and gradually declining to undetectable levels with maturation of the polarized epithelium. Scraping areas of mature monolayers stimulated the cells surrounding the defects to migrate and proliferate so as to repair them, and these areas demonstrate surface NRP expression and enhanced attachment of CaOx monohydrate crystals. Surface expression of the NRP AF was produced by cloning the NRP AF into a display vector. Transfected cIMCD demonstrating copious surface expression of AF enhanced CaOx attachment 6.7-fold compared with control cIMCD, whereas cells transfected with a vector without the AF did not differ from control. AF was also cloned into a replication-deficient adenovirus and expressed in 293 cells, resulting in AF secretion into the nutrient medium. This medium inhibited CaOx attachment to cIMCD, compared with conditioned medium from cells infected with wild-type virus. These results demonstrate that surface-bound AF can mediate CaOx attachment and that secreted AF can inhibit attachment. These results support the notion that surface-associated NRP could mediate attachment of CaOx to the renal tubule epithelium, thereby causing retention of crystals that might eventually become kidney stones. PMID:15284292

  20. New insights into the dynamic regulation of water and acid-base balance by renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Richard; Pǎunescu, Teodor G.; Breton, Sylvie; Lu, Hua A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining tight control over body fluid and acid-base homeostasis is essential for human health and is a major function of the kidney. The collecting duct is a mosaic of two cell populations that are highly specialized to perform these two distinct processes. The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) and its receptor, the V2R, play a central role in regulating the urinary concentrating mechanism by stimulating accumulation of the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel in the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells. This increases epithelial water permeability and allows osmotic water reabsorption to occur. An understanding of the basic cell biology/physiology of AQP2 regulation and trafficking has informed the development of new potential treatments for diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, in which the VP/V2R/AQP2 signaling axis is defective. Tubule acidification due to the activation of intercalated cells is also critical to organ function, and defects lead to several pathological conditions in humans. Therefore, it is important to understand how these “professional” proton-secreting cells respond to environmental and cellular cues. Using epididymal proton-secreting cells as a model system, we identified the soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) as a sensor that detects luminal bicarbonate and activates the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) via cAMP to regulate tubular pH. Renal intercalated cells also express sAC and respond to cAMP by increasing proton secretion, supporting the hypothesis that sAC could function as a luminal sensor in renal tubules to regulate acid-base balance. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of these fundamental processes. PMID:22460710

  1. Attenuation of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by oleanolic acid preconditioning via its antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and anti‑apoptotic activities.

    PubMed

    Long, Chengmei; Yang, Jinran; Yang, Hua; Li, Xinchang; Wang, Gongxian

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)‑associated acute kidney injury is a major clinical problem in both native and transplanted kidneys. Renal I/R, and subsequent renal injury, may be attributed to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural product, which possesses antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and anti‑apoptotic activities. The present study aimed to examine the effects of OA preconditioning on renal I/R and the possible underlying mechanisms. In a renal I/R model, rats were administered OA (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days prior to bilateral renal I/R induction. Serum samples and kidneys were then collected and stored for subsequent determination. The results of the present study demonstrated that OA significantly and dose‑dependently attenuated I/R‑induced renal damage. OA prevented renal I/R injury, as evidenced by decreased levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kidney injury molecule‑1 and lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, OA defended against oxidative stress, as reflected by decreased levels of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon‑γ, interleukin (IL)‑6) and myeloperoxidase, were also reduced by OA, whereas the anti‑inflammatory cytokine IL‑10 was increased. Furthermore, OA prevented I/R‑induced apoptotic cell death, and prevented decreases in the mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) and γ‑glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLc). Conversely, buthionine sulphoximine attenuated the protective effects of OA on renal I/R injury. These results indicated that OA preconditioning may prevent I/R‑induced renal damage via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and anti‑apoptotic activities. Stabilization of Nrf2/GCLc signaling and subsequent maintenance of the GSH pool is critical for the protective effects of OA against renal I/R injury. The present study reported a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of renal I/R injury. PMID:27082705

  2. Continuous renal replacement therapy amino acid, trace metal and folate clearance in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) results in amino acid, trace metals, and folate losses, thereby adversely impacting nutrient balance. Critically ill children receiving CVVHD were studied prospectively for 5 days. Blood concentrations, amino acids, copper, zinc, man...

  3. Rapid reduction of viruria and stabilization of allograft function by fusidic acid in a renal transplant recipient with JC virus-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Ma, Maggie Kam-Man; Chan, Gavin Shueng-Wai; Chan, Gary Chi-Wang; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Chan, Kwok-Wah; Choy, Bo-Ying; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-10-01

    JC virus (JCV)-associated nephropathy has been increasingly recognized as a cause of allograft dysfunction with graft loss in renal transplant recipients. Like many other opportunistic viral infections in transplant recipients, there are currently limited therapeutic options for this condition. Fusidic acid has previously been reported to exhibit antiviral activity against JCV in in vitro assays. We report the first in vivo study to document the rapid reduction of JC viruria and stabilization of allograft function by oral fusidic acid (fusidate sodium) in a deceased donor renal transplant recipient with JCV-associated nephropathy and acute allograft dysfunction which did not improve initially to surgical relief of hydronephrosis and reduction of immunosuppressants. Rapid reduction of JC viruria detected by quantitative PCR and stabilization of renal function were observed. Fusidic acid has several practical advantages in this clinical setting, including a low EC50 against JCV, high plasma C max, long half-life, availability of both oral and intravenous formulations, excellent oral bioavailability, good patient tolerability, and lack of serious drug interactions with other drugs taken by renal transplant recipients. Further mechanistic and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate this treatment option for JCV-associated nephropathy. PMID:25944568

  4. Autotaxin-Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling Axis Mediates Tumorigenesis and Development of Acquired Resistance to Sunitinib in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shih-Chi; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kenney, Patrick A.; Merrill, Megan M.; Babaian, Kara N.; Zhang, Xiu-Ying; Maity, Tapati; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Xin; Wood, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Sunitinib is currently considered as the standard treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We aimed to better understand the mechanisms of sunitinib action in kidney cancer treatment and in the development of acquired resistance. Experimental Design Gene expression profiles of RCC tumor endothelium in sunitinib-treated and -untreated patients were analyzed and verified by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The functional role of the target gene identified was investigated in RCC cell lines and primary cultures in vitro and in preclinical animal models in vivo. Results Altered expression of autotaxin (ATX), an extracellular lysophospholipase D, was detected in sunitinib-treated tumor vasculature of human RCC and in the tumor endothelial cells of RCC xenograft models when adapting to sunitinib. ATX and its catalytic product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), regulated the signaling pathways and cell motility of RCC in vitro. However, no marked in vitro effect of ATX-LPA signaling on endothelial cells was observed. Functional blockage of LPA receptor 1 (LPA1) using an LPA1 antagonist, Ki16425, or gene silencing of LPA1 in RCC cells attenuated LPA-mediated intracellular signaling and invasion responses in vitro. Ki16425 treatment also dampened RCC tumorigenesis in vivo. In addition, coadministration of Ki16425 with sunitinib prolonged the sensitivity of RCC to sunitinib in xenograft models, suggesting that ATX-LPA signaling in part mediates the acquired resistance against sunitinib in RCC. Conclusions Our results reveal that endothelial ATX acts through LPA signaling to promote renal tumorigenesis and is functionally involved in the acquired resistance of RCC to sunitinib. PMID:24122794

  5. Serum Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 Is a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Ishimura, Shutaro; Ota, Hideki; Hayashi, Manabu; Nishitani, Takahiro; Tanaka, Marenao; Yoshida, Hideaki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Miura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2), a lipid chaperone, is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages. Recent studies have shown that FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes and that FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the impact of FABP4 concentrations on prognosis. We tested the hypothesis that FABP4 level predicts prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a group at high risk for atherosclerosis-associated morbidity and mortality. Methods and Results Biochemical markers including FABP4 were determined in 61 ESRD patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Serum FABP4 level in females (404.2±30.5 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that in males (315.8±30.0 ng/ml), and the levels in ESRD patients were about 20-times higher than those in age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects with normal renal function. FABP4 level was decreased by 57.2% after HD and was positively correlated with blood pressure, BMI, and levels of lipids and insulin. Multiple regression analysis indicated that HD duration, BMI, and triglycerides level were independent determinants for FABP4 level. ESRD patients with high FABP4 levels had higher cardiovascular mortality during the 7-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that logarithmically transformed FABP4 level was an independent predictor of cardiovascular death adjusted for age, gender, HD duration, BMI, and triglycerides level (hazard ratio, 7.75; 95% CI, 1.05–25.31). Conclusion These findings suggest that FABP4 level, being related to adiposity and metabolic disorders, is a novel predictor of cardiovascular mortality in ESRD. PMID:22102888

  6. Effect in the rat of the interaction of dichloromaleic acid and carbon tetrachloride on renal and hepatic function

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, W.R.; Davis, M.E.; Berndt, W.O. )

    1989-10-01

    Water purification generates a variety of chlorinated contaminants, one of which is dichloromaleic acid (DCMA). Exposure to this compound is likely to occur in combination with other drinking water pollutants, some of which are hepatotoxic. This study was designed to examine the interactive effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a known hepatotoxin, with DCMA on liver and kidney function in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Administration of a single dose of DCMA (200-400 mg/kg, ip) caused modest dose-dependent increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and plasma urea nitrogen, as well as a marked depletion of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) in the liver, but not the kidney, by 24 hr. Pretreatment with inducers (phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene) or an inhibitor (SKF 525A) of cytochrome P-450 activity failed to alter the response observed with DCMA alone. Alterations in 24-hr urine volume, osmolality, and water consumption also were observed. DCMA-mediated changes in plasma urea nitrogen and NPSH were reduced in magnitude with coadministration of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, ip), while anticipated CCl4-induced increases in ALT and AST were reduced with coexposure to DCMA. Renal slice experiments indicated that DCMA-treated rats were less able to accumulate the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH), whereas DCMA had no effect on accumulation of the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA). The combination of CCl4 and DCMA produced only additive effects on organic ion accumulation. These results suggest hepatic interaction possibly related to the metabolism of CCl4 and DCMA, resulting in renal and hepatic toxicity diminished from that observed with exposure to either agent alone.

  7. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat.

    PubMed

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-12-15

    Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. PMID:26522833

  8. Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Explore the Role of Kidney Transporters in Renal Reabsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in the male and female rat to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both the male and female rat indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contributes to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. PMID:26522833

  9. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  10. Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities during renal support for acute kidney injury: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Claure, Rolando; Bouchard, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with electrolyte and acid-base disturbances such as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The initiation of dialysis in AKI can efficiently treat these complications. The choice of dialysis modality can be made based on their operational characteristics to tailor the therapy according to the clinical scenario. Each dialysis modality can also trigger significant electrolyte and acid-base disorders, such as hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia and metabolic alkalosis, which may direct changes in fluid delivery and composition. Continuous techniques may be particularly useful in these situations as they allow more time for correction and to maintain balance. This review provides an overview of the electrolyte and acid-base disturbances occurring in AKI and after the initiation of dialysis and discusses therapeutic options in this setting. PMID:23095419

  11. Quercetin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Renal Uric Acid Transport System Alteration and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Pan, Ying; Hong, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and dyslipidemia are involved in Cd nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin, a dietary flavonoid with anti-hyperuricemic and anti-dyslipidemic properties, on the alteration of renal UA transport system and disorder of renal lipid accumulation in 3 and 6 mg/kg Cd-exposed rats for 4 weeks. Cd exposure induced hyperuricemia with renal XOR hyperactivity and UA excretion dysfunction in rats. Simultaneously, abnormal expression levels of renal UA transport-related proteins including RST, OAT1, MRP4 and ABCG2 were observed in Cd-exposed rats with inhibitory activity of renal Na+-K+-ATPase. Furthermore, Cd exposure disturbed lipid metabolism with down-regulation of AMPK and its downstream targets PPARα, OCTN2 and CPT1 expressions, and up-regulation of PGC-1β and SREBP-1 expressions in renal cortex of rats. We had proved that Cd-induced disorder of renal UA transport and production system might have cross-talking with renal AMPK-PPARα/PGC-1β signal pathway impairment, contributing to Cd nephrotoxicity of rats. Quercetin was found to be effective against Cd-induced dysexpression of RST and OAT1 with XOR hyperactivity and impairment of AMPK-PPARα/PGC-1β signal pathway, resulting in renal lipid accumulation reduction of rats. PMID:22690247

  12. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  13. Ready-to-use strip for L-ascorbic acid visual detection based on polyaniline/polyamide 66 nano-fibers/nets membranes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yanan; Li, Yan; Si, Yang; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Faxue; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    A ready-to-use L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) colorimetric strip based on polyaniline (PANI)/polyamide 66 (PA 66) nanofiber/net (NFN) membrane with spider-web-like structure was fabricated through a facile bend electrospinning/netting process. Introduction of PANI component into the membrane turns the strip undergoes a brilliant brown-to-green color transition within 30 min upon incubation with L-AA. Moreover, ascribing to the three-dimensional microscopic structural, continuous pore channels, and distinctive nano-nets structure, the color change that is caused by 50 ppb L-AA can be easily perceived by naked eyes. Furthermore, RGB (red-green-blue) digital parameters that obtained from photographs of the strips were automatically read out via an iPhone. Subsequently, the parameters were converted into a color-difference map and processed statistically through principal component analysis, then used to elaborate standard curve. Combining the map and curve, we realized a method for assaying and quantifying L-AA concentration in real food samples, which avoids the time-consuming sample preparation, expensive laboratory techniques, and specialized personnel needed to carry out conventional analytical methods. PMID:26452940

  14. Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F. )

    1991-03-01

    The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The ({sup 14}C) salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH.

  15. Renal transplantation promptly restores excretory function but disturbed L-arginine metabolism persists in patients during the early period after surgery.

    PubMed

    uni?, Gordana; Vu?evi?, Dragana; Tomi?, Aleksandar; Drakovi?-Pavlovi?, Biljana; Majstorovi?, Ivana; Spasi?, Slavica

    2015-01-30

    The synthesis and whole body metabolism of L-arginine (Arg) are disturbed in renal diseases. Renal transplantation represents the best therapy in the end-stage of these diseases. In the present we compared alterations of plasma Arg and related compounds with renal excretory function in patients with end-stage renal disease, before and after kidney transplantation. Arg, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), citrulline (Cit), glutamine (Gln), ornithine (Orn), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), urea, creatinine, albumin, and nitrate were analyzed in patients before, immediately after (0-time) and 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days following living donors kidney transplantation. Healthy subjects were controls. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amino acid molar ratios were calculated. Before transplantation creatinine, urea, Cit, Gln, ADMA, and nitrate were above, while GFR and Arg were below controls, confirming disturbed excretory and metabolic renal functions in patients with renal disease. Renal transplantation promptly normalized creatinine, urea, GFR, Cit, and nitrate. However, regardless of increased molar Phe/Tyr ratios, indicating increased net protein catabolism in peripheral tissues, low Arg and elevated ADMA concentrations persisted throughout the examined period. Alterations of other amino acids also suggest similarly disturbed Arg metabolism in patients after kidney transplantation. In conclusion, renal transplant promptly restored its excretory function, but increased net protein catabolism, disturbed Arg metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in entire body of these patients were not improved throughout the early period after the operation. That has to be considered in their therapy. PMID:25460326

  16. Curcumin protects against gallic acid-induced oxidative stress, suppression of glutathione antioxidant defenses, hepatic and renal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, Sunny O; Durojaiye, Mojisola; Alabi, Adenike; Asonye, Bede; Akiri, Oghenetega

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin (Cur) and gallic acid (Gal) are major food additives. Cur has well-known antioxidant properties, whereas Gal has both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of Gal with or without Cur on antioxidant enzymes activities, glutathione (GSH) and the enzymes in its metabolism in rat liver in vivo and markers of tissue damage in the serum. Results showed that the increase in serum creatinine level, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities by Gal treatment were inhibited by combined administration of Gal and Cur. The decrease in GSH-peroxidase, GSH-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and GSH-reductase activities by Gal treatment were inhibited when both Gal and Cur were administered together. The malondialdehyde concentration and catalase activity were significantly increased following administration of Gal but not when the administration of Gal was combined with Cur. Finally, the increase in GSH level was seen following administration of Cur alone or in combination with Gal but not with Gal alone. These results suggest that Gal might induce oxidative stress in the rat liver and affect renal function that can be inhibited by the combined administration of Gal and Cur. PMID:26707166

  17. Carnosic acid induces apoptosis through inactivation of Src/STAT3 signaling pathway in human renal carcinoma Caki cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Byoungduck; Chae, In Gyeong; Kim, Do-Hee; Kundu, Juthika; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Carnosic acid (CA), the major bioactive compound of Rosmarinus officinalis L., has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of CA remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated that CA significantly reduced the viability of human renal carcinoma Caki cells. CA-induced apoptosis was connected with the cleavage of caspase-9, -7 and -3, and that of PARP. Moreover, CA increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and diminished the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, thereby releasing cytochrome c into the cytosol. Treatment with CA in Caki cells also induced the expression of p53 and its target gene product, p27, through down-regulation of Murine double minute-2 (Mdm2). Furthermore, CA generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) abrogated CA-induced cleavage of PARP and expression of p53. One of the key oncogenic signals is mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), which promotes abnormal cell proliferation. Incubation of cells with CA markedly diminished the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its upstream, Src, and reduced the expression of STAT3 responsive gene products, such as D-series of cyclins and survivin. Taken together, the present study revealed that CA induced apoptosis in Caki cells by induction of p53 and suppression of STAT3 signaling. PMID:26936454

  18. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid alters growth properties of renal cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jon; Juengel, Eva; Mickuckyte, Ausra; Hudak, Lukasz; Wedel, Steffen; Jonas, Dietger; Blaheta, Roman A

    2009-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors represent a promising class of antineoplastic agents which affect tumour growth, differentiation and invasion. The effects of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) were tested in vitro and in vivo on pre-clinical renal cell carcinoma (RCC) models. Caki-1, KTC-26 or A498 cells were treated with various concentrations of VPA during in vitro cell proliferation 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays and to evaluate cell cycle manipulation. In vivo tumour growth was conducted in subcutaneous xenograft mouse models. The anti-tumoural potential of VPA combined with low-dosed interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) was also investigated. VPA significantly and dose-dependently up-regulated histones H3 and H4 acetylation and caused growth arrest in RCC cells. VPA altered cell cycle regulating proteins, in particular CDK2, cyclin B, cyclin D3, p21 and Rb. In vivo, VPA significantly inhibited the growth of Caki-1 in subcutaneous xenografts, accompanied by a strong accumulation of p21 and bax in tissue specimens of VPA-treated animals. VPA-IFN-alpha combination markedly enhanced the effects of VPA monotherapy on RCC proliferation in vitro, but did not further enhance the anti-tumoural potential of VPA in vivo. VPA was found to have profound effects on RCC cell growth, lending support to the initiation of clinical testing of VPA for treating advanced RCC. PMID:18657224

  19. Lipoic acid does not improve renal function markers in 5/6 nephrectomy model: possible role of Nrf2 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sze M; Dal Lin, Fernando T; Soares, Maria F; Hauser, Aline B; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Nakao, Lia S

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and complications are associated with increased oxidative stress, as well as with Nrf2 inactivation. Lipoic acid (LA) has been considered an inducer of Nrf2 antioxidant response. We tested whether oral administration of LA provides beneficial effects in experimental CKD in rats. Wistar rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD group) or sham laparotomy. Seven days later, CKD group was divided into three subgroups that received: (i) LA continuously in the drinking water (100 mg/kg/day), (ii) LA by gavage every other day (100 mg/kg), or (iii) no LA treatment. LA treatment lasted until day 60. Plasma urea and creatinine, 24 h-proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and Nrf2 activation were analyzed. All parameters measured were significantly altered in the untreated CKD group, compared with the sham group, as expected. Oral LA administration, either in the drinking water or by gavage, did not improve significantly any parameter, comparing the treated-groups with the untreated CKD group. These results indicate that oral LA administration for 53 days was ineffective to reactivate Nrf2 in the remnant kidney of uremic rats, likely preventing improvements in biochemical and histopathological markers of renal function. PMID:26904958

  20. Renal Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The pathogenesis of renal calculi is reviewed in general terms followed by the results of investigation of 439 patients with renal calculi studied by the author at Toronto General Hospital over a 13-year period. Abnormalities of probable pathogenetic significance were encountered in 76% of patients. Idiopathic hypercalciuria was encountered in 42% of patients, primary hyperparathyroidism in 11%, urinary infection in 8% and miscellaneous disorders in 8%. The incidence of uric acid stones and cystinuria was 5% and 2% respectively. In the remaining 24% of patients in whom no definite abnormalities were encountered the mean urinary magnesium excretion was less than normal. Of 180 patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, only 24 were females. In the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, the importance of detecting minimal degrees of hypercalcemia is stressed; attention is also drawn to the new observation that the upper limit of normal for serum calcium is slightly lower in females than in males. The efficacy of various measures advocated for the prevention of renal calculi is also reviewed. In the author's experience the administration of thiazides has been particularly effective in the prevention of calcium stones. Thiazides cause a sustained reduction in urinary calcium excretion and increase in urinary magnesium excretion. These agents also appear to affect the skeleton by diminishing bone resorption and slowing down bone turnover. PMID:5438766

  1. Sialic Acid Rescues Repurified Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure via Inhibiting TLR4/PKC/gp91-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Pyroptosis Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling. PMID:24973090

  2. Post-treatment Effects of Erythropoietin and Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid on Recovery from Cisplatin-induced Acute Renal Failure in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Min Young; Sol, Mee Young

    2009-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor and human recombinant erythropoietin might accelerate renal recovery in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) normal controls; 2) Cisplatin group-cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) plus vehicle treatment; 3) Cisplatin+nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor treatment; 4) Cisplatin+erythropoietin (EPO) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus erythropoietin treatment. On day 10 (after 7 daily injections of NDGA or EPO), urea nitrogen and serum Cr concentrations were significantly lower in the Cisplatin+NDGA and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in the Cisplatin group, and 24 hr urine Cr clearances were significantly higher in the Cisplatin+EPO group than in the Cisplatin group. Semi-quantitative assessments of histological lesions did not produce any significant differences between the three treatment groups. Numbers of PCNA(+) cells were significantly higher in Cisplatin, Cisplatin+NDGA, and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in normal controls. Those PCNA(+) cells were significantly increased in Cisplatin+NDGA group. These results suggest that EPO and also NDGA accelerate renal function recovery by stimulating tubular epithelial cell regeneration. PMID:19194548

  3. Net release of individual fatty acids from white adipose tissue during lipolysis in vitro: evidence for selective fatty acid re-uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Raclot, T; Oudart, H

    2000-01-01

    During lipolysis, adipose tissue triacylglycerols (TAG) undergo concurrent breakdown and synthesis because some of the newly hydrolysed and released non-esterified ('free') fatty acids (NEFA) can subsequently be taken up and re-esterified. The present study examines whether and how the release of individual fatty acids is affected by the re-uptake of some of the newly hydrolysed fatty acids in vitro during lipolysis. To alter fatty acid release and re-uptake, adipose tissue fragments and isolated adipocytes from rats were incubated under various conditions, i.e. several cell concentrations or adipose fragment quantities, with or without glucose. In the various conditions tested, the NEFA/glycerol molar ratio ranged from 1.5 to 2.9. Whatever the incubation conditions, including those resulting in very low, medium or high fatty acid re-uptake (as assessed by the NEFA/glycerol ratio), the percentage weight of fatty acids in NEFA was significantly different from that in TAG for 20-24 of the 35 fatty acids that were considered. Thus the greater the fatty acid re-uptake, the higher the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the lower the proportion of long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in NEFA. Moreover, the relative mobilization (%NEFA/%TAG) of the least readily mobilized fatty acid (C(22:1,n-11)) was 6.2-fold lower than that of the most readily mobilized fatty acid (C(20:5,n-3)) under conditions of very low fatty acid re-uptake, and 14.8-fold lower under conditions of high fatty acid re-uptake, indicating a widening of the range of relative mobilizations. We conclude that the composition of the NEFA pool is affected by the rate of fatty acid re-uptake. This provides strong evidence for the selective re-uptake of adipose tissue fatty acids during lipolysis. PMID:10794723

  4. Uptake and metabolism of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.A.; Spector, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    To determine if 12-HETE, a lipoxygenase product that mediates inflammation and tissue injury, can interact with RTEC, confluent Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were incubated for 2-16 hr with 1.0 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)-12-HETE. Initial uptake of 12-HETE was rapid; at 16 hrs. 70% of the 12-HETE uptake was incorporated into phospholipids (PL). The distribution among the choline, ethanolamine, inositol, and serine PL was 36, 36, 20 and 8%, respectively. Incubation of MDCK cells with 0.5 to 5.0 ..mu..M (/sup 3/H)-12-HETE for 1 hr indicated linear uptake without evidence of saturation. Incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M 12-HETE and 0.25-10.0 ..mu..M arachidonic acid for 1 hr revealed no competition for uptake at the lower concentrations but a 40% reduction in 12-HETE uptake at 10.0 ..mu..M. Polarity of 12-HETE uptake was indicated by a preference of the basolateral surface over the apical surface by 1.4. After 2 hr, analysis of the medium by reverse phase HPLC revealed that 12-HETE was converted to three polar metabolites which eluted at 25.9, 29.4 and 31.3 min respectively; 12-HETE eluted at 37.5 min. The appearance of these polar metabolites was not prevented by ibuprofen (50 ..mu..M) nordihydroguaiaretic acid (30 ..mu..M), allopurinol (15 mM), or butylated hydroxytoluene (20 ..mu..M). These findings suggest that the lipoxygenase product 12-HETE may affect RTEC through incorporation into membrane PL and/or conversion to polar metabolites.

  5. Methane Suppression: The Impacts of Fe(III) and Humic Acids on Net Methane Flux from Arctic Tundra Wetlands in Alaska and Finland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, D.; Miller, K.; Lai, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils contain large reservoirs of carbon (C) that are vulnerable to loss from climatic warming. However the potential global impacts of this C depend on whether it is lost primarily in the form of methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2), two gases with very different greenhouse warming potentials. In anaerobic environments, the relative production of CH4 vs. CO2 may be controlled by the presence of alternative terminal electron acceptors, which allow more thermodynamically favorable anaerobic respiratory pathways to dominate over methanogenesis. This work investigated how the addition of terminal electron acceptors, ferric iron (Fe(III)) and humic acids, affected net CH4 fluxes from high-latitude wetland ecosystems. We conducted two manipulative field experiments in Barrow, Alaska (71° N) and Finnish Lapland (69° N). The ecosystem in Barrow was known from previous studies to be rich in Fe(III) and to harbor a microbial community that is dominated by Fe(III)- and humic acid-reducing microorganisms. The role of these alternative electron acceptors had not previously been studied at the Finnish site. CH4 and CO2 fluxes were measured using a portable trace gas analyzer from experimental plots, before and after amendments with Fe(III) (in the chelated form, ferric nitrilotriacetic acid), humic acids, or water as a control. Both in the ecosystem with permafrost and naturally high levels of soil Fe (Barrow, AK) and in the ecosystem with no permafrost and naturally low levels of soil Fe (Petsikko, Finland), the addition of the alternative electron acceptors Fe(III) and humic acids significantly reduced net CH4 flux. CO2 fluxes were not significantly altered by the treatments. The reduction in CH4 flux persisted for at least several weeks post-treatment. There was no significant difference between the reduction caused by humic acids versus that from Fe(III). These results show that the suppression of CH4 flux by Fe(III) and humic acids is a widespread phenomenon that could significantly alter the future release of greenhouse gases from high latitude wetland ecosystems, depending on how the availability of these alternative electron acceptors changes due to processes such as increased thaw depth, altered deposition patterns and climate-induced changes in soil organic matter quality and quantity.

  6. Catamaran Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    West Coast Netting, Inc.'s net of Hyperester twine, is made of three strands of fiber twisted together by a company-invented sophisticated twisting machine and process that maintain precisely the same tension on each strand. The resulting twine offers higher strength and improved abrasion resistance. The technology that created the Hyperester supertwine has found spinoff applications, first as an extra-efficient seine for tuna fishing, then as a capture net for law enforcement agencies. The newest one is as a deck for racing catamarans. Hyperester twine net has been used on most of the high performance racing catamarans of recent years, including the America's Cup Challenge boats. They are tough and hold up well in the continual exposure to sunlight and saltwater.

