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1

The renewable energy consumption–growth nexus in Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for a panel of six Central American countries over the period 1980–2006. The heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results from

Nicholas Apergis; James E. Payne

2011-01-01

2

Sectoral Analysis of the Causal Relationship Between Renewable and NonRenewable Energy Consumption and Real Output in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the causal relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption by sector and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the US using annual data from 1949 to 2006. The Toda-Yamamoto long-run causality tests reveal the absence of Granger-causality between commercial and industrial renewable energy consumption and real GDP, respectively. Bidirectional Granger-causality exists between commercial and residential non-renewable energy

N. Bowden; J. E. Payne

2010-01-01

3

A Global Perspective on the Renewable Energy Consumption-Growth Nexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the causal relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for 80 countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1990–2007. The results of the panel cointegration test indicates there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real gross domestic product, renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficient

N. Apergis; J. E. Payne

2012-01-01

4

Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands  

EIA Publications

Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.

Fred Mayes

2000-04-01

5

Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Consumption, Real GDP and CO2 Emissions Nexus: A Structural VAR Approach in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any rise in real GDP crafts higher energy demand in Pakistan. This short-term rising energy requirement is fulfilled with the help of nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, but nonrenewable energy consumption adds more in it. The rise in nonrenewable energy consumption lifts real GDP up in short-run. Forecast error variance decomposition illustrates nonrenewable energy consumption alone passes 87% variation in

Shahbaz Shabbir Muhammad; Zeshan Muhammad

2011-01-01

6

Renewable energy annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

7

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

Pratte, John

8

Management of Building Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Supply in the Ecological Communities Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building is the hub of almost all human activities in urban areas. These activities are mostly supported by energies such as electricity which makes the energy management very important especially in urban areas. This paper has made an approach on enhancing energy management in the buildings using Geoinformation Systems (GIS). Energy and water consumption in the buildings can be visualized

ZAHID HASAN SIDDIQUEE; URSULA EICKER

9

An Integrated Geovisual Analytics Framework for Analysis of Energy Consumption Data and Renewable Energy Potentials  

SciTech Connect

We present an integrated geovisual analytics framework for utility consumers to interactively analyze and benchmark their energy consumption. The framework uses energy and property data already available with the utility companies and county governments respectively. The motivation for the developed framework is the need for citizens to go beyond the conventional utility bills in understanding the patterns in their energy consumption. There is also a need for citizens to go beyond one-time improvements that are often not monitored and measured over time. Some of the features of the framework include the ability for citizens to visualize their historical energy consumption data along with weather data in their location. The quantity of historical energy data available is significantly more than what is available from utility bills. An overlay of the weather data provides users with a visual correlation between weather patterns and their energy consumption patterns. Another feature of the framework is the ability for citizens to compare their consumption on an aggregated basis to that of their peers other citizens living in houses of similar size and age and within the same or different geographical boundaries, such as subdivision, zip code, or county. The users could also compare their consumption to others based on the size of their family and other attributes. This feature could help citizens determine if they are among the best in class . The framework can also be used by the utility companies to better understand their customers and to plan their services. To make the framework easily accessible, it is developed to be compatible with mobile consumer electronics devices.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Maness, Christopher S [ORNL; Kramer, Ian S [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Nugent, Philip J [ORNL; Myers, Aaron T [ORNL

2012-01-01

10

Renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate energy options include sophistication of mundane windows, cheaper photovoltaics, making liquid biofuels and more reliable wind generators. These elude sophistication of mundane windows, cheaper photovoltaics, making liquid biofuels and more reliable wind generators. These energy technologies are renewable in the sense that they derive power directly or indirectly only from sunlight. Improved window design could make a major contribution

1984-01-01

11

Renewable Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At prevailing economic practice the alarming “two degrees-limit” of global warming will be reached long before the known fossil fuel reserves are gone. A future alternative energy economy relying on renewable energies will be more diverse yet more expensive than traditional combustion the new figure of merit is the cost of CO2 avoidance. This communication surveys the relevant alternatives –

Ulrich Schindewolf; Karl Wilhelm Boeddeker

2010-01-01

12

Spatial mapping of renewable energy potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy resource that is renewed by nature and whose supply is not affected by the rate of consumption is often termed as renewable energy. The need to search for renewable, alternate and non-polluting sources of energy assumes top priority for self-reliance in the regional energy supply. This demands an estimation of available energy resources spatially to evolve better management

T. V. Ramachandraa

13

Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but

Harald Winkler

2005-01-01

14

Global Renewable Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Large-scale hydropower supplies 20 percent of global electricity. Wind power in coastal

Ayhan Demirba?

2006-01-01

15

Analysis of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: A structural VAR approach in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulse responses of our structural VAR portray a positive correlation between the real GDP of Romania and energy consumption. The present study employs the annual data covering the period 1980-2008, and brings to light the factors playing important role in satisfying the energy requirements, its economic and social implications. Any short-run rise in energy requirements is contented with the help

Muhammad Shahbaz; Muhammad Zeshan; Aviral Kumar Tiwari

2011-01-01

16

Renewable energy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy,

Falin Chen; Shyi-Min Lu; Eric Wang; Kuo-Tung Tseng

2010-01-01

17

Identification of the role of renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intensive efforts aiming at substituting oil with technology-driven new energy, i.e. primarily with renewable energy, a limited amount of renewable energy has become practically utilized. In response to increasing concerns of the global environmental consequences of CO2 discharge resulting from energy use as well as from the rapidly increasing energy consumption in developing nations, renewable energy has again become

Chihiro Watanabe

1995-01-01

18

Renewable energy annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

NONE

1995-12-01

19

Canada's energy picture: Prospects for renewable and nonrenewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that up to 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are reviewed in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute

1980-01-01

20

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Learning About Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research into renewable energy technologies and provides information on energy efficiency and various applications of renewable energy. Topics include the major categories of renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind); how renewable energy technologies can be used by consumers and providers; and how renewable energy can be stored and delivered. There is also information on advanced transportation technologies and links to a variety of educational resources for students about renewable energy sources and technologies.

21

Renewable Energy Annual 1997 Volume 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This information resource related to renewable energy has recently been made available by the US Department of Energy. Renewable Energy Annual 1997 Volume 1 is divided into two major sections: an overview of the renewable energy sector, and "solar thermal and voltaic collector manufacturing activities." The first part contains mostly consumption, capacity, and generation data. Volume 2 of this report, slated to be more topically oriented, is expected in the Spring of 1998.

1997-01-01

22

Renewable Energy Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

23

Renewable Energy News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Renewable Energy News is a comprehensive source which provides world-wide updates on all aspects of renewable energies. The site provides links to organizations and web directories of related products and information. The site is organized in a user-friendly way with issues organized by topic or region. Science, technology, economy energy, and nuclear review are highlighted areas of news.

2007-09-17

24

Programs in Renewable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10 percent of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet.

1990-01-01

25

Renewable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

2007-06-11

26

Government policies increasingly promote renewable energy ...  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... In order to increase control of the value chain, European energy companies are investing in large-scale ... sustainable forestry, market surveys, consumption, supply, demand, renewable natural resources, ...

27

Renewable energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a valuable overview of the prospects for new and renewable energy technologies and their possible role in energy planning in developing countries. Contents include: biomass energy; production; conversion; utilisation; biomass engines and biomass fuels; solar energy systems; wind energy systems; and hydro energy systems.

Kristoferson, L.A.; Bokalders, V.

1986-01-01

28

Possibilities of utilizing renewable energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to the quantitative and structural changes that have occurred in man's consumption of energy. It is pointed out that today 90% of the energy used comes from nonrenewable sources. In considering renewable energy sources, such as the sun, winds, tides, river currents, and earth's heat, attention is given to their geographical distribution. It is noted that supplying energy to isolated settlements that do not possess sources of renewable energy will pose a challenge.

Benko, I.

29

Renewing Our Energy Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the potential for cost-effective renewable energy in the coming decades and the actions that have to be taken to achieve the potential. Some applications, especially wind and bioenergy, are already competitive with conventional techno...

1995-01-01

30

Renewable energy - the path to sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to address some lingering debates within sustainability studies by revealing the connec- tions between renewable energy consumption and sustainability. Using data from 30 OECD countries, the article examines the connections via regression and geospatial analysis. Findings from the quantitative analysis indicate that about 50% of the variation in sustainability is accounted for by the degree of renewables

Tan Xiaomei; Brett Rose

2008-01-01

31

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2009-07-01

32

Integrated renewable energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of several manifestations of solar energy in tandem by means of integrated renewable energy systems (IRES) to supply a variety of energy and other needs has the potential to energize (in contrast to electrification) remote rural areas in a cost-effective manner. Such actions can dramatically improve the quality of life for hundreds of millions of people living in remote villages in the continents of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The environmentally benign nature of renewable resource utilization and the potability of exploiting locally available resources with the consequent growth of job opportunities are some of the many benefits that can accrue by the deployment of IRES. Even small amounts of energy can be very beneficial in remote rural areas of developing countries with no grid connection as compared to the massive urban sprawls in both developed and developing countries. A concerted global effort in this direction can build the much-needed market potential for renewables now, resulting in future cost reductions. Summaries of the three panel session presentations are assembled here for the readers of the IEEE Power Engineering Review: Designing an Integrated Renewable Energy System, by K. Ashenayi, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Africa-1000: Water in Thousands of Villages, by C. Kashkari Founder, Africa-1000, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio; Renewables in Mexico, by J. Gutierrez-Vera, Energia Del Siglo 21, Mexico D.F.

Ramakumar, R. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-02-01

33

Tomorrow's energy today: Energy efficiency and renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This broad overview of energy programs of the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy of the U.S. DOE emphasizes means of promoting energy efficiency for the next generation. Current research goals to reduce energy consumption in industry, buildings, and the transportation sector are presented. A doubling of economic growth without depleting fossil fuels by the year 2030 is conceivable.

Brennan, A.

1992-04-01

34

Learning about Renewable Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

35

Renewable Energy Education Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kit demonstrates an entire miniature renewable energy system. Set includes a wind turbine kit, solar photovoltaic panel, an electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cell, and a hydrogen storage system. Helps students visualize the workings of clean energy principles. For grades 4-12.

1900-01-01

36

Renewable Energy Curriculum Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eight curriculum units, developed by teachers who were National Fellows in a 2007 seminar through the National Initiative of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, explore the science related to current and potential future sources of energy, with a focus on renewable energy.

