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Sample records for rendu-osler-weber disease patient

  1. [Rendu-Osler-Weber disease : More than just a nosebleed].

    PubMed

    Lücke, E; Schreiber, J; Zencker, M; Braun-Dullaeus, R; Herold, J

    2016-06-01

    A 72-year-old female patient presented with increasing dyspnea of unclear origin classified as New York Heart Association stage III (NYHA III). Using transesophageal echocardiography a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and right heart failure could be diagnosed. Right heart catheterization revealed a large left to right shunt due to an arteriovenous malformation in the liver. Because of additional telangiectasia of the lips the presumptive diagnosis was Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. Typical nosebleeds and other symptoms of the disease were lacking and only two out of four Curaçao criteria were positive; therefore, genetic testing was performed, which verified the clinical diagnosis. Off-label use of the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab was initiated as the therapeutic strategy and led to an improvement in the symptomatic dyspnea. PMID:27114237

  2. [Neurological manifestations of Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. Apropos of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Neau, J P; Boissonnot, L; Boutaud, P; Fontanel, J P; Gil, R; Lefèvre, J P

    1987-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a generalized vascular dysplasia which also involves the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations of the disease are due either to primary intracranial or spinal vascular lesions or to neurological complications of other visceral lesions, notably those of the lung (arteriovenous fistulae). The prevention of ischaemic or infectious cerebral accidents rests on the anatomical (excision) or functional (selective embolization) exclusion of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, when present. PMID:3563167

  3. [Epistaxis in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease treated with selective embolization--case report].

    PubMed

    Jarzabek, Magdalena; Trojanowski, Piotr; Szajner, Maciej; Pyra, Krzysztof; Sojka, Michał; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), known as well as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome (ORW disease) is autosomal dominant inheritance disease with the worldwide prevalence of 1 case per 5000-10000 population. The pathophysiology of the disease consists of disorders in the growth and migration of endothelial cells, which leads to telangiectasias and arterio-venous malformations (AVM) development. Vascular abnormalities can form in various organs. The most frequent locations are nose and mouth mucous membranes, as well as the rest of GI tract, skin, lungs, urinary system and central nervous system. The most common symptom is reccurent epistaxis (80-90% of patients). Advanced stage disease can result in extensive bleeding with dicrease in hemoglobin levels. Unfortunately, the only available treatment options for Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrom fight the symptoms, not the essential cause, and because of the rarity of the disease there are no guidelines for effective therapy. We are presenting a case of a patient suffering from recurrent episodes of nose bleeding due to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, who was successfully treated using low-invasive, intravascular arterial embolisation in interventional radiology department. PMID:23276024

  4. Local sclerotherapy with polydocanol (Aethoxysklerol®) for the treatment of Epistaxis in Rendu-Osler-Weber or Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT): 15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Morais, Darío; Millás, Teresa; Zarrabeitia, Roberto; Botella, Luisa M; Almaraz, Ana

    2012-03-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant vascular disease characterized by mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases and localized arteriovenous malformations in lung, brain and liver. Epistaxis, due to rupture of telangiectases of the nasal mucosa, is the most frequent clinical manifestation, leading in many cases to severe impairment of the quality of life in the patients. Though several treatments have been used to reduce epistaxis, none have been completely effective, with the exception of polydocanol (Aethoxysklerol®) in submucosal or subpericondrial injections, which was first presented in 2000 with very good results. After fifteen years using polydocanol in submucosal injections on 45 patients and with nearly 300 injections, we have observed that in 95% of all cases, their nose bleeds improved with respect to frequency and quantity without any important side effects. There was just one case of septal perforation, another with increased septal perforation, and one patient who suffered from dizziness and blurred vision for a few minutes. In this paper the results obtained using this technique over a fifteen-year period will be presented and evaluated. PMID:22469609

  5. Metachronous Multiplicity of Spinal Cord Arteriovenous Fistula and Spinal Dural AVF in a Patient with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Ling, J.C.M.; Agid, R.; Nakano, S.; Souza, M.P.S.; Reintamm, G.; TerBrugge, K.G.

    2005-01-01

    Summary HHT (Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia or Rendu Osler Weber disease) is a known autosomal dominant dysplasia. The first clinical presentation of HHT in a child may be a cerebral or spinal AVM. We present the case of a young boy with HHT who had a previous spinal cord AVF treated by surgical obliteration and then presented with a spinal dural AVF nine months later. This patient had surgical obliteration of a spinal cord perimedullary AVF and subsequently developed a new spinal dural AVF at a different level. The diagnosis was made by spinal MR imaging and spinal angiography PMID:20584440

  6. Systemic to pulmonary vascular malformation.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, H M; Janevski, B K; Penn, O C; Sie, H T; ten Velde, G P

    1992-11-01

    A case is reported of life-threatening haemoptysis as a result of an anomalous communication between a bronchial artery and pulmonary vein, demonstrated by angiography. The patient recovered following bilobectomy of the right lower and middle lobes. When a systemic artery is involved in an arteriovenous malformation of the lung, haemodynamics are different compared with those present in malformations fed by the pulmonary artery. This implicates other clinical features, options for surgical intervention and prognosis. In reviewing the literature, a relationship with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is absent in these specific malformations. PMID:1486979

  7. [Familial brain abscess as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia].

    PubMed

    Szöts, M; Szapáry, L; Nagy, F; Vetö, F

    2001-10-21

    The hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease with angiodysplasia of the skin, mucosa, parenchymal organs, and it can affect the central nervous system. In 40% of the cases neurological complications, most frequently intracerebral abscesses occur. In this study, the case history of a patient with central nervous system manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia showing familiar aggregation of brain abscess will be presented. A young male patient was admitted to Neurological Department because of his first epileptic seizure and progressive right hemispheric symptoms. His examinations showed frontal abscess, which was surgically removed. The frequent nose-bleeding of the patient and recurrent brain abscess in his brother's history provided the possibility of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The background of brain abscess were multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, which were embolized by repeated angiography. Familiar brain abscess is very rare. However, in the case of brain abscess especially with familiarity diagnosis of the Rendu-Osler-Weber disease should be considered. PMID:11760648

  8. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Carette, Marie-France Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc; Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie; Khalil, Antoine

    2009-07-15

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  9. Detachable coiling for embolotherapy of high-flow pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Laureys, M; Mendes da Costa, P; Divano, L

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are very rare anomalies of the lung parenchyma. Although many patients are asymptomatic, it carries a high risk of severe cerebral complications, and rarely fatal outcome due to rupture of the malformation. There is a strong association with the Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. The patients should be treated in case of symptomatic PAVMs (paradoxical emboli), and also preventively, when the feeding artery is at least 3 mm in diameter. Embolization is a well-established treatment, which can be very challenging when dealing with very high-flow fistulas, where there is a risk of inadvertent migration of the embolization material in the left cavities of the heart and in the aorta. This report emphasizes the importance of the diagnosis and the embolization indication in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and the usefulness of detachable coils in case of high-flow fistulas. PMID:20957898

  10. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male: case report.

    PubMed

    Kitonyi, G W; Wambugu, P M; Oburra, H O; Ireri, J M

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is characterised by telangiectasias, (small vascular malformations), in mucocutaneous tissues and arterial venous malformations, (AVMs), in various internal organs. Although HHT is relatively common in whites, the disorder has been reported to be rare in people of black African descent. Majority of HHT patients present with recurrent epistaxis, which in a significant proportion of patients is severe, warranting repeated blood transfusions and iron supplementation. Telangiectasias are most frequent on the tongue, hands, nose, lips and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). AVMs occur in internal organs, particularly the lungs, brain, and the liver. Early and correct diagnosis of HHT is crucial as patients derive benefit from certain specific treatment modalities. Besides, AVMs which occur in various organs pose serious complications that may lead to death and therefore require early detection. We report a 55 year old black African male with HHT who presented with severe recurrent epistaxis and haematochezia leading to severe anaemia requiring repeated blood transfusions. His son, daughter and a maternal uncle experience milder recurrent epistaxis. The management of this patient and a brief review of the clinical features and management of HHT is presented. Our aim is to raise awareness of the occurrence of HHT in Kenya, in order to enhance early diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:19115559

  11. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Fernández, Luisa; Recio-Poveda, Lucía; Aristorena, Mikel; Lastres, Pedro; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; de las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Corbí, Ángel; Arthur, Helen M.; Bernabeu, Carmelo; Botella, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Engfl/flLysMCre) was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Engfl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients. PMID:27010826

  12. A review on clinical management and pharmacological therapy on hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

    PubMed

    Zarrabeitia, Roberto; Albiñana, Virginia; Salcedo, Matilde; Señaris-Gonzalez, B; Fernandez-Forcelledo, Jose-Luis; Botella, Luisa-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is an autosomal dominant rare disease characterized by localized angiodysplasia. This is manifested as epistaxis, mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations in the pulmonary, cerebral or hepatic circulation. The prevalence is between 1 in 5,000 to 8,000, although it is higher in some regions. The most frequent clinical manifestation of HHT is epistaxis, normally from light to moderate from the 4(th) decade of life. However, many patients show severe epistaxis which may interfere with their quality of life. The epistaxis is due to telangiectasia on the nasal mucosa. These are focally dilated postcapilar venules, which in advanced phases show many layers of smooth muscle cells without elastic fibers, and very frequently directly connect with dilated arterioles. As a consequence of these vascular alterations, telangiectases are very sensitive to slight trauma and even to the friction with the air when breathing, which gives rise to nose bleeds. Unfortunately, there is no optimal pharmacological treatment for the epistaxis in HHT. The use of antifibrinolytic agents for the treatment of HHT has been studied recently by our group as an effective relief for nasal and gastric haemorrhages. This work represents a systematic review and the beginning of a systematic laboratory work we are now conducting in our lab to screen for "orphan drugs" as therapeutic agents in HHT. In this context, the use of hormones, immunosuppresants and anti-angiogenic agents are under preclinical study in our laboratory. PMID:19485912

  13. Bazedoxifene, a new orphan drug for the treatment of bleeding in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Zarrabeitia, Roberto; Ojeda-Fernandez, Luisa; Recio, Lucia; Bernabéu, Carmelo; Parra, Jose A; Albiñana, Virginia; Botella, Luisa M

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is a dominant genetic vascular disorder. In HHT, blood vessels are weak and prone to bleeding, leading to epistaxis and anaemia, severely affecting patients' quality of life. Development of vascular malformations in HHT patients is originated mainly by mutations in ACVRL1/ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase type I) or Endoglin (ENG) genes. These genes encode proteins of the TGF-β signalling pathway in endothelial cells, controlling angiogenesis. Haploinsufficiency of these proteins is the basis of HHT pathogenicity. It was our objective to study the efficiency of Bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) in HHT, looking for a decrease in epistaxis, and understanding the underlying molecular mechanism. Plasma samples of five HHT patients were collected before, and after 1 and 3 months of Bazedoxifene treatment. ENG and ALK1 expression in activated mononuclear cells derived from blood, as well as VEGF plasma levels, were measured. Quantification of Endoglin and ALK1 mRNA was done in endothelial cells derived from HHT and healthy donors, after in vitro treatment with Bazedoxifene. Angiogenesis was also measured by tubulogenesis and wound healing assays. Upon Bazedoxifene treatment, haemoglobin levels of HHT patients increased and the quantity and frequency of epistaxis decreased. Bazedoxifene increased Endoglin and ALK1 mRNA levels, in cells derived from blood samples and in cultured endothelial cells, promoting tube formation. In conclusion, Bazedoxifene seems to decrease bleeding in HHT by partial compensation of haploinsufficiency. The results shown here are the basis of a new orphan drug designation for HHT by the European Medicine Agency (EMA). PMID:26818701

  14. Neurologic Diseases in Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Miriam R

    2016-07-01

    Neurologic diseases can have a major impact on functional capacity. Patients with neurologic disease require individualized management considerations depending on the extent of impairment and impact on functional capacity. This article reviews 4 of the more common and significant neurologic diseases (Alzheimer disease, cerebrovascular accident/stroke, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease) that are likely to present to a dental office and provides suggestions on the dental management of patients with these conditions. PMID:27264859

  15. Information for patients about inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, J C; Tanner, A R; Bramble, M G

    1997-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease it is important that patients understand their condition since this helps to improve long-term management of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the information given to patients with inflammatory bowel disease about their condition, its treatment and the National Association for Colitis and Crohn's disease. Two surveys were performed, using anonymous questionnaires. One was of all association members in north-east England, the other was a sample of patients attending medical outpatients. The surveys showed that more patients heard of the National Association for Colitis and Crohn's disease from the media than from medical sources. Of patients seen in medical clinics, 75% would welcome more information about their disease. In four of the six participating centres less than half the patients had been told about the existence of a patients' association. There was considerable variation in the instructions on what action to take in the event of a relapse. These findings suggest that the opportunity offered by out-patient clinics to educate and inform patients is often wasted. Clinicians often neglect to mention the National Association for Colitis and Crohn's disease, especially to patients with long-standing disease. A higher priority should be given to providing patients with appropriate information on inflammatory bowel disease. Three simple audit standards for the organisation of outpatient clinic information are proposed. PMID:9131520

  16. Kawasaki disease in a postpartum patient.

    PubMed Central

    Fason, Janet T.; Fry, Yvonne W.; Smith, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a multisystem disease. It usually affects children below the age of five, but it occasionally affects adults. There are less than 50 English-reported adult cases in the literature, and only five reported cases of Kawasaki disease and pregnancy, as of 2003. The cases associated with pregnancy involved patients who had a history of Kawasaki disease during childhood and addressed how the complications of the illness (i.e,. coronary artery aneurysms) were managed during pregnancy and delivery. There are no reported cases of Kawasaki disease in postpartum patients. This article presents a case of Kawasaki disease in a 21-year-old, four-week postpartum patient who initially responded to intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. This paper will review the diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as well as the multiple outside variables that impact the management of adult postpartum patients with Kawasaki disease. PMID:15586654

  17. Resilience in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos, Conceição Maria Martins; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2016-01-01

    Background Resilience is a psychosocial factor associated with clinical outcomes in chronic diseases. The relationship between this protective factor and certain diseases, such heart diseases, is still under-explored. Objective The present study sought to investigate the frequency of resilience in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Method This was a cross-sectional study with 133 patients of both genders, aged between 35 and 65 years, treated at Rio Grande do Sul Cardiology Institute - Cardiology University Foundation, with a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease during the study period. Sixty-seven patients had a history of acute myocardial infarction. The individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Wagnild & Young resilience scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results Eighty-one percent of patients were classified as resilient according to the scale. Conclusion In the sample studied, resilience was identified in high proportion among patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:26815312

  18. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Atmer, B; Jogestrand, T; Laska, J; Lund, F

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease has been investigated in many different ways and depends on the diagnostic methods and the definition of the atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. In this study we used the non-invasive methods digital volume pulse plethysmography and ankle and toe blood pressure measurements to identify arterial abnormalities in the lower limbs in 58 patients (49 males and 9 females; age 37-72 years) examined with coronary angiography. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was 22%, in agreement with the results of most previous investigations. There was a tendency towards increasing prevalence of peripheral artery disease with more advanced coronary artery disease: 14% of the patients with no or minimal coronary atheromotous lesions, 18% of the patients with moderate coronary atheromotous lesions and 32% of the patients with marked coronary atheromotous disease. For this reason a non-invasive investigation of the peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary heart disease. Toe pressure measurement appears to be the most appropriate technique being rather simple in management and also in evaluation of results. PMID:7658111

  19. Parkinson's Disease Research Web - Information for Patients and Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find People About NINDS Parkinson's Disease Research Web - Information for Patients & Caregivers Parkinson's Disease Highlights for Patients & ... and progression biomarkers for PD. NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Parkinson's Disease Information Page Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through ...

  20. Alloimmunization in multitransfused liver disease patients: Impact of underlying disease

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Meenu; Gupta, Shruti; Jain, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Transfusion support is vital to the management of patients with liver diseases. Repeated transfusions are associated with many risks such as transfusion-transmitted infection, transfusion immunomodulation, and alloimmunization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective data analysis of antibody screening and identification was done from February 2012 to February 2014 to determine the frequency and specificity of irregular red-cell antibodies in multitransfused liver disease patients. The clinical and transfusion records were reviewed. The data was compiled, statistically analyzed, and reviewed. Results: A total of 842 patients were included in our study. Alloantibodies were detected in 5.22% of the patients. Higher rates of alloimmunization were seen in patients with autoimmune hepatitis, cryptogenic liver disease, liver damage due to drugs/toxins, and liver cancer patients. Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a lower rate of alloimmunization. The alloimmunization was 12.7% (23/181) in females and 3.17% (21/661) in males. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent with 27 of 44 alloantibodies (61.36%). The most common alloantibody identified was anti-E (11/44 cases, 25%), followed by anti-C (6/44 cases, 13.63%). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that alloimmunization rate is affected by underlying disease. Provision of Rh and Kell phenotype-matched blood can significantly reduce alloimmunization. PMID:27605851

  1. Serologic celiac disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Hamid; Haghdani, Saeid; Adilipour, Haiedeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Minakari, Mohammad; Adibi, Peyman; Ahmadi, Khalil; Emami, Mohammah Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an association of celiac disease (CD) with several gastrointestinal illnesses. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CD in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to evaluate the value of the routine serological tests for CD in these patients. Materials and Methods: patients with IBD underwent screening test for CD. The screening test was based on IgA anti-tTG antibody evaluated by ELISA method and IgA EMA (endomysial antibody) measured by the indirect immunofluorescence method. Fisher exact and chi-square and t tests were used for data analysis. Results: the study was conducted on 100 patients, with a mean age of 34.74 ± 12.03 (SD) years. The mean simplified Crohn's disease activity index was 90 ± 17 (SE) and the mean colitis activity index was 3.46± 0.96 (SE). Seventeen patients (17%) had IgA anti-tTG antibody levels above the cutoff point (> 20). Thirty-two patients were positive for IgA EMA. IgA EMA was positive in nine IgA anti-tTG positive patients (three patients with Crohn's Disease and six ones with ulcerative colitis). Then, the prevalence of serologic CD was 9% that was higher than that of general population. A significant correlation was found between the results of IgA EMA and those of IgA anti-tTG (P=0.001) whereas Fisher exact test revealed significant difference between frequency distribution of positive and negative results of IgA EMA and IgA anti-tTG in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (P=0). Conclusion: the prevalence of serologic CD in general population in Iran has been reported to be 0.6–0.96%. Then, its prevalence in our sample size was about ten times more than that in general population. PMID:23264789

  2. Tracheobronchitis in a Patient With Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Vincent; Govind, Anusha G.; Arastu, Sanaa

    2016-01-01

    We report a 63-year-old woman who presented with 1 month of non-productive cough and non-bloody diarrhea. She was on maintenance therapy for a 15-year history of Crohn's disease. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of both her diarrhea and respiratory symptoms. Our patient is unique in that she presented with tracheobronchitis during an acute flare of her Crohn's without obvious lung pathology on chest imaging. Tracheobronchitis is a rare manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease that should be considered in Crohn's disease patients presenting with persistent non-infectious cough. PMID:27144198

  3. Vaccination recommendations for patients with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bruno, Claudio; Berardinelli, Angela; Filosto, Massimiliano; Mongini, Tiziana; Morandi, Lucia; Musumeci, Olimpia; Pegoraro, Elena; Siciliano, Gabriele; Tonin, Paola; Marrosu, Gianni; Minetti, Carlo; Servida, Maura; Fiorillo, Chiara; Conforti, Giorgio; Scapolan, Silvia; Ansaldi, Filippo; Vianello, Andrea; Castaldi, Silvana; Principi, Nicola; Toscano, Antonio; Moggio, Maurizio

    2014-10-14

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) encompass a broad spectrum of conditions. Because infections may be relevant to the final prognosis of most NMDs, vaccination appears to be the simplest and most effective solution for protecting NMD patients from vaccine-preventable infections. However, very few studies have evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of different vaccines in NMD patients; therefore, detailed vaccination recommendations for NMD patients are not available. Here, we present vaccination recommendations from a group of Italian Scientific Societies for optimal disease prevention in NMD patients that maintain high safety levels. We found that NMD patients can be classified into two groups according to immune function: patients with normal immunity and patients who are immunocompromised, including those who intermittently or continuously take immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with normal immunity and do not take immunosuppressive therapy can be vaccinated as healthy subjects. In contrast, immunocompromised patients, including those who take immunosuppressive therapy, should receive all inactivated vaccines as well as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines; these patients should not be administered live attenuated vaccines. In all cases, the efficacy and long-term persistence of immunity from vaccination in NMD patients can be lower than in normal subjects. Household contacts of immunocompromised NMD patients should also be vaccinated appropriately. PMID:25223270

  4. Alzheimer's disease. Physician-patient communication.

    PubMed Central

    Orange, J. B.; Molloy, D. W.; Lever, J. A.; Darzins, P.; Ganesan, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The number of cognitively impaired elderly in Canada has increased greatly during the past two decades; nearly all have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The memory problems and changes in language and communication of these patients place tremendous strain on physicians who are searching for a differential diagnosis and are trying to communicate with them. Reviewing the salient language and communication features of AD patients leads to strategies for improving effective physician-patient communication. PMID:8019193

  5. Persistent Hypoglycemia in Patient with Hodgkin's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Harold Cinco; Munshi, Lubna Bashir; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. Several explanations have been postulated but the exact pathophysiology is not well understood. We are presenting a case of newly diagnosed Stage IV Hodgkin's disease that developed persistent and recurrent hypoglycemia despite giving glucagon, repeated 50% dextrose, and D5 and D10 continuous infusion. Hypoglycemia workup showed the C-peptide level to be low. Patient was suspected of having hypoglycemia related to lymphoma and was given a trial of prednisone which resolved the hypoglycemic episodes and made the patient euglycemic for the rest of his hospital stay. The presence of a substance that mimicked the effects of insulin was highly suspected. Several case reports strengthen the hypothesis of an insulin-like growth factor or antibodies secreted by the cancer cells causing hypoglycemia in Hodgkin's disease but none of them have been confirmed. Further investigation is warranted to more clearly define the pathophysiology of persistent hypoglycemia in patients with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:26839722

  6. Be vigilant for patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kate E; Leeds, John S; Sanders, David S

    2009-10-01

    Recent population studies show that coeliac disease affects around 1 in 100 people. The estimated ratio of diagnosed to undiagnosed individuals is 1:8, and the average delay in diagnosis is reported to be 11 years. The contemporary coeliac patient is diagnosed between the ages of 40 and 60, has normal or even high BMI, and subtle symptoms. Patients are often identified in screening groups which would include those with type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, or a first-degree relative with coeliac disease. The presence of relevant symptoms is not essential for a diagnosis of coeliac disease. Additionally, positive serological testing alone is not sufficient to confirm the diagnosis. Endomysial antibody (EMA) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG) have a combined sensitivity and specificity of > 90% when used in combination in selected populations. However, false positives occur in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmune disease. Conversely antibody-negative disease accounts for around 9% of cases. IgA deficiency is a cause of false negatives and levels should be checked at the same time as EMA and TTG. Patients must consume a gluten-containing diet for six weeks before serological testing and biopsy if necessary. All those with positive serological tests, and those for whom clinical suspicion is high even if seronegative, should be referred to a gastroenterologist for a duodenal biopsy to confirm or exclude coeliac disease. Diagnosis requires the demonstration of villous atrophy in the small bowel which improves when gluten is withdrawn. PMID:19938558

  7. Ophthalmological findings in patients with Takayasu disease.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, M; Baba, T

    1998-10-01

    We examined 65 (61 female and 4 male) Takayasu patients. Patient age ranged from 17 to 78 years old (mean 50.2); age of onset was from 11 to 60 years old (mean 32.8); and duration from onset to referral ranged from 1 month to 43 years (mean 16.8 years). Routine ophthalmological examinations were performed. Fluorescein angiography, kinetic perimetry by Goldmann perimetry, static perimetry by Octopus 1-2-3, electroretinography (ERG), and measurements of central retinal arterial pressure were also performed, as appropriate. Major causes of impaired visual acuity (less than 16/20) were cataract. A few patients had low visual acuity caused by Takayasu disease itself. On the other hand, although not many complained of visual disturbance, about 35% of patients had subnormal visual functions. Because the visual deterioration may be based on ocular hypoperfusion, which may subsequently lead to more serious changes, regular ophthalmological examination for every Takayasu disease patient is recommended. PMID:9951814

  8. Coronary artery disease in the military patient.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Iain; White, S; Gill, R; Gray, H H; Rees, P

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the most common cause of sudden death in the UK, and the most common cardiac cause of medical discharge from the Armed Forces. This paper reviews current evidence pertaining to the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease from a military perspective, encompassing stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. Emphasis is placed on the limitations inherent in the management of acute coronary syndromes in the deployed environment. Occupational issues affecting patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. Consideration is also given to the potential for coronary artery disease screening in the military, and the management of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, to help decrease the prevalence of coronary artery disease in the military population. PMID:26246347

  9. [Metronome therapy in patients with Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Enzensberger, W; Oberländer, U; Stecker, K

    1997-12-01

    We studied 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 patients with Parkinson-plus-syndrome, trying to improve patients' gait by application of various external rhythmic stimuli, including metronome stimulation (96 beats per minute = middle andante). The test course of the patients was 4 x 10 meters and 3 U-turns. The patients' gait quality under stimulation was compared with their free walk (velocity, number of steps, number of freezing episodes). Metronome stimulation significantly reduced the time and number of steps needed for the test course and also diminished the number of freezing episodes. March music stimulation was less effective and tactile stimulation (rhythmically tapping on the patient's shoulder) even produced negative results. The positive effect of metronome stimulation was also found, when the tests were not performed inside the hospital building, but outside in the hospital parc. Metronome stimulation was comparably effective in both patient sub-groups examined in this study (M. Parkinson, Parkinson-plus-syndrome) and seems to be an important additional help in the treatment of these patients. Electronical metronomes are not expensive, easy in handling, and portable. A theoretical explanation of metronome stimulation effectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease still needs to be elucidated. PMID:9465340

  10. Analgesia for patients with advanced disease: 2

    PubMed Central

    Hall, E; Sykes, N

    2004-01-01

    The first article in this series explored epidemiology and patterns of pain in advanced disease, non-pharmacological treatments, and the use of opioids to manage pain. This second article examines the use of non-opioid drugs and anaesthetic interventions for pain relief in advanced disease. It also discusses an approach to managing analgesia in dying patients and finally looks at future developments. PMID:15082837

  11. Surgery in a Patient with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rakesh; Nagral, Sanjay; Nagral, Aabha

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is often needed in patients with concurrent liver disease. The multiple physiological roles of the liver places these patients at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Diseases necessitating surgery like gallstones and hernia are more common in patients with cirrhosis. Assessment of severity of liver dysfunction before surgery is important and the risk benefit of the procedure needs to be carefully assessed. The disease severity may vary from mild transaminase rise to decompensated cirrhosis. Surgery should be avoided if possible in the emergency setting, in the setting of acute and alcoholic hepatitis, in a patient of cirrhosis who is child class C or has a MELD score more than 15 or any patient with significant extrahepatic organ dysfunction. In this subset of patients, all possible means to manage these patients conservatively should be attempted. Modified Child–Pugh scores and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores can predict mortality after surgery fairly reliably including nonhepatic abdominal surgery. Pre-operative optimization would include control of ascites, correction of electrolyte imbalance, improving renal dysfunction, cardiorespiratory assessment, and correction of coagulation. Tests of global hemostasis like thromboelastography and thrombin generation time may be more predictive of the risk of bleeding compared with the conventional tests of coagulation in patients with cirrhosis. Correction of international normalized ratio with fresh frozen plasma does not necessarily mean reduction of bleeding risk and may increase the risk of volume overload and lung injury. International normalized ratio liver may better reflect the coagulation status. Recombinant factor VIIa in patients with cirrhosis needing surgery needs further study. Intra-operatively, safe anesthetic agents like isoflurane and propofol with avoidance of hypotension are advised. In general, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and benzodiazepines should

  12. Monitoring nonresponsive patients who have celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Norbert; Schuppan, Detlef

    2006-04-01

    Because of the wide variations in the clinical presentation of celiac disease and because treatment exists that is effective in most cases, screening of the general population for celiac disease has been considered. There is still no evidence that patients who have symptom-free celiac disease are at increased risk of small intestinal lymphoma or other complications. Prevention of osteoporosis seems to be the strongest indicator for widespread screening today [22]. The major cause of failure to respond to a gluten-free diet is continuing ingestion of gluten, but other underlying diseases must be considered. Many different drugs (eg, anti-tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) have been used in patients who have RCD [23]. Steroid treatment has been reported to be effective even in patients who have underlying early EATL. Histologic recovery in patients who have celiac disease usually takes several months but can take up to 1 year, even if the patient remains on a strict gluten-free diet. Some patients report celiac-related symptoms for months after a single gluten intake. The definitions for RCD in literature vary. The authors consider the definition give by Daum and colleagues [24] suitable. They defined true RCD as villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia and increased IELs persisting for more than 12 months in spite of a strict gluten-free diet. If a patient is not responding well to a gluten-free diet, three considerations are necessary: (1) the initial diagnosis of celiac disease must be reassessed;(2) the patient should be sent to a dietician to check for errors in diet or compliance problems, because problems with the gluten-free diet are the most important cause for persisting symptoms; (3) other reasons for persisting symptoms (eg, pancreatic insufficiency, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth, lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, ulcerative jejunitis, protein-losing enteropathy,T-cell lymphoma, fructose intolerance, cavitating lymphadenopathy, and

  13. Severe Darier's disease in a psychiatric patient*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Lopes, Roberta Simão; Pereira, Medéia Carolina Fernandes; Tebcherani, Antonio Jose; Pires, Mário Cezar

    2015-01-01

    Darier’s disease is characterized by dense keratotic lesions in the seborrheic areas of the body such as scalp, forehead, nasolabial folds, trunk and inguinal region. It is a rare genodermatosis, an autosomal dominant inherited disease that may be associated with neuropsichiatric disorders. It is caused by ATPA2 gene mutation, presenting cutaneous and dermatologic expressions. Psychiatric symptoms are depression, suicidal attempts, and bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of Darier’s disease in a 48-year-old female patient presenting severe cutaneous and psychiatric manifestations. PMID:26312677

  14. Managing coeliac disease in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M M; Cureton, P A; Fasano, A

    2015-01-01

    The association between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes has long been established. The combination of genetic susceptibility along with a potential role for gluten in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity makes defining gluten's role in type 1 diabetes extremely important. Evidence supporting the role of a gluten-free diet to improve complications associated with type 1 diabetes is not robust. However there is evidence to support improved growth, bone density and potentially the prevention of additional autoimmune diseases in patients with coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gluten free diet is expensive and challenging to adhere to in people already on a modified diet. Early identification of those who have coeliac disease and would benefit from a gluten-free diet is of utmost importance to prevent complications associated with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. PMID:24814173

  15. Sialadenosis in Patients with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Close, John M.; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2009-01-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) has been associated most often with alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis, but a number of nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, and bulimia have also been reported to result in sialadenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sialadenosis in patients with advanced liver disease. Patients in the study group consisted of 300 candidates for liver transplantation. Types of liver disease in subjects with clinical evidence of sialadenosis were compared with diagnoses in cases who had no manifestations of sialadenosis. The data were analyzed for significant association. Sialadenosis was found in 28 of the 300 subjects (9.3%). Among these 28 cases, 11 (39.3%) had alcoholic cirrhosis. The remaining 17 (60.7%) had eight other types of liver disease. There was no significant association between sialadenosis and alcoholic cirrhosis (P = 0.389). These findings suggest that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis may lead to the development of sialadenosis. Advanced liver disease is accompanied by multiple nutritional deficiencies which may be exacerbated by alcohol. Similar metabolic abnormalities may occur in patients with diabetes or bulimia. Malnutrition has been associated with autonomic neuropathy, the pathogenic mechanism that has been proposed for sialadenosis. PMID:19644542

  16. Myopathy in patients with Hashimoto's disease.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jaqueline; Finol, Héctor J; Torres, Sonia H; Roschman-González, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland. Patients may present or not a hypothyroid state, and frequently have manifestations of myopathy. The present work was aimed to assess the clinical symptoms and signs of skeletal muscle alterations in HT, describe the muscular pathological changes and relate them to the functional thyroid status and to the autoimmune condition of the patient. Clinical and laboratory studies were performed in ten HT patients and three control subjects (hormonal levels and electromyography). Biopsies from their vastus lateralis of quadriceps femoris muscle were analyzed under light (histochemistry and immunofluorescense) and electron microscopy. All patients showed muscle focal alterations, ranging from moderate to severe atrophy, necrosis, activation of satellite cells, presence of autophagosomes, capillary alterations and macrophage and mast cell infiltration, common to autoimmune diseases. The intensity of clinical signs and symptoms was not related to the morphological muscle findings, the electromyography results, or to the state of the thyroid function. Reactions for immunoglobulin in muscle fibers were positive in 80% of the patients. Fiber type II proportion was increased in all patients, with the exception of those treated with L-thyroxine. In conclusion, autoimmune processes in several of the patients may be associated to the skeletal muscle alterations, independently of the functional state of the thyroid gland; however, fiber II type proportion could have been normalized by L-thyroxine treatment. PMID:25920184

  17. Insomnia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Anett V; Novak, Marta; Bohra, Miqdad; Mucsi, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    Insomnia and poor self-perceived sleep are very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Poor sleep is associated with fatigue, sleepiness, impaired daytime functioning, impaired health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. Many illness- and treatment-related factors (metabolic changes, inflammation, altered sleep regulatory mechanisms, symptoms and complications of CKD, comorbid conditions, medications, and renal replacement therapies) may disturb sleep and contribute to the high prevalence of insomnia in this patient population. Accordingly, the approach to both diagnosing and treating this condition is quite complex. Although sleep-related problems are very important for patients with CKD, they largely are under-recognized and undertreated. Very few intervention trials provide an evidence base to support treatment decisions in this particular patient population. With this review we hope to increase awareness of insomnia among professionals involved in the management of patients with CKD and to provide guidance in recognizing and treating this important condition. PMID:26355254

  18. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  19. Oral status in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sundh, B; Hultén, L

    1982-01-01

    The dental status in a randomly selected group of patients with Crohn's disease was assessed and compared with that in a normal population. The results showed evidence that these patients in spite of an ordinary oral hygiene standard have a high caries frequency and activity, and that dental caries was particularly common in those subjected to extensive small bowel resection. Unusual dietary habits and malabsorption may probably be the main cause of the condition, although neglect of oral hygiene during active phases of the disease might also be important. Increased attention has to be directed towards this problem. A strict oral hygiene should be recommended and the regular use of fluoride treatment appears to be justified in such a high risk group of patients. PMID:7158213

  20. Infective endocarditis in patients with hepatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Seminari, E; De Silvestri, A; Ravasio, V; Ludovisi, S; Utili, R; Petrosillo, N; Castelli, F; Bassetti, M; Barbaro, F; Grossi, P; Barzaghi, N; Rizzi, M; Minoli, L

    2016-02-01

    Few data have been published regarding the epidemiology and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with chronic hepatic disease (CHD). A retrospective analysis of the Studio Endocarditi Italiano (SEI) database was performed to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of CHD+ patients compared with CHD- patients. The diagnosis of IE was defined in accordance with the modified Duke criteria. Echocardiography, diagnosis, and treatment procedures were in accordance with current clinical practice. Among the 1722 observed episodes of IE, 300 (17.4 %) occurred in CHD+ patients. The cause of CHD mainly consisted of chronic viral infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial species in CHD+ patients; the frequency of other bacterial species (S. epidermidis, streptococci, and enterococci) were comparable among the two groups. The percentage of patients undergoing surgery for IE was 38.9 in CHD+ patients versus 43.7 in CHD- patients (p = 0.06). Complications were more common among CHD+ patients (77 % versus 65.3 %, p < 0.001); embolization (43.3 % versus 26.1 %, p < 0.001) and congestive heart failure (42 % versus 34.1 %, p = 0.01) were more frequent among CHD+ patients. Mortality was comparable (12.5 % in CHD- and 15 % in CHD+ patients). At multivariable analysis, factors associated with hospital-associated mortality were having an infection sustained by S. aureus, a prosthetic valve, diabetes and a neoplasia, and CHD. Being an intravenous drug user (IVDU) was a protective factor and was associated with a reduced death risk. CHD is a factor worsening the prognosis in patients with IE, in particular in patients for whom cardiac surgery was required. PMID:26690071

  1. Dyslipidemia, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-chi; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24380085

  2. Emotional Working Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Corina; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed whether emotional content affects processes supporting working memory in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Methods We assessed 22 AD patients and 40 elderly controls (EC) with a delayed matching and non-matching to sample task (DMST/DNMST), and a spatial-delayed recognition span task (SRST; unique/varied) using emotional stimuli. Results AD patients showed decreased performance on both tasks compared with EC. With regard to the valence of the stimuli, we did not observe significant performance differences between groups in the DMST/DNMST. However, both groups remembered a larger number of negative than positive or neutral pictures on unique SRST. Conclusion The results suggest that AD patients show a relative preservation of working memory for emotional information, particularly for negative stimuli. PMID:22163239

  3. PSYCHOSOMATIC ASPECTS IN PATIENTS WITH DERMATOLOGIC DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, N; Beridze, L; Tsintsadze, N; Krichun, Y; Tsivadze, N; Tsintsadze, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the magnitude of anxiety and depression in our common dermatological patients and its correlation with age, sex. For this purpose, we used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. The psychometric validity of HADS has been established by validating the questionnaire against the structured psychiatric interviews. A study of anxiety and depression in patients with dermatologic diseases was conducted on the basis of outpatients department in 211 patients with dermatologic diseases; among them were 107 male and 104 female, aged 16 to 75 years. Among them were patients with Acne, Alopecia Areata, Psoriasis, Vitiligo, Neurodermatitis, Scabies, Eczema and Other diseases (Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria, Lichen Planus, Herpes Zoster, Melasma, Warts and Etc.). Based on studies of patients reveals that 65.4% of them are anxiety, depression - 56.2%, both anxiety and depression in 24.7%, there figures higher than the dates of other authorizes. As a result of a direct link research risk disorder depressive spectrum with sex, age; in woman anxiety and depression occurs more frequently than men, and anxiety occurs more frequently in young age. Especially there are hight frequencies of manifestation of abuse in patients with Psoriasis (anxiety - 83.3%, depression - 69.4%, both - 38.8%), Eczema (anxiety - 73.3%, depression - 56.6%, both - 26.7%), Acne (anxiety - 78.4%, depression - 54%, both - 21.6%), Vitiligo (anxiety - 66.7%, depression - 60%, both - 33.3%). Our study noticed higher dates of anxiety and depression than the dates of other outhorizes. PMID:26087735

  4. Coronary artery disease in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Fowkes, Ross; Byrne, Matthew; Sinclair, Hannah; Tang, Eugene; Kunadian, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Our population is ageing. The prevalence of dementia is increasing as the population ages. Dementia is known to share many common risk factors with coronary artery disease including age, genetics, smoking, the components of the metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Despite the growing ageing population with dementia, there is underutilization of optimal care (pharmacotherapy and interventional procedures) in this cohort. Given common risk factors and potential benefit, patients with cognitive impairment and dementia should be offered contemporary care. However, further research evaluating optimal care in this patient cohort is warranted. PMID:27159265

  5. Foods for patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    As a general rule patients with celiac disease must avoid five cereals--wheat rye, triticale, barley and oats. Very sensitive individuals must also avoid two products of these cereals--malt and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Some less sensitive individuals may be able to tolerate barley and oats in small quantities. All other foods are acceptable, including the cereals corn, rice, buckwheat, millet and sorghum, as well as malt-flavored breakfast cereals. Wine, spirits, beer and ale are also acceptable unless otherwise contraindicated. Monosodium glutamate, other food additives and pharmaceutical preparations are also acceptable. The ingredients of prepackaged processed foods are listed on the labels. Patients with celiac disease must examine labels to ensure that they avoid the harmful cereals. With appropriate precautions they need not be concerned about eating away from home. PMID:7139445

  6. Foods for patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J A

    1982-11-15

    As a general rule patients with celiac disease must avoid five cereals--wheat rye, triticale, barley and oats. Very sensitive individuals must also avoid two products of these cereals--malt and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Some less sensitive individuals may be able to tolerate barley and oats in small quantities. All other foods are acceptable, including the cereals corn, rice, buckwheat, millet and sorghum, as well as malt-flavored breakfast cereals. Wine, spirits, beer and ale are also acceptable unless otherwise contraindicated. Monosodium glutamate, other food additives and pharmaceutical preparations are also acceptable. The ingredients of prepackaged processed foods are listed on the labels. Patients with celiac disease must examine labels to ensure that they avoid the harmful cereals. With appropriate precautions they need not be concerned about eating away from home. PMID:7139445

  7. Pulmonary disease in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Trisolini, Rocco; Tura, Sante

    2002-03-01

    Patients with hematologic neoplasms frequently experience pulmonary disease. The possibility of a malignant involvement of the lung parenchyma is a well recognized and not unusual event, secondary spread due to lymphoproliferative disorders being the most common situation. Furthermore, the development and the advances in treatment options such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and/or combined drug regimen use have significantly widened the spectrum of non-neoplastic pulmonary complications that can crop up in these patients. Infections, drug/radiation-induced toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related complications account by now for most pulmonary problems in hematologic patients and represent a difficult challenge both in diagnostic and in therapeutic terms for the clinician. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinicopathologic spectrum of lung diseases which can occur in the setting of hematologic malignancies. A particular emphasis is devoted to the diagnostic approach, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) assuming a key role since different patterns of CT abnormalities are associated with a different yield of the available diagnostic tools and may help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. PMID:12002382

  8. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues. Overall, data are scarce. The following main points were retrieved from the literature: Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to the generally recommended basic vaccinations, specific vaccinations, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are indicated in these patient groups. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, specific exceptions apply. Furthermore, certain time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after pausing or ceasing an immunosuppressive therapy should be respected. PMID:27268452

  9. [Aspirin treatment for patients with Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiromichi

    2014-09-01

    Aspirin was first used for patients with Kawasaki disease(KD) at 1970s. Favorable outcomes of KD patients treated with aspirin were reported in 1970-80s and now it is one of the standard therapeutic agents for KD. Its anti-inflammation effects suppress vascular wall inflammation of KD at acute phase. In addition, its antiplatelet effects heal endothelial dysfunction and prevent clot formation in coronary arteries at sub-acute and convalescent phase. Long-term dosage for patients with coronary artery aneurysms(CAA) is also important, however, there are few evidences of risk-benefit assessment for its long-term use especially for middle-aged and senior adults with KD and CAA. PMID:25518411

  10. Cough determinants in patients with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Trebbia, Grégoire; Lacombe, Mathieu; Fermanian, Christophe; Falaize, Line; Lejaille, Michèle; Louis, Alain; Devaux, Christian; Raphaël, Jean Claude; Lofaso, Frédéric

    2005-04-15

    Neuromuscular disease leads to cough impairment. Cough augmentation can be achieved by mechanical insufflation (MI) or manually assisted coughing (MAC). Many studies have compared these two methods, but few have evaluated them in combination. In 155 neuromuscular patients, we assessed determinants of peak cough flow (PCF) using stepwise correlation. Maximal inspiratory capacity contributed 44% of the variance (p<0.001), expiratory reserve volume 13%, and maximal expiratory pressure 2%. Thus, augmenting inspiration seems crucial. However, parameters dependent on expiratory muscles independently influence PCF. We measured vital capacity and PCF in 10 neuromuscular patients during cough augmentation by MI, MAC, or both. MI or MAC significantly improved VC and PCF (p<0.01) as compared to the basal condition and VC and PCF were higher during MI plus MAC than during MAC or MI alone (p<0.01). In conclusion, combining MAC and MI is useful for improving cough in neuromuscular patients. PMID:15766917

  11. Elderly patients and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Nimmons, Danielle; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Coupled with an ageing population, the number of older patients with IBD is set to increase. The clinical features and therapeutic options in young and elderly patients are comparable but there are some significant differences. The wide differential diagnosis of IBD in elderly patients may result in a delay in diagnosis. The relative dearth of data specific to elderly IBD patients often resulting from their exclusion from pivotal clinical trials and the lack of consensus guidelines have made clinical decisions somewhat challenging. In addition, age specific concerns such as co-morbidity; loco-motor and cognitive function, poly-pharmacy and its consequences need to be taken into account. In applying modern treatment paradigms to the elderly, the clinician must consider the potential for more pronounced adverse effects in this vulnerable group and set appropriate boundaries maximising benefit and minimising harm. Meanwhile, clinicians need to make personalised decisions but as evidence based as possible in the holistic, considered and optimal management of IBD in elderly patients. In this review we will cover the clinical features and therapeutic options of IBD in the elderly; as well as addressing common questions and challenges posed by its management. PMID:26855812

  12. Elderly patients and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Nimmons, Danielle; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Coupled with an ageing population, the number of older patients with IBD is set to increase. The clinical features and therapeutic options in young and elderly patients are comparable but there are some significant differences. The wide differential diagnosis of IBD in elderly patients may result in a delay in diagnosis. The relative dearth of data specific to elderly IBD patients often resulting from their exclusion from pivotal clinical trials and the lack of consensus guidelines have made clinical decisions somewhat challenging. In addition, age specific concerns such as co-morbidity; loco-motor and cognitive function, poly-pharmacy and its consequences need to be taken into account. In applying modern treatment paradigms to the elderly, the clinician must consider the potential for more pronounced adverse effects in this vulnerable group and set appropriate boundaries maximising benefit and minimising harm. Meanwhile, clinicians need to make personalised decisions but as evidence based as possible in the holistic, considered and optimal management of IBD in elderly patients. In this review we will cover the clinical features and therapeutic options of IBD in the elderly; as well as addressing common questions and challenges posed by its management. PMID:26855812

  13. [Adult patients with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Grabitz, R G; Kaemmerer, H; Mohr, F-W

    2013-01-01

    Unlike a few decades ago, today most patients with congenital heart disease reach adulthood after intervention or reparative surgery. As complete correction is generally not possible, a patient population with great complexity and a particular challenge to medical management is rising and a regular follow-up is mandatory. The aim of care is the timely recognition of residual or associated problems. Frequency and intensity of follow-up examinations depend on type and complexity of the lesion. The standard repertoire at follow-up consists of a specific history, clinical examination, ECG, Holter-monitoring, exercise tests, and echocardiography. Depending on the indication, cardio-MRI, CT scan, and sophisticated cardiac catheterization may become necessary. Long-term complications like rhythm disturbances, pulmonary hypertension, or heart failure are frequent, despite optimal care. Acute complications like arrhythmias, infective endocarditis, cerebral events, cerebral abscesses, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding have to be recognized early and treated appropriately. Additional focus has to be placed on counseling and management of noncardiac disease and surgery, pregnancy and delivery, exercise at work and in private life, driving, and insurance issues. Training and certification of physicians as well as the establishment of specialized centers will help to ensure high quality health care for the affected patient population. PMID:23318541

  14. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  15. Disease-Related Knowledge and Information Needs Among Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yang-Sook; Cha, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify disease-related knowledge and information needs of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The 313 patients (Crohn disease: n = 169, colitis: n = 144) presenting to an outpatient gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, were scored on their knowledge of Crohn disease and colitis and their information needs were assessed in the questionnaire. Patients with Crohn disease obtained a higher mean knowledge score than patients with colitis. The patients with Crohn disease had significantly higher scores about complications than patients with colitis. The patients with Crohn disease showed significantly higher mean scores relating to the patients' information needs than patients with colitis. The favorite topics of information needed were disease, medication, and diagnosis/operations. The patients with Crohn disease wanted more information than patients with colitis about medications used for treatment, daily life, and pregnancy. The effectiveness of the training and education given to patients can be maximized in this education system when the information about disease and medications for Crohn disease patients or information about disease and diet for colitis patients is primarily provided according to the degree of the patients' need for information. PMID:25159269

  16. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The concept of "expert patient" has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health. PMID:27445572

  17. Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Patients with Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pensabene, Licia; Sestito, Simona; Nicoletti, Angela; Graziano, Francesca; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Concolino, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    In order to characterize gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of 50 patients with Fabry disease (FD) (22 M; age range: 4–70 y; 35 adults and 15 children), validated questionnaires of GI symptoms were used to diagnose the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) of the patients with GI symptoms (33/50 (66%); 25/35 adults and 8/15 children) according to Rome III criteria. In 16/25 of these adults and 2/8 of these children, the symptoms mimicked FGID. The adult subgroup included patients with unspecified functional bowel disorder (n = 9), functional bloating (n = 7), and IBS (n = 5), and the child subgroup included patients with abdominal migraine (n = 1) and IBS (n = 1). Among the 25 adults, 14 reported feeling full after a regular-size meal, and 12 complained of abdominal bloating/distension. All of the children with GI symptoms complained of low abdominal pain associated with changes in the form of the stool/improvements with defecation. In conclusion, according to Rome III criteria, the most frequent diagnoses of FGID among the adults with FD were unspecified functional bowel disorder, followed by functional bloating and IBS. The most frequent GI symptom in the children in our population was IBS-like abdominal pain, while the adults exhibited a full feeling following a regular-size meal and abdominal bloating/distension. PMID:26880903

  18. Thyroid diseases in patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Tarach, Jerzy Stanisław; Kurowska, Maria; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Acromegaly often involves the presence of different pathologies of the thyroid gland. Long-lasting stimulation of the follicular epithelium by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can cause disorders in thyroid function, an increase in its mass and the development of goitre. Acromegalic patients present most frequently with non-toxic multinodular goitre. Nodules are more prevalent in patients with active acromegaly. It has been suggested that then thyroid size increases and it can be reduced through treatment with somatostatin analogues. The relationship between thyroid volume and the level of IGF-1 and the duration of the disease is unclear. Each acromegalic patient requires a hormonal and imaging evaluation of the thyroid when the diagnosis is made, and an accurate evaluation during further observation and treatment. Although the data concerning the co-occurrence of acromegaly and thyroid cancer still remain controversial, it is particularly important to diagnose the patient early and to rule out thyroid cancer. PMID:25276172

  19. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  20. Parkinson's disease in the older patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon J; Gangadharan, Sanjay; Padmakumar, Chandrasekhara Pillai

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most commonly encountered neurodegenerative condition in clinical practice and probably offers a significantly greater variety of challenges than the management of Alzheimer's disease. As with most neurodegenerative diseases, age represents the leading risk factor for the development of PD. Current estimates would suggest that PD affects 1-2% of people over the age of 65 years and each decade sees an increasing number of cases. In addition, it is well recognised that most industrialised nations have an increasing proportion of individuals living longer. For example, recent data from Australia indicates that the prevalence of PD is anticipated to rise by 80% over the next 20 years and as such, we must all strive towards improving our clinical management of this common condition. In this article, we will attempt to highlight the issues that should be actively sought out and, where possible, addressed. We hope that an improved level of understanding will lead to better outcomes in older patients with PD. PMID:27481385

  1. Nutrition in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hebuterne, Xavier; Filippi, Jerome; Schneider, Stephane M

    2014-01-01

    Seventy five percent of hospitalized patients with Crohn's disease suffer from malnutrition. One third of Crohn's disease patients have a body mass index below 20. Sixty percent of Crohn's disease patients have sarcopenia. However some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are obese or suffer from sarcopenic-obesity. IBD patients have many vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, which can lead to important consequences such as hyperhomocysteinemia, which is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic disease. Nutritional deficiencies in IBD patients are the result of insufficient intake, malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy as well as metabolic disturbances directly induced by the chronic disease and its treatments, in particular corticosteroids. Screening for nutritional deficiencies in chronic disease patients is warranted. Managing the deficiencies involves simple nutritional guidelines, vitamin supplements, and nutritional support in the worst cases. PMID:25266810

  2. Pain management in patients with vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Seretny, M; Colvin, L A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome. Acute pain management for vascular surgery presents a number of challenges, including coexisting anticoagulant medication, that may preclude the use of regional techniques. Within the limited evidence base, there is a suggestion that epidural analgesia provides better pain relief and reduced respiratory complications after major vascular surgery. For carotid endarterectomy, there is again some evidence supporting the use of local anaesthetic analgesia, either by infiltration or by superficial cervical plexus block. Chronic pain in vascular disease includes post-amputation pain, for which well-known risk factors include high pain levels before amputation and in the immediate postoperative period, emphasizing the importance of good pain control in the perioperative period. Complex regional pain syndrome is another challenging chronic pain syndrome with a wide variety of treatment options available, with the strongest evidence being for physical therapies. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in pain associated with vascular disease and the best analgesic approaches to manage it. PMID:27566812

  3. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The concept of “expert patient” has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health. PMID:27445572

  4. Noninfectious lung pathology in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Mary B; Tazelaar, Henry D; Myers, Jeffrey L; Hunninghake, Gary W; Kakar, Sanjay; Kalra, Sanjay X; Ashton, Rendell; Colby, Thomas V

    2003-02-01

    Lung involvement in Crohn's disease is not well characterized. We reviewed our experience with 11 lung biopsies (seven wedge and four transbronchial) from patients with Crohn's disease to study this association further. Negative cultures, special stains for organisms Gomori-methenamine-silver [GMS], acid fast), and polymerase chain reaction for (four cases) were required for inclusion. The group included five women and six men with a mean age of 47 years (range 13-84 years). A diagnosis of Crohn's disease preceded the lung disease in nine patients. In two patients the diagnosis of Crohn's disease followed the diagnosis of their pulmonary disease 1 and 15 months later. Radiologically, eight patients had diffuse infiltrates, two had bilateral nodular infiltrates, and one had a mass. Chronic bronchiolitis with nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation was present in four patients, one of whom was taking mesalamine. Two patients had an acute bronchiolitis associated with a neutrophil-rich bronchopneumonia with suppuration and vague granulomatous features. One patient on mesalamine had cellular interstitial pneumonia with rare giant cells. Four patients demonstrated organizing pneumonia with focal granulomatous features, two of whom were taking mesalamine, and one of these two responded to infliximab (anti-tumor necrosis factor) monoclonal antibody therapy. Noninfectious pulmonary disease in patients with Crohn's disease has variable histologic appearances, including granulomatous inflammation and airway-centered disease resembling that seen in patients with ulcerative colitis. Drugs may contribute to pulmonary disease in some patients. PMID:12548168

  5. Exercise manual for liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Vivian; Dos Santos, Daniele Costa; de Oliveira da Silva, Aurea Maria; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Stucchi, Raquel Silveira Bello

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To increase inspiratory muscle strength and improve the quality of life of candidates for liver transplantation. METHODS: Twenty-three candidates for liver transplantation participated in the control group and 14 made up the intervention group. The control group consisted of 18 men and 5 women, body mass index (BMI) 27.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) 18.2 ± 6.1. The intervention group consisted of 11 men and 3 women, BMI 28.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2 and MELD 18 ± 4.5. The presence or absence of ascites was identified in the first patient evaluation and after three months. We evaluated maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure, spirometry, root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm and rectus abdominis, and the quality of life. The exercises were performed daily by patients at home for three months and were supervised at distance monthly. The manual consisted of diaphragmatic breathing exercises, diaphragmatic isometric exercise, Threshold IMT®, lifting upper limbs with a bat and strengthening the abdomen. RESULTS: There was significant difference (P = 0.01) between the first (initial) and the third month (final) MIP in the control group and in the intervention group, but there was no difference (P = 0.45) between the groups. The RMS of the diaphragm was lower (P = 0.001) and the functional capacity was higher (P = 0.006) in the intervention group compared to the control. The general health and mental health domains received higher scores after three months in the control group (P = 0.01) and the intervention group (P = 0.004), but there was no significant difference between them. The comparison between the presence of initial ascites with the presence of ascites was performed after three months in the control group (P = 0.083) and intervention group (P = 0.31). There was no significant difference, in relation to the presence of ascites after three months between groups (P = 0.21). In the intervention group, patients with

  6. Managing patients for zoonotic disease in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Corning, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Zoonoses involve infections and infestations transmissible from animals to humans. Zoonoses are a major global threat. Exposure to zoonotic pathogens exists in various settings including encroachment on nature; foreign travel; pet keeping; bushmeat consumption; attendance at zoological parks, petting zoos, school ‘animal contact experiences’, wildlife markets, circuses, and domesticated and exotic animal farms. Under-ascertainment is believed to be common and the frequency of some zoonotic disease appears to be increasing. Zoonoses include direct, indirect and aerosolized transmission. Improved awareness of zoonoses in the hospital environment may be important to the growing need for prevention and control. We reviewed relevant literature for the years 2000 to present and identified a significant need for the promotion of awareness and management of zoonoses in the hospital environment. This article provides a new decision-tree, as well as staff and patient guidance on the prevention and control of zoonoses associated with hospitals. PMID:24040497

  7. Technology innovation for patients with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mitsides, Nicos; Keane, David F; Lindley, Elizabeth; Mitra, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    The loss of kidney function is a life-changing event leading to life-long dependence on healthcare. Around 5000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure every year. Historically, technology in renal medicine has been employed for replacement therapies. Recently, a lot of emphasis has been placed on technologies that aid early identification and prevent progression of kidney disease, while at the same time empowering affected individuals to gain control over their chronic illness. There is a shift in diversity of technology development, driven by collaborative innovation initiatives such the National Institute's for Health Research Healthcare Technology Co-operative for Devices for Dignity. This has seen the emergence of the patient as a key figure in designing technologies that are fit for purpose, while business involvement has ensured uptake and sustainability of these developments. An embodiment of this approach is the first successful Small Business Research Initiative in the field of renal medicine in the UK. PMID:26453039

  8. Dental considerations for the patient with renal disease receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, S S; Glick, M

    1996-02-01

    An increasing number of Americans are living with end-stage renal disease. This disease has many implications for dentistry, in terms of oral manifestations and management of afflicted patients. The authors present pertinent information to help dentists treat patients who exhibit the oral and systemic manifestations of renal disease, from the onset of renal impairment through hemodialysis. PMID:8682990

  9. Neurologic diseases in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Bilgrami, Mohammed; O'Keefe, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy there has been an improvement in the quality of life for people with HIV infection. Despite the progress made, about 70% of HIV patients develop neurologic complications. These originate either in the central or the peripheral nervous system (Sacktor, 2002). These neurologic disorders are divided into primary and secondary disorders. The primary disorders result from the direct effects of the virus and include HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). Secondary disorders result from marked immunosuppression and include opportunistic infections and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A differential diagnosis which can be accomplished by detailed history, neurologic examination, and by having a good understanding of the role of HIV in various neurologic disorders will help physicians in approaching these problems. The focus of this chapter is to discuss neuropathogenesis of HIV, the various opportunistic infections, primary CNS lymphoma, neurosyphilis, CNS tuberculosis, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), and vacuolar myelopathy (VM). It also relies on the treatment recommendations and guidelines for the above mentioned neurologic disorders proposed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. PMID:24365422

  10. Coronary artery bypass graft in a patient with Fabry's disease.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hiroaki; Kanemitsu, Naoki; Kyogoku, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Fabry's disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by intracellular accumulation of ceramide trihexoside resulting from alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. While the heart is often involved, coronary artery disease and its management in Fabry's disease patients are extremely rare clinical entities. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with left main disease in Fabry's disease with special consideration of the arterial wall pathology. PMID:27131517

  11. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    MedlinePlus

    ... these patients, without treatment unless they are symptomatic. HYPOTHYROIDISM IN THE OLDER PATIENT Hypothyroidism is very common ... is given. TREATMENT OF THE OLDER PATIENT WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM As with the younger patient, pure synthetic thyroxine ( ...