  7. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan in evaluation of renal cortical scarring: Is it mandatory to do single photon emission computerized tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Saleh Farghaly, Hussein Rabie; Mohamed Sayed, Mohamed Hosny

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Renal cortical scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is the method of choice to detect acute pyelonephritis and cortical scarring. Different acquisition methods have been used: Planar parallel-hole or pinhole collimation and single photon emission tomography (SPECT). This study compared planar parallel-hole cortical scintigraphy and dual-head SPECT for detection of cortical defects. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 190 consecutive patients with 380 kidneys and 200 DMSA scans referred to rule out renal cortical scarring. The diagnoses were 52 vesicoureteric reflux, 61 recurrent urinary tract infection, 39 hydronephrosis, 20 renal impairment, and 18 hypertension. All patients were imaged 3 h after injection of Tc-99m DMSA with SPECT and planar imaging (posterior, anterior, left, and right posterior oblique views). For each patient, planar and SPECT images were evaluated at different sittings, in random order. Each kidney was divided into three cortical segments (upper, middle and lower) and was scored as normal or reduced uptake. The linear correlation coefficient for the number of abnormal segments detected between planner and SPECT techniques was calculated. Results: From 200 DMSA scans, 100 scans were positive for scar in SPECT images, from which only 95 scans were positive for scar in planner imaging. Out of the five mismatched scans, three scans were for patients with renal impairment and high background activity and two scans were for very small scars. No significant difference was seen in the average number of abnormal segments detected by planar versus SPECT imaging (P = 0.31). The average correlation coefficient between was high (r = 0.91 – 0.92). Conclusions: Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scanning using SPECT offers no statistically significant diagnostic advantage over multiple views planar imaging for detection of cortical defect. PMID:25589802

  8. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. Results Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log–transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: –87 g (95% CI: –137, –340 per 1.70 ng/mL), –43 g (95% CI: –108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and –135 g (95% CI: –192, –78 per 1.82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: –5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). Conclusions This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth. These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. Citation Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts: multi-pollutant models based on elastic net regression. Environ Health Perspect 124:365–372; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408933 PMID:26115335

  9. Hirsutella sinensis Attenuates Aristolochic Acid-Induced Renal Tubular Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Inhibiting TGF-β1 and Snail Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-yi; Chai, Jing-jing; Chen, Yi-pu; Rui, Hong-liang; Wang, Yan-yan; Dong, Hong-rui; Man, Yu-lin; Cheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of Hirsutella sinensis (HS) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by aristolochic acid (AA) and its possible mechanism. Methods 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into the following 3 groups: AA group, AA+HS group and control group. Urinary protein excretion and creatinine clearance (CCr) were measured. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 12th week. The pathological examination of renal tissue was performed and the mRNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), cytokeratin-18 and Snail in renal cortex were determined by real time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining respectively. In addition, human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells line (HKC) was divided into the following 4 groups: AA group, AA+HS group, HS control group and control group. The above mRNA and protein expression in HKC was determined by real time quantitative PCR and Western blot respectively. Results (1) CCr was significantly decreased, and the urinary protein excretion and relative area of renal interstitial fibrosis were significantly increased in the rats of AA and AA+HS group compared to those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); all the above abnormalities significantly lightened in the rats of AA+HS group compared to those in AA group (P<0.05). (2) The mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA and Snail was significantly up-regulated and the expression of cytokeratin-18 was significantly down-regulated in the rat renal cortex as well as in the cultured HKC cells in AA and AA+HS groups compared to those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); all the above abnormalities significantly alleviated in AA+HS group compared to those in AA group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). (3) Knockdown endogenous Snail expression by siRNA could ameliorate AA-induced EMT of HKC cells, while overexpression of Snail by plasmid transfection diminished the antagonistic effect of HS on AA-induced EMT. These results suggest Snail might be a potential target of HS effect. Conclusion HS is able to antagonize, to some extent, tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis caused by AA, which might be related to its inhibitory effects on the TGF-β1 and Snail expression. PMID:26890569

  10. Associations of renal function with polymorphisms in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase genes in Korean lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M; Schwartz, Brian S; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Stewart, Walter F; Kelsey, Karl T; Todd, Andrew C; Wen, Jiayu; Simon, David J; Lustberg, Mark E; Parsons, Patrick J; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from 798 lead workers to determine whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were associated with or modified relations of lead exposure and dose measures with renal outcomes. Lead exposure was assessed with job duration, blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead, and tibia lead. Renal function was assessed with blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, calculated creatinine clearance and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and retinol-binding protein. Mean (+/- SD) tibia lead, blood lead, and DMSA-chelatable lead levels were 37.2 +/- 40.4 microg/g bone mineral, 32.0 +/- 15.0 microg/dL, and 767.8 +/- 862.1 microg/g creatinine, respectively. After adjustment, participants with the ALAD(2) allele had lower mean serum creatinine and higher calculated creatinine clearance. We observed effect modification by ALAD on associations between blood lead and/or DMSA-chelatable lead and three renal outcomes. Among those with the ALAD(1-2) genotype, higher lead measures were associated with lower BUN and serum creatinine and higher calculated creatinine clearance. Participants with the eNOS variant allele were found to have higher measured creatinine clearance and BUN. In participants with the Asp allele, longer duration working with lead was associated with higher serum creatinine and lower calculated creatinine clearance and NAG; all were significantly different from relations in those with the Glu/Glu genotype except NAG (p = 0.08). No significant differences were seen in renal outcomes by VDR genotype, nor was consistent effect modification observed. The ALAD findings could be explained by lead-induced hyperfiltration. PMID:14527840

  11. Immediate and delayed effects of gill-net capture on acid-base balance and intramuscular lactate concentration of gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus.

    PubMed

    Frick, Lorenz H; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Many sharks are captured as untargeted by-catch during commercial fishing operations and are subsequently discarded. A reliable assessment of the proportion of discarded sharks that die post-release as a result of excessive physiological stress is important for fisheries management and conservation purposes, but a reliable physiological predictor of post-release mortality has not been identified. To investigate effects of gill-net capture on the acid-base balance of sharks, we exposed gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus, to 60 min of gill-net capture in a controlled setting, and obtained multiple blood and muscle tissue samples during a 72-h recovery period following the capture event. Overall mortality of gummy sharks was low (9%). Blood pH was significantly depressed immediately after the capture event due to a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Maximum concentrations of plasma lactate (9.9 ± 1.5 mmol L(-1)) were measured 3h after the capture event. Maximum intramuscular lactate concentrations (37.0 ± 4.6 μmol g(-1)) were measured immediately after the capture event, and intramuscular lactate concentrations were substantially higher than plasma lactate concentrations at all times. Sharks in poor condition had low blood pH and high intramuscular lactate concentration, but blood pH does not appear to be a reliable predictor of survival. Suitability of intramuscular lactate concentration as predictor of delayed mortality deserves further investigation. PMID:21377534

  12. Population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK−PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. Methods A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations−time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n = 97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK−PD modelling. The PK−PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK−PD model using post hoc Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. Results A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l h−1 70 kg−1; Vc/F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp/F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l h−1; Ka, 2.5 (1.45, 4.93) h−1. Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK−PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0, 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol h−1 mg−1 protein and EC50, 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg l−1. Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0) compared with Caucasian patients (mean value 2.13 mg l−1 vs. 3.86 mg l−1). Conclusion An integrated population PK−PD model of MPA has been developed in paediatric renal transplant recipients. The current model provides information that will facilitate future studies and may be implemented in a Bayesian algorithm to allow a PK−PD guided therapeutic drug monitoring strategy. PMID:24837828

  13. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a decadal scale to indicate the expected decreases in the mass of limestone and associated alkalinities resulting from the long-term reaction of AMD with the treatment substrate. The models indicated the calcitic limestone would need to be replenished approaching the 5-year anniversary of treatment operations to maintain net-alkaline effluent quality. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids revert renal responses induced by a combination of 2 protocols that increase the amounts of advanced glycation end product in rats.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Adriano M; Rech, Anderson; Longoni, Aline; da Silva Morrone, Maurílio; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus A; Perry, Marcos L S; Souza, Diogo O; Moreira, José C F

    2015-06-01

    Renal dysfunction is a severe complication that is caused by diabetes mellitus. Many factors associate the progression of this complication with high levels of proinflammatory and pro-oxidant substances, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which form a heterogeneous group of compounds that can accumulate in tissues such as retinas, joints, and kidneys. The hypothesis of this study is that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have a nephroprotective effect on rats after exposing them to a combination of 2 protocols that increase the AGE amounts: a high-fat diet enriched with AGEs and a diabetes rat model. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups that received the following diets for 4 weeks: (1) control group; 2) HAGE: high AGE fat-containing diet group; (3) HAGE + n-3: high AGE fat-containing diet plus n-3 PUFAs group; (4) diabetic group; (5) Db + HAGE: high AGE fat-containing diet diabetic group; and (6) Db + HAGE + n-3: high AGE fat-containing diet plus n-3 PUFAs diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg kg(-1)). In diabetic and nondiabetic rats, the high HAGE fat-containing diet increased the serum creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and reactive oxygen species levels, as well as the superoxide dismutase/catalase + glutathione peroxidase ratio and the superoxide dismutase 2 and receptor for advanced glycation end products immunocontent of the kidneys. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuated these alterations and influenced the receptor for advanced glycation end products/oxidative stress/tumor necrosis factor-α axis. In summary, this study showed that the extrinsic AGE pathway (HAGE diet) had a greater effect on renal metabolism than the intrinsic AGE pathway (diabetes induction) and that n-3 PUFAs appear to prevent renal dysfunction via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:25963123

  15. Targeting Uric Acid and the Inhibition of Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease—A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Tatsuru; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Kumagai, Takanori; Shibata, Shigeru; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Shen, Zhong Yang; Fujimori, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of uric acid (UA) in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains controversial due to the unavoidable cause and result relationship. This study was aimed to clarify the independent impact of UA on the subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by a propensity score analysis. Methods A retrospective CKD cohort was used (n = 803). Baseline 23 covariates were subjected to a multivariate binary logistic regression with the targeted time-averaged UA of 6.0, 6.5 or 7.0 mg/dL. The participants trimmed 2.5 percentile from the extreme ends of the cohort underwent propensity score analyses consisting of matching, stratification on quintile and covariate adjustment. Covariate balances after 1:1 matching without replacement were tested for by paired analysis and standardized differences. A stratified Cox regression and a Cox regression adjusted for logit of propensity scores were examined. Results After propensity score matching, the higher UA showed elevated hazard ratios (HRs) by Kaplan-Meier analysis (≥6.0 mg/dL, HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.79–11.43; ≥6.5 mg/dL, HR 3.39, 95%CI 1.55–7.42; ≥7.0 mg/dL, HR 2.19, 95%CI 1.28–3.75). The number needed to treat was 8 to 9 over 5 years. A stratified Cox regression likewise showed significant crude HRs (≥6.0 mg/dL, HR 3.63, 95%CI 1.25–10.58; ≥6.5 mg/dL, HR 3.46, 95%CI 1.56–7.68; ≥7.0 mg/dL, HR 2.05, 95%CI 1.21–3.48). Adjusted HR lost its significance at 6.0 mg/dL. The adjustment for the logit of the propensity scores showed the similar results but with worse model fittings than the stratification method. Upon further adjustment for other covariates the significance was attained at 6.5 mg/dL. Conclusions Three different methods of the propensity score analysis showed consistent results that the higher UA accelerates the progression to the subsequent ESRD. A stratified Cox regression outperforms other methods in generalizability and adjusting for residual bias. Serum UA should be targeted less than 6.5 mg/dL. PMID:26700005

  16. Analysis of the regulation of fatty acid binding protein 7 expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) will depend on the development of better biomarkers for predicting disease progression and aiding the design of appropriate therapies. One such marker may be fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), also known as B-FABP and BLBP, which is expressed normally in radial glial cells of the developing central nervous system and cells of the mammary gland. Melanomas, glioblastomas, and several types of carcinomas, including RCC, overexpress FABP7. The abundant expression of FABP7 in primary RCCs compared to certain RCC-derived cell lines may allow the definition of the molecular components of FABP7's regulatory system. Results We determined FABP7 mRNA levels in six RCC cell lines. Two were highly expressed, whereas the other and the embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293) were weakly expressed FABP7 transcripts. Western blot analysis of the cell lines detected strong FABP7 expression only in one RCC cell line. Promoter activity in the RCC cell lines was 3- to 21-fold higher than that of HEK293. Deletion analysis demonstrated that three FABP7 promoter regions contributed to upregulated expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell. Competition analysis of gel shifts indicated that OCT1, OCT6, and nuclear factor I (NFI) bound to the FABP7 promoter region. Supershift experiments indicated that BRN2 (POU3F2) and NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region as well. There was an inverse correlation between FABP7 promoter activity and BRN2 mRNA expression. The FABP7-positive cell line's NFI-DNA complex migrated faster than in other cell lines. Levels of NFIA mRNA were higher in the HEK293 cell line than in any of the six RCC cell lines. In contrast, NFIC mRNA expression was lower in the HEK293 cell line than in the six RCC cell lines. Conclusions Three putative FABP7 promoter regions drive reporter gene expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell line. BRN2 and NFI may be key factors regulating the expression of FABP7 in certain RCC-derived cell lines. PMID:21771320

  17. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  18. Role of elevated serum uric acid levels at the onset of overt nephropathy in the risk for renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeko; Hattori, Masakazu; Sakai, Ken; Onishi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Yoko; Kawazu, Shoji; Kushiyama, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Despite the use of intensive therapies, declining renal function is often observed during the overt nephropathy stage of type 2 diabetes. We aimed at investigating the role of serum uric acid (SUA) levels at the onset of overt nephropathy in the risk of renal function decline in type 2 diabetes patients. Materials and Methods The present cohort study included 290 type 2 diabetes patients who were followed from the onset of overt nephropathy. The relationship between SUA and declining renal function was assessed using Cox regression models after adjusting for known risk factors. Results Over a median 4.8-year follow-up period, 85 patients (4.9/100 person-years) showed serum creatinine (Cr) doubling with a total cumulative incidence of 71.9% at 20 years of follow up. The highest SUA tertile resulted in significantly a higher incidence (7.7/100 person-years) and cumulative incidence at 20 years (85.7%) than the middle (3.9/100 person-years, 54.2%) and lowest (3.0/100 person-years, 55.5%) tertiles. The univariate Cox hazard model resulted in significant risks for Cr doubling related to female sex, short diabetes duration, smoking and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), glycated hemoglobin and SUA tertiles. SUA tertiles remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (highest vs lowest hazard ratio 2.68, 95% confidence interval 1.48−5.00, P = 0.0009). Conclusions Elevated SUA levels within the normal range (men >6.3 mg/dL, women >5.1) at the onset of overt nephropathy resulted in an increased risk for declining renal function in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25621139

  19. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination. PMID:22423898

  20. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students…

  1. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students

  2. Mouse Cyp4a isoforms: enzymatic properties, gender- and strain-specific expression, and role in renal 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Dominik N; Schmidt, Cosima; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Wellner, Maren; Gross, Volkmar; Hercule, Hantz; Markovic, Marija; Honeck, Horst; Luft, Friedrich C; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2007-04-01

    AA (arachidonic acid) hydroxylation to 20-HETE (20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) influences renal vascular and tubular function. To identify the CYP (cytochrome P450) isoforms catalysing this reaction in the mouse kidney, we analysed the substrate specificity of Cyp4a10, 4a12a, 4a12b and 4a14 and determined sex- and strain-specific expressions. All recombinant enzymes showed high lauric acid hydroxylase activities. Cyp4a12a and Cyp4a12b efficiently hydroxylated AA to 20-HETE with V(max) values of approx. 10 nmol x nmol(-1) x min(-1) and K(m) values of 20-40 microM. 20-Carboxyeicosatetraenoic acid occurred as a secondary metabolite. AA hydroxylase activities were approx. 25-75-fold lower with Cyp4a10 and not detectable with Cyp4a14. Cyp4a12a and Cyp4a12b also efficiently converted EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) into 19/20-OH- and 17,18-epoxy-EPA. In male mice, renal microsomal AA hydroxylase activities ranged between approx. 100 (NMRI), 45-55 (FVB/N, 129 Sv/J and Balb/c) and 25 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) (C57BL/6). The activities correlated with differences in Cyp4a12a protein and mRNA levels. Treatment with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone induced both 20-HETE production and Cyp4a12a expression more than 4-fold in male C57BL/6 mice. All female mice showed low AA hydroxylase activities (15-25 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1)) and very low Cyp4a12a mRNA and protein levels, but high Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 expression. Renal Cyp4a12b mRNA expression was almost undetectable in both sexes of all strains. Thus Cyp4a12a is the predominant 20-HETE synthase in the mouse kidney. Cyp4a12a expression determines the sex- and strain-specific differences in 20-HETE generation and may explain sex and strain differences in the susceptibility to hypertension and target organ damage. PMID:17112342

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of dissolution-rate data obtained in the laboratory to indicate the potential quality of effluent from a field-scale oxic limestone drain (OLD) treatment system for neutralization of dilute acidic mine drainage (AMD). Effluent from the Reevesdale Mine South Dip Tunnel, a large source of AMD and base flow to the Wabash Creek and Little Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of east-central Pennsylvania, is representative of AMD with low concentrations but high loadings of dissolved Fe, Al and other metals because of a high flow rate. In January 2003, rapid neutralization of the AMD from the Reevesdale Mine was achieved in laboratory tests of its reaction rate with crushed limestone in closed, collapsible containers (Cubitainers). The tests showed that net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with retention times greater than 3 h and that effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for Fe(OH)3-coated and uncoated limestone. On the basis of the laboratory results, a flushable OLD containing 1450 metric tons of high-purity calcitic limestone followed by two 0.7-m deep wetlands were constructed at the Reevesdale Mine. During the first year of operation, monthly data at the inflow, outflow and intermediate points within the treatment system were collected (April 2006-2007). The inflow to the treatment system ranged from 6.8 to 27.4 L/s, with median pH of 4.7, net acidity of 9.1 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of 1.0, 1.9 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding effluent from the OLD had computed void-volume retention times of 4.5-18 h, with median pH of 6.6, net acidity of -93.2 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of <0.1, 0.08 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively. The wetlands below the OLD were effective for retaining metal-rich solids flushed at monthly or more frequent intervals from the OLD, but otherwise had little effect on the effluent quality. During the first year of operation, approximately 43 metric tons of limestone were dissolved and 2 metric tons of Al, Fe and Mn were precipitated within the OLD. However, because of the accumulation of these metals within the OLD and possibly other debris from the mine, the effectiveness of the treatment system declined. Despite the installation of a flush-pipe network at the base of the OLD to remove precipitated solids, the limestone bed clogged near the inflow. Consequently, a large fraction of the AMD bypassed the treatment system. To promote flow through the OLD, the flush pipes were open continuously during the last 4 months of the study; however, this effluent was only partially treated because short-circuiting through the pipes decreased contact between the effluent and limestone. A reconfiguration of the flow path through the limestone bed from horizontal to vertical upward could increase the limestone surface area exposed to the metal-laden influent, increase the cross-sectional area perpendicular to flow, decrease the flow path for solids removal, and, consequently, decrease potential for clogging.

  4. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had pH as low as 4.1 and supported few, if any, fish. However, within the first year of treatment, the pH was maintained at values of 5.0 or greater and native brook trout were documented immediately below the treatment system, though not above. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  6. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional calcium absorption and urinary calcium excretion without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hunt, Janet R

    2011-03-01

    Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of a high-protein and high-potential renal acid load (PRAL) diet on calcium (Ca) absorption and retention and markers of bone metabolism. In a randomized crossover design, 16 postmenopausal women consumed 2 diets: 1 with low protein and low PRAL (LPLP; total protein: 61 g/d; PRAL: -48 mEq/d) and 1 with high protein and high PRAL (HPHP; total protein: 118 g/d; PRAL: 33 mEq/d) for 7 wk each separated by a 1-wk break. Ca absorption was measured by whole body scintillation counting of radio-labeled (47)Ca. Compared with the LPLP diet, the HPHP diet increased participants' serum IGF-I concentrations (P < 0.0001), decreased serum intact PTH concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased fractional (47)Ca absorption (mean ± pooled SD: 22.3 vs. 26.5 ± 5.4%; P < 0.05) and urinary Ca excretion (156 vs. 203 ± 63 mg/d; P = 0.005). The net difference between the amount of Ca absorbed and excreted in urine did not differ between 2 diet periods (55 vs. 28 ± 51 mg/d). The dietary treatments did not affect other markers of bone metabolism. In summary, a diet high in protein and PRAL increases the fractional absorption of dietary Ca, which partially compensates for increased urinary Ca, in postmenopausal women. The increased IGF-I and decreased PTH concentrations in serum, with no change in biomarkers of bone resorption or formation, indicate a high-protein diet has no adverse effects on bone health. PMID:21248199

  7. Dual-energy dual-source CT with additional spectral filtration can improve the differentiation of non-uric acid renal stones: An ex vivo phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Mingliang; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan C.; Leng, Shuai; Williams, James C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Lieske, John C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ex vivo ability of dual-energy, dual-source computed tomography (DE-DSCT) with additional tin filtration to differentiate between five groups of human renal stone types. Methods Forty-three renal stones of ten types were categorized into five primary groups based on effective atomic numbers, which were calculated as the weighted average of the atomic numbers of constituent atoms. Stones were embedded in porcine kidneys and placed in a 35cm water phantom. DE-DSCT scans were performed with and without tin filtration at 80/140kV. The CT number ratio [CTR=CT(low)/CT(high)] was calculated on a volumetric voxel-by-voxel basis for each stone. Statistical analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to compare the difference in CTR with and without tin filtration, and to measure the discrimination between stone groups. Results CTR of non-uric acid stones increased on average by 0.17 (range 0.03–0.36) with tin filtration. The CTR values for non-uric acid stone groups were not significantly different (p>0.05) between any of the two adjacent groups without tin filtration. Use of the additional tin filtration on the high-energy x-ray tube significantly improved the separation of non-uric acid stone types by CTR (p<0.05). The area under the ROC curve increased from 0.78–0.84 without fin filtration to 0.89–0.95 with tin filtration. Conclusion Our results demonstrated better separation between different stone types when additional tin filtration was used on DE-DSCT. The increased spectral separation allowed a 5-group stone classification scheme. Some overlapping between particular stone types still exists, including brushite and calcium oxalate. PMID:21606290

  8. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production. PMID:26289745

  9. Glucose-induced changes in renal haemodynamics in proteinuric type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: inhibition by acetylsalicilic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    De Cosmo, S; Earle, K; Morocutti, A; Walker, J; Ruggenenti, P; Remuzzi, G; Viberti, G C

    1993-07-01

    The effect of hyperglycaemia on renal function in diabetic nephropathy remains poorly understood. We investigated the renal haemodynamic response to an acute plasma glucose rise from sustained euglycaemia to sustained hyperglycaemia in eight persistently proteinuric Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Studies were performed in a double-blind cross-over manner after i.v. injection of 450 mg lysine acetylsalicilate (equivalent to 250 mg acetylsalicilic acid) or equal volume of 0.9% NaCl (isotonic saline). In the isotonic saline experiments hyperglycaemia produced a significant rise, by approximately 35%, in glomerular filtration rate in all patients from 41.5 +/- 5.2 to 55 +/- 6 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 (p < 0.005) and an increase in sodium paraminohippurate clearance from 178 +/- 22.7 to 220 +/- 20.0 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 (p < 0.05). These changes took place within the first 30 min of glucose infusion and were maintained for a 90 min hyperglycaemic period. Filtration fraction did not change significantly. Infusion of lysine acetylsalicilate lowered baseline glomerular filtration rate (isotonic saline vs lysine acetylsalicilate 41.5 +/- 5.2 vs 30.0 +/- 5.7 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2; p < 0.05) and significantly blunted the rise in glomerular filtration rate during hyperglycaemia (glomerular filtration rate increment: saline vs lysine acetylsalicilate: 13.6 +/- 2.8 vs 5.3 +/- 1.8 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2; p < 0.005). The effects on renal plasma flow were similarly blunted. In five additional patients, time- and volume-controlled isotonic saline experiments during sustained euglycaemia showed no significant changes in glomerular filtration rate and sodium paraminohippurate clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8359579

  10. Drug-induced renal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations PMID:26468475

  11. Drug-induced renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations. PMID:26468475

  12. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy in non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma after renal transplantation for end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Roumeguère, Thierry; Broeders, Nilufer; Jayaswal, Avinash; Rorive, Sandrine; Quackels, Thierry; Pozdzik, Agnieszka; Arlt, Volker M; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Nortier, Joëlle L

    2015-02-01

    Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) of high grade and/or carcinoma in situ. This study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and tolerance of BCG instillations in eight kidney recipients for end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), a condition at high risk of urothelial carcinoma, and diagnosed for NMIBC. Five of them had relapsed after mitomycin C treatment. Tolerance to BCG was evaluated clinically and regular follow-up with fluorescence cystoscopy was performed along with renal graft function monitoring. Immunosuppression doses were adjusted and prophylactic anti-tuberculous treatment given to reduce risks of graft rejection and infection. After a mean follow-up period of 50 months, seven of the eight patients are free of relapse and kidney graft function remained unchanged. Tolerance was good, except for one episode of fever and one early discontinuation because of subjective discomfort. No systemic tuberculous infection was observed. This is the first clinical observation of successful BCG therapy for NMIBC in patients given transplant for end-stage AAN. Under standardized conditions, immunotherapy based on intravesical BCG is feasible, effective, and well tolerated in renal transplantation. PMID:25377421

  13. Spontaneously Occurring Formation of Intranuclear and Cytoplasmic Inclusions in Renal Proximal Epithelium Due to Accumulation of D-Amino Acid Oxidase in Wistar Hannover Rats.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Natsumi; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Andoh, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Hoshiya, Toru

    2015-07-01

    Intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in the renal proximal tubular epithelium were observed in nontreated male and female Wistar Hannover rats in a 26-week study (32 weeks of age) and a 104-week study (110 weeks of age). The incidence rates were less than 5% in these two studies. In affected animals, the inclusions were observed in more than 60% of proximal tubular epithelium as various sized (approximately 1-8 μm in diameter) round and eosinophilic materials, but not in distal tubules, Henle's loop, or collecting ducts. Ultrastructurally, inclusions appeared finely granular, homogenous with middle-electron density, and without a limiting membrane. These inclusions were determined to be protein histochemically stained by Azan-Mallory and immunoreactive with an antibody against D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). There was no abnormality in in-life observations or in clinical test values suggestive of renal dysfunction. There were no associated degenerative or inflammatory changes in the kidneys, and no similar inclusions were observed in the other organs. These inclusions are very similar to propiverine hydrochloride (propiverine) and norepinephreine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced inclusions. This is the first report of accumulation of DAO and formation of inclusions occurring spontaneously in rat kidneys. The data are important for toxicological studies using Wistar Hannover rats. PMID:25520307

  14. Physiological and molecular responses of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) kidney to metabolic acidosis, and potential mechanisms of renal ammonia transport.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Michael J; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-07-01

    Relative to the gills, the mechanisms by which the kidney contributes to ammonia and acid-base homeostasis in fish are poorly understood. Goldfish were exposed to a low pH environment (pH 4.0, 48 h), which induced a characteristic metabolic acidosis and an increase in total plasma [ammonia] but reduced plasma ammonia partial pressure (PNH3). In the kidney tissue, total ammonia, lactate and intracellular pH remained unchanged. The urinary excretion rate of net base under control conditions changed to net acid excretion under low pH, with contributions from both the NH4 (+) (∼30%) and titratable acidity minus bicarbonate (∼70%; TA-HCO3 (-)) components. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), urea and Na(+) excretion rates were also elevated while Cl(-) excretion rates were unchanged. Renal alanine aminotransferase activity increased under acidosis. The increase in renal ammonia excretion was due to significant increases in both the glomerular filtration and the tubular secretion rates of ammonia, with the latter accounting for ∼75% of the increase. There was also a 3.5-fold increase in the mRNA expression of renal Rhcg-b (Rhcg1) mRNA. There was no relationship between ammonia secretion and Na(+) reabsorption. These data indicate that increased renal ammonia secretion during acidosis is probably mediated through Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins and occurs independently of Na(+) transport, in contrast to branchial and epidermal models of Na(+)-dependent ammonia transport in freshwater fish. Rather, we propose a model of parallel H(+)/NH3 transport as the primary mechanism of renal tubular ammonia secretion that is dependent on renal amino acid catabolism. PMID:25987732

  15. Uric acid: association with rate of renal function decline and time until start of dialysis in incident pre-dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Methods Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p = 0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p = 0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p = 0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Conclusion Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre-dialysis patient is a risk factor for an earlier start of dialysis. PMID:24939671

  16. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional Ca absorption and urinary Ca excretion, without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effects of high dietary protein (mostly meat) and high potential renal acid load (PRAL) on calcium (Ca) balance and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, sixteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one with l...

  17. Acetate stimulates flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle in rabbit renal proximal tubules synthesizing glutamine from alanine: a 13C NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Dugelay, S; Chauvin, M F; Megnin-Chanet, F; Martin, G; Laréal, M C; Lhoste, J M; Baverel, G

    1999-01-01

    Although glutamine synthesis has a major role in the control of acid-base balance and ammonia detoxification in the kidney of herbivorous species, very little is known about the regulation of this process. We therefore studied the influence of acetate, which is readily metabolized by the kidney and whose metabolism is accompanied by the production of bicarbonate, on glutamine synthesis from variously labelled [(13)C]alanine and [(14)C]alanine molecules in isolated rabbit renal proximal tubules. With alanine as sole exogenous substrate, glutamine and, to a smaller extent, glutamate and CO(2), were the only significant products of the metabolism of this amino acid, which was removed at high rates. Absolute fluxes through the enzymes involved in alanine conversion into glutamine were assessed by using a novel model describing the corresponding reactions in conjunction with the (13)C NMR, and to a smaller extent, the radioactive and enzymic data. The presence of acetate (5 mM) led to a large stimulation of fluxes through citrate synthase and alpha-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. These effects were accompanied by increases in the removal of alanine, in the accumulation of glutamate and in flux through the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase. Acetate did not alter fluxes through glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase; as a result, acetate did not change the accumulation of ammonia, which was negligible under both experimental conditions. We conclude that acetate, which seems to be an important energy-provider to the rabbit renal proximal tubule, simultaneously traps as glutamate the extra nitrogen removed as alanine, thus preventing the release of additional ammonia by the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. PMID:10477267

  18. Determination of total, free and saliva mycophenolic acid with a LC-MS/MS method: application to pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers and renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Li, Shuijun; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Xuelu; Fan, Yu; Liu, Zhihong; Hu, Qiang; Yu, Chen

    2009-10-15

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active moiety of mycophenoate mofetil (MMF), an ester prodrug widely used as an immunosuppressant. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA is becoming mandatory for transplant patients received MMF therapy in the routine clinical practice because of large individual variability, dose-related toxicity and the risk of acute rejection. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of total and free MPA in plasma and in saliva that uses one identical liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric condition. Following protein precipitation for total and saliva MPA, and ultrafiltration for free MPA, chromatographic separation was performed on an Allure PFP Propyl analytical column (100 x 2.1 mm, 5 microm, RESTEK Co., Bellefonte, PA, USA) with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (45:55, v/v) as the mobile phases. The compounds were quantified by positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and saliva stability were evaluated during method validation. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of MPA after an oral administration of a single 1000 mg of MMF to eight healthy male volunteers and 750 mg bid of MMF to nine renal transplant patients. PMID:19574013

  19. Studies on the metabolism of the renal glomerular basement membrane. Turnover measurements in the rat with the use of radiolabeled amino acids.