Gary Brudvig (Yale University ;Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

2010-05-13

37

Renewable Energy Policy in China: Overview; Renewable Energy in China  

SciTech Connect

China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for developing renewable energy, policy objectives, subsidies, tax incentives, custom duties, and contact information.

Not Available

2004-04-01

38

An overview of ocean renewable energy resources in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korea relies on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy consumption demands. As such, there is a need to investigate alternative energy resources such as renewable energy. In this paper, assessments of the potential of various ocean renewable energy resources in the sea around Korea; potential sources of energy including wave energy, tidal energy, tidal current energy and ocean thermal

Gunwoo Kim; Myung Eun Lee; Kwang Soo Lee; Jin-Soon Park; Weon Mu Jeong; Sok Kuh Kang; Jae-Gwi Soh; Hanna Kim

2012-01-01

39

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has been identified as one of the greatest challenge by all the nations, government, business and citizens of the globe. The threats of climate change on our green planet 'Earth' demands that renewable energy share in the total energy generation and consumption should be substantially increased as a matter of urgency. India's energy development programme has been put

S. P. RAGHUVANSHI; A. K. RAGHAV; A. CHANDRA

40

Energy Consumption in Greenhouses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Official, national statistics concerning green-houses, their oil consumption and energy costs are studied and data on the topics given. Oil consumption in green-houses may be reduced considerably by improving the heating and regulating installations and i...

K. Repstad P. Sauge

1982-01-01

41

World energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Historical and projected world energy consumption information is displayed. The information is presented by region and fuel type, and includes a world total. Measurements are in quadrillion Btu. Sources of the information contained in the table are: (1) history--Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 1992, DOE/EIA-0219(92); (2) projections--EIA, World Energy Projections System, 1994. Country amounts include an adjustment to account for electricity trade. Regions or country groups are shown as follows: (1) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), US (not including US territories), which are included in other (ECD), Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, other Europe, and other OECD; (2) Eurasia--China, former Soviet Union, eastern Europe; (3) rest of world--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and other countries not included in any other group. Fuel types include oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and other. Other includes hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, biomass, wind, and other renewable sources.

NONE

1995-12-01

42

Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems

John Turner

2002-01-01

43

Renewable Energy Resources Potential in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources provide a large share of the total energy consumption of many developing countries. Evaluation of these resources has not been made in many countries and in many cases, data necessary to estimate the resource availability is also not easily available. However, for the profitable and sustained exploitation of these resources, a knowledge of their availability should be

KAYASITH SADETTANH

2004-01-01

44

Renewable and Solar Energy Technologies: Energy and Environmental Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental\\u000a issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace all\\u000a current 102 quads (quad = 1015 BTU) of U.S. energy consumption (USCB 2007). A gross estimate of land and water resources is needed, as

David Pimentel

45

Renewable energy in India: Historical developments and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoting renewable energy in India has assumed great importance in recent years in view of high growth rate of energy consumption, high share of coal in domestic energy demand, heavy dependence on imports for meeting demands for petroleum fuels and volatility of world oil market. A number of renewable energy technologies (RETs) are now well established in the country. The

S. C. Bhattacharya; Chinmoy Jana

2009-01-01

46

Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

Boji?, Milorad

2010-06-01

47

Fluid-dynamic renewable energy harvesting system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides a fluid-dynamic renewable energy harvesting system which includes fluid-foil means for interfacing with a fluid current such as a water current or wind or both, and which includes energy harvesting means utilizing fluid current driven periodic motion of the fluid-foil means for capturing fluid-dynamic renewable energy and converting it into usable energy in a desired form such as electricity. The invention provides devices, methods and systems for harvesting renewable energy for small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale applications, to provide real and substantial benefits towards efficiently fulfilling energy needs while also more broadly serving humanity and our global environment. The various embodiments of the invention provide energy with zero consumption of fossil fuels and zero emissions of greenhouse gases, and some selectively sited embodiments can beneficially counter global warming induced ice melting.

Sankrithi; Mithra M. K. V. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

2010-07-06

48

Energy-consumption modelling  

SciTech Connect

A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

Reiter, E.R.

1980-01-01

49

Renewable Energy Certificate Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

Gwendolyn S. Andersen

2012-07-17

50

Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (RERL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, Northeast Utilities and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, RERL promotes education and research in solar and wind energy conversion technologies. The research program provides graduate students opportunities to develop a program of study and a thesis topic, at the M.S or Ph. D. level, in one of the currently active renewable energy research programs.

2007-10-17

51

PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN  

SciTech Connect

The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

2009-06-06

52

Evaluation of Renewable Energy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world demand for clean and renewable energy is growing, which is a response to stringent environmental policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions; price instability on the world energy markets and declining fossil energy resource availability. The main goal of the current study is to evaluate alternative renewable energy policies, which we achieve by quantitatively assessing socio-economic impacts of

d’Artis Kancs

2004-01-01

53

Minneapolis Residential Energy Consumption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with residential energy consumption in single - family, townhouse, low - rise, and high - rise structures in Minnapolis, Minn., with the year 1957 chosen as a typical weather year for the area. Design and structural features considered i...

J. E. Reed J. E. Barber B. White

1976-01-01

54

Autonomous renewable energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a

Ventzislav Valtchev; Alex Van den Bossche; Jozef Ghijselen; Jan Melkebeek

2000-01-01

55

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

56

Renewable Energy in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

any factors influence develop- ment of renewable energy sources: a state's energy prices, energy infrastructure, energy demand, and energy intensity. Some encourage devel- opment, others discourage it. In the past, energy production in North Carolina has favored a dependence on imported fossil fuels. The dependence has been based on low energy prices, lack of statutory man- dates to encourage development

Diane Cherry; Shubhayu Saha

57

A Northern California–British Columbia partnership for renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2005, the California Public Utilities Commission issued a report concluding that California can technically and economically achieve by 2020 a renewable energy target of 33% of the state's total electricity consumption. If implemented, this 33% target will substantially increase the state's future demand for renewable energy. In parallel, the British Columbia government has been promoting development of the

R. Orans; S. Price; J. Williams; C. K. Woo; J. Moore

2007-01-01

58

Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to determine the economic feasibility of displacing a portion of the electrical energy usage at the Wind tunnel Complex at WPAFB by a renewable energy system. Wind systems, photovoltaic systems and solar thermal systems evaluated usi...

D. E. Klett D. Y. Goswami D. E. Olson E. K. Stefanakos

1982-01-01

59

Energy consumption in manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy sources, in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, solar or nuclear power, are global commodities, and as demand is projected to rise in the coming decades, so will costs. As such, an understanding of the energy needs of manufacturing processes and the ability to reduce the energy and carbon footprints are essential for sustainability reasons. Energy source effects are quantified in a number of measures. Models of energy needs by manufacturing processes are then examined, along with models incorporating the use of ancillary equipment such as pumps, filters, blowers, lighting, etc. Finally, the successful application of the tribological principles to influence energy consumption is discussed.

Schmid, S. R.

2012-04-01

60

Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

2012-07-01

61

Renewable energy programmes in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a strong industrial base and successful commercialisation of technologies in renewable energy, India is in a position today to offer state-of-the-art technology to other developing countries and is poised to play a leading role in the global movement towards sustainable energy development. India has a separate ministry to promote renewable energy sources, which has been named Ministry of Non-Conventional

S. Jebaraj; S. Iniyan

2006-01-01

62

Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy

Buchanan, Marion; And Others

63

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) promotes its research to "secure an energy future for the nation that is environmentally and economically sustainable." The website summaries the Laboratory's variety of research and technology including photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal energy, and hydrogen and fuel cells. Visitors can find out the latest NREL news and events. Visitors can locate materials about renewable energy and energy efficiency. The Publications Database offers references to a wide range of documents about sustainable energy technologies written or edited by NREL.

64

Renewable energy opportunities in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid growth in economic development coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of rural China have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and the rural countryside. Electric capacity expansion plans call for increased use of coal-fired steam turbines for electricity production that will contribute to increased concerns over environmental pollution. China is rich in renewable energy resources, strategically located in areas of greatest need and economic viability. China is also already one of the world's largest users of renewables, especially hydro, wind, biomass, and solar thermal, and has significant experience with photovoltaics, geothermal and other technologies. The use of renewable energy is being encouraged in expanded programs at the central and provincial government levels, with growing private sector involvement. These conditions create opportunities for U.S. business participation in renewable energy markets in China.

Wallace, William L.; Simon Tsuo, Y.

1996-01-01

65

Renewable energy policy in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article outlines renewable energy (RE) resources according to the energy efficiency policy in Lithuania as well as practical experience of implementation of RE projects within the framework of the National Energy Efficiency Programme. The main goals of the programme are to reduce the import of energy resources, to improve environment conditions and to reduce the climate change impact. Analysis

Vladislovas Katinas; Romualdas Skema

2001-01-01

66

Renewable Energy: A Viable Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy systems—notably solar, wind, and biomass—are poised to play a major role in the energy economy and in improving the environmental quality of the United States. California's energy crisis focused attention on and raised fundamental questions about regional and national energy strategies. Prior to the crisis in California, there had been too little attention given to appropriate power plant

Antonia V. Herzog; Timothy E. Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen

2001-01-01

67

Jobs and Renewable Energy Project  

SciTech Connect

Early in 2002, REPP developed the Jobs Calculator, a tool that calculates the number of direct jobs resulting from renewable energy development under RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) legislation or other programs to accelerate renewable energy development. The calculator is based on a survey of current industry practices to assess the number and type of jobs that will result from the enactment of a RPS. This project built upon and significantly enhanced the initial Jobs Calculator model by (1) expanding the survey to include other renewable technologies (the original model was limited to wind, solar PV and biomass co-firing technologies); (2) more precisely calculating the economic development benefits related to renewable energy development; (3) completing and regularly updating the survey of the commercially active renewable energy firms to determine kinds and number of jobs directly created; and (4) developing and implementing a technology to locate where the economic activity related to each type of renewable technology is likely to occur. REPP worked directly with groups in the State of Nevada to interpret the results and develop policies to capture as much of the economic benefits as possible for the state through technology selection, training program options, and outreach to manufacturing groups.

Sterzinger, George

2006-12-19

68

2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2012-10-01

69

2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Gelman, R.