  12. International Registry for Patients With Castleman Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Castleman Disease; Castleman's Disease; Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymph Node Hyperplasia; Angiofollicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia; GLNH; Hyperplasia, Giant Lymph Node; Lymph Node Hyperplasia, Giant

  13. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  14. Sexually, transmitted disease in clinic patients in Salisbury, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Latif, A S

    1981-01-01

    During the three months between December 1979 and February 1980, 2867 patients attended a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Of the 929 (32.4%) patients examined and interviewed clinical and laboratory finding showed that chancroid was the commonest disease (38.4%) and gonorrhoea almost as common (35.3%) in men. Pelvic inflammatory disease was the commonest disease (47.0%) and gonorrhoea the next commonest (22.7%) in women. PMID:6894561

  15. Ultrasonographic imaging of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, Liliana; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Braden, Barbara; Cui, Xin-Wu; Buchhorn, Reiner; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases in pediatric patients. Choosing the optimal imaging modality for the assessment of gastrointestinal disease in pediatric patients can be challenging. The invasiveness and patient acceptance, the radiation exposure and the quality performance of the diagnostic test need to be considered. By reviewing the literature regarding imaging in inflammatory bowel disease the value of ultrasound in the clinical management of pediatric patients is highlighted. Transabdominal ultrasound is a useful, noninvasive method for the initial diagnosis of IBD in children; it also provides guidance for therapeutic decisions and helps to characterize and predict the course of the disease in individual patients. Ultrasound techniques including color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are promising imaging tools to determine disease activity and complications. Comparative studies between different imaging methods are needed. PMID:25954096

  16. Diagnosis, disease stage, and distress of Chinese cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Boyan; Chen, Huiping; Deng, Yaotiao; Yi, Tingwu; Wang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective is to assess how cancer patients know about their diagnosis what they know about their real stage, and the relationship between cancer stage and psychological distress. Methods A questionnaire including the Distress Thermometer was delivered to 422 cancer inpatients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Most of patients (68.7%) knew the bad news immediately after diagnosis. Half of patients knew their diagnosis directly from medical reports. Nearly one third of patients were informed by doctors. Cancer stages, which patients believed, differed significantly from their real disease stages (P<0.001). Over half of patients did not know their real disease stages. Patients with stage I–III cancer were more likely to know their real disease stage than patients with stage IV cancer (P<0.001). Distress scores of cancer patients were determined by the real cancer stage (P=0.012), not the stage which patients believed. Conclusions Although most of participants knew the bad news immediately after diagnosis, less than half of them knew their real disease stage. Patient with stage I–III cancer was more likely to know the real disease stage and had a DT score <4 than patient with stage IV disease. PMID:27004220

  17. Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium malmoense in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Yoon, Jung A; Kim, Junhwan; Yi, Sangyoung; Sung, Heungsup; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense is a very rare cause of lung disease in South Korea. We reported the first case of lung disease caused by M. malmoense in an immunocompetent patient. The patient was successfully treated with a 14-month course of antibiotics. PMID:26175789

  18. Anorectal Complications During Neutropenic Period in Patients with Hematologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Soner; Korur, Aslı; Gereklioğlu, Çiğdem; Asma, Süheyl; Büyükkurt, Nurhilal; Kasar, Mutlu; Yeral, Mahmut; Kozanoğlu, İlknur; Boğa, Can; Ozdoğu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Neutropenic patients are susceptible to any anorectal disease, and symptomatic anorectal disease afflicts 2–32% of oncology patients. Perianal infections are the most feared complication, considering the lack of natural defense against infectious microorganisms. When septic complications develop, the anorectal disease is potentially fatal, especially in neutropenic patients in whom mortality rates range between 11–57%. Although anorectal diseases are a frequent complication with potentially fatal outcomes among patients with hematologic diseases, sufficient data are not available in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anorectal complications developing during the neutropenic period in patients with hematologic diseases. Methods A total of 79 patients whose neutropenic period (absolute neutrophil count <500/mcL) continued for 7 days, or longer were included in the study. Results A total of 34 patients out of 79 (43%) were detected to develop anorectal complications, of them 6 (7.6%) developed an anorectal infection. The patients were characterized according to the hematological disease and its status (active or not), the type of treatment and the presence of a history of an anorectal pathology before the onset of the hematologic disease. Nineteen (24.1%) patients had the history of anorectal disturbances before diagnosis of the hematologic disease, and recurrence of an anorectal pathology was found in 14 out of 19 patients(73.7%). In addition, the overall mortality rate was higher among the patients who developed anorectal complications compared to another group (41.2% vs. 22.2%, p=0.059). Conclusion Anorectal pathology is a common complication with high recurrence rate in neutropenic patients. Perianal infections are important as they can cause life-threatening outcomes although they are relatively rare among all anorectal complications. Therefore perianal signs and symptoms should be meticulously evaluated concerning early

  19. Scintigraphic perfusion patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.E.; Sullivan, D.C.; Gottschalk, A.; Putman, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    Perfusion scintigrams of 55 patients with radiographic evidence of diffuse lung disease were reviewed. Thirty-nine had acute and/or chronic changes caused by congestive heart failure, and 16 had diffuse reticulonodular disease. A normal or near-normal perfusion pattern was seen in 40/55 (73%), and this finding was equally common in the two groups. The authors conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful in excluding pulmonary embolism in patients with radiographic evidence of diffuse, symmetrical lung disease.

  20. Two adolescent patients with coexistent Graves' disease and Moyamoya disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Su Yung; Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular condition that results in the narrowing of the vessels of the circle of Willis and collateral vessel formation at the base of the brain. Although relationships between Graves' disease and cerebrovascular accidents in Moyamoya disease are obscure, the coexistence of the two diseases is noteworthy. Moyamoya disease has been rarely reported in adolescent patients with thyrotoxicosis. Recently, we encountered two adolescent Korean patients with Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease who presented with episodic right-sided hemiparesis and syncope. These two girls who had Graves' disease had no history of other diseases or head trauma. A thyroid function test revealed a euthyroid state and a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody titer at that time. The patients were diagnosed with Moyamoya disease based on brain magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral four-vessel angiography. The patients underwent cranial revascularization by encephalo-duroarterio-synangiosis as soon as a diagnosis was made, which resulted in successful symptom resolution. They fared well and had no additional neurological symptoms as of their last follow-up visits. Here, we report these two cases of confirmed Moyamoya disease complicated by Graves' disease with a review of the literature, and discuss the possible association between the two diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report in South Korea on Moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease in adolescents with a euthyroid. PMID:25076974

  1. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J; Lemberg, D A; Day, As

    2014-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are being diagnosed with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, the two main subtypes of inflammatory bowel disease. These young people face many short- and long-term challenges; one or more medical therapies may be required indefinitely; their disease may have great impact, in terms of their schooling and social activities. However, the management of adolescents with one of these incurable conditions needs to encompass more than just medical therapies. Growth, pubertal development, schooling, transition, adherence, and psychological well-being are all important aspects. A multidisciplinary team setting, catering to these components of care, is required to ensure optimal outcomes in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24729736

  2. Nutritional support for the patient with pancreatobiliary disease.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C L; Brozenec, S; Foster, P F

    1993-03-01

    Critically ill patients with severe pancreatobiliary disease exhibit multiple nutritional alterations compounded by the stress response. Acute pancreatitis may present as a life-threatening illness; patients are likely to be hypermetabolic and may have hyperglycemia and hypocalcemia. Nutritional support from parenteral or enteral feeding will probably be required in patients presenting with three or more positive risk factors as determined by Ranson criteria. Nutritional therapies for liver disease vary according to the specific disorder manifested. Patients with fulminant hepatic failure need to be monitored for profound hypoglycemia. Encephalopathy may develop in patients with acute-on-chronic liver disease, necessitating a protein restriction. Patients undergoing liver transplant are a perioperative challenge due to the combination of preoperative malnutrition, an extensive surgical procedure, and postoperative stress. Such patients require individualized assessment and management. PMID:8448001

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Simone; Fattori, Andre; Saad, Sarita T; Costallat, Lilian T L

    2008-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disorder that includes sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS), hemoglobin SC, and hemoglobin Sb-thalassemia. Patients with SCD present with a defective activation of the alternate pathway of the complement system that increases the risk of capsulate bacteria infection and failure to eliminate antigens, predisposing these patients to autoimmune diseases. The authors describe three patients with SCD that developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In all patients, SLE diagnosis was delayed because symptoms were initially attributable to SCD. Physicians should be alerted to the possible development of SLE in patients with SCD to not delay the diagnosis and start appropriate treatment. PMID:18000698

  4. Late appearance of chronic pericardial disease in patients treated by radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Applefeld, M.M.; Cole, J.F.; Pollock, S.H.; Sutton, F.J.; Slawson, R.G.; Singleton, R.T.; Wiernik, P.H.

    1981-03-01

    Radiation-induced chronic pericardial disease was recognized in nine patients 53 to 124 months (mean, 88 months) after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Depending on whether abnormal cardiac hemodynamics occurred before or after a fluid challenge, patients were considered to have either constrictive pericarditis (Group I) or occult constrictive pericarditis (Group II). There were no differences between these groups in various radiotherapy data, the use of chemotherapy, or the interval after treatment when the diagnosis of chronic pericardial disease was made. There were no consistent noninvasive variables to support the diagnosis of radiation-induced chronic pericardial disease before cardiac catheterization. Four patients underwent pericardiectomy. Two of the four operated patients had an excellent surgical result; a third patient died 4 months postoperatively of drug-induced granulocytopenia; the fourth patient has persistent visceral constrictive pericarditis 18 months after surgery. Speculation over the causes of radiation-induced chronic pericardial disease is made and our recommendations for its treatment given.

  5. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varming, Annemarie Reinhardt; Torenholt, Rikke; Møller, Birgitte Lund; Vestergaard, Susanne; Engelund, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes. PMID:25729695

  6. Management of Spinal Deformity in Adult Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Boniello, Anthony J; Schwab, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    A wide range of neuromuscular diseases, including Parkinson disease, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and myopathy, are associated with spinal deformities. The most common postural deformities include anterocollis, Pisa syndrome (pleurothotonus), scoliosis, and camptocormia. Nonsurgical management of spinal deformity in patients with neuromuscular disease centers on maximizing the medical management of the underlying neurodegenerative pathology before surgical intervention is contemplated. Surgical management can include decompression alone, or decompression and fusion with short or long fusion constructs. Patients with neuromuscular disease are susceptible to postoperative medical complications, such as delirium, epidural hematomas, pulmonary emboli, and cardiac events. Compared with outcomes in the typical patient with spinal deformity, postoperative outcomes in patients with neuromuscular disease have higher rates of surgical complications, such as instrumentation failure, proximal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and the need for revision surgery, regardless of the magnitude of surgical treatment. PMID:27471900

  7. Survival Analysis of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Gayo, W. S.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a survival analysis of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) under Kaplan-Meier Estimates and Weibull Distribution. The data were obtained from the records of V. L. MakabaliMemorial Hospital with respect to time t (patient's age), covariates such as developed secondary disease (Pulmonary Congestion and Cardiovascular Disease), gender, and the event of interest: the death of ESRD patients. Survival and hazard rates were estimated using NCSS for Weibull Distribution and SPSS for Kaplan-Meier Estimates. These lead to the same conclusion that hazard rate increases and survival rate decreases of ESRD patient diagnosed with Pulmonary Congestion, Cardiovascular Disease and both diseases with respect to time. It also shows that female patients have a greater risk of death compared to males. The probability risk was given the equation R = 1 — e-H(t) where e-H(t) is the survival function, H(t) the cumulative hazard function which was created using Cox-Regression.

  8. Challenges of treatment adherence in older patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Ruscin, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    Patient adherence to a medication regimen is critical to treatment outcome, quality of life and future healthcare costs. For elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, obstacles to adherence can be particularly complex. Beyond age-related and economic factors, elderly patients with Parkinson's disease often require complicated dosing or titration schedules and have multiple co-morbidities that necessitate administration of therapies from multiple drug classes. In addition, neuropsychiatric disturbances and cognitive impairment, which are often part of the disease process, can affect adherence, as can variable responses to anti-parkinsonian agents as the disease progresses. Several recent studies in patients with Parkinson's disease point to the need for establishing good adherence patterns early and maintaining these throughout the course of treatment. To achieve optimal adherence in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease, a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches appears to be the best strategy for success. Examples include a strong provider-patient relationship, educational intervention by phone or face-to-face contact, simplified dosing and administration schedules, management and understanding of medication adverse events, and the use of adherence aids such as pill boxes and hour-by-hour organizational charts. Research into new avenues that include improved drug monitoring, pharmacogenetics and neuroprotective regimens may give rise to better adherence in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease in the future. PMID:19220071

  9. Hepatopulmonary Syndrome in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Oded; Shteyer, Eyal; Wilschanski, Michael; Perles, Zeev; Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Kerem, Eitan; Shoseyov, David

    2016-02-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a liver-induced lung disorder defined as a triad of liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and a defect in oxygenation. It can complicate chronic liver disease of any etiology, but is most commonly associated with portal hypertension. Severe liver disease with portal hypertension is present in 2% to 8% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but to date, to our knowledge, only one patient with CF has been reported to suffer from HPS. Here, we describe two patients with CF diagnosed with HPS, one subsequent to unresolved hypoxemia and the other following screening for HPS performed in our center. We speculate that HPS is underdiagnosed in patients with CF because of their coexisting respiratory morbidity, and we advocate routine screening for every patient with CF who has liver disease and portal hypertension. PMID:26867851

  10. Patients with Celiac Disease Are Not Followed Adequately

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Margot L.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Lahr, Brian D.; Larson, Joseph J.; Van Dyke, Carol T.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Adherence to a gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. It has been recommended that patients be followed, make regular visits to the clinic, and undergo serologic analysis for markers of celiac disease, although a follow-up procedure has not been standardized. We determined how many patients with celiac disease are actually followed. Methods We collected data on 122 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease, diagnosed between 1996 and 2006 in Olmsted County, Minnesota (70% women, median age of 42 years) for whom complete medical records and verification of residency were available. We determined the frequency at which patients received follow-up examinations, from 6 months to 5 years after diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate event rates at 1 and 5 year(s). Patients were classified according to categories of follow-up procedures recommended by the American Gastroenterology Association (AGA). Results We estimated that by 1 and 5 year(s) after diagnosis with celiac disease, 41.0% and 88.7% of the patients had follow-up visits, 33.6% and 79.8% were assessed for compliance with a gluten-free diet, 3.3% and 15.8% met with a registered dietitian, 2.5% and 18.1% had an additional intestinal biopsy, and 22.1% and 65.6% received serologic testing for markers of celiac disease. Among 113 patients (93%) who were followed for more than 4 years, only 35% received follow-up analyses that were consistent with AGA recommendations. Conclusions Patients with celiac disease are not followed consistently. Follow-up examinations are often inadequate and do not follow AGA recommendations. Improving follow-up strategies for patients with celiac disease could improve management of this disease. PMID:22610009

  11. Managing inflammatory bowel disease in adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, J; Lemberg, DA; Day, AS

    2014-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are being diagnosed with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, the two main subtypes of inflammatory bowel disease. These young people face many short- and long-term challenges; one or more medical therapies may be required indefinitely; their disease may have great impact, in terms of their schooling and social activities. However, the management of adolescents with one of these incurable conditions needs to encompass more than just medical therapies. Growth, pubertal development, schooling, transition, adherence, and psychological well-being are all important aspects. A multidisciplinary team setting, catering to these components of care, is required to ensure optimal outcomes in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24729736

  12. Case report: Patient presenting with Cushing's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shaver, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Backgound: Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease that is caused by the overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. This can be caused by a tumor of the adrenal glands, the lungs or the pituitary gland. When a pituitary tumor produces too much ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), it causes the overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. When the pituitary is the source of the over production, it is called Cushing's disease. Case Description: A 32-year-old female who developed symptoms of Cushing's about one and a half years prior to her visit at a large teaching hospital in the Mid-Atlantic. Her symptoms included amenorrhea, facial hair and acne, and back pain. She had previously been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Conclusion: Cushing's disease is a rare disease, which can be successfully treated by experienced pituitary specialists. PMID:26069847

  13. A case of phrynoderma in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Gabriela; Cornejo, Christine; McMahon, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Phrynoderma is a type of follicular hyperkeratosis associated with nutritional deficiencies. It is rarely seen in developed countries, although cases have been reported in patients with severe malnutrition or malabsorption secondary to various causes. This report describes a 19-year-old patient with poorly controlled Crohn's disease and malnutrition who developed the characteristic hyperkeratotic papules and plaques on his trunk and extremities in the setting of low serum vitamin A levels. To our knowledge, there are no reports of phrynoderma associated with Crohn's disease. It is likely that our patient's low vitamin A level and subsequent phrynoderma was the result of increased Crohn's disease activity and malnutrition. PMID:24274972

  14. Echocardiography in the Assessment of Patients with Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A; Chan, Kwan-Leung

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important extra-articular manifestation of rheumatologic diseases leading to considerable mortality and morbidity. Echocardiography emerges as a useful non-invasive technique for the screening and evaluation of cardiac involvement in these patients. With the technological advancement in echocardiographic techniques, we have gained a greater appreciation of the prevalence and nature of the cardiac involvement in these patients, as detection of subclinical disease is increasingly feasible. This review discusses cardiac involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, systemic sclerosis and ankylosing spondylitis, and the role of different echocardiographic modalities in their evaluation. PMID:27306356

  15. Oral health of patients with severe rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Breminand; Vayej, Ahmed C

    2012-07-01

    In order to determine whether adequate attention is paid to the maintenance of good oral health in patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis, we studied 44 black patients with severe rheumatic heart disease before they had cardiac surgery. Plaque and gingival index scores were calculated and panoramic radiographs were done in all patients. There were 17 males and 27 females (mean age: 30.6 years). The plaque and gingival index scores were classified as poor in 31.8 and 54.6% of patients, respectively. Panoramic radiographic findings included caries in 56.8% of patients, peri-apical pathology in 18.1% and retained roots in 22.7% of patients. This study demonstrates that inadequate attention is paid to the maintenance of good oral health in patients with severe rheumatic heart disease. The oral and dental care of patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis needs to be improved. PMID:22836156

  16. Acute myeloid leukemia developing in patients with autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Safaa M.; Fouad, Tamer M; Summa, Valentina; Hasan, Syed KH; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia is an unfortunate complication of cancer treatment, particularly for patients with highly curable primary malignancies and favorable life expectancy. The risk of developing therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia also applies to patients with non-malignant conditions, such as autoimmune diseases treated with cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive agents. There is considerable evidence to suggest that there is an increased occurrence of hematologic malignancies in patients with autoimmune diseases compared to the general population, with a further increase in risk after exposure to cytotoxic therapies. Unfortunately, studies have failed to reveal a clear correlation between leukemia development and exposure to individual agents used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Given the dismal outcome of secondary acute myeloid leukemia and the wide range of available agents for treatment of autoimmune diseases, an increased awareness of this risk and further investigation into the pathogenetic mechanisms of acute leukemia in autoimmune disease patients are warranted. This article will review the data available on the development of acute myeloid leukemia in patients with autoimmune diseases. Possible leukemogeneic mechanisms in these patients, as well as evidence supporting the association of their primary immunosuppressive status and their exposure to specific therapies, will also be reviewed. This review also supports the idea that it may be misleading to label leukemias that develop in patients with autoimmune diseases who are exposed to cytotoxic agents as ‘therapy-related leukemias’. A better understanding of the molecular defects in autoimmune disease patients who develop acute leukemia will lead to a better understanding of the association between these two diseases entities. PMID:22180424

  17. Rectal biopsy in patients presenting to an infectious disease unit with diarrhoeal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, R J; Gilmour, H M; McClelland, D B

    1979-01-01

    The role of sigmoidoscopy and rectal biopsy was investigated in patients referred to an infectious diseases unit with diarrhoea. Seventy-four patients were studied. Nine patients (12%) had inflammatory bowel disease, either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Thirty-six patients (48%) had infective diarrhoea. A wide variety of conditions accounted for the diarrhoea in the remaining patients. Sigmoidoscopy was abnormal in 25 patients and rectal biopsy in 56. The abnormalities in rectal mucosal histology were classified into six grades. Some patients with infective diarrhoea showed rather characteristic histological changes which may be of diagnostic value. Eight showed features which suggested a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, repeat rectal biopsy in the convalescent period showed a striking improvement in the patients with infective diarrhoea. In contrast, the histological changes persisted in the patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Repeat rectal biopsy may be essential before making a firm diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in some patients who present with diarrhoea and apparently typical histological changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:428826

  18. A feeding mechanism for Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, M; Stammers, C W

    1988-01-01

    A pivotted four-bar chain mechanism has been studied and built as a feeding aid for Parkinson's patients. This system provides a good feeding path. Guidance is by means of a spring restrained sliding handle. The tremor exhibited by three patients was established in constant force tests. Shake tests using simulated inputs spanning the frequency range indicated (2.5 Hz-6 Hz) established the vibration isolation properties of the system. PMID:3361598

  19. A new Internet resource for chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, P; Vlaminck, H; Harrington, M; Forest, M; Visser, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a portal in the World Wide Web (WWW), which captures and locates quality information for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It examines the problems patients face when accessing and understanding information gleaned from Web sites and describes an idea from a Research Board Member to facilitate patient access to quality information. The idea germinated into the development of a patient specific Web site, providing one stop access and links to appropriate CKD information, assessed by patients and health professionals. Collaboration between the EDTNA/ERCA Research Board and CEAPIR the European Federation of Kidney Patients has enhanced the project. PMID:16700172

  20. Hypoglycemia in Patients with Diabetes and Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alsahli, Mazen; Gerich, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes our current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and morbidity of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease and reviews therapeutic limitations in this situation. PMID:26239457

  1. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment. PMID:27319043

  2. Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kisic, Bojana; Miric, Dijana; Dragojevic, Ilija; Rasic, Julijana; Popovic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure. PMID:27127544

  3. Clostridium difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Biesiada, Grażyna; Perucki, William; Mach, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium widely distributed in the human environment. In the last decade the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection has grown, particularly in Europe and North America, making it one of the more common nosocomial infections. A group particularly susceptible to Clostridium difficile infection are patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with involvement of the colon. This paper presents relevant data on Clostridium difficile infections in inflammatory bowel disease patients, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25097707

  4. Palliative care for patients with non-malignant respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Non-malignant respiratory disease is a chronic life-limiting condition that requires holistic palliative care. Patients with non-malignant respiratory disease have a range of biopsychosocial and spiritual needs, which healthcare professionals should recognise and manage effectively. Healthcare professionals have an important role in enabling the delivery of effective palliative care to this group of patients and their carers, and in recognising the many factors that may impede delivery of palliative care. PMID:25942985

  5. Quality of Life in Chronic Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Megari, Kalliopi

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades there was an increasing predominance of chronic disorders, with a large number of people living with chronic diseases that can adversely affect their quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to study quality of life and especially Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic diseases. HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains – physical, psychological, and social functioning – that are affected by one’s disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. In addition, factors that are associated with good and poor HRQoL, as well as HRQoL assessment will be discussed. The estimation of the relative impact of chronic diseases on HRQoL is necessary in order to better plan and distribute health care resources aiming at a better HRQoL. [«All the people perceive the concept of living good or being well, that is the same as being happy». (Aristotle. 384-322 BC. Ethica Nichomachea)] PMID:26973912

  6. Melatonin for Sleep Disorders in Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Karroum, Elias G

    2016-07-01

    In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders are common; they impair the quality of life for patients and caregivers and are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Melatonin has circadian, hypnotic, and free radical-scavenging effects, and preclinical data suggest benefits of melatonin on neurodegeneration. However, randomized, controlled trials of melatonin in patients with neurodegenerative diseases have not shown strong effects. Trials in Alzheimer's patients demonstrate a lack of benefit on sleep quantity. Subjective measures of sleep quality are mixed, with possible symptomatic improvements seen only on some measures or at some time points. Benefits on cognition have not been observed across several studies. In Parkinson's patients, there may be minimal benefit on objective sleep measures, but a suggestion of subjective benefit in few, small studies. Effective treatments for the sleep disorders associated with neurodegenerative diseases are urgently needed, but current data are insufficient to establish melatonin as such a treatment. PMID:27180068

  7. Alterations in Fibrin Structure in Patients with Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Ton; Ariëns, Robert A S

    2016-06-01

    The hemostatic balance in patients with liver diseases is relatively well preserved due to concomitant alterations in pro- and antihemostatic pathways. Thrombin generation studies support the notion of hemostatic competence in liver diseases, but in such tests alterations in fibrinogen level and function are not taken into account. We have recently studied structural and functional properties of the fibrin clot in patients with liver diseases. Although we have confirmed previous findings that hypersialylation of the fibrinogen molecule in patients with liver diseases contributes to a defective fibrinogen-to-fibrin conversion, we have found that once the clot has been formed, it has a thrombogenic nature as assessed by permeability assays. These thrombogenic properties of the fibrin clot in cirrhosis relate to incompletely characterized intrinsic changes in the fibrinogen molecule, which may include oxidation and hypersialylation. In addition, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease thrombogenic properties of the fibrin clot are not only due to liver disease but also to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. During liver transplantation, the clot normalizes and becomes increasingly permeable, and the functional properties of the fibrin clot are markedly normalized by fibrinogen concentrate, when added to plasma samples in vitro. These new insights in the functional properties of the fibrin clot in patients with liver diseases facilitate a more rational approach to treatment and prevention of both bleeding and thrombotic complications. PMID:27071046

  8. Spheroplastic phase of mycobacteria isolated from patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, R J; Van Kruiningen, H J; Thayer, W R; Coutu, J A

    1986-01-01

    Two strains of an unclassified Mycobacterium species were isolated after 18 and 30 months of incubation of media inoculated with resected intestinal tissues from patients with Crohn's disease. These strains represented the third and fourth isolates of this organism from Crohn's disease patients. Ultrastructural examination of this strain and two previously isolated strains revealed the presence of spheroplasts which eventually transformed into the bacillary form of a previously unrecognized Mycobacterium species. These cell wall-deficient forms did not stain with conventional dyes and failed to grow on hypertonic media. Restriction polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA genes was used to determine the relationship between the cell wall-deficient and bacillary forms. Identical restriction patterns of the ribosomal DNA genes were found between the spheroplasts and Mycobacterium sp. isolates with EcoRI, BamHI, and XhoI restriction endonucleases, thus providing definitive evidence of their origin. Unidentified spheroplasts were isolated from an additional 12 patients with Crohn's disease, of which 7 of 10 seroagglutinated with antiserum prepared against the Mycobacterium sp. Spheroplasts were isolated from 16 of 26 (61%) patients with Crohn's disease but not from tissues of 13 patients with ulcerative colitis or 13 patients with other diseases of the bowel. These findings support the role of mycobacteria as etiologic agents in some cases of Crohn's disease. Images PMID:3760132

  9. Medical management of the patient with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mask, A G

    2000-06-01

    Cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and periodontal disease have been established as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Dentists and physicians should work aggressively to educate periodontitis patients about this relationship in an effort to improve the quality of health and contribute to their long-term survival. Blood pressure should be checked at the initial dental visit and at each subsequent visit in patients whose blood pressure is found to be high and/or has a history of hypertension. Dental and medical assistants should receive in-service training to assure competency in measuring blood pressures. All staff should be certified in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency protocol procedures should be in writing and rehearsed regularly. Patients should take their blood pressure medication as usual on the day of the dental procedure. It is helpful for the patients to bring all medications to the office for review at the time of the dental procedure. Good communication should be established between the dentist and physician to maximize good dental and physical health. Because the patient with periodontal disease is at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, a standardized form should be developed for the convenient exchange of vital information, including but not limited to: blood pressure, medications, allergies, medical conditions and pertinent highlights of dental procedures. Minimize stress in patients with coronary artery disease. This includes providing solid local anesthesia, avoidance of intravascular medication injections, and encouraging relaxation techniques. Antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated in patients with valvular heart disease but does not guarantee the prevention of endocarditis. These patients should be alerted to monitor any symptoms such as fever, chills or shortness of breath. It has also been documented that toothbrushing, flossing and home plaque removers can cause transient bacteremia in

  10. Treatment options in the young patient with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Bliss, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The treatment options in the young patient with Graves' disease are the same as in adults, namely antithyroid drug (ATD), surgery (partial or total thyroidectomy) and radioiodine. However, the emphasis and expectation is different in the young person, reflecting a range of considerations including age, pubertal status, disease natural history, likely impact of ATD on disease course and the implications of radiation exposure. New therapeutic strategies that could increase the likelihood of long-term remission are being explored. PMID:26252256

  11. Rare disease policies to improve care for patients in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, Charlotte; Aymé, Ségolène

    2015-10-01

    Rare diseases are those with a particularly low prevalence; in Europe, diseases are considered to be rare when they affect not more than 5 in 10000 persons in the European Union. The specificities of rare diseases make the area a veritable public health challenge: the limited number of patients and scarcity of knowledge and expertise single rare diseases out as a distinctive domain of high European added-value. The Orphan Medicinal Product Regulation of 1999 was the first European legislative text concerning rare diseases, followed by many initiatives, including recommendations by the Council of Ministers of the European Union in 2009. These initiatives contributed to the development of rare diseases policies at European and national level aimed at improving care for patients with rare diseases. A review of the political framework at European level and in European countries is provided to demonstrate how legislation has created a dynamic that is progressively improving care for patients with rare diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)". PMID:25725454

  12. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  13. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  14. Sarcopenia and Physical Inactivity in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Keiji; Ookawara, Susumu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia and physical inactivity synergistically progress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are strong predictors of mortality in this population. Exercise training and essential amino acids and vitamin D supplements may contribute to improving sarcopenia and physical inactivity in CKD patients. PMID:27570755

  15. Managing diabetes in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shridhar N; Tanenberg, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Because few randomized trials have been done, little is known about appropriate glycemic control in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of hypoglycemia. It is prudent to monitor glucose closely, set less-stringent blood sugar goals, avoid oral antidiabetic agents, and possibly reduce insulin dosage. PMID:27055204

  16. Conservative treatment of arterial pseudoaneurism in patients with behcet disease.

    PubMed

    Unal, O; Citgez, B; Cipe, G; Toydemir, T; Karatepe, O

    2013-02-01

    Behcet's Disease (BD) is a rare disease, of unknown origin that generally causes an inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue, eyes and brain vessels, and related with the immune system, predominantly seen in male patients and the mean age at onset is mainly in the third decade. The aim of the study was to present our experiences with the cases of arterial pseudoaneurysms that we treated conservatively without surgical or radiological intervention. Eleven patients with Behcet's disease who developed arterial pseudoaneuryms and responsed to the medical treatment are included in the study. The operation requirement, the complication rates, and factors that influence morbidity and mortality are evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 29,5 (18-35) years. Nine of the patients were male and 2 were female. The mean period of hospitalization was 18 (11-34) days. Six patients redeveloped aneurysm during their follow-up. Three of these patients were treated with surgery. Five patients had no complication during an average of 20 months of follow-up period. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of Behcet's disease. Despite the good response to conservative treatment at the beginning period, the patients should be closely followed up and redevelopment of the aneurysm should be kept in mind. PMID:23482359

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients' Participation, Attitude and Preferences Toward Exercise.

    PubMed

    Chae, J; Yang, H I; Kim, B; Park, S J; Jeon, J Y

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of exercise participation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to investigate their intention, attitude and preference toward exercise. The data of 158 IBD patients that participated in a self-administered survey at Severance Hospital between March 2013 and November 2013 were included in this cross sectional and descriptive analysis. Questionnaires included 3 sections to determine the IBD patient's current exercise participation, attitude toward exercise, and exercise preferences. This study investigated IBD patients both collectively, and according to their specific disease: Crohn's disease (CD) (n=62), Ulcerative colitis (UC) (n=73) and intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) (n=23). IBD patients currently participate in 103 min/week of exercise including mild, moderate and strenuous intensity, with BD patients being the least active, followed by CD, and UC being most active. The majority of IBD patients found exercise to be pleasant (57.7%), beneficial (80.5%), sensible (71.8%), uplifting (61%) and good (70.5%), and 44.4% found exercise to be enjoyable. This study shows the IBD patients' participation, attitude and preferences toward exercise and provides much needed information for the development of evidence based exercise programs that are specific to IBD. PMID:27191208

  18. Gait in SWEDDs patients: comparison with Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mian, Omar S; Schneider, Susanne A; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bhatia, Kailash P; Day, Brian L

    2011-06-01

    Patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease on clinical grounds who subsequently turn out to have normal dopamine transporter imaging have been referred to as SWEDDs (scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits). Despite having clinical features similar to those of Parkinson's disease, these patients seem to have different pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment requirements. In this study we determined the similarities and differences in the gaits of SWEDDs and Parkinson's disease patients to investigate whether walking patterns can distinguish these entities. We used 3-D motion capture to analyze the gaits of 11 SWEDDs patients (who had unilateral or asymmetric upper limb tremor with a rest component), 12 tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients, and 13 healthy control participants. In common with Parkinson's disease patients, SWEDDs patients had a slow gait mainly because of a small stride length, as well as a reduced arm swing. However, several abnormal features of posture and gait in Parkinson's disease were normal in SWEDDs. Thus, SWEDDs patients had normal trunk and elbow posture, normal stride length variability, and normal bilateral step-phase coordination, all of which were abnormal in Parkinson's disease patients. We also searched for signs of ataxic movements during normal and tandem walking, but found no evidence that ataxic gait was a general feature in SWEDDs. These findings could aid the clinician in identification of potential tremulous SWEDDs cases. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:21442658

  19. Exercise Decreases Risk of Future Active Disease in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patricia D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Chen, Wenli; Sandler, Robert S.; Long, Millie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exercise impacts quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about its role in disease activity. Among IBD patients in remission, we aimed to evaluate the association between exercise and subsequent active disease. Methods We performed a prospective study using the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) Partners Internet-based cohort of individuals with self-reported IBD. We identified participants in remission, defined as short Crohn's disease activity index (sCDAI) <150 or simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI) ≤2. The primary exposure was exercise status, measured using the validated Godin leisure time activity index. The primary study outcome, assessed after six months, was active disease defined using the above disease activity index thresholds. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to describe the independent association between exercise and risk of active disease. Results We identified 1308 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 549 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) in remission, of whom 227(17.4%) with CD and 135 (24.6%) with UC/IC developed active disease after 6 months. Higher exercise level was associated with decreased risk of active disease for CD (adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94) and UC/IC (adjusted RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54-1.13). Conclusions In patients with CD in remission, those with higher exercise levels were significantly less likely to develop active disease at six months. In patients with UC/IC in remission, patients with higher exercise levels were less likely to develop active disease at six months, however this was not statistically significant. PMID:25723616

  20. [Vascular rehabilitation in patients with peripheral arterial disease].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Ana; Aubourg, Marion; Dubus-Bausière, Valérie; Eveno, Dominique; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a frequent debilitating disease associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The benefit of rehabilitation in PAD patients has been largely demonstrated, both for patients that undergo amputation, and for patients with claudication. In these latter patients, rehabilitation programs rely on a variety of additional techniques or tools, among which: stretching, specific muscle proprioception, walking and a variety of other physical activities, exercise or situations adapted to community life, lower limb and respiratory physiotherapy, patient's education, support for smoking cessation and healthy nutrition, social support, etc. Whether rehabilitation is performed in specialised integrated structures or performed on a home-based basis, various clinicians are involved. Despite evidence-based proof of efficacy, rehabilitation of PAD patients with claudication is still under-used. PMID:23669319

  1. Online Patient Education for Chronic Disease Management: Consumer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Than; Hassan, Naffisah Mohd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Probst, Yasmine

    2016-04-01

    Patient education plays an important role in chronic disease management. The aim of this study is to identify patients' preferences in regard to the design features of effective online patient education (OPE) and the benefits. A review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify the benefits of OPE and its essential design features. These design features were empirically tested by conducting survey with patients and caregivers. Reliability analysis, construct validity and regression analysis were performed for data analysis. The results identified patient-tailored information, interactivity, content credibility, clear presentation of content, use of multimedia and interpretability as the essential design features of online patient education websites for chronic disease management. PMID:26846749

  2. Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nancy; Wong, Titus

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is now the leading cause of nosocomial infection. There has been an upsurge of CDI in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD patients with CDI have increased morbidity and mortality. The establishment, proliferation, and recurrence of CDI in IBD patients form a complex interplay of microbial, environmental, and host-susceptibility factors. Different risk factors have been found predisposing IBD patients to CDI. Vancomycin performs better than metronidazole in treating IBD patients with CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation continues to be a very effective therapy. New therapeutic modalities such as vaccinations and bile salts are currently being investigated. PMID:27137789

  3. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. PMID:25434346

  4. Characteristics of handwriting of patients with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J G; Bradshaw, J L; Chiu, E; Bradshaw, J A

    1994-09-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease exhibit poorer-quality handwriting, sometimes clinically exhibiting macrographia, an increase in the size of handwriting. To characterize deficits in handwriting of patients with Huntington's disease, we compared the writing of 12 young, 12 age-matched controls, and 12 patients with Huntington's disease. Subjects were asked to write the letter "l" four times, at a constant length, on a graphics tablet that sampled pen position at 200 Hz. Huntington's disease causes chorea (involuntary movement), akinesia (difficulty in initiating voluntary movement), and bradykinesia (slowness and difficulty in maintaining voluntary movement). To distinguish changes in handwriting quality due to involuntary movement from impairments of voluntary movement, handwriting samples with obvious choreic movements were analyzed separately from other handwriting samples. Several measures of quality of handwriting were considered, based on: the regularity and consistency of handwriting, the efficiency of movement trajectories, and the proportions of movement occurring at specific frequencies. Results suggested that Huntington's disease increases variability of movement parameters, and causes problems in producing smooth movements. Choreic movement was best characterized by the number of zero crossings in the velocity function relative to the prescribed number of writing strokes. We hypothesize that macrographia in Huntington's disease occurs when chorea predominates over bradykinesia. Comparisons were made between the handwriting of patients with Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:7990847

  5. Visual dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Štenc Bradvica, Ivanka; Bradvica, Mario; Matić, Suzana; Reisz-Majić, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the Pelli-Robson and Ishihara diagnostic methods in differing Parkinson's disease from essential tremor compared to DaTSCAN (dopamine transporter scan) findings. The intention was to investigate whether visual dysfunction appears in the early state of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we included patients with the symptomatology of parkinsonism lasting between 6 and 12 months. The study included 164 patients of which 59 (36.0%) suffered from Parkinson's disease, 51 (31.1%) from essential tremor, and 54 (32.9%) healthy patients which presented the control group. The specificity of Pelli-Robson test in confirming Parkinson's disease was 53% and the sensitivity 81.4%. The specificity of Ishihara test in confirming Parkinson's disease was 88.2%, and sensitivity 55.9%. We found that the colour and contrast dysfunction are present as the earliest symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In this study the Pelli-Robson test is highly sensitive and the Ishihara tables are highly specific in the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, but neither of these methods fulfils the criteria for the validity of a test. We suggest performing both of these methods to evaluate which patients are indicated for DaTSCAN. PMID:25164787

  6. [Genetic, population and phenotypic characteristics of patients with Hirschsprung disease].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Aja, E; Vega Hernández, L; Martínez Ezquerra, N; De Diego García, E; Pérez Marrodan, A; Alvarez-Buhilla, P López

    2012-07-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is caused by the absence of ganglion cells in the intestine due to defects in the migration of enteric nervous system cells during embryologic development. The incidence is one in every 5000 births, more common in men than women. There are two main phenotypes according to the aganglionic segment length: Short (S-HSCR, (80% of patients) and Long (L-HSCR, 20%). Variations have been detected in the coding sequence of the RET proto-oncogene in patients with HSCR, suggesting a genetic predisposition to the disease. Our aim is to find and analyze polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the disease. We are interested also in stablish an association between sex and type of aganglionic segment. We analyzed the RET promoter as well a polymorphism in exon 13 strongly associated to the disease. The populations for the study were a group of 56 patients with sporadic HSCR and 178 healthy controls. The results obtained show that the disease is more common in men than in women (3:1). The RET genotype shows that alleles A and G of the promoter (c.-200A > G and c.-196C > A) and G of exon 13 (c.2307T > G) are associated with the affected population. Our data suggest neither association between the disease phenotype and the distribution of the polymorphisms analyzed nor with the sex of the patients. The presence of certain polymorphisms in the RET sequence indicates a genetic predisposition (combined with other genetic or environmental factors) to the disease. PMID:23480009

  7. [Airway Management in a Patient with Forestier's Disease].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuriko; Echigo, Noriyuki; Akata, Mariko; Yokoyama, Kaori; Takasugi, Naoya; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-04-01

    Airway management in a patient with Forestier's disease can be challenging clinically because this disease may cause not only dysphagia but also airway obstruction due to the compression of the pharynx and esophagus caused by the ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament. We report our anesthetic management in a patient with Forestier's disease. Meanwhile, we studied the causes of difficult airway and the most suitable airway device for a patient with this disease from a standpoint of anatomy of upper airway. Our study indicated the possibility that the most suitable airway device differed depending on the actual location of the ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine and that more prudent airway management would be required if its lesion location extended to upper cervical spine. PMID:27188118

  8. Small Bowel Imaging in Managing Crohn's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Jörg G.

    2012-01-01

    The small bowel is essential to sustain alimentation and small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) may severely limit its function. Small bowel imaging is a crucial element in diagnosing small bowel CD, and treatment control with imaging is increasingly used to optimize the patients outcome. Thereby, capsule endoscopy, Balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and Magnetic resonance imaging have become key players to manage CD patients. In this review, role of small bowel imaging is detailed discussed for use in diagnosing and managing Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22474438

  9. Safety of varenicline in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Haber, Stacy L; Boomershine, Virginia; Raney, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Smoking cessation lowers the risk of death substantially in patients with cardiovascular disease. Although varenicline is an effective medication for smoking cessation, its safety in this population has been questioned and evaluated in several studies. In 2 randomized controlled trials of patients with cardiovascular disease, the rates of serious cardiovascular events were up to 2% higher in patients receiving varenicline than placebo, though the differences were not statistically significant. In the first meta-analysis of mostly trials involving patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, varenicline was found to significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events by 72%; however, a second meta-analysis did not find a significant increased risk. In an observational study, varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of events when compared to bupropion in a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. Because the evidence on the safety of varenicline in this population is limited and conflicting, additional data are needed to formulate stronger conclusions. In the meantime, health care professionals should consider individual smoking patterns, concomitant medical conditions, and cost when recommending smoking cessation pharmacotherapy for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24080536

  10. Microbial Dysbiosis in Pediatric Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Day, Andrew S.; Huinao, Karina D.; Leach, Steven T.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Dowd, Scot E.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD); however, many studies of gut microbial communities have been confounded by environmental and patient-related factors. In this study, the microbial flora of fecal samples from 19 children newly diagnosed with CD and 21 age-matched controls were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in the microbial composition between CD patients and controls. Analysis of the microbial composition of specific bacterial groups revealed that Firmicutes percentages were significantly lower in CD patients than in controls and that this was due largely to changes in the class Clostridia. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria percentages were higher and significantly higher in CD patients than in controls, respectively. Both the detection frequencies of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the calculated pediatric Crohn's disease activity index scores of patients. Upon further analysis, differences in the microbial compositions of patients with mild disease and moderate to severe disease were identified. Our findings indicate that a combination of different bacterial species or a dynamic interplay between individual species is important for disease and is consistent with the dysbiosis hypothesis of CD. PMID:22837318

  11. Microbial dysbiosis in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Day, Andrew S; Huinao, Karina D; Leach, Steven T; Lemberg, Daniel A; Dowd, Scot E; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2012-10-01

    Microbial dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD); however, many studies of gut microbial communities have been confounded by environmental and patient-related factors. In this study, the microbial flora of fecal samples from 19 children newly diagnosed with CD and 21 age-matched controls were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in the microbial composition between CD patients and controls. Analysis of the microbial composition of specific bacterial groups revealed that Firmicutes percentages were significantly lower in CD patients than in controls and that this was due largely to changes in the class Clostridia. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria percentages were higher and significantly higher in CD patients than in controls, respectively. Both the detection frequencies of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the calculated pediatric Crohn's disease activity index scores of patients. Upon further analysis, differences in the microbial compositions of patients with mild disease and moderate to severe disease were identified. Our findings indicate that a combination of different bacterial species or a dynamic interplay between individual species is important for disease and is consistent with the dysbiosis hypothesis of CD. PMID:22837318

  12. Importance of Social Relationships in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    The literature lacks reports on the role of the social relationships domain (SRD) of quality of life (QoL) in shaping care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases in primary care. In this study we examined a group of 582 patients with chronic respiratory diseases and chronic non-respiratory diseases recruited from 199 primary care centers. In the patients with chronic respiratory diseases, higher SRD correlated with more frequent patient visits due to medical issue, fewer district nurse interventions over the past 12 months, less frequent hospitalizations over the past 3 years, and fewer chronic diseases. In these patients, a high SRD was most effectively created by high QoL in the Psychological, Environmental, and Physical domains, and the satisfaction with QoL. Programs for preventing a decline in SRD should include patients with low scores in the Psychological, Environmental, and Physical domains, those who show no improvement in mental or somatic well-being in the past 12 months, those with a low level of positive mental attitudes, unhealthy eating habits, and with low levels of met needs. Such programs should include older widows and widowers without permanent relationships, with only primary education, living far from a primary care center, and those whose visits were not due to a medical issue. PMID:27358182

  13. Absorption of prednisolone in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, J A; Williams, S E; Turnberg, L A; Houston, J B; Rowland, M

    1983-01-01

    The absorption of prednisolone in patients with Crohn's disease was investigated. Seven patients with Crohn's disease and eight normal control subjects were given a tracer dose of tritiated prednisolone with 20 mg cold prednisolone by mouth. On a separate occasion they were given an intravenous injection of radiolabelled prednisolone. After oral ingestion only 53.4 +/- 11.7% of labelled material was excreted in the urine of Crohn's patients compared with 82.5 +/- 3.6% in the normal subjects. The oral/intravenous availability ratio was 0.61 +/- 0.14 in Crohn's patients and 0.89 +/- 0.07 in the normal group. Areas under plasma concentration-time curves were lower in patients than normal subjects and the oral/intravenous ratios were 0.6 +/- 0.2 and 0.86 +/- 0.09 respectively. Faecal excretion of radioactivity after oral ingestion was greater in Crohn's patients (19.3 +/- 2.5%, n = 3) than in normal subjects (7 +/- 2.8%, n = 4). The range for each type of measurement was much wider in the patient group than in the normal subjects. These data suggest that patients with Crohn's disease do not absorb prednisolone normally and that absorption varies between patients. PMID:6826099

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with acute Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Warren, H. Shaw

    2012-01-01

    During acute Lyme disease, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of meningitis and other neurologic symptoms. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing a deep view into the proteome for patients diagnosed with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified differences in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. We identified 108 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease from controls. Comparison between infected patients and control subjects revealed differences in proteins in the CSF associated with cell death localized to brain synapses and others that likely originate from brain parenchyma. PMID:22900834