    PubMed

    Price, R G; Spiro, R G

    1977-12-10

    The synthesis and degradation of the renal glomerular basement membrane have been investigated in the rat with the aid of injected tracer doses of various tritiated amino acids including L-proline, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, and glycine. After incorporation into the basement membrane the turnover times of these amino acid constituents, as well as of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, were determined from the decay in their specific radioactivities. The loss of radioactivity from the proline and hydroxyproline of the glomerular basement membrane was as slow as that from tail tendon collagen in the same animals (turnover time of more than 100 days) and contrasted with the radiodecay of the proline in other glomerular proteins (turnover time of 9 days). The glycine of the membrane similarly turned over at this very slow rate. The total replacement times of the leucine, hydroxylysine, lysine, and phenylalanine constituents of the basement membrane were determined to be somewhat shorter with a range of 65 to 23 days. The nonuniform turnover of these membrane components may be a function of the polydispersity of the peptide subunits of the basement membrane observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and may reflect a subtle morphological and functional heterogeneity. The amino acid and saccharide composition of the rat glomerular basement membrane used in these studies are also reported. PMID:925014

  20. Long-term dietary potential renal acid load during adolescence is prospectively associated with indices of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Danika; Johner, Simone A; Kalhoff, Hermann; Buyken, Anette E; Remer, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently already present in young subjects, has been linked to reduced growth hormone levels and signaling. Similar hormonal changes occur during metabolic acidosis (MA), which may thus contribute to an increased NAFLD risk. Because subclinical MA can be diet induced, we aimed to examine whether a higher diet-dependent acid load during adolescence is prospectively associated with several currently used NAFLD surrogates in young adulthood. Dietary acidity during adolescence (boys:10-15 y, girls: 9-14 y) was calculated as potential renal acid load (PRAL) from at least three 3-d weighed dietary records according to a published algorithm considering dietary protein and minerals in 145 healthy participants. Routine measurements derived from blood analysis and anthropometric data in participants' young adulthood (18-25 y) were used to determine the NAFLD surrogates alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), and fatty liver index (FLI). Sex-stratified linear regression models, adjusted for dietary fiber, saturated fat, protein, and adolescent BMI SD scores, were run with PRAL as the independent variable. Dietary PRAL during puberty was positively associated with ALT (P = 0.02), HSI (P = 0.002), and FLI (P = 0.005) in adult females but not males. Females with an adolescent dietary acid load in the highest tertile had 3.5, 4.4, and 4.5 higher values of ALT, HSI, and FLI as adults, respectively, compared to females with the lowest PRAL. The present findings suggest that higher dietary acidity in adolescence may be prospectively associated with hepatic lipid accumulation in females. Whether this relationship is due to the higher proton load or rather represents an unhealthy dietary pattern requires further investigation. PMID:22223573

  1. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on ErbB1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit renal proximal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) is a major site for maintaining whole body pH homeostasis and is responsible for reabsorbing ∼80% of filtered HCO3−, the major plasma buffer, into the blood. The PT adapts its rate of HCO3− reabsorption (JHCO3−) in response to acute acid-base disturbances. Our laboratory previously showed that single isolated perfused PTs adapt JHCO3− in response to isolated changes in basolateral (i.e., blood side) CO2 and HCO3− concentrations but, surprisingly, not to pH. The response to CO2 concentration can be blocked by the ErbB family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD-168393. In the present study, we exposed enriched rabbit PT suspensions to five acute acid-base disturbances for 5 and 20 min using a panel of phosphotyrosine (pY)-specific antibodies to determine the influence of each disturbance on pan-pY, ErbB1-specific pY (four sites), and ErbB2-specific pY (two sites). We found that each acid-base treatment generated a distinct temporal pY pattern. For example, the summated responses of the individual ErbB1/2-pY sites to each disturbance showed that metabolic acidosis (normal CO2 concentration and reduced HCO3− concentration) produced a transient summated pY decrease (5 vs. 20 min), whereas metabolic alkalosis produced a transient increase. Respiratory acidosis (normal HCO3− concentration and elevated CO2 concentration) had little effect on summated pY at 5 min but produced an elevation at 20 min, whereas respiratory alkalosis produced a reduction at 20 min. Our data show that ErbB1 and ErbB2 in the PT respond to acute acid-base disturbances, consistent with the hypothesis that they are part of the signaling cascade. PMID:24133121

  2. A novel, simple and inexpensive procedure for the simultaneous determination of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid for renal function assessment from plasma samples in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Violeta; González-Villalva, Karla I; Reyes, José L; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Guízar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the current study was to design, validate and implement a novel analytical method for the simultaneous plasma measurement of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) to estimate renal function in awake rats. A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous measurement of iopamidol (for glomerular filtration rate estimation, GFR) and PAH (for tubular secretion determination, TS) was designed and validated using a C-18 column, 0.1M acetic acid-10% acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, and UV detection at 270 nm. Iopamidol (244.8 mg/kg) was administered intravenously followed immediately by sodium PAH (100 mg/kg) to healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples obtained at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after drug administration were deproteinized with 2.5% trichloroacetic acid containing p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard, and separated by the validated RP-HPLC method described above. The iopamidol and PAH chromatographic data were analyzed using a non-compartmental model. The results demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method was linear in ranges between 15-120 μg/ml and 2.5-120 μg/ml for iopamidol and PAH, respectively. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for both drugs. Recovery of iopamidol and PAH was 92% and 100%, respectively. Plasma iopamidol and PAH clearances in awake rats, estimates for GFR and TS, respectively, were 1.49±0.20 ml/min and 3.73±0.38 ml/min. In conclusion, the method here described is a simple and reliable procedure, for the simultaneous and time-saving determination of GFR and TS from plasma samples in the conscious rat. PMID:25594899

  3. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Consigny, Paul M. Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew Stolarik, DeAnne

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  4. NHE4 is critical for the renal handling of ammonia in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Soline; Meer, Leonie Van; Wootla, Bharath; Bloch-Faure, May; Chambrey, Régine; Shull, Gary E.; Gawenis, Lara R.; Houillier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop (MTALH) is thought to be a critical step in renal ammonia handling and excretion in urine, in which it is the main acid component. Basolateral Na+/H+ exchangers have been proposed to play a role in ammonia efflux out of MTALH cells, which express 2 exchanger isoforms: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) and NHE4. Here, we investigated the role of NHE4 in urinary acid excretion and found that NHE4–/– mice exhibited compensated hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, together with inappropriate urinary net acid excretion. When challenged with a 7-day HCl load, NHE4–/– mice were unable to increase their urinary ammonium and net acid excretion and displayed reduced ammonium medulla content compared with wild-type littermates. Both pharmacologic inhibition and genetic disruption of NHE4 caused a marked decrease in ammonia absorption by the MTALH. Finally, dietary induction of metabolic acidosis increased NHE4 mRNA expression in mouse MTALH cells and enhanced renal NHE4 activity in rats, as measured by in vitro microperfusion of MTALH. We therefore conclude that ammonia absorption by the MTALH requires the presence of NHE4 and that lack of NHE4 reduces the ability of MTALH epithelial cells to create the cortico-papillary gradient of NH3/NH4+ needed to excrete an acid load, contributing to systemic metabolic acidosis. PMID:20484819

  5. The renal quantitative scintillation camera study for determination of renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I.M. Jr.; Boineau, F.G.; Evans, B.B.; Schlegel, J.U.

    1983-03-01

    The renal quantitative scintillation camera study assesses glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow based upon renal uptake of 99mtechnetium-iron ascorbate and 131iodine-hippuran, respectively. The method was compared to inulin, para-aminohippuric acid and creatinine clearance studies in 7 normal subjects and 9 patients with various degrees of reduced renal function. The reproducibility of the technique was determined in 15 randomly selected pediatric patients. The values of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not significantly different from those of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. The reproducibility of the technique was comparable to that of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. Patient acceptance of the technique is excellent and the cost is minimal. Renal morphology and excretory dynamics also are demonstrated. The technique is advocated as a clinical measure of renal function.

  6. The Protective Effect of γ-aminobutyric Acid on Kidney Injury Induced by Renal Ischemia-reperfusion in Ovariectomized Estradiol-treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Nahid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Monajemi, Ramesh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Talebi, Ardeshir; Vafapour, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the most important causes of kidney injury, which is possibly gender-related. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against IRI in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods: Thirty-five ovariectomized Wistar rats were used in six experimental groups. The first three groups did not subject to estradiol treatment and assigned as sham-operated, control, and GABA-treated groups. GABA (50 μmol/kg) and saline were injected in the treated and control groups 30 min before the surgery, respectively. The second three groups received the same treatments but received estradiol valerate (500 μg/kg, intramuscularly) 3 days prior to the surgery. The IRI was induced in the control and treated groups by clamping the renal artery for 45 min and then 24 h of reperfusion. All animals were sacrificed for the measurements. Results: The serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score significantly increased in the IRI rats (P < 0.05). GABA significantly decreased the aforementioned parameters (P < 0.05). The uterus weight increased significantly in rats that received estradiol (P < 0.05). Serum and kidney levels of nitrite (nitric oxide metabolite) did not alter significantly. Serum level of malondialdehyde increased significantly in the ovariectomized rats exposed to IRI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that GABA improved IRI in ovariectomized rats. Estradiol was also nephroprotective against IRI. However, co-administration of estradiol and GABA could not protect the kidney against IRI. PMID:26941907

  7. Release and pharmacokinetics of near-infrared labeled albumin from monodisperse poly(d,l-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) microspheres after subcapsular renal injection.

    PubMed

    Kazazi-Hyseni, F; van Vuuren, S H; van der Giezen, D M; Pieters, E H; Ramazani, F; Rodriguez, S; Veldhuis, G J; Goldschmeding, R; van Nostrum, C F; Hennink, W E; Kok, R J

    2015-08-01

    Subcapsular renal injection is a novel administration method for local delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of kidney related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of polymeric microspheres for sustained release of protein therapeutics in the kidney and study the subsequent redistribution of the released protein. For this purpose, monodisperse poly(d,l-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA) microspheres (40 μm in diameter) loaded with near-infrared dye-labeled bovine serum albumin (NIR-BSA) were prepared by a membrane emulsification method. Rats were injected with either free NIR-BSA or with NIR-BSA loaded microspheres (NIR-BSA-ms) and the pharmacokinetics of the released NIR-BSA was studied for 3 weeks by ex vivo imaging of organs and blood. Quantitative release data were obtained from kidney homogenates and possible metabolism of the protein was investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis of the samples. The ex vivo images showed a rapid decrease of the NIR signal within 24h in kidneys injected with free NIR-BSA, while, importantly, the signal of the labeled protein was still visible at day 21 in kidneys injected with NIR-BSA-ms. SDS-PAGE analysis of the kidney homogenates showed that intact NIR-BSA was released from the microspheres. The locally released NIR-BSA drained to the systemic circulation and subsequently accumulated in the liver, where it was degraded and excreted renally. The in vivo release of NIR-BSA was calculated after extracting the protein from the remaining microspheres in kidney homogenates. The in vivo release rate was faster (89 ± 4% of the loading in 2 weeks) compared to the in vitro release of NIR-BSA (38 ± 1% in 2 weeks). In conclusion, PLHMGA microspheres injected under the kidney capsule provide a local depot from which a formulated protein is released over a prolonged time-period. PMID:25929814

  8. Semi-mechanistic kidney model incorporating physiologically-relevant fluid reabsorption and transporter-mediated renal reabsorption: pharmacokinetics of γ-hydroxybutyric acid and L-lactate in rats.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutwij A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study developed a semi-mechanistic kidney model incorporating physiologically-relevant fluid reabsorption and transporter-mediated active reabsorption. The model was applied to data for the drug of abuse γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which exhibits monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1/SMCT1)-mediated renal reabsorption. The kidney model consists of various nephron segments--proximal tubules, Loop-of-Henle, distal tubules, and collecting ducts--where the segmental fluid flow rates, volumes, and sequential reabsorption were incorporated as functions of the glomerular filtration rate. The active renal reabsorption was modeled as vectorial transport across proximal tubule cells. In addition, the model included physiological blood, liver, and remainder compartments. The population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using ADAPT5 for GHB blood concentration-time data and cumulative amount excreted unchanged into urine data (200-1000 mg/kg IV bolus doses) from rats [Felmlee et al (PMID: 20461486)]. Simulations assessed the effects of inhibition (R = [I]/KI = 0-100) of renal reabsorption on systemic exposure (AUC) and renal clearance of GHB. Visual predictive checks and other model diagnostic plots indicated that the model reasonably captured GHB concentrations. Simulations demonstrated that the inhibition of renal reabsorption significantly increased GHB renal clearance and decreased AUC. Model validation was performed using a separate dataset. Furthermore, our model successfully evaluated the pharmacokinetics of L-lactate using data obtained from Morse et al (PMID: 24854892). In conclusion, we developed a semi-mechanistic kidney model that can be used to evaluate transporter-mediated active renal reabsorption of drugs by the kidney. PMID:26341876

  9. Defective fatty acid oxidation in renal tubular epithelial cells plays a key role in kidney fibrosis development

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun Mi; Ahn, Seon Ho; Choi, Peter; Ko, Yi-An; Han, Seung Hyeok; Chinga, Frank; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Tao, Jianling; Sharma, Kumar; Pullman, James; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Susztak, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is the histological manifestation of a progressive usually irreversible process causing chronic and end stage kidney disease. Genome-wide transcriptome studies of a large cohort (n=95) of normal and fibrotic human kidney tubule samples followed by systems and network analyses identified inflammation and metabolism as top dysregulated pathways in diseased kidneys. In particular, we found that humans and mouse models with tubulointerstitial fibrosis had lower expression of key enzymes and regulators of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increased intracellular lipid deposition. In vitro experiments indicated that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in tubule epithelial cells caused ATP depletion, cell death, dedifferentiation and intracellular lipid deposition; a phenotype observed in fibrosis. Restoring fatty acid metabolism by genetic or pharmacological methods protected mice from tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Our results raise the possibility that correcting the metabolic defect may be useful for preventing and treating chronic kidney disease. PMID:25419705

  10. Feasibility of Discriminating Uric-Acid from Non-Uric-Acid Renal Stones Using Serially Acquired Low- and High-energy CT Scans on a Single-Source CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Shiung, Maria; Ai, Songtao; Qu, Mingliang; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Grant, Katharine L.; Krauss, Bernhard; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lieske, John C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of differentiating uric acid (UA) and non-uric-acid (NUA) renal stones using two consecutive, spatially-registered low- and high-energy scans acquired on a conventional CT system. Materials and Methods A total of 34 patients undergoing clinically indicated dual-source, dual-energy CT exams to differentiate UA and NUA kidney stones were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Immediately after clinically-indicated dual-source, dual-energy CT and written informed consent, two consecutive scans (one at 80 kV and one at 140 kV) were performed on a conventional CT scanner over the region limited to stones identified on the dual-source scan. After 3D deformable registration of the 80 and 140 kV images, UA and non-UA stones were identified using commercial software. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of stone classification were calculated using the dual-source results as the reference standard. Results A total of 469 stones were identified in dual-source exams (26 UA and 443 NUA). Average in-plane stone diameter was 4.4 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.0 to 18.9 mm). Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying UA stones were 73%, 90%, and 89%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95%, 97%, and 97% for stones ≥3 mm (n = 341, 19 UA and 322 NUA). Conclusions Accurate differentiation of UA and NUA renal stones is feasible using two consecutively-acquired and spatially-registered conventional CT scans. PMID:25539242

  11. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also ... renal imaging can last from 30 minutes to 2 hours. top of page What will I experience ...

  12. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  13. Adaptations of Arginine's Intestinal-Renal Axis in Cachectic Tumor-Bearing Rats.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nikki; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Weeda, Viola B; Bading, James R; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Malignancies induce disposal of arginine, an important substrate for the immune system. To sustain immune function, the tumor-bearing host accelerates arginine's intestinal-renal axis by glutamine mobilization from skeletal muscle and this may promote cachexia. Glutamine supplementation stimulates argi-nine production in healthy subjects. Arginine's intestinal-renal axis and the effect of glutamine supplementation in cancer cach-exia have not been investigated. This study evaluated the long-term adaptations of the interorgan pathway for arginine production following the onset of cachexia and the metabolic effect of glutamine supplementation in the cachectic state. Fischer-344 rats were randomly divided into a tumor-bearing group (n = 12), control group (n = 7) and tumor-bearing group receiving a glutamine-enriched diet (n = 9). Amino acid fluxes and net fractional extractions across intestine, kidneys, and liver were studied. Compared to controls, the portal-drained viscera of tumor-bearing rats took up significantly more glutamine and released significantly less citrulline. Renal metabolism was unchanged in the cachectic tumor-bearing rats compared with controls. Glutamine supplementation had no effects on intestinal and renal adaptations. In conclusion, in the cachectic state, an increase in intestinal glutamine uptake is not accompanied by an increase in renal arginine production. The adaptations found in the cachectic, tumor-bearing rat do not depend on glutamine availability. PMID:25879155

  14. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  15. Serum Uric Acid and Renal Transplantation Outcomes: At Least 3-Year Post-transplant Retrospective Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Baoshan; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Weigang; Zhu, Yaxiang; Yao, Liyu; Gu, Yiming; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Honglan; Fu, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Since the association of serum uric acid and kidney transplant graft outcome remains disputable, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of uric acid level for graft survival/function and the factors could affect uric acid as time varies. A consecutive cohort of five hundred and seventy three recipients transplanted during January 2008 to December 2011 were recruited. Data and laboratory values of our interest were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant for analysis. Cox proportional hazard model, and multiple regression equation were built to adjust for the possible confounding variables and meet our goals as appropriate. The current cohort study lasts for 41.86 ± 15.49 months. Uric acid level is proven to be negatively associated with eGFR at different time point after adjustment for age, body mass index and male gender (standardized β ranges from -0.15 to -0.30 with all P<0.001).Males with low eGFR but high level of TG were on CSA, diuretics and RAS inhibitors and experienced at least one episode of acute rejection and diabetic issue were associated with a higher mean uric acid level. Hyperuricemia was significantly an independent predictor of pure graft failure (hazard ratio=4.01, 95% CI: 1.25-12.91, P=0.02) after adjustment. But it was no longer an independent risk factor for graft loss after adjustment. Interestingly, higher triglyceride level can make incidence of graft loss (hazard ratio=1.442, for each unit increase millimoles per liter 95% CI: 1.008-2.061, P=0.045) and death (hazard ratio=1.717, 95% CI: 1.105-2.665, P=0.016) more likely. The results of our study suggest that post-transplant elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival and graft function. Together with the high TG level impact on poor outcomes, further investigations for therapeutic effect are needed. PMID:26208103

  16. Net metering developments

    SciTech Connect

    Starrs, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    The past year has seen a number of important developments regarding net metering. This paper summarizes these developments, including the continued momentum towards net metering adoption and implementation in the states; the potential for a federal net metering mandate; and--perhaps most importantly--a legal challenge to Iowa's net metering rule that is currently pending before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates aristolochic acid I-induced apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shaohua; Wang, Yan; Jin, Jing; Guan, Cuiwen; Li, Mei; Xi, Chen; Ouyang, Zizhang; Chen, Meiwan; Qiu, Yuwen; Huang, Min; Huang, Zhiying

    2012-08-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), derived from the Aristolochia species, has been associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which has emerged as a worldwide disease. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is the main ingredient of AA, and the underlying mechanisms for AAI-induced nephrotoxicity are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in AAI-induced nephrotoxicity. The results showed that treatment of HK-2 cells (a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line) with AAI caused an increase in eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing and the expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). These events represent typical markers of the ER stress-related signaling pathway. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or salubrinal (Sal) significantly inhibited AAI-induced apoptosis, indicating the role of ER stress in AAI-induced apoptosis. In addition, AAI-induced cell death followed an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH) significantly inhibited AAI-induced ER stress proteins and cell death, suggesting that ROS mediate AAI-induced ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that the ER stress response is involved in apoptosis induced by AAI in HK-2 cells, thus offering a new insight into the nephrotoxicity of AAI. PMID:22445861

  18. Resistance after chronic application of the HDAC-inhibitor valproic acid is associated with elevated Akt activation in renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Juengel, Eva; Makarević, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drugs have significantly improved the therapeutic options for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance often develops, negating the benefit of these agents. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance towards the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in a RCC in vivo model were investigated. NMRI:nu/nu mice were transplanted with Caki-1 RCC cells and then treated with VPA (200 mg/kg/day). Controls remained untreated. Based on tumor growth dynamics, the mice were divided into "responders" and "non-responders" to VPA. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation and expression of cell signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins in the RCC mouse tumors were evaluated by Western blotting. Tumor growth of VPA responders was significantly diminished, whereas that of VPA non-responders even exceeded control values. Cdk1, 2 and 4 proteins were strongly enhanced in the non-responders. Importantly, Akt expression and activity were massively up-regulated in the tumors of the VPA non-responders. Chronic application (12 weeks) of VPA to Caki-1 cells in vitro evoked a distinct elevation of Akt activity and cancer cells no longer responded with cell growth reduction, compared to the short 2 week treatment. We assume that chronic use of an HDAC-inhibitor is associated with (re)-activation of Akt, which may be involved in resistance development. Consequently, combined blockade of both HDAC and Akt may delay or prevent drug resistance in RCC. PMID:23372654

  19. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 ..mu..g CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  20. Biochemical markers of bone turnover and clinical outcome in patients with renal cell and bladder carcinoma with bone metastases following treatment with zoledronic acid: The TUGAMO study

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, A; Gonzlez-Lpez, R; Morote, J; de la Piedra, C; Meseguer, C; Esteban, E; Climent, M; Gonzlez-Gragera, B; lvarez-Ossorio, J-L; Chirivella, I; Mellado, B; Lara, P-C; Vzquez, F; Contreras, J-A; Carles, J; Murias, A; Calderero, V; Comet-Batlle, J; Gonzlez-del Alba, A; Len-Mateos, L; Maas, A; Segarra, J; Lassa, A; Gonzlez-Enguita, C; Mndez, M-J; Samper, P; Unda, M; Mahillo-Fernndez, I; Bellmunt, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Levels of bone turnover markers (BTM) might be correlated with outcome in terms of skeletal-related events (SRE), disease progression, and death in patients with bladder cancer (BC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with bone metastases (BM). We try to evaluate this possible correlation in patients who receive treatment with zoledronic acid (ZOL). Methods: This observational, prospective, and multicenter study analysed BTM and clinical outcome in these patients. Serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP), and beta-isomer of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (?-CTX) were analysed. Results: Patients with RCC who died or progressed had higher baseline ?-CTX levels and those who experienced SRE during follow-up showed high baseline BALP levels. In BC, a poor rate of survival was related with high baseline ?-CTX and BALP levels, and new SRE with increased PINP levels. Cox univariate analysis showed that ?-CTX levels were associated with higher mortality and disease progression in RCC and higher mortality in BC. Bone alkaline phosphatase was associated with increased risk of premature SRE appearance in RCC and death in BC. Conclusion: Beta-isomer of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and BALP can be considered a complementary tool for prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with BC and RCC with BM treated with ZOL. PMID:23799855

  1. Long term higher urinary calcium excretion within the normal physiologic range predicts impaired bone status of the proximal radius in healthy children with higher potential renal acid load.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lijie; Libuda, Lars; Schönau, Eckhard; Frassetto, Lynda; Remer, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass have been observed in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Whether urinary calcium excretion at the higher end of the normal physiologic range can influence bone health in healthy children independent of dietary intake is unknown. Urinary calcium was quantified in 603 24-h urine samples from 154 healthy children and adolescents who had ≥3 urine collections and parallel 3-day weighed dietary records during the 4years preceding proximal forearm bone analyses by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was determined according to urine ionogram by subtracting measured quantitatively important mineral cations from nonbicarbonate anions. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly associated with volumetric (v)BMD (P=0.04), almost significantly with cortical bone mineral content (BMC) (P=0.05), but not with cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (P=0.09), total CSA (P=0.3), or Strength-Strain Index (P=0.8) in the total population sample. Stratified analyses based on the median split of uPRAL showed that calcium excretion was negatively associated with vBMD (P=0.007), cortical BMC (P=0.001), and cortical CSA (P=0.004) in those children with higher uPRALs, but not in those with low uPRALs (P>0.3). In conclusion, long-term higher calciuria within the physiological range predicts reduced diaphyseal bone mass and bone density particularly in healthy children and adolescents with long-term unfavorable higher dietary acid load, i.e., with lower fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:22342797

  2. RENAL SUBSTRATE EXCHANGE AND GLUCONEOGENESIS IN NORMAL POSTABSORPTIVE HUMANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release of glucose by the kidney in postabsorptive normal humans is generally regarded as being wholly due to gluconeogenesis. Although lactate is the most important systemic gluconeogenic precursor and there is appreciable net renal lactate uptake, renal lactate gluconeogenesis has not yet been inv...

  3. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress via NF-kB and PKC signaling. ► DSL may act as a beneficial agent in hyperglycemia induced renal disorder.

  4. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  5. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  6. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Madlala, Hlengiwe Pretty; Van Heerden, Fanie Retief; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Musabayane, Cephas Tagumirwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA). We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status. Methods OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1) prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi) as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.). Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Results Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects in decreasing MAP and increasing urinary Na+ outputs. The drugs increased the FENa and FELi without influencing GFR indicating that at least part of the overall natriuretic effect involved proximal tubular Na+ reabsorption. Sub-chronic OA administration (p.o.) also elicited hypotensive responses in Wistar, DSS and SHR rats. The MAP lowering effect was more marked in hypertensive animals and were positively correlated with increased urinary Na+ excretion. Compared with respective control rats, OA treatment reduced malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues. Conclusions OA and oleanane derivatives have similar effects on MAP, kidney function and oxidative stress. The amelioration of oxidative stress and blood pressure lowering effects by OA are more marked in hypertensive animals and correlated with an increased urinary Na+ output. Novelty of the Work The results of this study are novel in that they show 1) a correlation between blood pressure reduction and increased urinary Na+ excretion by OA, 2) a more marked MAP reduction in hypertensive animals and 3) a drug-induced decrease in proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption. The results may also be clinically relevant because OA is effective via oral administration. PMID:26046776

  7. Net Making = Kuvrinialiq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    Presented in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet describes and illustrates the skills necessary for the construction and the hanging of the fishing nets used by Eskimos. Description of net making includes gathering the bark; willow twine making; kinds of implements used in net construction (twine, shuttle, gauge, forked stick,…

  8. No Safety Net Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Moylan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the Berlin (Connecticut) High School's NET (Non-Traditional Educational Training) program. NET is a self-contained program that is composed of three components: academics, social and emotional support, and vocational training. Rather than treat students alike, the NET program tailors their high school experience to meet…

  9. No Safety Net Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Moylan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the Berlin (Connecticut) High School's NET (Non-Traditional Educational Training) program. NET is a self-contained program that is composed of three components: academics, social and emotional support, and vocational training. Rather than treat students alike, the NET program tailors their high school experience to meet

  10. Differential effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia on leucine-carbon metabolism in vivo. Evidence for distinct mechanisms in regulation of net amino acid deposition.

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, P; Inchiostro, S; Biolo, G; Trevisan, R; Fantin, G; Marescotti, M C; Iori, E; Tiengo, A; Crepaldi, G

    1987-01-01

    The effects of physiologic hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia, alone or in combination, on leucine kinetics in vivo were studied in postabsorptive healthy subjects with primed-constant infusions of L-[4,5-3H]leucine and [1-14C]alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) under euglycemic conditions. Hyperinsulinemia (approximately 100 microU/ml) decreased (P less than 0.05 vs. baseline) steady state Leucine + KIC rates of appearance (Ra) from proteolysis, KIC (approximately leucine-carbon) oxidation, and nonoxidized leucine-carbon flux (leucine----protein). Hyperaminoacidemia (plasma leucine, 210 mumol/liter), with either basal hormone replacement or combined to hyperinsulinemia, resulted in comparable increases in leucine + KIC Ra, KIC oxidation, and leucine----protein (P less than 0.05 vs. baseline). However, endogenous leucine + KIC Ra was suppressed only with the combined infusion. Therefore, on the basis of leucine kinetic data, hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia stimulated net protein anabolism in vivo by different mechanisms. Hyperinsulinemia decreased proteolysis but did not stimulate leucine----protein. Hyperaminoacidemia per se stimulated leucine----protein but did not suppress endogenous proteolysis. When combined, they had a cumulative effect on net leucine deposition into body protein. Images PMID:3549777

  11. Novel polar single amino acid chelates for technetium-99m tricarbonyl-based radiopharmaceuticals with enhanced renal clearance: application to octreotide.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Kevin P; Marquis, John C; Hillier, Shawn M; Lu, Genliang; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

    2010-06-16

    Single amino acid chelate (SAAC) systems for the incorporation of the M(CO)(3) moiety (M = Tc/Re) have been successfully incorporated into novel synthetic strategies for radiopharmaceuticals and evaluated in a variety of biological applications. However, the lipophilicity of the first generation Tc(CO)(3)-dipyridyl complexes has resulted in substantial hepatobiliary uptake when either examined as lysine derivatives or integrated into biologically active small molecules and peptides. Here we designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel SAAC systems that have been chemically modified to promote overall Tc(CO)(3)L(3) complex hydrophilicity with the intent of enhancing renal clearance. A series of lysine derived SAAC systems containing functionalized polar imidazole rings and/or carboxylic acids were synthesized via reductive alkylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine. The SAAC systems were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, purified, and evaluated for radiochemical stability, lipophilicity, and tissue distribution in rats. The log P values of the (99m)Tc complexes were determined experimentally and ranged from -0.91 to -2.33. The resulting complexes were stable (>90%) for at least 24 h. Tissue distribution in normal rats of the lead (99m)Tc complexes demonstrated decreased liver (<1 %ID/g) and gastrointestinal clearance (<1.5%ID/g) and increased kidney clearance (>15 %ID/g) at 2 h after injection compared to the dipyridyl lysine complex (DpK). One of the new SAAC ligands, [(99m)Tc]bis-carboxymethylimidazole lysine, was conjugated to the N-terminus of Tyr-3 octreotide and evaluated for localization in nude mice bearing AR42J xenografts to examine tissue distribution, tumor uptake and retention, clearance, and route of excretion for comparison to (111)In-DOTA-Tyr-3-octreotide and (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide. (99m)Tc-bis-(carboxymethylimidazole)-lysine-Tyr-3-octreotide exhibited significantly less liver uptake and gastrointestinal clearance compared to (99m)Tc-DpK-Tyr-3-octreotide while maintaining tumor uptake in the same mouse model. These novel chelators demonstrate that lipophilicity can be controlled and organ distribution significantly altered, opening up broad application of these novel SAAC systems for radiopharmaceutical design. PMID:20402463

  12. Renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, Umberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-02-27

    The diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma have changed remarkably rapidly. Although the incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been increasing, survival has improved substantially. As incidental diagnosis of small indolent cancers has become more frequent, active surveillance, robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgical techniques, and minimally invasive procedures, such as thermal ablation, have gained popularity. Despite progression in cancer control and survival, locally advanced disease and distant metastases are still diagnosed in a notable proportion of patients. An integrated management strategy that includes surgical debulking and systemic treatment with well established targeted biological drugs has improved the care of patients. Nevertheless, uncertainties, controversies, and research questions remain. Further advances are expected from translational and clinical studies. PMID:26318520

  13. Endothelin and the renal microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhengrong; VanBeusecum, Justin P; Inscho, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) is one of the most potent renal vasoconstrictors. Endothelin plays an essential role in the regulation of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, sodium and water transport, and acid-base balance. ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 are the three distinct endothelin isoforms comprising the endothelin family. ET-1 is the major physiologically relevant peptide and exerts its biological activity through two G-protein-coupled receptors: ET(A) and ET(B). Both ET(A) and ET(B) are expressed by the renal vasculature. Although ET(A) are expressed mainly by vascular smooth muscle cells, ET(B) are expressed by both renal endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of the endothelin system, or overexpression of downstream endothelin signaling pathways, has been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions including hypertension, acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and immune nephritis. In this review, we focus on the effects of endothelin on the renal microvasculature, and update recent findings on endothelin in the regulation of renal hemodynamics. PMID:25966346

  14. Totally unimodular nets.

    PubMed

    Eon, Jean-Guillaume; Proserpio, Davide M; Blatov, Vladislav A

    2012-03-01

    p-Periodic nets can be derived from a voltage graph G with voltages in Z(p), the free abelian group of rank p, if the cyclomatic number γ of G is larger than p. Equivalently, one may describe a net by providing a set of (γ - p) cycle vectors of G forming a basis of the subspace of the cycle space of G with zero net voltage. Let M be the matrix of this basis expressed in the edge basis of the 1-chain space of G. A net is called totally unimodular whenever every sub-determinant of M belongs to the set {-1, 0, 1}. Only a finite set of totally unimodular nets can be derived from some finite graph. It is shown that totally unimodular nets are stable under the operation of edge-lattice deletion in a sense that makes them comparable to minimal nets. An algorithm for the complete determination of totally unimodular nets derived from some finite graph is presented. As an application, the full list of totally unimodular nets derived from graphs of cyclomatic numbers 3 and 4, without bridges, is given. It is shown that many totally unimodular nets frequently occur in crystal structures. PMID:22338663

  15. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  16. Net Flux of Amino Acids Across the Portal-drained Viscera and Liver of the Ewe During Abomasal Infusion of Protein and Glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decreasing the fraction of amino acids metabolized by the mucosal cells may increase the fraction of AA being released into the blood. A potential mechanism to reduce AA catabolism by mucosal cells is to provide an alternative source of energy. We hypothesized that increasing glucose flow to the s...