2011-10-01

70

2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010  

SciTech Connect

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2010-08-01

71

Renewable energy: ethanol from biomass  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the current status of renewable energy in Florida. Florida can expect continued increases in the use of ethanol for blends of unleaded gasoline. The sales for 1984 represent about 10% of Florida gasoline consumption. Federal and state tax incentives and other financial assistance are in place to encourage the development and growth of the fuel ethanol industry in Florida. However, it is not expected that Florida will become a major force in the production of ethanol in the short term. All existing commercial ethanol producing facilities employ established fermentation processes that utilize grain or molasses for the most part as feedstocks. Florida is not a large grain producing state and there is not a sufficient supply of molasses to support large scale ethanol production. The use of these feedstocks for Florida ethanol producing facilities is not competitive with the Mid-West grain areas, for example. Research has shown that much of the abundant biomass materials naturally or commercially grown in Florida can be converted to alcohol, but commercial scale facilities have not yet been built. To attract investment money, the non-commercial fermentation technology must progress beyond the laboratory stage and reach a proven and tested pilot plant stage. If the pilot stage indicates a full scale plant will be economical, then the next step is commercialization. 23 refs.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

1985-08-01

72

Wireless Energy Consumption Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this work, a wireless energy consumption monitor made up of a current transformer with its analog interface and an 8-bit\\u000a microcontroller that acquire sensor’s data is presented. The whole system is wireless connected to a PC through a Bluetooth\\u000a module for the sending of the data that are managed and collected by the host software developed in LabVIEW, a

Massimo Merenda; Demetrio Artuso; Francesco G. Della Corte

73

Evaluation of Renewable Energy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents first results of an empirical ex-ante analysis which evaluates the effects of possible renewable energy policies in the Polish bioenergy sector applying an Applied General Equilibrium model. [n the model, producers respond to changes in market prices of different energy goods adjusting their output level and mix, and inputs demand. Consumers respond to the changes in energy

DArtis Kancs

2006-01-01

74

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH INVESTMENTSIN RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various problems and requirements of the society and of the development of cities and regions may be solved by implementing renewable energy projects. Therefore, this study explores the issue of regional development through investments in renewable energy projects. Firstly, this study briefly reveals the role of renewable energy in regional development, and secondly, some arguments for investing in renewable energy

Ion PLUMB; Andreea ZAMFIR

2011-01-01

75

Renewable Energy Annual, 2003 with Preliminary Data for 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Renewable energy consumption in 2003 grew 3 percent to 6.1 quadrillion Btu. More than half of the increase came from a 4 percent gain in conventional hydropower, which contributed 104 trillion Btu more to consumption than it did in 2002. A 3 percent incre...

2005-01-01

76

Energy Portrait of Turkey: Achievable Savings Through Renewable Energies and Conservation Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with a brief review of the socioeconomic situation, energy resources, and energy consumptions in Turkey. The estimates for the sustainability years of fossil fuels and the potential of renewable energies are given. Hydro-power, biomass, geothermal, solar, wind, wave, sea currents, and salt gradient are, in order of priority, listed among the renewable energy resources of the country.

1993-01-01

77

Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)|

Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

1990-01-01

78

Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems include phovoltaics (solar cells), solar thermal (electric and thermal), wind, biomass (plants and trees), hydroelectric, ocean, and geothermal. Given the intermittent nature of solar energy, only those energy systems that are coupled to an energy storage technology will be viable. Among the energy storage technologies are hydrogen, batteries, flywheels, superconductivity, ultracapacitors, pumped hydro, molten salts (for thermal storage), and compressed gas. One of the most versatile energy storage systems and the best energy carrier for transportation is hydrogen. This talk will review some of the basic renewable energy systems, present possible pathways for the implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure and offer research areas that need to be addressed to increase the viability of these renewable energy technologies.

Turner, John

2002-03-01

79

Renewable energy: An assessment of public awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to assess attitudes of the public towards renewable energy. The information gathered was analysed for respondents attitudes towards issues such as, knowledge of renewable energy sources and power generation, encouragement by government as well as at a personal level, comparison of fossil fuels use and renewable power, opinions for encouragement, leads for encouraging renewable energy growth

V. P. Khambalkar; S. S. Katkhede; S. Dahatonde; N. D. Korpe; S. M. Nage

2010-01-01

80

Tribal Renewable Energy – Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE\\/CERT Cooperative Agreement has demonstrated that Indian Tribes are ready to undertake the positive steps in developing their internal governmental capacities in program planning and project development as well as the enterprise management capability to undertake the development of their substantial natural base of renewable energy resources and to learn the basic technologies in wind, solar, bio-mass and alternative energy

A. David Lester

2008-01-01

81

Issues in Renewable Energy Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Renewable energy education is evolving rapidly in response to drivers such as oil depletion and global warming. There is a rapidly increasing level of student interest in these topics and a growing demand from industry and government for skilled personnel to develop sustainable energy systems and greenhouse solutions. Several Australian and New…

Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Lloyd, Bob

2008-01-01

82

Emerging symbiosis: Renewable energy and energy security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the evolution of “energy security” as a concept guiding strategic energy planning and demonstrates how fossil fuel technologies which once enjoyed a symbiotic relationship with energy security no longer contribute to the goals of enhanced energy security. Conversely, renewable energy technologies now fulfill many of the objectives that modern energy security enhancement initiatives aim to achieve. The

Scott Victor Valentine

2011-01-01

83

The potential of renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

84

Renewables portfolio standard and regional energy structure optimisation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Coastal areas of China have been developing rapidly since the implementation of reforms and the opening of China's economic markets in 1978. As in most areas of the world, this rapid economic growth has been accompanied by large increases in energy consumption. China's coal-dominated energy structure has resulted in serious ecological and environmental problems. Exploiting renewable energy resources and

J. Fan; W. Sun; D.-M. Ren

2005-01-01

85

Technical and Economic Potentials of Renewable Energy Development in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption of Thailand has been continually increasing whereas the government policy to import those conventional energy seems to be limited. To sustainably overcome this problem, the development of renewable energy projects are important keys. Among them, bio- fuels projects seem to be the most promising one because of abundant reserves available in the domestic. There have been two groups

Watchara Permchart; Somporn Tanatvanit

86

Renewable Energy Powered Bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the project is to convert a standard twenty inch bicycle wheel into a retrofit hydraulic powered wheel. The wheel will harness energy in a self-contained storage unit (the high-pressure accumulator) which will drive a power train including various gears, a motor and a pump.\\u000aThe bike wheel converts braking energy from deceleration to fluid energy at high

Huiming Gong

2012-01-01

87

Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: ``Renewable energy resource program'', where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

2007-10-01

88

Solow meets Leontief: Economic growth and energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology that integrates a growth model with an input–output model to analyze the impacts of economic growth on the consumption of energy. The integration between the models is carried out by calibrating the growth module, which incorporates energetic inputs (renewable and nonrenewable) in the production function, and implementing shocks by the supply side (capital, labor, renewable

Marcelo Arbex; Fernando S. Perobelli

2010-01-01

89

RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of July 12, 2002 (project inception) to September 30, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted to identify and analyze potential renewable energy technologies and verify its feasibility and suitability for the project. The report covers the two-day Energy Charrette that was held at the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) Headquarters Building on May 8-9, 2002 to brainstorm, evaluate and present all available renewable energy options along with their implementations. Although the Energy Charrette was held prior to awarding of the DOE Grant, the outcome of the Charrette forms the basis of the activities that took place after July 12, 2002. Therefore, the Energy Charrette is frequently referenced and discussed in this report. The report also discusses the Energy Meeting that took place on September 24, 2002 between IEUA and CH2M Hill to follow up on the various presentations and recommendations resulting from the Energy Charrette. It should be noted that no final equipment data or capacities have been presented in the report, as the Conceptual Design has not started yet. This report covers continuing effort and work to complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for this project. The Executive Summary Section covers more details on the scope of work, which consists of the conceptual, preliminary and final design, and what has been accomplished during the report period. Tools and methods utilized in this project to identify renewable energy technologies are included in the ''Experimental'' Section. Finally, Project achievements, implications and importance in improving this kind of technology are summarized in the ''Conclusion'' Section.

Neil Clifton, P.E.; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi, P.E.

2002-10-30

90

Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom

91

Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom

92

Renewable energy sources for desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources (RES) coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for covering the fundamental needs of power and water in remote regions, where connection to the public electrical grid is either not cost effective or not feasible, and where the water scarcity is severe. Stand-alone systems for electricity supply in isolated locations are now proven technologies. Correct matching of

Eftihia Tzen; Richard Morris

2003-01-01

93

ARE BIOFUELS RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to discuss biofuels renewability in a quantitative point of view. A comprehensive review of the energy balance literature and emergy assessment of biofuels production were carried out at the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering of the Food Engineering School at UNICAMP in order discuss these issues. From these perspective is possible to realize that biofuels

Enrique Ortega; Otávio Cavalett; Consuelo Pereira; Feni Agostinho; John Storfer

94

Heliodromus: Renewable energy from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates power in space using solar cells concentrator systems and wireless power transmittance

J. M. Kuiper

2010-01-01

95

Renewable energy: a response to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

“We recognize the importance of renewable energy for sustainable development, diversification of energy supply, and preservation of the environment. We will ensure that renewable energy sources are adequately considered in our national plans and encourage others to do so as well. We encourage continuing research and investment in renewable energy technology, throughout the world”.Communique from the G8 Leaders’ Summit, Genoa,

R. E. H. Sims

2004-01-01

96

Ice Adhesion Issues in Renewable Energy Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources supply only a small fraction of global energy demand. The majority of today’s energy is supplied by fossil fuels. The capacity of fossil fueled facilities to produce power is not as location dependent as renewable energy sources. Many mainstream renewable energy sources like wind, solar, and hydrokinetic must be located where the appropriate natural resources are most abundant.

Rupp Carriveau; Afsaneh Edrisy; Peter Cadieux; Russel Mailloux

2012-01-01

97

Renewable energy has political support, room to grow  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy sources enjoy growing political support and have plenty of room to grow in the worldwide energy mix. And grow they will, according to most projections. The US Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) International Energy Outlook 1997 says consumption of hydroelectricity and other renewables will increase by 56% during 1995--2015. The renewable share of the total energy mix will remain at about current levels, however. The EIA projection includes only renewable fuels used in the generation of electricity. It therefore excludes most biomass energy. Despite the importance of biomass energy, data on consumption of it are sparse. IEA estimates that in the industrialized world, the biomass share of primary energy consumption amounts to 3.5%. Also excluded from EIA`s projection because of insufficiency of data are dispersed renewables, a category that includes energy consumed at the site of production, such as solar panels used for water heating. This paper discusses regional trends, North American activity, Western Europe, Asian developments, and the rest of the world.