  15. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  16. Excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Knie, Bettina; Mitra, M Tanya; Logishetty, Kartik; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2011-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is described as inappropriate and undesirable sleepiness during waking hours and is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease, affecting up to 50% of patients. EDS has a large impact on the quality of life of Parkinson's disease patients as well as of their caregivers, in some cases even more than the motor symptoms of the disease. Drug-induced EDS is a particular problem as many dopamine agonists used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease have EDS as an adverse effect. Dopaminergic treatment may also render a subset of Parkinson's disease patients at risk for sudden-onset sleep attacks that occur without warning and can be particularly hazardous if the patient is driving. This demonstrates the need for early recognition and management not only to increase health-related quality of life but also to ensure patient safety. There are many assessment tools for EDS, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), although only the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and the SCales for Outcomes in PArkinson's Disease-Sleep (SCOPA-S) are specifically validated for Parkinson's disease. Polysomnography can be used when necessary. Management comprises non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. Non-pharmacological approaches can be the mainstay of treatment for mild to moderate EDS. Advice on good sleep hygiene is instrumental, as pharmacological approaches have yet to provide consistent and reliable results without significant adverse effects. The efficacy of pharmacological treatment of EDS in Parkinson's disease using wakefulness-promoting drugs such as modafinil remains controversial. Further areas of research are now also focusing on adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists, sodium oxybate and caffeine to promote wakefulness. A definitive treatment for the highly prevalent drug-induced EDS has not yet been found. PMID:21323392

  17. Vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rahier, Jean-François; Moutschen, Michel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Van Ranst, Marc; Louis, Edouard; Segaert, Siegfried; Masson, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) such as RA, IBD or psoriasis, are at increased risk of infection, partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable disease, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This review summarizes current literature data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given. Although the reduced quality of the immune response in patients under immunotherapy may have a negative impact on vaccination efficacy in this population, adequate humoral response to vaccination in IMID patients has been demonstrated for hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccination status is best checked and updated before the start of immunomodulatory therapy: live vaccines are not contraindicated at that time and inactivated vaccines elicit an optimal immune response in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:20591834

  18. Inspiratory muscle training in the patient with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    McCool, F D; Tzelepis, G E

    1995-11-01

    Pulmonary complications due to respiratory muscle dysfunction are commonly a source of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases. This review discusses the adverse effects of respiratory muscle weakness on pulmonary mechanics and examines the role that inspiratory muscle training may play in reversing pulmonary dysfunction in these individuals. In asymptomatic persons, it is well established that the inspiratory muscles can be trained to increase both force and endurance. In patients with neuromuscular diseases, the effects of training protocols on force and endurance are more controversial. This article reviews seven studies that have evaluated respiratory muscle training in a total of 75 patients with varied neuromuscular disorders. Training regimens included breathing through inspiratory resistive loads and isocapnic hyperpnea. Despite methodologic differences among studies, investigators have generally shown that the inspiratory muscles are similar to other skeletal muscle groups in that they can be trained for both force and endurance in these patients. The training-related improvements in inspiratory muscle performance are more pronounced in patients who are less severely affected by their disease. In those patients who have disease to the extent that they are already retaining carbon dioxide, there is little change in force or endurance with training. In these individuals, the inspiratory muscles may already be working at a level sufficiently severe to provide a training stimulus with each breath. No adverse effects of inspiratory muscle training were reported. Inspiratory muscle training can improve force and endurance in patients with neuromuscular weakness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7480122

  19. Endostatin level in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salza, Romain; Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Ramont, Laurent; Maquart, François-Xavier; Bakchine, Serge; Thoannès, Henri; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII that accumulates in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The concentrations of total protein, endostatin, amyloid-β1-42 peptide, tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF of patients with AD (n = 57), behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 22), non AD and non FTD dementia (nAD/nFTD, n = 84), and 45 subjects without neurodegenerative diseases. The statistical significance of the results was assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal and Wallis tests, and by ROC analysis. The concentration of endostatin in CSF was higher than the levels of the three markers of AD both in control subjects and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The endostatin/amyloid-β1-42 ratio was significantly increased in patients with AD (257%, p < 0.0001) and nAD/nFTD (140%, p < 0.0001) compared to controls. The endostatin/tau protein ratio was significantly decreased in patients with AD (-49%, p < 0.0001) but was increased in bvFTD patients (89%, p < 0.0001) compared to controls. In the same way, the endostatin/hyperphosphorylated tau protein ratio was decreased in patients with AD (-21%, p = 0.0002) but increased in patients with bvFTD (81%, p = 0.0026), compared to controls. The measurement of endostatin in CSF and the calculation of its ratio relative to well-established AD markers improve the diagnosis of bvFTD patients and the discrimination of patients with AD from those with bvFTD and nAD/nFTD. PMID:25408220

  20. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  1. Nonpharmacological treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M; Ebersbach, Georg

    2015-09-15

    Since 2013, a number of studies have enhanced the literature and have guided clinicians on viable treatment interventions outside of pharmacotherapy and surgery. Thirty-three randomized controlled trials and one large observational study on exercise and physiotherapy were published in this period. Four randomized controlled trials focused on dance interventions, eight on treatment of cognition and behavior, two on occupational therapy, and two on speech and language therapy (the latter two specifically addressed dysphagia). Three randomized controlled trials focused on multidisciplinary care models, one study on telemedicine, and four studies on alternative interventions, including music therapy and mindfulness. These studies attest to the marked interest in these therapeutic approaches and the increasing evidence base that places nonpharmacological treatments firmly within the integrated repertoire of treatment options in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26274930

  2. Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Patients with Autoimmune Diabetes and Thyroid Disease among Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyuan; Zou, Jing; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yan; Cai, Hanqing; Li, Mo; Liu, Edwin; Yu, Liping; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity or tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA) amongst patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in the Chinese population remains unknown. This study examined the rate of celiac disease autoimmunity amongst patients with T1D and AITD in the Chinese population. The study included 178 patients with type 1 diabetes and 119 with AITD where 36 had both T1D and AITD, classified as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 variant (APS3v). The study also included 145 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 97 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disease (NAITD), and 102 healthy controls. Serum islet autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies and TGA were measured by radioimmunoassay. TGA positivity was found in 22% of patients with either type 1 diabetes or AITD, much higher than that in patients with T2D (3.4%; p< 0.0001) or NAITD (3.1%; P < 0.0001) or healthy controls (1%; p<0.0001). The patients with APS3v having both T1D and AITD were 36% positive for TGA, significantly higher than patients with T1D alone (p = 0.040) or with AITD alone (p = 0.017). T1D and AITD were found to have a 20% and 30% frequency of overlap respectively at diagnosis. In conclusion, TGA positivity was high in the Chinese population having existing T1D and/or AITD, and even higher when both diseases were present. Routine TGA screening in patients with T1D or AITD will be important to early identify celiac disease autoimmunity for better clinical care of patients. PMID:27427767

  3. Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Patients with Autoimmune Diabetes and Thyroid Disease among Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiyuan; Zou, Jing; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yan; Cai, Hanqing; Li, Mo; Liu, Edwin; Yu, Liping; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity or tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA) amongst patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in the Chinese population remains unknown. This study examined the rate of celiac disease autoimmunity amongst patients with T1D and AITD in the Chinese population. The study included 178 patients with type 1 diabetes and 119 with AITD where 36 had both T1D and AITD, classified as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 variant (APS3v). The study also included 145 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 97 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid disease (NAITD), and 102 healthy controls. Serum islet autoantibodies, thyroid autoantibodies and TGA were measured by radioimmunoassay. TGA positivity was found in 22% of patients with either type 1 diabetes or AITD, much higher than that in patients with T2D (3.4%; p< 0.0001) or NAITD (3.1%; P < 0.0001) or healthy controls (1%; p<0.0001). The patients with APS3v having both T1D and AITD were 36% positive for TGA, significantly higher than patients with T1D alone (p = 0.040) or with AITD alone (p = 0.017). T1D and AITD were found to have a 20% and 30% frequency of overlap respectively at diagnosis. In conclusion, TGA positivity was high in the Chinese population having existing T1D and/or AITD, and even higher when both diseases were present. Routine TGA screening in patients with T1D or AITD will be important to early identify celiac disease autoimmunity for better clinical care of patients. PMID:27427767

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    2016-08-11

    There are over 300 000 people in the UK affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with IBD, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance regarding vitamin D supplementation does not address the needs of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. However, there is growing evidence that vitamin D plays an important role in the management of IBD. Nurses caring for patients with IBD should have an understanding of the causes and consequences of vitamin D deficiency in this patient group. This article looks at the role vitamin D plays in the body and the challenges of treating deficiency. Consideration is given to diet, sun exposure and supplementation as possible treatments and acknowledges the limitations of treatments for patients with IBD. With a lack of clear national guidance, it is hoped that raising awareness of these issues will inform nursing practice and ensure a holistic approach to care. PMID:27523756

  5. Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Anne Marie; Meli, Yvonne; Meldrum, Catherine; Jellen, Patricia; Butler-Lebair, Marianne; Koczen-Doyle, Debra; Rising, Peter; Stavrolakes, Kim; Brogan, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The National Emphysema Treatment Trial used a multidisciplinary team approach to implement the maximum medical care protocol, including adjustment of medications and outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation for all patients and nutritional and psychological counseling as needed. This article discusses the benefits of such an approach in the care of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Team member roles complement each other and contribute to the goal of providing the highest-quality medical care. The primary focus of the team is to reinforce the medical plan and to provide patient education and support. This article reviews the elements of the initial patient assessment and the functional and nutritional assessment. Patient education focuses on medication use, recognition and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation symptoms, smoking cessation, advance directives, and travel. PMID:18453373

  6. Communicative function in patients with questionable Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Heller, R B; Dobbs, A R; Rule, B G

    1992-09-01

    The communicative skills of patients with questionable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were examined by having patients describe events shown in a silent video cartoon. As anticipated, questionable AD patients provided fewer clauses in their descriptions than did education- and age-matched controls. This finding was independent of differences in word finding ability. More important, the patients failed to describe as many of the thematically important events as did the controls, a difference that affected the overall informativeness of the communication. Even though the patients were sensitive to event importance, there was no evidence of compensation in their descriptions (i.e., a greater concentration of important events). Several interpretations are presented that focus on possible deficits in the pragmatic or semantic systems of language or both as an early symptom of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:1388860

  7. Myocardial performance and perfusion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paridon, S.M.; Ross, R.D.; Kuhns, L.R.; Pinsky, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    For a study of the natural history of coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease and their effect on myocardial blood flow reserve with exercise, five such patients underwent exercise testing on a bicycle. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed for all patients. One patient stopped exercise before exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve but had no evidence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Four patients terminated exercise because of exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve; one had normal cardiovascular reserve and thallium scintiscans, but the remaining patients had diminished cardiovascular reserve. Thallium scintigrams showed myocardial ischemia in two and infarction in one. No patient had exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes. These results indicate that patients with residual coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease frequently have reduced cardiovascular reserve during exercise. The addition of thallium scintigraphy and metabolic measurements to exercise testing improved the detection of exercise-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion.

  8. [Why screen for lung cancer in patients with arterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Lederlin, M; Trédaniel, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in France. Such a prognosis is explained by late diagnosis at a metastatic stage for half of the patients. Tobacco is the main risk factor for lung cancer, as it is for peripheral arterial disease. A review of literature shows that between 2.3% and 19% of patients with arterial disease also have lung cancer. When lung cancer is detected after treatment of arterial disease, it is at an advanced stage. But it can be diagnosed at an early stage when it is searched simultaneously with arterial disease treatment. There is no recommendation for lung cancer screening specifically for patients with arterial disease. However individual screening based on an annual low-dose chest scan is proposed for smokers meeting the criteria defined by the study of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Such screening has two disadvantages : the high number of false positives and the irradiation induced by the accumulation of examinations. The ISET method would alternatively help to identify circulating tumor cells on a simple blood test for subjects not yet at solid tumor stage, provided this method be subject to multicentric validation. Thus one could consider that the management of a patient with arterial disease meeting NLST criteria should be accompanied with screening for lung cancer by searching for tumor cells associated with low-dose scanner. PMID:26276562

  9. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%-15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  10. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%–15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  11. Low Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Autoimmune Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saitis, Asterios; Gabeta, Stella; Eliades, Petros; Paraskeva, Efrosini; Zachou, Kalliopi; Koukoulis, George K.; Mamalaki, Avgi; Dalekos, George N.; Simos, George

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin, a liver hormone, is important for both innate immunity and iron metabolism regulation. As dysfunction of the hepcidin pathway may contribute to liver pathology, we analysed liver hepcidin mRNA and serum hepcidin in patients with chronic liver diseases. Hepcidin mRNA levels were determined in liver biopsies obtained from 126 patients with HCV (n = 21), HBV (n = 23), autoimmune cholestatic disease (primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis; PBC/PSC; n = 34), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH; n = 16) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; n = 32). Sera sampled on the biopsy day from the same patients were investigated for serum hepcidin levels. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels correlated positively with ferritin and negatively with serum γ-GT levels. However, no correlation was found between serum hepcidin and either ferritin or liver hepcidin mRNA. Both serum hepcidin and the serum hepcidin/ferritin ratio were significantly lower in AIH and PBC/PSC patients’ sera compared to HBV, HCV or NAFLD (P<0.001 for each comparison) and correlated negatively with serum ALP levels. PBC/PSC and AIH patients maintained low serum hepcidin during the course of their two-year long treatment. In summary, parallel determination of liver hepcidin mRNA and serum hepcidin in patients with chronic liver diseases shows that circulating hepcidin and its respective ratio to ferritin are significantly diminished in patients with autoimmune liver diseases. These novel findings, once confirmed by follow-up studies involving bigger size and better-matched disease subgroups, should be taken into consideration during diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases. PMID:26270641

  12. Two pediatric patients with Von Hippel-Lindau disease type 2b: from patient to screening, from screening to patient.

    PubMed

    Gonc, Nazli; Engiz, Ozlem; Neumann, Hartmut P H; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2011-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor susceptibility disease characterized by the development of hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord and retina; pheochromocytomas and renal cell carcinoma. The disease is caused by mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 3p26-p25. In this paper, we present two patients with VHL disease type 2B confirmed by genetic analysis. Diagnosis in the first patient was based on demonstration of retinal hemangioblastoma in association with bilateral pheochromocytoma. Family screening revealed renal cell carcinoma in her father and uncle. The second patient was discovered during family screening of another index case in adult age. VHL disease should be clinically suspected in any individual with a pheochromocytoma especially when there is bilateral and/or multifocal disease or family history. Screening of patients and at-risk family members for VHL-associated tumors should be essential in management of VHL. PMID:21528828

  13. Altered Esophageal Mucosal Structure in Patients with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Nachman, Fabio D.; Fuxman, Claudia; Iantorno, Guido; Hwang, Hui Jer; Ditaranto, Andrés; Costa, Florencia; Longarini, Gabriela; Wang, Xuan Yu; Huang, Xianxi; Vázquez, Horacio; Moreno, María L.; Niveloni, Sonia; Bercik, Premysl; Smecuol, Edgardo; Mazure, Roberto; Bilder, Claudio; Mauriño, Eduardo C.; Verdu, Elena F.; Bai, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Reflux symptoms (RS) are common in patients with celiac disease (CD), a chronic enteropathy that affects primarily the small intestine. We evaluated mucosal integrity and motility of the lower esophagus as mechanisms contributing to RS generation in patients with CD. Methods. We enrolled newly diagnosed CD patients with and without RS, nonceliac patients with classical reflux disease (GERD), and controls (without RS). Endoscopic biopsies from the distal esophagus were assessed for dilated intercellular space (DIS) by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Tight junction (TJ) mRNA proteins expression for zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-2 and claudin-3 (CLDN-2; CLDN-3) was determined using qRT-PCR. Results. DIS scores were higher in patients with active CD than in controls, but similar to GERD patients. The altered DIS was found even in CD patients without RS and normalized after one year of a gluten-free diet. CD patients with and without RS had lower expression of ZO-1 than controls. The expression of CLDN-2 and CLDN-3 was similar in CD and GERD patients. Conclusions. Our study shows that patients with active CD have altered esophageal mucosal integrity, independently of the presence of RS. The altered expression of ZO-1 may underlie loss of TJ integrity in the esophageal mucosa and may contribute to RS generation. PMID:27446827

  14. Altered Esophageal Mucosal Structure in Patients with Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Nachman, Fabio D; Fuxman, Claudia; Iantorno, Guido; Hwang, Hui Jer; Ditaranto, Andrés; Costa, Florencia; Longarini, Gabriela; Wang, Xuan Yu; Huang, Xianxi; Vázquez, Horacio; Moreno, María L; Niveloni, Sonia; Bercik, Premysl; Smecuol, Edgardo; Mazure, Roberto; Bilder, Claudio; Mauriño, Eduardo C; Verdu, Elena F; Bai, Julio C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Reflux symptoms (RS) are common in patients with celiac disease (CD), a chronic enteropathy that affects primarily the small intestine. We evaluated mucosal integrity and motility of the lower esophagus as mechanisms contributing to RS generation in patients with CD. Methods. We enrolled newly diagnosed CD patients with and without RS, nonceliac patients with classical reflux disease (GERD), and controls (without RS). Endoscopic biopsies from the distal esophagus were assessed for dilated intercellular space (DIS) by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Tight junction (TJ) mRNA proteins expression for zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-2 and claudin-3 (CLDN-2; CLDN-3) was determined using qRT-PCR. Results. DIS scores were higher in patients with active CD than in controls, but similar to GERD patients. The altered DIS was found even in CD patients without RS and normalized after one year of a gluten-free diet. CD patients with and without RS had lower expression of ZO-1 than controls. The expression of CLDN-2 and CLDN-3 was similar in CD and GERD patients. Conclusions. Our study shows that patients with active CD have altered esophageal mucosal integrity, independently of the presence of RS. The altered expression of ZO-1 may underlie loss of TJ integrity in the esophageal mucosa and may contribute to RS generation. PMID:27446827

  15. Nononcologic Disease in Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lowitz, Barry B.; Benjamin, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    Nononcologic medical problems are common in patients with cancer. Failure to evaluate and treat these problems leads to considerable morbidity and mortality in people who often have potential for both comfortable and productive lives. While a physician is sometimes powerless to prevent the progression of underlying cancer, he must not allow a diagnostic category to color his approach. By seeing only an end point which is inevitable for all people, one could be inclined not to treat what is treatable. With clinical judgment, information and the eternal question of diagnosticians, “What else could this be?”, a physician can focus not on the inevitability of death but on the quality of life. PMID:878475

  16. Patient Experiences of Depression and Anxiety with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeJean, D; Giacomini, M; Vanstone, M; Brundisini, F

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease, but remain undertreated despite significant negative consequences on patient health. A number of clinical groups have developed recommendations for depression screening practices in the chronic disease population. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to review empirical qualitative research on the experiences of patients with chronic disease (e.g., COPD, diabetes, heart disease, stroke) and comorbid depression or anxiety, and to highlight the implications of the screening and management of anxiety and/or depression on chronic disease outcomes. Review Methods We performed literature searches for studies published from January 2002 to May 2012. We applied a qualitative mega-filter to nine condition-specific search filters. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by two reviewers and, for the studies that met the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across relevant published primary research studies. Qualitative meta-synthesis produced a synthesis of evidence that both retained the original meaning of the authors and offered a new, integrative interpretation of the phenomenon through a process of comparing and contrasting findings across studies. Results The findings of 20 primary qualitative studies were synthesized. Patients tended to experience their chronic conditions and anxiety or depression as either independent or inter-related (i.e., the chronic disease lead to depression/anxiety, the depression/anxiety lead to the chronic disease, or the two conditions exacerbated each other). Potential barriers to screening for depression or anxiety were also identified. Limitations A wider array of issues might have been captured if the analysis had focused on broader psychological responses to the chronic disease experience. However, given the objective to highlight implications for screening for anxiety

  17. Fitness to fly in patients with lung disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Trevor T; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2014-12-01

    Patients with chronic lung disease may have mild hypoxemia at sea level. Some of these cases may go unrecognized, and even among those who are known to be hypoxemic, some do not use supplemental oxygen. During air travel in a hypobaric hypoxic environment, compensatory pulmonary mechanisms may be inadequate in patients with lung disease despite normal sea-level oxygen requirements. In addition, compensatory cardiovascular mechanisms may be less effective in some patients who are unable to increase cardiac output. Air travel also presents an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients with cystic lung disease may also be at increased risk of pneumothorax. Although overall this risk appears to be relatively low, should a pneumothorax occur, it could present a significant challenge to the patient with chronic lung disease, particularly if hypoxemia is already present. As such, a thorough assessment of patients with chronic lung disease and cardiac disease who are contemplating air travel should be performed. The duration of the planned flight, the anticipated levels of activity, comorbid illnesses, and the presence of risk factors for venous thromboembolism are important considerations. Hypobaric hypoxic challenge testing reproduces an environment most similar to that encountered during actual air travel; however, it is not widely available. Assessment for hypoxia is otherwise best performed using a normobaric hypoxic challenge test. Patients in need of supplemental oxygen need to contact the airline and request this accommodation during flight. They should also be advised on arranging portable oxygen concentrators before air travel, and a discussion of the potential risks of travel should take place. PMID:25393882

  18. Management of the patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rausch, M; Pollard, D

    1998-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a group of genetic disorders of hemoglobin synthesis, of which sickle cell anemia is the most severe. In the United States, sickle cell disease primarily affects persons of African-American and Hispanic origin. An estimated 50,000 Americans have the disease, and approximately 2.5 million persons carry the sickle cell trait. The primary pathophysiologic features are chronic hemolysis and vaso-occlusion. This disease is recurrent and unpredictable, causing considerable physiologic and psychologic stress. This article provides an overview of the disease and addresses the role of the infusion nurse in the care and support of the patient with sickle cell disease in the hospital and home setting. PMID:9515479

  19. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in patient with Crohn's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung-Min; Park, Ki Jeong; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2014-05-01

    Numerous causes of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) have been reported. Commonly, secondary osteoarthropathy accompanies pulmonary diseases such as carcinoma of the lung, pleural tumors, lung abscesses, and bronchiectasis. However, HOA in inflammatory bowel disease is a rare complication. There are only a few reports of secondary HOA with Crohn's disease. Our purpose was to report another case of HOA in Crohn's disease. We describe a case of a 27-year-old man with underlying Crohn's disease presenting with 2 years of pain in multiple joints. Radiographic findings suggested HOA in extremities. We performed a conservative treatment including medication and rehabilitations. The patient's symptoms were much improved at the latest follow-up. Although numerous studies on HOA have been published, the pathogenesis of HOA is still unclear. Various treatment modalities were recommended but further studies to uncover the pathogenesis of HOA with Crohn's disease and to establish a treatment modality are needed. PMID:25025001

  20. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Petrkova, Jana; Szotkowska, Jaroslava; Hermanova, Zuzana; Lukl, Jan; Petrek, Martin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemokine-driven migration of inflammatory cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic conditions including peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is elevated in patients with coronary artery disease and in hypertensive patients. This study therefore investigated MCP-1 in patients with PAD. METHODS: Serum MCP-1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 36 healthy, control subjects and in 19 patients with PAD. Statistical analysis utilised the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation (p < 0.05). RESULTS: MCP-1 (pg/ml) was increased in patients compared with in controls (mean+/-standard error of the mean: PAD group, 748+/-60; control group, 459+/-27; p=0.0001). MCP-1 levels tended to decrease with progressing disease. From atherosclerosis risk factors, diabetes inclined to increase MCP-1 levels; hypertension had no effect. Serum MCP-1 correlated with cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein. Conclusion: Elevation of MCP-1 in the circulation of PAD patients shown in the present pilot study implicates this CC chemokine ligand 2 in inflammatory processes contributing to PAD clinical symptomatology. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate whether MCP-1 can be used as a potential marker of peripheral arterial disease follow-up and/or prognosis. PMID:15203564

  1. Psoriasis Patients' Knowledge about the Disease and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Moum, Torbjørn; Larsen, Marie Hamilton; Krogstad, Anne Lene

    2013-01-01

    Patients' knowledge about psoriasis and its treatment has been randomly studied previously. The aim of the study is to investigate patients' knowledge about psoriasis in relation to undergoing patient education in the context of climate therapy (CT). The psoriasis knowledge questionnaire (PKQ) was used in a follow-up pre–post study design of Norwegian patients with psoriasis at the age of 20 years and older undergoing CT at Gran Canaria (Spain). Patients completed the PKQ and provided selected demographic, clinical and health information before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 3 months after (T3) CT. Disease severity was assessed using the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). 254 psoriasis patients were included (74%). The PKQ score improved significantly from T1 to T2 and T3 (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). Although patient's knowledge improved, further research should use gold standard designs (experiments) to study the effects of educational interventions in different contexts. PMID:23864852

  2. Clinician-Patient Risk Discussion for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S.; Sperling, Laurence S.; Blaha, Michael J.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Gluckman, Ty J.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Stone, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines hinges on a clear understanding of the clinician-patient risk discussion (CPRD). This is a dialogue between the clinician and patient about potential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction benefits, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and patient preferences. Designed especially for primary prevention patients, this process of shared decision making establishes the appropriateness of a statin for a specific patient. CPRD respects the autonomy of an individual striving to make an informed choice aligned with personal values and preferences. Dedicating sufficient time to high-quality CPRD offers an opportunity to strengthen clinician-patient relationships, patient engagement, and medication adherence. We review the guideline-recommended CPRD, the general concept of shared decision making and decision aids, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Risk Estimator application as an implementation tool, and address potential barriers to implementation. PMID:25835448

  3. Mood Differences Among Parkinson's Disease Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacob D; Mangal, Paul; Lafo, Jacob; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Studies with healthy elderly adults suggest that apathy, depression, and anxiety are more common among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined differences in mood/amotivational symptoms among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without MCI. Patients with PD (N=214) underwent neurocognitive evaluations including assessment of apathy (Apathy Scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait scale). Trait anxiety and depression were more severe in patients with PD with MCI. Delineation of MCI into amnestic and nonamnestic subtypes revealed greater depression, apathy, and anxiety among patients with PD with amnestic MCI relative to cognitively intact patients with PD. Patients with PD and MCI report greater mood symptoms compared to patients with PD who are cognitively intact. PMID:26792098

  4. Motor Sequence Learning Performance in Parkinson's Disease Patients Depends on the Stage of Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Marianne A.; Meier, Beat; Zaugg, Sabine Weber; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2011-01-01

    It is still unclear, whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in the incidental learning of different motor sequences in short succession, although such a deficit might greatly impact their daily life. The aim of this study was thus to clarify the relation between disease parameters of PD and incidental motor learning of two…

  5. The Wired Patient: Patterns of Electronic Patient Portal Use Among Patients With Cardiac Disease or Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Jonathan P; Shah, Nirav R; Stewart, Walter F

    2015-01-01

    Background As providers develop an electronic health record–based infrastructure, patients are increasingly using Web portals to access their health information and participate electronically in the health care process. Little is known about how such portals are actually used. Objective In this paper, our goal was to describe the types and patterns of portal users in an integrated delivery system. Methods We analyzed 12 months of data from Web server log files on 2282 patients using a Web-based portal to their electronic health record (EHR). We obtained data for patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes who had a Geisinger Clinic primary care provider and were registered “MyGeisinger” Web portal users. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to longitudinal data to profile users based on their frequency, intensity, and consistency of use. User types were characterized by basic demographic data from the EHR. Results We identified eight distinct portal user groups. The two largest groups (41.98%, 948/2258 and 24.84%, 561/2258) logged into the portal infrequently but had markedly different levels of engagement with their medical record. Other distinct groups were characterized by tracking biometric measures (10.54%, 238/2258), sending electronic messages to their provider (9.25%, 209/2258), preparing for an office visit (5.98%, 135/2258), and tracking laboratory results (4.16%, 94/2258). Conclusions There are naturally occurring groups of EHR Web portal users within a population of adult primary care patients with chronic conditions. More than half of the patient cohort exhibited distinct patterns of portal use linked to key features. These patterns of portal access and interaction provide insight into opportunities for electronic patient engagement strategies. PMID:25707036

  6. Hyperphosphatemia Management in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Shaman, Ahmed M; Kowalski, Stefan R

    2016-07-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a potentially life altering condition that can lead to cardiovascular calcification, metabolic bone disease (renal osteodystrophy) and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). It is also associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mortality rates. To effectively manage hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients it is important to not only consider pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options but also to understand the underlying physiologic pathways involved in phosphorus homoeostasis. This review will therefore provide both a background into phosphorus homoeostasis and the management of hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients. In addition, it will cover some of the most important reasons for failure to control hyperphosphatemia with emphasis on the effect of the gastric pH on phosphate binders efficiency. PMID:27330380

  7. The role of the inflammasome in patients with autoinflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hal M; Broderick, Lori

    2016-07-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are disorders of the innate immune system, characterized by systemic inflammation often driven by inflammasomes, and independent of infection and autoreactive antibodies or antigen-specific T cells. These diseases are increasingly recognized as disorders of immune dysregulation, presenting with a constellation of fevers, rashes, and mucosal symptoms in many cases, which suggests that the allergist/immunologist is the appropriate specialist for these patients. However, many practicing physicians are unaware of these disorders in their pediatric and adult patient populations, leading to substantial delays in diagnosis. Recognizing autoinflammatory disease symptom patterns, performing appropriate diagnostic tests, and instituting early effective therapy are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. This review will focus on understanding the molecular basis of inflammasomes, recognizing the distinguishing features of the classic autoinflammatory disorders, and appreciating the treatment modalities available. PMID:27373321

  8. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases. PMID:27442377

  9. The Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease after Parathyroidectomy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The changes of the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with end-stage renal disease after parathyroidectomy are scant. Methods We used a nationwide health insurance claims database to select all dialysis-dependent patients with end-stage renal disease aged 18 years and older for the study population in 2000 to 2006. Of the patients with end-stage renal disease, we selected 947 patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy as the parathyroidectomy group and frequency matched 3746 patients with end-stage renal disease by sex, age, years since the disease diagnosis, and the year of index date as the non-parathyroidectomy group. We used a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with the use of a robust sandwich covariance matrix estimate, accounting for the intra-cluster dependence of hospitals or clinics, to measure the risk of peripheral arterial disease for the parathyroidectomy group compared with the non-parathyroidectomy group after adjusting for sex, age, premium-based income, urbanization, and comorbidity. Results The mean post-op follow-up periods were 5.08 and 4.52 years for the parathyroidectomy and non-parathyroidectomy groups, respectively; the incidence density rate of PAD in the PTX group was 12.26 per 1000 person-years, significantly lower than the data in the non-PTX group (24.09 per 1000 person-years, adjusted HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). Conclusion Parathyroidectomy is associated with reduced risk of peripheral arterial disease in patients with end-stage renal disease complicated with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27284924

  10. Relation between Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and disease severity in Iranian patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Karkheiran, Siamak; Moradi, Negin; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Salehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background One third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have mentioned “dysphonia” as their most debilitating communication deficit. Patient-based measurements, such as Voice Handicap Index (VHI) add necessary supplementary information to clinical and physiological assessment. There are a few studies about relation between VHI and disease severity in PD, although none of them showed any significant correlation. The goal of this study was to find correlation between these variables in Iranian PD patients. Method This cross-sectional, analytical and non-interventional study was done on 23 PD patients who reported a voice disorder related to their disease. They were selected from attendants of movement disorders clinic of Hazrat Rasool Akram Hospital. The relationship between disease severity (according to Hoehn and Yahr/H&Y and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-part3 /UPDRS-III) and VHI questionnaire (and its 3 domains) was investigated based on patients’ sex, UPDRS-III score H&Y and VHI. Results Total VHI and its 3 domains had no relationship with disease severity (H&Y) in all patients and by sex separation. However, there was a positive correlation between VHI and disease severity (UPDRS-III) (r = 0.485). There was also a relation between physical and functional domains of VHI and UPDRS (rP=0.530, rF=0.479) while no relationship observed regarding sex differences. 9 out of 18 UPDRS-III items had strong relationship with VHI (total and 3subscales). Conclusion Iranian PD patients feel handicap according to voice disorder caused by PD. Patient satisfaction of voice decreases with the disease severity and progression. A larger sample size is necessary to find relationship in genders. VHI is an important issue could be offered to be used in PD beside other assessments PMID:23482344

  11. Identification of mutations in Colombian patients affected with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alfredo; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Palacios, Maria Fernanda; Ospina, Sandra Yaneth; Pasqualim, Gabriela; da Silveira Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions. PMID:26297554

  12. Mind body therapies in rehabilitation of patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, Angela; Maddali-Bongi, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Mind body therapies (MBT) share a global approach involving both mental and physical dimensions, and focus on relationship between brain, mind, body and behavior and their effects on health and disease. MBT include concentration based therapies and movement based therapies, comprising traditional Oriental practices and somatic techniques. The greatest part of rheumatic diseases have a chronic course, leading to progressive damages at musculoskeletal system and causing physical problems, psychological and social concerns. Thus, rheumatic patients need to be treated with a multidisciplinary approach integrating pharmacological therapies and rehabilitation techniques, that not should only aim to reduce the progression of damages at musculoskeletal system. Thus, MBT, using an overall approach, could be useful in taking care of the overall health of the patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This review will deal with different MBT and with their effects in the most common chronic rheumatic diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Fibromyalgia Syndrome). PMID:26850811

  13. High burden and unmet patient needs in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Braun, LeeAnn; Sood, Vipan; Hogue, Susan; Lieberman, Bonnie; Copley-Merriman, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex debilitating condition affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. With the increased prevalence in risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in an aging population, CKD prevalence is also expected to increase. Increased awareness and understanding of the overall CKD burden by health care teams (patients, clinicians, and payers) is warranted so that overall care and treatment management may improve. This review of the burden of CKD summarizes available evidence of the clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of CKD and the current unmet need for new treatments and serves as a resource on the overall burden. Across countries, CKD prevalence varies considerably and is dependent upon patient characteristics. The prevalence of risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and congestive heart failure is noticeably higher in patients with lower estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) and results in highly complex CKD patient populations. As CKD severity worsens, there is a subsequent decline in patient health-related quality of life and an increased use of health care resources as well as burgeoning costs. With current treatment, nearly half of patients progress to unfavorable renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Although curative treatment that will arrest kidney deterioration is desired, innovative agents under investigation for CKD to slow kidney deterioration, such as atrasentan, bardoxolone methyl, and spherical carbon adsorbent, may offer patients healthier and more productive lives. PMID:23293534

  14. [Cognitive plasticity in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cognitive stimulation programs].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning. PMID:18674439

  15. Depression in African-American patients with kidney disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Paul L.; Patel, Somir S.; Peterson, Rolf A.

    2002-01-01

    There are few data on the epidemiology, consequences and treatment of depression in African-American patients with kidney disease in the US, even though such patients disproportionately bear the burden of this illness. This paper reviews data on the diagnosis and pathogenesis of depression and its consequences in patients with and without kidney disease, in addition to work on the epidemiology of depression in the African-American population and in the US End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) program. African Americans are thought to have similar susceptibility to the development of depression as other populations in the US, but diminished access to care for this group of patients may be associated with differential outcomes. Data are presented from longitudinal studies of psychosocial outcomes in a population comprising primarily African-American patients with ESRD, and is reviewed the treatment of depression in patients with and without kidney disease. There are few studies of the management of depression that focus on minority populations. The authors agree with recommendations that treatment trials should include minority patients, patients with medical comorbidities, and the elderly, and assess function and quality of life as outcomes. The relationships between age, marital status and satisfaction, ethnicity, and perception of quality of life and depressive affect level and diagnosis of depression, and medical outcomes have not been determined in ESRD patients, or in African-American patients with ESRD. There are few studies of drugs for the treatment of depression in ESRD patients, and only one small randomized controlled trial. These have shown that therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors appears to be a safe treatment option for patients with ESRD. The long-term effectiveness of therapy, and its association with clinically important outcomes such as perception of quality of life, compliance, and survival have not been evaluated in ESRD patients. Also

  16. Impaired opsonization by serum from patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wyke, R J; Rajkovic, I A; Williams, R

    1983-01-01

    Serum opsonization of two organisms, E. coli and yeasts (S. cerivisiae), was examined in 68 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Impaired opsonization for yeasts was found in seven (29%) of 24 patients with chronic active hepatitis, six (27%) of 22 with alcoholic cirrhosis and five (23%) of 22 with primary biliary cirrhosis. Opsonization for E. coli was normal in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but impaired in seven (29%) patients with chronic active hepatitis and three (14%) of those with alcoholic cirrhosis. The defect of opsonization in chronic active hepatitis was found mainly in patients with histological evidence of active disease. A deficiency, rather than antagonism or inhibition, of normal opsonization factors was responsible, but could not be related to reduced levels of serum complement factors of either the classical or the alternative pathway present in 45% of the patients with chronic active hepatitis, 71% with alcoholic cirrhosis and 18% of those with primary biliary cirrhosis. Serum from two of 11 patients with impaired opsonization antagonised the function of normal polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and polymorphonuclear leucocytes from six of seven patients had slightly reduced phagocytosis/killing of E. coli opsonized in normal serum. Defects of serum opsonization, complement activity and polymorphonuclear leucocyte function may be causes of the increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with CLD. PMID:6339126

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Nanda, Satyan; Tripathi, Adarsh; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Himanshu, D; Verma, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but there is a paucity of data from India. Aims and Objectives: Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University). A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire. Results: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in COPD patients (28.4%) as compared to controls (2.7%). As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years. Conclusion: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any. PMID:27051106

  18. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population. From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011. The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10–1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53–5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10–1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81–3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11–1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids. Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases. PMID:26579813

  19. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in the pregnant patient

    PubMed Central

    Habal, Flavio M; Ravindran, Nikila C

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder affecting young adults in their reproductive years. Many young women with IBD express concern about the effect their disease will have on fertility, pregnancy course and fetal development. This article presents an approach to management of IBD in the pregnant patient, including counseling and investigation, and summarizes existing data on the safety of medications used to treat IBD in pregnancy and breastfeeding. PMID:18322943

  20. An approach to the patient with suspected pericardial disease.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, C G; Mayosi, B M; de Vries, E; Isaacs, A; Doubell, A F

    2016-02-01

    Diseases of the pericardium commonly manifest in one of three ways: acute pericarditis, pericardial effusion and constrictive pericarditis. In the developed world, the most common cause of acute pericarditis is viral or idiopathic disease, while in the developing world tuberculous aetiology, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is commonplace owing to the high prevalence of HIV. This article provides an approach to the diagnosis, investigation and management of these patients. PMID:27303770

  1. Deep vein thrombosis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Daneschvar, H Leon; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2008-06-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a poorly understood complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of our analysis was to profile DVT patients with and without CKD. We defined CKD as patients requiring dialysis or patients having nephrotic syndrome. We compared 268 patients with CKD (184 patients with dialysis-dependent renal disease and 84 with nephrotic syndrome) to 4,307 patients with preserved renal function from a prospective United States multicenter deep venous thrombosis (DVT) registry. Compared with non-CKD patients, CKD patients with DVT were younger (median age 62 vs. 69 years, p < 0.0001), more often African-American (p < 0.0001), and more often Hispanic (p = 0.0003). CKD patients underwent surgery more frequently in the three months prior to developing DVT (48.9% vs. 39.0%, p = 0.001) and more often had concomitant congestive heart failure (20.9% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.005). CKD patients suffered upper extremity DVT more frequently (30.0% vs. 10.8%, p < 0.0001). Patients with CKD presented less often with typical DVT symptoms of extremity discomfort (42.9% vs. 52.4%, p = 0.003) and difficulty ambulating (5.4% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.01). Prophylaxis rates prior to DVT were similarly low in CKD and non-CKD patients (44.2% vs. 38.0%, p = 0.06). Future studies of DVT in CKD patients should explore novel strategies for improving prophylaxis utilization and the detection of DVT in this special population. PMID:18521505

  2. Delusions in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Multidimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Grazia; Panza, Francesco; Sancarlo, Daniele; Paris, Francesco F; Cascavilla, Leandro; Mangiacotti, Antonio; Lauriola, Michele; Paroni, Giulia H; Seripa, Davide; Greco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with delusions, clinical outcomes and mortality result from a combination of psychological, biological, functional, and environmental factors. We determined the effect of delusions on mortality risk, clinical outcomes linked to comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), cognitive, depressive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 380 consecutive AD patients with Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), assessing one-year mortality risk using the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI). We included 121 AD patients with delusions (AD-D) and 259 AD patients without delusions (AD-noD). AD-D patients were significantly older, with higher age at onset and cognitive impairment, a more severe stage of dementia, and more depressive symptoms than AD-noD patients. Disease duration was slightly higher in AD-D patients than in those without delusions, although this difference was not statistically significant. At CGA, AD-D patients showed a higher grade of disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and an increased risk of malnutrition and bedsores. The two groups of patients significantly differed in MPI score (AD-D: 0.65 versus AD-noD: 0.51, p <  0.0001) and MPI grade. AD-D patients showed also a significant higher score in NPI of the following NPS than AD-noD patients: hallucinations, agitation/aggression, depression mood, apathy, irritability/lability, aberrant motor activity, sleep disturbances, and eating disorders. Therefore, AD-D patients showed higher dementia severity, and higher impairment in cognitive and depressive symptoms, and several neuropsychiatric domains than AD-noD patients, and this appeared to be associated with higher multidimensional impairment and increased risk of mortality. PMID:26890768

  3. Management of retinal vascular diseases: a patient-centric approach

    PubMed Central

    Brand, C S

    2012-01-01

    Retinal vascular diseases are a leading cause of blindness in the Western world. Advancement in the clinical management of these diseases has been fast-paced, with new treatments becoming available as well as license extensions of existing treatments. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in certain retinal vascular diseases, including wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular oedema (DMO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Treatment of wet AMD and visual impairment due to either DMO or macular oedema secondary to RVO with an anti-VEGF on an as needed basis, rather than a fixed schedule, allows an individualised treatment approach; providing treatment when patients are most likely to benefit from it, while minimising the number of unnecessary intravitreal injections. Thus, an individualised treatment regimen reduces the chances of over-treatment and under-treatment, optimising both the risk/benefit profile of the treatment and the efficient use of NHS resource. Streamlining of treatment for patients with wet AMD and visual impairment due to either DMO or macular oedema secondary to RVO, by using one treatment with similar posology across all three diseases, may help to minimise burden of clinic capacity and complexity and hence optimise patient outcomes. Informed treatment decisions and efficient clinic throughput are important for optimal patient outcomes in the fast-changing field of retinal vascular diseases. PMID:22495396

  4. Sense of Coherence in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opheim, Randi; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter; Bernklev, Tomm; Moum, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Sense of coherence (SOC) is a health-promoting concept reflecting a person's view of life and response to stressful situations and may be of importance in coping with chronic illness. The aim of this study was to explore associations between SOC and sociodemographic, disease-related, and personal characteristics in a sample of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Measures included sociodemographic and disease-related data, the Sense of Coherence Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-5). Results. In total, 428 IBD patients had evaluable questionnaires (response rate 93%). The overall mean SOC total score was 66.25 (SD 11.47) and with no statistically significant difference between patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In the multivariate analyses, higher GSE scores were significantly associated with higher SOC scores and higher FSS-5 scores were significantly associated with lower SOC scores in both UC and CD. Conclusion. GSE and FSS-5 contributed more to the variance in SOC than sociodemographic and disease-related variables. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the value of SOC as a predictor of disability, medication adherence, coping behavior, and health-related quality of life. PMID:24527028

  5. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. PMID:25312387

  6. Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, James B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus; Zhang, Jing; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is an already prevalent neurodegenerative disease that is poised to at least double over the next 25 years. Although best known for its characteristic movement disorder, PD is now appreciated commonly to cause cognitive impairment, including dementia, and behavioral changes. Dementia in patients with PD is consequential and has been associated with reduced quality of life, shortened survival, and increased caregiver distress. Here we review clinical presentation and progression, pathological bases, identification of genetic risk factors, development of small molecule biomarkers, and emerging treatments for cognitive impairment in patients with PD. PMID:19754405

  7. Anaesthesia for patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Duggappa, Devika Rani; Rao, G Venkateswara; Kannan, Sudheesh

    2015-01-01

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has become a disease of public health importance. Among the various risk factors, smoking remains the main culprit. In addition to airway obstruction, the presence of intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure, respiratory muscle dysfunction contributes to the symptoms of the patient. Perioperative management of these patients includes identification of modifiable risk factors and their optimisation. Use of regional anaesthesia alone or in combination with general anaesthesia improves pulmonary functions and reduces the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications. PMID:26556916

  8. Transient dynamics in motor control of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuter, Anne; Labrie, Christiane; Vasilakos, Konstantinon

    1991-10-01

    Experimental observations of movement disorders including tremor and voluntary microdisplacements recorded in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during a simple visuomotor tracking task are analyzed. The performance of patients with PD having a very large amplitude tremor is characterized either by the intermittent appearance of transient dynamics or by the presence of sudden transitions in the amplitude or frequency of the signal. The need to develop new tools to characterize changes in dynamics (i.e., transitions) and to redefine neurological degeneration, such as Parkinson's disease, in terms of qualitative changes in oscillatory behaviors is emphasized.

  9. Making oats safer for patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Dickey, William

    2008-06-01

    (Table is included in full-text article). Studies suggest that oats can be tolerated in the gluten-free diet by a majority of patients with coeliac disease. Concerns remain, however, about the possibility of contamination of commercially available oat products by wheat, barley and rye. The R5 ELISA allows the identification and quantification of wheat, barley and rye prolamins, and has demonstrated significant contamination in a range of products. If patients with coeliac disease are to take oats, it is important that those consumed are free of contamination. This assay should allow the identification of safe oat products. PMID:18467905

  10. [NSAID prescription in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Rajko; Curković, Bozidar; Babić-Naglić, Durdica; Kehler, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the first choice in the tretment of rheumatic diseases. Nonsteroidal-antiinflammatory drugs show high efficacy, but they could be responsible for gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events. When the gastrointestinal risk is generally accepted, cardiovascular risk is still without consensus. Did the discussion about potential cardiovascular risk with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs influenced their prescription in real life? Data on 201 patients with rheumatoid arthritis show that the prescription of nonselective, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs remain unchanged. More than two third of the patients use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs despite they have established cardiovascular disease. PMID:17580545

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  12. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs. PMID:26422517

  13. Seroreactivity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in patients with Crohn’s disease and celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Zsolt; Csípõ, István; Szabó, Gábor G.; Szegedi, Gyula

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether there was anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) positivity in our patients with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease. METHODS: A cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (42 patients with Crohn’s disease and 10 patients with ulcerative colitis) and gluten sensitive enteropathy (16 patients) from Debrecen, Hungary were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis was made using the formally accepted criteria. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), antiendomysium antibodies (EMA), antigliadin antibodies (AGA) and anti human tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that ASCA positivity occurred not only in Crohn’s disease but also in Celiac disease and in these cases both the IgG and IgA type antibodies were proved. CONCLUSION: It is conceivable that ASCA positivity correlates with the (auto-) immune inflammation of small intestines and it is a specific marker of Crohn’s disease. PMID:14562398

  14. [Representations, myths, and behaviors among Chagas disease patients with pacemakers].