  17. Environment and phenology: CO2 net ecosystem exchange and CO2 flux partitioning at an acid and oligotrophic mire system in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gažovič, Michal; Peichl, Matthias; Vermeij, Ilse; Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats. B.

    2015-04-01

    Static chamber and environmental measurements in combination with vegetation indices (i.e. vascular green area (VGA) and the greenness chromatic color index (gcc) derived from digital camera images) were used to investigate effects of environment and phenology on the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and CO2 flux partitioning at the Degerö Stormyr site in northern Sweden (64°11' 23.565" N, 19°33' 55.291 E) during two environmentally different years. Our measurement design included a control plot, a moss plot (where vascular plants were removed by clipping) and four heterotrophic respiration (RH) collars (where all green moss and vascular plant biomass were removed) to partition between soil heterotrophic and plant autotrophic (moss and vascular plants) respiration (RA), as well as between moss and vascular plant gross primary production (GPP). Environmental conditions, especially the shallow snow cover, peat soil frost and cold spring in 2014 caused delayed onset of spring green up, reduced soil respiration flux and reduced GPP of vascular plants. Soil temperature measured in 26 cm depth started to rise from spring temperatures of ~ 0.6 °C in 2013 and 0.15 °C in 2014 about 20 days earlier in 2013 compared to 2014. With earlier onset of the growing season and higher soil temperatures in 2013, heterotrophic soil respiration was higher in year 2013 than in year 2014. In 2013, RH dominated the total ecosystem respiration in all months but June and August. On contrary, autotrophic respiration dominated ecosystem respiration in all months of 2014. In both years, vascular plants and mosses were more or less equally contributing to autotrophic respiration. We measured higher GPP in year 2013 compared to year 2014. Also VGA and gcc were higher in spring and throughout the rest of 2013 compared to 2014. The onset of VGA was delayed by ~ 10 days in 2014. In general, total GPP was dominated by GPP of vascular plants in both years, although moss GPP had substantial contribution and exceeded GPP of vascular plants in June of 2013 and July and September of 2014, respectively. NEE was lower (i.e. greater net CO2 uptake) in 2013 compared to 2014. Our study highlights the importance of phenology in relation to ongoing environmental change, which in turn exerts a strong control on the CO2 exchange and its partitioning into component fluxes.

  18. Pull-Up Nets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenan, Liz

    2008-01-01

    When the author began teaching, she always hit a problem when it came to 3D shapes. She wanted the pupils to get a feel for them, and she would get them to make the shapes from their nets. The pupils would first try to visualize how the 2D nets could become 3D shapes and then they would physically fold the nets into the shapes for themselves.

  19. Pull-Up Nets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenan, Liz

    2008-01-01

    When the author began teaching, she always hit a problem when it came to 3D shapes. She wanted the pupils to get a feel for them, and she would get them to make the shapes from their nets. The pupils would first try to visualize how the 2D nets could become 3D shapes and then they would physically fold the nets into the shapes for themselves.…

  20. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The term “ultima ratio” has multiple, though related, meanings. The motto “ultima ratio regum,” cast on the cannons of the French army of King Louis XIV, meant that war is the last argument of kings, that is, the one to be used after all diplomatic arguments have failed. Along similar lines, we propose that, given the current evidence, renal denervation should be used as a last resort, after state-of-the-art drug treatment optimized at expert centers failed to control blood pressure. PMID:22851728

  1. Net metering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y H

    1996-12-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest from the renewable energy industry and environmental groups in net metering. The reason for this interest is that net metering is a simple, low-cost, and easily administered method to encourage direct customer investment in renewable energy technologies. The renewable energy industry supports net metering because it removes an economic disincentive for potential customers by increasing the value of the electricity generated by renewable energy technologies. Environmental groups support net metering because it promotes clean energy production. The concept of net metering programs is to allow the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when their generators are producing more energy than the customers` demand. Net metering allows customers to use their generation to offset their consumption over the entire billing period, not just instantaneously. This offset would enable customers with generating facilities to receive retail prices for more of the electricity they generate. Without a net metering program, utilities usually install a second meter to measure any electricity that flows back to the utility grid and purchase it at a rate that is much lower than the retail prices. There are various net metering programs in the country. Most are available to customer-owned small generating facilities only, some further restrict the eligibility to renewable energy technologies. This Topical Issues Brief discusses how these net metering programs have been implemented by different utilities an states, what the rationales are behind may net metering programs, and what the potential impact of net metering may be on the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  2. Curved Solids Nets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nitsa

    2003-01-01

    The transformation of a solid to its net is based on something quite different from simple perceptual impression. It is a mental operation performed by manipulating mental images. The aim of this study was to observe pre-service and in-service teachers' ability to visualize the transformation of a curved solid to its net and vice versa, and to try…

  3. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p < 0.05) than ileal endogenous fluxes and total tract endogenous losses of Ca, but ileal endogenous fluxes were less (p < 0.05) than total tract endogenous losses. Standardised digestibility of Ca was not affected by the level of phytic acid, but decreased (p < 0.05) as Ca level increased in L. calcareum Ca diets, but that was not the case if calcium carbonate was the source of Ca (interaction, p < 0.05). The standardised duodenal digestibility (SDD), standardised ileal digestibility (SID) and standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca were not different if calcium carbonate was the source of dietary Ca. However, the STTD of Ca in L. calcareum Ca was greater (p < 0.05) than the SID and SDD of Ca. The SDD, SID and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate were greater (p < 0.05) than those of L. calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum. PMID:24646151

  4. Renal function and laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bovee, K C

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the normal renal function in relation to common functional tests helpful to detect nephrotoxicity. The measurement of renal blood flow, intrarenal distribution of blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate remain the basic parameters of nephrotoxicity. Renal tubular function is accurately measured by standard clearance tests for solutes including electrolytes, glucose and amino acids. The renal concentrating capacity serves as a sensitive but non-specific measure of renal integrity. The measurement of plasma concentration of some solutes is helpful to identify nephrotoxicity, but is most effective when a profile of solutes is measured over a time period. Urinary protein excretion and particularly the excretion of enzymes may localize the nephrotoxicity in certain tubular segments. Due to the multiple functions of the kidney, no single test or group of tests can be relied upon to detect nephrotoxicity. A battery of tests including screening tests and specific tests to measure glomerular or tubular function must be selected to match the pattern of nephrotoxicity. PMID:3715329

  5. Preclinical evaluation of 99mTc(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA), a new renal radiotracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to 131I-OIH

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to develop a renal tracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to PAH and superior to those of both 99mTc-MAG3 and 131I-OIH, we evaluated a new renal tricarbonyl radiotracer based on the aspartic-N-monoacetic acid ligand, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA). The ASMA ligand features two carboxyl groups and an amine function for the coordination of the {99mTc(CO)3}+ core as well as a dangling carboxylate to facilitate rapid renal clearance. Methods rac-ASMA and L-ASMA were labeled with a 99mTc-tricarbonyl precursor and radiochemical purity of the labeled products was determined by HPLC. Using 131I-OIH as an internal control, we evaluated biodistribution in normal rats with 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and in rats with renal pedicle ligation with 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA). Clearance studies were conducted in 4 additional rats. In vitro radiotracer stability was determined in PBS buffer pH 7.4 and in challenge studies with cysteine and histidine. 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) metabolites in urine were analyzed by HPLC. Results Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) preparations had > 99% radiochemical purity and were stable in PBS buffer pH 7.4 for 24 h. Challenge studies on both revealed no significant displacement of the ligand. In normal rats, % injected dose in urine at 10 and 60 min for both preparations averaged 103% and 106% that of 131I-OIH, respectively. The renal clearances of 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) and 131I-OIH were comparable (P = 0.48). The tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine, proving its in vivo stability. In pedicle-ligated rats, 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) had less excretion into the bowel (P < 0.05) and was better retained in the blood (P < 0.05) than 131I-OIH. Conclusion Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) complexes have pharmacokinetic properties in rats comparable to or superior to those of 131I-OIH, and human studies are warranted for their further evaluation. PMID:22717977

  6. 86Y-DOTA0)-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (SMT487)--a phase 1 clinical study: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and renal protective effect of different regimens of amino acid co-infusion.

    PubMed

    Jamar, Franois; Barone, Raffaella; Mathieu, Isabelle; Walrand, Stphan; Labar, Daniel; Carlier, Pascal; de Camps, Jolle; Schran, Horst; Chen, TianLing; Smith, M Charles; Bouterfa, Hakim; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P; Kvols, Larry K; Pauwels, Stanislas

    2003-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of (86)Y-DOTA(0)- d-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((86)Y-SMT487) were evaluated in a phase I positron emission tomography (PET) study of 24 patients with somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours. The effect of amino acid (AA) co-infusion on renal and tumour uptake was assessed in a cross-over randomised setting. Five regimens were tested: no infusion, 4-h infusion of 120 g mixed AA (26.4 g l-lysine + l-arginine), 4 h l-lysine (50 g), 10 h 240 g mixed AA (52.8 g l-lysine + l-arginine) and 4 h Lys-Arg (25 g each). Comparisons were performed on an intra-patient basis. Infusions of AA started 0.5 h prior to injection of (86)Y-SMT487 and PET scans were obtained at 4, 24 and 48 h p.i. Absorbed doses to tissues were computed using the MIRD3 method. (86)Y-SMT487 displayed rapid plasma clearance and exclusive renal excretion; uptake was noted in kidneys, tumours, spleen and, to a lesser extent, liver. The 4-h mixed AA co-infusion significantly ( P<0.05) reduced (86)Y-SMT487 renal uptake by a mean of 21%. This protective effect was significant on the dosimetry data (3.3+/-1.3 vs 4.4+/-1.0 mGy/MBq; P<0.05) and was further enhanced upon prolonging the infusion to 10 h (2.1+/-0.4 vs 1.7+/-0.2 mGy/MBq; P<0.05). Infusion of Lys-Arg but not of l-lysine was more effective in reducing renal uptake than mixed AA. Infusion of AA did not result in reduced tumour uptake. The amount of (90)Y-SMT487 (maximum allowed dose: MAD) that would result in a 23-Gy cut-off dose to kidneys was calculated for each study: MAD was higher with mixed AA co-infusion by a mean of 46% (10-114%, P<0.05 vs no infusion). In comparison with 4 h mixed AA, the MAD was higher by a mean of 23% (9-37%; P<0.05) with prolonged infusion and by a mean of 16% (2-28%; P<0.05) with Lys-Arg. We conclude that infusion of large amounts of AA reduces renal exposure during peptide-based radiotherapy and allows higher absorbed doses to tumours. The prolongation of the infusion from 4 to 10 h further enhances the protective effect on the kidneys. PMID:12582815

  7. Response of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein to contrast media administration has a potential to predict one-year renal outcome in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daishi; Takahashi, Masao; Doi, Kent; Abe, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Junichi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Myojo, Masahiro; Ando, Jiro; Fujita, Hideo; Noiri, Eisei; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2015-05-01

    Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding proteins (uL-FABP) have recently been recognized as a useful biomarker for predicting contrast-induced nephropathy. Although accumulating studies have evaluated short-term outcomes, its prognostic value for long-term renal prognosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) has not been fully examined. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of uL-FABP for long-term renal outcome in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Consecutive 24 patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine >1.2 mg/dL) who underwent CAG were enrolled. uL-FABP was measured before CAG, 24 and 48 h after CAG. The changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) throughout CAG and at 1 year later were compared with the uL-FABP levels. The patients with a greater decrease in eGFR 1 year later had higher uL-FABP levels at all points, but only the value at 48 h after CAG reached statistical significance (lower vs. higher decreased eGFR group, 4.61 ± 3.87 vs. 17.71 ± 12.96; P < 0.01). Measurement of uL-FABP at 48 h after CAG (48h-uL-FABP) showed better correlation with the change in eGFR (pre-CAG uL-FABP vs. 48h-uL-FABP: R = 0.27, P = 0.20 vs. R = 0.65, P < 0.01). Moreover, the high-pre and high-48h-uL-FABP group showed a significantly larger decrease in eGFR compared with the high-pre and low-48h-uL-FABP group (change in eGFR; 8.12 ± 4.06 vs. 1.25 ± 2.23 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01), although the baseline eGFR levels were similar between these two groups. In this pilot study, measurement of uL-FABP levels at 48 h after CAG may be useful in detecting renal damage, and in predicting 1-year renal outcome in IHD patients undergoing CAG. PMID:24554034

  8. Renal handling of phenol red. III. Bidirectional transport.

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, U; Kristensen, J; Møller, J V; Sheikh, M I

    1978-01-01

    1. The renal excretion of phenol red and other phenolsulphophthalein dyes (bromophenol blue and bromothymol blue) was studied in clearance experiments on anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Net tubular excretion of phenol red reached a maximal value of 8 mumole/min at a plasma concentration of ultrafiltrable dye of about 0.1 mM and was decreased at higher plasma concentrations. Decreases in net tubular excretion at high plasma concentrations were also obtained for bromophenol blue and bromothymol blue suggesting tubular reabsorption in addition to tubular secretion of the dye. Conclusive evidence for reabsorption was provided by administration of probenecid which caused a fall in the excretion of the dyes below that filtered by the glomeruli. 3. Tubular reabsorption of phenol red during probenecid administration appeared to be proportional to the glomerular load and was increased under experimental conditions leading to a decrease of urinary pH. Experiments involving efflux of phenol red from liposomes gave no evidence of a significant role of transmembrane passage by non-ionic diffusion. It is suggested that the pH dependence of the reabsorptive process is the result of preferential reabsorption of the acid as compared to the basic form of the indicator dye across a hydrophilic pathway in the transporting membranes. 4. Clearance ratio of phenol red to that of p-aminohippurate at low plasma concentrations was about 0.3. They low degree of extraction of phenol red from renal plasma is attributed both to tubular reabsorption and binding of the dye by plasma proteins. PMID:650511

  9. Renal excretory sectors.

    PubMed

    Burykh, M P

    2002-01-01

    One thousand and ninety-four normal human kidneys and 18 abnormal (with duplication of the ureter) were studied by the corrosion method and pyelography followed by topometric and mathematics analyses. It was found that the renal pelvis is a calicopelvic complex built up of renal calices, urine ducts and renal pelvis. Before opening into the renal pelvis, renal calices join together forming urine ducts (superior and inferior; or superior, middle and inferior; or superior, middle anterior, middle posterior and inferior) which transport urine to the container, the renal pelvis. It can be seen that groups of renal calices with pyramids and their surrounding cortical substance form the renal excretory sectors of the kidneys where the processes of uropoiesis and transportation of urine through elements of the nephron and calicopelvic complex take place. These are two (superior and inferior), three (superior, middle and inferior) or four (superior, middle anterior, middle posterior and inferior) renal excretory sectors. The existence of renal excretory sectors is proved by congenital anomalies of the calicopelvic complex such as duplication of the ureter, where urine ducts of the superior and inferior renal excretory sectors do not form a renal pelvis but run separately to the urinary bladder. On the basis of anatomical data obtained, renal excretory sectors may be distinguished, analogous to bronchopulmonary segments in lungs. These data about renal excretory sectors will contribute to further improvement in the operative technique of renal partial resections as well as to anatomical nomenclature. PMID:12375073

  10. NetState

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, Nancy; Mai, Yuqing; Hutchins, James

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information to the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.

  11. NetState

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  12. SpawnNet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  13. NASA's Software Bank (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NETS (A Neural Network Development Tool) is a software system for mimicking the human brain. It is used in a University of Arkansas project in pattern matching of chemical systems. If successful, chemists would be able to identify mixtures of compounds without long and costly separation procedures. Using NETS, the group has trained the computer to recognize pattern relationships in a known compound and associate the results to an unknown compound. The research appears to be promising.

  14. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia following renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bellomo, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating indicating a role for uric acid in the genesis and progression of kidney disease, and a few studies are beginning to show a possible beneficial effect of urate-lowering therapy. Whether this holds true for renal allograft recipients is not clear. In this short review evidence from epidemiological as well as intervention studies is summarized and discussed, with some practical considerations presented at the end. PMID:26167455

  15. Supplementation with N-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids or Olive Oil in Men and Women with Renal Disease Induces Differential Changes in the DNA Methylation of FADS2 and ELOVL5 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoile, Samuel P.; Clarke-Harris, Rebecca; Huang, Rae-Chi; Calder, Philip C.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Burdge, Graham C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in animal models and in cultured cells have shown that fatty acids can induce alterations in the DNA methylation of specific genes. There have been no studies of the effects of fatty acid supplementation on the epigenetic regulation of genes in adult humans. Methods and Results We investigated the effect of supplementing renal patients with 4 g daily of either n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) for 8 weeks on the methylation status of individual CpG loci in the 5′ regulatory region of genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from men and women (aged 53 to 63 years). OO and n-3 LCPUFA each altered (>10% difference in methylation) 2/22 fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-2 CpGs, while n-3 LCPUFA, but not OO, altered (>10%) 1/12 ELOVL5 CpGs in men. OO altered (>6%) 8/22 FADS2 CpGs and (>3%) 3/12 elongase (ELOVL)-5 CpGs, while n-3 LCPUFA altered (>5%) 3/22 FADS2 CpGs and 2/12 (>3%) ELOVL5 CpGs in women. FADS1 or ELOVL2 methylation was unchanged. The n-3 PUFA supplementation findings were replicated in blood DNA from healthy adults (aged 23 to 30 years). The methylation status of the altered CpGs in FADS2 and ELOVL5 was associated negatively with the level of their transcripts. Conclusions These findings show that modest fatty acid supplementation can induce altered methylation of specific CpG loci in adult humans, contingent on the nature of the supplement and on sex. This has implications for understanding the effect of fatty acids on PUFA metabolism and cell function. PMID:25329159

  16. WhaleNet/environet

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    WhaleNet has established a network where students, educators, and scientists can interact and share data for use in interdisciplinary curricular and student research activities in classrooms around the world by utilizing telecommunication. This program enables students to participate in marine/whale research programs in real-time with WhaleNet data and supplementary curriculum materials regardless of their geographic location. Systems have been established with research organizations and whale watch companies whereby research data is posted by scientists and students participating in whale watches on the WhaleNet bulletin board and shared with participating classrooms. WhaleNet presently has contacts with classrooms across the nation, and with research groups, whale watch organizations, science museums, and universities from Alaska to North Carolina, Hawaii to Maine, and Belize to Norway. WhaleNet has plans to make existing whale and fisheries research databases available for classroom use and to have research data from satellite tagging programs on various species of whales available for classroom access in real-time.

  17. Renal Presentation in Pediatric Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sherief, Laila M.; Azab, Seham F.; Zakaria, Marwa M.; Kamal, M.; Elbasset Aly, Maha Abd; Ali, Adel; Alhady, Mohamed Abd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Renal enlargement at time of diagnosis of acute leukemia is very unusual. We here in report 2 pediatric cases of acute leukemia who had their renal affection as the first presenting symptom with no evidences of blast cells in blood smear and none of classical presentation of acute leukemia. The first case is a 4-year-old girl who presented with pallor and abdominal enlargement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral symmetrical homogenous enlarged kidneys suggestive of infiltration. Complete blood picture (CBC) revealed white blood count 11 × 109/L, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and platelet count 197 × 109/L. Bone marrow aspiration was performed, and diagnosed precursor B-cell ALL was made. The child had an excellent response to modified CCG 1991 standard risk protocol of chemotherapy with sustained remission, but unfortunately relapsed 11 month after the end of therapy. The second child was 13-month old, presented with pallor, vomiting, abdominal enlargement, and oliguria 2 days before admission. Initial CBC showed bicytopenia, elevated blood urea, creatinine, and serum uric acid, while abdominal ultrasonography revealed bilateral renal enlargement. Bone marrow examination was done and showed 92% blast of biphenotypic nature. So, biphynotypic leukemia with bilateral renal enlargement and acute renal failure was subsequently diagnosed. The patients admitted to ICU and received supportive care and prednisolone. Renal function normalized and chemotherapy was started. The child achieved complete remission with marked reduction of kidney size but, unfortunately she died from sepsis in consolidation phase of therapy. This case demonstrates an unusual early renal enlargement in childhood acute leukemia. Renal involvement of acute leukemia should be considered in child presenting with unexplained bilateral renal enlargement with or without renal function abnormalities and bone marrow examination should be included in the workup. PMID:26376384

  18. Renal iron overload in rats with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Jesus H; Liu, Yunlong; Kelly, Katherine J

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains incurable and is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. We approached the pathophysiology of DN with systems biology, and a comprehensive profile of renal transcripts was obtained with RNA-Seq in ZS (F1 hybrids of Zucker and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure) rats, a model of diabetic nephropathy. We included sham-operated lean control rats (LS), sham-operated diabetic (DS), and diabetic rats with induced renal ischemia (DI). Diabetic nephropathy in DI was accelerated by the single episode of renal ischemia. This progressive renal decline was associated with renal iron accumulation, although serum and urinary iron levels were far lower in DI than in LS. Furthermore, obese/diabetic ZS rats have severe dyslipidemia, a condition that has been linked to hepatic iron overload. Hence, we tested and found that the fatty acids oleic acid and palmitate stimulated iron accumulation in renal tubular cells in vitro. Renal mRNAs encoding several key proteins that promote iron accumulation were increased in DI. Moreover, renal mRNAs encoding the antioxidant proteins superoxide dismutase, catalase, and most of the glutathione synthetic system were suppressed, which would magnify the prooxidant effects of renal iron loads. Substantial renal iron loads occur in obese/diabetic rats. We propose that in diabetes, specific renal gene activation is partly responsible for iron accumulation. This state might be further aggravated by lipid-stimulated iron uptake. We suggest that progressive renal iron overload may further advance renal injury in obese/diabetic ZS rats. PMID:26702071

  19. EnviroNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansant, Tim

    1992-01-01

    EnviroNET is a service/facility that provides users with on-line, dial-up technical information concerning environmental conditions likely to be encountered by instruments and experimental arrangements carried aboard spacecraft. EnviroNET incorporates at present a combination of expository text and numerical tables amounting to about two million characters (bytes), plus FORTRAN programs that model the space environment. The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: advantages of EnviroNET; thermal and humidity; vibration and acoustics; electromagnetic interference; loads and low frequency dynamics; microbial and toxic contaminants; molecular contamination; natural environment; orbiter motion; particulate environment; surface interactions; spacecraft anomalies; and interactive graphics facility.

  20. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  1. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  2. Renal vein thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. ... Renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon disorder. It may be caused by: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Hypercoaguable state: clotting disorders Dehydration (mostly ...

  3. A potential adjuvant chemotherapeutics, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, inhibits renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis via enhancing BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Taotao; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yilong; Ji, Shuai; Li, Jun; Ye, Min; Liang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, a highly effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent, has a major limitation for its nephrotoxicity. We recently identified a novel strategy for attenuating its nephrotoxicity in chemotherapy by an effective adjuvant via epigenetic modification through targeting HDAC2. Molecular docking and SPR assay firstly reported that 18βGA, major metabolite of GA, could directly bind to HDAC2 and inhibit the activity of HDAC2. The effects and mechanisms of GA and 18βGA were assessed in CP-induced AKI in C57BL/6 mice, and in CP-treated HK-2 and mTEC cells lines. TUNEL and FCM results confirmed that GA and 18βGA could inhibit apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by CP in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the expression of BMP-7 was clearly induced by 18βGA in AKI models while siRNA BMP-7 could reduce the inhibitory effect of 18βGA on apoptosis. Results of current study indicated that 18βGA inhibited apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells via enhancing the level of BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2, therefore protecting against CP-induced AKI. These available evidence, which led to an improved understanding of molecular recognition, suggested that 18βGA could serve as a potential clinical adjuvant in chemotherapy. PMID:27145860

  4. A potential adjuvant chemotherapeutics, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, inhibits renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis via enhancing BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Taotao; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yilong; Ji, Shuai; Li, Jun; Ye, Min; Liang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, a highly effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent, has a major limitation for its nephrotoxicity. We recently identified a novel strategy for attenuating its nephrotoxicity in chemotherapy by an effective adjuvant via epigenetic modification through targeting HDAC2. Molecular docking and SPR assay firstly reported that 18βGA, major metabolite of GA, could directly bind to HDAC2 and inhibit the activity of HDAC2. The effects and mechanisms of GA and 18βGA were assessed in CP-induced AKI in C57BL/6 mice, and in CP-treated HK-2 and mTEC cells lines. TUNEL and FCM results confirmed that GA and 18βGA could inhibit apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by CP in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the expression of BMP-7 was clearly induced by 18βGA in AKI models while siRNA BMP-7 could reduce the inhibitory effect of 18βGA on apoptosis. Results of current study indicated that 18βGA inhibited apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells via enhancing the level of BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2, therefore protecting against CP-induced AKI. These available evidence, which led to an improved understanding of molecular recognition, suggested that 18βGA could serve as a potential clinical adjuvant in chemotherapy. PMID:27145860

  5. Hepatic, gut, and renal substrate flux rates in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, O E; Reichle, F A; Mozzoli, M A; Kreulen, T; Patel, M S; Elfenbein, I B; Golsorkhi, M; Chang, K H; Rao, N S; Sue, H S; Boden, G

    1981-01-01

    The roles of liver, kidney, and gut in maintaining fuel homeostasis were studied in 28 patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis, 25 of whom had alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Hepatic, portal, and renal blood flow rates were measured and combined with substrate concentration differences across liver, gut, and kidney to calculate the net flux of free fatty acids, ketone bodies, triglycerides, and glucose with selected glucose precursors, including glycerol, lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids. Data from the catheterization studies were related to hepatic histology, glycogen content, and activities of gluconeogenic enzymes and compared with data obtained from control patients. The effects of food deprivation on net flux of fuels across the liver, gut, and kidney were assessed after overnight and after 3d of fasting. Activities of gluconeogenic enzymes were normal, but hepatic glycogen content was diminished in cirrhotic livers, probably as a consequence of extensive hepatic fibrosis. Extrahepatic splanchnic tissues (gut) had only a small influence on total splanchnic flux rates of carbohydrates, lipids and, amino acids. In cirrhotic patients, there was no mean renal glucose contribution to the bloodstream after an overnight or after a 3-d fast. After an overnight fast hepatic glucose production in patients with cirrhosis was diminished as a result of low-rate glycogenolysis. Hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis were increased. This pattern of hepatic metabolism mimics that seen in "normal" patients after more advanced stages of starvation. After 3 d of starvation, patients with hepatic cirrhosis have hepatic gluconeogenic and ketogenic profiles comparable to those of normal patients undergoing starvation of similar duration. Nevertheless, the total number of caloric equivalents derived from ketone bodies plus glucose corrected for recycled lactate and pyruvate added to the bloodstream by the cirrhotic livers that could be terminally oxidized by peripheral tissues was less than the contributions made by the normal livers, both after and overnight and after a 3-d fast. PMID:7251861

  6. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  7. Evaluation of Renal Histopathological Changes, as a Predictor of Recoverability of Renal Function Following Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kaushal; Ahmad, Ahsan; Kumar, Shailendra; Choudhry, Vijyanand; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Mahendra; Muzaffar, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results. Objectives: In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF) revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scan. A Fischers t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values. Results: This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU), with minimal histopathological changes (grade I), 21 ORU (87.5%), with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P < 0.05). On the other hand, all kidneys (n = 29) with moderate to severe obstructive changes (grade II and III) had minimal improvement in DRF, after pyeloplasty, which was clinically insignificant (P > 0.05). Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases. Conclusions: The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I) renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional recoverability after pyeloplasty. PMID:26539416

  8. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  9. Nurturing Neighborhood Nets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Gary; Rhodes, Lodis

    1997-01-01

    Describes benefits of the Austin Free-Net, part of the nationwide movement "community networks" to provide public access to computers to low-income communities. Presents examples of users and discusses Internet instruction and location of terminals. A sidebar highlights 10 community networks, with areas served and Web site addresses. (AEF)

  10. Hyperuricemia: A Biomarker of Renal Hemodynamic Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological, clinical, and experimental reports have demonstrated an association between serum uric acid concentration and a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, particularly in hypertension. At present, there seems to be no resolution to the question whether this relationship is causal or coincidental. Summary This discussion examines a number of biological, pathophysiological, fundamental, and clinical relationships between serum uric acid concentration and several of these disorders. To this end, discussion and review provide some specific insight conclusions and recommendations related to their clinical relevance. Key Messages We suggest that, in most instances (especially in patients with essential hypertension), the increase in serum uric acid concentration is coincidental, serving as a useful biomarker that relates the magnitude of circulating plasma uric acid concentration with the extent of impaired cardiovascular and renal function. Moreover, the value of certain pharmaceutical agents affecting the serum uric acid level should be considered carefully by taking into consideration the associated pathophysiological derangements. PMID:26195969

  11. Cystic renal cell carcinoma and acquired renal cystic disease associated with consumption of chaparral tea: a case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Y; Feddersen, R M; Gardner, K D; Davis, C J

    1994-12-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid is an antioxidant used experimentally to induce cystic renal disease in rats. It may be extracted from the leaves of the creosote bush, which are consumed as chaparral tea in the southwestern United States. We report a case of cystic renal disease and cystic adenocarcinoma of the kidney associated with a history of protracted consumption of chaparral tea. PMID:7966683

  12. Quantitative structure-pharmacokinetic relationships for the prediction of renal clearance in humans.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutwij A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2015-01-01

    Renal clearance (CLR), a major route of elimination for many drugs and drug metabolites, represents the net result of glomerular filtration, active secretion and reabsorption, and passive reabsorption. The aim of this study was to develop quantitative structure-pharmacokinetic relationships (QSPKR) to predict CLR of drugs or drug-like compounds in humans. Human CLR data for 382 compounds were obtained from the literature. Step-wise multiple linear regression was used to construct QSPKR models for training sets and their predictive performance was evaluated using internal validation (leave-one-out method). All qualified models were validated externally using test sets. QSPKR models were also constructed for compounds in accordance with their 1) net elimination pathways (net secretion, extensive net secretion, net reabsorption, and extensive net reabsorption), 2) net elimination clearances (net secretion clearance, CLSEC; or net reabsorption clearance, CLREAB), 3) ion status, and 4) substrate/inhibitor specificity for renal transporters. We were able to predict 1) CLREAB (Q(2) = 0.77) of all compounds undergoing net reabsorption; 2) CLREAB (Q(2) = 0.81) of all compounds undergoing extensive net reabsorption; and 3) CLR for substrates and/or inhibitors of OAT1/3 (Q(2) = 0.81), OCT2 (Q(2) = 0.85), MRP2/4 (Q(2) = 0.78), P-gp (Q(2) = 0.71), and MATE1/2K (Q(2) = 0.81). Moreover, compounds undergoing net reabsorption/extensive net reabsorption predominantly belonged to Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System classes 1 and 2. In conclusion, constructed parsimonious QSPKR models can be used to predict CLR of compounds that 1) undergo net reabsorption/extensive net reabsorption and 2) are substrates and/or inhibitors of human renal transporters. PMID:25352657

  13. Quantitative Structure-Pharmacokinetic Relationships for the Prediction of Renal Clearance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Rutwij A.