NONE

1997-08-11

98

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

Not Available

1994-12-01

99

Renewable-energy resource planner: a guide for evaluating and financing industrial renewable energy measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This guide is designed to assist firm to evaluate, plan and finance renewable energy measures. Major concepts discussed in the guide include: economic factors to consider in analyzing the feasibility of investing in energy-saving or renewable energy equipment; examples for evaluating payback, cash flow and return on investment; renewable energy technologies for industrial applications; case examples of industrial renewable energy

B. Saunders; L. Zarker; S. Parker

1981-01-01

100

Renewable Energy: Hydropower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the use of flowing or falling water (hydropower) to perform work, particularly electric power generation. Topics include the history of hydropower development, the invention of turbines and electric generators, and the history of hydroelectric power development in the United States. There is also discussion of the environmental issues associated with the construction of large dams and flooding large tracts of land, as well as some of the physics involved in the transfer of energy from moving water to a mechanical device such as a turbine. The lesson includes an activity in which students use a model turbine and generator and vary the height from which water flows into them to examine how energy output and efficiency varies.

Pratte, John

2008-12-29

101

Renewable Energy in Fitness Centers  

SciTech Connect

All military installations have goals for implementing renewable energy projects, but not all have abundant solar energy or have massive feedstock for a large biomass plant. They must build up their renewable portfolio one project at it a time where they make the most sense – most of the time through small projects on specific buildings. During the last few years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided project support to Army Installation Management Command Southeast Region (IMCOM-Southeast) installations. One of the building types visited, the physical fitness center (PFC), almost always yield project ideas. The building lends itself to a number of different technologies, and the high traffic nature is the perfect place to craft an educational message for users and demonstrate an installation’s commitment to sustainable energy development.

Chvala, William D.

2009-09-30

102

Renewable Energy: Wind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the uses of wind energy. Topics include a history of wind usage (grinding grain, pumping water, transportation), including the development of wind power in the United States and its more recent adaptations for producing electricity. There is also discussion of the physics behind the operation of a windmill and what drives the wind patterns in Earth's atmosphere. The lesson includes an activity in which students use online resources to study the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed and direction. They will collect data on barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction for several days, map it, and look for relationships between wind speed and direction and the isobaric lines on the map.

Pratte, John

103

New directions in renewable energy education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewable energy industry is growing rapidly amidst rising concerns about oil depletion and climate change. Renewable energy is seen by many as part of the appropriate response to these concerns and some national Governments have put programs in place to support the wider use of sustainable energy systems. This has led to a rapid increase in demand for renewable

Philip Jennings

2009-01-01

104

Renewable energy atlas of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the

J. A. Kuiper; Hlava; H. K. Greenwood; A. Carr

2012-01-01

105

Needed a national renewable energy strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources now supply only 8% of U.S. energy, and that share won't reach 9% for nearly 20 years if current policy and market trends persist. What's needed if the United States is to maximize renewables' environmental and economic benefits is a national strategy to spur the development and use of renewable energy technologies. Within the context of such

Kozloff

1994-01-01

106

Renewable energies in the decentralized energy supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy supply system is proposed based on a combination of renewable energy plants using solar, wind and biomass, supplemented by a traditional diesel generator and supervised by a management unit. This decentralized energy supply system, with high local production contents, is well adapted for regions where it is costly and\\/or practically difficult to supply by the conventional centralized way

H. Weiss; M. Kesraoui

2004-01-01

107

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site serves as a gateway to energy efficiency and renewable energy information. With over 600 links and access to 80,000 documents, the site is fairly comprehensive. The bulk of the content is accessed via the Technologies section, which is browseable by topic. each topic page offers links to related sites and numerous subtopic pages, which in turn link to numerous full-text articles located off-site. Also included on the main page are more links, some specialized resources (Ask an Expert, Financing, News, etc.), and information on DOE public meetings and renewable energy programs.

Energy., United S.

108

Renewable energy resources in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources in the Syrian Arab Republic are surveyed. Potential of solar, wind and bio-mass resources and their promising applications are analyzed. The annual average long-term solar radiation on a horizontal plane is measured and found to be 5.2 kWh\\/m2 per day. Wind speed measurements were conducted in more than twenty stations spread all over the country. The prospects

Ali Al-Mohamad

2001-01-01

109

On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, nuclear energy consumption, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth for a group of 19 developed and developing countries for the period 1984–2007 using a panel error correction model. The long-run estimates indicate that there is a statistically significant negative association between nuclear energy consumption and emissions, but a statistically significant positive

Nicholas Apergis; James E. Payne; Kojo Menyah; Yemane Wolde-Rufael

2010-01-01

110

Renewable energy resources in energy management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the ever increasing amount of Renewable Energy Resources production integrated in Power Systems, Energy Management Systems (EMS) used for decades in control centers to manage power flows need to adapt. This paper aims at providing detailed understanding of impacts on “standard” EMS functions of these new sources of productions. This paper will first highlight the characteristics of

E. Goutard

2010-01-01

111

RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the second quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted in order to follow up on potential renewable energy technologies that were identified in the previous report; the technologies were analyzed for their feasibility, suitability and cost effectiveness for this project. This report covers the one-day conceptual design kickoff meeting that took place on November 4, 2002. The meeting was held to discuss the practicality and implementation of potential innovative technologies. Following the kickoff meeting, Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) and CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, held a meeting on December 2, 2002 to discuss the Conceptual Design Report outline and contents in order to clearly present each selected technology along with its evaluation, cost effectiveness and justification. A conference call also took place between the PIER Consultant and IEUA on December 13, 2002, to discuss the overall scope of work for this project. Major project activities in this period include expanded discussions on previous Energy Charrette decisions and recommendations, conceptual design kickoff meeting, conceptual design report, and deciding on the overall project scope of work.

Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

2003-01-30

112

Optimization of Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency Measures with MARKAL Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of the study is optimization of energy consumption in regional energy system (households in islands of Splitsko-Dalmatinska County in the Republic of Croatia) with MARKAL model, in order to determine which energy efficiency measures, renewables and other measures is necessary to reach specific LPG consumption.

H. Bozic

2007-01-01

113

Renewable energy investment in Nigeria: A review of the renewable energy master plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for investment into renewable energy resources in Nigeria is mainly unavailable due to over reliance on conventional resources for energy generation. However, recent developments in the energy sector have portrayed a gradual attention to investments in renewable energy resources. This paper reviews the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP) which identifies this improvement and presents a draft on how an

Udochukwu B. Akuru; Ogbonnaya I. Okoro

2010-01-01

114

Role of Renewable Energy Certificates in Developing New Renewable Energy Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade, renewable energy certificates (RECs) have grown in use, becoming a common way to track ownership of the renewable and environmental attributes of renewable electricity generation. In recent years, however, questions have risen about the role RECs play in the decision to build new renewable energy projects. Information from a variety of market participants suggests that

E. Holt; J. Sumner; L. Bird

2011-01-01

115

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

2010-02-26

116

Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy

Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

117

Assessing Renewable Energy Progress and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although substantial progress has been made during the last 35 years in renewable energy technology, total power generated by renewable energy in the United States has only grown from approximately 1.5 percent to about 10 percent, or approximately 0.25 percent per year. Over the last 35 years, total energy losses have remained close to 50 percent for all energy conversion

Joseph F. Giacinto; Paul Petzrick; Jason Litten; Brandie Sebastian; Erica Breighner; Wayne Perkins; Samantha Petzrick

2009-01-01

118

WIRE: Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energies such as wind and solar energy will play an important, even decisive role in order to mitigate and adapt to the projected dramatic consequences to our society and environment due to climate change. Due to shrinking fossil resources, the transition to more and more renewable energy shares is unavoidable. But, as wind and solar energy are strongly dependent

A. Heimo; R. Cattin; B. Calpini

2010-01-01

119

Renewable Energy: An Overview (March 2001).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Renewable energy uses energy sources that are continually replenished by nature--the sun, the wind, water, the Earth's heat, and plants. Renewable energy technologies turn these fuels into usable forms of energy--most often electricity, but also heat, che...

2001-01-01

120

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Department of Energy site provides access to more than 600 links and 80,000 documents about renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including such topics as: bioenergy, hydrogen, power from the oceans, and wind, solar, geothermal, and hydroenergy. Specialized resources include a collection of links to educational and training resources on energy, and a weekly newsletter covering news and events, new sites on EREN, and energy facts and tips. A consumer section offers advice on energy conservation and home weatherization.

2002-03-04

121

The contribution of renewable resources in meeting Turkey's energy-related challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of renewable energy as a key way for resolving the Turkey's energy-related challenges. As a consequence of economic and social development, Turkey's energy consumption has risen dramatically over the past three decades. At present, fossil fuels account for more than 90% of the total energy consumption in the country.

Z. Bengü Erdem

2010-01-01

122

Energy systems based on local renewable energy resources for a rural community in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of energy balance to a particular case, an isolated, rural developing community, shows the following relevant facts: (1) a relatively great actual importance and a large potentiality of the renewable energy sources, which could solve certain problems of development, (2) in general, present energy needs remain largely unsatisfied, and (3) the increase of the consumption of imported energy

D. Cavard; P. Criqui

1979-01-01

123

Tribal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lands (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

Not Available

2010-09-01

124

Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and plann...

2005-01-01

125

Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and planning.

Not Available

2006-04-01

126

Renewable energy resource potential in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan energy situation is seriously troubling today due to lack of careful planning and implementation of its energy policies. To avoid the worse situation in the years ahead, the country will have to exploit its huge natural renewable resource. In this paper a review is being presented about renewable energy resource potential available in the country to be exploited for

Munawar A. Sheikh

2009-01-01

127

Renewable energy: Economic and environmental issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the potential of various renewable or solar energy technologies to supply the United States with its future energy needs. Diverse renewable technologies are assessed in terms of their land requirements, environmental benefits and risks, economic costs, and a comparison of their advantages. In addition a projection of the amount of energy that could be supplied by solar

David Pimentel; G. Rodrigues; T. Wang; R. Abrams; K. Goldberg; H. Staecker; E. Ma; L. Brueckner; L. Trovato; C. Chow; U. Govindarajulu; S. Boerke

1994-01-01

128

Renewable energy investment by the World Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Bank Group lending for renewable energy accelerated in the 1990s and resulted in 17 approved projects with $700 million in Bank loans and $230 million in grants by the Global Environment Facility. The Bank's 1999 energy-sector strategy Fuel for Thought charted new directions for renewable energy investment. The present paper considers the implementation challenges of Fuel for Thought strategies

Eric Martinot

2001-01-01

129

Exergy analysis of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil crises in the past years made more obvious the dependency of economies on fossil fuels. As a consequence, the need for new energy sources became more urgent. Renewable energy sources could provide a solution to the problem, as they are inexhaustible and have less adverse impacts on the environment than fossil fuels. Yet, renewable energy sources technology has not

Christopher Koroneos; Thomas Spachos; Nikolaos Moussiopoulos

2003-01-01

130

Inventory of Renewable Energy Generators Eligible for the Maryland Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Maryland Power Plant Research Program published the Inventory of Renewable Energy Resources Eligible for the Maryland Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard in 2006 (2006 Inventory Report). That inventory quantified resources that were eligible at the ti...