    PubMed

    Magnani, Claudia; Oliveira, Bruna Guimarães; Gontijo, Eliane Dias

    2007-07-01

    This anthropological study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of pacemakers into the lives of individuals with Chagas disease. An ethnographic methodology was used, based on an open interview focusing on the personal perceptions of 15 patients with chronic Chagas cardiopathy who had required pacemaker implants at the Federal University Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. As part of a broader quality of life analysis, the study investigated the cultural, physical, and psychological resources used by patients to confront, explain, and accept the disease process, including mental representations on the cultural perception of the illness and definition of social relations. The study was intended to contribute to comprehensive patient care by health professionals, including psychosocial aspects. Decoded and integrated orientation in the cultural sphere assumes an important role in order to prevent disinformation from perpetuating the dissemination of popular myths as active elements in patient stigmatization. PMID:17572811

  15. Simultaneous surgery in patients with both cardiac and noncardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Jin; Song, Bo; Li, Xi-Hui; Li, Jian; He, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the possibility and feasibility of simultaneous cardiac and noncardiac surgery. Methods From August 2000 to March 2015, 64 patients suffering from cardiac and noncardiac diseases have been treated by simultaneous surgeries. Results Two patients died after operations in hospital; thus, the hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. One patient with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and a recurrence of bladder cancer accepted emergency simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), bladder cystectomy, and ureterostomy. He died of acute cerebral infarction complicated with multiple organ failure on the 153rd day after operation. The other patient with chronic constrictive pericarditis and right lung cancer underwent pericardial stripping and right lung lower lobectomy, which resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died on the tenth day postoperatively. The remaining 62 patients recovered and were discharged. The total operative morbidity was 17.2%: postoperative hemorrhage (n, % [1, 1.6%]), pulmonary infection and hypoxemia (2, 3.1%), hemorrhage of upper digestive tract (1, 1.6%), incisional infection (3, 4.7%), subphrenic abscess (1, 1.6%), and postoperative acute renal failure and hemofiltration (3, 4.7%). Of the 62 patients discharged, 61 patients were followed up. Eleven patients died with 10 months to 10 years during the follow-up. The mean survival time is 116.2±12.4 months. The cumulative survival rate is 50.8%. Conclusion Simultaneous surgeries in patients suffering from both cardiac and noncardiac benign or malignant diseases are safe and possible with satisfactory short-term and long-term survival. PMID:27486311

  16. Complications of coeliac disease: are all patients at risk?

    PubMed

    Goddard, C J R; Gillett, H R

    2006-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a common condition that is increasingly being recognised as a result of the development of sensitive and specific serology. The diagnosis of coeliac disease and its subsequent treatment with a gluten-free diet have implications for the patient, not just for symptom control but also for the possible effect on quality of life and risk of complications. Whether the mode of presentation of coeliac disease has an effect on survival or risk of complication is yet unclear. This article reviews the available evidence regarding these issues. PMID:17099088

  17. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    PubMed

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-02-01

    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. PMID:26615793

  18. Inflammatory pancreatic diseases in older patients: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Uomo, Generoso

    2003-01-01

    The aging process influences and modifies the clinical picture and treatment modalities of inflammatory pancreatic diseases in elderly patients. The two major categories of inflammatory exocrine pancreatic diseases seen in the elderly are acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). In elderly patients with AP, the presence of concomitant diseases affecting renal, hepatic and cardiopulmonary function make the early clinical assessment of the severity of AP inaccurate at the time of admission to hospital. In addition, the classical multifactorial scoring system routinely utilised in clinical practice to determine the severity of AP may overscore elderly patients because increasing age is associated with more points. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is particularly useful in assessing the severity of AP and is required in all patients suspected with severe AP. It should be repeated after a certain time period to monitor the disease. The most important aspect of the management of elderly patients with severe AP is the prevention and treatment of systemic and local complications. Treatment of AP should address the removal of aetiological factor(s) and support of organ systems and hydroelectrolytic/caloric balance; specific treatments (antiproteases, antibacterials) should also be administered to patients with severe AP. Surgery is indicated mainly when infection occurs following pancreatic necrosis and/or fluid collection. However, in selected patients with a high anaesthetic risk, alternative, less invasive drainage options (percutaneous, endoscopic) should be considered. CP rarely occurs in older age, and it should be suspected based on clinical findings. The greatest challenge is the differentiation between CP and pancreatic cancer. Treatment of CP in the elderly should be directed at controlling the symptoms, by management of diabetes and exocrine insufficiency because pain and complications are rare in elderly patients with CP. Compliance with

  19. Mondor's disease in a patient after a mammotome biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare, benign condition characterised by thrombophlebitis affecting subcutaneous veins of the chest and/or abdomen without an accompanying inflammatory response. The disease has a multifactorial etiology and its course is benign. It is usually self-limiting or it is eliminated by local treatment. Mondor's disease in the thoracoepigastric region may be a rare complication of mammotome biopsy. The case presentation describes a 32-year-old patient with Mondor's disease in the thoracoepigastric region after an ultrasound-guided mammotome biopsy of a breast. In the histopathological examination the lesion was diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Regardless of the disease's etiology, it is recommended to carry out diagnostic examinations to exclude co-occurring breast cancer. PMID:25960806

  20. Mondor's disease in a patient after a mammotome biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kibil, Wojciech; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare, benign condition characterised by thrombophlebitis affecting subcutaneous veins of the chest and/or abdomen without an accompanying inflammatory response. The disease has a multifactorial etiology and its course is benign. It is usually self-limiting or it is eliminated by local treatment. Mondor's disease in the thoracoepigastric region may be a rare complication of mammotome biopsy. The case presentation describes a 32-year-old patient with Mondor's disease in the thoracoepigastric region after an ultrasound-guided mammotome biopsy of a breast. In the histopathological examination the lesion was diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Regardless of the disease's etiology, it is recommended to carry out diagnostic examinations to exclude co-occurring breast cancer. PMID:25960806

  1. Consider Behcet's disease in young patients with deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Güngen, Adil Can; Çoban, Hikmet; Aydemir, Yusuf; Düzenli, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multi-systemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis, arterial aneurysms, venous thrombosis, skin lesions and GIS lesions. Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare, it is a critical condition due to high risk of rupture. Venous involvement of Behcet's disease primarily occurs in the lower extremities. In the presence of deep vein thrombosis(DVT) and pulmonary embolism, the mainstay of treatment in Behcet's disease is immunosuppressant therapy. Anticoagulants can be used only after initiation of immunosuppressant therapy and suppression of the disease. Anticoagulant therapy alone may lead to fatal hemoptysis. We report the case of a 24 year-old patient who presented to the emergency service with complaints of shortness of breath, general condition disorder and hemoptyhis while using warfarin for DVT and whose thoracic CT angiography showed pulmonary embolism and pulmonary artery aneurysm and diagnosed with Behcet's disease. PMID:27144118

  2. Consider Behcet's disease in young patients with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Güngen, Adil Can; Çoban, Hikmet; Aydemir, Yusuf; Düzenli, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multi-systemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis, arterial aneurysms, venous thrombosis, skin lesions and GIS lesions. Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare, it is a critical condition due to high risk of rupture. Venous involvement of Behcet's disease primarily occurs in the lower extremities. In the presence of deep vein thrombosis(DVT) and pulmonary embolism, the mainstay of treatment in Behcet's disease is immunosuppressant therapy. Anticoagulants can be used only after initiation of immunosuppressant therapy and suppression of the disease. Anticoagulant therapy alone may lead to fatal hemoptysis. We report the case of a 24 year-old patient who presented to the emergency service with complaints of shortness of breath, general condition disorder and hemoptyhis while using warfarin for DVT and whose thoracic CT angiography showed pulmonary embolism and pulmonary artery aneurysm and diagnosed with Behcet's disease. PMID:27144118

  3. Pulmonary manifestations in adult patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Salvator, Hélène; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Catherinot, Emilie; Rivaud, Elisabeth; Pilmis, Benoit; Borie, Raphael; Crestani, Bruno; Tcherakian, Colas; Suarez, Felipe; Dunogue, Bertrand; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Durieu, Isabelle; Fouyssac, Fanny; Hermine, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Couderc, Louis-Jean

    2015-06-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by failure of superoxide production in phagocytic cells. The disease is characterised by recurrent infections and inflammatory events, frequently affecting the lungs. Improvement of life expectancy now allows most patients to reach adulthood. We aimed to describe the pattern of pulmonary manifestations occurring during adulthood in CGD patients. This was a retrospective study of the French national cohort of adult patients (≥16 years old) with CGD. Medical data were obtained for 67 adult patients. Pulmonary manifestations affected two-thirds of adult patients. Their incidence was significantly higher than in childhood (mean annual rate 0.22 versus 0.07, p=0.01). Infectious risk persisted despite anti-infectious prophylaxis. Invasive fungal infections were frequent (0.11 per year per patient) and asymptomatic in 37% of the cases. They often required lung biopsy for diagnosis (10 out of 30). Noninfectious respiratory events concerned 28% of adult patients, frequently associated with a concomitant fungal infection (40%). They were more frequent in patients with the X-linked form of CGD. Immune-modulator therapies were required in most cases (70%). Respiratory manifestations are major complications of CGD in adulthood. Noninfectious pulmonary manifestations are as deleterious as infectious pneumonia. A specific respiratory monitoring is necessary. PMID:25614174

  4. Palliative care for patients with advance chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Douglas, C A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic rise in the number of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. The fastest expanding group receiving dialysis has been the elderly. However, for those patients who are very elderly with co-morbidity, dialysis may not offer a survival advantage. Therefore, active conservative management is a growing service offered by many renal units in the UK and focuses on non-dialytic correction of fluid and electrolyes, management of renal anaemia, and assessment and management of symptoms. The five-year survival of a patient over 75 years of age starting dialysis is 20% and if a patient is over 75 years, has co-morbidity, or a poor performance status, dialysis may not offer any survival advantage. Whether a patient is managed by dialysis or by conservative management the symptom burden suffered is high. These symptoms are under-recognised and often managed poorly because of increased drug toxicity in renal failure. This complex group of patients require close working between renal, palliative care, medicine for the elderly, and community teams, to allow best quality of life and end of life care. This review describes some of the challenges in providing Advanced Care Planning for dialysis and conservatively managed patients, highlights the symptom burden of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, and offers guidance in how to manage the symptoms effectively. PMID:25318401

  5. Risk factors for osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Carla Andrade; Lyra, Andre Castro; Rocha, Raquel; Santana, Genoile Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit higher risk for bone loss than the general population. The chronic inflammation causes a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD), which leads to osteopenia and osteoporosis. This article reviewed each risk factor for osteoporosis in IBD patients. Inflammation is one of the factors that contribute to osteoporosis in IBD patients, and the main system that is involved in bone loss is likely RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin. Smoking is a risk factor for bone loss and fractures, and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this loss. Body composition also interferes in bone metabolism and increasing muscle mass may positively affect BMD. IBD patients frequently use corticosteroids, which stimulates osteoclastogenesis. IBD patients are also associated with vitamin D deficiency, which contributes to bone loss. However, infliximab therapy is associated with improvements in bone metabolism, but it is not clear whether the effects are because of inflammation improvement or infliximab use. Ulcerative colitis patients with proctocolectomy and ileal pouches and Crohn’s disease patients with ostomy are also at risk for bone loss, and these patients should be closely monitored. PMID:26600979

  6. Inflammatory dysregulation of blood monocytes in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Grozdanov, Veselin; Bliederhaeuser, Corinna; Ruf, Wolfgang P; Roth, Valerie; Fundel-Clemens, Kathrin; Zondler, Lisa; Brenner, David; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Hengerer, Bastian; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Danzer, Karin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite extensive effort on studying inflammatory processes in the CNS of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, implications of peripheral monocytes are still poorly understood. Here, we set out to obtain a comprehensive picture of circulating myeloid cells in PD patients. We applied a human primary monocyte culture system and flow cytometry-based techniques to determine the state of monocytes from PD patients during disease. We found that the classical monocytes are enriched in the blood of PD patients along with an increase in the monocyte-recruiting chemoattractant protein CCL2. Moreover, we found that monocytes from PD patients display a pathological hyperactivity in response to LPS stimulation that correlates with disease severity. Inflammatory pre-conditioning was also reflected on the transcriptome in PD monocytes using next-generation sequencing. Further, we identified the CD95/CD95L as a key regulator for the PD-associated alteration of circulating monocytes. Pharmacological neutralization of CD95L reverses the dysregulation of monocytic subpopulations in favor of non-classical monocytes. Our results suggest that PD monocytes are in an inflammatory predisposition responding with hyperactivation to a "second hit". These results provide the first direct evidence that circulating human peripheral blood monocytes are altered in terms of their function and composition in PD patients. This study provides insights into monocyte biology in PD and establishes a basis for future studies on peripheral inflammation. PMID:25284487

  7. Self-Care Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yngman-Uhlin, Pia; Hjortswang, Henrik; Riegel, Barbara; Stjernman, Henrik; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology. The disease occurs early in life and the burden of symptoms is significant. Patients need to perform self-care to handle their symptoms, but knowledge about what kind of self-care patients do is limited and these individuals need to learn how to manage the symptoms that arise. The aim of this study was to explore self-care among patients with IBD. Twenty adult patients with IBD, 25–66 years of age, were interviewed. Data were analyzed by performing a qualitative content analysis. Four categories with 10 subcategories emerged from the analysis of the interviews. The self-care patients perform consists of symptom recognition (subcategories: physiological sensations and psychological sensations), handling of symptoms (subcategories: adapting the diet, using medical treatment, stress management, and using complementary alternative medicine), planning life (subcategories: planning for when to do activities and when to refrain from activities), and seeking new options (subcategories: seeking knowledge and personal contacts). Self-care consists of symptom recognition, handling life through planning, and accommodating the existing situation with the ultimate goal of maintaining well-being. Being one step ahead facilitates living with IBD. A decision to actively participate in care of a chronic illness is a prerequisite for self-care. Healthcare professionals must consider patients' potential for and desire for self-care when giving advice on self-care activities. Doing so may help people better cope with IBD. PMID:26166423

  8. Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chacko, K A

    1998-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is being identified as a risk factor for coronary heart disease but its role among Asian Indians has not been studied. This has practical importance because (1) the data generated in the West may not represent Indian population, and (2) the condition is remediable. To assess the magnitude of this problem, we studied 56 patients with coronary heart disease, and 53 control subjects. Details of diet, smoking, medication, hypertension and diabetes were recorded; lipids and sugar levels were estimated in all. Patients with renal and liver diseases were excluded. Serum homocysteine was estimated using liquid chromatography. Both the groups were comparable by age and sex. Higher, but statistically insignificant homocysteine levels were seen in patients with coronary heart disease: 10.98 +/- 9.04 nmol/ml vs 9.41 +/- 3.60 nmol/ml in control subjects. Among males, higher, but statistically insignificant levels were seen in coronary heart disease patients: 11.96 +/- 9.41 nmol/ml vs 9.87 +/- 3.50 nmol/ ml in control subjects; among females, the levels were lower though not significant: 5.10 +/- 1.64 nmol/ml vs 6.39 +/- 2.99 nmol/ml. Sub-group analysis with age 40 as dividing point did not show significant difference. Six (10.7%) patients with coronary heart disease and three (5.7%) control subjects had homocysteine levels above 95th percentile of control subjects (p = NS). Twenty-three (41.1%) coronary heart disease patients and 19 (35.9%) control subjects had levels above 10 nmol/ml (p = NS). We conclude that homocysteine is not a major risk factor for coronary heart disease in the study population. The lack of statistical significance could be due to inadequate sample size although some past studies reporting statistically significant association between coronary heart disease and homocysteine involved similar or smaller number of subjects. Larger studies are warranted to see if ethnic differences also have any role. PMID:9753851

  9. Palliative care provision for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Abebaw Mengistu

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in old age. Patients with advanced stage COPD are most likely to be admitted three to four times per year with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) which are costly to manage. The adverse events of AECOPD are associated with poor quality of life, severe physical disability, loneliness, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Currently there is a lack of palliative care provision for patients with advanced stage COPD compared with cancer patients despite having poor prognosis, intolerable dyspnoea, lower levels of self efficacy, greater disability, poor quality of life and higher levels of anxiety and depression. These symptoms affect patients' quality of life and can be a source of concern for family and carers as most patients are likely to be housebound and may be in need of continuous support and care. Evidence of palliative care provision for cancer patients indicate that it improves quality of life and reduces health care costs. The reasons why COPD patients do not receive palliative care are complex. This partly may relate to prognostic accuracy of patients' survival which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals, including general practitioners for patients with advanced stage COPD, as they are less likely to engage in end-of-life care planning in contrast with terminal disease like cancer. Furthermore there is a lack of resources which constraints for the wider availability of the palliative care programmes in the health care system. Potential barriers may include unwillingness of patients to discuss advance care planning and end-of-life care with their general practitioners, lack of time, increased workload, and fear of uncertainty of the information to provide about the prognosis of the disease and also lack of appropriate tools to guide general practitioners when to refer patients for palliative care. COPD is a chronic incurable disease; those in an

  10. Palliative care provision for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yohannes, Abebaw Mengistu

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in old age. Patients with advanced stage COPD are most likely to be admitted three to four times per year with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) which are costly to manage. The adverse events of AECOPD are associated with poor quality of life, severe physical disability, loneliness, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Currently there is a lack of palliative care provision for patients with advanced stage COPD compared with cancer patients despite having poor prognosis, intolerable dyspnoea, lower levels of self efficacy, greater disability, poor quality of life and higher levels of anxiety and depression. These symptoms affect patients' quality of life and can be a source of concern for family and carers as most patients are likely to be housebound and may be in need of continuous support and care. Evidence of palliative care provision for cancer patients indicate that it improves quality of life and reduces health care costs. The reasons why COPD patients do not receive palliative care are complex. This partly may relate to prognostic accuracy of patients' survival which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals, including general practitioners for patients with advanced stage COPD, as they are less likely to engage in end-of-life care planning in contrast with terminal disease like cancer. Furthermore there is a lack of resources which constraints for the wider availability of the palliative care programmes in the health care system. Potential barriers may include unwillingness of patients to discuss advance care planning and end-of-life care with their general practitioners, lack of time, increased workload, and fear of uncertainty of the information to provide about the prognosis of the disease and also lack of appropriate tools to guide general practitioners when to refer patients for palliative care. COPD is a chronic incurable disease; those in an

  11. Regional Myocardial Perfusion Rates in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Paul J.; Dell, Ralph B.; Dwyer, Edward M.

    1972-01-01

    Regional myocardial perfusion rates were estimated from the myocardial washout of 133Xenon in 24 patients with heart disease whose coronary arteriograms were abnormal and 17 similar subjects whose coronary arteriograms were judged to be normal. Disappearance rates of 133Xe from multiple areas of the heart were monitored externally with a multiple-crystal scintillation camera after the isotope had been injected into a coronary artery and local myocardial perfusion rates were calculated by the Kety formula. The mean myocardial perfusion rates in the left ventricle exceeded those in the right ventricle or atrial regions in subjects without demonstrable coronary artery disease. In this group there was a significant lack of homogeneity of local perfusion rates in left ventricular myocardium; the mean coefficient of variation of left ventricular local perfusion rates was 15.8%. In the patients with radiographically demonstrable coronary artery disease, a variety of myocardial perfusion patterns were observed. Local capillary blood flow rates were depressed throughout the myocardium of patients with diffuse coronary disease but were subnormal only in discrete myocardial regions of others with localized occlusive disease. Local myocardial perfusion rates were similar to those found in the group with normal coronary arteriograms in patients with slight degrees of coronary disease and in those areas of myocardium distal to marked coronary constrictions or occlusions which were well supplied by collateral vessels. In subjects with right coronary disease, the mean right ventricular perfusion rates were significantly subnormal; in seven subjects of this group perfusion of the inferior left ventricle by a dominant right coronary artery was absent or depressed. The average mean left ventricular perfusion rate of 12 subjects with significant disease of two or more branches of the left coronary artery was significantly lower than that of the group with normal left coronary

  12. Treatment of Depression in Patients with Concomitant Cardiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Teply, Robyn M; Packard, Kathleen A; White, Nicole D; Hilleman, Daniel E; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Depressed patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) and those with concomitant depression and CVD are at increased risk of death. The safety and efficacy of antidepressants in patients with CVD varies greatly between the agent used and type of disease. This review will summarize the CV adverse effect and drug interaction profile of antidepressants and discuss the use of antidepressants in CVD patients. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library from inception to June 2014 to identify studies relevant to antidepressant use in patients with CVD. Primary references from the identified articles were also evaluated for inclusion. Descriptive analysis was performed for the included studies in this review. Orthostatic hypotension was more common with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), trazodone and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Hypertension can be significant with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and MAOIs. The potential for QT prolongation is present with TCAs, certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), certain SNRIs and mirtazapine. Due to its low risk of drug-drug interactions, adverse effect profile and potential for beneficial antiplatelet activity, sertraline could be considered the choice antidepressant for patients with ischemic heart disease. SSRIs and potentially SNRIs are relatively safe and effective options for patients with heart failure. In patients at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias, bupropion has the overall lowest risk for QT prolongation. TCAs and MAOIs should be avoided in patients with concomitant CVD. In conclusion, due to the increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid CVD and depression, practitioners should readily assess and initiate management of depression in such patients. The choice of antidepressant should take into account the potential CV impact of the various agents balancing safety and efficacy. PMID

  13. Opioid Drugs in Patients With Liver Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Sanaie, Sarvin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The liver, one of the most important organs of the body, is known to be responsible for several functions. The functional contribution of the liver to the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, drugs and toxins, fats and cholesterol and many other biological processes are still unknown. Liver disorders are classified into two types: acute and chronic. Different drugs are used in liver diseases to treat and control pain. Most pain relief medications such as opioids are metabolized via the liver; therefore, the adverse reactions of drugs are probably higher for patients with liver disease. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of opioid drugs on patients with liver disease; therefore, it is necessary to select suitable opioids for such patients. Evidence Acquisition This review was written by referring to research literature including 70 articles and four textbooks published from 1958 to 2015 on various reputable sites. Searches were carried out on the key phrases of narcotic pain relievers (opioids), acute and chronic hepatic failure, opioid adverse drug reactions, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and other similar keywords. References included a variety of research papers (descriptive and analytical), intervention and review articles. Results In patients with liver disease, administration of opioid analgesics should be observed, accurately. As a general rule, lower doses of drugs should be administered at regular intervals based on the signs of drug accumulation. Secondly, the interactions of opioid drugs with different levels of substrates of the P450 cytochrome enzyme should be considered. Conclusions Pain management in patients with liver dysfunction is always challenging to physicians because of the adverse reactions of drugs, especially opioids. Opioids should be used cautiously since they can cause sedation, constipation and sudden encephalopathy effects. Since the clearance of these drugs in patients with hepatic insufficiency is decreased

  14. Immunohistochemical CD3 staining detects additional patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Mubarak, Amani; Wolters, Victorien M; Houwen, Roderick HJ; ten Kate, Fiebo JW

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether performing immunohistochemical CD3 staining, in order to improve the detection of intra-epithelial lymphocytosis, has an additional value in the histological diagnosis of celiac disease. METHODS: Biopsies obtained from 159 children were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and evaluated using the Marsh classification. CD3 staining was subsequently evaluated separately and independently. RESULTS: Differences in evaluation between the routine HE sections and CD3 staining were present in 20 (12.6%) cases. In 10 (6.3%) patients the diagnosis of celiac disease (Marsh II and III) changed on examination of CD3 staining: in 9 cases, celiac disease had initially been missed on the HE sections, while 1 patient had been over-diagnosed on the routine sections. In all patients, the final diagnosis based on CD3 staining, was concordant with serological results, which was not found previously. In the other 10 (12.3%) patients, the detection of sole intra-epithelial lymphocytosis (Marsh I) improved. Nine patients were found to have Marsh I on CD3 sections, which had been missed on routine sections. Interestingly, the only patient with negative serology had Giardiasis. Finally, in 1 patient with negative serology, in whom Marsh I was suspected on HE sections, this diagnosis was withdrawn after evaluation of the CD3 sections. CONCLUSION: Staining for CD3 has an additional value in the histological detection of celiac disease lesions, and CD3 staining should be performed when there is a discrepancy between serology and the diagnosis made on HE sections. PMID:26140002

  15. Personal Health Records for Patients with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozenblum, R.; Park, A.; Dunn, M.; Bates, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Personal health records (PHRs) connected to a physician’s electronic health record system hold substantial promise for supporting and engaging patients with chronic disease. Objectives: To explore how U.S. health care organizations are currently utilizing PHRs for chronic disease populations. Methods A mixed methods study including semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire was conducted. A purposive sample was developed of health care organizations which were recognized as exemplars for PHRs and were high performers in national patient satisfaction surveys (H-CAHPS or CAHPS). Within each organization, participants were health IT leaders or those managing high-risk or chronic disease populations. Results Interviews were conducted with 30 informants and completed questionnaires were received from 16 organizations (84% response rate). Most PHRs allowed patients to access health records and educational material, message their provider, renew prescriptions and request appointments. Patient generated data was increasingly being sought and combined with messaging, resulted in greater understanding of patient health and functioning outside of the clinic visit. However for chronic disease populations, there was little targeted involvement in PHR design and few tools to help interpret and manage their conditions beyond those offered for all. The PHR was largely uncoupled from high risk population management interventions and no clear framework for future PHR development emerged. Conclusion This technology is currently underutilized and represents a major opportunity given the potential benefits of patient engagement and shared decision making. A coherent patient-centric PHR design and evaluation strategy is required to realize its potential and maximize this natural hub for multidisciplinary care co-ordination. PMID:25024758

  16. Patient access to complex chronic disease records on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access to medical records on the Internet has been reported to be acceptable and popular with patients, although most published evaluations have been of primary care or office-based practice. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of making unscreened results and data from a complex chronic disease pathway (renal medicine) available to patients over the Internet in a project involving more than half of renal units in the UK. Methods Content and presentation of the Renal PatientView (RPV) system was developed with patient groups. It was designed to receive information from multiple local information systems and to require minimal extra work in units. After piloting in 4 centres in 2005 it was made available more widely. Opinions were sought from both patients who enrolled and from those who did not in a paper survey, and from staff in an electronic survey. Anonymous data on enrolments and usage were extracted from the webserver. Results By mid 2011 over 17,000 patients from 47 of the 75 renal units in the UK had registered. Users had a wide age range (<10 to >90 yrs) but were younger and had more years of education than non-users. They were enthusiastic about the concept, found it easy to use, and 80% felt it gave them a better understanding of their disease. The most common reason for not enrolling was being unaware of the system. A minority of patients had security concerns, and these were reduced after enrolling. Staff responses were also strongly positive. They reported that it aided patient concordance and disease management, and increased the quality of consultations with a neutral effect on consultation length. Neither patient nor staff responses suggested that RPV led to an overall increase in patient anxiety or to an increased burden on renal units beyond the time required to enrol each patient. Conclusions Patient Internet access to secondary care records concerning a complex chronic disease is feasible and popular, providing an increased

  17. Vascular endothelial function of patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun; Shi, Hui; Zhong, Guangzhen; Chi, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate vascular endothelial function and contributing factors in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods: One hundred twenty six CHD outpatients were randomly recruited. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI) <1.67 indicates endothelial dysfunction. Correlation between RHI and different biochemical parameters was evaluated. Results: RHI in patients receiving statins treatment was significantly higher than patients without statins treatment (P<0.05). RHI in patients with more than 3 risk factors for CHD was also markedly lower than that in patients with ≤2 risk factors (P<0.05). Patients with lesions at several branches of coronary artery had a markedly lower RHI when compared with those with coronary lesions at a single branch (P<0.05). For patients without statins treatment, RHI increased significantly after statins treatment for 1 month (P=0.01). In patients with endothelial dysfunction, FBG, HbA1C, hs-CRP and Hcy were significantly higher than those in patients with normal endothelial function (P<0.05 for all). Smokers with CHD had a remarkably lower RHI when compared with non-smokers (P<0.05). Conclusions: Smoking, FBG, HbA1C, Hcy and hs-CRP are significantly associated with endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is also related to the numbers of risk factors for CHD, degree of coronary lesions and statins. Statins treatment may significantly improve the endothelial function of CHD patients. PMID:26150839

  18. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  19. Assessing Impact on Family Caregivers to Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington-Boyer, Shannon; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of caregiving among 110 caregivers to aging family member with Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers' appraisals along dimensions of subjective burden, negative impact, caregiving satisfaction, and caregiver mastery were correlated with extent of memory and behavior problems of patient and caregivers' coping style, locus of…

  20. A central executive deficit in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple-Alford, J C; Kalders, A S; Jones, R D; Watson, R W

    1994-01-01

    Eight patients with Parkinson's disease and eight matched controls were tested for concurrent task performance to examine whether Parkinson's disease produces deficits in the coordinating and integrating function of the central executive component of Baddeley's working memory model. Consistent with this prediction, the patients showed a significant decline in performance on a random pursuit tracking task while recalling digit span forward sequences, whereas the controls showed no such change. Performance on the component pursuit and digit span tasks, which did not differ between groups, was equated across subjects by varying the size of a target square and by using individual subjects' digit spans. The patient group also produced poorer word fluency scores and reported higher levels of depression, but there was no significant impairment on the Wisconsin card sort test. There was no association between dual task performance and any psychometric measure, target size, or disease related variables. Baddeley's working memory model is advantageous in providing a rich conceptual basis to explore and characterise cognitive abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:8158188

  1. Ofloxacin induced Sweet's syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Davut; Korkmaz, Uğur; Sahin, Idris; Sencan, Irfan; Kavak, Ayşe; Küçükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Cakir, Selma

    2006-05-01

    Sweet's syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. This syndrome can be idiopathic, para-inflammatory, paraneoplastic, drug-induced, or pregnancy-related. In this paper, a case of Sweet's syndrome associated with ofloxacin therapy in a patient with Crohn's disease is reported. PMID:16213026

  2. Investigation of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gerontoukou, Evangelia-Ioanna; Michaelidoy, Sofia; Rekleiti, Maria; Saridi, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    The health of an individual depends on both his/her physical and psychological condition. In recent years it has been observed that chronic patients have frequently an affected psycho-emotional state. The purpose of this study is to investigate anxiety and depression in patients with chronic diseases and the correlation of the results with daily physical activity levels and individual health levels, as well comorbidity. This study included patients with chronic diseases that were treated in a local general hospital or were visiting often outpatient clinics of the same hospital due to their condition. The sample in this particular study included 204 patients; 118 of them were women and 86 men. From the total sample that participated in our research, 118 (57.8%) were females and the majority of the participants were secondary/basic education graduates (67%), married (71%), living in urban areas (53%). Hypertension was the most frequent chronic disease in our sample, followed by hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus. Comparing the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms in both questionnaires in relation to the expected frequency in the general population, significant levels of depression and anxiety symptoms were recorded. Taking into consideration the findings of this research, anxiety and depression symptoms can have profound effects regarding the control of chronic diseases, the patients’ quality of life and their general health. PMID:26973961

  3. Fulminant herpes colitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    el-Serag, H B; Zwas, F R; Cirillo, N W; Eisen, R N

    1996-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a well-recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection, most commonly in patients with underlying immunodeficiency. The esophagus, perianum, and rectum are the most common sites of involvement; however, extensive colitis is rare. We describe a woman with Crohn's disease who developed pathologically proven HSV colitis. We review the literature and present the possible implications of the diagnosis. PMID:8724263

  4. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  5. Ocular disease in patients with ANCA-positive vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Angela S.; Kempen, John H.; Choi, Dongseok; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Pujari, S. S.; Newcomb, Craig; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Suhler, Eric B.

    2009-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis—the term recently applied to Wegener's granulomatosis—is a rare multi-system inflammation characterized by necrotizing granulomas and vasculitis. We investigated the ocular manifestations of this disease in a group of patients drawn from five inflammatory eye disease clinics across the United States. Of 8,562 persons with ocular inflammation, 59 individuals were diagnosed with ANCA-positive vasculitis; 35 males and 21 females, aged 16 to 96 years, were included in this study. Ocular diagnoses were scleritis (75.0%), uveitis (17.9%), and other ocular inflammatory conditions (33.9%) including peripheral ulcerative keratitis and orbital pseudotumor. Mean duration of ocular disease was 4.6 years. Oral corticosteroids and other systemic immunosuppressive agents were used by 85.7% and 78.5% of patients, respectively. Over time, patients with ANCA-positive vasculitis experienced 2.75-fold higher mortality than other patients with inflammatory eye disease. PMID:20835396

  6. Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litz, Brett T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

  7. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease - patient selection.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of patients who will reliably benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS) is critical to its success. This requires careful evaluation that should be delivered by an expert multidisciplinary team involving a movement disorder neurologist, a neurosurgeon, a neuropsychologist, and a psychiatrist. The most suitable candidates for DBS suffer from Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations and/or dyskinesias that are not adequately controlled with optimized medical therapy, or with medication-refractory tremor. During the best on-motor periods, gait difficulties, instability, and speech problems should be minimal, reflecting an excellent response to levodopa in the ideal candidate. The cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral status must be normal or minimally affected, with the exception of dopamine agonist drug-induced impulse control disorders, which are usually improved after successful surgery and drug withdrawal. Moreover, the patients have no serious comorbidities. Most patients corresponding to this profile suffer from a relatively young onset of Parkinson's disease, and are aged less than 70 years at the time of surgery. Indeed, most patients fall outside this ideal description, and the medical art is to appreciate for each patient the extent to which the alterations of these features can be accepted. Eventually, patients make their own decision from detailed information of their individualized risks and benefits of DBS. Patient expectations, cooperation, and familial support are also important considerations. PMID:24112888

  8. Quality of Sleep in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Askarian, Zahra; Najafi, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing motor and non-motor symptoms. The latter are common and include autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and sleep difficulties. Many of the non-motor aspects of PD such as sleep disturbance are more common and significantly affect the day-to-day activities of patients and their quality of life. The most important aim of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality in patients with PD. Methods: This case-control study was performed on patients with PD referred to the Neurology Clinic of our teaching hospital in 2011. Thirty-four patients with PD and 34 healthy people as control group were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality of patients and control was evaluated by Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS) questionnaire. PDSS is a reliable and valid tool to measure sleep disorders in PD. Results: The mean total PDSS score in patient group was 55.29 (SD = 26.92) indicating moderate to severe sleep disturbances whereas, the mean total score in control group was 20.34 (SD = 10.65). Difference between the two groups’ mean scores was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that patients with PD experienced poorer nocturnal sleep quality than the control group. PMID:23776729

  9. Nutritional supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Yang, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cachexia, sarcopenia, and weight loss, and may result in poorer pulmonary function, decreased exercise capacity, and increased risk of exacerbations. Providing nutritional supplementation is an important therapeutic intervention, particularly for severely ill COPD patients with malnutrition. Higher calorie intake through nutritional supplementation significantly increases body weight and muscle strength, and improves quality of life in malnourished COPD patients. Difficulties may be experienced by these COPD patients, who are struggling to breathe and eliminate CO2 from the lungs, resulting in dyspnea, hypercapnia, hypoxia, and respiratory acidosis, which exacerbates muscle loss through oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. To overcome these problems, nutritional supplements should aim to reduce metabolic CO2 production, lower respiratory quotient, and improve lung function. Several studies have shown that high-fat supplements produce less CO2 and have lower respiratory quotient value than high-carbohydrate supplements. In addition, high-fat supplements may be the most efficient means of providing a low-volume, calorie-dense supplement to COPD patients, and may be most beneficial to patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation where hypercapnia and malnutrition are most pronounced. Further studies are required to investigate the optimal nutritional supplements for COPD patients according to their disease severity. PMID:26822811

  10. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  11. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. METHODS: Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). RESULTS: CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose

  12. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  13. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  14. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  15. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and chronic kidney disease in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kiffel, Jeremy; Rahimzada, Yael; Trachtman, Howard

    2011-09-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common forms of acquired glomerular disease leading to end-stage kidney disease. Its incidence is rising around the world. There is no proven therapy for those patients who do not respond to corticosteroids and it can recur in 20% to 25% of patients who receive a kidney transplant. The disease can be primary, or it can be secondary to various conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, obesity, medications, and infections. Recent advances have demonstrated the important role of genetic mutations in podocyte proteins as a cause of FSGS. There is an urgent need for randomized clinical trials to develop safe and effective therapy for FSGS that occurs in the native or transplanted kidney. PMID:21896374

  16. Patient Identified Disease Burden in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Quinn, Christine; Eastwood, Eileen; Tawil, Rabi; Heatwole, Chad R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The multitude of symptoms associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) disease burden are of varying importance. The extent of these symptoms and their cumulative effect on the FSHD population is unknown. Methods We conducted interviews with adult FSHD patients to identify which symptoms have the greatest effect on their lives. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a qualitative framework technique, triangulation, and 3-investigator consensus approach. Results 1375 quotes were obtained through 20 patient interviews. 251 symptoms of importance were identified representing 14 themes of FSHD disease burden. Symptoms associated with mobility impairment, activity limitation, and social role limitation were most frequently mentioned by participants. Conclusions There are multiple themes and symptoms, some previously under-recognized, that play a key role in FSHD disease burden. PMID:23225386

  17. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  18. Treatment of Anemia in Patients with Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice ... Physicians The full report is titled “Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice ...

  19. Myocardial ischemia during intravenous DSA in patients with cardiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselink, J.R.; Hayman, L.A.; Chung, K.J.; McGinnis, B.D.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    A prospective study was performed for 48 patients who had histories of angina and were referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Cardiac disease was graded according to the American Heart Association (AHA) functional classification system. Each patient received 2-5 injections of 40-ml diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium at 15 ml per second in the superior vena cava. Of the 28 patients in functional Classes I or II, 11% had angina and 32% had definite ischemic ECG changes after the DSA injections. Of the patients in functional Class III 63% had angina, and 58% had definite ischemic ECG changes after the injections. These observed cardiac effects following bolus injections of hypertonic ionic contrast media indicate that special precautions are necessary when performing intravenous DSA examinations on this group of high risk patients.

  20. Uncontrolled chronic disease: patient non-compliance or clinical mismanagement?

    PubMed

    Javors, Jonathan R; Bramble, Judith E

    2003-01-01

    A study group of 30 individuals was randomly chosen from 1,379 beneficiaries predicted to be at risk for health care complications at a large, Midwest, industrial company currently experiencing increased health care costs. All 30 individuals had one or more chronic illness, primarily diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or asthma. Through analysis of medical records, a self-reporting health risk assessment survey, and personal contact with both patients and clinicians, each study individual was assessed as to whether his disease(s) was under control, the individual was compliant with his treatment protocol, and whether the supervising clinician was following nationally accepted standards of care. Fewer than 50% of the individuals in the study group had their chronic illness(es) under control. Those individuals whose treatment adhered to national guidelines were significantly more likely to have their disease under control (p < 0.001). For this study, patient compliance was high and unrelated to whether their disease was under control. Behavioral (external) barriers were most often cited as the reason a clinical practitioner did not follow the appropriate national standard of care. Most clinicians were aware of and familiar with the guidelines; a few either did not agree with or misunderstood the guidelines. The results of this study suggest that changing clinical practice behaviors to better ensure compliance to national standards of care may make a substantial difference in chronic disease control. PMID:14570385

  1. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  2. Orthostatic Hypotension in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Lökk, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is one of the commonly occurring nonmotor symptoms in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonism (AP). We aimed to review current evidences on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of OH in patients with IPD and AP. Major electronic medical databases were assessed including PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase up to February 2013. English-written original or review articles with keywords such as “Parkinson's disease,” “atypical parkinsonism,” and “orthostatic hypotension” were searched for relevant evidences. We addressed different issues such as OH definition, epidemiologic characteristics, pathophysiology, testing and diagnosis, risk factors for symptomatic OH, OH as an early sign of IPD, prognosis, and treatment options of OH in parkinsonian syndromes. Symptomatic OH is present in up to 30% of IPD, 80% of multiple system atrophy (MSA), and 27% of other AP patients. OH may herald the onset of PD before cardinal motor symptoms and our review emphasises the importance of its timely diagnosis (even as one preclinical marker) and multifactorial treatment, starting with patient education and lifestyle approach. Advancing age, male sex, disease severity, and duration and subtype of motor symptoms are predisposing factors. OH increases the risk of falls, which affects the quality of life in PD patients. PMID:24634790

  3. [Self-Management in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chou-Ping; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Hung, Shih-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients typically self-manage their disease-care program. Self-management requires the investment of considerable time and energy in health management and in following the multifaceted CKD treatment regimen. CKD, a progressive disease, is classified into five stages that correspond to the five stages of decline in kidney function, as measured using the glomerular filtration rate (GRF). Each of these stages requires that a patient modify his / her lifestyle and shoulder the responsibility for day-to-day health management tasks. Key to promoting self-management is the partnership and collaboration between healthcare providers and patients. Tasks in this partnership include patient assessment and communication, regimen adherence, emotional management, negotiation of care plans, and the enhancement of self-efficacy, with the aims of creating positive changes in behavior, promoting correct symptoms interpretation and reporting, and promoting the appropriate use of resources. Nurses may help patients maneuver this initially frightening and sometimes difficult terrain with strategies that are tailored to each CKD stage. PMID:27026551

  4. Social Media Use in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Reich, Jason; Groshek, Jacob; Farraye, Francis A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have been more keen to utilize the Internet and in particular, social media to obtain patient educational information in recent years. It is important for the gastroenterologist to be aware of these modalities and how they might affect information exchange and ultimately, disease management. This article addresses the current prevalence of social media use, advent of mobile health applications, social media usage in patients with chronic conditions, usage amongst providers, and most notably, the usage and preferences in IBD patients. Over the last decade there has been an increasing desire from patients to receive educational material about their disease through social media. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of IBD-related information on social media. Given the disparity of information available on the Internet, we remark on the quality of this information and stress the need for further research to assess the validity of IBD information posted on social media. PMID:26894839

  5. Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Jessica Ravikoff; Courtwright, Andrew; Lucci, Matthew; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Levine, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and perceived effectiveness of marijuana use has not been well studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing legal permission for its use in Crohn's disease. Health care providers have little guidance about the IBD symptoms that may improve with marijuana use. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and perceived benefits of marijuana use among patients with IBD. Methods Prospective cohort survey study of marijuana use patterns in patients with IBD at an academic medical center. Results A total of 292 patients completed the survey (response rate = 94%); 12.3% of patients were active marijuana users, 39.0% were past users, and 48.6% were never users. Among current and past users, 16.4% of patients used marijuana for disease symptoms, the majority of whom felt that marijuana was “very helpful” for relief of abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, age and chronic abdominal pain were associated with current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–0.97; P < 0.001 and OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.24-9.82; P = 0.02). Age and chronic abdominal pain were also multivariate predictors of medicinal use of marijuana (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.97; P < 0.001 and OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8–12.2; P = 0.001). Half of the never users expressed an interest in using marijuana for abdominal pain, were it legally available. Conclusions A significant number of patients with IBD currently use marijuana. Most patients find it very helpful for symptom control, including patients with ulcerative colitis, who are currently excluded from medical marijuana laws. Clinical trials are needed to determine marijuana's potential as an IBD therapy and to guide prescribing decisions. PMID:24185313

  6. Nitric oxide status in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y S; Kiranmayi, V S; Bitla, A R; Krishna, G S; Rao, P V L N Srinivasa; Sivakumar, V

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular (CVD) morbidity and mortality, mainly due to atherosclerosis. Decreased production or reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) can result in endothelial dysfunction (ED). Multiple mechanisms are known to cause a state of NO deficiency in patients with CKD. Patients in various stages of CKD grouped as group-1 (CKD stage 1 and 2), group-2 (CKD stage 3 and 4), group-3 (CKD stage 5) and healthy controls were included in the study. Each group of patients and controls comprised 25 subjects. Plasma nitrites, L-arginine, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and citrulline were measured in all the subjects. Patients in all stages of CKD had lower NO and higher ADMA levels compared to controls. Further, group-2 and group-3 patients had lower levels of NO and higher levels of ADMA than group-1 patients. L-arginine levels showed no difference between patients and controls. However, group-3 patients had lower L-arginine levels compared to group-1 patients. Citrulline levels were decreased in group-3 patients. NO production was decreased in patients in all stages of CKD. The decrease could be due to decreased availability of the substrate, L-arginine or due to an increased ADMA, a potent inhibitor of endothelial NO synthase. Therapeutic interventions directed towards improvement of NO production in addition to management of other CVD risk factors may prevent development of ED and facilitate proper management of CKD patients who are at increased risk for CVD. PMID:26628794

  7. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection often occurring in neutropenic patients and has high mortality rates. In recent years, it has been reported that the incidence of IPA has also increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics and treatment responses of IPA in patients with COPD. Methods Seventy-one patients with a positive culture of Aspergillus from lower respiratory tract samples were examined retrospectively. Eleven (15.4%) of these patients, affected with grade 3 or 4 COPD, had IPA. Results Aspergillus hyphae were detected in lung biopsy in three (27.3%) out of 11 patients and defined as proven IPA; a pathological sample was not taken in the other eight (72.7%) patients, and these were defined as probable IPA. Aspergillus isolates were identified as six cases of Aspergillusfumigatus and three of Aspergillusniger in nine patients, while two isolates were not identified at species level. While five patients required intensive care unit admission, four of them received mechanical ventilation. The most common finding on chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) (respectively 63.6%, 72.7%) was infiltration. Amphotericin B was the initial drug of choice in all patients and five patients were discharged with oral voriconazole after amphotericin B therapy. Six patients (54.5%) died before treatment was completed. Conclusions IPA should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis particularly in patients with severe and very severe COPD presenting with dyspnea exacerbation, poor clinical status, and a new pulmonary infiltrate under treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids. PMID:24135224

  8. Functional assessment staging (FAST) in Korean patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Na, Hae-Ri; Kim, Sang-Yun; Chang, Young-Hee; Park, Moon-Ho; Cho, Sung-Tae; Han, Il-Woo; Kim, Tae-You; Hwang, Sul-A

    2010-01-01

    Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) was devised to meet the need for a more brief patient-derived rating scale for evaluating changes in functional performance and activities of daily living skills in all the stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). FAST was administered to 464 patients with probable AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria. The patients were also evaluated using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE), the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (B-ADL), and the Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL). For patients with moderate to severe dementia, the Korean versions of the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB-Ko) and Baylor profound mental status examination (BPMSE-Ko) were also administered. There were significant correlations between the FAST and the K-MMSE scores (r= - 0.71, p< 0.001), between the FAST and the SIB-Ko scores (r= - 0.54, p< 0.001) and between the FAST and the BPMSE-Ko scores (r=- 0.46, p< 0.001). The FAST was also correlated with the CDR, the CDR-SB, the B-ADL, and the S-IADL (p< 0.001). Ultimately, FAST is a reliable and valid assessment technique for evaluating functional deterioration in AD patients throughout the disease course. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that the FAST elucidates a characteristic pattern of progressive, ordinal, and functional decline in AD in Korean AD patients with dementia. PMID:20847407

  9. Management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Abdul A; Elkhalili, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a comorbid condition that affects, based on recent estimates, between 47% and 54% of patients with gouty arthritis. However, data from randomized controlled trials in patients with gouty arthritis and CKD are limited, and current gouty arthritis treatment guidelines do not address the challenges associated with managing this patient population. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine are recommended first-line treatments for acute gouty arthritis attacks. However, in patients with CKD, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended because their use can exacerbate or cause acute kidney injury. Also, colchicine toxicity is increased in patients with CKD, and dosage reduction is required based on level of kidney function. Allopurinol, febuxostat, and pegloticase are all effective treatments for controlling elevated uric acid levels after the treatment of an acute attack. However, in patients with CKD, required allopurinol dosage reductions may limit efficacy; pegloticase requires further investigation in this population, and febuxostat has not been studied in patients with creatinine clearance<30 mL/min. This article reviews the risks and benefits associated with currently available pharmacologic agents for the management of acute and chronic gouty arthritis including urate-lowering therapy in patients with CKD. Challenges specific to primary care providers are addressed, including guidance to help them decide when to collaborate with, or refer patients to, rheumatology and nephrology specialists based on the severity of gout and CKD. PMID:22960848

  10. Using Electronic Patient Records to Discover Disease Correlations and Stratify Patient Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Schmock, Henriette; Dalgaard, Marlene; Andreatta, Massimo; Hansen, Thomas; Søeby, Karen; Bredkjær, Søren; Juul, Anders; Werge, Thomas; Jensen, Lars J.; Brunak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Electronic patient records remain a rather unexplored, but potentially rich data source for discovering correlations between diseases. We describe a general approach for gathering phenotypic descriptions of patients from medical records in a systematic and non-cohort dependent manner. By extracting phenotype information from the free-text in such records we demonstrate that we can extend the information contained in the structured record data, and use it for producing fine-grained patient stratification and disease co-occurrence statistics. The approach uses a dictionary based on the International Classification of Disease ontology and is therefore in principle language independent. As a use case we show how records from a Danish psychiatric hospital lead to the identification of disease correlations, which subsequently can be mapped to systems biology frameworks. PMID:21901084

  11. Cancer Risk in Patients With Inflammatory Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Huang, Lu Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Kuan; See, Lai-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether inflammation is related to cancer development, and whether the incidence of cancer is increased and occurs in a site-specific manner in patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). This study included a nationwide dynamic cohort of patients with various newly diagnosed SARDs from 1997 to 2010 with follow-up until 2012. This study included 75,123 patients with SARDs. During 562,870 person-years of follow-up, 2844 patients developed cancer. Between 1997 and 2010, the highest number of newly diagnosed SARDs cases were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 35,182), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 15,623), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11,998), Kawasaki disease (n = 3469), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 2853), scleroderma (n = 1814), Behçet disease (n = 1620), dermatomyositis (n = 1119), polymyositis (n = 811), and vasculitis other than Kawasaki disease (n = 644). A significant standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of overall cancer was observed for patients with SLE (1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–1.56), Sjögren syndrome (1.19; 95% CI, 1.08–1.30), scleroderma (1.27; 95% CI, 1.02–1.59), dermatomyositis (4.79; 95% CI, 4.01–5.73), polymyositis (1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.06), vasculitis excluding Kawasaki disease (1.75; 95% CI, 1.20–2.55), and Kawasaki disease (2.88; 95% CI, 1.60–5.20). Overall, patients with most SARDs had a significantly higher risk of inflammation-associated site-specific cancers and hematologic malignancies. This study confirms that autoimmunity is associated with site-specific and hematological malignancies and provides clinical evidence of an association between inflammation and subsequent site-specific cancer development. These findings support the importance of inflammation in site-specific organ system carcinogenesis. PMID:27149461

  12. Alcoholic patients' response to their disease: perspective of patients and family

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to know the perspective of alcoholic patients and their families about the behavioral characteristics of the disease, identifying the issues to modify the addictive behavior and seek rehabilitation. Method: ethnographic research using interpretative anthropology, via participant observation and a detailed interview with alcoholic patients and their families, members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Alanon in Spain. Results: development of disease behavior in alcoholism is complex due to the issues of interpreting the consumption model as a disease sign. Patients often remain long periods in the pre-contemplation stage, delaying the search for assistance, which often arrives without them accepting the role of patient. This constrains the recovery and is related to the social thought on alcoholism and self-stigma on alcoholics and their families, leading them to deny the disease, condition of the patient, and help. The efforts of self-help groups and the involvement of health professionals is essential for recovery. Conclusion: understanding how disease behavior develops, and the change process of addictive behavior, it may be useful for patients, families and health professionals, enabling them to act in a specific way at each stage. PMID:26626009

  13. Sevelamer carbonate experience in Indian end stage renal disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, G.; Kher, V.; Saxena, S.; Jayakumar, M.; Chafekar, D.; Pargaonkar, P.; Shetty, M.; Reddy, Y. N. V.; Reddy, Y. N. V.

    2012-01-01

    This open label, multicentric, comparative clinical trial was done to compare the efficacy and tolerability of two sevelamer formulations, sevelamer carbonate, and sevelamer hydrochloride, in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in Indian end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A total of 97 ESRD patients on hemodialysis, were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either sevelamer carbonate or sevelamer hydrochloride. All patients were evaluated every week for 6 weeks for efficacy and safety variables. Total 88 patients completed the study. After 6 weeks of therapy, there were similar reductions (P<0.0001) in mean serum phosphorus and the CaxP product both the groups. The responder rates for test and reference groups were 75%, 68.18% respectively (P=0.3474). The adverse events reported were nausea, abdominal pain/discomfort, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, increased prothrombin time, and severe arthritis. No serious adverse events were reported. There was no significant difference between the groups for adverse events and the laboratory parameters. From the results of this multicentric, comparative, randomized clinical study on sevelamer carbonate we can recommend that sevelamer carbonate may be used as a phosphate binder in Indian chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:23087553

  14. MMPI for personality characteristics of patients with different diseases.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, N

    2015-01-01

    In the field of psychosomatic medicine the relationship between personality characteristics and diseases is supposed to be an important issue. The aim of this article is to present group's MMPI profiles obtained for patients with different chronic diseases and to discuss about possible specific features of these different groups. We summarized results obtained by psychological testing of following groups of patients: adult patients treated with chronic maintenance dialysis, patients with diabetic retinopathy, general anxiety group, attack panic syndrome, parents of children with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as adolescents with mental anorexia, cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and leukemia. Two control groups comprised adults and adolescents, both without any health problems, selected randomly. As a psychometric test MMPI-201 was used. Statistic 10 package is used for statistical analysis. In our presentation it can be seen some typical personality characteristics for patients with chronic conditions. These findings could be helpful for clinicians concerning treatment planning and follow-up. In general, the MMPI helps us to obtain a global, factual picture from the self-assessment of the patient, explained in a psycho-technical language. Group's profile could be used in clinical practice for planning treatment and to suppose the prognosis of the illness. PMID:26076785

  15. Ocular surface disease in posttrabeculectomy/mitomycin C patients

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Janice; Wong, Tina T; Tong, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to describe the demographics, risk factors, clinical signs, severity, and outcome of ocular surface disease (OSD) in 12 patients who had undergone trabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC). Methods Twelve glaucoma patients were referred to the Dry Eye Clinic (Singapore National Eye Centre) for further management of clinically significant OSD. Results Of the 15 eyes from 12 patients, 14 were treated with MMC and one with 5-fluorouracil. Mean age was 69.3±10.6 years and two-thirds were male. The median interval before onset of dry eye symptoms after surgery was 13.5 months. Mean tear breakup time (TBUT) was 5.32 seconds and mean Schirmer score was 6.14 mm/5 min. Possible major risk factors for OSD in the cases include limbal stem cell deficiency occurring from exposure to antimetabolites, chronic use of antiglaucoma medications prior to surgery, and the preoperative status of the ocular surface prior to disease onset. Treatment of OSD resulted in improved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in 50% of the patients, with a median gain of two-line improvement in BCVA. Conclusion OSD is a clinical problem often overlooked in patients who undergo antimetabolite-augmented filtration surgery. Recognition of the condition and appropriate treatment can improve patient symptoms and reduce health-care burdens on the economy. PMID:25678766

  16. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wong, May-Kuen; Lai, Jin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD. PMID:24348732

  17. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  18. Microangiopathy in the cerebellum of patients with mitochondrial DNA disease

    PubMed Central

    Lax, Nichola Z.; Pienaar, Ilse S.; Reeve, Amy K.; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; Jaros, Evelyn; Taylor, Robert W.; Kalaria, Raj N.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathological findings in mitochondrial DNA disease vary and are often dependent on the type of mitochondrial DNA defect. Many reports document neuronal cell loss, demyelination, gliosis and necrotic lesions in post-mortem material. However, previous studies highlight vascular abnormalities in patients harbouring mitochondrial DNA defects, particularly in those with the m.3243A>G mutation in whom stroke-like events are part of the mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome. We investigated microangiopathic changes in the cerebellum of 16 genetically and clinically well-defined patients. Respiratory chain deficiency, high levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA and increased mitochondrial mass were present within the smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells comprising the vessel wall in patients. These changes were not limited to those harbouring the m.3243A>G mutation frequently associated with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, but were documented in patients harbouring m.8344A>G and autosomal recessive polymerase (DNA directed), gamma (POLG) mutations. In 8 of the 16 patients, multiple ischaemic-like lesions occurred in the cerebellar cortex suggestive of vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction. Indeed, changes in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium distribution and cell size are indicative of vascular cell loss. We found evidence of blood–brain barrier breakdown characterized by plasma protein extravasation following fibrinogen and IgG immunohistochemistry. Reduced immunofluorescence was also observed using markers for endothelial tight junctions providing further evidence in support of blood–brain barrier breakdown. Understanding the structural and functional changes occurring in central nervous system microvessels in patients harbouring mitochondrial DNA defects will provide an important insight into mechanisms of neurodegeneration in mitochondrial DNA disease. Since therapeutic

  19. Treatment Outcome of Patients with Buruli Ulcer Disease in Togo

    PubMed Central

    Beissner, Marcus; Arens, Nathalie; Wiedemann, Franz; Piten, Ebekalisaï; Kobara, Basile; Bauer, Malkin; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Badziklou, Kossi; Banla Kere, Abiba; Löscher, Thomas; Nitschke, Jörg; Bretzel, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Background Following introduction of antimycobacterial treatment of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD), several clinical studies evaluated treatment outcomes of BUD patients, in particular healing times, secondary lesions and functional limitations. Whereas recurrences were rarely observed, paradoxical reactions and functional limitations frequently occurred. Although systematic BUD control in Togo was established as early as 2007, treatment outcome has not been reviewed to date. Therefore, a pilot project on post-treatment follow-up of BUD patients in Togo aimed to evaluate treatment outcomes and to provide recommendations for optimization of treatment success. Methodology/Principal Findings Out of 199 laboratory confirmed BUD patients, 129 could be enrolled in the study. The lesions of 109 patients (84.5%) were completely healed without any complications, 5 patients (3.9%) had secondary lesions and 15 patients (11.6%) had functional limitations. Edema, category III ulcers >15cm, healing times >180 days and a limitation of movement at time of discharge constituted the main risk factors significantly associated with BUD related functional limitations (P<0.01). Review of all BUD related documentation revealed major shortcomings, in particular concerning medical records on adjuvant surgical and physiotherapeutic treatment. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first systematic analysis of treatment outcome of BUD patients from Togo. Median times to healing and the absence of recurrences were in line with findings reported by other investigators. The percentage of functional limitations of 11.6% was lower than in other studies, and edema, category III ulcers, healing time >180 days and limitation of movement at discharge constituted the main risk factors for functional limitations in Togolese BUD patients. Standardized treatment plans, patient assessment and follow-up, as well as improved management of medical records are recommended to allow for intensified

  20. Falls in ambulatory non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Damier, Philippe; Delval, Arnaud; Derkinderen, Pascal; Destée, Alain; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, Francois; Negre-Pages, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the prevalence of falling in PD patients, to assess generic and disease-specific clinical and pharmacological factors, relationship with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and changes in falls from OFF to ON in patients with motor fluctuations. Six-hundred and eighty-three PD patients of the COPARK survey were evaluated (11 had missing data and were excluded from the analysis). Patients with falls were identified as those with a UPDRS Item 13 ≥ 1 in the ON condition. All patients were assessed in a standardized manner [demographics, treatments, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pittsburg questionnaire and HR-QoL scales (SF36, PDQ39)]. Falling was reported by 108/672 (16%) PD patients during the ON state and prevalence increased according to PD severity, from 5% in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-60% in stage 4. Falling was significantly related to lower HR-QoL. Falling correlated with (1) generic factors such as female gender, age at the end of academic studies and diuretics consumption, (2) motor PD-specific factors including disease severity, frozen gait, difficulties when arising from a chair, dyskinesia and higher levodopa daily equivalent dose and (3) non-motor PD-specific factors such as orthostatic hypotension and hallucinations. Falling was more frequent in OFF than in ON in 48/74 (64%) patients with motor fluctuations and remained unchanged in 27 patients (36%). In summary, falling affected a significant proportion of PD patients, especially in advanced stages. It was associated with a variety of generic and PD-specific factors and was related to reduced HR-QoL. PMID:25845678

  1. Comorbidity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Diseases in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Olmos, Luis; Salvador, Carlos H.; Alberquilla, Ángel; Lora, David; Carmona, Montserrat; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Monteagudo, José Luis; García-López, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare management is oriented toward single diseases, yet multimorbidity is nevertheless the rule and there is a tendency for certain diseases to occur in clusters. This study sought to identify comorbidity patterns in patients with chronic diseases, by reference to number of comorbidities, age and sex, in a population receiving medical care from 129 general practitioners in Spain, in 2007. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a health-area setting of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma), covering a population of 198,670 individuals aged over 14 years. Multiple correspondences were analyzed to identify the clustering patterns of the conditions targeted. Results Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8–42.2) of the registered population had at least one chronic condition. In all, 24.5% (95% CI: 24.3–24.6) of the population presented with multimorbidity. In the correspondence analysis, 98.3% of the total information was accounted for by three dimensions. The following four, age- and sex-related comorbidity patterns were identified: pattern B, showing a high comorbidity rate; pattern C, showing a low comorbidity rate; and two patterns, A and D, showing intermediate comorbidity rates. Conclusions Four comorbidity patterns could be identified which grouped diseases as follows: one showing diseases with a high comorbidity burden; one showing diseases with a low comorbidity burden; and two showing diseases with an intermediate comorbidity burden. PMID:22359665

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variants observed in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shoffner, J.M.; Brown, M.D.; Torroni, A.; Lott, M.T.; Cabell, M.F.; Mirra, S.S.; Yang, C.C.; Gearing, M.; Salvo, R. ); Beal, M.F. )

    1993-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) were sought by restriction endonuclease analysis in a cohort of 71 late-onset Caucasian patients. A tRNA[sup Gln] gene variant at nucleotide pair (np) 4336 that altered a moderately conserved nucleotide was present in 9/173 (5.2%) of the patients surveyed but in only 0.7% of the general Caucasian controls. One of these patients harbored an additional novel 12S rRNA 5-nucleotide insertion at np 956-965, while a second had a missense variant at np 3397 that converted a highly conserved methionine to a valine. This latter mutation was also found in an independent AD + PD patient, as was a heteroplasmic 16S rRNA variant at np 3196. Additional studies will be required to determine the significance, if any, of these mutations. 122 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Screening of celiac disease in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia].