    2015-01-01

    Renal clearance (CLR), a major route of elimination for many drugs and drug metabolites, represents the net result of glomerular filtration, active secretion and reabsorption, and passive reabsorption. The aim of this study was to develop quantitative structure-pharmacokinetic relationships (QSPKR) to predict CLR of drugs or drug-like compounds in humans. Human CLR data for 382 compounds were obtained from the literature. Step-wise multiple linear regression was used to construct QSPKR models for training sets and their predictive performance was evaluated using internal validation (leave-one-out method). All qualified models were validated externally using test sets. QSPKR models were also constructed for compounds in accordance with their 1) net elimination pathways (net secretion, extensive net secretion, net reabsorption, and extensive net reabsorption), 2) net elimination clearances (net secretion clearance, CLSEC; or net reabsorption clearance, CLREAB), 3) ion status, and 4) substrate/inhibitor specificity for renal transporters. We were able to predict 1) CLREAB (Q2 = 0.77) of all compounds undergoing net reabsorption; 2) CLREAB (Q2 = 0.81) of all compounds undergoing extensive net reabsorption; and 3) CLR for substrates and/or inhibitors of OAT1/3 (Q2 = 0.81), OCT2 (Q2 = 0.85), MRP2/4 (Q2 = 0.78), P-gp (Q2 = 0.71), and MATE1/2K (Q2 = 0.81). Moreover, compounds undergoing net reabsorption/extensive net reabsorption predominantly belonged to Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System classes 1 and 2. In conclusion, constructed parsimonious QSPKR models can be used to predict CLR of compounds that 1) undergo net reabsorption/extensive net reabsorption and 2) are substrates and/or inhibitors of human renal transporters. PMID:25352657

  14. Breastfeeding: Nature's Safety Net.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manisha; Ghousia, S; Konde, Sapna; Raj, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a natural safety-net for the first few months in order to give the child a fairer start to life. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recognizes the distinct nutritional advantages of human milk for infants and endorsed the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the promotion of breastfeeding. It therefore calls for increase in need to negotiate the roles and responsibilities of pediatric dentists to eliminate the existing gaps in preventive care and anticipatory guidance. The objective of this evidence-based review is to explore the beneficial roles of breastfeeding in orofacial growth and development and endorse the same through anticipatory guidance. How to cite this article: Agarwal M, Ghousia S, Konde S, Raj S. Breastfeeding: Nature's Safety Net. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):49-53. PMID:25206134

  15. Total plasma homocysteine and related amino acids in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry--comparison with the Abbott IMx homocysteine assay and the HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Sigit, J I; Hages, M; Brensing, K A; Frotscher, U; Pietrzik, K; von Bergmann, K; Lütjohann, D

    2001-08-01

    Increased concentrations of homocysteine probably contribute to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and are determined by a variety of factors such as age, residual renal function, and vitamin status. Fasting plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, methionine, cysteine, and cystathionine were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 131 ESRD patients receiving daily oral folate (160-320 microg) and vitamin B6 (10-20 mg) supplements. Concentrations of homocysteine determined by GC-MS were compared with those measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an immunofluorescence method (IMx analyzer) using Passing-Bablok regression analysis. Mean plasma concentration of total homocysteine determined by GC-MS (28.7+/-11.9 micromol/l [mean+/-SD]) was significantly lower than that determined by HPLC (34.0+/-14.5 micromol/l; p<0.001) or IMx (32.4+/-13.9 micromol/l; p<0.001). A close correlation existed between GC-MS and HPLC (r=0.931; y=1.203 x+0.279) and GC-MS and IMx (r=0.896; y=1.105 x+0.766). Linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between plasma concentrations of homocysteine and cysteine (r=0.434; p<0.001) and homocysteine and cystathionine (r=0.187; p=0.032). Plasma concentrations of homocysteine correlated negatively with folate (r=-0.281; p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (r=-0.229; p=0.009). GC-MS proved to be a sensitive and reliable method for the determination of total plasma homocysteine and related amino acids. Despite vitamin supplementation, ESRD patients requiring chronic maintenance hemodialysis, have high plasma concentrations of homocyst(e)ine which seems to be metabolized mainly within the transsulfuration pathway, while remethylation to methionine seems to be disturbed. PMID:11592433

  16. Quantum Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Williams, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of classical neurocomputers is limited by the number of classical degrees of freedom which is roughly proportional to the size of the computer. By Contrast, a Hypothetical quantum neurocomputer can implement an exponentially large number of the degrees of freedom within the same size. In this paper an attempt is made to reconcile linear reversible structure of quantum evolution with nonlinear irreversible dynamics for neural nets.

  17. Contributions of nuclear magnetic resonance to renal biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Freeman, D.; Chan, L.

    1986-01-01

    /sup 31/P NMR as a descriptive technique is of interest to nephrologists. Particular contributions of /sup 31/P NMR to our understanding of renal function may be enumerated.: Free metabolite levels are different from those classically accepted; in particular, ADP and Pi are low with implications for the control of renal metabolism and Pi transport, and, via the phosphorylation potential, for Na+ transport. Renal pH is heterogeneous; between cortex, outer medulla, and papilla, and between cell and lumen, a large pH gradient exists. Also, quantitation between cytosol and mitochondrion of the pH gradient is now feasible. In acute renal failure of either ischemic or nonischemic origin, both ATP depletion and acidification of the renal cell result in damage, with increasing evidence for the importance of the latter. Measurements of renal metabolic rate in vivo suggest the existence of a prodromal phase of acute renal failure, which could lead to its detection at an earlier and possibly reversible stage. Human renal cancers show a unique /sup 31/P NMR spectrum and a very acidic environment. Cancer chemotherapy may alter this and detection of such changes with NMR offers a method of therapeutic monitoring with significance beyond nephrology. Renal cortex and medulla have a different T1 relaxation time, possibly due to differences in lipid composition. It seems that NMR spectroscopy has much to offer to the future understanding of the relationship between renal biochemistry and function. 56 references.

  18. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data topocentric modern space missions in which there are visually identify the lunar objects

  19. Health On the Net Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... reliable medical/health topics The Health On the Net Foundation (HON) promotes and guides the deployment of ... unprecedented volume of healthcare information available on the Net, the HONcode of conduct offers a multi-stakeholder ...

  20. Renal handling of sodium chloride and its control in birds.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, H; Miwa, T; Bailey, J R

    1984-12-01

    Avian kidneys show features of both mammalian and non-mammalian kidneys, possessing cortical reptilian-type (RT) and medullary mammalian-type (MT) nephrons, blood supplies from renal arterial and renal portal systems, and a primitive macula densa. To determine how these morphological characteristics contribute to unique renal functions, we examined first a possible functional link between the renal tubules and the preglomerular vasculature and, second, the function of the loop of Henle of the MT nephrons. Infusion of 5% NaCl (2.0 ml/kg/h) into the renal portal system of the pullet Gallus domesticus caused diuresis and natriuresis in the infused side, whereas infusion of the same dose into the systemic circulation showed no effect. Infusion of 10% NaCl at a higher flow rate into either the renal portal or systemic routes caused hypernaturemia and a prolonged antidiuresis, presumably due to a release of arginine vasotocin. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased during renal portal infusion of hypertonic saline, suggesting that increases in intratubular or peritubular NaCl levels may suppress PRA. The thick limb of the loop of Henle (TLH) isolated from the MT nephron of the quail Coturnix coturnix revealed a lumen-positive, furosemide-sensitive transepithelial voltage (Vt) that requires the presence of both Na and Cl. Net water flux (Jv) was nearly zero when the TLH was perfused and bathed with isosmotic solution. Net water flux increased only slightly and osmotic water permeability (Lp) was low when the osmotic gradient was imposed. Vasotocin altered neither Vt, Jv, nor Lp. Chloride efflux was higher than Cl influx, and net Cl absorption was comparable to that of the TLH of the mammalian kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6394706

  1. Using Tc-99m DMSA renal cortex scan to detect renal damage in women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Lai, Ming-May; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Kao, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have urinary tract infection (UTI) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the prevalence and type of renal damage due to UTI is in these women. Therefore, in this study, we compared type 2 DM women with or without UTI history for the prevalence and type of renal damage by technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) renal scan. A total of 128 type 2 DM women with or without UTI history received Tc-99m DMSA renal scan were included in this study. The patients were separated into three groups: (1) 43 patients without UTI history, (2) 42 patients with only lower UTI (cystitis) history and (3) 43 patients with upper UTI (pyelonephritis) history. The renal scan findings were separated into three types: (A) normal, (B) inflammation and (C) scar. The 31.9% (50/128) of type 2 DM patients had renal damages. Group 1 patients had a significantly lower prevalence of renal damages including inflammation and scar as compared to Groups 2 and 3 patients. In addition, the prevalence of renal damage was significantly higher in Group 3 than in Group 2 patients. Renal scars only were visualized in Group 3 patients. However, other clinical data were not statistically different among the three group patients. Type 2 DM women with UTI history, especially if they had upper UTI have a significantly higher prevalence of renal damage than in those without UTI. PMID:12954160

  2. Uric acid: A Danger Signal from the RNA World that may have a role in the Epidemic of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and CardioRenal Disease: Evolutionary Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Gaucher, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    All humans are uricase knockouts; we lost the uricase gene due to a mutation that occurred in the mid Miocene approximately 15 million years ago. The consequence of being a uricase knockout is that we have higher serum uric acid levels that are less regulatable and can be readily influenced by diet. This increases our risk for gout and kidney stones, but there is also increasing evidence that uric acid increases our risk for hypertension, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes. This raises the question of why this mutation occurred. In this paper we review current hypotheses. We suggest that uric acid is a danger and survival signal carried over from the RNA world. The mutation of uricase that occurred during the food shortage and global cooling that occurred in the Miocene resulted in a survival advantage for early primates, particularly in Europe. Today, the loss of uricase functions as a thrifty gene, increasing our risk for obesity and cardiorenal disease. PMID:22000645

  3. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  4. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  5. Pediatric Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas are rare in children, and they show significant differences in their histology and pathogenesis when compared to those common in adults. The most common subtypes seen preferentially in children are the translocation-associated tumors, papillary renal cell carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and oncocytic renal cell carcinoma following neuroblastoma. The histological diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma is made difficult by the considerable heterogeneity within and overlap between each of the above subtypes and by similarities to other pediatric renal neoplasms. While no effective therapies have yet been identified, there is considerable promise that the new Children’s Oncology Group protocol will provide knowledge that will guide the future therapy of these lesions. PMID:21057600

  6. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  7. Hepatic and renal metabolism before and after portasystemic shunts in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, O E; Mozzoli, M A; Reichle, F A; Kreulen, T H; Owen, R S; Boden, G; Polansky, M

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and gastroesophageal hemorrhage is a disease complex that continues to be treated by surgical portasystemic shunts. Whether or not a reduction or diversion of portal blood flow to the liver adversely affects the ability of the liver to maintain fuel homeostasis via gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and ketogenesis is unknown. 11 patients with biopsy-proven severe hepatic cirrhosis were studied before and after distal splenorenal or mesocaval shunts. Hepatic, portal, and renal blood flow rates and glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, amino acids, ketone bodies, free fatty acids, and triglyceride arteriovenous concentration differences were determined to calculate net precursor-product exchange rates across the liver, gut, and kidney. The study showed that hepatic contribution of glucose and ketone bodies and the caloric equivalents of these fuels delivered to the blood was not adversely affected by either a distal splenorenal or mesocaval shunt. In addition to these general observations, isolated findings emerged. Mesocaval shunts reversed portal venous blood and functionally converted this venous avenue into hepatic venous blood. The ability of the kidney to make a substantial net contribution of ketone bodies to the blood was also observed. PMID:4044831

  8. Vitamin replacement therapy in renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Makoff, R

    1999-01-01

    Renal failure patients require vitamin replacement therapy that addresses the specialized needs of renal failure. Four factors including restricted diet, uremic toxins, drug-nutrient interactions, and in ESRD, the dialysis process, affect the normal absorption, retention and activity of necessary micronutrients which support all aspects of carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism. Studies have shown that the typical renal failure diet is low in B vitamins, that uremic factors affect folate and pyridoxine activities and that many B vitamins are lost on dialysis at a rate greater than are lost with normal urinary excretion. In addition, retention of vitamin A or inappropriately high supplementation of vitamin C may cause toxicities which exacerbate existing pathologies. Further, emerging research suggests some vitamins such as folic acid and pyridoxine, if provided in higher than normal amounts, may have an impact on reducing the risk of some aspects of renal cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to supplement some vitamins, and use restraint in the supplementation of others. It is clear that renal failure patients, including predialysis, ESRD and transplant patients need specialized supplementation that meets the requirements of disease and its management. PMID:10681665

  9. Renal cystic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of renal cystic disease and a presentation of simple renal cysts. Subsequent chapters cover cystic disease in association with renal neoplasms and medullary sponge kidney. The chapters addressing autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease discuss and differentiate the infantile and adult forms of the disease. There are also separate discussions of medullary cystic disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and cysts of the renarenal sinus.

  10. Calcified renal oncocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, N.F.; Ewing, S.L.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma, a neoplasm thought to derive from cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, exhibits benign clinical features. Its preoperative distinction from typical renal cell carcinoma would enable the surgeon to perform a more limited procedure. In a patient who is a poor operative candidate, surgery might be deferred. However, preoperative diagnosis has been elusive. A rare case of bilateral renal oncocytoma is reported. One of these tumors represents the first reported oncocytoma showing radiologically demonstrable calcification.

  11. A review of the renal system and diurnal variations of renal activity in livestock

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Kidneys are the main organs regulating water-electrolyte homeostasis in the body. They are responsible for maintaining the total volume of water and its distribution in particular water spaces, for electrolyte composition of systemic fluids and also for maintaining acid-base balance. These functions are performed by the plasma filtration process in renal glomeruli and the processes of active absorption and secretion in renal tubules, all adjusted to an 'activity-rest' rhythm. These diurnal changes are influenced by a 24-hour cycle of activity of hormones engaged in the regulation of renal activity. Studies on spontaneous rhythms of renal activity have been carried out mainly on humans and laboratory animals, but few studies have been carried out on livestock animals. Moreover, those results cover only some aspects of renal physiology. This review gives an overview of current knowledge concerning renal function and diurnal variations of some renal activity parameters in livestock, providing greater understanding of general chronobiological processes in mammals. Detailed knowledge of these rhythms is useful for clinical, practical and pharmacological purposes, as well as studies on their physical performance. PMID:21851692

  12. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases' interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species' omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  13. Short-term menhaden oil rich diet changes renal lipid profile in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Denninghoff, Valeria C; Uceda, Ana M; Díaz, Maria L; Uicich, Raúl; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid were analyzed. Renal lipid profile, as well as the fatty acid composition of the three oils, was measured. Choline-deficient rats fed vegetable oils showed renal cortical necrosis. Renal omega-6 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a cholinedeficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with vegetable oils, while renal omega-3 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a choline-deficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with menhaden oil. Rats fed menhaden oil diets had higher levels of renal eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Renal myristic acid was increased in rats fed menhaden oil. The lipid renal profile varied quickly according to the type of oil present in the diet. PMID:25948137

  14. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Bradley P.; Hulbert, John C.; Bissler, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Although not as common as other genetic renal diseases such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, patients with tuberous sclerosis complex frequently have significant renal involvement. Recent revelations in the cell biology of these renal disease manifestations as well as effective therapies for tuberous sclerosis complex-related renal issues have heralded hope of improved renal survival and improved quality of life for the TSC patient. This review specifically addresses some of the major renal manifestations of this disease. PMID:21071977

  15. Inhibition of histone deacetylase expands the renal progenitor cell population.

    PubMed

    de Groh, Eric D; Swanhart, Lisa M; Cosentino, Chiara Cianciolo; Jackson, Rachel L; Dai, Weixiang; Kitchens, Carolyn A; Day, Billy W; Smithgall, Thomas E; Hukriede, Neil A

    2010-05-01

    One of the first hallmarks of kidney regeneration is the reactivation of genes normally required during organogenesis. Identification of chemicals with the potential to enhance this reactivation could therapeutically promote kidney regeneration. Here, we found that 4-(phenylthio)butanoic acid (PTBA) expanded the expression domains of molecular markers of kidney organogenesis in zebrafish. PTBA exhibits structural and functional similarity to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors 4-phenylbutanoic acid and trichostatin A; treatment with these HDAC inhibitors also expanded the renal progenitor cell population. Analyses in vitro and in vivo confirmed that PTBA functions as an inhibitor of HDAC activity. Furthermore, PTBA-mediated renal progenitor cell expansion required retinoic acid signaling. In summary, these results support a mechanistic link among renal progenitor cells, HDAC, and the retinoid pathway. Whether PTBA holds promise as a therapeutic agent to promote renal regeneration requires further study. PMID:20378823

  16. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPAR{alpha} deterioration

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Kamijo, Yuji; Hora, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Higuchi, Makoto; Nakajima, Takero; Ehara, Takashi; Shigematsu, Hidekazu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2011-05-01

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}), suggesting the benefit of PPAR{alpha} activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPAR{alpha} agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPAR{alpha} agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPAR{alpha} deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF{kappa}B activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPAR{alpha} function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities in PPAR{alpha}-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPAR{alpha}-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPAR{alpha} activator that has a steady serum concentration regardless of kidney dysfunction. - Graphical Abstract: Massive proteinuria introduces free fatty acid toxicity to proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). PPAR{alpha} activationvia clofibrate pretreatment maintains fatty acid catabolism and attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF{kappa}B activation, resulting in protection of PTECs. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPAR{alpha}-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities. Display Omitted Highlights: > Clofibrate pretreatment protects against acute FFA-induced tubular toxicity. > PPAR{alpha} activation decreases FFA influx and maintains fatty acid catabolism. > PPAR{alpha} activation attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF{kappa}B activation. > Protective effects must outweigh PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities of fibrates.

  17. Early impact of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy on renal function as assessed by renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Lorenzo G; Chiodini, Stefano; Donner, Davide; Cai, Tommaso; Vattovani, Valentino; Tiscione, Daniele; Giusti, Guido; Proietti, Silvia; Chierichetti, Franca; Malossini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    To measure the early impact of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) on renal function as assessed by renal scan (Tc 99m-DTPA), addressing the issue of risk factors for ischemic damage to the kidney. All patients undergoing RAPN for cT1 renal masses between June 2013 and May 2014 were included in this prospective study. Renal function as expressed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed by Technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc 99m-DTPA) renal scan preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 month in every patient. A multivariable analysis was used for the determination of independent factors predictive of GFR decrease of the operated kidney. Overall, 32 patients underwent RAPN in the time interval. Median tumor size, blood loss, and ischemia time were 4 cm, 200 mL, and 24 min, respectively. Two grade III complications occurred (postoperative bleeding in the renal fossa, urinoma). The GFR of the operated kidney decreased significantly from 51.7 ± 15.1 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) preoperatively to 40, 12 ± 12.4 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) 1 month postoperatively (p = 0.001) with a decrease of 22.4 %. On multivariable analysis, only tumor size (p = 0.05) was a predictor of GFR decrease of the operated kidney. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy had a detectable impact on early renal function in a series of relatively large tumors and prevailing intermediate nephrometric risk. A mean decrease of 22 % of GFR as assessed by renal scan in the operated kidney was found at 1 month postoperatively. In multivariable analysis, tumor size only was a significant predictor of renal function loss. PMID:26994776

  18. Relationship between tubular net sodium reabsorption and peritubular potassium uptake in the perfused Necturus kidney

    PubMed Central

    Giebisch, G.; Sullivan, L. P.; Whittembury, G.

    1973-01-01

    1. K influx from peritubular space into renal tubular cells, ?iK, was measured in doubly perfused Necturus kidneys by studying tissue uptake of 42K added exclusively to the portal circulation. Concomitantly, net tubular Na reabsorption, ?nNa, was measured by clearance techniques. ?nNa and ?iK were varied widely by replacing solutions of physiological composition (controls) with solutions containing high K, low K, low Na, cyclamate instead of Cl, ouabain (10-7-10-4 M) or ethacrynic acid (10-5-10-4 M). 2. The ratio of ?nNa to ?iK was found to vary with the experimental conditions, the control value of about 2 was maintained over a threefold variation in absolute Na reabsorption. This ratio increased with low K or ouabain to values near 4. With high K, ethacrynic acid, low Na or cyclamate the relationship was one or lower. Thus, net Na reabsorption can be uncoupled from peritubular K influx. 3. These results can be best explained if there are two Na pumps working in parallel: pump A transporting Na (with Cl) and pump B, a Na-for-K-exchange pump. The ratio of Na efflux to K influx could approach ? if only pump A works (if B is inhibited) and could approach one if only B works. It should vary between these limits in controls when both pumps are active, or when neither of the two pumps is completely inhibited. 4. Alternatively, the experimental findings could be explained by a Na pump with a coupling ratio that varies within two extreme values, from high Na-K ratios (with Na reabsorption at, or near, control values but with very low K influx values) to low ratios (with normal K influx values but with low Na reabsorption values). PMID:4702444

  19. The Effect of Acetyl Salicylic Acid Induced Nitric Oxide Synthesis in the Normalization of Hypertension through the Stimulation of Renal Cortexin Synthesis and by the Inhibition of Dermcidin Isoform 2, A Hypertensive Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Bank, Sarbashri; Maji, Uttam K; Bhattacharya, Rabindra; Guha, Santanu; Khan, Nighat N; Sinha, A Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there is no specific medication for essential hypertension (EH), a major form of the condition, in man. As acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) is reported to stimulate the synthesis of renal (r)-cortexin, an anti-essential hypertensive protein, and, as aspirin is reported to inhibit dermcidin isoform 2 (dermcidin), a causative protein for EH, the role of aspirin in the control of EH in man was studied. Oral administration of 150 mg aspirin/70 kg body weight in subjects with EH was found to reduce both the elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures to normal levels within 3 h due to the normalization of dermcidin level in these subjects. The plasma cortexin level at day 0, 1, 30 and 90 were 0.5 pmol/ml, 155.5 pmol/ml, 160.2 pmol/ml, 190.5 pmol/ml respectively with increased NO synthesis (r=+0.994). In vitro studies demonstrated that the incubation of the goat kidney cortex cells with aspirin stimulated (r)-cortexin synthesis due to NO synthesis. It could be suggested that the use of aspirin might control EH in man. PMID:25324696

  20. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  1. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  2. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  3. Renal hemodynamics in space.

    PubMed

    Kramer, H J; Heer, M; Cirillo, M; De Santo, N G

    2001-09-01

    Renal excretory function and hemodynamics are determined by the effective circulating plasma volume as well as by the interplay of systemic and local vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. Microgravity results in a headward shift of body fluid. Because the control conditions of astronauts were poorly defined in many studies, controversial results have been obtained regarding diuresis and natriuresis as well as renal hemodynamic changes in response to increased central blood volume, especially during the initial phase of space flight. Renal excretory function and renal hemodynamics in microgravity are affected in a complex fashion, because during the initial phase of space flight, variable mechanisms become operative to modulate the effects of increased central blood volume. They include interactions between vasodilators (dopamine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and prostaglandins) and vasoconstrictors (sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system). The available data suggest a moderate rise in glomerular filtration rate during the first 2 days after launch without a significant increase in effective renal plasma flow. In contrast, too few data regarding the effects of space flight on renal function during the first 12 hours after launch are available and are, in addition, partly contradictory. Thus, detailed and well-controlled studies are required to shed more light on the role of the various factors besides microgravity that determine systemic and renal hemodynamics and renal excretory function during the different stages of space flight. PMID:11532705

  4. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Rockey, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. Recent findings New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver–kidney transplantation is advised. Summary Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes. PMID:25763790

  5. Renal Hemodynamics and Ammoniagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Guy; Vinay, Patrick; Cartier, Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Renal production of ammonia by the left kidney was studied in 31 acidotic dogs (NH4Cl) after acute constriction of the renal artery. Renal ammoniagenesis fell in direct proportion with the reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. The renal extraction of glutamine by the experimental kidney fell in direct proportion with the reduction in renal hemodynamics. Extracted glutamine remained greater than filtered glutamine indicating that both the luminal and antiluminal transport sites were operative. The relationship between renal extraction of glutamine and ammoniagenesis observed during control was maintained after renal artery constriction (1.7 μmol NH3 produced for each μmol of glutamine extracted). Systemic venous or renal intra-arterial infusion of glutamine during arterial constriction increased renal production of ammonia to or above control values. These observations indicate that the mechanisms responsible for glutamine extraction and ammonia production were operating normally despite reduced hemodynamics. When measured immediately after arterial clamping, the renal venous pNH3 was found to rise significantly decreasing progressively thereafter towards control values. The extracted fraction of total glutamine delivered to the kidney (31%) did not change after acute reduction of the glutamine load. Thus, the antiluminal extraction site was incapable of lowering renal venous plasma glutamine concentration below 0.33 μM/ml. In a second series of experiments, the properties of the antiluminal site of transport for glutamine were studied after complete occlusion of the left ureter in acidotic and nonacidotic animals. Under these circumstances, it was demonstrated that the antiluminal site is capable of extracting sufficient glutamine to maintain total ammonia production at 60% or more of control. In acidotic animals, changes in cellular pNH3 appeared to play a key role on the antiluminal extraction of glutamine since the significant rise in renal blood flow often observed after ureteral occlusion prevented the rise in pNH3 noted when blood flow remained constant. Thus, when renal blood flow rose glutamine extraction and ammonia production were maintained at control values. In these acidotic animals, glutamine infusion failed to influence ammonia production until luminal transport was restored by release of ureteral clamp and resumption of glomerular filtration. The latter observation establishes that reabsorbed glutamine is utilized at least in part for ammonia production. PMID:4812445

  6. Biphasic response of Na -dependent amino acid transport to tumor promoting phorbol esters in cultured renal epithelial cells, LLC-PK1

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.D.; Cook, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Confluent cultures of LLC-PK1 pig kidney epithelial cells respond to tumor promoting phorbol esters and certain analogs of diacylglycerol with a 2-3 fold increase in Na -dependent amino acid transport via the A-system transporter. 12-O-tetra-decanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) activates the protein phosphorylating enzyme protein kinase C. That the A-system transporter also responds vigorously to TPA suggests that the A-system may be regulated in relation to growth control. We find that the transport increase requires 45 to 90 min to develop after exposure to TPA. If cells are transferred to an amino acid serum-free medium prior to exposure to TPA an additional rapid transient response is seen during which the A-system transport increases by 1.8 to 3 times in 5 to 7 min before returning to near control levels by 20 min. After 30 min or more of continued exposure to TPA the transport rate begins to rise in a manner similar to that seen in cells which have not been pre-incubated in the amino acid-serum-free medium. The rapid transient phase of the transport response correlates with an increase in TPA-stimulated membrane protein phosphorylation which is sensitive to the protein kinase C inhibitor sphingosine. The return of the transport rate to control levels can be delayed by inhibitors of phosphatase activity. The later phase of TPA-stimulated A-system activity is associated with an increase in labeling of membrane proteins with (35S)methionine and is sensitive to cycloherimide. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Radiology of renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis.