C. Mudd L. Schultz P. O'Conner

2012-01-01

131

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption  

EIA Publications

This report provides newly available national and regional data and analyzes the nation's energy use by light-duty vehicles. This release represents the analytical component of the report, with a data component having been released in early 2005.

Mark Schipper

2005-11-30

132

Development of renewable energy resources in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Plan, adopted by the government in 1988, set some ambitious targets for the development of renewable energy resources in Greece. A review of the state of development of these resources indicates that the plan's objectives for the year 2000 will not be met. The slow pace of development is attributed to a number of financial, regulatory,

Constantine Hadjilambrinos

1996-01-01

133

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of

Amy E. Solana; William M. Warwick; Alice C. Orrell; Bryan J. Russo; Kyle R. Parker; Mark R. Weimar; Jacob A. Horner; Anathea Manning

2011-01-01

134

RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY AND POLICY FOR DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The costs and performance of renewable energy technologies have reached the stage where the number of economical applications in developing countries is increasing, particularly in the grid and off-grid markets for electricity. The paper provides a review of policies. The conclusions are as follows. (a) Investments in renewable energy should be helped by competition and regulatory reform in the

Dennis Anderson

1997-01-01

135

International Cooperation for Renewable Energy Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that in considering the potential of major renewable energy resources in relation to their remoteness from demand centers, it is necessary to take a global view of the implications of their utilization. The present concerns regarding global warming and environmental degradation from fossil fuel combustion could be given active direction if the positive benefits of renewable energy

M. H. Wolfe

1992-01-01

136

Valuing the Attributes of Renewable Energy Investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many country's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially-optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of

Ariel Bergmann; Nick HANLEY; Robert Wright

2004-01-01

137

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of the bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; and continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

Vaughan, K. H.

1993-06-01

138

Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

139

Environmental Aspects of Renewable Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature treating environmental characteristics of renewable energy sources is surveyed and reviewed. The information required for comprehensive, comparative assessment of the environmental effects of energy alternatives is determined, and the cover...

J. P. Holdren G. Morris I. Mintzer

1980-01-01

140

Creative renewable energy purchasing options for businesses  

SciTech Connect

Green energy providers are creating novel ways for large commercial clients to get involved in the long-term development of renewable energy generation. Some plans are designed to allow the purchase of energy to provide long-term off-take stability and other financial benefits to companies developing renewable energy projects. Two new insurance products could help absorb some of the financial risk taken on by the clients. (author)

Lokey, Elizabeth

2007-01-15

141

Renewable energy: Not cheap, not green?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-billion-dollar government crusade to promote renewable energy for electricity generation, now in its third decade, has resulted in major economic costs and unintended environmental consequences. Even improved new generation renewable capacity is, on average, twice as expensive as new capacity from the most economical fossil-fuel alternative and triple the cost of surplus electricity. The uncompetitiveness of renewable generation explains

R. L. Jr

1998-01-01

142

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

2008-06-30

143

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2013-07-01

144

Electrical Appliance Energy Consumption Control Methods and Electrical Energy Consumption Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distr...

D. P. Chassin D. W. Winiarski J. E. Dagle M. Kinter-Meyer M. K. Donnelly

2005-01-01

145

Renewable Sources of Energy in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has been divided into three parts. Part I sets the background of energy for development and some features of the Pakistan situation. Part II shows the need for renewable sources and introduces their likely contribution in the near future (2,000 A.D.). In the third part, we examine the various renewable sources of energyto obtain estimates of their economics

M. M. QURASH

1984-01-01

146

Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data

James Eaves; Stephen Eaves

2007-01-01

147

CAPACITY BUILDING FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from a fossil fuel driven energy system to the renewable energy based systems of the future requires a concerted effort for capacity building. A review of select international experiences revealed innovations in School kits, international co-operation, web based modules and inter-disciplinary post-graduates degree programmes. This paper examines the manpower requirements for renewable energy in India. Recommendations include integration

Rangan Banerjee

148

Financing Renewable Energy: The Case of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Owing to its geography, Morocco has a variety of renewable energy sources. The government is committed to developing and exploiting\\u000a these sources, with a goal of increasing the contribution of renewable energy to the energy mix from 4% to 10% by 2012. Moreover,\\u000a at the international level, Morocco could become a regional hub for electricity transfer with the interconnections that

Hynd Bouhia

149

Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses

Falin Chen; Shyi-Min Lu; Kuo-Tung Tseng; Si-Chen Lee; Eric Wang

2010-01-01

150

International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

Heeter, J.

2012-06-01

151

Renewable energy for sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the sole provider of human food. Most farm machines are driven by fossil fuels, which contribute to greenhouse\\u000a gas emissions and, in turn, accelerate climate change. Such environmental damage can be mitigated by the promotion of renewable\\u000a resources such as solar, wind, biomass, tidal, geo-thermal, small-scale hydro, biofuels and wave-generated power. These renewable\\u000a resources have a huge potential

A. Chel; G. Kaushik

2011-01-01

152

The role of renewable energy in energy management and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is a crucial issue for sustainable developments. Conventional energy sources will remain the main supply of energy for the world. The importance of renewable energy sources and their current advances are discussed with a special emphasis on energy conservation policy. The paper will focus briefly on various techniques of integrated renewable with existing energy systems. It is concluded that

U. A. Elani; S. H. Alawaji; S. M. Hasnain

1996-01-01

153

Recent developments and forecasts for renewable ocean energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources from the oceans include, among others, offshore wind, underwater currents, and wave energy. Growing awareness of renewable energy sources as a key element in sustaining future economies has lead to development in renewable ocean energy systems. Examination of worldwide investments in implementation of renewable energy technologies reveals that offshore wind energy is one of the fastest growing

A. T. Jones; W. Rowley

2001-01-01

154

The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the possibilities of technical progress to deal with the growth limit problem imposed by the usage of non-renewable energy resources, when physical capital production is relatively more energy-intensive than consumption. In particular, this work presents the conditions under which energy-saving technologies can sustain long-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism

Agustin PÉREZ-BARAHONA

2007-01-01

155

Energy consumption in water blanching  

SciTech Connect

The energy consumption of a tubular water blancher and a water blancher with screw conveyor were measured as a basis for suggesting energy conserving modifications. The former required 0.54 MJ/kg and the latter 0.91 MJ/kg, indicating the importance of complete steam condensation. A pilot scale experiment with a water blancher heated with heat exchange and by steam injection confirmed the energy savings potential of heating with an exchanger to minimize escape of steam rather than by steam injection.

Rumsey, T.R.; Scott, E.P.; Carroad, P.A.

1982-01-01

156

Household vehicles energy consumption 1994  

SciTech Connect

Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

NONE

1997-08-01

157

Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

2006-05-26

158

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Office of building Technologies (OBT) pursues advanced energy efficiency and renewable technologies and accelerates the rate of adoption of these technologies in the residential and commercial sectors through research, development, and demonstration.

Not Available

1991-05-01

159

Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effec...

G. Malikov G. Passolt K. Lloyd M. Evans R. Little

2007-01-01

160

Selecting Sites for Renewable Energy Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use Google Earth to investigate a variety of renewable energy sources and select sites within the United States that would be appropriate for projects based on those sources.

Richard, Glenn A.; University, Mineral P.; On the Cutting Edge Collection, Science Education Resource Center (SERC)

161

Renewislands—Renewable energy solutions for islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase of the global energy demand and environmental problems relating to fossil energy utilization request the new energy sources to replace the traditional fossil fuels. With respect to energy production, most of the islands in European Union and in the other parts of the world, depend on importation, mainly from oil and its related products. The global development of renewable

Fengzhen Chen; Neven Duic; Luis Manuel Alves; Maria da Graça Carvalho

2007-01-01

162

Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries are in critical energy crisis. Pakistan spends almost 7 billion US$ on import of fossil fuels annually to congregate its energy needs. The renewable and sustainable energy resources are best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. Pakistan takes the opportunity to have almost 159 million animals producing almost 652millionkg of manure daily from cattle and buffalo

Syed S. Amjid; Muhammad Q. Bilal; Muhammad S. Nazir; Altaf Hussain

2011-01-01

163

Economic incentive mechanism of renewable energy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is the important foundation of the national economy development, but the conventional energy will tend to be exhausted, and is the primary factor of the environmental pollution. The renewable energy can supplement or substitute the conventional energy source. Thus, it can reduce the pollution, protect and improve the environment. Compared with the traditional mechanism, such as the compulsory administration

Liming Ying; Chelai Yin; Rongxiang Yuan; Huang Yong

2008-01-01

164

Stabilizing of the Energy Consumption in Norway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The idea of stabilizing energy consumption in Norway arose in the 1970ties and includes stabilizing all energy resource consumption. The aim of stabilization has been taken into all parliamentary party programs through the environment conservation movemen...

E. Dale T. Ekelund

1981-01-01

165

China rationalizes its renewable energy policy  

SciTech Connect

China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

2010-04-15

166

Enabled by high power electronics - Energy efficiency, renewables and smart grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global demand for electrical energy is growing continuously, at double the growth rate of primary energy consumption. A clear transition to more electric energy systems is mandatory as energy efficiency from primary fuel to the enduser and the integration of renewables are the future key challenges. This transition to more electrical energy systems requires the transformation of today's electric

P. K. Steimer

2010-01-01

167

Think GREEN - Utilizing Renewable Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the Sun. Every day the Sun radiates an enormous amount of energy. How much solar energy a place on Earth receives depends on several conditions. In this lesson, students will explore real NASA satellite data for energy from the Sun and cloud cover for their area to determine if they can harness this solar energy, a renewable energy source, by using a solar collector. They will develop skills in graphing and reading graphs.