    PubMed

    Fojtík, P; Novosad, P; Kliment, M; Hrdý, P; Bóday, A; Richterová, R; Urban, O

    2011-12-01

    The celiac disease is traditionally viewed as the children's disease with a typical form accompanied mainly by intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. This opinion is still generally accepted by the medical community. Findings based on the area-wide screening show that the prevalence has risen from the original 1 : 1 000-1 500 to 1 : 70-550. The average prevalence in the western countries is nearly 1 : 100. The prevalence of the celiac disease in the Czech republic is estimated to be approximately 1 : 200-250. It means that the number of people in the Czech republic who are likely to be affected is about 40,000-50,000 people. Currently only 10-15% of the total number of the ill people are diagnosed and monitored. Adult patients represent the main diagnostic problem because their clinical pictures are individual and the main symptoms are atypical (nonenteral). These are anaemia (mainly sideropnic), early/premature osteoporosis, herpetiformic (Duhring) dermatitis, polyneurititis, ataxia, depression, behavioural disorders, menstrual cycle disorders and infertility. Therefore our attention is currently focused on the screening of these groups of subjects. The purpose of our study was to check the frequency of the celiac disease with patients with diagnosed osteoporosis and osteopenia. In our study we have confirmed the assumption that the prevalence ofthe celiac disease in the group of subjects was 1 : 50, which means that 2.2% of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia are affected by celiac sprue and therefore screening examination of these patients with the subsequent causal treatment (gluten-free diet) is recommended. PMID:22277032

  4. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hyun; Kim, Yeo Hyang; Hyun, Myung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Kawasaki disease involves acute febrile systemic vasculitis that can cause a variety of symptoms by affecting various organs. Here, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence, causes, and prognosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) occurring in children with Kawasaki disease. Methods Patients who were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease and received inpatient treatment in the Pediatrics Department at one of three university hospitals in Daegu city from February 2012 to September 2012 were enrolled in the study. The clinical features, hematological results, echocardiography results, audiometry results, and aspirin and salicylic acid serum levels of the patients were evaluated. Results Of the 59 children enrolled in the study, three showed mild bilateral SNHL on audiometry tests conducted after 48 hours of defervescence; these patients demonstrated normal patterns of recovery on follow-up tests 8 weeks later. Aspirin serum levels were significantly higher in the SNHL group after 48 hours of afebrile condition with high dose aspirin intake (P=0.034). However, no significant differences were found in other laboratory tests or for fever duration (P>0.05). Upon echocardiography, coronary artery abnormality was observed in 9 cases, but none of these patients showed hearing loss. Conclusion The results indicate that SNHL in children with Kawasaki disease might occur during treatment of the acute phase; this SNHL usually involves mild bilateral hearing loss and recovers naturally. However, this study suggests that determination of the causes and clinical implications of hearing loss in Kawasaki disease requires long-term follow-up studies with more cases. PMID:26692879

  5. Novel OCRL mutations in patients with Dent-2 disease

    PubMed Central

    Böckenhauer, Detlef; Bökenkamp, Arend; Nuutinen, Matti; Unwin, Robert; van't Hoff, William; Sirimanna, Tony; Vrljicak, Kristina; Ludwig, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dent disease is an X-linked tubulopathy frequently caused by mutations in the CLCN5 gene encoding the voltage-gated chloride channel and chloride/proton antiporter, ClC-5. About 15% of patients with a Dent' phenotype have mutations in the OCRL gene, which also causes Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome. To distinguish these patients from the more severe Lowe phenotype, they are diagnosed as having Dent-2 disease. We studied 14 CLCN5-negative patients from 12 families with a phenotype resembling Dent disease for defects in OCRL. In six of these kindreds three novel (c.149+1G>A, c.1126A>T, c.1547T>C) and three repeatedly observed mutations (c.166_167delTT, c.901C>T, c.1426C>T) were discovered. With the exception of a lower prevalence of nephrocalcinosis, the renal phenotype is identical with patients harboring a CLCN5 mutation. Affected children may have some of the extra-renal symptoms of Lowe syndrome, such as peripheral cataracts, mental impairment, stunted growth or elevation of creatine kinase/lactate dehydrogenase, blurring the distinction between those two clinical entities.

  6. [Preparing patients with chronic pulmonary disease for air travel].

    PubMed

    Felkai, Péter; Böszörményi Nagy, György; Gyarmati, Ildikó

    2013-03-01

    Flying is the most important way of travelling in the continually growing international tourism. Number of passengers and those with preexisting diseases, mainly with cardiopulmonary problems, is increasing over years. One of the main tasks of the pre-travel advice is to assess tolerance to hypoxia of the traveler, and specify the necessity, as well as the type and volume of supplementary oxygen therapy. It is indispensable to know the cabin-environment and impact of that on the travelers' health. Travel medicine specialist has to be aware of the examinations which provide information for the appropriate decision on the fit-to-fly condition of the patient. The physician who prepares the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for repatriation by regular flight and the escorting doctor have to be fully aware of the possibilities, modalities, advantages and contraindications of the on-board oxygen supply and therapy. In this review, the authors give a summary of literature data, outline the tools of in-flight oxygen therapy as well as discuss possibilities for the preflight assessment of patients' condition including blood gas parameters required for safe air travel, as recommended in international medical literature. The preparation process for repatriation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also discussed. PMID:23434882

  7. Clinical holistic medicine: the patient with multiple diseases.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2005-04-12

    In clinical practice, patients can present with many different diseases, often both somatic and mental. Holistic medicine will try to see the diseases as a whole, as symptoms of a more fundamental imbalance in the state of being. The holistic physician must help the patient to recover existence and a good relationship with self. According to the life mission theory, theory of character, and holistic process theory of healing, recovering the purpose of life (the life mission) is essential for the patient to regain life, love, and trust in order to find happiness and realize the true purpose of life. We illustrate the power of the holistic medical approach with a case study of an invalidated female artist, aged 42 years, who suffered from multiple severe health problems, many of which had been chronic for years. She had a combination of neurological disturbances (tinnitus, migraine, minor hallucinations), immunological disturbances (recurrent herpes simplex, phlegm in the throat, fungal infection in the crotch), hormonal disturbances (14 days of menstruation in each cycle), muscle disturbances (neck tensions), mental disturbances (tendency to cry, inferiority feeling, mild depression, desolation, anxiety), abdominal complaints, hemorrhoids, and more. The treatment was a combined strategy of improving the general quality of life, recovering her human character and purpose of life ("renewing the patients life energy", "balancing her global information system"), and processing the local blockages, thus healing most of her many different diseases in a treatment using 30 h of intense holistic therapy over a period of 18 months. PMID:15962199

  8. Positron emission tomography in patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    McGeer, P L; Kamo, H; Harrop, R; Li, D K; Tuokko, H; McGeer, E G; Adam, M J; Ammann, W; Beattie, B L; Calne, D B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients who had clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease with mild to severe dementia (mean age 69.1 years) were evaluated by calculation of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMR-gl) based on uptake of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) detected with positron emission tomography (PET). PET scanning showed that the patients had significantly lower LCMR-gl values than 11 age-matched neurologically normal volunteers (mean age 66.3 years). The differences were most marked in the temporal cortex, followed by the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex. In each case the LCMR-gl value was below the lowest control value in at least one cortical area and usually in several; the reduction in LCMR-gl and the number of regions involved in the patients increased with the severity of the dementia. Deficits noted in neuropsychologic testing generally correlated with those predicted from loss of regional cortical metabolism. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were also examined with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or both; the degree of atrophy found showed only a poor correlation with the neuropsychologic deficit. Significant atrophy was also noted in some of the controls. A detailed analysis of LCMR-gl values in selected cerebral regions of various sizes refuted the hypothesis that the reduction in cortical glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease is due to the filling by metabolically inert cerebrospinal fluid of space created by tissue atrophy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3512063

  9. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease in patients with molecularly confirmed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mierzewska, H; Jamroz, E; Mazurczak, T; Hoffman-Zacharska, D; Szczepanik, E

    2016-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is X-linked hypomyelinating leukodystrophy caused by mutations of the PLP1 gene, which codes the proteolipid protein 1. The result of mutations is abnormal myelination - hypomyelination and dysmyelination of cerebral white matter, and in some form of the disease hypomyelinating peripheral neuropathy. DNA samples from 68 patients suspected of PMD due to the clinical course and hypomyelination at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analyzed. Medical history and detailed clinical course of PMD patients were also analyzed. Different mutations of the PLP1 gene were detected in 14 boys from 11 families (~20%). Amongst the molecularly confirmed patients, 13 presented classical PMD forms but clinical phenotypes varied in the severity even amongst siblings. One patient presented a severe connatal form. One mother, obligate carrier, presented complicated SPG2 (spastic paraparesis). There was no phenotype-genotype correlation in our material. In many cases PMD was suspected with a delay of many years, sometimes only after birth of another affected child in the family. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease was most frequently misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. PMID:27179222

  10. Patient-Specific Airway Wall Remodeling in Chronic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mona; Kuschner, Ware G; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic lung disease affects more than a quarter of the adult population; yet, the mechanics of the airways are poorly understood. The pathophysiology of chronic lung disease is commonly characterized by mucosal growth and smooth muscle contraction of the airways, which initiate an inward folding of the mucosal layer and progressive airflow obstruction. Since the degree of obstruction is closely correlated with the number of folds, mucosal folding has been extensively studied in idealized circular cross sections. However, airflow obstruction has never been studied in real airway geometries; the behavior of imperfect, non-cylindrical, continuously branching airways remains unknown. Here we model the effects of chronic lung disease using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth. We perform finite element analysis of patient-specific Y-branch segments created from magnetic resonance images. We demonstrate that the mucosal folding pattern is insensitive to the specific airway geometry, but that it critically depends on the mucosal and submucosal stiffness, thickness, and loading mechanism. Our results suggests that patient-specific airway models with inherent geometric imperfections are more sensitive to obstruction than idealized circular models. Our models help to explain the pathophysiology of airway obstruction in chronic lung disease and hold promise to improve the diagnostics and treatment of asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and respiratory failure. PMID:25821112

  11. Communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Esparcia, Antonio; López-Villafranca, Paloma

    2016-08-01

    The current study focuses on communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations. The aims of these organizations are: educate and inform the public about rare diseases, raise awareness of the problems related to rare diseases, and achieve social legitimacy in order give visibility to their demands. We analyzed the portrayal of rare disease and patient organizations by Spain's major media organizations in terms of circulation and viewership - the press (El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia,ABC and El Periódico), radio (CadenaSer, Onda Cero, Cope and RNE), and television (Telecinco, Antena 3, La 1, La Sexta, Cuatro) -between 2012 and 2014.We then carried out a descriptive analysis of communication activities performed via the World Wide Web and social networks by 143 national organizations. Finally, we conducted a telephone questionnaire of a representative sample of 90 organizations in order to explore the association between media presence and funding and public image. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed us to meet the study's objectives. Increased visibility of the organizations afforded by an increase in the coverage of the topic by the medialed to an increase in membership - but not in donations - and increased awareness of these diseases. PMID:27557016

  12. Nuclear Medicine in Thyroid Diseases in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volkan-Salancı, Bilge; Özgen Kıratlı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Both benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid are rare in the pediatric and adolescent population, except congenital hypothyroidism. Nuclear medicine plays a major role, both in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid pathologies. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is strictly controlled due to possible side effects such as secondary cancers; therefore, management of pediatric patients requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to overview current algorithms in the management of thyroid diseases and use of radionuclide therapy in pediatric and adolescent population. PMID:26316469

  13. Imaging Approaches to Patients with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Arlene B.; Wei, Wenjing

    2011-01-01

    Imaging is an important approach to diagnosis, monitoring and predicting outcomes for patients with Autosomal Dominant polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). This paper reviews three common clinical imaging techniques, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their role in management of ADPKD. Ultrasonographic criteria for diagnosis in children and adults are reviewed. Total kidney volume (TKV), as measured by MRI, is suggested as important potential marker to determine disease progression and overall prognosis. Renal blood flow (RBF) and a novel approach to interpreting non-cystic renal parenchymal by CT images are other innovative imaging approaches described. PMID:21784272

  14. Management of the 'young' patient with hip disease.

    PubMed

    Ritterman, Scott A; Rubin, Lee E

    2013-03-01

    Although hip arthritis typically affects older patients, there is a rapidly growing population of "young" patients experiencing debilitating symptoms from hip disease. Most commonly, osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis affect this population, but a variety of other primary structural and metabolic causes can also occur. The expectations of these younger patients are often distinct from geriatric patients, and the challenges in optimizing their care are unique in this demanding population. Selection of the implant, bearing surface, and surgical technique can all impact the success and longevity of total hip replacement. A consideration for respecting the native bone stock is an important consideration that can potentially reduce some of the future challenges of revision arthroplasty in this young population. PMID:23641435

  15. Meaningful rehabilitation of the end-stage renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Thornton, T A; Hakim, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this highly technological age, health care providers are called to attend to the patient as a whole person, with dreams and goals and a desire for purpose and meaning in life. In this article, we propose a broadened definition of rehabilitation and a rehabilitation program designed to effect an improvement in the quality of life of each renal patient by aiming to restore meaningful existence in each of their lives. An individualized plan for rehabilitation can be constructed and implemented with far-reaching success when the focus is on the life goals of the patient, whether physical, social, psychological, or intellectual. These programs not only enhance the quality of life of the patient with end-stage renal disease, but are cost-effective, both at the societal level and at the level of the dialysis clinic. PMID:9165654

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid carnitine levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rubio, J C; de Bustos, F; Molina, J A; Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Benito-León, J; Martín, M A; Campos, Y; Ortí-Pareja, M; Cabrera-Valdivia, F; Arenas, J

    1998-03-01

    We assessed free carnitine (FC) and acylcarnitine esters (AC) in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 24 patients with diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 28 healthy matched-controls. We found no significant correlation between FC and AC levels in CSF. FC and AC levels in CSF did not differ significantly between AD patients and controls, but plasma FC levels were significantly lower in AD patients. CSF and plasma FC and AC levels did not correlate with age, age at onset of AD, duration of AD, and scores of the Minimental State Examination of Folstein. Although these results suggest that CSF carnitine levels are apparently unrelated with the risk for AD, the trend of the FC/AC ratio to be higher in AD patients might suggest the possibility of a lower carnitine acetyltransferase activity in AD, as previously reported in some brain areas. PMID:9562266

  17. Nutritional profile of adult patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, L; Delibasic, M; Peta, V; Turkulov, V; De Lorenzo, A; Medić-Stojanoska, M

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated gluten dependent enteropathy induced by ingestion of gluten, characterized by intestinal malabsorption and subtotals or total atrophy of intestinal villi. The predominant consequence of CD in untreated patients, is malnutrition as a result of malabsorption. Moreover, several and increasing extra-intestinal clinical manifestations have been described in the CD patients. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves nutritional status, inducing an increase in fat and bone compartments, but does not completely normalize body composition and nutritional deficiencies. An early and accurate evaluation of nutritional status can be of the pivotal step in the clinical management of the adult CD patients. The aim of this review is to present the most important and recent data on nutritional and metabolic features in the CD adult patients, the related implications and the effects of the GFD on these conditions. PMID:26636515

  18. Invasive fungal diseases in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nicolato, Andrea; Nouér, Simone A; Garnica, Marcia; Portugal, Rodrigo; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) represents an important complication in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of IFD in ALL patients with neutropenia, identify factors associated with IFD, and estimate the impact of IFD on the outcome. All patients with ALL who developed febrile neutropenia from 1987 to 2013 were evaluated. Cases of IFD were classified as proven or probable. Factors associated with IFD were evaluated by comparing episodes with and without a diagnosis of IFD. Among 350 episodes of febrile neutropenia, 31 IFDs were diagnosed (8.8%). Prolonged neutropenia was the only factor associated with IFD caused by yeasts. Factors associated with IFD caused by molds by multivariate analysis were the period after 2008, receipt of allogeneic transplant, relapsed ALL and prolonged neutropenia. Patients in relapse should receive induction chemotherapy in rooms with HEPA filter and receive antifungal prophylaxis. PMID:26949001

  19. Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Weldemichael, Dawit A.; Grossberg, George T.

    2010-01-01

    Circadian Rhythm Disturbances (CRDs) affect as many as a quarter of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients during some stage of their illness. Alterations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and melatonin secretion are the major factors linked with the cause of CRDs. As a result, the normal physiology of sleep, the biological clock, and core body temperature are affected. This paper systematically discusses some of the causative factors, typical symptoms, and treatment options for CRDs in patients with AD. This paper also emphasizes the implementation of behavioral and environmental therapies before embarking on medications to treat CRDs. Pharmacotherapeutic options are summarized to provide symptomatic benefits for the patient and relieve stress on their families and professional care providers. As of today, there are few studies relative to CRDs in AD. Large randomized trials are warranted to evaluate the effects of treatments such as bright light therapy and engaging activities in the reduction of CRDs in AD patients. PMID:20862344

  20. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  1. Domestic exposure to legionellae for Dutch Legionnaires' disease patients.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Linda P B; Yzerman, Ed P F; Bruin, Jacob P; Den Boer, Jeroen W

    2004-11-01

    The source of infection for travelers who develop Legionnaires' disease (LD) shortly after a journey abroad is difficult to ascertain. Infection is likely to have occurred abroad, but could also have occurred at the patient's own residence. The authors conducted a case-control study to determine risk for acquiring LD at home in the Netherlands after traveling abroad. They compared homes of 44 traveling LD patients with 44 homes of nontraveling LD patients, using logistic regression models. Geographic distribution was confounding the association between traveling and presence of Legionella spp. in residences; adjustment was necessary. In traveler's homes, legionellae were present more often, with crude and adjusted OR (95% CI) being 1.6 (0.5-5.0) and 1.4 (0.4-4.4), respectively. The authors' findings indicate that the patient's residence can be a potential source of infection after traveling. PMID:16599008

  2. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S; Abdulhadi, Nadia N; Coppell, Kirsten J

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002-2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  3. Patient and Other Stakeholder Engagement in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Funded Studies of Patients with Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cukor, Daniel; Cohen, Lewis M; Cope, Elizabeth L; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Hedayati, S Susan; Hynes, Denise M; Shah, Vallabh O; Tentori, Francesca; Unruh, Mark; Bobelu, Jeanette; Cohen, Scott; Dember, Laura M; Faber, Thomas; Fischer, Michael J; Gallardo, Rani; Germain, Michael J; Ghahate, Donica; Grote, Nancy; Hartwell, Lori; Heagerty, Patrick; Kimmel, Paul L; Kutner, Nancy; Lawson, Susan; Marr, Lisa; Nelson, Robert G; Porter, Anna C; Sandy, Phillip; Struminger, Bruce B; Subramanian, Lalita; Weisbord, Steve; Young, Bessie; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2016-09-01

    Including target populations in the design and implementation of research trials has been one response to the growing health disparities endemic to our health care system, as well as an aid to study generalizability. One type of community-based participatory research is "Patient Centered-Research", in which patient perspectives on the germane research questions and methodologies are incorporated into the study. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has mandated that meaningful patient and stakeholder engagement be incorporated into all applications. As of March 2015, PCORI funded seven clinically-focused studies of patients with kidney disease. The goal of this paper is to synthesize the experiences of these studies to gain an understanding of how meaningful patient and stakeholder engagement can occur in clinical research of kidney diseases, and what the key barriers are to its implementation. Our collective experience suggests that successful implementation of a patient- and stakeholder-engaged research paradigm involves: (1) defining the roles and process for the incorporation of input; (2) identifying the particular patients and other stakeholders; (3) engaging patients and other stakeholders so they appreciate the value of their own participation and have personal investment in the research process; and (4) overcoming barriers and challenges that arise and threaten the productivity of the collaboration. It is our hope that the experiences of these studies will further interest and capacity for incorporating patient and stakeholder perspectives in research of kidney diseases. PMID:27197911

  4. Support for patients with celiac disease: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Card, Tim; Ciclitira, Paul J; Swift, Gillian L; Nasr, Ikram; Sanders, David S; Ciacci, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong disorder. Patients are at increased risk of complications and comorbidity. Objectives We conducted a review of the literature on patient support and information in CD and aim to issue recommendations about patient information with regards to CD. Methods Data source: We searched PubMed for English-language articles published between 1900 and June 2014, containing terms related to costs, economics of CD, or education and CD. Study selection: Papers deemed relevant by any of the participating authors were included in the study. Data synthesis: No quantitative synthesis of data was performed. Instead we formulated a consensus view of the information that should be offered to all patients with CD. Results There are few randomized clinical trials examining the effect of patient support in CD. Patients and their families receive information from many sources. It is important that health care personnel guide the patient through the plethora of facts and comments on the Internet. An understanding of CD is likely to improve dietary adherence. Patients should be educated about current knowledge about risk factors for CD, as well as the increased risk of complications. Patients should also be advised to avoid other health hazards, such as smoking. Many patients are eager to learn about future non-dietary treatments of CD. This review also comments on novel therapies but it is important to stress that no such treatment is available at present. Conclusion Based on mostly observational data, we suggest that patient support and information should be an integral part of the management of CD, and is likely to affect the outcome of CD. PMID:25922674

  5. Facilitators and Threats to the Patient Dignity in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Diseases: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rabori, Roghayeh Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection Results: Three central themes emerged: a) Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b) Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c) Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care. PMID:26793729

  6. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Older Patients: an Orphan Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thyss, Antoine; Saada, Esma; Gastaud, Lauris; Peyrade, Frédéric; Re, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Hodgkin Lymphoma HL can be cured in the large majority of younger patients, but prognosis for older patients, especially those with advanced-stage disease, has not improved substantially. The percentage of HL patients aged over 60 ranges between 15% and 35%. A minority of them is enrolled into clinical trials. HL in the elderly have some specificities: more frequent male sex, B-symptoms, advanced stage, sub diaphragmatic presentation, higher percentage of mixed cellularity, up to 50% of advanced cases associated to EBV. Very old age (>70) and comorbidities are factor of further worsening prognosis. Like in younger patients, ABVD is the most used protocol, but treatment outcome remains much inferior with more frequent, severe and sometimes specific toxicities. Few prospective studies with specific protocols are available. The main data have been published by the Italian Lymphoma Group with the VEPEMB schedule and the German Hodgkin Study Group with the PVAG regimen. Recently, the Scotland and Newcastle Lymphoma Study Group published the SHIELD program associating a prospective phase 2 trial with VEPEMB and a prospective registration of others patients. Patients over 60y with early-stage disease received three cycles plus radiotherapy and had 81% of 3-year overall survival (OS). Those with advanced-stage disease received six cycles, with 3-year OS of 66%. The role of geriatric and comorbidity assessment in the treatment’s choice for HL in the elderly is a major challenge. The combination of loss of activities of daily living combined with the age stratification more or less 70y has been shown as a simple and effective survival model. Hopes come from promising new agents like brentuximab-vedotin (BV) a novel antibody-drug conjugate. The use of TEP to adapt the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to the metabolic response could also be way for prospective studies. PMID:25045458

  7. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment. PMID:27195278

  8. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment. PMID:27195278

  9. DNA and chromosomal damage in coronary artery disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Mohd Akbar; Mahajan, Naresh; Gandhi, Gursatej

    2013-01-01

    DNA and chromosomal damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were investigated by using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay /comet and cytokinesis- block micronucleus (CBMN) assays, respectively. The case-control study comprised patients with CAD (n = 46; average age 53.0 ± 1.27 y) undergoing treatment at local hospitals, and healthy age-and sex-matched controls (n = 19; average age 54.21 ± 0.91 y) from the general population. The results of the comet assay revealed that the mean values of DNA damage were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in CAD patients than in controls (Tail DNA% 11.55 ± 0.38 vs. 5.31 ± 0.44; Tail moment 6.17 ± 0.31 vs. 2.93 ± 0.21 AU; Olive tail moment 3.52 ± 0.23 vs. 1.25 ± 0.11 AU). The mean values of chromosomal damage were also significantly higher (p < 0.001) in CAD patients than in controls (Binucleated cells with MN- 28.15 ± 1.18 vs. 18.16 ± 2.59; micronuclei 29.52 ± 1.21 vs. 18.68 ± 2.64, respectively) while nuclear division index (1.48 ± 0.01 vs. 1.63 ± 0.01) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in controls. The results of the present study indicate that coronary artery disease patients had increased levels of both, unrepaired (DNA) and repaired (chromosomal) genetic damage which may be a pathological consequence of the disease and/or the drug-treatment. This accumulation of DNA/chromosomal damage is of concern as it can lead to the development of cancer with increased chances of morbidity and mortality in the CAD patients. PMID:26535030

  10. Medical management of patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Poredoš, P; Jezovnik, M; Kalodiki, E; Andreozzi, G; Antignani, P-L; Clement, D; Comerota, A; Fareed, J; Fletcher, J; Fras, Z; Griffin, M; Markel, A; Martini, R; Mignano, A; Nicolaides, A; Novo, G; Novo, S; Roztočil, K; Visona, A

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most frequent manifestations of atherosclerosis and is associated with atherosclerosis in the coronary and carotid arteries, leading to a highly increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Major risk factors of PAD are similar to those that lead to atherosclerosis in other vascular beds. However, there are differences in the power of individual risk factors in the different vascular territories. Cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus represent the greatest risks of PAD. For prevention of the progression of PAD and accompanying cardiovascular events similar preventative measures are used as in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, recent data indicate that there are some differences in the efficacy of drugs used in the prevention of atherothrombotic events in PAD. Antiplatelet treatment is indicated in virtually all patients with PAD. In spite of the absence of hard evidence- based data on the long term efficacy of aspirin, it is still considered as a first line treatment and clopidogrel as an effective alternative. The new antiplatelet drugs ticagrelol and prasugrel also represent promising options for treatment of PAD. Statin therapy is indicated to achieve the target low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of ≤2.5 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and there is emerging evidence that lower levels are more effective. Statins may also improve walking capacity. Antihypertensive treatment is indicated to achieve the goal blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg). All classes of antihypertensive drugs including beta-blockers are acceptable for treatment of hypertension in patients with PAD. Diabetic patients with PAD should reduce their glycosylated haemoglobin to ≤7%. As PAD patients represent the group with the highest risk of atherothrombotic events, these patients need the most intensive treatment and elimination of risk factors of atherosclerosis. These measures should be as comprehensive as those in patients with established

  11. Analysis of Retinal Peripapillary Segmentation in Early Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salobrar-Garcia, Elena; Hoyas, Irene; Leal, Mercedes; de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramirez, Ana I.; Salazar, Juan J.; Yubero, Raquel; Gil, Pedro; Triviño, Alberto; Ramirez, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Decreased thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may reflect retinal neuronal-ganglion cell death. A decrease in the RNFL has been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to aging by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twenty-three mild-AD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini-Mental State Examination 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision, were considered for study. OCT peripapillary and macular segmentation thickness were examined in the right eye of each patient. Compared to controls, eyes of patients with mild-AD patients showed no statistical difference in peripapillary RNFL thickness (P > 0.05); however, sectors 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 of the papilla showed thinning, while in sectors 1, 5, 6, 7, and 10 there was thickening. Total macular volume and RNFL thickness of the fovea in all four inner quadrants and in the outer temporal quadrants proved to be significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Despite the fact that peripapillary RNFL thickness did not statistically differ in comparison to control eyes, the increase in peripapillary thickness in our mild-AD patients could correspond to an early neurodegeneration stage and may entail the existence of an inflammatory process that could lead to progressive peripapillary fiber damage. PMID:26557684

  12. Impaired hapten sensitization in patients with autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Bangsgaard, N; Engkilde, K; Menné, T; Løvendorf, M; Jacobsen, G K; Olsen, J; Skov, L

    2011-01-01

    An inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases is suggested from epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate susceptibility and reactivity in patients with psoriasis, patients with diabetes and healthy controls in an experimental sensitization study. We sensitized 68 adult individuals (23 patients with psoriasis, 22 patients with diabetes and 23 healthy controls) with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) and assessed challenge responses with visual scoring and ultrasound. Skin biopsies from challenged skin were investigated for differences in down-regulatory mechanisms with immunohistochemistry and gene-expression profiles using microarray technology. The sensitization ratios were 26%, 36% and 65% for the psoriatic, diabetic and healthy groups, respectively. Logistic regression analysis gave an odds ratio (OR) for a patient with psoriasis or diabetes type I of being sensitized to 0·18 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0·039–0·85], P = 0·031 and 0·74 (95% CI: 0·548–1·008), P = 0·056, respectively. A high degree of forkhead box P3-positive (FoxP3+) cells were found in biopsies of positively challenged reactions, but only limited numbers in negatively challenged reactions, with no difference among the groups. No specific mRNA expression was found in the challenged skin of negative elicitation reactions, also indicating no sign of active down-regulation. The study contibutes strongly to the evidence of a decreased susceptibility to develop contact allergy in individuals with autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:21668897

  13. Impaired hapten sensitization in patients with autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Bangsgaard, N; Engkilde, K; Menné, T; Løvendorf, M; Jacobsen, G K; Olsen, J; Skov, L

    2011-09-01

    An inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases is suggested from epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate susceptibility and reactivity in patients with psoriasis, patients with diabetes and healthy controls in an experimental sensitization study. We sensitized 68 adult individuals (23 patients with psoriasis, 22 patients with diabetes and 23 healthy controls) with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) and assessed challenge responses with visual scoring and ultrasound. Skin biopsies from challenged skin were investigated for differences in down-regulatory mechanisms with immunohistochemistry and gene-expression profiles using microarray technology. The sensitization ratios were 26%, 36% and 65% for the psoriatic, diabetic and healthy groups, respectively. Logistic regression analysis gave an odds ratio (OR) for a patient with psoriasis or diabetes type I of being sensitized to 0·18 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0·039-0·85], P = 0·031 and 0·74 (95% CI: 0·548-1·008), P = 0·056, respectively. A high degree of forkhead box P3-positive (FoxP3(+) ) cells were found in biopsies of positively challenged reactions, but only limited numbers in negatively challenged reactions, with no difference among the groups. No specific mRNA expression was found in the challenged skin of negative elicitation reactions, also indicating no sign of active down-regulation. The study contibutes strongly to the evidence of a decreased susceptibility to develop contact allergy in individuals with autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:21668897

  14. [Concept analysis of medication adherence in patients with chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases. However, many patients with chronic disease do not adhere to their medication regimen. This results in worsening symptoms and frequent re-hospitalizations. As a result, healthcare providers may view these patients as bad. Medication adherence is a complex concept. Analyzing this concept may assist nurses to improve patient-centered care. This paper uses Walker & Avant's method to conduct a concept analysis of medication adherence. Results show the defining attributes of medication adherence as: (1) knowing and agreeing to the medication; (2) communicating and negotiating the regimen; and (3) active, continuous involvement in and appraisal of the treatment effect. Identified antecedents of medication adherence included the patient having: (1) a prescribed medication regimen; (2) cognitive and action abilities in her / his role as a patient; and (3) level of preparation for medication treatment. Identified consequences of medication adherence include: (1) improving symptom control; (2) decreasing re-hospitalizations and mortality; (3) reducing medical care costs; (4) restoring self-esteem; and (5) diminishing depression. It is hoped that this concept analysis provides a reference for nurses to achieve a better understanding of medication adherence and further improve nursing practice. PMID:24899565

  15. In vivo bone aluminum measurements in patients with renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Contamination of the dialysis solution with trace amounts of aluminum and long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders have led to increased body burden of aluminum in patients with end-stage renal disease. A significant clinical problem associated with aluminum-overload is the early diagnosis of aluminum-induced dialysis dementia and osteomalacic osteodystrophy. There are few, if any, blood or urine indices that provide an early monitor of this bone disease, especially in the asymptomatic patient. Although a bone biopsy is usually the basis for the final clinical diagnosis, this procedure is not recommended for routine monitoring of patients. The present technique demonstrates the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum levels in patients with renal failure. The interference normally present from activation of bone phosphorus is eliminated by using a thermal/epithermal neutron beam. For the clinical management of the patients, the Al/Ca ratio for the hand may be more useful than an absolute measurement of the total body or skeletal aluminum burden. The relationship between the increased serum Al levels following disferrioxamine infusion and the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum using the Al/Ca ratio are currently under investigation. The neutron activation procedure presented in this pilot study is a promising new technique with an immediate clinical application. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Celiac disease prevalence in Brazilian dilated cardiomyopathy patients.

    PubMed

    De Bem, Ricardo Schmit T; Da Ro Sa Utiyama, Shirley Ramos; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Fortunato, Jerônimo Antônio; Tondo, Josué Augusto; Carmes, Eliane Ribeiro; Souza, Raquel Almada E; Pisani, Julio César; Amarante, Heda Maria Barska Dos Santos

    2006-05-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent condition of gluten intolerance and a number of autoimmune diseases have been associated with it. In the past few years, a relation between CD and dilated cardiomyopathy (CM) was described in Europe and United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CD among south Brazilian precardiac transplant patients with advanced CM. A total of 74 patients on a list for heart transplantation were evaluated for the presence CD. The presence of anti-endomisial antibody (IgA-EmA) was determined by indirect immunofluorescence and for the anti-transglutaminase antibody (IgA anti-h-tTG) by ELISA. Serologically positive patients were submitted to upper endoscopy with intestinal biopsy. Two individuals (2.63%) were positive for IgA-EmA and 5 (6.75%) for IgA anti-h-tTG; 1 (1.35%) had both tests positive. Histologic confirmation of CD occurred only in the IgA-EmA positive patients. In conclusion, data from the present study allows recommend the screening for CD in patients with CM using IgA-EmA test as the method of choice. PMID:16758314

  17. CT Scan Does Not Differentiate Patients with Hepatopulmonary Syndrome from Other Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prabhudesai, Vikramaditya; Castel, Helene; Gupta, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is defined by liver dysfunction, intrapulmonary vascular dilatations, and impaired oxygenation. The gold standard for detection of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations in HPS is contrast echocardiography. However, two small studies have suggested that patients with HPS have larger segmental pulmonary arterial diameters than both normal subjects and normoxemic subjects with cirrhosis, when measured by CT. We sought to compare CT imaging-based pulmonary vasodilatation in patients with HPS, patients with liver dysfunction without HPS, and matching controls on CT imaging. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study at two quaternary care Canadian HPS centers. We analyzed CT thorax scans in 23 patients with HPS, 29 patients with liver dysfunction without HPS, and 52 gender- and age-matched controls. We measured the artery-bronchus ratios (ABRs) in upper and lower lung zones, calculated the “delta ABR” by subtracting the upper from the lower ABR, compared these measurements between groups, and correlated them with clinically relevant parameters (partial pressure of arterial oxygen, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, macroaggregated albumin shunt fraction, and diffusion capacity). We repeated measurements in patients with post-transplant CTs. Results Patients had significantly larger lower zone ABRs and delta ABRs than controls (1.20 +/- 0.19 versus 0.98 +/- 0.10, p<0.01; and 0.12 +/- 0.17 versus -0.06 +/- 0.10, p<0.01, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between liver disease patients with and without HPS, nor any significant correlations between CT measurements and clinically relevant parameters. There were no significant changes in ABRs after liver transplantation (14 patients). Conclusions Basilar segmental artery-bronchus ratios are larger in patients with liver disease than in normal controls, but this vasodilatation is no more severe in patients with HPS. CT does not distinguish patients

  18. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with either rheumatic diseases or inflammatory bowel diseases on biologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Zullo, Angelo; Piacchianti Diamanti, Andrea; Ridola, Lorenzo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Marrese, Cinzia; Scolieri, Palma; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Hassan, Cesare; Migliore, Alberto; Laganà, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatic and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We evaluated the role of biologic therapy on vitamin D, calcium and parathormone (PTH) levels. This cross-sectional study enrolled consecutive patients with either rheumatic diseases or IBD who underwent an ambulatory visit. Patients receiving vitamin D/calcium supplementation were excluded. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was diagnosed when values were <20 ng/mL and 21-29 ng/ml, respectively. Patients were sub-grouped according to biologic therapy. A multivariate analysis was performed. Two-hundred patients, including 136 with a rheumatic disease (M/F 37/99; mean age 60.7 ± 12.9 years) and 64 with IBD (M/F 41/23; Mean age 49.6 ± 13.1 years) were enrolled. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was detected in as many as 63.5 % patients, being 61.8 and 67.2 % in patients with either rheumatic diseases or IBD, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was higher in those receiving biologics than other therapies (78.3 vs 43.2 %; p < 0.0001), in either rheumatic diseases (78.7 vs 41 %; p < 0.0001) or IBD (75 vs 50 %; p = 0.03) group. At multivariate analysis, only biologic therapy was independently associated with vitamin D deficit (OR 4.61; p = 0.001). Patients with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency had hypocalcemia more frequently than controls (22.8 vs 10.9 %; p = 0.03), while PTH values did not differ significantly. This study finds that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was very high in patients with either rheumatic diseases or IBD receiving a biologic therapy. PMID:26939587

  19. Tumors masquerading in patients with thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Griepentrog, Gregory J; Burkat, Cat N; Kikkawa, Don O; Lucarelli, Mark J

    2013-08-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults. The external manifestations of TED are characteristic and the diagnosis is typically made without imaging. Although there are multiple descriptions of primary and secondary orbital tumors initially mistaken for TED in the literature, there are limited reports detailing the findings of patients with long-standing TED whom developed an orbital tumor at a later date. Herein, we present a 6-year retrospective multi-center report of three patients with long-standing TED who developed an initially unsuspected orbital or cavernous sinus tumor. PMID:23662589

  20. Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lilienfeld, S; Parys, W

    2000-09-01

    Galantamine, a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has a dual mechanism of action, combining allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with reversible, competitive inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. In the Phase III clinical trial programme, over 3,000 patients with mild-to-moderate AD were enrolled in one of five randomized, controlled, double-blind studies. Using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) to assess memory and other cognitive functions, galantamine was found to be significantly superior to placebo in all five studies at doses of 16, 24 and 32 mg/day. In all studies, galantamine-treated patients maintained their cognitive function, whereas the placebo-treated patients experienced a significant deterioration in ADAS-cog scores. The 32-mg/day dose was not associated with any additional cognitive benefit. Pooled data from two 6-month studies (n = 1,269), which were of identical design, show that the therapeutic benefits of galantamine are sustained for the duration of treatment. The treatment effect (galantamine-placebo difference on ADAS-cog) for the pooled data was approximately 4 points. Clinical benefit was seen in all levels of disease severity, with a 7-point advantage over placebo on ADAS-cog for patients with moderately severe disease. Galantamine was well tolerated, with most patients completing the 6-month studies. The long-term effects of galantamine have been evaluated in a 12-month study. Patients who completed one of the pivotal 6-month studies (n = 353) were entered into a 6-month open-label extension. Cognitive and daily function were maintained throughout the 12 months in patients who received galantamine 24 mg/day. This sustained level of benefit may reflect galantamine's dual effect on the cholinergic system. Data from a 5-month, placebo-controlled study have also shown that galantamine produces significant benefits on behavioural symptoms. The persistence and range of

  1. Assessment of Aortic Elasticity in Patients with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Çekin, Ayhan Hilmi; Arslan, Şakir; Çağırcı, Göksel; Küçükseymen, Selçuk; Çay, Serkan; Harmandar, Ferda Akbay; Yeşil, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder induced by dietary gluten intake by individuals who are genetically sensitive. Many studies report an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in such patients. The aim of this study is to assess aortic elasticity properties in patients with CD that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Subjects and Methods Eighty-one patients diagnosed with CD by antibody test and biopsy and 63 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations were performed. Results The CD group did not have any differences in the conventional echocardiographic parameters compared to the healthy individuals. However, patients in the CD group had an increased aortic stiffness beta index (4.3±2.3 vs. 3.6±1.6, p=0.010), increased pressure strain elastic modulus (33.6±17.0 kPa vs. 28.5±16.7 kPa, p=0.037), decreased aortic distensibility (7.0±3.0×10-6 cm2/dyn vs. 8.2±3.6×10-6 cm2/dyn, p=0.037), and similar aortic strain (17.9±7.7 vs. 16.0±5.5, p=0.070) compared to the control group. Patients with CD were found to have an elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio compared to the control group (2.54±0.63 vs. 2.24±0.63, p=0.012). However, gluten-free diet and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were not found to be associated with aortic elasticity. Conclusion Patients with CD had increased aortic stiffness and decreased aortic distensibility. Gluten-free diet enabled the patients with CD to have a reduction in the inflammatory parameters whereas the absence of a significant difference in the elastic properties of the aorta may suggest that the risk of cardiovascular disease persists in this patient group despite a gluten-free diet. PMID:27014355

  2. Tract specific analysis in patients with sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yaqiong; Coloigner, Julie; Qu, Xiaoping; Choi, Soyoung; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Vu, Chau; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder in which the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells is abnormal. It affects numerous people in the world and leads to a shorter life span, pain, anemia, serious infections and neurocognitive decline. Tract-Specific Analysis (TSA) is a statistical method to evaluate white matter alterations due to neurocognitive diseases, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Here, for the first time, TSA is used to compare 11 major brain white matter (WM) tracts between SCD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Alterations are found in the corpus callosum (CC), the cortico-spinal tract (CST), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and uncinated fasciculus (UNC). Based on previous studies on the neurocognitive functions of these tracts, the significant areas found in this paper might be related to several cognitive impairments and depression, both of which are observed in SCD patients.

  3. Being ready to treat Ebola virus disease patients.

    PubMed

    Brett-Major, David M; Jacob, Shevin T; Jacquerioz, Frederique A; Risi, George F; Fischer, William A; Kato, Yasuyuki; Houlihan, Catherine F; Crozier, Ian; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Lawler, James V; Adachi, Takuya; Hurley, Sara K; Berry, Louise E; Carlson, John C; Button, Thomas C; McLellan, Susan L; Shea, Barbara J; Kuniyoshi, Gary G; Ferri, Mauricio; Murthy, Srinivas G; Petrosillo, Nicola; Lamontagne, Francois; Porembka, David T; Schieffelin, John S; Rubinson, Lewis; O'Dempsey, Tim; Donovan, Suzanne M; Bausch, Daniel G; Fowler, Robert A; Fletcher, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues, clinical preparedness is needed in countries at risk for EVD (e.g., United States) and more fully equipped and supported clinical teams in those countries with epidemic spread of EVD in Africa. Clinical staff must approach the patient with a very deliberate focus on providing effective care while assuring personal safety. To do this, both individual health care providers and health systems must improve EVD care. Although formal guidance toward these goals exists from the World Health Organization, Medecin Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other groups, some of the most critical lessons come from personal experience. In this narrative, clinicians deployed by the World Health Organization into a wide range of clinical settings in West Africa distill key, practical considerations for working safely and effectively with patients with EVD. PMID:25510724

  4. Being Ready to Treat Ebola Virus Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brett-Major, David M.; Jacob, Shevin T.; Jacquerioz, Frederique A.; Risi, George F.; Fischer, William A.; Kato, Yasuyuki; Houlihan, Catherine F.; Crozier, Ian; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Lawler, James V.; Adachi, Takuya; Hurley, Sara K.; Berry, Louise E.; Carlson, John C.; Button, Thomas. C.; McLellan, Susan L.; Shea, Barbara J.; Kuniyoshi, Gary G.; Ferri, Mauricio; Murthy, Srinivas G.; Petrosillo, Nicola; Lamontagne, Francois; Porembka, David T.; Schieffelin, John S.; Rubinson, Lewis; O'Dempsey, Tim; Donovan, Suzanne M.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Fowler, Robert A.; Fletcher, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues, clinical preparedness is needed in countries at risk for EVD (e.g., United States) and more fully equipped and supported clinical teams in those countries with epidemic spread of EVD in Africa. Clinical staff must approach the patient with a very deliberate focus on providing effective care while assuring personal safety. To do this, both individual health care providers and health systems must improve EVD care. Although formal guidance toward these goals exists from the World Health Organization, Medecin Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other groups, some of the most critical lessons come from personal experience. In this narrative, clinicians deployed by the World Health Organization into a wide range of clinical settings in West Africa distill key, practical considerations for working safely and effectively with patients with EVD. PMID:25510724

  5. Hypertension management in patients with vascular disease: An update.

    PubMed

    Kohlman-Trigoboff, Debra

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. About 80 million U.S. adults (33%) have HTN. Of these individuals, approximately 77% use antihypertensive medication, however, only 54% have controlled HTN. Studies have demonstrated that patients whose blood pressures are controlled achieve a minimum of 50% reduction in cardiovascular events compared to similar patients with poorly controlled blood pressure. This article will define HTN and its consequences. Diagnostic evaluation and evidence-based treatment guidelines for HTN to include lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy will be discussed. Finally, this article will examine why the treatment of HTN can prevent the development and reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in vascular disease. PMID:27568315

  6. Gut microbiota and inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifactorial phenotype that in chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Recently, alterations in gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in CKD patients. Vanholder and Glorieux recently critically reviewed [Clin Kidney J (2015) 8 (2): 168-179] the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the production of uraemic toxins and the therapeutic implications. Where do we stand now? The basic mechanisms of the gut-kidney crosstalk must still be clarified. In addition, the efficacy and safety of therapeutic strategies to modulate the gut microbiota in order to decrease uraemic toxin production and inflammation in chronic kidney disease should be evaluated. Finally, an impact of such strategies on hard outcomes should be demonstrated before incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26034597

  7. Blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Volumetric blood flow velocity was supporting on constant level (1 ml/h). Silicone tube of diameter comparable with coronary arteries diameter was used as vessel model. Cell-cell interactions were studied under glucose and anticoagulants influence. Increased adhesiveness of blood cells to tube walls was revealed in patient with coronary heart disease (CHD) compare to practically healthy persons (PHP). In patients with stable angina pectoris of high functional class and patients with AMI shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were predominating in blood flow structure up to microclots formation. Clotting and erythrocytes aggregation increase as response to glucose solution injection, sharply defined in patients with CHD. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with CHD and PHP. After compare our results with other author's data we can consider that method used in our study is sensible enough to investigate blood flow structure violations in patients with CHD and PHP. Several differences of cell-cell interaction in flow under glucose and anticoagulant influence were found out in patients with CHD and PHP.