  8. OglNet

    SciTech Connect

    Verba, Jared

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as well as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.

  9. OglNet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as wellmore » as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.« less

  10. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    SciTech Connect

    Hillman, B.J.; Drach, G.W.; Tracey, P.; Gaines, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment.

  11. Renal manifestations of genetic mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    OToole, John F

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases can be related to mutations in either the nuclear or mitochondrial genome. Childhood presentations are commonly associated with renal tubular dysfunction, but renal involvement is less commonly reported outside of this age-group. Mitochondrial diseases are notable for the significant variability in their clinical presentation and the broad spectrum of genes implicated in their etiology. These features contribute to the challenges of establishing a definitive diagnosis and understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to kidney involvement in these diseases. Here, we review the deoxyribonucleic acid variants in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes that have been associated with a kidney phenotype, and examine some of the possible pathogenic mechanisms that may contribute to the expression of a renal phenotype. PMID:24516335

  12. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  13. AdaNET executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The goal of AdaNET is to transfer existing and emerging software engineering technology from the Federal government to the private sector. The views and perspectives of the current project participants on long and short term goals for AdaNET; organizational structure; resources and returns; summary of identified AdaNET services; and the summary of the organizational model currently under discussion are presented.

  14. Net Catches Debris From Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.; Schneider, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Device restrains fragments and absorbs their kinetic energy. Net of stitched webbing folds compactly over honeycomb plug. Attaches to frame mounted on wall around rectangular area to be cut out by explosion. Honeycomb panel absorbs debris from explosion and crumples into net. Dissipates energy by ripping about 9 in. of stitched net. Developed for emergency escape system in Space Shuttle, adaptable to restraint belts for vehicles; subjecting passengers to more gradual deceleration and less shock.

  15. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1977-09-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included several ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories. PMID:333129

  16. Pregnancy and renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ba?aran, O; Emiro?lu, R; Seme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. PMID:15013320

  17. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  18. Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Masahiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Experimental renal sympathetic denervation is a well-established technique. Classically, renal sympathetic denervation is achieved by dorsal rhizotomy. While more recently, direct renal sympathetic denervation is typically applied by stripping all visible renal nerve bundles followed by painting with a solution of 10 % phenol in ethanol to remove the remaining nerves. In clinical settings, a reliable marker of renal sympathetic denervation or renal sympathetic overactivity has not been established. However, in experimental models, successful renal sympathetic denervation is validated by a decrease in renal norepinephrine content levels. This facilitates the assessment of incomplete denervation by technical failure and reinnervation for long-term experimental models. In this chapter, we introduce comprehensive methods for direct renal sympathetic denervation and measurement of renal norepinephrine content levels. PMID:26676126

  19. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  20. Multicystic renal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, V P; Ratnakar, K S

    2001-07-01

    Multicystic renal dysplasia, the most common form of cystic renal disease in the newborn period, is a clinically important consequence of abnormal nephrogenesis. It usually presents as an abdominal mass. The dysplasias are usually unilateral, but it can be bilateral, segmental or focal. The clinical presentation usually depends on the extent of the dysplastic involvement and the degree of the associated urinary obstruction. Here, we present a case of histologically multicystic renal dysplasia, which is ?bilateral. The left kidney showed typical radiological, gross and histopathological features of multicystic dysplasia, but the right kidney showed only radiological features of dysplastic cystic kidney. PMID:11479648

  1. Net Reclassification Improvement.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Elizabeth S; Maile, Michael D; Engoren, Milo; Elliott, Michael

    2016-03-01

    When adding new markers to existing prediction models, it is necessary to evaluate the models to determine whether the additional markers are useful. The net reclassification improvement (NRI) has gained popularity in this role because of its simplicity, ease of estimation, and understandability. Although the NRI provides a single-number summary describing the improvement new markers bring to a model, it also has several potential disadvantages. Any improved classification by the new model is weighted equally, regardless of the direction of reclassification. In prediction models that already identify the high- and low-risk groups well, a positive NRI may not mean better classification of those with medium risk, where it could make the most difference. Also, overfitting, or otherwise misspecified training models, produce overly positive NRI results. Because of the unaccounted for uncertainty in the model coefficient estimation, investigators should rely on bootstrapped confidence intervals rather than on tests of significance. Keeping in mind the limitations and drawbacks, the NRI can be helpful when used correctly. PMID:26891393

  2. Renal physiology of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Katharine L; Lafayette, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient. PMID:23928384

  3. SensorNet Node Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  4. GCC BSC Set Block Net

    Setting block net across an intertidal rivulet draining a hurricane-derived mudflat.  Net is retrieved at low tide to obtain an estimate of fish catch.  Fish density was found to be greater in waters draining natural tidal forests than in waters from mudflats formed as a result of landfall of a Cate...

  5. CAPEOPEN.NET CLASS LIBRARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cape-Open for .Net class library is a collection of classes that implement the Cape-Open v.1.0 interfaces in the .Net framework. This is a tool to aid process modeling component (PMC) developers in producing CAPE-OPEN compliant objects using the latest version of the Visual S...

  6. Antireflux surgery does not change ongoing renal functional deterioration.

    PubMed

    Arslansoyu Çamlar, Seçil; Çağlar, Sevinç; Soylu, Alper; Türkmen, Mehmet Atilla; Kavukçu, Salih

    2016-04-01

    Aim Treatment modalities of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) consist of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antireflux surgery. In this study, we aimed to determine if antireflux surgery changes the course of renal functional deterioration in children with VUR and urinary tract infections (UTI). Methods Medical files of patients with VUR diagnosed during evaluation for UTI were evaluated retrospectively for gender, age, follow-up period, and renal ultrasonography (US) and serial 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scintigraphy findings. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels were determined at the initial and last visits, and before the operation in children who had antireflux surgery. The patients were divided into two groups as solely medically treated (Group 1) and both medically and surgically treated (Group 2). Group 2 was further divided as those with stable renal function (Group 2a) and with progressive renal injury (Group 2b). Results There were 140 patients (77 female; mean age 51.6 ± 51.9 months). Group 1 and Group 2 included 82 and 58 patients, respectively. In Group 2, the number of patients with the abnormal US, DMSA scintigraphy, and renal function was higher than in Group 1. Recurrent UTI rate was similar, but progressive scarring was more prominent in the antireflux surgery group. In Group 2, 31 patients had a stable renal function (Group 2a) while 27 had progressive deterioration of renal functions (Group 2b). These subgroups were not different with respect to the rate of high-grade VUR, the presence of a renal scar in DMSA, and UTI recurrence. However, the bilateral renal scar was more common in Group 2b. Conclusion Antireflux surgery does not change the course of ongoing renal injury and renal functional deterioration. PMID:26786885

  7. Renal tubular acidosis due to the milk-alkali syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rochman, J; Better, O S; Winaver, J; Chaimowitz, C; Barzilai, A; Jacobs, R

    1977-06-01

    A 60-year-old man with a history of excessive ingestion of calcium carbonate presented with azotemia, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. His acid-base status was initially normal. Following the cessation of calcium carbonate treatment, the hypercalcemia and azotemia disappeared, and the patient was found to be in metabolic acidosis with blunted acid excretion and a urine pH of 6.1. Kidney biopsy showed focal tubular calcification; the tubular damage was apparently caused by hypercalcemia and had resulted in renal tubular acidosis. During the three months of observation since that time there has been a tendecy for spontaneous remission of the renal tubular acidosis. Impaired renal hydrogen ion excretion prevented the development of metabolic alkalosis despite ingestion of alkali initially, and was later responsible for the metabolic acidosis. Renal tubular acidosis occurring as a sequel to the milk-alkali syndrome may aggravate the danger of nephrocalcinosis in this syndrome. PMID:885714

  8. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G.; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P.; Duddy, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function. PMID:26019821

  9. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  10. Renal blood flow transit time in the study of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Ihmeidan, I.; Kyriakides, G.; Martinez, B.; Hourani, M.; Miller, J.; Serafini, A.

    1985-05-01

    Radio-hippurate scintigraphy has been used to study renal transplant function because of its unique advantages over other noninvasive methods. Despite a great sensitivity in diagnosing the existence of a functional problem the test lacks in specificity. In an effort to differentiate between acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and graft rejection (RJ) the authors preceded hippurate scintigraphy by measurements of renal flow transit time (TT). After an intravenous injection of 8 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid flow curves from the kidney and the abdominal aorta in 1 sec intervals for 1 min were obtained. Renal transit time was mathematically calculated and corrected for bolus and circulatory differences by dividing it with the corresponding Aortic TT (corrected Renal TT(cRTT). Radiohippuran (O-I-131-Hippurate), 150 ..mu..Ci was injected subsequently and of the different computer generated parameters the 30 min net cortical residual (% of the peak) activity (Hippuran Residual Activity, HRA) was found more sensitive and reproducible for comparisons. Results of documented cases showed a statistically significant difference. Uncomplicated cases (usually on antirejection therapy) showed a tendency to increasing the cRTTs with time (not significantly) but their HRAs were significantly lower than in ATN and RJ (p< 0.001).

  11. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sickle cell anemia Urinary tract blockage Sickle cell anemia is a common cause of renal papillary necrosis in children. ... Controlling diabetes or sickle cell anemia may reduce your risk. To ... using medications, including over-the-counter pain relievers.

  12. Renal Mitochondrial Cytopathies

    PubMed Central

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Salviati, Leonardo; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Renal diseases in mitochondrial cytopathies are a group of rare diseases that are characterized by frequent multisystemic involvement and extreme variability of phenotype. Most frequently patients present a tubular defect that is consistent with complete De Toni-Debré-Fanconi syndrome in most severe forms. More rarely, patients present with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal diseases, or primary glomerular involvement. In recent years, two clearly defined entities, namely 3243 A > G tRNALEU mutations and coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis defects, have been described. The latter group is particularly important because it represents the only treatable renal mitochondrial defect. In this paper, the physiopathologic bases of mitochondrial cytopathies, the diagnostic approaches, and main characteristics of related renal diseases are summarized. PMID:21811680

  13. Renal specific secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kalra, P A

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is now understood to affect over 5% of all adult patients and it conveys a risk of reduced survival in those affected. At least 80% of those patients with stages 3-5 CKD (i.e. GFR <60 ml/min) suffer with hypertension, and in most the major cause is due to pertubation of an important renal endocrine system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) axis. In this article the epidemiology of renal-related hypertension and its importance in pre-disposing to the increased cardiovascular risk in renal disease are discussed. Hypertension is known to be a major cause of progressive loss of renal function in CKD, particularly because of activation of the RAA, and hence the case for blockade of this system with ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin receptor blockers is highlighted. PMID:17695554

  14. Renal excretion of pseudoephedrine.

    PubMed

    Brater, D C; Kaojarern, S; Benet, L Z; Lin, E T; Lockwood, T; Morris, R C; McSherry, E J; Melmon, K L

    1980-11-01

    A patient with renal acidosis developed unanticipated toxicity after ordinary doses of pseudoephedrine, prompting us to study renal determinants of its elimination. We presumed that our patient accumulated the drug because of her persistently alkaline urine, which would favor tubular resorption of this weak base (pKa = 9.4). We studied normal adults and children and one adult and one child with renal tubular acidosis. Increasing urine pH increased the serum elimination half-life from 1.9 to 21 hr. While urinary pH remained alkaline, renal excretion of pseudoephedrine and its metabolite, norpseudoephedrine, was directly correlated with the flow rate of urine in each subject. Both urine pH and flow are important determinants of the elimination of pseudoephedrine in man and could be critical determinants of unanticipated toxicity. PMID:7438686

  15. Comprehensive one-day renal function testing in man

    PubMed Central

    Györy, A. Z.; Edwards, K. D. G.; Stewart, J. H.; Whyte, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive one-day renal function test consisting of a single outpatient visit lasting nine hours, with a minimum of time off work or away from home, is described in detail. Although a large number of laboratory tests are performed in one day, patients usually appreciate thoroughness, and the cost is more than offset by the saving in occupancy of hospital beds and by the early and precise diagnosis of reversible aspects of renal disease. Some aspects of improved methodology, such as the sequential determination of minimum urinary pH, bicarbonate, titratable acid, ammonium, and total acid on a single sample using an automatic titrator, are given in detail. Clinical application of the comprehensive nine-hour renal function testing system is illustrated by the result sheet of a patient with analgesic nephropathy, who was shown in one day to have secondary severe renal failure (glomerular filtration rate 20% of normal for age and surface area), renal tubular acidosis of the distal gradient type (minimum urinary pH 6·20), increased urinary white cell excretion rate, hyaline casts, and absence of red cell casts, consistent with a diagnosis of analgesic nephropathy and urinary tract inflammation. Normal values with 95% range for this laboratory are also given. This testing system has been found to be very useful in investigating patients with analgesic nephropathy, renal tubular acidosis, and after renal transplantation. PMID:4604259

  16. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine. PMID:26278854

  17. 'Transcollateral' Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S. Swamy, Ajay

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  18. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  19. CF-netCDF Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Nativi, S.; Rew, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    NetCDF has long been a de facto standard for data storage and access in several communities. More recently it has been recognized by the NASA Standards Process Group and the NOAA IOOS DMAC as a de jure standard. Within the OGC, CF-netCDF is being considered as an extension to the latest recognized version of the WCS. A new initiative is underway to establish CF-netCDF as an OGC binary encoding standard in its own right. The idea is that, establishing CF-netCDF as a separate OGC encoding standard will simplify the process of using it as a payload for other standard access protocols such as the WFS and SOS. The approach is modeled on that taken for establishing KML as an OGC standard for XML encoding. One difference is that CF-netCDF will be standardized with a core and a set of extensions.. The standardization process for the core and each of the extension will involve the following steps: -- Make the existing NASA standard the basis for the OGC Core Candidate Standard for CF-netCDF -- Submit an initial draft Candidate Standard to the OGC Technical Committee (TC) -- Form a CF-netCDF Standard Working Group (SWG) -- In the CF-netCDF SWG, refine the Candidate Standard document into a draft for public comment -- Submit the Candidate Standard to the OGC TC to be submitted for public comment -- Incorporate public comment suggestions and submit the result as an OGC Standard Specification. In parallel initiatives will be undertaken for extension standard for specific CF conventions (e.g., gridded data, point data collections, swath data, etc.)., for netCDF APIs, and for NcML (the netCDF Markup Language)-GML. The presentation will outline the plan and provide a report on the status of the initiative at the time of the meeting.

  20. TacNet Tracker Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  1. /sup 97/Ru-DMSA for delayed renal imaging. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Gil, M.C.; Goldman, A.G.; Fairchild, R.G.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was labeled with /sup 97/Ru both with and without the addition of SnCl.2H/sub 2/O. The tin-containing preparation was found to induce higher cortical deposition of /sup 97/Ru-DMSA than the tin-free preparation. Visualization of the renal cortex was excellent 4 to 48 hours after injection in normal dogs with renal insufficiency. It is concluded that /sup 97/Ru-(Sn+/sup 2/)-DMSA is a potentially useful renal imaging agent when delayed scintigraphy is necessary because of decompensaton of the kidneys.

  2. /sup 97/Ru-DMSA for delayed renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Gil, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was labeled with /sup 97/Ru both with and without the addition of SnCl-2H/sub 2/O. The tin-containing preparation was found to induce higher cortical deposition of /sup 97/Ru-DMSA than the tin-free preparation. Visualization of the renal cortex was excellent 4 to 48 hours after injection in normal dogs and in dogs with renal insufficiency. It is concluded that /sup 97/Ru-(SN/sup 2 +/)-DMSA is a potentially useful renal imaging agent when delayed scintigraphy is necessary because of decompensation of the kidneys.

  3. Renal failure in obstructive jaundice—pathogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    In the patient with obstructive jaundice, preliminary dehydration, combined with the toxic effects of free bilirubin and serum bile acids, together with factors which cause inhibition of fibrinolysis, determine a high degree of renal susceptibility to ischaemia. Evidence from animals and man suggests that intravascular coagulation determined by endotoxaemia from the obstructed biliary system occurs at the onset of acute renal failure. Endotoxin is unique in being able to produce all those factors which separately cause a primary increase of renal arteriolar constriction. PMID:1234333

  4. Disappearing renal calculus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging. PMID:23580676

  5. Impaired renal functional reserve and albuminuria in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Losito, Attilio; Fortunati, Federico; Zampi, Ivano; Del Favero, Albano

    1988-01-01

    The stimulatory effects of an infusion of amino acids on glomerular filtration rate has previously been used to measure renal functional reserve and detect glomerular hyperfiltration. Thirty four patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and seemingly normal renal function and 22 healthy controls were given infusions of amino acids to investigate whether renal functional reserve is reduced in essential hypertension and to detect patients at risk of renal damage. Although basal creatinine clearance increased after the infusion of amino acids in the controls (mean 279 ml/min; 95% confidence interval 182 to 376), the overall change was lower in the patients (mean 134 ml/min; 83 to 185), 11 of the 34 showing no increase at all. In these 11 non-responders the mean systolic blood pressure was higher than that in the 23 others (1785 mm Hg v 157 mm Hg, respectively). Mean urinary albumin excretion was abnormal in the patients (933 mg/24 h; 442 to 1424); eight of the 11 non-responders had an albumin excretion above the normal range (>20 mg/24 h). In the 11 patients without renal functional reserve a positive correlation was found between basal creatinine clearance and albumin excretion (r=0695). As consumed renal reserve and albuminuria are markers of glomerular hyperfiltration studying renal function before and after infusion of amino acids can detect hypertensive patients at risk of progressive renal damage. PMID:3135009

  6. Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Marc; Moshfegh, Amiel; Talenfeld, Adam; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence linking radical nephrectomy and consequent suboptimal renal function to adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality, research into nephron-sparing techniques for renal masses widely expanded in the past two decades. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines now explicitly list partial nephrectomy as the standard of care for the management of T1a renal tumors. Because of the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, up to 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more amenable to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. Cryosurgery has emerged as a leading option for renal ablation, and compared with surgical techniques it offers benefits in preserving renal function with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization times, and allows for quicker convalescence. A mature dataset exists at this time, with intermediate and long-term follow-up data available. Cryosurgical recommendations as a first-line therapy are made at this time in limited populations, including elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, and those with a solitary kidney. As more data emerge on oncologic efficacy, and technical experience and the technology continue to improve, the application of this modality will likely be extended in future treatment guidelines. PMID:24596441

  7. Simultaneous Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and squamous renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fúnez, Rafael; Pereda, Teresa; Rodrigo, Isabel; Robles, Luis; González, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRC) is a neoplasm of the kidney with clinicopathologic peculiarities that seems to be of better prognosis than conventional renal cell carcinoma. Classical and eosinophilic types are the two histological variants recorded. Also, it has been described in association with carcinoma of collecting ducts, conventional renal cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Squamous renal carcinoma is a very rare neoplasm with a malignant course. We describe a case of simultaneous chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma, finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been reported. PMID:17711572

  8. PGI2 synthesis and excretion in dog kidney: evidence for renal PG compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.M.; Nasjletti, A.; Heerdt, P.M.; Baer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the concept of compartmentalization of renal prostaglandins (PG), we compared entry of PGE2 and the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the renal vascular and tubular compartments, in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Renal arterial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha infusion increased both renal venous and urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow. In contrast, renal arterial infusion of arachidonic acid (AA) or bradykinin (BK) increased renal venous 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow but had no effect on its urinary outflow. Both urinary and renal venous PGE2 outflows increased during AA or BK infusion. Ureteral stopped-flow studies revealed no postglomerular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha entry into tubular fluid. During renal arterial infusion of (3H)PGI2 and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 40% of inulin clearance; 35% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and two other urinary metabolites were found. During renal arterial infusion of (3H)6-keto-PGF1 alpha and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 150% of inulin clearance; 75% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and only one other metabolite was found. We conclude that in the dog PGE2 synthesized in the kidney enters directly into both the renal vascular and tubular compartments, but 6-keto-PGF1 alpha of renal origin enters directly into only the renal vascular compartment.

  9. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake of vegetables that can carry a plentiful supply of alkali that counteract the acid load coming from animal protein. New prospective studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet for the prevention of renal stones should be oriented to simple dietary advices that should be focused on a few specific goals easily controlled by means of self-evaluation tools, such as the LAKE food screener. PMID:23392537

  10. Alcohol misuse and renal damage.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, E; De Marchi, S

    1996-01-01

    Recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the habitual consumption of large amounts of ethanol has deleterious effects on the kidney. A variety of tubular defects have been described in patients with chronic alcoholism. Evidence is emerging that tubular dysfunction has an important pathophysiological role in a wide range of electrolyte and acid-base disturbances commonly observed in these patients, and possibly in alcohol-induced bone disease. These renal abnormalities are often reversible, disappearing with abstinence. However, since 1990 a few cases of a syndrome of acute tubular necrosis due to binge drinking of ethanol in the absence of other evident nephrotoxic mechanisms, or in association with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have been reported. A link between glomerulonephritis and alcoholism has become evident. IgA nephropathy has been demonstrated at autopsy in 64% of chronic alcoholics and, more recently, the association between alcoholism and postinfectious glomerulonephritis has been described. Structural and functional abnormalities of the kidney are reported with increasing frequency in the fetal alcohol syndrome seen in children who have been prenatally exposed to ethanol. In addition, over the last few years experimental studies in vitro or in animal models have provided information about the biochemical and molecular basis of alcohol-induced injury to kidney. It is hoped that future experimental and clinical research will provide us with a more comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms of renal damage in alcohol misuse. PMID:12893483

  11. Librarians and the Free-Net Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, David

    1994-01-01

    Describes free-nets as free public access community-based computer systems; explains how libraries and librarians participate in the free-net movement; discusses Canadian free-nets; considers the public library/free-net analogy; and provides a survey of library services on Internet-accessible free-nets and civic networks. (Contains four…

  12. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  13. [The focal renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful. PMID:23735765

  14. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hindi, Manipuri, Oriya, Tamil , and Telugu About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is a project of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (IAPAC) . The InfoNet was founded by Bob ...

  15. Thrombosis: tangled up in NETs

    PubMed Central

    Martinod, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The contributions by blood cells to pathological venous thrombosis were only recently appreciated. Both platelets and neutrophils are now recognized as crucial for thrombus initiation and progression. Here we review the most recent findings regarding the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in thrombosis. We describe the biological process of NET formation (NETosis) and how the extracellular release of DNA and protein components of NETs, such as histones and serine proteases, contributes to coagulation and platelet aggregation. Animal models have unveiled conditions in which NETs form and their relation to thrombogenesis. Genetically engineered mice enable further elucidation of the pathways contributing to NETosis at the molecular level. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4, an enzyme that mediates chromatin decondensation, was identified to regulate both NETosis and pathological thrombosis. A growing body of evidence reveals that NETs also form in human thrombosis and that NET biomarkers in plasma reflect disease activity. The cell biology of NETosis is still being actively characterized and may provide novel insights for the design of specific inhibitory therapeutics. After a review of the relevant literature, we propose new ways to approach thrombolysis and suggest potential prophylactic and therapeutic agents for thrombosis. PMID:24366358

  16. Methods of verifying net carbon

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, M.

    1996-10-01

    Problems currently exist with using net carbon as an industrial standard to gauge smelter performance. First, throughout the industry there are a number of different methods used for determining net carbon. Also, until recently there has not been a viable method to cross check or predict change in net carbon. This inherently leads to differences and most likely inaccuracies when comparing performances of different plants using a net carbon number. Ravenswood uses specific methods when calculating the net carbon balance. The R and D Carbon, Ltd. formula developed by Verner Fisher, et al, to predict and cross check net carbon based on baked carbon core analysis has been successfully used. Another method is used, as a cross check, which is based on the raw materials (cokes and pitch) usage as related to the metal produced. The combination of these methods gives a definitive representation of the carbon performance in the reduction cell. This report details the methods Ravenswood Aluminum uses and the information derived from it.

  17. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. PMID:21905280

  18. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    An important task of the nephrologists during the last century, it has been the search of elements and means that allow us, with the adequate precision, to correlate the functional deterioration of the kidney, and the patient's clinical reality. And the continuous searching of factors and markers that injure them, the prognosis, and early diagnosis, to be able to predict the degree of the organs and patient's survival. Almost parallel survival presage in the natural history of the illness, almost one century ago. In the second half of the XX century, in the developed countries, appear modifications of the social, cultural, and sanitary conditions, that make appear some very different partner-sanitary and epidemic circumstances, and take place like they are, among others: 1. An increase of per cápita private rents, what takes place to increase of the level of social life and the population's health. With increment of the longevity, and smaller incidence and prevalence of classic process, as malnutrition, infections, infantile mortality, so increasing the weight of the cardiovascular diseases and death. This is potentiated for the increment and the incidence of environmental cardiovascular risk's factors (like high caloric and fatty-rich diets, smoke, alcohol, disappearance of the physical work, inactivity, etc). And that situations are also product of the change of the outline of human and social values and guides. 2. Access of the whole population to a sanitary attention of more quality and effectiveness. It allows the biggest survival of patients that suffer vascular crisis, (as angina, miocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident), that few years ago they have had a higher morbimortality and an inferior survival (2). 3. The execution of big epidemic studies has been able to, not only characterize and test with scientific evidence to numerous factors and markers, that induce renal and cardiovascular prejudicial changes, but risk and death probability prediction. And also, its possible association nexuses, its injuring mechanisms, and the characterization of the new "emergent" renal and cardiovascular risk's markers and factors. 4. The impact on the possibility to treat the end stage renal disease with effective and prolonged procedures, by hemodialisis or kidney transplantation, has been occurred. The affected population's survival with the adequacy renal-sustitution treatment, and the possibility of indefinite duration of its treatment, has also impacted on the public health, and its resources, in an evident way. Simultaneously to increase of the incidence in the population, the electivity for the treatment has been enlarged and extended increasing it exponentially. These facts are documented here, and are defined the characteristics of the factors and markers of risk, of renal and cardiovascular diseases. The defined factors are valued to mark, so far as with the well-known evidence is possible, the prediction and the progression of the renal and cardiovascular functional deterioration: The hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling, the arterial stiffness, the heart rate, the sympathetic activation, the modification of the physiological response of the target organ to the overcharge, the metabolic syndrome, the obesity, the insulin resistance, the altered lipid profile, and metabolism of the fatty acids, the salt-sensibility, the decrease of the renal functional reserve, the glomerular hyperfiltration, the absence of the arterial pressure nocturnal descent, the abnormal excretion of proteins for the urine, the phenomenon induced by dysfunctions of the clotting, superoxide production, growth factors, the production of chronic inflammation and its markers, the factors of the glomerulosclerosis progression, the hyperuricemic status, the endothelial dysfunction and others, are evaluated. As well as their association among them and with other factors of risk not changeable like the age, and in turn, with other acquired voluntarily factors of risk, as the smoking habit and the alcohol. These facts are now impacting on the population's sanity. And also in the professional nephrologic exercise, so much for the cardiovascular and renal morbimortality increased, as for the increase of the incidence of end-stage renal disease susceptible to treat with of substitutive procedures. They try to justify the sentence of Alan Weder of the heading, and other concepts like "epidemic factors of the XXI century", and intuitive expressions like "predialitic endothelial disruption or ruin". PMID:11987667

  19. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Vielma, Alejandra Z.; Arismendi, Marlene N.; Boric, Mauricio P.; Sáez, Juan C.; Velarde, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day) for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L). Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects. PMID:24416726

  20. Effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Phil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to assess the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary stone-forming constituents, and to assess the effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence risk in first stone formers (SF). Baseline serum creatinine levels were obtained, and renal insufficiency was defined as creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (Cockroft-Gault). This retrospective case-control study consists of 342 first SF; 171 SF with normal renal function were selected with 1:1 propensity scores matched to 171 SF with renal insufficiency. Urinary metabolic evaluation was compared to renal function. GFR was positively correlated with urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion. Subjects with renal insufficiency had significantly lower urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion than those with normal renal function, but not urine volume. With regard to urinary metabolic abnormalities, similar results were obtained. SF with renal insufficiency had lower calcium oxalate supersaturation indexes and stone recurrence rates than SF with normal renal function. Kaplan-Meier curves showed similar results. In conclusion, GFR correlates positively with urinary excretion of stone-forming constituents in SF. This finding implies that renal insufficiency is not a risk factor for stone recurrence. PMID:25120325

  1. Effect of Renal Insufficiency on Stone Recurrence in Patients with Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to assess the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary stone-forming constituents, and to assess the effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence risk in first stone formers (SF). Baseline serum creatinine levels were obtained, and renal insufficiency was defined as creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (Cockroft-Gault). This retrospective case-control study consists of 342 first SF; 171 SF with normal renal function were selected with 1:1 propensity scores matched to 171 SF with renal insufficiency. Urinary metabolic evaluation was compared to renal function. GFR was positively correlated with urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion. Subjects with renal insufficiency had significantly lower urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion than those with normal renal function, but not urine volume. With regard to urinary metabolic abnormalities, similar results were obtained. SF with renal insufficiency had lower calcium oxalate supersaturation indexes and stone recurrence rates than SF with normal renal function. Kaplan-Meier curves showed similar results. In conclusion, GFR correlates positively with urinary excretion of stone-forming constituents in SF. This finding implies that renal insufficiency is not a risk factor for stone recurrence. Graphical Abstract PMID:25120325

  2. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... and Corporations (continued) 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers... net operating loss deduction the taxpayer must first determine the part of any net operating...

  3. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... and Corporations (continued) 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers... net operating loss deduction the taxpayer must first determine the part of any net operating...

  4. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  5. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... and Corporations (continued) 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers... net operating loss deduction the taxpayer must first determine the part of any net operating...

  6. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net... States 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see 1.904(g)-3T....

  7. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  8. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net... States 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see 1.904(g)-3T....

  9. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  10. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net... States 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see 1.904(g)-3T....