168

Promotional policy for renewable energy development in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 12, 2009, Taiwan government approved a bill of “Statute for Renewable Energy Development”, which aimed at promoting the use of renewable energy, boosting energy diversification, and helping reduce greenhouse gases. The new act caps the subsidies for renewable energy up to 10GW within 20 years. It authorizes the government to enhance incentives for the development of renewable energy

Jenn Jiang Hwang

2010-01-01

169

State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

Not Available

1994-05-01

170

Residential Energy Consumption: 1987 to 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine energy-conserving practices and consumption from 1987 to 1997 using a human ecosystem framework. Research on energy consumption and practices at the household level has been minimal in recent years. Factors that influence household energy consumption were examined, including climate, demographic characteristics of the households, housing characteristics including weatherization features and appliances, and

Becky L. Yust; Denise A. Guerin; Julie G. Coopet

2002-01-01

171

Low energy consumption hydraulic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents the efforts to develop and test low energy consumption hydraulic techniques. Included is a discussion of the efforts to select and analyze a baseline hydraulic system (Phase 1) and conduct trade studies on various candidate design approaches which could reduce weight and power consumption (Phase 2). In addition, the report discusses the development of a test plan (Phase 3) and the results of an endurance test (Phase 4). This program was directed at 8000 psi hydraulic system technology using a nonflammable hydraulic fluid chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) although the concepts developed could be applied to any fluid at any system pressure. The concepts selected for test were variable system pressure, flow augmentation with load recovery valves and overlapped main valves.

Greene, J. B.; Jeffrey, J. R.; Lohe, S. N.; Pehowski, S. E.; Pierce, N. J.

1988-08-01

172

Global Demand Projections for Renewable Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a series of simulations were developed that aimed to predict future global energy usage by category, given parameters for the availability and exploitation rate of available individual energy sources. This system of simulations was used to predict the trend of global demand for renewable energy sources in multiple scenarios, including those where coal production increases without ecologically

Aiden J. Morrison

2007-01-01

173

Renewable energy alternatives for developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines renewable energy alternatives in developed countries: environmental mechanisms; future energy alternatives; green electricity marketing and its potential; pricing; and limitations on the eve of open access. It discusses objectives in electricity restructuring; the role of resources planning in forming long range energy environmental policies; feasibility of electricity trading mechanisms; green marketing in the United States and Australia;

Thomas James Hammons; Jeannette C. Boyer; Stephen R. Conners; Michael Davies; Mark Ellis; Marion Fraser; Edward A. Holt; Jochen Markard

2000-01-01

174

Subsidizing Renewable Energy under Capital Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a rationale for subsidizing green (renewable) energy production. Within a multi-country model where energy is produced with mobile capital in green and dirty production, we investigate the countries' decentralized choice of emissions taxes and green energy subsidies. Without green subsidies, the emissions tax is set inefficiently low, since each country ignores the environmental externality in icted on

Marco Runkel; Thomas Eichner

2010-01-01

175

Subsidizing Renewable Energy under Capital Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a rationale for subsidizing green (renewable) energy production. Within a multi-country model where energy is produced with mobile capital in green and dirty production, we investigate the countries’ decentralized choice of emissions taxes and green energy subsidies. Without green subsidies, the emissions tax is set inefficiently low, since each country ignores the environmental externality inflicted on other

Thomas Eichner; Marco Runkel

2010-01-01

176

Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

Karns, Robert J.

2012-01-01

177

Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

Fleeman, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

178

An Economic Evaluation Framework for Assessing Renewable Energy Projects  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming increasingly imperative to integrate renewable energy, such as solar and wind, into electricity generation due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. This increased spotlight on renewable energy requires evaluating competing projects using either conventional economic analysis techniques or other economics-based models and approaches in order to select a subset of the projects to be funded. Even then, there are reasons to suspect that techniques applied to renewable energy projects may result in decisions that will reject viable projects due to the use of a limited number of quantifiable and tangible attributes about the projects. This paper presents a framework for economic evaluation of renewable energy projects. The framework is based on a systems approach in which the processes within the entire network of the system, from generation to consumption, are accounted for. Furthermore, the framework uses the concept of fuzzy system to calculate the value of information under conditions of uncertainty.

Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Badiru, Adedeji B [ORNL

2012-01-01

179

Characterizing and analyzing renewable energy driven data centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of data centers today start to incorporate renewable energy solutions to cap their carbon footprint. However, the impact of renewable energy on large-scale data center design is still not well understood. In this paper, we model and evaluate data centers driven by intermittent renewable energy. Using real-world data center and renewable energy source traces, we show that

Chao Li; Amer Qouneh; Tao Li

2011-01-01

180

U. N. grapples with renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the build up to the U.N. conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, the first global energy conference since the oil embargo. In the 2.5 years preparation, the conference has generated scores of meetings and a vast pile of reports and documents on each of the energy sources under discussion. The plan of action is expected to call for international programs of research and development, training and information on new and renewable energy resources. It will also launch a major effort to alleviate fuelwood shortages in the Third World.

Norman, C.

1981-07-24

181

Sustainable energy and environmental impact: role of renewables as clean and secure source of energy for the 21st century in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, present and future energy consumption, electricity demand, potential of renewable energy sources and national energy policy in Jordan are presented. The related environmental impacts are discussed from the sustainable development point of view, including the future role of renewable energy sources. Jordan is a net energy importing country, with almost 96% of its annual needs relying on

J. O. Jaber; O. O. Badran; N. Abu-Shikhah

2004-01-01

182

Vedvarende energikilder i energisystemet. Systemanalyse. (Renewable energy sources in the energy system. System analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to contribute to the development of a general model which could be used for calculating the reduction in fossil fuels consumption that could be achieved within a given energy system where a determinable extent of utilization of renewable energ...

K. Illum H. Lund H. Maeng

1990-01-01

183

Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993  

SciTech Connect

This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

NONE

1995-10-05

184

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Education Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) believes that "educating students, teachers, and consumers is the other key to finding new renewable ways to power our homes, businesses, and cars." This site is full of important educational resources such as classroom activities, online quizzes, and fact sheets that deal with renewable energy technology and applied sciences. In the Educational Resources area, visitors can make their way through several dozen lesson plans, including "History of Solar Cells," "Teacher's Guide to Wind Energy," and "School Energy Audit." Moving on, the DOE Undergraduate Internships & Graduate Fellowships area gives interested parties access to application forms for the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program and the Graduate Fellowship Program. The site is rounded out by information on the annual Junior Solar Sprint & Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Competition.

2012-07-20

185

Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to show how cost-minimization at the more complex plant level may deviate from cost-minimization at the generating unit level.

Kneifel, Joshua D.

186

International cooperation for renewable energy transfer  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that in considering the potential of major renewable energy resources in relation to their remoteness from demand centers, it is necessary to take a global view of the implications of their utilization. The present concerns regarding global warming and environmental degradation from fossil fuel combustion could be given active direction if the positive benefits of renewable energy could be realized on a meaningful scale. The dire prospect of global warming looms large in the scientific consciousness, but strategies to counter the effects of increased release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are just beginning to emerge along with remedial measures to address other environmental threats. One of the ways to achieve this is to place more reliance on renewable energy. As the impact of small-scale dispersed sources of renewable energy is minimal in comparison with fossil fuel usage, a meaningful impact could only be made by drawing upon major sources of renewable energy, mainly hydropower, tidal, and solar, in large capacity installations concentrated at sites relatively far from demand centers. There are sites that warrant serious consideration in the face of the growing environmental impact of fossil fuel usage. However, to realize this objective, an environmental imperative should be adopted that would place the importance of global environmental security on a par with present concerns for national security.

Wolfe, M.H.

1992-06-01

187

Energy Consumption and Energy Saving in Households.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately one third of the total delivered energy consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany is accounted for by private households. It was therefore a useful task for a research project, taking the nworth-western region of the Lower Saxony as an ...

O. Hohmeyer

1981-01-01

188

Factors that promote renewable energy production in U.S. states: A fixed effect estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsustainability of conventional energy sources and its environmental destructions are well-known; the sustainability of renewable energy and its environmental benefits are also well-documented. The United States in common with many other countries is increasingly focused on developing renewable energy. At first, the pursuit of this strategy in U.S. was seen more as a way to reduce dependence on oil importation. With increased awareness of environmental challenges resulting from the consumption and production of conventional energy, an additional strategy for the continued interest in renewable energy development in the United States was as a result of its potential to ameliorate environmental problems. The U.S. government are utilizing policy measures and dedicating funding to encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. Beside government policies, there are contextual factors that also affect renewable energy production. These include, but not limited to population growth, energy demand, economic growth, and public acceptance. Given the pressing need to develop a sustainable energy, this study embarks on an outcome assessment of the nature of relationship of renewable energy policy incentives, and selected contextual factors on renewable energy production in the United States. The policy incentive evaluated in this study is the Renewable Energy Production Incentive program. The contextual factors evaluated in this study are energy consumption, population growth, employment, and poverty. Understanding the contextual factors within which policies are placed is essential to defining the most appropriate policy features. The methodological approach to the study is quantitative, using panel data from 1976 to 2007. The study tested two hypotheses using fixed effect estimation with robust standard error as a statistical model. Statistical analyses reveal several interesting results which lend support that besides policy incentives, contextual factors also affect renewable energy production. It therefore appears that to obtain a maximum renewable energy production, policymakers need to adopt a policy approach that incorporates these contextual factors.

Nwokeji, Ekwuniru Chika

189

7 CFR 4280.193 - Selecting energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications for award.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Selecting energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant...Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants... Selecting energy audit and renewable energy development assistance...

2013-01-01

190

Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of

Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer

2008-01-01

191

A critical assessment of renewable energy usage in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The displacement of non-renewable fossil fuels by renewable energy resources has occurred at a low rate in the USA. But a large number of drivers is expected to cause significant expansion of the US renewable energy industry in the near future. Included among the extrinsic drivers, or those that are not directly related to renewable energy resources, are reductions in

Donald L. Klass

2003-01-01

192

A study on renewable energy resources in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources sector growth in India has been significant, even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). Even for the decentralized systems, the growth for solar home lighting systems has been 300%, solar lanterns 99% and solar photovoltaic

A. Ashwin Kumar

2010-01-01

193

Communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play an extremely important role in monitoring, operating,

F. Richard Yu; Peng Zhang; Weidong Xiao; Paul Choudhury

2011-01-01

194

Renewable Energy Sources Brno 1993  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest.