  8. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  9. Ramadan Fast in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Mehdi; Mirkarimi, SadafSadat; Rahmani, Gita; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Salahi, Navid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fasting during the month of Ramadan is of vital significance amongst Muslims; however, little is known about the effects of this kind of fasting on patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Objectives: This nonrandomized prospective observational pilot study was designed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fast on the symptoms of CAD. Patients and Methods: Patients with documented CAD were consecutively (nonrandomized) included in the study, and those with heart failure (ejection fraction < 50%), renal failure, gout, and insulin-treated diabetes were excluded. Patients had the choice of fasting during Ramadan if they so wished and to break their fast as soon as symptoms such as dyspnea and chest pain occurred (fasting group) or not fasting (control group). Results: A total of 148 patients completed the study. Mean (mean ± SD) age of the patients was 61.5 ± 11.7 years and 50% were male. Finally, 66 patients (44.6%) accomplished Ramadan fast with an average of 22.27 ± 10.46 days of fasting. Occurrence of chest pain was not significantly different between the fasting and non-fasting groups (4 out of 66 [6.1%] vs. 8 out of 82 [9.8%] respectively; P = 0.42). In addition, patients who fasted during Ramadan did not experience a higher frequency of a combined endpoint of chest pain and dyspnea (4 out of 66 cases in the fasting group [6.1%] vs. 11 out of 82 in non-fasting group [13.4%]; P = 0.14). Conclusions: In the present study, the patients with CAD were able to observe Ramadan fast safely and their combined endpoint of chest pain and dyspnea was not significantly different from that of the non-fasting ones. We would suggest that patients with CAD and normal left ventricular function could fast during Ramadan. PMID:25763250

  10. Gender and disease features in Moroccan patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ibn Yacoub, Yousra; Amine, Bouchra; Laatiris, Assia; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine differences in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) between men and women in terms of clinical characteristics, biological features, structural severity and quality of life (QoL). A total of 130 consecutive AS patients fulfilling the modified New York criteria were included. Sociodemographic data were collected. The activity of disease was assessed by the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and the functional disability by the Bath Ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI). Spinal mobility was measured using the occiput-to-wall distance, chest expansion, Schober index and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiologic Index (BASRI) was used to evaluate structural damage. Fatigue was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the QoL was measured by using the generic instrument SF-36. Laboratory tests included the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the C-reactive protein (CRP). In our sample, there were 87 (66.9%) men and 43 (33.1%) women. Women had significantly lower educational levels but there were no differences in socioeconomic status, age at onset, diagnosis delay, disease duration or treatments. Also, women had higher clinical disease activity (morning stiffness and BASDAI score), higher number of tender joints, more severe enthesitis and higher scores of fatigue (for all p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, hip involvement was more prevalent in men and the impairment of spinal mobility was significantly worse compared to women (for all p ≤ 0.001). Men had worse radiographic damage and lower scores in physical and social domains of QoL, but there were no differences in functional impairment scores. In this study, we noticed that AS presents differently according to gender in our patients. More longitudinal studies seem to be necessary to identify gender-related parameters of disease, thing that may help in diagnosis and therapeutic management of

  11. Optimal Diagnostic Approaches for Patients with Suspected Small Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Moon, Won

    2016-01-01

    While the domain of gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great strides over the last several decades, endoscopic assessment of the small bowel continues to be challenging. Recently, with the development of new technology including video capsule endoscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance enterography, a more thorough investigation of the small bowel is possible. In this article, we review the systematic approach for patients with suspected small bowel disease based on these advanced endoscopic and imaging systems. PMID:27334413

  12. Crohnic Kidney Disease: Recurrent Acute Kidney Failure in a Patient With Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet Emin; Ercan, Zafer; Karakas, Emel Yigit; Ulas, Turgay; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Short bowel syndrome is a rare and devastating complication in chronic inflammatory bowel disease following functional or anatomic loss of extensive segments of the intestine. Case Report: A 60-year-old male patient with Crohn's disease had undergone multiple resections of the intestine and developed short bowel syndrome. Despite up to 4-5 liters of orally fluid, sufficient calcium and magnesium intake, he suffered from recurrent acute kidney injury due to profound volume depletion and those electrolyte deficiencies. Administration of intravenous fluid and electrolyte repleacement treatment at regular intervals prevented further kidney injuries. Conclusion: We present a case of recurrent acute kidney failure in a patient with Crohn's disease, and aimed to remark importance of receiving sufficient parenteral fluid and electrolyte support in those with short bowel syndrome. PMID:25599054

  13. Triheptanoin improves brain energy metabolism in patients with Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Adanyeguh, Isaac Mawusi; Rinaldi, Daisy; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Caillet, Samantha; Valabregue, Romain; Durr, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Based on our previous work in Huntington disease (HD) showing improved energy metabolism in muscle by providing substrates to the Krebs cycle, we wished to obtain a proof-of-concept of the therapeutic benefit of triheptanoin using a functional biomarker of brain energy metabolism validated in HD. Methods: We performed an open-label study using 31P brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) before (rest), during (activation), and after (recovery) a visual stimulus. We performed 31P brain MRS in 10 patients at an early stage of HD and 13 controls. Patients with HD were then treated for 1 month with triheptanoin after which they returned for follow-up including 31P brain MRS scan. Results: At baseline, we confirmed an increase in Pi/PCr ratio during brain activation in controls—reflecting increased adenosine triphosphate synthesis—followed by a return to baseline levels during recovery (p = 0.013). In patients with HD, we validated the existence of an abnormal brain energy profile as previously reported. After 1 month, this profile remained abnormal in patients with HD who did not receive treatment. Conversely, the MRS profile was improved in patients with HD treated with triheptanoin for 1 month with the restoration of an increased Pi/PCr ratio during visual stimulation (p = 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests that triheptanoin is able to correct the bioenergetic profile in the brain of patients with HD at an early stage of the disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that, for patients with HD, treatment with triheptanoin for 1 month restores an increased MRS Pi/PCr ratio during visual stimulation. PMID:25568297

  14. Increased Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chai, Chee-Yin; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Kuo, Keng-Liang; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate osteoporosis risk in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. This Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) analysis included 27,132 patients aged 18 years and older who had been diagnosed with PUD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 531–534) during 1996 to 2010. The control group consisted of 27,132 randomly selected (age- and gender)-matched patients without PUD. The association between PUD and the risk of developing osteoporosis was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, osteoporosis was diagnosed in 2538 (9.35 %) patients in the PUD group and in 2259 (8.33 %) participants in the non-PUD group. After adjusting for covariates, osteoporosis risk was 1.85 times greater in the PUD group compared to the non-PUD group (13.99 vs 5.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Osteoporosis developed 1 year after PUD diagnosis. The 1-year follow-up period exhibited the highest significance between the 2 groups (hazard ratio [HR] = 63.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.19–142.74, P < 0.001). Osteoporosis risk was significantly higher in PUD patients with proton-pump-inhibitors (PPIs) use (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03–1.34) compared to PUD patients without PPIs use. This study revealed a significant association between PUD and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, PUD patients, especially those treated with PPIs, should be evaluated for subsequent risk of osteoporosis to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. PMID:27100415

  15. Can patients with coronary heart disease go to high altitude?

    PubMed

    Dehnert, Christoph; Bärtsch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tourism to high altitude is very popular and includes elderly people with both manifest and subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus, risk assessment regarding high altitude exposure of patients with CHD is of increasing interest, and individual recommendations are expected despite the lack of sufficient scientific evidence. The major factor increasing cardiac stress is hypoxia. At rest and for a given external workload, myocardial oxygen demand is increased at altitude, particularly in nonacclimatized individuals, and there is some evidence that blood-flow reserve is reduced in atherosclerotic coronary arteries even in the absence of severe stenosis. Despite a possible imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen delivery, studies on selected patients have shown that exposure and exercise at altitudes of 3000 to 3500 m is generally safe for patients with stable CHD and sufficient work capacity. During the first days at altitude, patients with stable angina may develop symptoms of myocardial ischemia at slightly lower heart rate x  blood-pressure products. Adverse cardiac events, however, such as unstable angina coronary syndromes, do not occur more frequently compared with sea level except for those who are unaccustomed to exercise. Therefore, training should start before going to altitude, and the altitude-related decrease in exercise capacity should be considered. Travel to 3500 m should be avoided unless patients have stable disease, preserved left ventricular function without residual capacity, and above-normal exercise capacity. CHD patients should avoid travel to elevations above 4500 m owing to severe hypoxia at these altitudes. The risk assessment of CHD patients at altitude should always consider a possible absence of medical support and that cardiovascular events may turn into disaster. PMID:20919884

  16. Optimizing the management of patients with spinal myeloma disease.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Sean; Lai, Maggie; Pratt, Guy; Ramasamy, Karthik; Wilson, David; Quraishi, Nasir; Auger, Martin; Cumming, David; Punekar, Maqsood; Quinn, Michael; Ademonkun, Debo; Willis, Fenella; Tighe, Jane; Cook, Gordon; Stirling, Alistair; Bishop, Timothy; Williams, Cathy; Boszczyk, Bronek; Reynolds, Jeremy; Grainger, Mel; Craig, Niall; Hamilton, Alastair; Chalmers, Isobel; Ahmedzai, Sam; Selvadurai, Susanne; Low, Eric; Kyriakou, Charalampia

    2015-11-01

    Myeloma is one of the most common malignancies that results in osteolytic lesions of the spine. Complications, including pathological fractures of the vertebrae and spinal cord compression, may cause severe pain, deformity and neurological sequelae. They may also have significant consequences for quality of life and prognosis for patients. For patients with known or newly diagnosed myeloma presenting with persistent back or radicular pain/weakness, early diagnosis of spinal myeloma disease is therefore essential to treat and prevent further deterioration. Magnetic resonance imaging is the initial imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of spinal disease. Treatment of the underlying malignancy with systemic chemotherapy together with supportive bisphosphonate treatment reduces further vertebral damage. Additional interventions such as cement augmentation, radiotherapy, or surgery are often necessary to prevent, treat and control spinal complications. However, optimal management is dependent on the individual nature of the spinal involvement and requires careful assessment and appropriate intervention throughout. This article reviews the treatment and management options for spinal myeloma disease and highlights the value of defined pathways to enable the proper management of patients affected by it. PMID:26184699

  17. Evaluation of ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco, T.P.; Dilsizian, V.; Fischman, A.J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-07-01

    The recent expansion of interventional cardiovascular technologies has stimulated a concomitant expansion of noninvasive cardiac studies, both to assist in diagnosis and to evaluate treatment outcomes. Radionuclide ventricular function studies provide a reliable, reproducible means to quantify global left ventricular systolic performance, a critical determinant of prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, the ability to evaluate regional left ventricular wall motion and to assess ventricular performance during exercise have secured a fundamental role for such studies in the screening and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Radionuclide techniques have been extended to the evaluation of left ventricular relaxation/filling events, left ventricular systolic/diastolic function in the ambulatory setting, and with appropriate technical modifications, to the assessment of right ventricular performance at rest and with exercise. As a complement to radionuclide perfusion studies, cardiac blood-pool imaging allows for thorough noninvasive description of cardiac physiology and function in both normal subjects and in patients with a broad range of cardiovascular diseases. 122 references.

  18. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-08-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  19. Kyrle's Disease in a Patient with Delusions of Parasitosis.

    PubMed

    Tampa, M; Sârbu, Maria Isabela; Matei, Clara; Mihăilă, Daniela E; Potecă, T D; Georgescu, Simona-Roxana

    2016-01-01

    Acquired perforating disorders are a group of uncommon skin conditions characterized by transepidermal extrusion of altered dermal material, most often associated with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure. Delusional parasitosis is a primary psychiatric disorder in which affected patients have fixed, false beliefs that their skin is infested by parasites, in the absence of any evidence supporting their statements. A 69 year old malepatient addressed the Dermatology Department for a skin eruption consisting of multiple umbilicated keratotic papules with a generalized distribution. The patient believed that the lesions were produced by small parasites entering and exiting his skin. The histopathological examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Kyrle's disease. The psychiatric examination established the diagnosis of delusions of parasitosis. This is the first reported case of Kyrle's disease associated with delusions of parasitosis. There is no evidence supporting the hypothesis that delusions of parasitosis might be a predisposing factor for Kyrle's disease. However, we believe that the pruritic dermatosis might have triggered the delusions of parasitosis due to the associated pruritus. On the other hand the constant excoriations and traumatizing of a skin prone to develop idiopathic Kyrle's disease in the attempt to remove the parasites prevented the complete resolution of the lesions. PMID:27141573

  20. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  1. [Treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a breakthrough or not?].

    PubMed

    van Marum, Rob J

    2015-01-01

    The results of an open-label extension study of the Expedition I and II studies with solanezumab in patients with Alzheimer's disease, neither of which had shown an effect on cognition and functional ability, were recently presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference in Toronto. Placebo and intervention patients with mild Alzheimer's disease from both studies were offered the option of continuing with solanezumab for 2 additional years. The data from this group were re-analysed using a new analysis technique, the so-called 'delayed start analysis'. On the basis of the re-analysis it was concluded that solanezumab does show disease-modifying activity and should be considered a promising candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease in the near future. This conclusion, however, is poorly supported by the data presented in the study. A more definite positioning of solanezumab will not be possible until data from the ongoing Expedition III study becomes available in 2017 at the earliest. PMID:26271177

  2. Siltuximab (Sylvant). Castleman's disease: good symptomatic efficacy in some patients.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by disseminated lymphadenopathy. Symptoms and outcomes differ widely from one patient to another. The median survival time is about 2.5 years. There is no consensus on treatment. Siltuximab, a monoclonal antibody that antagonises interleukin-6, has been authorised in the European Union for patients with multicentric Castleman's disease who are not infected with HIV or HHV-8. In a randomised, double-blind trial in 79 patients, most of whom had mild or moderate symptoms, the estimated one-year survival rate was 100% in the siltuximab group versus 92% in the placebo group after a median follow-up of 60 weeks. However, half of the patients in the placebo group received siltuximab after disease progression. Symptoms disappeared for at least 18 weeks in one-quarter of patients in the siltuximab group versus none of those in the placebo group; the median symptom-free period in the siltuximab group was about 16 months. The known adverse effects of siltuximab are related to its immunosuppressive effect. They include frequent infections, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Reactions can occur during the infusion, and mouth sores have been reported. Other adverse events that appear to be more frequent with siltuximab include cutaneous disorders, oedema, renal and cardiac disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. Cases of gastrointestinal perforation have been reported in trials in other clinical settings. Siltuximab can mask the signs and symptoms of acute inflammation, in particular by suppressing fever and acute-phase markers such as C-reactive protein. Interleukin-6 is a cytochrome P450 inhibitor. Siltuximab activates its isoenzymes and can thus reduce the effectiveness of the numerous drugs that are substrates of this enzyme system. This risk of interactions is likely to persist up to several weeks after siltuximab withdrawal, because of its long plasma elimination half-life (about 16 days

  3. Ubiquitous monitoring system for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il Hyung; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Hee Chan

    2007-01-01

    The Purpose of this paper is to report a code division multiple access (CDMA) based wireless device that is able to measure pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2) and Electrocardiogram(ECG) during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease patients' daily life at home. Global Positioning System (GPS) and a specific database system are also included in this device to trace patient's location. Unlike the pre-reported devices using wireless network like Bluetooth or Zigbee which has a limited connection area, the developed system enables the literally ubiquitous service in reporting the patient's data to their doctors at any time and any place using the CDMA-based cellular phone network. PMID:18002798

  4. Are patients with Parkinson’s disease blind to blindsight?

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, Glenn; Schiltz, Christine; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease, visual dysfunction is prominent. Visual hallucinations can be a major hallmark of late stage disease, but numerous visual deficits also occur in early stage Parkinson’s disease. Specific retinopathy, deficits in the primary visual pathway and the secondary ventral and dorsal pathways, as well as dysfunction of the attention pathways have all been posited as causes of hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease. We present data from patients with Parkinson’s disease that contrast with a known neuro-ophthalmological syndrome, termed ‘blindsight’. In this syndrome, there is an absence of conscious object identification, but preserved ‘guess’ of the location of a stimulus, preserved reflexive saccades and motion perception and preserved autonomical and expressive reactions to negative emotional facial expressions. We propose that patients with Parkinson’s disease have the converse of blindsight, being ‘blind to blindsight’. As such they preserve conscious vision, but show erroneous ‘guess’ localization of visual stimuli, poor saccades and motion perception, and poor emotional face perception with blunted autonomic reaction. Although a large data set on these deficits in Parkinson’s disease has been accumulated, consolidation into one specific syndrome has not been proposed. Focusing on neuropathological and physiological data from two phylogenetically old and subconscious pathways, the retino-colliculo-thalamo-amygdala and the retino-geniculo-extrastriate pathways, we propose that aberrant function of these systems, including pathologically inhibited superior colliculus activity, deficient corollary discharges to the frontal eye fields, dysfunctional pulvinar, claustrum and amygdaloid subnuclei of the amygdala, the latter progressively burdened with Lewy bodies, underlie this syndrome. These network impairments are further corroborated by the concept of the ‘silent amygdala’. Functionally being ‘blind to blindsight

  5. Antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally, and atherothrombosis is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular events. Several studies have shown that antiplatelet therapy, including aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), reduces the risk of cardiovascular events and death. However, it is well-known that many patients experience cardiovascular events despite treatment with aspirin, often termed "aspirin low-responsiveness". This fact has caused considerable debate: does biochemical aspirin low-responsiveness have prognostic value? Can low-responders be reliably identified? And if so, should antithrombotic treatment be changed? Is the whole discussion of antiplatelet drug response merely a result of low compliance? Compliance should be carefully optimised, before evaluating the pharmacological effect of a drug. It is well-known that cardiovascular disease is multifactorial, and, therefore, total risk reduction is not feasible. Aetiological factors to the variable platelet inhibition by aspirin seem to include genetic factors, pharmacological interactions, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and increased platelet turnover. It is a captivating thought that antiplatelet therapy may be improved by individually tailored therapy based on platelet function testing. Ongoing studies are challenging the current one-size-fits-all dosing strategy, but the preceding evaluation of platelet function assays has not been adequate. The overall objective of this thesis was to evaluate the reproducibility of and aggreement between a number of widely used platelet function tests and to explore the importance of platelet turnover for the antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease. In the intervention studies (studies 1, 3, and 4), optimal compliance was confirmed by measurements of serum thromboxane, which is the most sensitive assay to confirm compliance with aspirin. In study 1, platelet function tests widely used to measure the antiplatelet effect

  6. Helping older patients to cope with cardiac and pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sotile, W M; Miller, H S

    1998-01-01

    Family challenges, depression, and age-related developmental and psychological issues must be considered when structuring interventions for elder cardiopulmonary patients. Elderly patients tend to have difficulty coping when they face novel, unpredictable circumstances and are left to flounder in suspenseful anticipation. Furthermore, if support is not forthcoming during such times--or if they are treated in ways that strip them of control rather than in ways that bolster their sense of control--elderly patients are at great risk of quickly developing a passive, learned helplessness that can significantly complicate their rehabilitation. The overall well-being of elderly cardiopulmonary patients is affected by more than the actions of health-care providers. Poverty, pension and health-care plans, institutionalization, concomitant diseases, family issues, and other factors have a profound and, frequently, an overriding effect on the functional status of the elderly population. However, it is also true that the provision of spirit-enhancing care can make a tremendous difference in quality of life for elderly patients, independent of factors such as residential circumstance or health status. The most valued and valuable sources of social support for elderly patients come from family, church, and health-care providers. Our interventions either enhance or diminish an elderly patient's sense of autonomy and control. Our task-driven health-care system, replete with its growing emphasis on brevity of treatments and cost-effectiveness, can create a style and pace of delivering care that demoralizes an elderly patient. The results can be devastating: "When the spirit is broken, one has no will to marshall coping skills". But health-care providers who are attuned to the psychosocial issues relevant to the later life stages can make a profound difference in enhancing both rehabilitation and quality of life for elderly cardiopulmonary patients and their loved ones. PMID:9559449

  7. Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Farley, Rebecca A.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the suggestion of a neuropathic component to sickle cell disease (SCD) pain, there are minimal data on the systematic assessment of neuropathic pain in patients with SCD. Neuropathic pain is defined as pain primarily initiated by dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system. Procedure In a cross-sectional study, we used the painDETECT questionnaire, a one-page validated neuropathic pain screening tool, to determine the presence of neuropathic pain in patients with SCD and to evaluate the relationship between neuropathic pain, age, and gender. We hypothesized that 20% of patients with SCD will experience neuropathic pain and that neuropathic pain will be associated with older age and female gender. The completed painDETECT questionnaire yields a total score between 0–38 (≥19=definite neuropathic pain, 13–18=probable neuropathic pain, ≤12=no neuropathic pain). Scores ≥13 were designated as having evidence of neuropathic pain. Results A total of 56 patients participated. Median age was 20.3 years and 77% were female. We found 37% of patients had evidence of neuropathic pain. Age was positively correlated with total score [r=0.43; p=0.001] suggesting older patients experience more neuropathic pain. Females had higher mean total scores [13 vs 8.4; p=0.04]. Significantly more patients with neuropathic pain were taking hydroxyurea [90% vs 59%; p=0.015]. Despite 37% of patients experiencing neuropathic pain, only 5% were taking a neuropathic pain drug. Conclusions Neuropathic pain exists in SCD. Valid screening tools can identify patients that would benefit from existing and future neuropathic pain therapies and could determine the impact of these therapies. PMID:24167104

  8. General Anesthesia for a Patient With Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease.

    PubMed

    Kamekura, Nobuhito; Nitta, Yukie; Takuma, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the successful management of general anesthesia for a patient with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). PMD is one of a group of progressive, degenerative disorders of the cerebral white matter. The typical clinical manifestations of PMD include psychomotor retardation, nystagmus, abnormal muscle tone, seizures, and cognitive impairment. General anesthesia for a patient with PMD may be difficult mainly because of seizures and airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle control. In addition, the possibility of exacerbation of spasticity should be considered. A 20-year-old man with PMD required removal of impacted wisdom teeth under general anesthesia. General anesthesia was induced with thiamylal, fentanyl, and desflurane. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and continuous intravenous remifentanil under bispectral index and train-of-4 monitoring. Anesthesia lasted 1 hour 20 minutes and was completed uneventfully. Airway complications, seizures, and exacerbation of spasticity did not occur postoperatively. Preoperatively, our patient had no history of epilepsy attacks or aspiration pneumonia, and no clinical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Therefore, exacerbation of spasticity was one of the most likely potential complications. Identification of these associated conditions and evaluation of risk factors during preoperative examination is important for performing safe anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27269667

  9. Ocular Surface Disease in Breast Cancer Patients Using Aromatase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini; Sergentanis, Theodoros; Zagouri, Flora; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Ladas, Ioannis; Zografos, George C; Moschos, Marilita

    2016-09-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are widely used as adjuvant hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential impact of AIs on the anterior segment of the eye and especially the ocular surface. Participants in our study were 41 hormone receptor-positive early stage breast cancer patients (80 eyes), treated with AIs, while 80 eyes of 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, not previously used AIs for any purpose, were also evaluated. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessment, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and dilated fundus examination. Ocular surface disease-related symptoms and signs were also recorded. The most common symptom was found to be blurred vision, while other symptoms included foreign body sensation, tearing, redness, and photophobia. Slit-lamp examination revealed blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction in 75% and 42.5% of patients, respectively. Superficial punctate keratitis and conjunctival injection were also present. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of ocular surface disease-related symptoms and signs in patients receiving AIs compared to healthy controls. This study may raise a flag regarding the use of AIs. However, further and larger prospective longitudinal studies are needed to examine the possible effect of AIs alone or in combination with chemotherapy in the eyes of breast cancer patients. PMID:27296769

  10. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. PMID:22864845

  11. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  12. Laparoscopic Antireflux Surgery in Patients with Connective Tissue Diseases.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Mariano A; Herbella, Fernando A M; Patti, Marco G

    2016-04-01

    Different connective tissue diseases (CTDs), such as dermatomyositis, mixed CTD, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, lupus, and Behçet's, may affect the esophagus, impairing its motor function. The muscular atrophy and fibrosis caused by the autoimmune vasculitis and neuronal dysfunction affect the esophageal body and the lower esophageal sphincter, leading to a clinical presentation of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The belief that the impaired esophageal motility may negatively affect surgical outcome has led to the common recommendation of avoiding laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) for fear of creating or worsening dysphagia. This review focuses on the evaluation of the outcome of LARS in patients with CTD. Specifically, this review shows that the literature on LARS and CTDs is scarce and most studies have a small number of patients and a short follow-up. Furthermore, a subanalysis of the outcome based on the type of CTD or the manometric profile is still elusive. In the setting of these limitations, it appears that results are good and comparable to those of patients with GERD and without a CTD. Morbidity and mortality are insignificant even considering the systemic manifestations of the CTD. LARS should not be denied to patients with CTD and GERD. PMID:27027697

  13. Memory for emotional stimuli in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kirsten; Kim, Susan H; Doo, Michael; Maguire, Gerald; Potkin, Steven G

    2003-01-01

    Although a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment, there is speculation that recall may be enhanced when an emotional component is associated with an event. The current study aims to assess whether patients with AD would recall emotionally laden material better than neutral stimuli. DSM-IV-diagnosed AD patients with mild to moderate dementia, as well as groups of young and elderly healthy controls, participated in this study. All subjects were administered three word lists for three trials each. The words were positive, negative, or neutral in valence and matched for concreteness, emotionality, and pleasantness. As expected, the controls performed significantly better than the AD patients. Importantly, the pattern of recall for the emotions was different, such that both control groups recalled all emotions equally, whereas the AD patients recalled significantly more negative words than positive or neutral. These findings of improved immediate memory for emotional material in AD lends support to the notion that mnemonic functions are differentially affected in the disease. PMID:14682081

  14. Infectious Disease Report: Bordetella pertussis Infection in Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Abraham; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Janz, Tyler; Greene, John N

    2016-04-01

    We illustrate 2 cases of pneumonia associated with Bordetella pertussis infection in 72-year-old and 61-year-old patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bacterial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, and those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant, solid organ transplant, or myelosuppressive therapy are at increased risk. The infection was detected and the 2 patients had good outcomes following azithromycin treatment. Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a contagious respiratory illness that has become a public health challenge due to decreased immunity of the pertussis vaccine. Therefore, it is critical to recognize pertussis early in the course of the disease. PMID:27218794

  15. Management of hepatitis C patients with decompensated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the tolerance and effectiveness of novel oral direct acting antivirals (DAA) in hepatitis C patients with decompensated cirrhosis. To examine the studies relevant to the treatment of hepatitis C virus(HCV)-related decompensated liver disease, we performed computer-based searches for English articles between 1947 and August 2015. Fourteen articles including HCV patients with decompensated cirrhosis were reviewed. The combinations of ledipasvir(LDV)/sofosbuvir(SOF)/ribavirin(RBV) for 12 weeks, or daclatasvir/SOF/RBV for 12 weeks are safe and effective for HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection, and daclatasvir/SOF/RBV for 12 weeks or SOF/RBV for 24 weeks might be effective and safe for HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection. In conclusion, current evidence supports the use of all oral DAA regimens in HCV patients with decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26782619

  16. Management of skin disease in patients with lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Callen, Jeffrey P

    2002-04-01

    Skin disease in patients with lupus erythematosus may be subdivided into two broad categories - those represented by a 'specific' histopathology, the interface dermatitis, and those with changes that are not specific to lupus erythematosus, for example, vasculitis, mucin infiltration, etc. The specific skin lesions that are most common are discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). Evaluation will allow the treating physician to assign a prognosis. Cutaneous lesions can generally be managed with standard therapies. Patients with discoid LE and subacute cutaneous LE are generally photosensitive, and therefore sunscreens, protective clothing and behavioural alteration should be discussed with all patients. Topical corticosteroids are a standard form of therapy, but 'newer' agents such as retinoids, calcipotriene and tacrolimus might be effective. Antimalarial agents are generally effective. Attempts to reduce or stop smoking may aid in the control of cutaneous LE. The choice of alternative therapy is personal, and discussions of the risks and benefits should be carefully documented. PMID:12041952

  17. Attitudes of inner city patients with cardiovascular disease towards meditation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amit J.; Ostfeld, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Meditation is a stress reduction intervention that is of potential benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease, but its interest in inner city cardiology patients is unknown. We surveyed patients at an inner city cardiology clinic about their interest in learning meditation and the impact of stress on their lifestyles. Methods A survey was distributed to 215 consecutive patients in an inner city cardiology clinic. Chi-square tests were used to compare those interested and not interested in meditation. Results Of the 215 surveys, 54 were excluded because of 2 or more missing responses, leaving 161 for analysis. The mean age was 61 (+/− 16.5) years; 59% were female, 37% were black non-Hispanic, and 34% were Hispanic, and 18% were white. Overall, 46% expressed interest in learning meditation, and 64% agreed that less stress would facilitate living a healthy lifestyle. In subgroup analysis, the highest levels of interest in meditation classes occurred in patients who were younger than 65 years old (69% interested) and those who agreed that less stress would facilitate living a healthy lifestyle (71% interested). Conclusion Many of the patients at an inner city cardiology clinic may have interest in learning meditation. Given the effects of stress in this population, clinical trials involving meditation are warranted. PMID:27347429

  18. Aortic augmentation index in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Antoniazzi, Valeria; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) is used to investigate arterial stiffness. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate a higher AIx and also evaluated several related factors. In 97 patients with PAD, identified by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI ≤ 0.9), and 97 controls (ABPI ≥ 0.91< 1.4), AIx (%) was determined using tonometry of the radial artery. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in characteristics of age, sex, height, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and heart rate. AIx was higher in patients with PAD (32 ± 9 vs 28 ± 9; P = .001). In multivariate regression analysis, AIx was independently associated with heart rate (β = -0.40, P = .0005). This study showed that AIx increased in patients with PAD and that heart rate is a determinant of AIx. Further studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological and clinical importance of AIx in patients with PAD. PMID:25228305

  19. [Swiss Bechterew's Disease Association: a patient self-help organization].

    PubMed

    Baumberger, H

    1991-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the third most common form of rheumatism and as such of considerable economic and social significance due to its early outbreak, its course of flare-ups and its remissions, chronic persistence and risk of early invalidity. As there is no basic therapy, the main emphasis of modern treatment lies on the practice of regular and intensive AS-specific physical exercise, complemented by suitable sports. In these circumstances, the active cooperation of the patients themselves is of utmost importance; therefore, it was obvious that the information of AS patients on their disease and their interest to improve their physical and psychological situation would be further encouraged by the foundation of a self-assistance organization for AS patients, thereby lightening the blow fate had dealt them. The Swiss Ankylosing Spondylitis Association (Schweizerische Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, SVMB, Société de la spondylarthrite ankylosante, SSSA, Società svizzera morbo di Bechterew, SSMB), founded in 1978, has its headquarters in Zurich (Röntgenstrasse 22, CH-8005 Zurich, Tel. 01 272 78 66) and strives for the following: --the organization of local and regional therapy groups for AS gymnastics and sports --information for patients and their families on all aspects concerning AS --preparation of 'contact' meetings between AS patients to exchange experiences and thoughts --information for doctors on the latest developments in the field of AS and about the activities of the AS Society --promotion of research in the field of AS and its related diseases --information to the general population about the physical aspects of AS and the problems confronting AS patients --cooperation with other AS societies within the framework of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation, ASIF. PMID:2063048

  20. Cord-Blood Transplantation in Patients with Minimal Residual Disease.

    PubMed

    Milano, Filippo; Gooley, Ted; Wood, Brent; Woolfrey, Ann; Flowers, Mary E; Doney, Kristine; Witherspoon, Robert; Mielcarek, Marco; Deeg, Joachim H; Sorror, Mohamed; Dahlberg, Ann; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Salit, Rachel; Petersdorf, Effie; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Delaney, Colleen

    2016-09-01

    Background The majority of patients in need of a hematopoietic-cell transplant do not have a matched related donor. Data are needed to inform the choice among various alternative donor-cell sources. Methods In this retrospective analysis, we compared outcomes in 582 consecutive patients with acute leukemia or the myelodysplastic syndrome who received a first myeloablative hematopoietic-cell transplant from an unrelated cord-blood donor (140 patients), an HLA-matched unrelated donor (344), or an HLA-mismatched unrelated donor (98). Results The relative risks of death and relapse between the cord-blood group and the two other unrelated-donor groups appeared to vary according to the presence of minimal residual disease status before transplantation. Among patients with minimal residual disease, the risk of death was higher in the HLA-mismatched group than in the cord-blood group (hazard ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52 to 5.63; P=0.001); the risk was also higher in the HLA-matched group than in the cord-blood group but not significantly so (hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.94 to 3.02; P=0.08). Among patients without minimal residual disease, the hazard ratios were lower (hazard ratio in the HLA-mismatched group, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.46; P=0.30; hazard ratio in the HLA-matched group, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.28; P=0.33). The risk of relapse among patients with minimal residual disease was significantly higher in the two unrelated-donor groups than in the cord-blood group (hazard ratio in the HLA-mismatched group, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.22 to 7.38; P=0.02; hazard ratio in the HLA-matched group, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.34 to 6.35; P=0.007). Among patients without minimal residual disease, the magnitude of these associations was lower (hazard ratio in the HLA-mismatched group, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.51 to 3.25; P=0.60; hazard ratio in the HLA-matched group, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.65 to 2.58; P=0.46). Conclusions Our data suggest that among patients with pretransplantation minimal

  1. [Enzyme replacement therapy in a patient with Pompe disease].

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Yoshinao; Kinoshita, Satoru; Miyamoto, Yusaku; Nakayama, Tojo; Endo, Yusaku; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2007-09-01

    Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by the deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is required for the degradation of lysosomal glycogen. Glycogen accumulation in heart, muscle and liver eventually leads to muscle weakness, hepatomegaly and cardiomegaly. Although an approved therapy does not exist, the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has recently been reported in multinational trials in Europe and the US. Here, we present data on the efficacy of recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) (provided by Genzyme Corporation) in a patient with Pompe disease. At 5 months of age, motor delay (could not raise his head) and cardiomegaly were observed. A definite diagnosis of Pompe disease was made at 8 months of age after the accumulation of glycogen in a muscle biopsy specimen was observed. This was confirmed by low GAA activity. Since then, motor delay predominated and he was unable to sit independently by age 2.5 years. Every 2 weeks, 20 mg/kg of rhGAA was infused intravenously. To assess the effectiveness, chest X-ray, echocardiography and auditory brain response were recorded. The patient was administered rhGAA for 26 months from 2 years and 8 months of age. Following the initiation of ERT, hepatomegaly and cardiac function (ejection fraction) were rapidly improved and motor function was gradually improved. At 4 years and 10 months, the patient could walk with support. No adverse event has been observed. It can be concluded that ERT with rhGAA is an effective and safe regimen for this case. PMID:17879614

  2. Prognostic Analysis of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liming; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Jian; Teng, Guangju; Du, Ning; Chen, Haoyang; Fang, Yuan; Zhan, Wei; Kanu, Alex B. J.; Koroma, Sheku M.; Jin, Bo; Xu, Zhe; Song, Haihan

    2015-01-01

    Background The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. However, factors affecting the survival of the disease remain unclear. Here, we investigated the prognostic factors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) through various statistical models. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty three laboratory-confirmed EVD patients with relatively complete clinical profiles were included in the study. All the patients were recruited at Jui Government Hospital, Sierra Leone between October 1st, 2014 and January 18th, 2015. We first investigated whether a single clinical presentation would be correlated with the survival of EVD. Log-rank test demonstrated that patients with viral load higher than 106 copies/ml presented significantly shorter survival time than those whose viral load were lower than 106 copies/ml (P = 0.005). Also, using Pearson chi-square test, we identified that chest pain, coma, and viral load (>106 copies/ml) were significantly associated with poor survival of EVD patients. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of multiple variables on the survival of EVD by Cox proportional hazards model. Interestingly, results revealed that patient’s age, symptom of confusion, and viral load were the significantly associated with the survival of EVD cases (P = 0.017, P = 0.002, and P = 0.027, respectively). Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that age, chest pain, coma, confusion and viral load are associated with the prognosis of EVD, in which viral load could be one of the most important factors for the survival of the disease. PMID:26398207

  3. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn's disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya

    2014-06-21

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective

  4. A clinical profile of patients with Parkinson's disease and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Amar, B. R.; Yadav, Ravi; Janardhan Reddy, Y. C.; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to study the clinical profile of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychosis. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, cross sectional, hospital-based study done at the Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India from September 2009 to January 2011. All patients with PD, diagnosed by United Kingdom PD Society Brain Bank criteria, having with features of psychosis as diagnosed by the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) were included. Patients without a caregiver who could validate the patient's symptoms were excluded. Results: A total of 40 patients (5 women, 35 men) with PD with psychosis (mean age: 54.2 ± 11.5 years, mean duration of illness: 6.5 ± 4.5 years, and mean duration of psychosis: 4.3 ± 4.3 years) were included in the study. The Global NPI score was 19.1 ± 11.5. Majority of the patients had pure hallucinations (85%), while the rest had either pure delusions (7.5%) or a combination of delusions and hallucinations (7.5%). In those with hallucinations, visual hallucinations were the commonest (60%) (pure only in 22.5%), followed by auditory (45%), minor hallucinations (45%), and tactile (20%). Only one person reported having olfactory hallucinations (2.5%). Loss of insight was most often observed during the visual hallucinations (52%), followed by tactile (44.4%), auditory (38.9 %), and minor hallucinations (33.3%). Conclusions: In patients with PD and psychosis, pure hallucinations are common and visual hallucinations are the commonest among the hallucinations. A large proportion of patients have minor hallucinations, which need to be recognized early for effective and early management. The limitations of the study were small sample size, use of a single scale to assess psychosis and subjective assessment of insight. PMID:25024570

  5. Multifocal-motor-neuropathy-like disease associated with Infliximab treatment in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Menéndez, S; González Nafría, N; Redondo-Robles, L; Sierra-Ausín, M; García-Santiago, R; Saponaro-González, A

    2015-02-15

    Multifocal motor neuropathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by motor-conduction block in nerve-conduction studies. It is recognized that anti-TNF-α therapies are associated with immune-mediated conditions as adverse events. We report a case of multifocal-motor-neuropathy-like disease associated with the use of Infliximab in a patient with Crohn's disease. The diagnosis was based on neurophysiological evaluation and complete screening tests. Clinical and laboratory findings were not compatible with other potential causes. There was a mild response to the IVIg treatment, and once Infliximab treatment was withdrawn, the patient made slow but substantial progress in his motor function, with partial improvement of motor conduction blocks in the last neurophysiological evaluation. We believe there is a causal relationship between anti-TNF-α treatment and the disorder in this patient. There are few well-documented reports of this association. To our knowledge, our case is the first occurring in a patient with Crohn's disease. PMID:25592414

  6. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Connie M; Brent, Gregory A; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Soldin, Offie P; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J; Brunelli, Steven M; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  7. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Connie M.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Soldin, Offie P.; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  8. Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Annals of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis The full report is titled “Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Early and Late ...

  9. A systematic review of disease-related stigmatization in patients living with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Taft, Tiffany H; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Chronic illness stigma is a global public health issue. Most widely studied in HIV/AIDS and mental illness, stigmatization of patients living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic autoimmune conditions affecting the digestive tract, has garnered increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we systematically review the scientific literature on stigma as it relates to IBD across its three domains: perception, internalization, and discrimination experiences. We aim to document the current state of research, identify gaps in our knowledge, recognize unique challenges that IBD patients may face as they relate to stigmatization, and offer suggestions for future research directions. Based on the current review, patients living with IBD may encounter stigmatization and this may, in turn, impact several patient outcomes including quality of life, psychological functioning, and treatment adherence. Significant gaps exist related to the understanding of IBD stigma, providing opportunity for future studies to address this important public health issue. PMID:27022294

  10. A systematic review of disease-related stigmatization in patients living with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Tiffany H; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Chronic illness stigma is a global public health issue. Most widely studied in HIV/AIDS and mental illness, stigmatization of patients living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic autoimmune conditions affecting the digestive tract, has garnered increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we systematically review the scientific literature on stigma as it relates to IBD across its three domains: perception, internalization, and discrimination experiences. We aim to document the current state of research, identify gaps in our knowledge, recognize unique challenges that IBD patients may face as they relate to stigmatization, and offer suggestions for future research directions. Based on the current review, patients living with IBD may encounter stigmatization and this may, in turn, impact several patient outcomes including quality of life, psychological functioning, and treatment adherence. Significant gaps exist related to the understanding of IBD stigma, providing opportunity for future studies to address this important public health issue. PMID:27022294

  11. IR imaging of blood circulation of patients with vascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Wade, Dwight R., Jr.; Kam, Jack

    2004-04-01

    We conducted a preliminary IR imaging study of blood circulation in patients with peripheral vascular diseases. Abnormal blood flow is common in older adults, especially those with elevated blood lipids, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of smoking. All of these conditions have a high prevalence in our population, often with more than one condition in the same individual. The differences in blood flow is revealed by temperature differences in areas of the extremities as well as other regions of the body. However, what is needed is an imaging technique that is relatively inexpensive and can reveal the blood flow in real time. The IR imaging can show detailed venous system and small tempearture changes associated with blood flow. Six patients with vascular diseases were tested in a clinic set up. Their legs and feet were imaged. We observed large temperature differences (cooling of more than 10° C) at the foot, especially toes. More valuable information were obtained from the temperature distribution maps. IR thermography is potentially a very valuable tool for medical application, especially for vascular diseases.

  12. Fibroblasts of Machado Joseph Disease patients reveal autophagy impairment.

    PubMed

    Onofre, Isabel; Mendonça, Nuno; Lopes, Sara; Nobre, Rui; de Melo, Joana Barbosa; Carreira, Isabel Marques; Januário, Cristina; Gonçalves, António Freire; de Almeida, Luis Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Machado Joseph Disease (MJD) is the most frequent autosomal dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxia caused by the over-repetition of a CAG trinucleotide in the ATXN3 gene. This expansion translates into a polyglutamine tract within the ataxin-3 protein that confers a toxic gain-of-function to the mutant protein ataxin-3, contributing to protein misfolding and intracellular accumulation of aggregates and neuronal degeneration. Autophagy impairment has been shown to be one of the mechanisms that contribute for the MJD phenotype. Here we investigated whether this phenotype was present in patient-derived fibroblasts, a common somatic cell type used in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells and subsequent differentiation into neurons, for in vitro disease modeling. We generated and studied adult dermal fibroblasts from 5 MJD patients and 4 healthy individuals and we found that early passage MJD fibroblasts exhibited autophagy impairment with an underlying mechanism of decreased autophagosome production. The overexpression of beclin-1 on MJD fibroblasts reverted partially autophagy impairment by increasing the autophagic flux but failed to increase the levels of autophagosome production. Overall, our results provide a well-characterized MJD fibroblast resource for neurodegenerative disease research and contribute for the understanding of mutant ataxin-3 biology and its molecular consequences. PMID:27328712

  13. Fibroblasts of Machado Joseph Disease patients reveal autophagy impairment

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, Isabel; Mendonça, Nuno; Lopes, Sara; Nobre, Rui; de Melo, Joana Barbosa; Carreira, Isabel Marques; Januário, Cristina; Gonçalves, António Freire; de Almeida, Luis Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Machado Joseph Disease (MJD) is the most frequent autosomal dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxia caused by the over-repetition of a CAG trinucleotide in the ATXN3 gene. This expansion translates into a polyglutamine tract within the ataxin-3 protein that confers a toxic gain-of-function to the mutant protein ataxin-3, contributing to protein misfolding and intracellular accumulation of aggregates and neuronal degeneration. Autophagy impairment has been shown to be one of the mechanisms that contribute for the MJD phenotype. Here we investigated whether this phenotype was present in patient-derived fibroblasts, a common somatic cell type used in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells and subsequent differentiation into neurons, for in vitro disease modeling. We generated and studied adult dermal fibroblasts from 5 MJD patients and 4 healthy individuals and we found that early passage MJD fibroblasts exhibited autophagy impairment with an underlying mechanism of decreased autophagosome production. The overexpression of beclin-1 on MJD fibroblasts reverted partially autophagy impairment by increasing the autophagic flux but failed to increase the levels of autophagosome production. Overall, our results provide a well-characterized MJD fibroblast resource for neurodegenerative disease research and contribute for the understanding of mutant ataxin-3 biology and its molecular consequences. PMID:27328712

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Patients with Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disorder that displays various clinical features and results in cerebral infarct or hemorrhagic stroke. Specific genes associated with the disease have not yet been identified, making identification of at-risk patients difficult before clinical manifestation. Familial MMD is not uncommon, with as many as 15% of MMD patients having a family history of the disease, suggesting a genetic etiology. Studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMD have mostly focused on mechanical stress on vessels, endothelium, and the relationship to atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss SNPs studies targeting the genetic etiology of MMD. Genetic analyses in familial MMD and genome-wide association studies represent promising strategies for elucidating the pathophysiology of this condition. This review also discusses future research directions, not only to offer new insights into the origin of MMD, but also to enhance our understanding of the genetic aspects of MMD. There have been several SNP studies of MMD. Current SNP studies suggest a genetic contribution to MMD, but further reliable and replicable data are needed. A large cohort or family-based design would be important. Modern SNP studies of MMD depend on novel genetic, experimental, and database methods that will hopefully hasten the arrival of a consensus conclusion. PMID:26180609

  15. Iron Accumulation Is Not Homogenous among Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Liu, Manju; Kani, Camellia; Dalaie, Pejman; Obenaus, Andre; Simmons, Daniel; Gatto, Nicole M.; Zarifi, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Iron is considered to lead to neurodegeneration and has been hypothesized as a possible cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a powerful tool to measure phase related iron content of brain. Methods. Twelve de novo patients with PD were recruited from the Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University. Twelve age- and sex-matched non-PD subjects were recruited from neurology clinic as controls. Using SWI, the phase related iron content was estimated from different brain regions of interest (ROIs). Results. There was a trend between increasing age and iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and putamen in all subjects. Iron accumulation was not significant in different ROIs in PD patients compared to controls after adjustment for age. Our data revealed heterogeneity of phase values in different brain ROIs among all subjects with an exaggerated trend at SN in PD patients. Conclusions. Our data suggest a nonhomogeneous pattern of iron accumulation in different brain regions among PD patients. Further studies are needed to explore whether this may correlate to the progression of PD. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the heterogeneity of iron accumulation in the brain, among patients with PD. PMID:25945281

  16. Sleep spindle alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julie A. E.; Nikolic, Miki; Warby, Simon C.; Koch, Henriette; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Frandsen, Rune; Moghadam, Keivan K.; Sorensen, Helge B. D.; Mignot, Emmanuel; Jennum, Poul J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify changes of sleep spindles (SS) in the EEG of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Five sleep experts manually identified SS at a central scalp location (C3-A2) in 15 PD and 15 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Each SS was given a confidence score, and by using a group consensus rule, 901 SS were identified and characterized by their (1) duration, (2) oscillation frequency, (3) maximum peak-to-peak amplitude, (4) percent-to-peak amplitude, and (5) density. Between-group comparisons were made for all SS characteristics computed, and significant changes for PD patients vs. control subjects were found for duration, oscillation frequency, maximum peak-to-peak amplitude and density. Specifically, SS density was lower, duration was longer, oscillation frequency slower and maximum peak-to-peak amplitude higher in patients vs. controls. We also computed inter-expert reliability in SS scoring and found a significantly lower reliability in scoring definite SS in patients when compared to controls. How neurodegeneration in PD could influence SS characteristics is discussed. We also note that the SS morphological changes observed here may affect automatic detection of SS in patients with PD or other neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). PMID:25983685

  17. Investigations of host defence in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Boghossian, S H; Wright, G; Webster, A D; Segal, A W

    1985-03-01

    Parameters of host defence were investigated in 30 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). A newly devised perfusion system was used to study the kinetics in whole blood of leucocyte adherence, phagocytosis, killing and solubilization of a mixture of Staph. aureus and Str. pneumoniae, and secretion of lactoferrin. A skin window technique was used to examine the accumulation of leucocytes at inflammatory foci and their subsequent rate of movement through a filter. Serum concentrations of C3, C4, total haemolytic complement and immunoglobulins were also measured. The rate of neutrophil migration into filters was slightly reduced in patients with SCD. The proportion of monocytes that emigrated from the skin windows and their rate of migration were markedly diminished. The adhesion of neutrophils and their ability to kill staphylococci were also reduced, particularly in patients of the haemoglobin (Hb) SS and Hb S-beta-thalassaemia genotypes. Neutrophil function was mostly impaired in patients with the greatest frequency of bacterial infection. The rate of clearance of pneumococci was related to the concentration of type specific immunoglobulin G but not M. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulins and complement were normal. We were unable to define a defect of host defence of sufficient magnitude to explain the susceptibility of these patients to severe infection. PMID:3882140

  18. Inflammatory mechanisms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with chronic inflammation affecting predominantly the lung parenchyma and peripheral airways that results in largely irreversible and progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation is characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes (predominantly TC1, TH1, and TH17 cells), and innate lymphoid cells recruited from the circulation. These cells and structural cells, including epithelial and endothelial cells and fibroblasts, secrete a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and lipid mediators. Although most patients with COPD have a predominantly neutrophilic inflammation, some have an increase in eosinophil counts, which might be orchestrated by TH2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells though release of IL-33 from epithelial cells. These patients might be more responsive to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Oxidative stress plays a key role in driving COPD-related inflammation, even in ex-smokers, and might result in activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), impaired antiprotease defenses, DNA damage, cellular senescence, autoantibody generation, and corticosteroid resistance though inactivation of histone deacetylase 2. Systemic inflammation is also found in patients with COPD and can worsen comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Accelerated aging in the lungs of patients with COPD can also generate inflammatory protein release from senescent cells in the lung. In the future, it will be important to recognize phenotypes of patients with optimal responses to more specific therapies, and development of biomarkers that identify the therapeutic phenotypes will be important. PMID:27373322

  19. Rheumatologic Manifestations in Iranian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hezarkhani, Sharabeh; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Shamekhi, Maryam; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are the most common endocrine diseases which result in rheumatologic manifestations. Some studies have shown association between rheumatologic disorders and ATDs. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with ATDs. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study during 2010 to 2011, 65 patients with ATDs referred to the Rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran) were studied via systematic random sampling and patients with positive antithyroid peroxides (anti-TPO) were included in the study. These patients were examined by a rheumatologist for diagnosis of rheumatologic manifestations and tested for serum levels of TSH, Free T3 and T4, Anti-Nuclear Antibodies (ANAs) and Rheumatoid Factor (RF). SPSS software (version 16) and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Nine males (14.8%) and 56 females (86.2%) with mean age of 38.81±1.44 years were studied. Overall, Rheumatologic manifestations were seen in 86.2 % (n=56). In this study, the most frequent rheumatologic manifestations were Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (36.1%) and Osteoarthritis (23%). Reynaud’s phenomenon (RP) (10.7%), Discopathy (8.9%), Fibromyalgia (5.3%), Myopathy (3.6%), Rheumatoid arthritis (3.6%) and trigger finger (3.6%) were other manifestations, respectively. Conclusion: In this region, there is a high frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with ATDs. Thus, initial evaluation and regular checkings are recommended. PMID:25478383

  20. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with unilateral compared with bilateral moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT This study explored whether there were differences between the autoimmune disease prevalence rates in unilateral and bilateral moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained from the medical records of their hospital, analyzing and comparing the clinical characteristics and prevalence rates of all autoimmune diseases that were associated with unilateral and bilateral MMD in their hospital from January 1995 to October 2014. RESULTS Three hundred sixteen patients with bilateral MMD and 68 with unilateral MMD were identified. The results indicated that patients with unilateral MMD were more likely to be female than were patients with bilateral MMD (67.6% vs 51.3%, p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] 1.99). Overall, non-autoimmune comorbidities tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (17.6% vs 9.8%, p = 0.063, OR 1.97, chi-square test). Autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune diseases also tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (19.1% vs 10.8%, p = 0.056, OR 1.96 and 8.8% vs 3.5%, p = 0.092, OR 2.77, respectively, chi-square test). The overall autoimmune disease prevalence in the unilateral MMD cases was significantly higher than in the bilateral MMD cases (26.5% vs 13.6%, p = 0.008, OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.22-4.28, chi-square test). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that autoimmune disease was more likely to be associated with unilateral than with bilateral MMD (p = 0.039, OR 10.91, 95% CI 1.13-105.25). CONCLUSIONS This study indicated a higher overall autoimmune disease prevalence in unilateral than in bilateral MMD. Unilateral MMD may be more associated with autoimmune disease than bilateral MMD. Different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie moyamoya vessel formation in unilateral and bilateral MMD. PMID:26406790

  1. Exome Analysis of Patients with Concurrent Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andreoletti, Gaia; Ashton, James J.; Coelho, Tracy; Willis, Claire; Haggarty, Rachel; Gibson, Jane; Holloway, John; Batra, Akshay; Afzal, Nadeem A.; Beattie, Robert Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PIBD) is a chronic condition seen in genetically predisposed individuals. Genome-wide association studies have implicated >160 genomic loci in IBD with many genes coding for proteins in key immune pathways. This study looks at autoimmune disease burden in patients diagnosed with PIBD and interrogates exome data of a subset of patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from the Southampton Genetics of PIBD cohort. Clinical diagnosis of autoimmune disease in these individuals was ascertained from medical records. For a subset of patients with PIBD and concurrent asthma, exome data was interrogated to ascertain the burden of pathogenic variants within genes implicated in asthma. Association testing was conducted between cases and population controls using the SKAT-O test. Results: Forty-nine (28.3%) PIBD children (18.49% CD, 8.6% UC, and 21.15% IBDU patients) had a concurrent clinical diagnosis of at least one other autoimmune disorder; asthma was the most prevalent, affecting 16.2% of the PIBD cohort. Rare and common variant association testing revealed 6 significant genes (P < 0.05) before Bonferroni adjustment. Three of these genes were previously implicated in both asthma and IBD (ZPBP2 IL1R1, and IL18R1) and 3 in asthma only (PYHIN1, IL2RB, and GSTP1). Conclusions: One-third of our cohort had a concurrent autoimmune condition. We observed higher incidence of asthma compared with the overall pediatric prevalence. Despite a small sample size, SKAT-O evaluated a significant burden of rare and common mutations in 6 genes. Variant burden suggests that a systemic immune dysregulation rather than organ-specific could underpin immune dysfunction for a subset of patients. PMID:25895113

  2. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Brian D; Mitchell, Patrick D; McNicholas, Walter T

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain. PMID:21660297

  3. Metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mekov, Evgeni; Slavova, Yanina; Tsakova, Adelina; Genova, Marianka; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Minchev, Delcho; Marinova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The metabolic syndrome (MS) affects 21-53% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a higher prevalence in the early stages of COPD, with results being highly variable between studies. MS may also affect natural course of COPD-number of exacerbations, quality of life and lung function. Aim. To examine the prevalence of MS and its correlation with comorbidities and COPD characteristics in patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation. Material and methods. 152 patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation were studied for presence of MS. All of them were also assessed for vitamin D status and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM). Data were gathered for smoking status and exacerbations during the last year. All patients completed CAT (COPD assessment test) and mMRC (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale) questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Duration of current hospital stay was recorded. Results. 25% of patients have MS. 23.1% of the male and 29.5% of the female patients have MS (p > 0.05). The prevalence of MS in this study is significantly lower when compared to a national representative study (44.6% in subjects over 45 years). 69.1% of all patients and 97.4% from MS patients have arterial hypertension. The presence of MS is associated with significantly worse cough and sleep (1st and 7th CAT questions; p = 0.002 and p = 0.001 respectively) and higher total CAT score (p = 0.017). Average BMI is 27.31. None of the patients have MS and BMI <25. There is a correlation between the presence of MS and DM (p = 0.008) and with the number of exacerbations in the last year (p = 0.015). There is no correlation between the presence of MS and the pulmonary function. Conclusion. This study among hospitalized COPD patients finds comparable but relatively low prevalence of MS (25%) compared to previously published data (21-53%) and lower prevalence compared to general population (44.6%). MS may impact quality of life and the number of

  4. Metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Slavova, Yanina; Tsakova, Adelina; Genova, Marianka; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Minchev, Delcho; Marinova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The metabolic syndrome (MS) affects 21–53% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a higher prevalence in the early stages of COPD, with results being highly variable between studies. MS may also affect natural course of COPD—number of exacerbations, quality of life and lung function. Aim. To examine the prevalence of MS and its correlation with comorbidities and COPD characteristics in patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation. Material and methods. 152 patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation were studied for presence of MS. All of them were also assessed for vitamin D status and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM). Data were gathered for smoking status and exacerbations during the last year. All patients completed CAT (COPD assessment test) and mMRC (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale) questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Duration of current hospital stay was recorded. Results. 25% of patients have MS. 23.1% of the male and 29.5% of the female patients have MS (p > 0.05). The prevalence of MS in this study is significantly lower when compared to a national representative study (44.6% in subjects over 45 years). 69.1% of all patients and 97.4% from MS patients have arterial hypertension. The presence of MS is associated with significantly worse cough and sleep (1st and 7th CAT questions; p = 0.002 and p = 0.001 respectively) and higher total CAT score (p = 0.017). Average BMI is 27.31. None of the patients have MS and BMI <25. There is a correlation between the presence of MS and DM (p = 0.008) and with the number of exacerbations in the last year (p = 0.015). There is no correlation between the presence of MS and the pulmonary function. Conclusion. This study among hospitalized COPD patients finds comparable but relatively low prevalence of MS (25%) compared to previously published data (21–53%) and lower prevalence compared to general population (44.6%). MS may impact quality of life and the

  5. Psychological modulation in patients surgically intervened for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lara, F J Pérez; Carranque, G; Oehling, H; Hernández, J M; Oliva, H

    2014-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been related with certain psychological dimensions. The influence of mood, emotional intelligence, and perceived quality of life on clinical symptoms and outcome of antireflux surgery was evaluated in GERD patients with and without hiatal hernia. The study included 61 patients who were diagnosed with GERD between 2003 and 2008: 16 of them without hiatal hernia (group A) and 45 of them with hiatal hernia (group B). All of these patients had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Patients were clinically examined and evaluated with the following instruments: Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)-24. Proportions were compared by using the chi-squared test; averages were compared by using the Student's t-test (with Bonferroni's correction). In general, our patients intervened for GERD showed results lower than normal or close to the lower limit of normal in the administered tests. Patients in the group without hernia were younger (P < 0.001) and with lower American Society of Anaesthesiologists risk. They showed higher scores in the SF-36 dimensions: Physical Functioning, Physical Role and Emotional Role, and lower scores in the Social Role (P < 0.001). They showed lower scores in the Emotional dimension of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (P = 0.0068) and worse results in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscales of Anxiety (P < 0.001) and Depression (not significant). Men in the group without hernia showed higher scores than men in the group with hernia in the TMMS subscales corresponding to Emotional Clarity and Emotional Repair (P < 0.001). Women in the group with hernia showed higher scores than women in the group without hernia regarding Emotional Clarity (P = 0.0012). GERD patients showed poor results in all the tests, and patients without hiatal hernia compared with patients with hernia showed

  6. PDT in periodontal disease of HAART resistance patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovani, Elcio M.; Noro-Filho, Gilberto A.; Caputo, Bruno V.; Casarin, Renato; Costa, Claudio; Salgado, Daniela; Santos, Camila C.