  11. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net... States 1.904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see 1.904(g)-3T....

  12. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  13. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  14. [Renal artery angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Pisco, J M; dos Santos, M O; Carvalheiro, V M; Pego, G M; Martins, J M; Baptista, A M; Garcia, V; Ramos, H V

    1992-05-01

    In the 59 hypertensive patients submitted to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the renal artery, there was an immediate success in the blood pressure in 91.5% and a later one of 79.6%. In these patients we obtained better results: 81.4% in the unilateral lesions, more than in the bilateral ones--72.7%; 82.5% in the renal artery trunk lesions, more than in the ostium ones--71.4%; 88.9% in the lesions of fibromuscular origin, more than in the aterosclerotic ones--75%; 84.4% in up to 55 years old patients, more than in older ones--71.4%. These differences were not significant. The results of renal angioplasty in renovascular hypertension suggest this type of intervention as an alternative treatment. PMID:1386957

  15. Ensete superbum ameliorates renal dysfunction in experimental diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sreekutty, MS; Mini, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of Ensete superbum seeds (ESSE) on renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Glucose, HbA1c, total protein, albumin, renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine), and lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated. Renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were examined along with renal histopathological study. Results: ESSE (400 mg/kg BW t) administration reduced glucose and HbA1c, and improved serum total protein and albumin in diabetic rats. ESSE in diabetic rats recorded decrement in renal function markers and renal lipid peroxidation products along with significant increment in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Renal morphological abnormalities of diabetic rats were markedly ameliorated by E. superbum. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antioxidant effect of E. superbum could ameliorate oxidative stress and delay/prevent the progress of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27096072

  16. Renal adaptation during hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sandra L.; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation. PMID:24049148

  17. Fibrosis and renal aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Fogo, Agnes B

    2014-01-01

    Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis increase in the aging kidney, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases with increasing age. Decreases in stem cell number and function contribute to renal aging. High-dose angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) not only slows the progression of glomerular and vascular sclerosis in aging but can also induce regression of these processes independently of its hemodynamic actions. By using new interventions, such as peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, we can manipulate the process of renal aging by regulating stem cells and other mechanisms. PMID:26312154

  18. Autophagy in renal diseases.

    PubMed

    De Rechter, Stéphanie; Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Ivanova, Ekaterina; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; De Smedt, Humbert; Levtchenko, Elena; Mekahli, Djalila

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is the cell biology process in which cytoplasmic components are degraded in lysosomes to maintain cellular homeostasis and energy production. In the healthy kidney, autophagy plays an important role in the homeostasis and viability of renal cells such as podocytes and tubular epithelial cells and of immune cells. Recently, evidence is mounting that (dys)regulation of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases, and might be an attractive target for new renoprotective therapies. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and kidney diseases. PMID:26141928

  19. Commentary: Shoot the renals!

    PubMed

    Luft, F C; Gross, C M

    2007-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is a growing dilemma. The condition is increasingly common and can promulgate hypertension and result in renal failure. However, patients with ARAS generally die owing to their coronaries or cerebral vessels. Intervention, by stenting or angioplasty is beloved and believed, but not proved. The American Heart Association has recently published guidelines regarding patients at high risk for ARAS who are potential candidates for revascularisation. Since this phraseology includes practically every patient with atherosclerosis, these guidelines appear ill advised. PMID:18003685

  20. Physiology of the Renal Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long overlooked as the virtual compartment and then strictly characterized through descriptive morphologic analysis, the renal interstitium has finally been associated with function. With identification of interstitial renin- and erythropoietin-producing cells, the most prominent endocrine functions of the kidney have now been attributed to the renal interstitium. This article reviews the functional role of renal interstitium. PMID:25813241

  1. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment. PMID:22700649

  2. Quantitative renal scintillation camera studies in renal transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Frentz, G.D.; Schlegel, J.U.; Hussey, J.L.; Prima, R.

    1981-12-01

    Renal transplant recipients and donors were studied serially with quantitative renal scintillation camera studies utilizing 131I-Hippuran and 99mTc-Iron ascorbate. This study allows for determination of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), filtration fraction (FF), and predicted return in ten minutes. A drop in FF occurred with, or preceded clinical rejection; whereas, an increase in FF occurred with acute tubular necorsis (ATN) caused by preservation injury, aminoglycosides, and following acute rejection. Combined with the other parameters of renal function determined by this technique, FF alterations proved useful in the differentiation of ATN from rejection and in predicting the prognosis of renal homografts.

  3. The effect of ketone bodies on renal ammoniogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, G; Vinay, P; Robitaille, P; Plante, G E; Lussier, Y; Martin, P

    1971-09-01

    Infusion of ketone bodies to ammonium chloride-loaded acidotic dogs was found to induce significant reduction in urinary excretion of ammonia. This effect could not be attributed to urinary pH variations. Total ammonia production by the left kidney was measured in 25 animals infused during 90 min with the sodium salt of D,L-beta-hydroxybutyric acid adjusted to pH 6.0 or 4.2. Ketonemia averaged 4.5 mM/liter. In all experiments the ammonia content of both urine and renal venous blood fell markedly so that ammoniogenesis was depressed by 60% or more within 60 min after the onset of infusion. Administration of equimolar quantities of sodium acetoacetate adjusted to pH 6.0 resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammonia production. Infusion of ketone bodies adjusted to pH 6.0 is usually accompanied by a small increase in extracellular bicarbonate (3.7 mM/liter). However infusion of D,L-sodium lactate or sodium bicarbonate in amounts sufficient to induce a similar rise in plasma bicarbonate resulted in only a slight decrement in ammonia production (15%). The continuous infusion of 5% mannitol alone during 90-150 min failed to influence renal ammoniogenesis. Infusion of pure sodium-free beta-hydroxybutyric acid prepared by ion exchange (pH 2.2) resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammoniogenesis in spite of the fact that both urinary pH and plasma bicarbonate fell significantly. During all experiments where ketones were infused, the renal extraction of glutamine became negligible as the renal glutamine arteriovenous difference was abolished. Renal hemodynamics did not vary significantly. Infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate into the left renal artery resulted in a rapid decrease in ammoniogenesis by the perfused kidney. The present study indicates that ketone bodies exert their inhibitory influence within the renal tubular cell. Since their effect is independent of urinary or systemic acid-base changes, it is suggested that they depress renal ammoniogenesis by preventing the transformation of glutamine and glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate in the mitochondria of the renal tubular cell. PMID:4327575

  4. The effect of ketone bodies on renal ammoniogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Guy; Vinay, Patrick; Robitaille, Pierre; Plante, Gérard E.; Lussier, Yolande; Martin, Pierre

    1971-01-01

    Infusion of ketone bodies to ammonium chloride-loaded acidotic dogs was found to induce significant reduction in urinary excretion of ammonia. This effect could not be attributed to urinary pH variations. Total ammonia production by the left kidney was measured in 25 animals infused during 90 min with the sodium salt of D,L-β-hydroxybutyric acid adjusted to pH 6.0 or 4.2. Ketonemia averaged 4.5 mM/liter. In all experiments the ammonia content of both urine and renal venous blood fell markedly so that ammoniogenesis was depressed by 60% or more within 60 min after the onset of infusion. Administration of equimolar quantities of sodium acetoacetate adjusted to pH 6.0 resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammonia production. Infusion of ketone bodies adjusted to pH 6.0 is usually accompanied by a small increase in extracellular bicarbonate (3.7 mM/liter). However infusion of D,L-sodium lactate or sodium bicarbonate in amounts sufficient to induce a similar rise in plasma bicarbonate resulted in only a slight decrement in ammonia production (15%). The continuous infusion of 5% mannitol alone during 90-150 min failed to influence renal ammoniogenesis. Infusion of pure sodium-free β-hydroxybutyric acid prepared by ion exchange (pH 2.2) resulted in a 50% decrease in renal ammoniogenesis in spite of the fact that both urinary pH and plasma bicarbonate fell significantly. During all experiments where ketones were infused, the renal extraction of glutamine became negligible as the renal glutamine arteriovenous difference was abolished. Renal hemodynamics did not vary significantly. Infusion of β-hydroxybutyrate into the left renal artery resulted in a rapid decrease in ammoniogenesis by the perfused kidney. The present study indicates that ketone bodies exert their inhibitory influence within the renal tubular cell. Since their effect is independent of urinary or systemic acid-base changes, it is suggested that they depress renal ammoniogenesis by preventing the transformation of glutamine and glutamate into α-ketoglutarate in the mitochondria of the renal tubular cell. PMID:4327575

  5. Effects of Antioxidant Drugs in Rats with Acute Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Lee, JongUn

    2007-01-01

    Acute renal failure is mainly caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury or nephrotoxic drugs, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role. Therefore, antioxidants are expected to decrease the vulnerability of renal injury associated with oxidative challenges. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA), potent antioxidant, could act as ROS scavengers, iron chelators and enzyme modulators. In rats with acute renal injury, dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels and sodium transporters has been noted. I/R injury or cisplatin induced marked down-regulation of AQP1, AQP2 and AQP3 water channels, and type-3 Na-H exchanger, Na,K-ATPase, and Na-K-2Cl cotransporters, in association with impairment of urinary concentration and tubular sodium reabsorption. Treatment with α-LA prevented the dysregulation of AQP channels and sodium transporters, along with improved urinary concentrating capability and renal sodium reabsorption. PMID:24459496

  6. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  7. Net zero building energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Rohit

    This research deals with energy studies performed as part of a net-zero energy study for buildings. Measured data of actual energy utilization by a building for a continuous period of 33 months was collected and studied. The peak design day on which the building consumes maximum energy was found. The averages of the energy consumption for the peak month were determined. The DOE EnergyPlus software was used to simulate the energy requirements for the building and also obtain peak energy requirements for the peak month. Alternative energy sources such as ground source heat pump, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and day-lighting modifications were applied to redesign the energy consumption for the building towards meeting net-zero energy requirements. The present energy use by the building, DOE Energy software simulations for the building as well as the net-zero model for the building were studied. The extents of the contributions of the individual energy harvesting measures were studied. For meeting Net Zero Energy requirement, it was found that the total energy load for the building can be distributed between alternative energy methods as 5.4% to daylighting modifications, 58% to geothermal and 36.6% to solar photovoltaic panels for electricity supply and thermal energy. Thus the directions to proceed towards achieving complete net-zero energy status were identified.

  8. The Effect of Treatment of Acidosis on Calcium Balance in Patients with Chronic Azotemic Renal Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Litzow, John R.; Lemann, Jacob; Lennon, Edward J.

    1967-01-01

    Small but statistically significant negative calcium balances were found in each of eight studies in seven patients with chronic azotemic renal disease when stable metabolic acidosis was present. Only small quantities of calcium were excreted in the urine, but fecal calcium excretion equaled or exceeded dietary intake. Complete and continuous correction of acidosis by NaHCO3 therapy reduced both urinary and fecal calcium excretion and produced a daily calcium balance indistinguishable from zero. Apparent acid retention was found throughout the studies during acidosis, despite no further reduction of the serum bicarbonate concentration. The negative calcium balances that accompanied acid retention support the suggestion that slow titration of alkaline bone salts provides an additional buffer reservoir in chronic metabolic acidosis. The treatment of metabolic acidosis prevented further calcium losses but did not induce net calcium retention. It is suggested that the normal homeostatic responses of the body to the alterations in ionized calcium and calcium distribution produced by raising the serum bicarbonate might paradoxically retard the repair of skeletal calcium deficits. PMID:6018764

  9. Rituximab in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, A Nicholas R; Hadjianastassiou, Vassilis G; Mamode, Nizam

    2013-06-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that leads to B cell depletion. It is not licensed for use in renal transplantation but is in widespread use in ABO blood group incompatible transplantation. It is an effective treatment for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and is also used in both HLA antibody incompatible renal transplantation and the treatment of acute rejection. Recent evidence suggests rituximab may prevent the development of chronic antibody mediated rejection. The mechanisms underlying its effects are likely to relate both to long-term effects on plasma cell development and to the impact on B cell modulation of T cell responses. Rituximab (in multiple doses or in combination with other monoclonal antibodies and/or other immunosuppressants) may lead to an increase in infectious complications, although the evidence is not clear. Rarely, the drug can cause a cytokine release syndrome, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. It has been related to an increased risk of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and, recently, deaths from cardiovascular causes. Trials examining the effects of rituximab in induction therapy for compatible renal transplantation and the treatment of chronic antibody mediated rejection are ongoing. These trials should aid greater understanding of the role of B-cells in the alloresponse to renal transplantation. PMID:23414100

  10. [Renal transplantation in Bologna].

    PubMed

    Possati, L; Faenza, A; Spolaore, R; Lapilli, A; Bonomini, V; Vangelista, A; Stefoni, S; Cetrullo, C; Nanni Costa, P; Pacifico, L; Gaist, G; Testa, C

    1980-05-31

    From october '76 to march '79 at the Clinica Chirurgica I of the University of Bologna 50 renal graft have been performed with living donor in 8 cases and with cadaver donor in 42. In the living donor group there was one death for rejection and sepsis. The remaining 7 patients are all alive with normal renal function. Among the 42 patients with cadaver donor 6 died: 3 early (one for gastric hemorrage, one for necrosis of the ascending colon, and one for rejection) and 3 late (two following many rejection episodes and one for miocardial infarction). 6 more patients underwent transplantectomy (4 for acute and 2 for chronic rejection). The 27 remaining patients have normal renal function. The only early important surgical problem was one urinary fistula in the 15th postoperative day successfully reoperated. The major late surgical complication was a renal artery stenosis distal from the arterial anastomosis followed by difficult but effective surgical correction. The authors regret not having been able to use more than half of the possible cadaver donors for refusal of the relatives. PMID:7005729

  11. Bilateral renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Huang, Kuo-How

    2009-02-01

    A 34-year-old man was admitted for acute onset of left lower abdominal pain associated with fever. His medical history was unremarkable, and the physical examination revealed bilateral flank tenderness. Bilateral renal infarction was diagnosed and demonstrated by computed tomography. PMID:18829084

  12. Pancreatitis after renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Corrodi, P; Knoblauch, M; Binswanger, U; Schölzel, E; Largiader, F

    1975-01-01

    Pancreatitis is seldom seen as a severe complication of renal transplantation. In a review on 1321 renal transplants, 23 cases with 12 deaths are reported (Johnson and Nabseth, 1970). Single case reports may be added. In our departments pancreatitis has proved to be a fairly frequent complication. It developed in 10 (7 percent) of 147 patients with renal transplantation one week to seven and a half years after transplantation (patients with primary hyperparathyroidism excluded). Three of the eight acute cases had haemorrhagic pancreatitis, in two of them leading to death. Two patients had chronic calcifying pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was complicated in one case by abscess formation and in two by severe haemorrhage into a pseudo-cyst. In two patients the diagnosis was made at necropsy only and death was probably not related to the acute pancreatitis. The exact pathogenesis of pancreatitis after renal transplantation cannot be precisely assessed. Possible contributing factors are treatment with corticosteroids, azathioprin, and L-asparaginase, early hypercalcaemia after transplantation, surgery, infections of bacterial or viral origin, and unknown immunological processes. PMID:1093948

  13. Renal imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, K; Hierholzer, J

    1997-01-01

    The ancient approach to obtain an image of the kidneys (and other internal organs) was 'section-inspection-imaging' by drawing, painting, sculpturing, and modelling. The present study follows chronologically the development and use of sectioning techniques from ancient (often forbidden) methods to modern microdissection and maceration of silicone-rubber-injected tubules. Inspection evolved from the use of the naked eye to magnifying lenses, microscopes and finally electron microscopy. Pertinent examples such as the description of the kidneys as the site of urine formation, the visualization of loop structures in the renal medulla and the imaging of tight junction strands are discussed. Inspection or visualization of renal structure and function has been revolutionized by modern noninvasive techniques, such as X-ray imaging, imaging by radioisotopes, ultrasound, computer tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Pertinent examples are given demonstrating the potency of the various techniques. The contribution of computerized data evaluation is discussed. The development of micropuncture and microperfusion techniques has opened the field for direct imaging not only of renal (sub)structural details but also of functional parameters such as transtubular reabsorption rates, single glomerular capillary filtration and conductance of the paracellular pathway. We focus particularly on techniques specifically designed to visualize renal hemodynamic and transport parameters. PMID:9189257

  14. Molecular Pathophysiology of Renal Tubular Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, P.C.B; Miranda, D.M; Oliveira, E.A; Silva, A.C. Simões e

    2009-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is characterized by metabolic acidosis due to renal impaired acid excretion. Hyperchloremic acidosis with normal anion gap and normal or minimally affected glomerular filtration rate defines this disorder. RTA can also present with hypokalemia, medullary nephrocalcinosis and nephrolitiasis, as well as growth retardation and rickets in children, or short stature and osteomalacia in adults. In the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RTA and the fundamental molecular physiology of renal tubular transport processes. This review summarizes hereditary diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding transporter or channel proteins operating along the renal tubule. Review of the molecular basis of hereditary tubulopathies reveals various loss-of-function or gain-of-function mutations in genes encoding cotransporter, exchanger, or channel proteins, which are located in the luminal, basolateral, or endosomal membranes of the tubular cell or in paracellular tight junctions. These gene mutations result in a variety of functional defects in transporter/channel proteins, including decreased activity, impaired gating, defective trafficking, impaired endocytosis and degradation, or defective assembly of channel subunits. Further molecular studies of inherited tubular transport disorders may shed more light on the molecular pathophysiology of these diseases and may significantly improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying renal salt homeostasis, urinary mineral excretion, and blood pressure regulation in health and disease. The identification of the molecular defects in inherited tubulopathies may provide a basis for future design of targeted therapeutic interventions and, possibly, strategies for gene therapy of these complex disorders. PMID:19721811

  15. Late renal function following whole abdominal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Irwin, C; Fyles, A; Wong, C S; Cheung, C M; Zhu, Y

    1996-03-01

    Sixty patients treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy who had remained disease-free since completion of treatment participated in a study to assess the late clinical and biochemical effects of bilateral renal irradiation. Minimum follow-up was 5 years with a maximum of 20 years and a median of 9 years. Fifty-two patients in the study group were treated for primary ovarian cancer. Seven had non-Hodgkins lymphoma arising in the gastrointestinal tract and one patient had a carcinoid tumour arising in small bowel. None of the patients received chemotherapy. Abdominal radiation was given using an open beam technique to a mean dose of 22.92 Gy (range 6.68-27.54 Gy) in 1.02 to 1.25 Gy fractions treated once daily. Posterior kidney shields were used in order to limit the renal dose to < 20 Gy. Mean radiation dose to both kidneys (retrospectively calculated) was 19.28 Gy (range 6.68-22.99 Gy). Patients ranged in age from 32-81 years with a median of 61 years. No patient had clinical evidence of renal impairment. Nine patients were hypertensive prior to radiotherapy and a further five patients became hypertensive after treatment. Serum creatinine values ranged from 44-123 mumol/l, with a mean of 87 mumol/l. Creatinine clearance ranged from 0.61-2.38 ml/s (mean 1.28 ml/s). Tubular function tests revealed one borderline high 24-h protein excretion and normal 24-h phosphorous and uric acid. Using a multiple linear regression analysis with creatinine clearance as the endpoint, age was the only significant variable (P < 0.00001) and renal dose and interval from treatment were not independently significant. There was no evidence of late renal toxicity more than 5 years after whole abdominal radiotherapy delivered with this technique and dose/fractionation schedule, and using the clinical and biochemical endpoints assessed in this study. PMID:8693108

  16. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  17. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  18. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  19. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  20. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  1. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  3. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.73 shall be stated in...

  4. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  5. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  6. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  7. 27 CFR 19.644 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 19.644... Requirements § 19.644 Net contents. The net contents of liquor bottles shall be shown on the label, unless the statement of the net contents is permanently marked on the side, front, or back of the bottle. (Sec....

  8. 7 CFR 51.489 - Well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well netted. 51.489 Section 51.489 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.489 Well netted. Well netted means that to an extent characteristic of the variety the cantaloup is well covered with fully developed, well raised netting,...

  9. Mechanisms and regulation of renal magnesium transport.

    PubMed

    Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium's most important role is in the release of chemical energy. Although most magnesium is stored outside of the extracellular fluid compartment, the regulated value is blood magnesium concentration. Cellular magnesium and bone magnesium do not play a major role in the defense of blood magnesium concentration; the major role is played by the kidney, where the renal tubule matches the urinary magnesium excretion and the net entry of magnesium into the extracellular fluid. In the kidney, magnesium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. Magnesium absorption is mainly paracellular in the proximal tubule and in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, whereas it is transcellular in the distal convoluted tubule. Several hormones and extracellular magnesium itself alter the distal tubular handling of magnesium, but the hormone(s) regulating extracellular magnesium concentration remains unknown. PMID:24512082

  10. Mast cell stabilizers obviate high fat diet-induced renal dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Reena; Kaur, Tajpreet; Kaur, Anudeep; Singh, Manjinder; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Pathak, Devendra; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2016-04-15

    The present study investigated the infiltration of mast cells into the kidney tissue and the preventive role of mast cell stabilizers against high fat diet (HFD)-induced renal injury in rats. The animals were fed on HFD (30% fat) for 12 consecutive weeks to induce renal injury. The HFD-induced obesity was assessed by calculating obesity index, adiposity index, and estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoproteins in plasma. The renal dysfunction was evaluated by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, electrolytes and microproteinuria. The oxidative stress in renal tissues was determined by myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide anion generation and reduced glutathione level. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored using non-invasive blood pressure measuring apparatus. Histamine and hydroxyproline contents were quantified in renal tissues. Gross histopathological changes, mast cell density and collagen deposition in the renal tissue was determined by means of histopathology. The mast cell stabilizers, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen were administered daily for 12 weeks. The HFD fed rats demonstrated significant increase in lipid profile, kidney injury with marked increase in renal oxidative stress, SBP, mast cell density, histamine content and hydroxyproline content that was attenuated by sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen treatment. Hence, the novel findings of this investigation suggest that HFD induced mast cells infiltration into kidney tissue seems to play an important role in renal pathology, and treatment with mast cell stabilizers serves as potential therapy in management of HFD induced renal dysfunction in rats. PMID:26944217

  11. Claudin-8 modulates paracellular permeability to acidic and basic ions in MDCK II cells

    PubMed Central

    Angelow, Susanne; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Yu, Alan S L

    2006-01-01

    Renal net acid excretion requires tubular reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate, followed by secretion of protons and ammonium in the collecting duct, generating steep transtubular gradients for these ions. To prevent passive backleak of these ions, the tight junctions in the collecting duct must be highly impermeable to these ions. We previously generated a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK II) cell line with inducible expression of claudin-8, a tight junction protein expressed in the collecting duct. In these cells, claudin-8 was shown to function as a paracellular barrier to alkali metal and divalent cations. We have now used this model to test the hypothesis that claudin-8 also functions as a paracellular barrier to acidic or basic ions involved in renal acid excretion. We developed a series of precise and unbiased methods, based on a combination of diffusion potential, short-circuit current, and pH stat measurements, to estimate paracellular permeability to protons, ammonium and bicarbonate in MDCK II cells. We found that under control conditions (i.e. in the absence of claudin-8), these cells are highly permeable to the acidic and basic ions tested. Interestingly, proton permeation exhibited an unusually low activation energy similar to that in bulk solution. This suggests that paracellular proton transfer may occur by a Grotthuss mechanism, implying that the paracellular pores are sufficiently wide to accommodate water molecules in a freely mobile state. Induction of claudin-8 expression reduces permeability not only to protons, but also to ammonium and bicarbonate. We conclude that claudin-8 probably functions to limit the passive leak of these three ions via paracellular routes, thereby playing a permissive role in urinary net acid excretion. PMID:16322055

  12. Net Bidding District Insurance Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, David H.; LeVan, Donald D.

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the insurance market combined with reduction in financial support make it an ideal time for educators to look at alternative approaches to purchasing insurance. The advantages and disadvantages of three approaches are analyzed. Net bidding is the most effective. (MD)

  13. MASTER-Net optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Lodieu, N.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 17h 35m 09.92s -61d 59m 41.3s on 2016-01-29.06019 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 15.1m (limit 18.3m).

  14. MASTER-Net: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Vladimirov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 04h 53m 02.87s -49d 21m 28.4s on 2016-02-22.89387 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (the limit is 18.7m).

  15. The power of neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. P.; Shah, B. H.

    1987-01-01

    Implementation of the Hopfield net which is used in the image processing type of applications where only partial information about the image may be available is discussed. The image classification type of algorithm of Hopfield and other learning algorithms, such as the Boltzmann machine and the back-propagation training algorithm, have many vital applications in space.

  16. Neural Network Development Tool (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial neural networks formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected in manner similar to that in human brain. Such network models learning behavior. Using NETS involves translating problem to be solved into input/output pairs, designing network configuration, and training network. Written in C.

  17. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  18. Stringing Nets to Catch Mongooses

    For a behavioral study of Crossarchus obscurus, the long-nosed cusimanse, in Tiwai Island Wildlife Sanctuary, Sierra Leone, West Africa, fishing nets were the most successful method of capturing an entire group of these mongooses, compared to baited live-traps and thatch fences (which channeled anim...

  19. Curlews Caught by Mist Nets

    Curlews are very attentive parents and fly close to intruders and alarm call to distract them from their young broods. USGS scientists take advantage of this behavior by using a mist net to sweep birds out of the air when they approach. In June 2007, USGS scientists used this approach to tag 13 curl...

  20. SophiNet Version 12

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-09

    SophiNet Version 12 is part of the code contained in the application ‘oglnet’ and comprises the portions that make ‘oglnet’ receive and display Sophia data from the Sophia Daemon ‘sophiad’. Specifically this encompasses the channel, host and alert receiving and the treeview HUD widget.

  1. Videotutoring via AppalNet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Harriette C.

    The Videotutoring via AppalNet project at Appalachian State University in North Carolina offers supplementary, tutorial assistance to students in certain high risk courses such as history, biology, and mathematics. This program enables instructors to tape test review sessions which are broadcast live and then later rebroadcast at other times on

  2. A safety net with holes.

    PubMed

    Glabman, Maureen

    2003-06-01

    Hospital emergency departments are faced with serious overcrowding caused by a host of interconnected factors. As a result, many EDs are going "on diversion" more often, and what was once health care's safety net is beginning to unravel. What can trustees do? PMID:12825418

  3. Antifibrotic effects of KS370G, a caffeamide derivative, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injured mice and renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Sung-Ting; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a main cause of end-stage renal disease. Clinically, there are no beneficial treatments that can effectively reverse the progressive loss of renal functions. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is a natural phenolic antifibrotic agent, but rapid decomposition by an esterase leads to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the effects of KS370G, a caffeic acid phenylethyl amide, on murine renal fibrosis induced by unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and in TGF-?1 stimulated renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK52E and HK-2). In the animal model, renal fibrosis was evaluated at 14 days post-operation. Immediately following the operation, KS370G (10?mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once a day. Our results show that KS370G markedly attenuates collagen deposition and inhibits an IRI-induced increase of fibronectin, vimentin, ?-SMA and TGF-?1 expression and plasma TGF-?1 levels in the mouse kidney. Furthermore, KS370G reverses TGF-?1-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of ?-SMA and also decreases the expression of fibronectin, collagen I and PAI-1 and inhibits TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3. These findings show the beneficial effects of KS370G on renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro with the possible mechanism being the inhibition of the Smad2/3 signaling pathway. PMID:25056456

  4. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and...

  5. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... Corporations (continued) 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. (a) General provisions(1) Years to which loss may be carried(i) In general. In order to compute the net operating...