    2016-03-01

    HIV/Aids patients present a change of microbiota associated with host immunodeficiency. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) showed as a promising and viable alternative in reducing microbiota. Present study evaluate effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in periodontal disease of AIDS patients with highly activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure, measuring the clinical periodontal parameters and periodontal microbiota. Twelve patients with HARRT resistance (R group) divided into two groups (control and PDT) and 12 patients with no HAART resistance (NR group) divided into two groups (control and PDT). The results show the difference in baseline of CD4 cells count, NR group 640.0 +/- 176.2 cells/mm3 R group and 333.3 +/- 205.8 cells / mm3 (p<0.05), and in 8.3% detectable viral load in NR group and 75% detectable (p <0.001) in R group. As clinical periodontal parameters (PD and CAL), PDT was more effective than the control group only in the NR group (p <0.05%), moreover, there was no difference in the evaluation of clinical periodontal parameters between the both R groups (p>0.05%). Microbiological evaluation in R group presents a general reduction in the Aa at 3 and 6 months. Furthermore, demonstrated a reduction of Pg in all groups at 6 months and in R group at 3 months. The impact assessment of photodynamic therapy in patients with different levels of immunosuppression determined that the combination of mechanical periodontal treatment with photodynamic therapy in patients with HAART failure did not cause additional benefits. Therefore, PDT in this study could not been indicated in HAART resistance patients.

  7. Glycaemic changes in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    De'Marziani, Guillermo; Soler Pujol, Gervasio; Obregón, Liliana Miriam; Morales, Elisa Mabel; Gonzalez, Claudio Daniel; Gonzalez Paganti, Luciana; Cacciagiú, Leonardo; Lopez, Graciela; Schreier, Laura; Elbert, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In Argentina, there have been no studies aimed at establishing the prevalence of dysglycaemia (impaired fasting glucose [IFG], impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and diabetes mellitus [DM]) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our group decided to conduct an observational study to evaluate the frequency with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in CKD patients with no previous data for dysglycaemia in their medical records. OGTT was performed in 254 patients (60.62% male) with stage 3, 4 and 5 CKD under conservative treatment, haemodialysis or transplantation. Results for DM were found in 10 patients according to fasting glucose alone (3.94%; 95% CI: 1.35-6.53%), 11 patients with exclusively the second hour criterion (4.33%; 95% CI: 1.63-7.03%), 15 with both criteria (5.91%; 95% CI: 2.81-9.00%) and 36 patients with at least one criteria (14.17%; 95% CI: 9.69-18.66%). In a multivariate analysis, DM was associated with waist circumference (OR=1.033 per cm; 95% CI, 1.005 to 1.062; P=.019) and with conservative treatment vs. replacement therapy (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.19-0.92; P=.028). IGT was evident in 24.6% and 20.3 on conservative vs. replacement therapy, with no statistically significant difference. IFG (ADA criteria) was 19.75 vs. 9.24% in conservative vs. replacement therapy, with a statistically significant difference. OGTT is suggested for all CKD patients since it is able to detect the full range of unknown dysglycaemias, which avoids underdiagnoses and favours performing treatments to prevent progression in DM risk groups (IFG and/or IGT). It also aids in the selection of the most appropriate medication for transplantation or treatment initiation in new cases of undiagnosed DM to decrease morbidity and mortality. PMID:26873550

  8. Obesity Paradox in End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongha; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Streja, Elani; Molnar, Miklos Z; Flegal, Katherine M.; Gillen, Daniel; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    In the general population, obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and decreased survival. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, an “obesity paradox” or “reverse epidemiology” (to include lipid and hypertension paradoxes) has been consistently reported, i.e. a higher body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better survival. This survival advantage of large body size is relatively consistent for hemodialysis patients across racial and regional differences, although published results are mixed for peritoneal dialysis patients.. Recent data indicate that both higher skeletal muscle mass and increased total body fat are protective, although there are mixed data on visceral (intra-abdominal) fat. The obesity paradox in ESRD is unlikely to be due to residual confounding alone and has biologic plausibility. Possible causes of the obesity paradox include protein-energy wasting and inflammation, time discrepancy among competitive risk factors (undernutrition versus overnutrition), hemodynamic stability, alteration of circulatory cytokines, sequestration of uremic toxin in adipose tissue, and endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction. The obesity paradox may have significant clinical implications in the management of ESRD patients especially if obese dialysis patients are forced to lose weight upon transplant wait-listing. Well-designed studies exploring the causes and consequences of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors, including the obesity paradox, among ESRD patients could provide more information on mechanisms. These could include controlled trials of nutritional and pharmacologic interventions to examine whether gain in lean body mass or even body fat can improve survival and quality of life in these patients. PMID:24438733

  9. Usefulness of Endoscopic Indices in Determination of Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Marcin; Karczewski, Jacek; Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, Dorota; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Rzymski, Piotr; Grzymisławski, Marian; Linke, Krzysztof; Dobrowolska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessment of endoscopic activity of Crohn's disease (CD) is of growing importance both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. The study aimed to assess which of the endoscopic indices used for evaluation of mucosal changes correlates with the currently used clinical indices for determination of disease activity and with the results of histopathological examination. Study. A group of 71 patients with CD and 52 individuals without a diagnosis of GI tract disease as a control group were investigated, considering clinical and histological severity of the disease and the severity of inflammatory changes in the bowel. Evaluation was conducted with the use of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological indices. Endoscopic indices were then correlated with different clinical and histopathological indices with the aim of finding the strongest correlations. Results and Conclusions. Correlation between the clinical disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in CD was shown in this study to be poor. The results also indicate that the optimal endoscopic index used in the diagnostic stage and in the assessment of treatment effects in CD is Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). PMID:26997952

  10. Complex noninvasive spectrophotometry in examination of patients with vibration disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernyi, V. V.; Rogatkin, D. A.; Gorenkov, R. V.; Karpov, V. N.; Shumskiy, V. I.; Lubchenko, P. N.

    2006-02-01

    A lot of industry workers all over the world have dealings with a strong mechanical vibration as with daily technology processes. Very often such long-time professional vibration causes the so-called professional "vibration disease", in English literature "white fingers syndrome", caused by a local vibration of hands. Among different clinical features of the vibration disease a leader's part of them consists of different cardiovascular and trophic disorders of tissues. The objects of the present study were the peripheral blood microcirculation, peripheral blood oxygenation and tissues hypoxia state in a finger skin under vibration disease. For this purpose we have used a combined noninvasive spectrophotometry diagnostic technique consisting of Laser-Doppler Flowmetry (LDF), Laser Fluorescent Diagnostics (LFD) and Tissues Reflectance Oximetry (TRO). The results show good possibilities of all mentioned above diagnostic methods in estimation of different vascular disorders. A good correlation between persistent microcirculation disorders and trophic disturbances revealed in tissues of distal ends of upper extremities of the patients with vibration disease was estimated. Additionally, in present study with the use of real and long-time TRO and LDF methods a good correlation between LDF and TRO data including correlation in detected rhythms of blood microcirculation was estimated as well.

  11. How to predict clinical relapse in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Digby, Richard John; Bellanova, Matteo; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases have a natural course characterized by alternating periods of remission and relapse. Disease flares occur in a random way and are currently unpredictable for the most part. Predictors of benign or unfavourable clinical course are required to facilitate treatment decisions and to avoid overtreatment. The present article provides a literature review of the current evidence on the main clinical, genetic, endoscopic, histologic, serologic and fecal markers to predict aggressiveness of inflammatory bowel disease and discuss their prognostic role, both in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. No single marker seems to be reliable alone as a flare predictor, even in light of promising evidence regarding the role of fecal markers, in particular fecal calprotectin, which has reported good results recently. In order to improve our daily clinical practice, validated prognostic scores should be elaborated, integrating clinical and biological markers of prognosis. Finally, we propose an algorithm considering clinical history and biological markers to intercept patients with high risk of clinical relapse. PMID:26811644

  12. Tinea Barbae: In Released from Treatment (RFT) Hansen's Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Giri, Vc; Singh, Hosanna; Kumar, Vinod; Ali, Showkath

    2014-07-01

    Hansen Disease (leprosy) is a chronic inflammatory infectious disease that primarily targets skin, nerves and other internal organs (testis, liver etc.) caused by the acid fast intracellular bacilli, Mycobacterium leprae. Clinical presentation occurs with a wide spectrum including hypo pigmented anaesthetic patches, raised erythematous plaques and nodules and thickened peripheral nerves showing tenderness. The most important complication is the disability and deformity. The diagnosis of leprosy is frequently delayed because of its similarity with other more common skin conditions prevailing in some non endemic areas. We present a rare case report of tinea barbae in an old treated case of leprosy. This case is one of the rarest fungal infection in leprosy patient searched in PUBMED as there were other more tinea infection involving various sites in body which sometimes misdiagnosed as leprosy. PMID:25177622

  13. The challenging patient with varicella-zoster virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation from latently infected ganglia causes multiple neurologic diseases. The most common is herpes zoster, which is frequently complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, meningoencephalitis, and vasculopathy, including VZV temporal arteritis, myelopathy, and retinal necrosis. All of these disorders can develop without rash. Importantly, VZV vasculopathy is emerging as a significant cause of TIAs and stroke. In particular, a subset of patients who present with symptoms and signs of giant cell arteritis (GCA), but whose temporal artery biopsies are GCA-negative, have multifocal VZV vasculopathy with temporal artery infection. Herein we focus on the specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that clinical neurologists encounter in diseases caused by VZV, discuss guidelines for zoster vaccine, and highlight molecular features of VZV latency with a focus on preventing the serious neurologic and ocular complications of VZV reactivation. PMID:23914320

  14. Stereological quantification of the cerebellum in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kjeld; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Nonquantitative studies indicate that the cerebellum is neuropathologically affected in Alzheimer's disease; however, no quantitative studies on the subject have yet been conducted. Ten cerebella from elderly female subjects with severe Alzheimer's disease and 10 age- and gender-matched controls were examined. The cerebellum was divided into 5 regions and the Purkinje and granule cell number and density, cortical volume, molecular and granular layer volume and thickness, white matter volume, surface area, and the Purkinje cell gradient were stereologically estimated. There was no significant difference between the groups in Purkinje or granule cell number or density, and no overall difference in Purkinje cell gradient. However, there was a significant 12.7% reduction in total cerebellar volume in the Alzheimer's group and significant localized differences between the groups regarding other parameters. The relative lack of neuropathological changes in the cerebellum of severely demented Alzheimer's patients suggests that neuronal cell bodies on a global scale apparently still are intact. PMID:20728248

  15. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  16. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  17. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  18. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  19. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  20. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    KAMPITS, Cassio; MONTENEGRO, Marlon M.; RIBEIRO, Ingrid W. J.; FURTADO, Mariana V.; POLANCZYK, Carisi A.; RÖSING, Cassiano K.; HAAS, Alex. N

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease has been associated with elevations of blood cytokines involved in atherosclerosis in systemically healthy individuals, but little is known about this association in stable cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease (exposure) and blood cytokine levels (outcomes) in a target population of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and Methods This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment (CA) loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. Results CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01), IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03), and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02). Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07). Conclusion Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients. PMID:27556206

  1. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care. PMID:26888573

  2. [Rare diseases and their patient organization: the Hungarian Federation of People with Rare and Congenital Diseases].

    PubMed

    Pogány, Gábor

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the author is to discuss special issues of rare diseases, with emphasis on circumstances present in Hungary, including those leading to the foundation of the non-governmental organization, the Hungarian Federation of People with Rare and Congenital Diseases. The author briefly reviews the most important findings of current international surveys which have been performed with or without the involvement of member associations of the Hungarian Federation of People with Rare and Congenital Diseases. At the level of medical and social services in Hungary, it is still "incidental" to get to the appropriate expert or centre providing the diagnosis or treatment. It is difficult to find the still very few existing services due to the lack of suitable "pathways" and referrals. There are long delays in obtaining the first appointment, resulting in vulnerability and inequality along the regions. The overall consequence is the insufficiency or lack of access to medical and social services. There are also difficulties related to the supply of orphan medication and the long duration of hospitalization. At the level of patient organizations financial scarcity and uncertainty are typical, combined with inappropriate infrastructural background and human resources. The poor quality of organization of patient bodies along with insufficient cooperation among them are characteristic as well. The author concludes that a National Plan or Strategy is needed to improve the current fragmentation of services which would enable patients and health, social and educational professionals to provide and use the best care in the practice. This would ensure all patients with rare diseases to be diagnosed within a possible shortest time allowing access to the care and support needed in time resulting in a decrease in burden of families and society. PMID:24566696

  3. Delivering a one-stop, integrated, and patient-centered service for patients with rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Väre, Paula; Nikiphorou, Elena; Hannonen, Pekka; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe a one-stop, integrated rheumatology service and assess patient satisfaction. Methods: A descriptive report and patient satisfaction survey of a rheumatology clinic model first developed in 1996 to enhance the patient “journey” through rheumatology services. A patient-satisfaction survey over a 3-week period assessed several aspects of care including quality of services, consultations, and patient education. Results: All referrals are screened by a rheumatologist to pre-schedule laboratory/radiology/other tests for the visit. Upon arrival to the clinic, patients check-in at an electronic desk, and then complete the electronic GoTreatIT monitoring system which assesses patient-reported outcomes. The patient is reviewed by a doctor in a 30- to 60-min consultation, and then by a nurse (for diagnosis/treatment education, vaccinations). An ultrasound machine and capillaroscopy are available for use in the clinic. Patients can be scheduled on the same day to see a nutritionist, physiotherapist, or other heath professionals as necessary. An “early-rheumatoid arthritis treatment path” is available to ensure early, intensive treatment. A patient satisfaction survey revealed high rating of the overall service (90.6/100). None of the patients felt that they lacked education on their disease or medication. Only 6% of the respondents gave negative feedback, reasons including feeling overwhelmed with information or not being given a cause for their symptoms. The multi-disciplinary approach was highly valued and only 3% would rather see a doctor and nurse on separate days. Conclusion: The specific clinic model provides an ideal setting for a one-stop service, avoiding unnecessary visits, collecting patient data, and enhancing the patient experience and journey through the system. Where possible, the specific clinic model could be used or adapted to build similar models in other rheumatology departments. The clinic model could also form the basis for

  4. Ipilimumab-Induced Granulomatous Disease Occurring Simultaneously With Disease Progression in a Patient With Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Toumeh, Anis; Sakhi, Ramen; Shah, Sarthi; Arudra, Sri Krishna Chaitanya; De Las Casas, Luis E; Skeel, Roland T

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive cutaneous malignancy with dismal prognosis in the advanced setting. The food and drug administration approval of ipilimumab, the monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, has significantly changed treatment strategies for this disease. However, the spectrum of immune-related adverse events secondary to ipilimumab therapy is a growing area of research, and clinical observations of rare immune events as a result of such therapies continue to be reported since the approval. The co-occurrence of disease progression along with an immune-related adverse event is extremely rare. We here present the first case, to our knowledge, of diffuse nonnecrotizing granulomatous lymphadenopathy occurring simultaneously with disease progression in a patient with metastatic melanoma after receiving the second dose of ipilimumab. PMID:25933140

  5. Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Seok; Sung, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    Currently, gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are well-recognized problems and are known to be an initial symptom in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Gastrointestinal symptoms may result from the involvement of either the central or enteric nervous systems, or these symptoms may be side effects of antiparkinsonian medications. Weight loss, excessive salivation, dysphagia, nausea/gastroparesis, constipation, and defecation dysfunction all may occur. Increased identification and early detection of these symptoms can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life for PD patients. PMID:26090079

  6. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  7. Patient-reported outcome measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Matary, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used in both research and clinical health settings. With the recent development of United States Food and Drug Administration guidance on PROMs, more attention is being devoted to their role and importance in health care. Several methodological challenges in the development, validation and implementation of PROMs must be resolved to ensure their appropriate utilization and interpretation. The present review discusses recent developments and updates in PROMs, with specific focus on the area of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25390615

  8. Organizing Pneumonia in a Patient with Quiescent Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ozeki, Keiji; Katano, Takahito; Shimura, Takaya; Mori, Yoshinori; Joh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) was admitted to our hospital due to moderate risk of pneumonia while receiving scheduled adalimumab maintenance therapy. Symptoms remained virtually unchanged following administration of antibiotics. A final diagnosis of organizing pneumonia (OP) was made based on findings of intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue and fibrous thickening of the alveolar walls on pathological examination and patchy consolidations and ground glass opacities on computed tomography. Immediate administration of prednisolone provided rapid, sustained improvement. Although a rare complication, OP is a pulmonary manifestation that requires attention in CD patients. PMID:27413560

  9. Three consecutive pregnancies in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IA (von Gierke's disease).

    PubMed

    Ryan, I P; Havel, R J; Laros, R K

    1994-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IA is associated with metabolic abnormalities that can compromise fetal outcome. Normal outcome can be achieved by maintaining euglycemia throughout gestation. We report three consecutive pregnancies in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IA. The patient, a 35-year-old woman, has been maintained on a regimen of nightly nasogastric or cornstarch feedings for the past 12 years with improving metabolic control, reduced liver size, and no progression of multiple hepatic adenomas. On confirmation of each pregnancy, early in the first trimester nightly feeding was changed from cornstarch ingestion to Polycose by nasogastric intubation, with good metabolic control. During the last trimester of each pregnancy metabolic control showed further improvement, with lowering of lactate, urate, and triglyceride levels. During the first pregnancy unexpected fetal death occurred at 33 weeks. During the last two pregnancies, the patient was admitted at 33 and 34 weeks, respectively, for closer supervision of metabolic status and fetal monitoring. She underwent a cesarean section at 35 weeks 4 days of gestation and was delivered of a girl. She underwent a repeat cesarean section at 35 weeks 2 days for the subsequent gestation and was delivered of a boy. Both infants are healthy and appear to be unaffected by von Gierke's disease. Hepatic adenomas did not enlarge during the pregnancies. Meticulous management resulted in normal pregnancy outcomes in two consecutive gestations. Rapid fetal growth late in the third trimester may require particularly careful supervision to maintain euglycemia. PMID:8203427

  10. Vegetarianism: advantages and drawbacks in patients with chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Vegetarian diet is a very old practice that is liable to confer some health benefits. Recent studies have demonstrated that modification of the dietary pattern with a reduction of animal protein intake and increased consumption of plant-based foods could influence cardiovascular risk profile and mortality rate. Moreover, phosphate bioavailability from plant proteins is reduced. These statements could lead to some benefits for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This review summarizes the characteristics and benefits of vegetarian diets in the general population and the potential beneficial effects of such a diet on phosphate balance, insulin sensitivity, and the control of metabolic acidosis in CKD patients. Potential drawbacks exist when a vegetarian diet is associated with protein intake that is too restrictive and/or insufficient energy intake, justifying an early and regular nutritional follow-up jointly assumed by a nephrologist and a renal dietitian. PMID:24070587

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Brett; Wallington, Sherrie; Jillson, Irene A.; Trandafili, Holta; Shetty, Kirti; Wang, Judy; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to care among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Methods Three separate, one-time-only, 60-minutes focus group sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an editing style of analysis. Results In total, 13 focus group participants provided 254 discrete comments. Emerging themes included: negative lifestyles/behaviors, lack of CLD knowledge, negative attitudes/emotions, stigma and negativity, health insurance, inaccessible/high cost medical care, drug/alcohol abuse, and discriminately sharing CLD diagnoses. Conclusions Participants felt lack of CLD knowledge was a key factor in how patients perceived prevention, risks, causes, and treatment. These findings contribute to the important, yet limited, base of knowledge about CLD and provide a benchmark for future, more extensive studies and interventions. PMID:24933143

  12. Diets for patients with chronic kidney disease, should we reconsider?

    PubMed

    Mitch, William E; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we revisit how dietary factors could affect the treatment of patients with complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), bringing to the attention of the reader the most recent developments in the field. We will briefly discuss five CKD-induced complications that are substantially improved by dietary manipulation: 1) metabolic acidosis and the progression of CKD; 2) improving the diet to take advantage of the benefits of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on slowing the progression of CKD; 3) the diet and mineral bone disorders in CKD; 4) the safety of nutritional methods utilizing dietary protein restriction; and 5) evidence that new strategies can treat the loss of lean body mass that is commonly present in patients with CKD. PMID:27401192

  13. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibits broad clinical characteristics and various consequences and is known as one of the major macrovascular complications of T2DM. Atherosclerosis is recognized as the most direct and important cause of PAD, but acute or chronic limb ischemia may be the result of various risk factors. In light of the increasing number of patients who undergo peripheral vascular procedures, the number of subjects who are exposed to the risks for PAD and related complications is increasing. In this review, we will discuss the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of PAD, as well as the clinical significance of PAD in T2DM subjects. PMID:26301189

  14. Oral doxophylline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Villani, F; De Maria, P; Ronchi, E; Galimberti, M

    1997-03-01

    Doxophylline, or 2-(7'-theophyllinemethyl)1,3-dioxolane, is a theophylline derivative which has shown interesting bronchodilating activity, and it appears to determine few adverse effects. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate clinical therapeutic effects of the drug in the treatment of 2 groups of patients suffering from moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease differing in acute response to the inhaled beta 2-agonist salbutamol and to compare changes of lung function tests to serum concentration of doxophylline. We studied 67 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (median age 63 years, 9 females and 58 males) who were all clinically stable at the time of the study. Patients were separated into 2 groups on the basis of their reaction to inhalation of 200 micrograms of salbutamol: those with an increased FEV1 of more than 20% from baseline value (group 1), and those with no increase (group 2). Doxophylline was administered orally at the dose of 400 mg 3 times daily. Serum levels of doxophylline were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Spirometry and blood gas analysis were performed before and 10 days after treatment. Four patients stopped drug assumption because of side effects (3 for dyspepsia and 1 for anxiety). In group 1 (34 patients), a significant increase in SVC, FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75% and PEFR was observed. In group 1 (29 patients), only PEFR significantly increased. No modifications in blood gas analysis were observed. The mean serum level of doxophylline was 14 micrograms/ml in group 1 and 9 micrograms/ml in group 2: the difference was statistically significant. The relation between serum levels of doxophylline and FVC showed an increase in the parameter up to the concentration of 12-13 micrograms/ml, after which a plateau phase was observed. On the basis of our data, doxophylline appears to have an interesting bronchodilating effect in patients responsive to the inhaled beta 2-agonist salbutamol

  15. Genomic imbalances in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Fasel, David A.; Levy, Brynn; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Wuttke, Matthias; Abraham, Alison G.; Kaskel, Frederick; Köttgen, Anna; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.; Wong, Craig S.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. There is frequent uncertainty in the identification of specific etiologies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Recent studies indicate that chromosomal microarrays can identify rare genomic imbalances that can clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental and cardiac disorders in children; however, the contribution of unsuspected genomic imbalance to the incidence of pediatric CKD is unknown. METHODS. We performed chromosomal microarrays to detect genomic imbalances in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study, a longitudinal prospective multiethnic observational study of North American children with mild to moderate CKD. Patients with clinically detectable syndromic disease were excluded from evaluation. We compared 419 unrelated children enrolled in CKiD to multiethnic cohorts of 21,575 children and adults that had undergone microarray genotyping for studies unrelated to CKD. RESULTS. We identified diagnostic copy number disorders in 31 children with CKD (7.4% of the cohort). We detected 10 known pathogenic genomic disorders, including the 17q12 deletion HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B) and triple X syndromes in 19 of 419 unrelated CKiD cases as compared with 98 of 21,575 control individuals (OR 10.8, P = 6.1 × 10–20). In an additional 12 CKiD cases, we identified 12 likely pathogenic genomic imbalances that would be considered reportable in a clinical setting. These genomic imbalances were evenly distributed among patients diagnosed with congenital and noncongenital forms of CKD. In the vast majority of these cases, the genomic lesion was unsuspected based on the clinical assessment and either reclassified the disease or provided information that might have triggered additional clinical care, such as evaluation for metabolic or neuropsychiatric disease. CONCLUSION. A substantial proportion of children with CKD have an unsuspected genomic imbalance, suggesting genomic disorders as a risk factor for

  16. Sleep disorders in pediatric chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Stabouli, Stella; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Printza, Nikoleta; Dotis, John; Papachristou, Fotios

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders during childhood has been estimated to range from 25 to 43 %. The aim of this review is to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders and possible associations with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with CKD. An electronic systematic literature search for sleep disorders in children with CKD in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library Databases identified seven relevant articles for review, all of which reported an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with CKD. Five studies included children with CKD undergoing dialysis, and two studies included only non-dialysis patients. In all studies the presence of sleep disturbances was assessed by questionnaires; only one study compared the results of a validated questionnaire with laboratory-based polysomnography. The prevalence of any sleep disorder ranged from 77 to 85 % in dialysis patients, to 32-50 % in transplanted patients and 40-50 % in non-dialysis patients. The most commonly studied disorder was restless legs syndrome, which presented at a prevalence of 10-35 %. Three studies showed significant associations between presence of sleep disorders and HRQOL. We found consistent evidence of an increased prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with CKD, and these seemed to play a critical role in HRQOL. PMID:26482250

  17. Factors Associated with Caregiver Burden in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyo Shin; Myung, Woojae; Na, Duk L.; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Hong; Han, Seol-Heui; Choi, Seong Hye; Kim, SangYun; Kim, Seonwoo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Caregivers for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from psychological and financial burdens. However, the results of the relationship between burden and cognitive function, performance of activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms have remained inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine which factors are more significant predictors of heightened burden, cognitive impairment or functional decline, besides neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample comprised of 1,164 pairs of patients with AD and caregivers from the Clinical Research of Dementia of South Korea study cohorts. The cognitive function of each sub-domain, functional impairments, depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed using the dementia version of Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), Barthel Index for Daily Living Activities (ADL), Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL), the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Box (CDR-SB), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI), and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Results We found that higher severity (higher CDR-SB and GDS scores) and more functional impairment (lower ADL and higher S-IADL scores) were significantly associated with higher caregiver burden. In addition, depressive symptoms of patients (higher Geriatric Depression Scale scores) were associated with higher caregiver burden. Conclusion Therefore, interventions to help maintain activities of daily living in patients with AD may alleviate caregiver burden and improve caregiver well-being. PMID:24843370

  18. [Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Lisboa, C; Borzone, G; Cruz, E

    1998-05-01

    We analyze the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with special emphasis on its effects on inspiratory muscle function and clinical outcomes. We reviewed only randomized, controlled studies that have either controlled both the load and the breathing pattern when using resistive training or have employed a threshold trainer in which the load is independent of the pattern of breathing, since methodological aspects may explain inconsistent results in the literature. In these circumstances, most of the studies demonstrated positive effects on inspiratory muscle function. Clinical effects were seldom evaluated; limited available data showed a reduction in dyspnea that was related to an increase in maximal inspiratory pressures (PIMax). When exercise capacity was evaluated through the distance the patients were able to walk in 6 or 12 minutes, most studies demonstrated a significant increase. Other reported positive effects were improvement in nocturnal SaO2, inspiratory muscle power output and maximal inspiratory flow rate. Based in this review, a recommended training regime appears to be an intermediate load (30-40% PIMax) using a threshold device for 30 minutes daily for at least 5 weeks. Although in the literature the criteria for selecting patients are not always well defined, we consider IMT as a helpful procedure for pulmonar rehabilitation in those patients with a moderately severe inspiratory muscle dysfunction presenting dyspnea during daily living activities despite optimal therapy. PMID:9731440

  19. Febuxostat for hyperuricemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Tetsu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Chiharu; Iimura, Osamu; Tsunematsu, Sadao; Watanabe, Yuko; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Febuxostat is a nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, which recently received marketing approval. However, information regarding the experience with this agent among advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is limited. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oral febuxostat in patients with advanced CKD with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. We demonstrated, for the first time, that not only the serum levels of uric acid (UA) but also those of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, were significantly reduced after six months of febuxostat treatment, with no adverse events. These results encouraged us to pursue further investigations regarding the clinical impact of lowering the serum UA levels with febuxostat in advanced CKD patients in terms of concomitantly reducing oxidative stress via the blockade of XO. More detailed studies with a larger number of subjects and assessments of the effects of multiple factors affecting hyperuricemia, such as age, sex, and dietary habits, would shed light on the therapeutic challenges of treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia in patients with various stages of CKD. PMID:25210423

  20. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Zobeiri; Sakineh, Ebrahimi; Mohammad, Farahvash; Mansour, Rezaei; Alireza, Abdollahi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the community is 10%–20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD) with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG) IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients. PMID:23826010

  1. Microbiology of airway disease in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, P H

    1991-01-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis have abbreviated life spans primarily due to chronic airway infection. A limited number of types of organisms are responsible for these infections, with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being of primary importance. In the pre-antibiotic era, greater than 90% of deaths due to infection were caused by S. aureus and death usually occurred in the first 2 years of life. With the advent of effective antistaphylococcal therapy, life spans increased and P. aeruginosa became the pathogen of primary importance. P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis have a unique phenotypic characteristic referred to as "mucoid." The mucoid phenotype is due to the production of a mucoid exopolysaccharide. A mucoid exopolysaccharide is believed to play a central role in the establishment of chronic pseudomonal lung infection in these patients. A third organism, Pseudomonas cepacia, has recently been detected in the airways of older patients with cystic fibrosis and is associated with increased mortality. The virulence of P. cepacia is not understood, but the organism is extremely refractory to antimicrobial therapy. Other bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, appear to play a secondary role in airway infection. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important fungal agent causing allergic bronchopulmonary disease. The role of viruses has only recently been examined. At least in some patients with cystic fibrosis, respiratory syncytial virus may be important in predisposing to subsequent bacterial infections. PMID:1900735

  2. Managing Inflammatory Manifestations in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Alessandra; Mahlaoui, Nizar

    2016-10-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by lack of phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, which results in inflammatory dysregulation and increased susceptibility to infections. Patients with CGD may develop severe obstructive disorders of the digestive tract as a result of their dysregulated inflammatory response. Despite a growing focus on inflammatory manifestations in CGD, the literature data on obstructive complications are far less extensive than those on infectious complications. Diagnosis and management of patients with concomitant predispositions to infections and hyperinflammation are particularly challenging. Although the inflammatory and granulomatous manifestations of CGD usually respond rapidly to steroid treatment, second-line therapies (immunosuppressants and biologics) may be required in refractory cases. Indeed, immunosuppressants (such as anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, thalidomide, and anakinra) have shown some efficacy, but the value of this approach is controversial, given the questionable risk-to-benefit ratio and the small numbers of patients treated to date. Significant progress in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (the only curative treatment for CGD) has been made through better supportive care and implementation of improved, reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Gene therapy may eventually be an option for patients lacking a suitable donor; clinical trials with new, safer vectors are ongoing at a few centers. PMID:27299584

  3. Why do Parkinson's Disease Patients Sometimes Make Wrong Decisions?

    PubMed

    Damier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of the cerebral bases of decision making has grown considerably in the past decade. The dopamine system is closely involved in many aspects of the decisional process. It is therefore not surprising that the dysfunctions that occur in Parkinson's disease (PD) can alter some patients' decisions. Put simply, a decision is the final step of a process in which a subject weighs up the potential benefits and costs associated with each of the different options available for a given choice. The option that appears to have the best ratio of benefits to costs is chosen. In some PD patients, dopamine agonists destabilize the balance: the benefits are given an inappropriately high weighting relative to the costs, leading patients to take decisions they would not otherwise have taken. This might be one of the explanations for impulse control disorders observed in some PD patients. Dysfunction of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) induced by dopamine replacement or by deep brain stimulation is another mechanism that can alter decision making. The STN plays an active role in the decisional process, especially by slowing down the process when the difference between the options to be considered in a given choice is small (e.g. a win-win choice). Deep brain stimulation applied to the STN may interfere with its monitoring role and lead to an impulsive choice. Attention disorders and frontal lobe dysfunction, highly prevalent in the course of PD, are other factors that may alter a patient's decision making. Patients and caregivers need to be aware of this, since the consequences can sometimes be detrimental. PMID:26406144

  4. Novel pathologic findings in patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Jeremy J; Kamholz, John; Bessert, Denise; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked inherited hypomyelinating disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding proteolipid protein (PLP), the major structural protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Prior to our study, whether hypomyelination in PMD was caused by demyelination, abnormally thin sheaths or failure to form myelin was unknown. In this study, we compared the microscopic pathology of myelin from brain tissue of 3 PMD patients with PLP1 duplications to that of a patient with a complete PLP1 deletion. Autopsy tissue procured from PMD patients was embedded in paraffin for immunocytochemistry and plastic for electron microscopy to obtain highresolution fiber pathology of cerebrum and corpus callosum. Through histological stains, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, our study illustrates unique pathologic findings between the two different types of mutations. Characteristic of the patient with a PLP1 deletion, myelin sheaths showed splitting and decompaction of myelin, confirming for the first time that myelin in PLP1 deletion patients is similar to that of rodent models with gene deletions. Myelin thickness and g-ratios of some fibers, in relation to axon diameter was abnormally thin, suggesting that oligodendrocytes remain metabolically functional and/or are attempting to make myelin. Many fibers showed swollen, progressive degenerative changes to axons in addition to the dissolution of myelin. All three duplication cases shared remarkable fiber pathology including swellings, constriction and/or transection and involution of myelin. Characteristic of PLP1 duplication patients, many axons showed segmental demyelination along their length. Still other axons had abnormally thick myelin sheaths, suggestive of continued myelination. Thus, each type of mutation exhibited unique pathology even though commonality to both mutations included involution of myelin, myelin balls and degeneration of axons. This pathology study describes

  5. Orthopaedic surgery in patients with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Siboni, S M; Biguzzi, E; Solimeno, L P; Pasta, G; Mistretta, C; Mannucci, P M; Peyvandi, F

    2014-01-01

    Patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) may need orthopaedic surgery because of disabling chronic arthropathy due to recurrent joint bleeding. They may also require this surgery independently of their haemostasis disorder. Knowledge regarding the management of orthopaedic surgery in VWD is limited. Description of management of orthopaedic surgery in patients with VWD, based upon retrospective data collection and analysis of 32 orthopaedic procedures carried out over a period of 33 years in 23 patients was the aim of this study. Of 32 procedures, six were minor (three hand surgery, one foot surgery, two others) and 26 were major (seven joint replacements, nine arthroscopic procedures, two foot surgery, eight others). Twenty-two procedures were performed using replacement therapy with plasma-derived concentrates containing both factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Two procedures in patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AWVS) were performed using FVIII-VWF concentrates associated with intravenous immunoglobulins, or desmopressin plus tranexamic acid. Seven procedures were performed using desmopressin alone and one using intravenous immunoglobulins in AVWS. Bleeding complications occurred in seven procedures (22%). In one patient, an anti-VWF antibody was diagnosed after surgery. Anticoagulant prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism was implemented in four cases only and in two instances there was excessive bleeding. In conclusion, control of surgical haemostasis was achieved in most patients with VWD undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The control of haemostasis combined with an adequate surgical technique and early post-operative rehabilitation are warranted for the successful performance of orthopaedic surgery in VWD, which requires the involvement of specialized haemophilia centres. PMID:23992395

  6. Sexuality in patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Gila; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is common among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementias. Sexual functioning and well-being of patients with PD and their partners are affected by many factors, including motor disabilities, non-motor symptoms (e.g., autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbances, mood disorders, cognitive abnormalities, pain, and sensory disorders), medication effects, and relationship issues. The common sexual problems are decreased desire, erectile dysfunction, difficulties in reaching orgasm, and sexual dissatisfaction. Hypersexuality is one of a broad range of impulse control disorders reported in PD, attributed to antiparkinsonian therapy, mainly dopamine agonists. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team may enable a significant management of hypersexuality. Data on SD in demented patients are scarce, mainly reporting reduced frequency of sex and erectile dysfunction. Treatment of SD is advised at an early stage. Behavioral problems, including inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB), are distressing for patients and their caregivers and may reflect the prevailing behavior accompanying dementia (disinhibition or apathy associated with hyposexuality). The neurobiologic basis of ISB is still only vaguely understood but assessment and intervention are recommended as soon as ISB is suspected. Management of ISB in dementia demands a thorough evaluation and understanding of the behavior, and can be treated by non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions. PMID:26003251

  7. Revascularization in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bangalore, Sripal; Guo, Yu; Samadashvili, Zaza; Blecker, Saul; Xu, Jinfeng; Hannan, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized trials of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have routinely excluded patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives To evaluate the outcomes with PCI vs. CABG in patients with CKD. Methods Patients with CKD (eGFR <60mL/min/1.73m2) who underwent PCI using everolimus eluting stents (EES) were propensity score matched to patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery for multivessel coronary disease in New York State. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction(MI), stroke and repeat revascularization. Results Among 11,305 patients with CKD, 5,920 patients (2,960 pairs) were propensity score matched. At short-term (within 30 days), PCI was associated with a lower risk of death [HR=0.55; 95% CI=0.35-0.87], stroke [HR=0.22; 95% CI=0.12-0.42] and repeat revascularization [HR=0.48; 95%CI=0.23-0.98] when compared with CABG. At longer-term (mean 2.9 years), PCI was associated with a similar risk of death [HR=1.07; 95% CI=0.92-1.24], higher risk of myocardial infarction [HR=1.76; 95% CI=1.40-2.23], a lower risk of stroke [HR=0.56; 95% CI=0.41-0.76] and higher risk of repeat revascularization [HR=2.42; 95% CI=2.05-2.85]. In the subgroup of patients who underwent who underwent complete revascularization with PCI, the increased risk of myocardial infarction was no longer statistically significant [HR=1.18, 95% CI=0.67-2.09]. In the 243 pairs of patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis, PCI was associated with a significant higher risk of death [HR=2.02; 95% CI=1.40-2.93] and repeat revascularization [HR=2.44; 95% CI=1.50-3.96] when compared with CABG. Conclusions In subjects with CKD, CABG is associated with higher short-term risk of death, stroke and repeat revascularization whereas PCI with EES is associated with higher long-term risk of repeat revascularization and perhaps MI (in those with incomplete revascularization), with no

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease Is Often Unrecognized among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: The REGARDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, William M.; Newsome, Britt B.; McClure, Leslie A.; Cushman, Mary; Howard, George; Audhya, Paul; Abramson, Jerome L.; Warnock, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with kidney disease are at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Awareness of CKD may potentially influence diagnostic decisions, life-style changes and pharmacologic interventions targeted at modifiable CHD risk factors. We describe here the degree to which persons with CHD are aware of their CKD. Methods The Reasons for Geographical and Racial Difference in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study, a population-based sample of US residents aged 45 and older. We included in our analyses 28,112 REGARDS participants recruited as of June 2007. We estimated GFR (eGFR) using the MDRD equation, defined CKD as a GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and ascertained awareness of chronic kidney disease and coronary heart disease through self-report. We used the odds ratio to compare the association between awareness of kidney disease, as measured by GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, among individuals with and without self-reported CHD by both the presence of CKD and the severity of impaired kidney function. Results Coronary heart disease was reported by 3,803 (14.1%) of subjects, and 11.3% of subjects had CKD by eGFR. Among all individuals with a GFR <60 ml/min/ 1.73 m2, 9.6% reported having been told by a physician that they had kidney disease. Among those with CHD and CKD, 5.0% were aware of their CKD compared to 2.0% in those without CHD [OR (95% CI) = 2.57 (2.08, 3.28)]. This difference persisted after controlling for the level of kidney function [aOR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.43, 2.41)]. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of CKD and a low prevalence of awareness of kidney disease among older adults in the US population with or without coronary heart disease. These findings support recent recommendations that patients with cardiovascular disease be systematically screened for and educated about CKD. PMID:18663284

  9. Advances in the management of patients with thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, H J; Meier, D A; Kaplan, M

    1995-07-01

    Discoveries related to thyroid immunology, especially concerning the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, may facilitate new immunologic approaches to the therapy of Graves' disease and the thyroiditis syndromes. Advances in genetics are being applied to the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes and papillary and medullary carcinomas. The development of ever more sensitive TSH assays has led to the detection of subclinical thyroid disease, which has special implications for the sick and elderly patients. Sensitive TSH assays also allow more precise titration of levothyroxine (T4) dosages, especially for patients with a past history of thyroid cancer. Evidence continues to accumulate suggesting that postmenopausal women on T4 doses that suppress the TSH level below 0.1 ulU/mL have lower bone mineral density than matched patients with healthy TSH levels. Also, pregnant hypothyroid women need higher T4 doses to normalize the TSH levels. In the evaluation of thyroid nodules, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the single most definitive modality in selecting the patients for surgery. Scintigraphy provides a complimentary role, especially in defining autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas (AFTA), because these should not be treated with T4 suppression. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is occasionally helpful with nodules that are difficult to palpate. Concern for possible tracheal compression after treatment of toxic multinodular goiter with large doses of radioactive iodine (I-131) in the range of 50 to 150 mCi (1.85 to 5.5 GBq) does not seem warranted. Work, primarily out of Italy, suggests AFTA can be ablated with repeat ethanol injections. Residual tissues after thyroidectomy for differentiated carcinoma can be "stunned" by tracer doses of 131I greater than 3.0 mCi (111 MBq), which diminishes the uptake and effectiveness of a subsequent therapy dose. Positron emission tomograph, imaging with thallium-201, and Technetium 99m Sestamibi can identify a small number

  10. Etiology of cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Emul, Murat; Kalelioglu, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are important problems among patients with schizophrenia. A wide spectrum of reasons, ranging from genes to the environment, are held responsible for causing the cardiovascular risk factors that may lead to shortening the life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we have summarized the etiologic issues related with the cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenia. First, we focused on heritable factors associated with cardiovascular disease and schizophrenia by mentioning studies about genetics-epigenetics, in the first-episode or drug-naïve patients. In this context, the association and candidate gene studies about metabolic disturbances in schizophrenia are reviewed, and the lack of the effects of epigenetic/posttranscriptional factors such as microRNAs is mentioned. Increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disrupted metabolic parameters in schizophrenia are forcing clinicians to struggle with metabolic syndrome parameters and related issues, which are also the underlying causes for the risk of having cardiometabolic and cardiovascular etiology. Second, we summarized the findings of metabolic syndrome-related entities and discussed the influence of the illness itself, antipsychotic drug treatment, and the possible disadvantageous lifestyle on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus. Third, we emphasized on the risk factors of sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. We reviewed the findings on the arrhythmias such as QT prolongation, which is a risk factor for Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death or P-wave prolongation that is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. For example, the use of antipsychotics is an important reason for the prolongation of QT and some other cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Additionally, we discussed relatively rare issues such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, which are important for prognosis in schizophrenia that may have originated

  11. Etiology of cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Emul, Murat; Kalelioglu, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are important problems among patients with schizophrenia. A wide spectrum of reasons, ranging from genes to the environment, are held responsible for causing the cardiovascular risk factors that may lead to shortening the life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we have summarized the etiologic issues related with the cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenia. First, we focused on heritable factors associated with cardiovascular disease and schizophrenia by mentioning studies about genetics–epigenetics, in the first-episode or drug-naïve patients. In this context, the association and candidate gene studies about metabolic disturbances in schizophrenia are reviewed, and the lack of the effects of epigenetic/posttranscriptional factors such as microRNAs is mentioned. Increased rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disrupted metabolic parameters in schizophrenia are forcing clinicians to struggle with metabolic syndrome parameters and related issues, which are also the underlying causes for the risk of having cardiometabolic and cardiovascular etiology. Second, we summarized the findings of metabolic syndrome-related entities and discussed the influence of the illness itself, antipsychotic drug treatment, and the possible disadvantageous lifestyle on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus. Third, we emphasized on the risk factors of sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. We reviewed the findings on the arrhythmias such as QT prolongation, which is a risk factor for Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death or P-wave prolongation that is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. For example, the use of antipsychotics is an important reason for the prolongation of QT and some other cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Additionally, we discussed relatively rare issues such as myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, which are important for prognosis in schizophrenia that may have

  12. New Targeted Treatment May Slow Disease in Patients with Advanced GIST

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients with Advanced GIST A new oral drug, regorafenib (Stivarga®), may delay the progression of advanced gastrointestinal ... in The Lancet demonstrated that patients treated with regorafenib lived longer without their disease progressing than patients ...

  13. Supplemental Oxygen Therapy for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarevic, Igor; Cooper, Christopher B

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen is necessary for aerobic metabolism. Since the human body cannot produce or store oxygen, a continuous and adequate delivery of oxygen needs to be secured by oxygen uptake from inhaled air via the respiratory system and oxygen delivery to body tissues via the circulation. Severely reduced lung function in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be a limiting factor for adequate oxygen uptake and patients with this disease may require supplemental oxygen therapy. While the methodology of oxygen delivery in home settings represents a continuously evolving field, oxygen therapy itself has been an integral part of the management of severely hypoxemic patients with COPD for more than 50 years despite the lack of full understanding of its effects and the relative paucity of clinical evidence supporting its use. In this article, we review the physiological effects and discuss the clinical benefits of oxygen therapy. We also evaluate the evidence supporting and arguing against its use in the published literature, discuss its risks and benefits, define criteria for prescribing oxygen therapy, and review methods of oxygen delivery in home settings. PMID:26238641

  14. Senescent phenotypes of skin fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Fumihiko . E-mail: fumihiko@imed2.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Chiaki; Sandoval, Jose C.; Oku, Hiroyuki; Yuasa-Kawase, Miyako; Tsubakio-Yamamoto, Kazumi; Koseki, Masahiro; Masuda, Daisaku; Tsujii, Ken-ichi; Shimomura, Iichiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Yamashita, Shizuya; Ishigami, Masato; Nishida, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is characterized by a deficiency of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma and patients with TD have an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, we reported that fibroblasts from TD exhibited large and flattened morphology, which is often observed in senescent cells. On the other hand, data have accumulated to show the relationship between cellular senescence and development of atherosclerotic CAD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TD fibroblasts exhibited cellular senescence. The proliferation of TD fibroblasts was gradually decreased at population doubling level (PDL) {approx}10 compared with control cells. TD cells practically ceased proliferation at PDL {approx}30. DNA synthesis was markedly decreased in TD fibroblasts. TD cells exhibited a higher positive rate for senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), which is one of the biomarkers of cellular senescence in vitro. These data showed that TD cells reached cellular senescence at an earlier PDL compared with controls. Although, there was no difference in the telomere length of fibroblasts between TD and controls at the earlier passage (PDL 6), the telomere length of TD cells was shorter than that of controls at the late passage (PDL 25). Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the late-passaged TD fibroblasts showed senescent phenotype in vitro, which might be related to the increased cardiovascular manifestations in TD patients.

  15. Clinical Assessment of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) describes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis affecting the circulation in the legs. The severity of PAD is classified according to symptom severity, time course, and anatomical distribution. The signs and symptoms of PAD reflect the degree of circulatory compromise and whether there has been a gradual reduction in the circulation or an abrupt, uncompensated decrease. Accurate clinical assessment underpins decisions on management strategy and should objectively assess the severity of the ischemia and need for revascularization. Clinical history should discriminate symptoms of PAD from other conditions presenting with leg pain, elucidate cardiovascular risk factors and the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. Clinical examination includes signs of general cardiovascular disease and associated conditions before assessing the circulation and viability of the limb. Palpation of peripheral pulses must be augmented by determination of the ankle brachial pressure index using hand held Doppler. A whole patient approach to management is required and must include modification of cardiovascular risk status as well as dealing with the local circulatory manifestation of PAD. PMID:25435653

  16. Clinical assessment of patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Scott, D Julian A

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) describes the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis affecting the circulation in the legs. The severity of PAD is classified according to symptom severity, time course, and anatomical distribution. The signs and symptoms of PAD reflect the degree of circulatory compromise and whether there has been a gradual reduction in the circulation or an abrupt, uncompensated decrease. Accurate clinical assessment underpins decisions on management strategy and should objectively assess the severity of the ischemia and need for revascularization. Clinical history should discriminate symptoms of PAD from other conditions presenting with leg pain, elucidate cardiovascular risk factors and the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. Clinical examination includes signs of general cardiovascular disease and associated conditions before assessing the circulation and viability of the limb. Palpation of peripheral pulses must be augmented by determination of the ankle brachial pressure index using hand held Doppler. A whole patient approach to management is required and must include modification of cardiovascular risk status as well as dealing with the local circulatory manifestation of PAD. PMID:25435653

  17. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Otovic, Natasa Eftimovska; Taneva, Borjanka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) became a new epidemic of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure as a result of the diabetes epidemic worldwide. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of CKD in the Republic of Macedonia and its association with diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a part of a study conducted in 2006 in terms of screening for early detection of kidney disease. It was a cross-sectional study based on a random sample of patients aged > 20, consecutively consulting their primary physician for any cause. Fifty physicians throughout the country were included in the study. A total of 2637 patients have been analyzed based on integrity data. GFR was estimated using corrected values of serum creatinine and calculating kidney function by the Cockroft & Gault formula, adjusted for body surface using the Gehan & George formula. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min were considered as having CKD. Blood pressure, body weight, height, serum creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urinalysis and medical history for presence of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes were also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 45.97 ± 16.55 SD and 17.97% were older than 60. Regarding gender, 44.14% were males. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 13.9%. Subjects with CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min) were 7.53% of the total. Subjects aged 60 or above, had 20 times higher risk of having CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Out of the total group of subjects, 13.9% had diabetes mellitus and they had 3.13 times higher risk of having CKD stage 3-5 (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) when compared to non-diabetics. The results showed that diabetes was significantly more associated with lower eGFR (less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in younger subjects (age less than 60) compared to older ones (odds ratio 3

  18. Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Patients With Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Song, Xin yu; Zhao, Yu yue; Xu, Kai; Bi, Ya Lan; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zuo jun

    2015-09-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that most commonly involves the lung; however, only a few case reports of autoimmune disease complicated by pulmonary nocardiosis exist in the literature. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 24 cases of both autoimmune disease and pulmonary nocardiosis at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 1990 and 2012. Fifty-two cases were hospitalized with nocardiosis, 24 of whom had at least 1 autoimmune disease before the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. The cohort patients consisted of 5 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 44.2 years. All were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. All but 1 patient had received immunosuppressants, including corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, or hydroxychloroquine. Fever (87.5%), cough (83.3%), and sputum (79.2%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Ten cases were accompanied by subcutaneous nodules and/or cutaneous abscesses, and 4 had brain abscess. Half of them were lymphocytopenic. Thirteen of the 16 cases who underwent lymphocyte subtype analysis had decreased CD4+ T-cell counts. Nineteen cases had decreased serum albumin levels. Nocardia was isolated from sputum (13/24), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (4/6), lung tissue (5/6), pleural effusions (3/5), skin or cutaneous pus (7/10), and brain tissue (1/1). The most common imaging findings were air-space opacities (83.3%), followed by nodules (62.5%), cavitations (45.8%), and masses (37.5%). Five were administered co-trimoxazole only, and the others were treated with 2 or more antibiotics. All 5 cases with skin abscesses and 2 of the 4 cases with brain abscesses were treated by surgical incision and drainage. None underwent thoracic surgery. Corticosteroid dosages were decreased in all cases, and cytotoxic agents were discontinued in some cases. Twenty-two cases recovered, and 2 died. Pulmonary nocardiosis associated with an underlying autoimmune disease showed a female predominance and

  19. Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Patients With Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Song, Xin yu; Zhao, Yu yue; Xu, Kai; Bi, Ya lan; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zuo jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that most commonly involves the lung; however, only a few case reports of autoimmune disease complicated by pulmonary nocardiosis exist in the literature. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 24 cases of both autoimmune disease and pulmonary nocardiosis at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 1990 and 2012. Fifty-two cases were hospitalized with nocardiosis, 24 of whom had at least 1 autoimmune disease before the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. The cohort patients consisted of 5 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 44.2 years. All were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. All but 1 patient had received immunosuppressants, including corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, or hydroxychloroquine. Fever (87.5%), cough (83.3%), and sputum (79.2%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Ten cases were accompanied by subcutaneous nodules and/or cutaneous abscesses, and 4 had brain abscess. Half of them were lymphocytopenic. Thirteen of the 16 cases who underwent lymphocyte subtype analysis had decreased CD4+ T-cell counts. Nineteen cases had decreased serum albumin levels. Nocardia was isolated from sputum (13/24), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (4/6), lung tissue (5/6), pleural effusions (3/5), skin or cutaneous pus (7/10), and brain tissue (1/1). The most common imaging findings were air-space opacities (83.3%), followed by nodules (62.5%), cavitations (45.8%), and masses (37.5%). Five were administered co-trimoxazole only, and the others were treated with 2 or more antibiotics. All 5 cases with skin abscesses and 2 of the 4 cases with brain abscesses were treated by surgical incision and drainage. None underwent thoracic surgery. Corticosteroid dosages were decreased in all cases, and cytotoxic agents were discontinued in some cases. Twenty-two cases recovered, and 2 died. Pulmonary nocardiosis associated with an underlying autoimmune disease showed a female

  20. Optimizing outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Joel C

    2011-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Often, CKD and CVD coexist, and patients warrant optimal pharmacotherapy to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular (CV) events. Randomized trials have evaluated the role of antihypertensive therapy and lipid-lowering therapy as means to reduce CVD in patients with CKD. Many clinical trials support the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in the CKD population. In addition, many clinical trials have evaluated the role of statin therapy in reducing CV events in early- and late-stage CKD. The struggle with interpreting results from these trials is that there are a number of different CV composite end points and a lack of consistency in defining CKD, especially in some post hoc subanalyses. Overall, ACEI/ARB therapy is supported by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) and the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI) hypertension guidelines and statin therapy is supported by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III and NKF KDOQI dyslipidemia guidelines to optimally manage patients with CKD and CV risk factors. Questions remain as to the optimal role of statin therapy in patients with CKD receiving dialysis. JNC 8 and ATP IV guidelines will be available in the next year, and it is expected that there will be specific recommendations on both hypertension and dyslipidemia management in the CKD population. PMID:22214475

  1. Facts a New Patient Needs to Know about Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease of Bone Paget’s Disease Basics Facts a New Patient Needs to Know About Paget’s Disease of Bone Publication available in: PDF (63 KB) ... geographical areas, including England, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and ... Paget’s Disease a Form of Arthritis? People with Paget’s disease ...

  2. Association of celiac disease genes with inflammatory bowel disease in Finnish and Swedish patients.

    PubMed

    Parmar, A S; Lappalainen, M; Paavola-Sakki, P; Halme, L; Färkkilä, M; Turunen, U; Kontula, K; Aromaa, A; Salomaa, V; Peltonen, L; Halfvarson, J; Törkvist, L; D'Amato, M; Saavalainen, P; Einarsdottir, E

    2012-09-01

    Some genetic loci may affect susceptibility to multiple immune system-related diseases. In the current study, we investigated whether the known susceptibility loci for celiac disease (CelD) also associate with Crohn's disease (CD) and/or ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in Finnish patients. A total of 45 genetic markers were genotyped in a Finnish data set comprising 699 IBD patients and 2482 controls. Single-marker association with IBD and its subphenotypes was tested. A meta-analysis with a Swedish UC data set was also performed. A total of 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CD and/or UC (P<0.05). In the subphenotype analysis, rs6974491-ELMO1 (P=0.0002, odds ratio (OR): 2.20) and rs2298428-UBE2L3 (P=5.44 × 10(-5), OR: 2.59) associated with pediatric UC and CD, respectively. In the meta-analysis, rs4819388-ICOSLG (P=0.00042, OR: 0.79) associated with UC. In the subphenotype meta-analysis, rs1738074-TAGAP (P=7.40 × 10(-5), OR: 0.61), rs6974491-ELMO1 (P=0.00052, OR: 1.73) and rs4819388-ICOSLG (P=0.00019, OR: 0.75) associated with familial UC, pediatric UC and sporadic UC, respectively. Multiple CelD risk loci also confer susceptibility for CD and/or UC in the Finnish and Swedish populations. Certain genetic risk variants may furthermore predispose an individual for developing a particular disease phenotype. PMID:22592522

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Plesner, Louis L; Warming, Peder E; Nielsen, Ture L; Dalsgaard, Morten; Schou, Morten; Høst, Ulla; Rydahl, Casper; Brandi, Lisbet; Køber, Lars; Vestbo, Jørgen; Iversen, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in hemodialysis patients with spirometry and to examine the effects of fluid removal by hemodialysis on lung volumes. Patients ≥18 years at two Danish hemodialysis centers were included. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1 /FVC ratio were measured with spirometry before and after hemodialysis. The diagnosis of COPD was based on both the GOLD criteria and the lower limit of normal criteria. There were 372 patients in treatment at the two centers, 255 patients (69%) completed spirometry before dialysis and 242 of these (65%) repeated the test after. In the initial test, 117 subjects (46%) had airflow limitation indicative of COPD with GOLD criteria and 103 subjects (40.4%) with lower limit of normal criteria; COPD was previously diagnosed in 24 patients (9%). Mean FVC and FEV1 decreased mildly after dialysis (FVC: 2.84 to 2.79 L, P < 0.01. FEV1 : 1.97 to 1.93 L, P < 0.01) Hemodialysis did not affect the FEV1 /FVC ratio or number of subjects with airflow limitation indicative of COPD (113 vs. 120, P = 0.324; n = 242). COPD is a frequent and underdiagnosed comorbidity in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Spirometry should be considered in all patients on dialysis in order to address dyspnea adequately. Hemodialysis induced a small fall in mean FEV1 and FVC, which was more pronounced in patients with little or no fluid removal, but the FEV1 /FVC ratio and the number of subjects with airflow limitation indicative of COPD were not affected by dialysis. PMID:26245152

  4. Cardiac Function in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seul Bee; Choi, Han Seul; Son, Sejung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Respiratory symptoms are often observed in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) during the acute phase. The association of respiratory viruses in children with KD was investigated using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Subjects and Methods 138 KD patients were included from January 2010 to June 2013. We compared 3 groups (group 1: n=94, KD without respiratory symptoms; group 2: n=44, KD with respiratory symptoms; and group 3: n=50, febrile patients with respiratory symptoms). Laboratory data were obtained from each patient including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Echocardiographic measurements were compared between group 1 and group 2. RT-PCR was performed using nasopharyngeal secretion to screen for the presence of 14 viruses in groups 2 and 3. Results The incidence of KD with respiratory symptoms was 31.8%. The duration of fever was significantly longer, and coronary artery diameter was larger in group 2 than in group 1. Tei index was significantly higher and coronary artery diameter larger in group 2 than group 1. Coronary artery diameter, C-reactive protein levels, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase levels, and NT-pro BNP levels were significantly higher and albumin levels lower in group 2 compared with group 3. Conclusion NT-pro BNP was a valuable diagnostic tool in differentiating KD from other febrile viral respiratory infections. Some viruses were more frequently observed in KD patients than in febrile controls. Tei index using tissue Doppler imaging was increased in KD patients with respiratory symptoms. PMID:26240586

  5. Cognitive function in patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Carlos; Koen, Eduardo; Ponte, Alicia; Sánchez, Silvina; Segal, Eduardo; Chiapella, Alberto; Fernández, Maria; Torres, Maria; Tripodi, Valeria; Lemberg, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurophysiological profile of cognitive impairment associated with patients with chronic alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease. The authors evaluated 43 patients with cirrhotic liver disease: 19 patients with chronic alcohol ingestion and 24 nonalcoholic patients who had been infected with hepatitis B or C virus. Eleven healthy subjects were included as control subjects. A battery of 12 psychological tests was used to investigate cognitive deficits in the patients with chronic liver disease. It was observed that alcoholic patients with chronic liver disease showed a more important cognitive deterioration than those affected by hepatitis B or C virus. PMID:25093764

  6. Graves' disease, Celiac disease and liver function abnormalities in a patient--clinical manifestation and diagnostic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Góra-Gębka, Magdalena; Woźniak, Małgorzata; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna; Korpal-Szczyrska, Maria; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Zagierski, Maciej; Jankowska, Irena; Plata-Nazar, Katarzyna; Kamińska, Barbara; Liberek, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases due to probable common pathogenesis tend to coexist in some patients. Complex clinical presentation with diverse timing of particular symptoms and sophisticated treatment with numerous side effects, may cause diagnostic difficulties, especially in children. The paper presents diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls in a child with Graves' disease, celiac disease and liver function abnormalities. PMID:24904927

  7. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn's disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya

    2014-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne’s disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective

  8. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  9. Angiogenic growth factors correlate with disease severity in young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Reed, Berenice Y; Masoumi, Amirali; Elhassan, Elwaleed; McFann, Kim; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Schrier, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Renal cysts, pain, and hematuria are common presentations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in children. Renal function, however, is typically preserved in these patients despite increased renal volume. Since angiogenesis has been implicated in promotion of renal cyst growth in ADPKD, we measured the serum level of various angiogenic factors and early renal structural changes and cardiovascular parameters in 71 patients with ADPKD, with a mean age of 16 years. Renal structure and left ventricular mass index were measured by magnetic resonance imaging or by echocardiogram. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion. Serum growth factor levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of skewed distributions, the various parameters are reported as log(10). Serum log(10) vascular endothelial growth factor was positively correlated with renal and cardiac structure, but negatively with creatinine clearance. Serum angiopoietin 1 levels significantly correlated with structural change in both the kidney and the heart and with urinary protein. Thus, the correlation between angiogenic growth factors with both renal and cardiac disease severity is compatible with a possible role for angiogenesis in the early progression of disease in ADPKD. PMID:20881939

  10. Angiogenic growth factors correlate with disease severity in young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Berenice; Masoumi, Amirali; Elhassan, Elwaleed; McFann, Kim; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa; Maahs, David; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Schrier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cysts, pain and hematuria are common presentations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in children. Renal function, however, is typically preserved in these patients despite increased renal volume. Since angiogenesis has been implicated in promotion of renal cyst growth in ADPKD we measured the serum level of various angiogenic factors and early renal structural changes and cardiovascular parameters in 71 patients with ADPKD with a mean age of 16 years. Renal structure and left ventricular mass index were measured by magnetic resonance imaging or by echocardiogram. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance, and urinary protein excretion. Serum growth factor levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of skewed distributions, the various parameters are reported as log10. Serum Log10 vascular endothelial growth factor was positively correlated with renal and cardiac structure, but negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. Serum angiopoietin 1 levels significantly correlated with structural change in both the kidney and the heart and with urinary protein. Thus, the correlation between angiogenic growth factors with both renal and cardiac disease severity is compatible with a possible role for angiogenesis in the early progression of disease in ADPKD. PMID:20881939

  11. Correlation between serum cystatin C level and elderly hypertensive patients combined coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Su, Xianming; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; He, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the correlation between serum cystatin C level and elderly hypertension with coronary heart disease patients. Methods: 500 hypertensive patients combined coronary heart disease were selected by coronary angiography. 321 of them were elderly patients with hypertension (male 204, female 117), and 400 of them were elderly patients with coronary heart disease (male 257, female 143), The serum cystatin C level of all patients were detected by immunoturbidimetry, and analyzed the correlation between the serum cystatin C level and different degree of blood pressure and the degree of coronary artery stenosis in elderly patients. Results: The serum cystatin C level was closely related with the blood pressure and the degree of the coronary artery stenosis. The higher the blood pressure level and the more serious the coronary artery stenosis, the higher the serum cystatin C level; The serum cystatin C level of hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease patients (Group D) were markedly higher than the level of the patients without hypertension and coronary heart disease patients (Group A), and the level of the patients with coronary heart disease (Group B) and the hypertension group (Group C) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The serum cystatin C level of elderly patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease were closely related with the degree of blood pressure and coronary arteries stenosis. The serum cystatin C maybe a predictor of disease severity in elderly hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:26131241

  12. Analysis of electroencephalograms in Alzheimer's disease patients with multiscale entropy.

    PubMed

    Escudero, J; Abásolo, D; Hornero, R; Espino, P; López, M

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using multiscale entropy (MSE). MSE is a recently developed method that quantifies the regularity of a signal on different time scales. These time scales are inspected by means of several coarse-grained sequences formed from the analysed signals. We recorded the EEGs from 19 scalp electrodes in 11 AD patients and 11 age-matched controls and estimated the MSE profile for each epoch of the EEG recordings. The shape of the MSE profiles reveals the EEG complexity, and it suggests that the EEG contains information in deeper scales than the smallest one. Moreover, the results showed that the EEG background activity is less complex in AD patients than control subjects. We found significant differences between both subject groups at electrodes F3, F7, Fp1, Fp2, T5, T6, P3, P4, O1 and O2 (p-value < 0.01, Student's t-test). These findings indicate that the EEG complexity analysis performed on deeper time scales by MSE may be a useful tool in order to increase our knowledge of AD. PMID:17028404

  13. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dipaola, Mariangela; Pavan, Esteban E.; Cattaneo, Andrea; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cavallari, Paolo; Frigo, Carlo A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years) with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II) if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs). Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years) walked both at their ‘preferred’ and ‘slow’ speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk), potential (Wp), total (WtotCM) energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER). Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components. PMID:27258183

  14. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Dipaola, Mariangela; Pavan, Esteban E; Cattaneo, Andrea; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cavallari, Paolo; Frigo, Carlo A; Isaias, Ioannis U

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years) with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II) if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs). Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years) walked both at their 'preferred' and 'slow' speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk), potential (Wp), total (WtotCM) energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER). Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components. PMID:27258183

  15. Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Takatoshi; Kimura, Shigeki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular mortality in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients is higher in critical limb ischemia (CLI) than in intermittent claudication (IC). We sought to evaluate differential characteristics of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and prognostic biomarkers for cardiovascular events between CLI and IC patients. Coronary angiography was performed on 242 PAD patients (age 73 ± 8 years) with either CLI or IC. High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), eicosapentaenoic acid-arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA), and lipoprotein(a), as biomarkers for prognostic factors, were measured from blood samples. The study patients were divided into a CLI-group (n = 42) and IC-group (n = 200). The Gensini score as an indicator of coronary angiographic severity was higher in the CLI-group than in the IC-group (39.1 ± 31.2 vs. 8.5 ± 8.3, p < 0.0001). Hs-TnT and lipoprotein(a) values were higher in the CLI-group than in the IC-group (0.152 ± 0.186 ng/mL vs. 0.046 ± 0.091, p < 0.0001, 45.9 ± 23.3 mg/dL vs. 26.2 ± 27.7, p = 0.0002, respectively) and EPA/AA was lower in the CLI-group than in the IC-group (0.22 ± 0.11 vs. 0.38 ± 0.29, p = 0.0049, respectively). Greater CAD severity, higher hs-TnT, and lipoprotein(a), and lower EPA/AA were observed in the CLI-group, which may explain higher cardiovascular events in patients with CLI. PMID:26648670

  16. α-Synuclein rs356219 polymorphisms in patients with Gaucher disease and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Altarescu, Gheona; Ioscovich, Daniel; Alcalay, Roy N; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-09-19

    Mutations in β-glucocerebrosidase, the genetic defect in Gaucher disease (GD), are an important susceptibility factor for Parkinson disease (PD). A PD effector is α-synuclein (SNCA) hypothesized to selectively interact with β-glucocerebrosidase under lysosomal conditions. SNCA polymorphism rs356219 may be associated with early-age-onset PD, common among patients with GD+PD. The objective of this study was to ascertain rs356219 genotypes of GD+PD patients. All GD+PD patients at our Gaucher referral clinic were asked to participate. A GD-only sex-, age-, GD genotype-, and enzyme therapy (ERT)-matched control was found for each GD+PD participant. Student's t-test was used (p-value <0.05 as significant). There were 14 GD+PD patients: all Ashkenazi Jewish; 11 males (78.6%); mean (range) age diagnosed GD 34.2 (5-62) years; 50% N370S homozygous; mild to moderate GD; 3 asplenic and only these have osteonecrosis; 5 received ERT; mean age (range) diagnosed PD was 57.8 (43-70) years; first PD sign was tremor in 9 (64.3%); cognitive dysfunction in all. In GD+PD, frequency for AG+GG (9) was greater than AA (5); in GD only, there was equality (7). Odds Ratio risk for PD increases with number minor alleles: but not significantly greater among GD+PD than GD only; in aggregate, there was no difference between cohorts for frequency of minor alleles. The limitation of this study is few GD+PD, albeit virtually all the GD+PD cohort >500 adult GD patients in our clinic. Nonetheless, as a foray into potential genetic GD susceptibility for a synucleinopathy, this study suggests the need for collaboration to achieve larger sample size. PMID:25111979

  17. Nutritional care in hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Dep K; Selvanderan, Shane P; Harley, Hugh AJ; Holloway, Richard H; Nguyen, Nam Q

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the practice of nutritional assessment and management of hospitalised patients with cirrhosis and the impact of malnutrition on their clinical outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with liver cirrhosis consecutively admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the Royal Adelaide Hospital over 24 mo. Details were gathered related to the patients’ demographics, disease severity, nutritional status and assessment, biochemistry and clinical outcomes. Nutritional status was assessed by a dietician and determined by subjective global assessment. Estimated energy and protein requirements were calculated by Simple Ratio Method. Intake was estimated from dietary history and/or food charts, and represented as a percentage of estimated daily requirements. Median duration of follow up was 14.9 (0-41.4) mo. RESULTS: Of the 231 cirrhotic patients (167 male, age: 56.3 ± 0.9 years, 9% Child-Pugh A, 42% Child-Pugh B and 49% Child-Pugh C), 131 (57%) had formal nutritional assessment during their admission and 74 (56%) were judged to have malnutrition. In-hospital caloric (15.6 ± 1.2 kcal/kg vs 23.7 ± 2.3 kcal/kg, P = 0.0003) and protein intake (0.65 ± 0.06 g/kg vs 1.01 ± 0.07 g/kg, P = 0.0003) was significantly reduced in patients with malnutrition. Of the malnourished cohort, 12 (16%) received enteral nutrition during hospitalisation and only 6 (8%) received ongoing dietetic review and assessment following discharge from hospital. The overall mortality was 51%, and was higher in patients with malnutrition compared to those without (HR = 5.29, 95%CI: 2.31-12.1; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition is common in hospitalised patients with cirrhosis and is associated with higher mortality. Formal nutritional assessment, however, is inadequate. This highlights the need for meticulous nutritional evaluation and management in these patients. PMID:26668507

  18. Normal CAG and CCG repeats in the Huntington`s disease genes of Parkinson`s disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Barton, D.E.

    1995-04-24

    The clinical features of Parkinson`s disease, particularly rigidity and bradykinesia and occasionally tremor, are seen in juvenile-onset Huntington`s disease. Therefore, the CAG and CCG repeats in the Huntington`s disease gene were investigated in 45 Parkinson`s disease patients and compared to 40 control individuals. All of the Parkinson`s disease chromosomes fell within the normal size ranges. In addition, the distributions of the two repeats in the Parkinson`s disease patients did not differ significantly from those of the control population. Therefore, abnormalities of these trinucleotide repeats in the Huntington`s disease gene are not likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson`s disease. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Naming ability in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: what changes occur with the evolution of the disease?

    PubMed Central

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Naming deficit is a linguistic symptom that appears in the initial phase of Alzheimer's disease, but the types of naming errors and the ways in which this deficit changes over the course of the disease are unclear. We analyzed the performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease on naming tasks during the mild and moderate phases and verified how this linguistic skill deteriorates over the course of the disease. METHODS: A reduced version of the Boston Naming Test was administered to 30 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, 30 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease and 30 healthy controls. Errors were classified as verbal semantic paraphasia, verbal phonemic paraphasia, no response (pure anomia), circumlocution, unrelated verbal paraphasia, visual errors or intrusion errors. RESULTS: The patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease had significantly fewer correct answers than did both the control group and the group with mild Alzheimer's disease. With regard to the pattern of errors, verbal semantic paraphasia errors were the most frequent errors in all three groups. Additionally, as the disease severity increased, there was an increase in the number of no-response errors (pure anomia). The group with moderate Alzheimer's disease demonstrated a greater incidence of visual errors and unrelated verbal paraphasias compared with the other two groups and presented a more variable pattern of errors. CONCLUSIONS: Performance on nominative tasks worsened as the disease progressed in terms of both the quantity and the type of errors encountered. This result reflects impairment at different levels of linguistic processing. PMID:26106961

  20. Decreased excretion of glycosaminoglycans in patients with primary glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Tencer, J; Torffvit, O; Björnsson, S; Thysell, H; Grubb, A; Rippe, B

    1997-10-01

    Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentrations were measured in 150 patients with primary glomerulonephritides: endocapillary glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, membranous glomerulonephritis and minimal change nephropathy, and in 63 healthy controls and 19 patients with diabetes nephropathy. The urine GAG to creatinine ratios (GCR) were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in all the glomerulonephritides investigated (0.20 mg/mmol in endocapillary glomerulonephritis, 1.60 mg/mmol in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, 1.74 mg/mmol in IgA nephropathy, 1.09 mg/mmol in membranous nephropathy, and 1.16 mg/mmol in minimal change nephropathy) compared to healthy controls (2.87 mg/mmol) but not compared to diabetes patients (1.17 mg/mmol). Also, the GCR in a group of 23 non-albuminuric glomerulonephritis patients (1.98 mg/mmol) was shown to be significantly decreased (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the GCR was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in endocapillary glomerulonephritis than in any of the other diseases studied. The GAG excretion per functioning glomerular area, calculated as fractional GAG excretion (FGE), was decreased in all the glomerulonephritides investigated compared to both healthy controls and diabetes nephropathy. The decreased GAG excretion in glomerulonephritides, obtained in the present study, might be a consequence of decreased synthesis or turnover of GAG in the functioning nephrons whereas the mechanisms for the reduced GAG excretion in diabetes nephropathy might be of a different nature. Urinary GAG excretion in this group of glomerular disorders and particularly in endocapillary glomerulonephritis, may lead to new approaches in non-invasive renal diagnostics and, particularly with regard to the differentiation of acute and chronic forms of glomerulonephritides. PMID:9352154

  1. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.; Yoshimura, H.; Kohno, Y.; Tarutani, O.; Kuma, K.; Sakane, S.; Takeda, K.; Mozai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients.

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  3. No Fabry Disease in Patients Presenting with Isolated Small Fiber Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    de Greef, Bianca T. A.; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G. J.; Wolters, Emma E.; Smeets, Hubertus J. M.; van den Wijngaard, Arthur; Merkies, Ingemar S. J.; Faber, Catharina G.; Gerrits, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Screening for Fabry disease in patients with small fiber neuropathy has been suggested, especially since Fabry disease is potentially treatable. However, the diagnostic yield of testing for Fabry disease in isolated small fiber neuropathy patients has never been systematically investigated. Our aim is to determine the presence of Fabry disease in patients with small fiber neuropathy. Methods Patients referred to our institute, who met the criteria for isolated small fiber neuropathy were tested for Fabry disease by measurement of alpha-Galactosidase A activity in blood, lysosomal globotriaosylsphingosine in urine and analysis on possible GLA gene mutations. Results 725 patients diagnosed with small fiber neuropathy were screened for Fabry disease. No skin abnormalities were seen except for redness of the hands or feet in 30.9% of the patients. Alfa-Galactosidase A activity was tested in all 725 patients and showed diminished activity in eight patients. Lysosomal globotriaosylsphingosine was examined in 509 patients and was normal in all tested individuals. Screening of GLA for mutations was performed for 440 patients, including those with diminished α-Galactosidase A activity. Thirteen patients showed a GLA gene variant. One likely pathogenic variant was found in a female patient. The diagnosis Fabry disease could not be confirmed over time in this patient. Eventually none of the patients were diagnosed with Fabry disease. Conclusions In patients with isolated small fiber neuropathy, and no other signs compatible with Fabry disease, the diagnostic yield of testing for Fabry disease is extremely low. Testing for Fabry disease should be considered only in cases with additional characteristics, such as childhood onset, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, or typical skin lesions. PMID:26866599

  4. Sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Smiéjan, J M; Cosnes, J; Chollet-Martin, S; Soler, P; Basset, F M; Le Quintrec, Y; Hance, A J

    1986-01-01

    To re-evaluate the relationship between Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis, we compared the numbers and types of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from normal volunteers and patients with Crohn's disease, with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, and with sarcoidosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, but not patients with other inflammatory bowel disorders, had an increase in the number of T lymphocytes on the surface of the lower respiratory tract similar to that seen in patients with sarcoidosis. As in sarcoidosis, this lymphocytosis results from an expansion of the T4+ T-lymphocyte subset, is characteristic of patients with active disease only, and is not associated with similar abnormalities in the peripheral blood. Thus, patients with apparently localized Crohn's disease have sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract, a finding that emphasizes the systemic nature of Crohn's disease and the disorder's close relationship to sarcoidosis. PMID:3940500

  5. Management of hyperglycemia in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Aires Neto, Patrícia; Gomes, Henrique Vieira; Campos, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes currently accounts for approximately 45% of cases of end-stage renal failure in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Several observational studies have identified a positive correlation between measures of glycemic control and cardiovascular and microvascular benefits. Several randomized prospective studies have been conducted to quantify the impact of strict glycemic control on morbidity and mortality. These studies have consistently demonstrated an association between strict glycemic control and a reduction in microvascular events, but these results contrast with the lack of consistent results regarding macrovascular events. Treating diabetes has always been challenging. This challenge is increased in chronic kidney disease, due to changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin and most oral antidiabetic agents. The available pharmacotherapeutic arsenal for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus currently involves approximately 6 different pharmacological classes of oral antidiabetic agents and different modalities of insulin therapy. PMID:23807643

  6. Cystoid macular edema in a patient with Danon disease.

    PubMed

    Mack, Heather G

    2014-12-01

    To report a patient with Danon retinopathy with cystoid macular edema treated with topical dorzolamide 2% eye drops and oral acetazolamide. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with Danon disease treated with topical and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors participated in the study. Examinations performed before and during treatment included visual acuity (VA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Following total 48 weeks of treatment, VA decreased from 20/30 OD, 20/200 OS, to 20/40 OD, CF OS. The mean central retinal thickness was unchanged from baseline 263 μm OD , 226 μm OS, after treatment 283 μm OD and 202 μm OS. In our case, carbonic anydrase inhibitors were not effective. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on a single case. PMID:23571262

  7. Dietary recommendations for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Grzymisławski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Changes to patients’ lifestyle, especially a modified dietary approach, play a key role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A balanced, limiting and individually tailored nutritional scheme enables weight loss and an improvement in the clinical picture of NAFLD. According to nutritional recommendations for patients with NAFLD, carbohydrates should comprise 40–50% of total dietary energy. It is advisable to increase the amount of complex carbohydrates rich in dietary fibre. A major role in the aetiology of NAFLD is played by excessive intake of fructose, which is related to the rise in consumption of nonalcoholic beverages among subjects in developed countries. Fat intake should comprise < 30% of daily calories. It is essential to increase consumption of food products rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ingestion of protein should constitute 15–20% of total energy. PMID:24868294

  8. Management of Hypertension among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Zizi, Ferdinand; Brimah, Perry; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Makaryus, Amgad N; McFarlane, Samy; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common outcome of hypertension. Hypertension accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, and sustained elevation of blood pressure (BP) can destabilize vascular lesions and precipitate acute coronary events. Hypertension can cause myocardial ischemia in the absence of CHD. These cardiovascular risks attributed to hypertension can be reduced by optimal BP control. Although several antihypertensive agents exist, the choice of agent and the appropriate target BP for patients with CHD remain controversial. In this succinct paper, we examine the evidence and the mechanisms for the linkage between hypertension and CHD and we discuss the treatment options and the goals of therapy that are consistent with the report of the seventh Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) and American Heart Association scientific statement. We anticipate changes in the recommendations of the forthcoming JNC 8. PMID:21785704

  9. [Microflora in patients with systemic connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Romanov, V A; Shilkina, N P; Gul'neva, M Iu; Ivanov, D V

    2008-01-01

    The study of microflora of skin, mucous tunic of nose and mouth, and the quantitative and qualitative structure of the intestinal and urinal microflora in cases of systemic connective tissues diseases, are reproduced. The decrease of the dominant state of typical representatives, and the increase of the role of pseudopathogenic bacteria in various biotypes, were observed. The frequency of S. aureus detection increased in skin, mucous tunic of nose and mouth. Pseudopathogenic microbes acquired greater significance in the forming of microbiocenosis of intestine, while the number of E. coli, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacterium decreased. The frequency of detection of microbes in urine decreased. The comparative analyses of the microflora in patients with systemic lupus erythromatosis and progressive systemic sclerosis demonstrated the common peculiarities for microflora character change. PMID:18488449

  10. [Sleep quality in aged patients with peripheral vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Karina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2008-03-01

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are prevalent among the elderly, and, due to their chronic character, result in poor quality of life and poor sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating sleep quality of elderly people diagnosed with PVD who undergo clinical ambulatory treatment in a university hospital in Campinas, in the State of São Paulo. Subjects (n=50, aged 74 +/- 8 years old) answered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and provided basic demographic data and PVD history (35 subjects had arterial blockage in lower limbs). Results showed that 34 subjects presented bad sleep quality; sleep length was 5.8 (+/- 2.3) hours, and, according to 23 subjects, night sleep was frequently disturbed by pain (thrice a week or more). Eighteen subjects took analgesics; four took sleep medicines. Findings may have important implications for nurses working with PVD patients, stressing the need to take into account consequences of PVD on sleep disturbances when planning their interventions. PMID:18450142

  11. Approaching patient engagement in research: what do patients with cardiovascular disease think?

    PubMed Central

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Morris, Megan A; Schrader, Lisa M; Manemann, Sheila M; Pathak, Jyotishman; Dimler, Robert; Roger, Veronique L

    2015-01-01

    Movement toward patient-centered health care must be supported by an evidence base informed by greater patient engagement in research. Efforts to better understand patients’ interest in and perspectives on involvement in the research process are fundamental to supporting movement of research programs toward greater patient engagement. We describe preliminary efforts to engage members of a community group of patients living with heart disease to better understand their interest and perspectives on involvement in research. A semi-structured focus group guide was developed to probe willingness to participate in the following three phases of research: preparation, execution, and translation. The focus group discussion, and our summary of key messages gleaned from said discussion, was organized around the phases of research that patients may be involved in, with the goal of delineating degrees of interest expressed for engagement in each phase. Consistent with what is known from the literature, a clear preference for engagement during the preparation and translation phase of the research process emerged. This preliminary conversation will guide our ongoing research efforts toward greater inclusion of patients throughout the research process. PMID:26251578

  12. Disease-Related Variables and Depression Among Iranian Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Chaghazardi, Maryam; Abdoli, Nasrin; Arman, Farid; Hoseini, Seyed Davood; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The factors affecting the correlation between Parkinson disease (PD) and depression have remained unclear. Objectives: We assessed the prevalence of depression among patients with PD and the association between PD-related variables and depression severity. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in Kermanshah Province of Iran. Sampling was based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with confirmed Parkinson disease who were referred to clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Depression was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Clinical characteristics of PD, including tremor, rigidity, impaired posture, loss of autonomic movement, changes in speech and handwriting, masked face, and hyposmia were indexed. Anhedonia was assessed with Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Data were collected between April 2010 and March 2014. Results: A total of 350 patients (52.9% men and 47.1% women) participated in this investigation. Female gender (36.5% in women vs. 13.0% in men, P < 0.0001), impaired posture (27.2% in affected individuals vs. 18.8%, P = 0.002), masked face (39.0% vs. 5.2%, P < 0.0001), and hyposmia (48.7% vs. 21.0%, P = 0.001) were associated with higher susceptibility to profound depression. Lower scores of all domains of Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (including interest/pastimes, social interaction, sensory experience, and food/drink) were related to more severe depression (P < 0.0001 for all subscales). Severe and profound depression was found in 44% of the participants. Conclusions: This study estimated that the prevalence of major depression among Iranian individuals with PD living in Kermanshah as 44%. Major determinants of depression were female gender, rigidity, impaired posture, masked face, hyposmia, and anhedonia. PMID:26568863

  13. High Prevalence of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Menière's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gazquez, Irene; Soto-Varela, Andres; Aran, Ismael; Santos, Sofia; Batuecas, Angel; Trinidad, Gabriel; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Gonzalez-Oller, Carlos; Acosta, Lourdes; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Autoimmunity appears to be associated with the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease (MD), an inner ear disorder characterized by episodes of vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus. However, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with MD has not been studied in individuals with uni or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods and Findings We estimated the prevalence of AD in 690 outpatients with MD with uni or bilateral SNHL from otoneurology clinics at six tertiary referral hospitals by using clinica criteria and an immune panel (lymphocyte populations, antinuclear antibodies, C3, C4 and proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, INFγ). The observed prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was higher than expected for the general population (1.39 for RA, 0.87 for SLE and 0.70 for AS, respectively). Systemic AD were more frequently observed in patients with MD and diagnostic criteria for migraine than cases with MD and tension-type headache (p = 0.007). There were clinical differences between patients with uni or bilateral SNHL, but no differences were found in the immune profile. Multiple linear regression showed that changes in lymphocytes subpopulations were associated with hearing loss and persistence of vertigo, suggesting a role for the immune response in MD. Conclusions Despite some limitations, MD displays an elevated prevalence of systemic AD such as RA, SLE and AS. This finding, which suggests an autoimmune background in a subset of patients with MD, has important implications for the treatment of MD. PMID:22053211

  14. Mental Representations of Illness in Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: How Do Patients Perceive Their Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Di Mattei, Valentina E.; Carnelli, Letizia; Mazzetti, Martina; Bernardi, Martina; Di Pierro, Rossella; Bergamini, Alice; Mangili, Giorgia; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background Gestational Trophoblastic Disease comprises a group of benign and malignant disorders that derive from the placenta. Using Leventhal’s Common-Sense Model as a theoretical framework, this paper examines illness perception in women who have been diagnosed with this disease. Methods Thirty-one women diagnosed with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease in a hospital in Italy were asked to complete the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised to measure the following: illness Identity, illness opinions and causes of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Results High mean scores were observed in the Emotional representations and Treatment control subscales. A significant difference emerged between hydatidiform mole patients and those with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on the Identity subscale. A significant correlation emerged between “time since diagnosis” and the Treatment control subscale. Discussion This study is the first to investigate illness perception in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. From a clinical perspective the results highlight the need for multidisciplinary support programs to promote a more realistic illness perception. PMID:27101144

  15. Iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: National Consultant for Gastroenterology Working Group Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr; Reguła, Jarosław; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a common complication associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). It substantially impairs quality of life, makes therapy more complicated, and increases costs of treatment. It seems that anaemia therapy is suboptimal in this group of patients in the Polish population. The recommendations presented below provide iron deficiency anaemia management clues in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25395998

  16. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  17. Phellinus tropicalis abscesses in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Manish; Resnick, Elena; Hui, Yiqun; Maglione, Paul J; Mehta, Harshna; Kattan, Jacob; Bouvier, Nicole M; LaBombardi, Vincent; Victor, Tanya R; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), caused by genetic defects in components of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase pathway, leads to recurrent life-threatening bacterial and invasive fungal infections. While a number of unique pathogens have been associated with this disease, the causative organisms may be difficult to identify. Here, we present a 24 year old male with known X-linked CGD who concurrently developed a cervical abscess and an abscess in the subcutaneous tissues of the right hip, both of which were surgically drained. Cultures failed to identify any organisms. He was treated empirically with ertapenem but the hip abscess recurred at the original site and in contiguous dependent areas in the posterior thigh and knee. A filamentous organism was observed microscopically, initially considered a contaminant, but on culture yielded a mold growth, identified as Phellinus tropicalis (synonym: Inonotus tropicalis) based on phenotypic and molecular methods. This is the third case report of human infection with P. tropicalis, all in subjects with CGD. The patient was treated with voriconazole with resolution of his symptoms. PMID:24310980

  18. Drug therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson`s disease (PD) is a progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder with onset of motor and non-motor features. Both reduce quality of life of PD patients and cause caregiver burden. This review aims to provide a survey of possible therapeutic options for treatment of motor and non motor symptoms of PD and to discuss their relation to each other. MAO-B-Inhibitors, NMDA antagonists, dopamine agonists and levodopa with its various application modes mainly improve the dopamine associated motor symptoms in PD. This armentarium of PD drugs only partially influences the onset and occurrence of non motor symptoms. These PD features predominantly result from non dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Autonomic features, such as seborrhea, hyperhidrosis, orthostatic syndrome, salivation, bladder dysfunction, gastrointestinal disturbances, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression, sleep disorders, psychosis, cognitive dysfunction with impaired execution and impulse control may appear. Drug therapy of these non motor symptoms complicates long-term PD drug therapy due to possible occurrence of drug interactions, - side effects, and altered pharmacokinetic behaviour of applied compounds. Dopamine substituting compounds themselves may contribute to onset of these non motor symptoms. This complicates the differentiation from the disease process itself and influences therapeutic options, which are often limited because of additional morbidity with necessary concomitant drug therapy. PMID:23211041

  19. Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hojs, Radovan; Ekart, Robert; Bevc, Sebastjan; Hojs, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 40% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is important to identify patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy and those who will progress to end stage renal disease. In clinical practice, most commonly used markers of renal disease and progression are serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria. Unfortunately, they are all insensitive. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the prognostic value and benefits of targeting some novel risk markers for development of diabetic nephropathy and its progression. It is focused mainly on tubular biomarkers (neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, liver-fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase), markers of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-α and tumour necrosis factor-α receptors, adhesion molecules, chemokines) and markers of oxidative stress. Despite the promise of some of these new biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed before they can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:26239462

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chern-Horng; Hsieh, Sen-Yung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Liu, Maw-Sen; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate outcomes of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Four hundred and forty patients referred between 2000 and 2002 for management of HCCs were categorized according to their CKD stage, i.e., estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 90 (stage 1), 60-90 (stage 2), 30-60 (stage 3), 15-30 (stage 4), and < 15 (stage 5) mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and mortality rates and cause of mortality were analyzed. The mortality data were examined with Kaplan-meier method and the significance was tested using a log-rank test. An initial univariate Cox regression analysis was performed to compare the frequency of possible risk factors associated with mortality. To control for possible confounding factors, a multivariate Cox regression analysis (stepwise backward approach) was performed to analyze those factors that were significant in univariate models (P < 0.05) and met the assumptions of a proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Most HCC patients with CKD were elderly, with mean age of diagnosis of 60.6 ± 11.9 years, and mostly male (74.8%). Hepatitis B, C and B and C co-infection virus were positive in 61.6%, 45.7% and 14.1% of the patients, respectively. It was found that patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD were not only older (P = 0.001), but also had higher hepatitis C virus carrier rate (P = 0.001), lower serum albumin level (P = 0.001), lower platelet count (P = 0.037), longer prothrombin time (P = 0.001) as well as higher proportions of advanced cirrhosis (P = 0.002) and HCCs (P = 0.001) than patients with stages 1 and 2 CKD. At the end of analysis, 162 (36.9%) patients had died. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD suffered lower cumulative survival than stages 1 and 2 CKD (log-rank test, χ2 = 11.764, P = 0.003). In a multivariate Cox-regression model, it was confirmed that CKD stage [odds ratio (OR) = 1.988, 95

  1. Pharmacokinetics of meropenem in patients with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Thyrum, P T; Yeh, C; Birmingham, B; Lasseter, K

    1997-02-01

    Eight subjects with chronic stable alcoholic cirrhosis and eight matched controls with normal liver function were given an initial 30-minute intravenous infusion of 1 g of meropenem; beginning 24 hours later, they received five additional 1-g doses at 6-hour intervals. No statistically significant differences were found between the first dose and steady state or between groups for any plasma pharmacokinetic parameters-including the highest observed plasma concentrations, plasma concentrations at 6 hours after dosing (C6h), terminal half-life, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), area under the first moment of the curve, plasma clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, and accumulation ratios-on the basis of either AUC or C6h. There were also no statistically significant differences in any of the measured or calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of the microbiologically inactive metabolite of meropenem (ICI 213,689). A total of 11 adverse experiences (one moderate and 10 mild) were reported by four patients; nine of these experiences, including two in controls, were rated by the investigator as "possibly" drug related. It is concluded that meropenem is well tolerated with repeated intravenous dosing and that dosage adjustments are not necessary for patients with hepatic disease. PMID:9126692

  2. X-chromosome inactivation in female patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, L; Benistan, K; Toussaint, A; Dubourg, O; Hagege, A A; Eladari, D; Jabbour, F; Beldjord, C; De Mazancourt, P; Germain, D P

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by the deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase (α-Gal). While males are usually severely affected, clinical presentation in female patients may be more variable ranging from asymptomatic to, occasionally, as severely affected as male patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in females with FD, its concordance between tissues, and its contribution to the phenotype. Fifty-six females with FD were enrolled. Clinical and biological work-up included two global scores [Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and DS3], cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, measured glomerular filtration rate, and measurement of α-Gal activity. XCI was analyzed in four tissues using DNA methylation studies. Skewed XCI was found in 29% of the study population. A correlation was found in XCI patterns between blood and the other analyzed tissues although some punctual variability was detected. Significant differences in residual α-Gal levels, severity scores, progression of cardiomyopathy and deterioration of kidney function, depending on the direction and degree of skewing of XCI were evidenced. XCI significantly impacts the phenotype and natural history of FD in females. PMID:25974833

  3. Potassium channel dysfunction in fibroblasts identifies patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Etcheberrigaray, R; Ito, E; Oka, K; Tofel-Grehl, B; Gibson, G E; Alkon, D L

    1993-01-01

    Since memory loss is characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD), and since K+ channels change during acquisition of memory in both molluscs and mammals, we investigated K+ channel function as a possible site of AD pathology and, therefore, as a possible diagnostic index as well. A 113-pS tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ channel was consistently absent from AD fibroblasts, while it was often present in young and aged control fibroblasts. A second (166-pS) K+ channel was present in all three groups. Elevated external potassium raised intracellular Ca2+ in all cases. TEA depolarized and caused intracellular Ca2+ elevation in young and aged control fibroblasts but not AD fibroblasts. The invariable absence of a 113-pS TEA-sensitive K+ channel and TEA-induced Ca2+ signal indicate K+ channel dysfunction in AD fibroblasts. These results suggest the possibility of a laboratory method that would diagnostically distinguish AD patients, with or without a family history of AD, from normal age-matched controls and also from patients with non-AD neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:8367484

  4. Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2010-08-01

    Musical mnemonics have a long and diverse history of popular use. In addition, music processing in general is often considered spared by the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research examining these two phenomena is limited, and no work to our knowledge has explored the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in AD. The present study sought to investigate the effect of music at encoding on the subsequent recognition of associated verbal information. Lyrics of unfamiliar children's songs were presented bimodally at encoding, and visual stimuli were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Patients with AD demonstrated better recognition accuracy for the sung lyrics than the spoken lyrics, while healthy older adults showed no significant difference between the two conditions. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: first, that the brain areas subserving music processing may be preferentially spared by AD, allowing a more holistic encoding that facilitates recognition, and second, that music heightens arousal in patients with AD, allowing better attention and improved memory. PMID:20452365

  5. [Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60%) among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF), and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD) and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF). Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP) are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°). In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable. PMID:25731010

  6. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Thaut, M H; McIntosh, G C; Rice, R R; Miller, R A; Rathbun, J; Brault, J M

    1996-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) was used as a pacemaker during a 3-week home-based gait-training program for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients (n = 15). Electromyogram (EMG) patterns and stride parameters were assessed before and after the test without RAS to evaluate changes in gait patterns. Data were compared with those of two control groups (n = 11), who either did not participate in any gait training or who participated in an internally self-paced training program. RAS consisted of audiotapes with metronome-pulse patterns embedded into the on/off beat structure of rhythmically accentuated instrumental music. Patients who trained with RAS significantly (p < 0.05) improved their gait velocity by 25%, stride length by 12%, and step cadence by 10% more than self-paced subjects who improved their velocity by 7% and no-training subjects whose velocity decreased by 7%. In the RAS-group, timing of EMG patterns changed significantly (p < 0.05) in the anterior tibialis and vastus lateralis muscles. Evidence for rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns was shown by the ability of the RAS group to reproduce the speed of the last training tape within a 2% margin of error without RAS. PMID:8684391

  7. Effects of Clay Manipulation on Somatic Dysfunction and Emotional Distress in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkis-Abuhoff, Deborah L.; Goldblatt, Robert B.; Gaydos, Morgan; Corrato, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this outcome study was on art therapy as a support for medical treatment and palliative care. A total of 41 patients were placed in 2 matched groups: 22 patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 patients without Parkinson's disease. Each participant completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (Derogatis, 1993) pre- and post-session,…

  8. Parkinson's Disease in a Dish: What Patient Specific-Reprogrammed Somatic Cells Can Tell Us about Parkinson's Disease, If Anything?

    PubMed

    Drouin-Ouellet, J; Barker, R A

    2012-01-01

    Technologies allowing for the derivation of patient-specific neurons from somatic cells are emerging as powerful in vitro tools to investigate the intrinsic cellular pathological behaviours of the diseases that affect these patients. While the use of patient-derived neurons to model Parkinson's disease (PD) has only just begun, these approaches have allowed us to begin investigating disease pathogenesis in a unique way. In this paper, we discuss the advances made in the field of cellular reprogramming to model PD and discuss the pros and cons associated with the use of such cells. PMID:23316244

  9. Contribution of inflammation to vascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Mohamed E; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate, much of which results from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic low-grade inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP), is a common feature of CKD and may cause atherosclerotic CVD through various pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be a risk factor for progression of CKD, which may result in a vicious inflammation-driven circle. The causes of inflammation in CKD are multifactorial. The influence of various comorbidities may contribute to inflammation in the setting of progressive loss of renal function. Available data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines also play a central role in the genesis of the metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and consequences of inflammation in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW) and CVD in CKD patients from developing countries. The 'westernization' of nutritional intakes and changes of life style besides the high prevalence of chronic infections in developing countries are possible additive contributors to a high prevalence of inflammation, PEW and CVD among CKD patients. Also, genetic differences may affect inflammatory responses and nutritional status and, thus, the susceptibility to CVD in different regions. PMID:18445891

  10. The neurocognitive impact of Fabry disease on pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bugescu, Nicolle; Alioto, Andrea; Segal, Summer; Cordova, Matthew; Packman, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder that results in progressive multisystemic organ complications. Several studies have examined neurocognitive impairments in adults; however, there is a paucity of research examining neurocognitive functioning in children with FD. This is the first exploratory study to examine the neurocognitive functioning of pediatric patients with FD and to evaluate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on neurocognitive functioning within this population. Families attending a national conference with at least one child with FD and one parent affected by FD comprised the sample (n = 48; 24 pediatric patients, 24 parents). Pediatric participants (10 males, 14 females) between the ages of 6 and 18 years and their parent(s) were involved in the study. Data from a demographic questionnaire and two neurocognitive self-report and parent-report measures were analyzed. Parent reports of neurocognitive functioning were also compared to a sample of children with and without head injury and to a sample of children who had undergone liver transplant (LT). Children with FD had poorer cognitive and executive functioning than healthy peers, and were comparable to children with head injury and LT. In addition, children using ERT had higher scores on measures of overall cognitive functioning, as well as fewer problems with attention/working memory and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest that children with FD may exhibit poorer cognitive and executive functioning relative to healthy peers. The use of ERT may mitigate the negative impact of FD on neurocognitive functioning in pediatric patients. PMID:25739920

  11. AB017. Interstitial lung disease patient diagnostic journey (intensity)

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, David J.; Bianchi, Pauline; Loboda, Jeanne; Danese, Sherry; Cosgrove, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is complicated to diagnose because its signs and symptoms mimic a wide range of common medical conditions. The objective of the INTENSITY survey was to advance the understanding of respondents’ diagnostic experiences with ILDs, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The survey was designed to trace the path that respondents took to diagnosis, identify obstacles they faced, and gauge the emotional impact of their journey. Results from the INTENSITY survey will help us more fully understand respondents’ diagnostic experiences so we can further our efforts to improve timely diagnosis and treatment of ILDs. Methods We administered a 25-minute quantitative online survey from August 14–26, 2015. Of the 1,152 respondents screened to ensure they were US residents, and had been diagnosed with an interstitial lung disease, 600 met criteria and completed the survey. Recruitment was accomplished through two channels: email invitations sent to 16,000 Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation (PFF) members and an open invitation to participate through the pulmonary fibrosis community website Results Shortness of breath (77%) and cough (53%) were the most common early symptoms in ILD patients. Twenty-five percent of respondents saw their primary care physician once before being referred to a specialist, however 61% of respondents saw their primary care physician >2 times before referral to a pulmonologist. Misdiagnosis occurred in 55% of respondents. The median time from symptom onset to correct diagnosis was 11 months, however 49% of respondents carried an incorrect diagnosis for 1 to 10 years. Thirty-eight percent were misdiagnosed more than twice, most frequently with asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, and allergies. An accurate diagnosis was achieved after a median of 6 months and a median of 3 physician visits. The majority underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. Fourteen percent of respondents saw more than 6 physicians before

  12. Comparison between Angiographic Findings of Coronary Artery Disease in STEMI and NSTEMI Patients of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Islam, M N; Ahmed, M U; Shafique, A M; Bari, M S; Islam, M Z; Ahamed, N U; Masud, M R; Bhowmick, K; Begum, M; Akhter, S M; Siddique, S R

    2016-04-01

    Coronary Angiogram (CAG) has been used to detect coronary artery disease in myocardial infarction (both STEMI and NSTEMI) patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of coronary artery disease among STEMI and NSTEMI patients. Among acute coronary syndrome in NSTEMI we found more widespread coronary artery disease other than STEMI. Lack of documentations encouraged us to perform this study in our center. In this retrospective observational study we summarized all myocardial infarction (MI) patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) from August 2013 to August 2014 at Enam Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh and data of degree of coronary artery disease were recorded. Data of 100 consecutive MI patients who underwent CAG during that period were recorded. Among them 50 patients having STEMI as Group I (male 45, female 5) & other 50 patients sustained NSTEMI as Group II (male 38, female 12). Among NSTEMI patient group 80% were having multi-vessel disease and in STEMI patient group 80% having single vessel disease and remaining having multi-vessel disease. The degree of coronary artery disease is extensive in NSTEMI patients than in STEMI group. Coronary angiogram can visualize the degree of coronary artery involvement and is a useful screening modality to compare disease extent in MI patients. PMID:27277351

  13. MODELING CHRONIC DISEASE PATIENT FLOWS DIVERTED FROM EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS TO PATIENT-CENTERED MEDICAL HOMES

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Rafael; Behr, Joshua; Kumar, Sameer; Britton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Disease is defined as a long lasting health condition, which can develop and/or worsen over an extended time, but which can also be controlled. The monetary and budgetary toll due to its persistent nature has become unsustainable and requires pressing actions to limit their incidence and burden. This paper demonstrates the utility of the System Dynamics approach to simulate the behavior of key factors involved in the implementation of chronic disease management. We model the patient flow diversion from emergency departments (ED) to patient-centered medical homes (PCMH), with emphasis on the visit rates, as well as the effect of insurance coverage, in an effort to assure continuity of quality care for Asthma patients at lower costs. The model is used as an evaluative method to identify conditions of a maintained health status through adequate policy planning, in terms of resources and capacity. This approach gives decision makers the ability to track the level of implementation of the intervention and generate knowledge about dynamics between population demands and the intervention effectiveness. The functionality of the model is demonstrated through the consideration of hypothetical scenarios executed using sensitivity analysis. PMID:26770663

  14. Cataract surgery in patients with ocular surface disease: An update in clinical diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Afsharkhamseh, Neda; Movahedan, Asadolah; Motahari, Hooman; Djalilian, Ali R

    2014-07-01

    In this article we review essentials of diagnosis and management of ocular surface disease in patients who undergo cataract surgery. It is clearly shown that dry eye disease worsens following the cataract surgery in patients with prior history of ocular surface disease, Also new cases of dry eye might appear. Current strategies for the timely diagnosis and proper management of dry eye syndrome in the face of cataract surgery patients are mainly emphasized. To achieve the best outcome in cataract surgery, a healthy ocular surface is crucial. While ocular surface preparation is indispensable in patients with established ocular surface disease, it is also helpful in those with minimal signs or symptoms of surface disease. The current approach begins with early diagnosis and drastic management of ocular surface disease before cataract surgery using a stepwise regimen customized to each patient and disease severity. These measures are continued throughout and after the surgery. PMID:25278791

  15. Risk for Mycobacterial Disease among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Taiwan, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Tsai-Ling; Lin, Ching-Heng; Shen, Gwan-Han; Chang, Chia-Li; Lin, Chin-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is elevated among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine the epidemiology of mycobacterial diseases among RA patients in Asia, we conducted a retrospective cohort study. We used a nationwide database to investigate the association of RA with mycobacterial diseases. The risk for development of TB or nontuberculous mycobacterial disease was 2.28-fold and 6.24-fold higher among RA patients than among the general population, respectively. Among RA patients, risk for development of mycobacterial disease was higher among those who were older, male, or both. Furthermore, among RA patients with mycobacterial infections, the risk for death was increased. Therefore, RA patients, especially those with other risk factors, should be closely monitored for development of mycobacterial disease. PMID:26196158

  16. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Salt linked to heart disease among CKD patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... transcript072516.html To Your Health: NLM