  6. Dental management of people with renal disease and renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, C A; Whyman, R A

    1998-09-01

    Chronic renal failure is the result of progressive loss of functioning nephrons leading to loss of renal function and accumulation of excretory products. Loss of the regulatory and excretory functions of the kidneys causes oral manifestations and multiple complications which have implications for dental care. Dental management of patients with renal failure and renal transplants involves consideration of specific haematological and cardiovascular effects, and implications for the prescribing and use of pharmaceuticals. It also requires the dentist to appreciate the potential for involvement of multiple organ systems in the disease process and the implications this has for dental care. The orofacial manifestations of chronic renal failure are secondary to systemic manifestations and are not specific to the diagnosis of end-stage renal disease. PMID:9775650

  7. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man. PMID:25824116

  8. Renal glucose release during hypoglycemia is partly controlled by sympathetic nerves - a study in pigs with unilateral surgically denervated kidneys.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Sabine J; Schmidt, Martin; Lehmann, Thomas; Schwab, Matthias; Matziolis, Georg; Saemann, Alexander; Schiffner, René

    2015-11-01

    Catecholamines are known to increase renal glucose release during hypoglycemia. The specific extent of the contribution of different sources of catecholamines, endocrine delivery via circulation or release from autonomous sympathetic renal nerves, though, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic renal innervation plays a major role in the regulation of renal gluconeogenesis. For this purpose, instrumented adolescent pigs had one kidney surgically denervated while the other kidney served as a control. A hypoglycemic clamp with arterial blood glucose below 2 mmol/L was maintained for 75 min. Arteriovenous blood glucose difference, inulin clearance, p-aminohippurate clearance, and sodium excretion were measured in intervals of 15 min separately for both kidneys. Blood glucose was lowered to 0.84 ± 0.33 mmol/L for 75 min. The side-dependent renal net glucose release (SGN) decreased significantly after the unilateral ablation of renal nerves. In the linear mixed model, renal denervation had a significant inhibitory effect on renal net glucose release (P = 0.036). The SGN of the ablated kidney decreased by 0.02 mmol/min and was equivalent to 43.3 ± 23.2% of the control (nonablated) kidney in the pigs. This allows the conclusion that renal glucose release is partly controlled by sympathetic nerves. This may be relevant in humans as well, and could explain the increased risk of severe hypoglycemia of patients with diabetes mellitus and autonomous neuropathy. The effects of denervation on renal glucose metabolism should be critically taken into account when considering renal denervation as a therapy in diabetic patients. PMID:26564063

  9. Improvement of renal function after opening occluded atherosclerotic renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Hiroshi; Toma, Masanao; Fukatsu, Atsushi

    2009-09-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). However, concerning the viability of renal function, this procedure has not been fully established, especially in the presence of renal atrophy or severe renal parenchymal disease. We report a dramatically improved case of acute renal failure caused by acute worsening ARAS treated by stenting. A 72-year-old female was admitted for accelerated renal dysfunction (serum ceatinine; 1.2-2.3 mg/dl) and hypertension (190/100 mmHg). At 10 days after admission, the patient's serum ceatinine increased to 6.7 mg/dl, her pulmonary edema was exaggerated and hemodialysis was required. Ultrasonography showed bilateral high-echoic kidneys, but no apparent finding of renal artery stenosis (RAS). At day 15, computed tomographic angiography indicated bilateral ostial RAS. Renal angiography demonstrated total occlusion of the right and severe (90%) disease in the left. ARAS was diagnosed by intravascular ultrasonography. The guidewire was inserted in both renal arteries, PTRA with stenting was performed in the right and a stent was directly implanted in the left. Immediately, each kidney enlarged to almost normal size, leading to satisfactory urination. She was released from hemodialysis the next day since her serum creatinine was normal and the pulmonary edema was improved. Although there is still no reliable prognostic factor including resistive index or kidney size, it is important that PTRA with stenting in ARAS should be considered in a case of accelerated renal dysfunction because of the possible improvement. PMID:19726830

  10. Renal-Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Lance D.; Cooper, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old former smoker with a history of hypertension and dyslipidemia presents to the emergency department with shortness of breath. His blood pressure is 160/75 mm Hg, heart rate 60 beats per minute, and respiratory rate 24 breaths per minute. Chest auscultation reveals diffuse rales, and there is 1+ pitting edema. The serum creatinine level is 1.4 mg per deciliter (124 µmol per liter) (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 52 ml per minute), and urinalysis shows 1+ protein. His condition improves after treatment with intravenous diuretics, but his systolic blood pressure remains elevated, at 170 mm Hg. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) reveals a diseased aorta, a high-grade ostial lesion of the left renal artery that is consistent with atherosclerotic stenosis, and a normal right renal artery. How should he be further evaluated and treated? PMID:19907044

  11. Renal injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Holmes, F Clarke; Hunt, Jeremy J; Sevier, Thomas L

    2003-04-01

    Hematuria is the most common presenting sign of renal injury. Its presence in athletes may indicate a benign entity such as exercise-induced hematuria or a more serious injury in the presence of trauma. Exercise-induced hematuria can originate in the kidney, bladder, urethra, or prostate. The type of activity, as well as activity duration and intensity, contributes to its development. A wide differential diagnosis must be considered if hematuria persists longer than 24 to 72 hours. Trauma to the kidney can occur from a direct blow or deceleration; contact and collision sports are most commonly involved. Fortunately, most sports-related renal trauma is mild, and can be managed expectantly. A sporting injury rarely results in nephrectomy. Determining return to play for the athlete with a single kidney remains a controversial issue that requires patient education and an individualized approach. PMID:12831667

  12. Renal Clearance of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Misra, Preeti; Tanaka, Eiichi; Zimmer, John P.; Ipe, Binil Itty; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using quantum dots (QDs) as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles. Zwitterionic or neutral organic coatings prevented adsorption of serum proteins, which otherwise increased hydrodynamic diameter (HD) by over 15 nm and prevented renal excretion. A final HD smaller than 5.5 nm resulted in rapid and efficient urinary excretion, and elimination of QDs from the body. This study provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications. PMID:17891134

  13. [Primary renal synovial sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Trolliet, S; Lindner, V; Krzisch, S; Schneider, M; Jung, J L

    2014-03-01

    The primary renal synovial sarcoma is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. It may be confused with other types of mesenchymal kidney tumors because of similarities in clinical and histological appearance. About 60 cases have been described in the literature. We report a case of a 66-year-old man presenting a primary synovial sarcoma of the right kidney with a vascular invasion of the inferior vena cava and right renal vein. The diagnosis was confirmed in molecular biology by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which demonstrated a unique chromosomal translocation t(X;18) with SYT-SSX2 fusion transcripts. We describe here the case with a brief review. PMID:24560202

  14. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction.

    PubMed

    Slaker, Megan; Blacktop, Jordan M; Sorg, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction. PMID:26904301

  15. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Slaker, Megan; Blacktop, Jordan M.; Sorg, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction. PMID:26904301

  16. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  17. Activation of Sirtuin-1 Promotes Renal Fibroblast Activation and Aggravates Renal Fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Zhuang, Michelle A; Zhou, Xiaoxu; Tolbert, Evelyn; Bayliss, George; Zhao, Ting C; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-08-01

    Although activation of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) has been shown to protect the kidney from acute injury, its role in renal fibrosis remains controversial since both inhibition and activation of SIRT1 have been reported to attenuate renal fibrosis. To resolve this conflict, we further examined the effect of SIRT1 activators on the activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts and development of renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. In a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction, administration of SRT1720 (N-[2-[3-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazol-6-yl]phenyl]quinoxaline-2-carboxamide), a potent activator of SIRT1, accelerated deposition of collagen fibrils and increased expression of fibroblast activation markers (α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], collagen I, and fibronectin) in the obstructive kidney of mice. In cultured rat renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRK-49F), exposure of cells to SRT1720 or YK-3-237 (B-[2-methoxy-5-[(1E)-3-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1-propen-1-yl]phenyl]-boronic acid), another SIRT1 activator, also resulted in enhanced expression of α-SMA and fibronectin. Mechanistic studies showed that augmentation of renal fibrogenesis by SRT1720 is associated with elevated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). SRT1720 treatment also increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and protein kinase B in the fibrotic kidney and NRK-49F cells. However, SRT1720 treatment did not affect expression of proliferating cell nuclear protein, a proliferation marker and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that SIRT1-activating compounds can provoke renal fibrogenesis through a mechanism involved in the activation of EGFR and PDGFR signaling pathways and suggest that long-term use of SIRT1 activators risks the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26022003

  18. Renal aspergillosis secondary to renal intrumentation in immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sagorika; Singh, Viswajeet; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Garg, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Primary renal aspergillosis is a rare urological entity and immune-compromised persons are commonly prone to it. The clinical presentation resembles that of usual bacterial pyelonephritis. We report a case of localised unilateral renal aspergillosis with obstructive uropathy (hypoplastic contralateral kidney) in a young man, occurring after the endoscopic removal of impacted right upper ureteric calculus in a non-immunocompromised patient. In view of deranged renal function, he was initially managed by percutaneous nephrostomy and DJ stent removal followed by oral voriconazole therapy for 3 weeks. He responded well to the treatment. Subsequently, the patient was free of renal colic, fever and urine culture negative for Aspergillus. PMID:24027252

  19. Renal artery aneurysm mimicking renal calculus with hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanwen; Meng, Hongzhou; Cao, Min; Shen, Baihua

    2013-06-01

    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a left renal calculus with hydronephrosis. She underwent unsuccessful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In view of the unusual shape of the calculus and absence of abnormalities in urine sediment, preoperative computed tomography and renal angiography were performed, which instead showed a calcified left renal artery aneurysm. Subsequent efforts to perform an aneurysmectomy also failed, eventually necessitating left nephrectomy. This case illustrates the pitfalls in the diagnosis of a renal artery aneurysm, which is a relatively common condition that may have unusual presentations. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm be considered in the differential diagnosis when one detects a renal calculus with an unusual appearance. In addition, we propose that 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography be performed before considering surgical options for such renal calculi to rule out the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm. PMID:23291235

  20. Renal Infarction Caused by Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sihyung; Lee, Ga Hee; Jin, Kyubok; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Park, Bong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Renal infarction Symptoms: Flank pain Medication: Clinical Procedure: CT Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute renal infarction is an uncommon condition resulting from an obstruction or a decrease in renal arterial blood flow. Isolated spontaneous renal artery intramural hematoma is a rare cause of renal infarction. Case Report: A 46-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency room because of sudden onset of severe right flank pain. An enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-attenuated lesion in the lateral portion of the right kidney but no visible thromboembolisms in the main vessels. Computed tomography angiography revealed acute infarction resulting from intramural hematoma of the anterior segmental artery of the right kidney, with distal occlusion. Conclusions: The rarity and non-specific clinical presentation of renal infarction often lead to a delayed diagnosis that may result in impaired renal function. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis, and intramural hematoma of the renal artery should be considered the cause of renal infarction even in healthy patients without pre-disposing factors. PMID:26596500

  1. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  2. Renal systems biology of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Willig, Laurel K.; Rice, Brandon J.; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Mohney, Robert P.; McDunn, Jonathan; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Miller, Neil A.; Mayer, Eric; Glickman, Seth W.; Jaehne, Anja K.; Glew, Robert H.; Sopori, Mohan L.; Otero, Ronny M.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Cairns, Charles B.; Fowler, Vance G.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Woods, Christopher W.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Langley, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    A systems biology approach was used to comprehensively examine the impact of renal disease and hemodialysis (HD) on patient response during critical illness. To achieve this we examined the metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome of 150 patients with critical illness, stratified by renal function. Quantification of plasma metabolites indicated greater change as renal function declined, with the greatest derangements in patients receiving chronic HD. Specifically, 6 uremic retention molecules, 17 other protein catabolites, 7 modified nucleosides, and 7 pentose phosphate sugars increased as renal function declined, consistent with decreased excretion or increased catabolism of amino acids and ribonucleotides. Similarly, the proteome showed increased levels of low-molecular weight proteins and acute phase reactants. The transcriptome revealed a broad-based decrease in mRNA levels among patients on HD. Systems integration revealed an unrecognized association between plasma RNASE1 and several RNA catabolites and modified nucleosides. Further, allantoin, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and n-acetylaspartate were inversely correlated with the majority of significantly down-regulated genes. Thus, renal function broadly affected the plasma metabolome, proteome, and peripheral blood transcriptome during critical illness; changes not effectively mitigated by hemodialysis. These studies allude to several novel mechanisms whereby renal dysfunction contributes to critical illness. PMID:25993322

  3. Extrarenal citrulline disposal in mice with impaired renal function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endogenous synthesis of arginine, a semiessential amino acid, relies on the production of citrulline by the gut and its conversion into arginine by the kidney in what has been called the "intestinal-renal axis" for arginine synthesis. Although the kidney is the main site for citrulline disposal,...

  4. Scintigraphic features of duplex kidneys on DMSA renal cortical scans.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Neha; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Majd, Massoud

    2013-09-01

    The spectrum of manifestations of duplex kidneys on (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal cortical scans and correlating findings on other imaging modalities are presented. Relevant embryology of the duplex systems and technical aspects of DMSA scintigraphy are reviewed. PMID:23385361

  5. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  6. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  7. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  8. Petri net controllers for distributed robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, D. R.; Saridis, George N.

    1992-01-01

    Petri nets are a well established modelling technique for analyzing parallel systems. When coupled with an event-driven operating system, Petri nets can provide an effective means for integrating and controlling the functions of distributed robotic applications. Recent work has shown that Petri net graphs can also serve as remarkably intuitive operator interfaces. In this paper, the advantages of using Petri nets as high-level controllers to coordinate robotic functions are outlined, the considerations for designing Petri net controllers are discussed, and simple Petri net structures for implementing an interface for operator supervision are presented. A detailed example is presented which illustrates these concepts for a sensor-based assembly application.

  9. Renal function and plasma volume following ultramarathon cycling.

    PubMed

    Neumayr, G; Pfister, R; Hoertnagl, H; Mitterbauer, G; Prokop, W; Joannidis, M

    2005-01-01

    In recreational cyclists marathon cycling influences renal function only on a minimal scale. Respective information on extreme ultramarathon cycling in better trained athletes is not available. The objective was to evaluate the renal and haematological effects of ultraendurance cycling in the world's best ultramarathon cyclists. Creatinine (CR), urea, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV) were investigated in 16 male ultramarathon cyclists during the 1st Race Across the Alps in 2001 (distance: 525 km; cumulative altitude difference: 12,600 m). All renal functional parameters were normal pre-exercise. During the race serum CR, urea and uric acid rose significantly by 33, 97 % and 18 % (p <0.001 respectively) and nearly normalised again on the following day. The decline in calculated CR clearance was 25 %. There was a negative correlation (r=- 0.575, p=0.02) between the rise in serum CR and the athlete's training kilometers. The serum urea/CR ratio rose above 40 in 12 athletes (75 %). Mean fractional sodium excretion and fractional uric acid excretion fell below 0.5 % (p <0.001) and 7 %, indicating reduced renal perfusion. The deflection of the renal functional parameters was temporary and nearly gone after 24 hours of recovery. Hct declined during the race from 0.44 to 0.42, and continued falling on the next day (0.42 --> 0.40; p <0.001). The corresponding rises in calculated PV were + 8 % and + 22 %. The study affirms that in world class cyclists the enormous strains of ultramarathon cycling influence renal function only on a minimal scale. The impact on the PV, however, is pronounced leading to marked haemodilution post-exercise. This very temporary "impairment of renal function" seems to be the physiological response to ultramarathon cycling and may be attenuated to some extent by preceding high-volume training. PMID:15643528

  10. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  11. LabNet Project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, G.

    1985-06-24

    LabNet value-added service is a high-speed packet-switched network that ties computers together. From the point-of-view of a single computer, or of a local network of computers within a building or a group of buildings, the LabNet high-speed network is a long-haul network (like Tymnet or ARPANET) for getting to other buildings. This service is provided through channels of the backbone that are shared by everyone at the Laboratory. The focus of the high-speed network is the efficient transfer of data between computers as opposed to the interconnection of people's terminals to these computers. The latter function is best served by the local networks, or by a separate network.

  12. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    PubMed

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online. PMID:22167915

  13. Computed tomography of renal oncocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a relatively rare tumor that has an excellent prognosis and usually may be treated adequately by local resection. Preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, which requires radical nephrectomy, is thus of importance. The computed tomographic (CT) and pathologic features of three incidentally-detected renal oncocytomas were compared with those of six renal cell carcinomas of comparable size. Renal cell carcinoma appears on CT as a solid mass that generally has an indistinct interface with normal renal parenchyma, a lobulated contour, and a nonhomogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement. These features correlate with the pathologic findings of an irregular tumor margin and the frequent presence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis. Oncocytoma, on the other hand, generally has a distinct margin, a smooth contour, and a homogeneous appearance on contrast-enhanced CT scans. These findings correlate with a smooth tumor margin and absence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis on pathologic examination. These features are not pathognomonic of oncocytoma, as angiographic evidence suggests that renal cell carcinoma may show both distinct margination and a homogeneous blush in 6% of cases. However, their demonstration by CT should alert radiologists and surgeons to the possibility that a renal mass may be an oncocytoma. Such a presumptive diagnosis then can lead to a surgical approach that allows for renal-conserving surgery.

  14. Oral piretanide in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, I S; Beattie, T J; Kennedy, A C; Dombey, S L

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of high doses of piretanide, a new diuretic agent chemically related to frusemide and bumetanide were evaluated in twelve patients with severe chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance below 25 ml/min). 2 Patients received either 30 mg or 60 mg piretanide orally after a water load of 11. Urine volume and the excretion of electrolytes, creatinine, urea and uric acid were measured over the subsequent 24 h. 3 Piretanide produced an effective diuresis and natriuresis in these patients, its action being broadly similar to those of bumetanide and frusemide observed in previous studies. PMID:7150461

  15. Net sustainable buildings: Approaching future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2012-11-01

    For a net sustainable building (NSB), the paper develops its definition, and gives its characteristics. The NSB should provide the maximum thermal comfort were its energy consumption is totally covered by energy of renewable origin during its life cycle. The covered energy consumption should be operational and embodied. The used renewable energy may be that of sun and of anergy. The building may be furthermore evaluated regarding its status with regard to the mismatch, primary energy, emergy, exergy, fossil energy, carbon and dissemination.

  16. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography. PMID:3203221

  17. Genetics Home Reference: renal coloboma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome include backflow of urine from the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux), multiple kidney cysts, loose joints, and mild hearing ... disease coloboma-ureteral-renal syndrome ONCR optic coloboma, vesicoureteral reflux, and renal anomalies optic nerve coloboma renal syndrome ...

  18. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  19. The farnesoid X receptor modulates renal lipid metabolism and diet-induced renal inflammation, fibrosis, and proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxin X.; Jiang, Tao; Shen, Yan; Adorini, Luciano; Pruzanski, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Scherzer, Pnina; Lewis, Linda; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with proteinuria and glomerular disease in humans and rodents. We have shown that in mice fed a high-fat diet, increased renal expression of the transcriptional factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) plays a critical role in renal lipid accumulation and increases the activity of proinflammatory cytokines and profibrotic growth factors. In the current study, we have determined a key role of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in modulating renal SREBP-1 activity, glomerular lesions, and proteinuria. We found that feeding a Western-style diet to DBA/2J mice results in proteinuria, podocyte loss, mesangial expansion, renal lipid accumulation, and increased expression of proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and profibrotic growth factors. Treatment of these mice with the highly selective and potent FXR-activating ligand 6-?-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid (INT-747) ameliorates triglyceride accumulation by modulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, improves proteinuria, prevents podocyte loss, mesangial expansion, accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, and increased expression of profibrotic growth factors and fibrosis markers, and modulates inflammation and oxidative stress. Our results therefore indicate that FXR activation could represent an effective therapy for treatment of abnormal renal lipid metabolism with associated inflammation, oxidative stress, and kidney pathology in patients affected by obesity. PMID:19776172

  20. The farnesoid X receptor modulates renal lipid metabolism and diet-induced renal inflammation, fibrosis, and proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxin X; Jiang, Tao; Shen, Yan; Adorini, Luciano; Pruzanski, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J; Scherzer, Pnina; Lewis, Linda; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Levi, Moshe

    2009-12-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with proteinuria and glomerular disease in humans and rodents. We have shown that in mice fed a high-fat diet, increased renal expression of the transcriptional factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) plays a critical role in renal lipid accumulation and increases the activity of proinflammatory cytokines and profibrotic growth factors. In the current study, we have determined a key role of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in modulating renal SREBP-1 activity, glomerular lesions, and proteinuria. We found that feeding a Western-style diet to DBA/2J mice results in proteinuria, podocyte loss, mesangial expansion, renal lipid accumulation, and increased expression of proinflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and profibrotic growth factors. Treatment of these mice with the highly selective and potent FXR-activating ligand 6-alpha-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid (INT-747) ameliorates triglyceride accumulation by modulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, improves proteinuria, prevents podocyte loss, mesangial expansion, accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, and increased expression of profibrotic growth factors and fibrosis markers, and modulates inflammation and oxidative stress. Our results therefore indicate that FXR activation could represent an effective therapy for treatment of abnormal renal lipid metabolism with associated inflammation, oxidative stress, and kidney pathology in patients affected by obesity. PMID:19776172

  1. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

  2. Renal Tubular Acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... into energy and repairing tissue. These chemical reactions generate acids. Some acid in the blood is normal, ... called heparin that keeps blood from clotting a class of painkillers called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ...

  3. Nephrolithiasis-induced end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Ounissi, M; Gargueh, T; Mahfoudhi, M; Boubaker, K; Hedri, H; Goucha, R; Abderrahim, E; Ben Hamida, F; Ben Abdallah, T; El Younsi, F; Ben Maiz, H; Kheder, A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis still remains a too frequent and underappreciated cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods and patients: Of the entire cohort of 7128 consecutive patients who started maintenance dialysis in our nephrology department between January 1992 and December 2006, a total of 45 patients (26 women, 19 men) had renal stone disease as the cause of ESRD. The type of nephrolithiasis was determined in 45 cases and etiology in 42. The treatment and evolution of stone disease and patient’s survival were studied. Results: The overall proportion of nephrolithiasis related ESRD was 0.63%. The mean age was 48.4 years. Infection stones (struvite) accounted for 40%, calcium stones, 26.67% (primary hyperparathyroidism:15.56%; familial hypercalciuria: 4.44%, unknown etiology: 6.66%), primary hyperoxaluria type 1, 17.78% and uric acid lithiasis in 15.56% of cases. The mean delay of the evolution of the stone renal disease to chronic renal failure was 85.8 months. The feminine gender, obesity and elevated alkaline phosphatases >128 IU/L were significantly correlated with fast evolution of ESRD. The median evolution to ESRD was 12 months. The normal body mass index (BMI), medical treatment of stone and primary hyperoxaluria type 1 were correlated with fast evolution to ESRD. All patients were treated by hemodialysis during a mean evolution of 60 months. Sixteen patients died. The patient's survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 97.6, 92.8 and 69% respectively. Hypocalcemia, cardiopathy and normal calcium-phosphate product were significantly correlated with lower survival rate. Conclusion: Severe forms of nephrolithiasis remain an underestimated cause of ESRD. These findings highlight the crucial importance of accurate stone analysis and metabolic evaluation to provide early diagnosis and efficient treatment for conditions leading to ESRD. PMID:21694924

  4. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  5. VruiNet Version 12(SOPHIA)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-09

    VruiNet Version 12 is the code used exclusively by the executable ?vruinet?. VruiNet Version 12 provides a wrapper around the code for ?oglnet? that makes it compatible for VRUI systems such as the CAVE at CAES.

  6. Association between avian necrotic enteritis and Clostridium perfringens strains expressing NetB toxin

    PubMed Central

    Keyburn, Anthony L.; Yan, Xu-Xia; Bannam, Trudi L.; Van Immerseel, Filip; Rood, Julian I.; Moore, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel toxin, NetB, has recently been identified in virulent avian Clostridium perfringens isolates and shown to be an essential virulence factor in a clinical necrotic enteritis isolate. To assess whether NetB is more generally associated with avian necrotic enteritis isolates we have screened a range of C. perfringens strains from geographically diverse locations for both the presence and expression of the netB gene. Forty-four isolates were derived from necrotic enteritis disease cases from Australia, Belgium, Denmark and Canada and 55 isolates from healthy chickens from Australia and Belgium. The majority of strains isolated from necrotic enteritis-affected birds were netB positive (70%) and there was an absolute correlation between the presence of netB and in vitro expression of the NetB protein. Only two of the C. perfringens isolates from healthy chickens carried netB. Sequencing of the netB gene from 23 positive isolates showed that NetB is highly conserved, with only one predicted amino acid (A168T) difference, in six isolates, compared to the published sequence. This change did not alter the in vitro activity of the NetB toxin. The gene encoding the recently discovered TpeL toxin was also screened using PCR and only found in a small proportion of NetB-positive isolates from diseased birds. A selection of NetB-negative isolates, originating from diseased birds, was unable to cause disease in a necrotic enteritis induction model. This study provides further evidence that NetB is important in pathogenesis and advances our current understanding of C. perfringens virulence factors in avian necrotic enteritis. PMID:19931005

  7. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  8. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  9. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  10. Who will tend the dental safety net?

    PubMed

    Alston, Pamela Arbuckle; Knapp, John; Luomanen, Jack C

    2014-02-01

    The dental safety net relates to the sites, providers, programs and payer sources that are available to low-income people in households with incomes less than three times the federal poverty level. Thirty percent of the population of California depends upon the health care safety net. Proposed solutions to meeting the safety net's dental needs challenge conventional thinking about who is responsible for providing oral health care and what safety net groups gain improved access. PMID:25076594

  11. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  13. [Genetics of renal tumors].

    PubMed

    Oláh, E; Jakab, Z; Balogh, E

    2001-07-01

    The quintessence of malignant transformation is the genetic alteration of the tumor progenitor cell, i.e. somatic mutation. The genetic change appearing at chromosome and/or gene level results in the disturbance of the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation. In solid tumors, including renal tumors, the basic genetic mechanism proved to be the loss of function of a specific gene pair caused by loss of the particular chromosome or chromosomal region (monosomy, deletion) or by mutation of the gene. In the well studied Wilms' tumor-aniridia-syndrome the distal part of 11p13 region is deleted. The responsible gene is the WT-1 tumor suppressor gene, a Zn finger type transcription factor. In the majority of cases the mutation of this gene leads to the tumor formation without cytogenetically detectable deletion. For manifestation of the tumor the functional damage of both alleles is needed. In other histological types of renal tumors a great variation of chromosome losses and gains, as well as translocations can be identified. In Wilms tumor of embryonic origin, tumor suppressor genes located on the short arms of chromosomes 16 and 17 play a role in the pathogenesis. Besides, the significance of abnormal genomic imprinting of IGF2 and H19 genes located on 11p15 has also been confirmed. If a part of the embryonic cells do not regress, they may develop to papillary carcinoma together with the appearance of trisomies of chromosomes 7 and 17 and loss of Y. In the transformation process from papillary adenoma to carcinoma, duplication of several chromosomal regions is involved (3q+, +8, +12, +16, +20). The origin of renal carcinoma developing from normal nephron cells is associated with a deletion of 3p and 5q+, while during the progression of the disease further variable chromosome losses appear (6q-, 8p-, 14q-, -9). Tumor-specific cytogenetic and molecular genetic changes confirm the morphological classification of epithelial renal tumors pointing at the relation of the various entities or their independence. Based on cytogenetic alterations, a sequential predictive model of renal tumors can be developed. Individual types, together with joining and sequential appearance of aberrations are in line with the multistep mechanism of carcinogenesis. At the same time, the specific cytogenetic and molecular genetic changes confirm the diagnosis, provide further information about the histological type and progression of the disease. In hereditary cases, the members of the family at risk can be identified by recognizing the possibly associating clinical symptoms and/or by detecting the constitutional mutation of the gene using molecular genetic methods. Consequently, the genetic study of renal tumors plays important role not only in diagnosis and choosing adequate therapy but also in prevention of the disease. PMID:11478032

  14. Mathematical modeling of renal hemodynamics in physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Layton, Anita T

    2015-06-01

    In addition to the excretion of metabolic waste and toxin, the kidney plays an indispensable role in regulating the balance of water, electrolyte, acid-base, and blood pressure. For the kidney to maintain proper functions, hemodynamic control is crucial. In this review, we describe representative mathematical models that have been developed to better understand the kidney's autoregulatory processes. We consider mathematical models that simulate glomerular filtration, and renal blood flow regulation by means of the myogenic response and tubuloglomerular feedback. We discuss the extent to which these modeling efforts have expanded the understanding of renal functions in health and disease. PMID:25765886

  15. Renal tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Christos; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Percutaneous, image-guided ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an important treatment option for many patients. With more than 60,000 new cases every year and nearly three-fourths of those presenting as stage 1A, minimally invasive, nephron-sparing therapies have become the standard of care. Stage 1 A (<4cm, organ confined) disease presents the best scenario for percutaneous ablation. Various other factors influence the decision-making tree, such as patient age, life expectancy, comorbid condition, renal function, and the risk of metachronous lesions. Preparation aims at minimizing risks and has been discussed in detail. Computed tomography guidance remains the best option, and conscious sedation is adequate for most cases. Ultrasound and more recently magnetic resonance guidance are becoming viable alternatives. Whether radiofrequency or cryoablation are chosen, a margin of at least 5mm and up to 10mm is recommended. Various maneuvers required for optimum outcome, including hydrodissection and preoperative embolization are also discussed. Most renal ablations can be performed on an outpatient basis. Reasons to admit include complications, high-risk patients, and the need for symptom management. Follow-up aims at (1) ensuring complete ablation and (2) monitoring against a metachronous lesion. For the former, a 3-month contrast computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is required and for the latter an annual examination is recommended. Though partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard, image-guided, percutaneous ablation for RCC can result in very similar outcomes. Over the last 10 years, there have been numerous studies reporting the efficacy and safety of ablation, and more recently, long-term studies have confirmed those numbers. Overall, the efficacy for percutaneous ablation for RCC stands at 90%-95% with a complication rate of 6%-7%. The most important factors for positive outcome are patient or tumor selection and operator experience. PMID:24238378

  16. Renal cyst puncture studies.

    PubMed

    Lang, E K

    1987-02-01

    The edict to contain costs and meet goals imposed by DRG remuneration policies mandates the work-up of asymptomatic renal mass lesions on an outpatient basis. This proved feasible in 98 per cent of patients. The vast majority of such mass lesions (82 to 90 per cent) is diagnosed with acceptable confidence by computed tomography and sonography alone. For a shrinking group of such patients, yet still 16 to 18 per cent, guided percutaneous aspiration biopsy is necessary to affirm the diagnosis. However, this technique has been refined during recent years to incorporate the use of thin needle equipment and can now be performed on an outpatient basis without significant risk of morbidity. For diagnosing hyperdense inflammatory and infected renal cysts, guided percutaneous aspiration is recommended as the most effective method. This procedure should take precedence over surgical exploration because it can diagnose and provide pertinent bacteriologic information that may determine the course of therapy. In many instances inflammatory cysts or even silent renal abscesses are diagnosed by a percutaneous aspiration technique that is then expanded to serve therapeutic purposes such as percutaneous drainage. Even these procedures can be performed safely on an outpatient basis provided the patient is followed closely. Because complications of percutaneous aspiration procedures are extremely rare, the procedure can be used safely on an outpatient basis. The impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the diagnosis of asymptomatic space-occupying lesions of the kidney is as yet not fully determined; however, this method appears promising for diagnosing some of the refractory lesions such as hemorrhagic cysts, aneurysms, or arteriovenous malformations. PMID:3101262

  17. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; García-Arroyo, Fernando E.; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S.; Madero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Zazueta, Cecilia; Johnson, Richard J.; Sánchez Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks) and short-term (3 weeks) effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW), OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water), OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW), or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident. PMID:25918583

  18. Renal oxidative stress induced by long-term hyperuricemia alters mitochondrial function and maintains systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Tapia, Edilia; Osorio, Horacio; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Madero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks) and short-term (3 weeks) effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW), OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water), OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW), or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident. PMID:25918583

  19. Introduction to USDA VetNet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet was established in 2003 and was modeled after PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for food borne disease surveillance. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the Nat...

  20. Awaiting High Tide to Set Block Nets

    Sampling fish within the intertidal zone of a mangrove forest requires setting a block net at the interface between forest and river at high tide, then retrieving the net at low tide.  Here researchers await high tide to set the nets seen in the boat. ...

  1. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications...

  2. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  3. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  4. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications...

  5. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  6. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  7. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications...

  8. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications...

  9. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  10. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications...

  11. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  12. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less...

  13. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less...

  14. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  15. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less...

  16. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less...

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  18. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    2014-12-01

    An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF) structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  19. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less— (a) Amounts paid out as, or paid for, prizes; and...

  20. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...