195

Capacity credit for renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the problem of computing the capacity credit for renewable energy resources. Wind, solar, and mini-hydro resources are often considered as energy resources with a negligible capacity value. The rationale is that one cannot depend on those resources to meet the load demand. However, one can depend on them to a certain extent. Hence, their capacity credit is

L. A. F. M. Ferreira; P. M. S. Carvalho

1999-01-01

196

Analysis of Renewable Energy Situation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, like most developing countries, has problems, constraints, and difficulties that mandate increasing renewable energy (RE) technology utilization. The most effective argument in favor of the adoption of RE technologies in Jordan is that its lack of conventional energy sources is complemented by abundant RE resources. Because RE technologies are not complex, require less operating and maintenance costs and are

Eyad S. Hrayshat

2007-01-01

197

Analysis of renewable energy situation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordan, like most developing countries, has problems, constraints, and difficulties that mandate increasing renewable energy (RE) technology utilization. The most effective argument, in favor of the adoption of RE technologies in Jordan, is that Jordan's lack of conventional energy sources is complemented by abundant RE resources. Because RE technologies are not complex, require less operating and maintenance costs, and are

Eyad S. Hrayshat

2007-01-01

198

RP5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. However, IEUA is preparing a Supplemental report that will be mailed to the Department of Energy (DOE) by August 1, 2003, that provides

Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

2003-01-01

199

Prospects and achievement of renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with climate change and global warning and concentrates on the various forms of renewable energy, mainly Photovoltaics, Solar Thermal, Biomass, Geothermal, Wave, Hydro and Wind Energy. Specific examples will be placed on Photovoltaic applications and the future prospects of this discipline to meet 20% of the electricity generated on a global scale by the year 2020. The

A. A. Sayigh

1994-01-01

200

Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the price of oil and natural gas continues to increase, reaching levels that threaten our local and national economy, the need to seek alternative sources of energy has become necessary to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and enhance homeland security. The USA has an abundance of renewable energies such as solar, wind, hydro and bio-fuels that need to

H. Tawfik; C. P. Rubenstein; N. Blackman; D. Mahajan

2006-01-01

201

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is

Nathan Lewis; Nancy Ryan Gray

2010-01-01

202

7 CFR 4280.191 - Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant...Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants...Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy development assistance...

2013-01-01

203

7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants...Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants...administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance...

2013-01-01

204

7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency...General Combined Funding for Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency...165 Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy...

2013-01-01

205

Renewable energy: Environment and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hardcover is authored by India's secretary in the Ministry of Energy's Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources. Part 1 deals with bio-energy, starting with a general presentation of energy from biomass and subsequently focusing on India's biogas technology program. Part 2 contains an exposition of direct uses of solar power and the related program in India. Finally, Part 3 elaborates

1989-01-01

206

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical

Matthew K. Donnelly; David P. Chassin; Jeffery E. Dagle; Michael Kintner-Meyer; David W. Winiarski; Robert G. Pratt; Anne Marie Boberly-Bartis

2006-01-01

207

Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation

F. Blaabjerg; F. Iov; R. Teodorescu; Z. Chen

2006-01-01

208

Renewable energy research leases: Prospects and opportunities on the Hawaiian Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceans represent a vast and largely untapped source for energy production. Our oceans have the potential to provide wave, wind, solar and other resources that can be used to produce abundant, clean and renewable energy to meet the demands of growing consumption. The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) plays a significant

John B. Smith; Jaron Ming

2011-01-01

209

Cool energy. Renewal solutions to environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

This book begins with a chapter describing some of the economic and environmental consequences of America's fossil-fuel-based economy. It makes the case that, despite some progress in reducing pollution from fossil fuels, no lasting cure for the deteriorating environment - in particular, the looming threat of global warming - is possible without developing alternative fuel sources. That renewable energy can provide the bulk of the new supplies needed is the theme of the second chapter, which discusses the relative advantages of these resources compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power and evaluates their long-term potential. The bulk of the book considers five broad categories of renewable energy sources: solar, wind, biomass (plant matter), rivers and oceans, and geothermal. For each of these sources, the book describes its current application, discusses its costs, analyzes new technologies under development, and assesses its positive and negative environmental impacts. This book shows the vital role renewable sources can and should play in America's energy future. It cites studies indicating that, with the right policies, renewable energy could provide as much as half of America's energy within 40 years, and an even larger fraction down the road. Such a rapid shift from existing energy sources would be dramatic but not unprecedented. In 1920, coal supplied 70% of US energy, but within 40 years its share had dropped to just 20% as oil and natural gas use increased. Sooner or later, oil and natural gas will also fade in importance. The real question is when. This book makes the case that the time to move decisively toward a renewable energy economy has arrived.

Brower, M.

1992-01-01

210

Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies ...

A. M. Khan

1991-01-01

211

National interim energy-consumption survey: Exploring the variability in energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in total energy consumption and consumption by end use are described. The report concentrates on regression models for describing the variability in natural gas and electricity consumption for households living in single family detached houses. Sample data and the subsets used in the analyses are described. A theoretical model for describing a household's energy consumption is presented. Graphical

R. Latta; T. H. Woteki; L. Carlson; W. Thompson; K. Vagts

1981-01-01

212

Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

2011-08-01

213

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2005 Research Review  

SciTech Connect

Science and technology are at the heart of everything we do at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as we pursue innovative, robust, and sustainable ways to produce energy--and as we seek to understand and illuminate the physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering behind alternative energy technologies. This year's Research Review highlights the Lab's work in the areas of alternatives fuels and vehicles, high-performing commercial buildings, and high-efficiency inverted, semi-mismatched solar cells.

Brown, H.; Gwinner, D.; Miller, M.; Pitchford, P.

2006-06-01

214

The role of renewable energy in the energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that a pragmatic approach to natural resources may address the issue of renewal well, although a definite philosophy of renewal is essential. To establish this argument, an energy model termed the Australian Energy Policy System Optimization Model (AEPSOM) is adopted as a case study. Results of the model support the argument.

Sardar M. N. Islam

1995-01-01

215

Household vehicles energy consumption 1991  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1993-12-09

216

Renewable energy technology and policy for development  

SciTech Connect

The costs and performance of renewable energy technologies have reached the stage where the number of economical applications in developing countries is increasing, particularly in the grid and off-grid markets for electricity. The paper provides a review of policies. The conclusions are as follows. (a) Investments in renewable energy should be helped by competition and regulatory reform in the energy industry, in the electricity industry in particular, since such reforms should reduce the subsidies, which historically have permeated the countries` industries, for electricity production from fossil and hydro resources. (b) The scope for further cost reductions is appreciable in all key technologies. There are positive externalities to investment, in the sense that each generation of investments is acting to reduce the costs of future generations; such benefits ideally need to be recognized in tax and regulatory policies and in budgetary allocations for research and development (R and D) and education and training. (c) The environmental advantages of renewable energy will become more apparent as developing countries begin to introduce their environmental policies on fossil fuels. The paper also evaluates the economists` recommendations for carbon taxes, which would favor renewable energy investments. 78 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Anderson, D. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)]|[University College, London (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

217

Creating Renewable Energy From Livestock Waste: Overcoming Barriers to Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock waste presents an important potential source of renewable energy. A variety of factors make the production of renewable energy from livestock waste particularly appealing. Rising energy prices, rising fertilizer prices, and incentives for renewable energy production have increased the value of outputs from livestock waste-to-energy systems. Additionally, confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have come under increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding

Brent A. Gloy

2008-01-01

218

Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

Kolev, K.

219

Applications of the Renewable Energy Network Optimization Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the renewable energy industry continues to grow so does the requirement for atmospheric modeling and analysis tools to maximize both wind and solar power. Renewable energy generation is variable however; presenting challenges for electrical grid operation and requires a variety of measures to adequately firm power. These measures include the production of non-renewable generation during times when renewables are

R. Alliss; R. Link; D. Apling; H. Kiley; M. Mason; K. Darmenova

2010-01-01

220

Relationship of Coffee Consumption and Energy Expenditure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Relationship of Coffee Consumption and Energy Expenditure. DeJarlais, B. Scherz, R., Snyder, R., Wanka, L. J. Undergrad. Kin. Res. 2005;1(1):55-59. Does coffee consumption show a relationship between the amount a person consumes and the amount of energy they expend? The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and energy expenditure in both men and

Bryan DeJarlais; Rebekah Scherz; Randi Snyder; Laney Wanka

221

TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey  

EIA Publications

This is the technical documentation for the public use data set based on the 1992 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), the national sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted by the Energy Information Administration.

Information Center

1996-07-01

222

State Energy Data Report Supplement: Consumption Estimates, 1960-1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimated US and State energy consumption is presented for each year from 1960 through 1983. Summarized from the primary volume of this report are: energy consumption, per capita energy consumption, consumption by type (coal, natural gas, petroleum, nucle...

1985-01-01

223

Reducing SDRAM Energy Consumption in Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRAM energy consumption in embedded systems can be very high, exceeding that of the data cache or even of the entire processor. This paper presents a scheme for reducing the energy consumption of SDRAM memory access by a combination of techniques that take advantage of SDRAM energy efficiencies in bank and row access. This is achieved by using small, cache-

Jelena Trajkovic; Alexander Veidenbaum

224

How might renewable energy technologies fit in the food-water-energy nexus?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding the growing population in the U.S. will require additional land for crop and livestock production. Similarly, a growing population will require additional sources of energy. Renewable energy is likely to play an increased role in meeting the new demands of electricity consumers. Renewable energy technologies can differ from conventional technologies in their operation and their siting locations. Many renewable energy technologies have a lower energy density than conventional technologies and can also have large land use requirements. Much of the prime area suitable for renewable energy development in the U.S. has historically been used for agricultural production, and there is some concern that renewable energy installations could displace land currently producing food crops. In addition to requiring vast expanses of land, both agriculture and renewable energy can require water. The agriculture and energy sectors are responsible for the majority of water withdrawals in the U.S. Increases in both agricultural and energy demand can lead to increases in water demands, depending on crop management and energy technologies employed. Water is utilized in the energy industry primarily for power plant cooling, but it is also required for steam cycle processes and cleaning. Recent characterizations of water use by different energy and cooling system technologies demonstrate the choice of fuel and cooling system technologies can greatly impact the withdrawals and the consumptive use of water in the energy industry. While some renewable and conventional technology configurations can utilize more water per unit of land than irrigation-grown crops, other renewable technology configurations utilize no water during operations and could lead to reduced stress on water resources. Additionally, co-locating agriculture and renewable energy production is also possible with many renewable technologies, avoiding many concerns about reductions in domestic food production. Various metrics exist for defining land use impacts of energy technologies, with little consensus on how much total land is impacted or is necessary. Here we characterize the land use requirements of energy technologies by comparing various metrics from different studies, providing ranges of the potential land impact from alternative energy scenarios. Land use requirements for energy needs under these scenarios are compared with projected land use requirements for agriculture to support a growing population. The water implications of various energy and food scenarios are analyzed to provide insights into potential regional impacts or conflicts between sectors.

Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Heath, G.; Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Roberts, B.

2011-12-01

225

Renewable Energy for the Next Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Renewable energy is harnessed from natural and sustainable sources, like wind, sun and water. They offer a pollution-free, endless source of electricity that is crucial in the fight against climate change. Every unit of this "green" electricity directly replaces electricity normally generated from conventional polluting sources such as coal or…

Barton, Leslie

2005-01-01

226

Gender and renewable energy in rural Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines ways in which increased attention to renewable energy and gender linkages can help promote development, as well as work towards meeting the target set out in the millennium development goals. It argues that poor women in rural areas generally rely on burning traditional biomass fuels which impact negatively on their well being. The paper explains that increased

Comfort Onyemaechi Chukuezi

2009-01-01

227

Renewable Energy Projects for Developing Countries Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop was given by Michel Maupoux at Portland Community College's 2009 Summer Sustainability Institute. It focused on how to design and implement renewable energy systems in rural communities. The group looked at small off-grid solar photovoltaic systems for community buildings and options for water pumping systems.This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Maupoux, Michel

2011-12-22

228

UK renewable energy policy: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses both historical and current UK policy relating to renewable energy. It discusses the stated aims of policy, and discusses to what extent policy has addressed these aims, and the level of success enjoyed with respect to each goal. The paper also addresses the context in which UK policy has developed, and the effects this has had on

Peter M. Connor

2003-01-01

229

Cool energy. Renewal solutions to environmental problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book begins with a chapter describing some of the economic and environmental consequences of America's fossil-fuel-based economy. It makes the case that, despite some progress in reducing pollution from fossil fuels, no lasting cure for the deteriorating environment - in particular, the looming threat of global warming - is possible without developing alternative fuel sources. That renewable energy can

Brower

1992-01-01

230

Innovation for a Sustainable Energy Future: Renewable Energy's Role  

SciTech Connect

Promise of renewable energy is profound and can be realized if we: (1) aggressively see, a global sustainable energy economy; (2) accelerate investment in technology innovation; and (3) acknowledge and mitigate the carbon challenge with the necessary policies.

Arvizu, D. E.

2008-01-01

231

Seawater desalination driven by renewable energies: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with seawater desalination systems driven by renewable energies. A review of pilot plants and perspectives of development is presented. There are many reasons why the use of renewable energies in seawater desalination is suitable, especially for remote areas where conventional energy supply and skilled workers are not usually available. Nevertheless, desalination systems driven by renewable energies are

Lourdes García-Rodríguez

2002-01-01

232

Power Electronics, a Key Technology for Energy Efficiency and Renewables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power Electronics will play a key role in this paradigm shift to more renewable electrical energy and higher energy efficiency in multiple applications including transportation. In electrical energy generation a major shift to renewables as sources of future electrical energy will happen. The political institutions world-wide have the responsibility to create the boundary conditions to accelerate this needed change. Renewables

P. K. Steimer

2008-01-01

233

Renewable energy opportunities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid growth in economic development coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of rural China have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and the rural countryside. Electric capacity expansion plans call for increased use of coal-fired steam turbines for electricity production that will contribute to increased concerns over environmental pollution. China

William L. Wallace; Y. Simon Tsuo

1996-01-01

234

Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government

R. Hamdy

2010-01-01

235

Renewable energy by reverse electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of reverse electrodialysis (RED) to derive energy from the difference between the chemical potentials of concentrated and diluted salt solutions was examined. The process employs the flows of brine and dilute solutions through alternating cells determined by cation- and anion-exchange membranes in a stack placed between two electrodes to generate electricity by the passage of salt through the

M. Turek; B. Bandura

2007-01-01

236

Status report on renewable energy in the States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between 'emerging' and 'established' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

1992-12-01

237

Status report on renewable energy in the States  

SciTech Connect

As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between ``emerging`` and ``established`` renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

1992-12-01

238

Status report on renewable energy in the States  

SciTech Connect

As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between emerging'' and established'' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

1992-12-01

239

State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates  

SciTech Connect

The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

240

Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewable obligation combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies.A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate

Paul Koutstaal; Michiel Bijlsma; Gijsbert Zwart; X. van Tilburg

2009-01-01

241

48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952...efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free...

2009-10-01

242

48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952...efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free...

2010-10-01

243

Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents trend analyses of various financial terms for solar photovoltaic (PV) projects and concentrated solar power (CSP) projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (...

K. Cory M. Mendelsohn R. Hubbell T. Lowder

2012-01-01

244

Renewable Energy Opportunities Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe  

SciTech Connect

The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.

Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer

2008-10-22

245

Nanomaterials for renewable energy production and storage.  

PubMed

Over the past decades, there have been many projections on the future depletion of the fossil fuel reserves on earth as well as the rapid increase in green-house gas emissions. There is clearly an urgent need for the development of renewable energy technologies. On a different frontier, growth and manipulation of materials on the nanometer scale have progressed at a fast pace. Selected recent and significant advances in the development of nanomaterials for renewable energy applications are reviewed here, and special emphases are given to the studies of solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production, electricity generation with dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state hydrogen storage, and electric energy storage with lithium ion rechargeable batteries. PMID:22990530

Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Can; Grätzel, Michaël; Kostecki, Robert; Mao, Samuel S

2012-12-01

246

Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process “greener,” and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment.

Thomas M. Missimer; Young-Deuk Kim; Rinaldi Rachman; Kim Choon Ng

2012-01-01

247

Energy Consumption in the Pipeline Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of U.S. pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desira...

W. F. Banks

1977-01-01

248

Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling and Analysis Partnership (REMAP) sponsors ongoing workshops to discuss individual 'renewable' technologies, energy/economic modeling, and - to some extent - policy issues related to renewable energy. Since 2002...

D. Evans E. Lieberman J. Milford N. Blair T. Jenkin W. Short

2009-01-01

249

Approaches to Sustainable Energy Consumption Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsustainable consumption mostly refers to energy resources and materials’ utilization, fostered by human activity. Therefore,\\u000a energy consumption represents a major challenge when approaching sustainable development issues. Despite many environmental\\u000a strategies relying on improvements in energy and material efficiency, the World’s energy demand is likely to increase in line\\u000a with its population. In addition, cultural patterns of human activities are closely

Damjan Krajnc; Rebeka Lukman; Peter Glavic

250

Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricity where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.

None

2012-03-01

251

The status of renewable energy technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy technologies convert naturally occurring phenomena into useful energy forms. These technologies use resources that generally are not depleted, such as the direct energy (heat and light) from the sun and the indirect results of its impact on the earth (wind, falling water, heating effects, plant growth), gravitational forces (the tides), and the heat of the Earth's core (geothermal), as the sources from which they produce useful energy. These very large stores of natural energy represent a resource potential that is incredibly massive, and dwarfs that of equivalent fossil energy resources. The magnitude of these resources is, therefore, not a key constraint on energy production. However, they are generally diffuse and not fully accessible, some are intermittent, and all have distinct regional and local variability. It is these aspects of their character that give rise to difficult, but generally solvable, technical, institutional, and economic challenges inherent in development and use of renewable energy resources. This report discusses the technologies and their associated energy source.

Schueler, D. G.

1992-03-01

252

Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile  

SciTech Connect

The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

NONE

1996-03-01

253

Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

Michalicka, L.

1991-12-01

254

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2003 Research Review  

SciTech Connect

In-depth articles on several NREL technologies and advances, including: production of hydrogen using renewable resources and technologies; use of carbon nanotubes for storing hydrogen; enzymatic reduction of cellulose to simple sugars as a platform for making fuel, chemicals, and materials; and the potential of electricity from wind energy to offset carbon dioxide emissions. Also covered are NREL news, awards and honors received by the Laboratory, and patents granted to NREL researchers.

Not Available

2004-04-01

255

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

Walker, A.

2008-01-01

256

Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

Walker, A.

2008-05-01

257

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: 35 Years of Innovation (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure is an overview of NREL's innovations over the last 35 years. It includes the lab's history and a description of the laboratory of the future. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency. NREL's work focuses on advancing renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies from concept to the commercial marketplace through industry partnerships. The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, a partnership between Battelle and MRIGlobal, manages NREL for DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Not Available

2012-04-01

258

Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

Not Available

1994-05-06

259

Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the U.S. economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

1994-05-01

260

Research on equilibrium condition of energy consumption growth and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Followi ng the two-way causality between energy consumption and economic growth, the paper establishes one knowledge exogenous economic balanced growth model which including representative vendors, nonrenewable energy production departments, renewable energy production departments, government, representative family based on solow growth model and the optimal theory, it studies the conditions of economic balanced growth. The conclusions show that the balance condition

Guanghua Liang

2011-01-01

261

American policy on renewable energy and its inspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late 1960s, there were 5 stages that the Federal Government enacted the laws of the renewable energy intensively. National energy conservation policy Act of 1978, energy policy act of 1992 and energy policy act of 2005 were three important laws to improve and save the efficiency in the use of energy and develop the renewable energy. The state

Song Yun-wei

2010-01-01

262

Renewable energy in Taiwan: Its developing status and strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 97% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy,

Falin Chen; Shyi-Min Lu; Yi-Lin Chang

2007-01-01

263

WIRE: Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energies such as wind and solar energy will play an important, even decisive role in order to mitigate and adapt to the projected dramatic consequences to our society and environment due to climate change. Due to shrinking fossil resources, the transition to more and more renewable energy shares is unavoidable. But, as wind and solar energy are strongly dependent on highly variable weather processes, increased penetration rates will also lead to strong fluctuations in the electricity grid which need to be balanced. Proper and specific forecasting of ‘energy weather' is a key component for this. Therefore, it is today appropriate to scientifically address the requirements to provide the best possible specific weather information for forecasting the energy production of wind and solar power plants within the next minutes up to several days. Towards such aims, Weather Intelligence will first include developing dedicated post-processing algorithms coupled with weather prediction models and with past and/or online measurement data especially remote sensing observations. Second, it will contribute to investigate the difficult relationship between the highly intermittent weather dependent power production and concurrent capacities such as transport and distribution of this energy to the end users. Selecting, resp. developing surface-based and satellite remote sensing techniques well adapted to supply relevant information to the specific post-processing algorithms for solar and wind energy production short-term forecasts is a major task with big potential. It will lead to improved energy forecasts and help to increase the efficiency of the renewable energy productions while contributing to improve the management and presumably the design of the energy grids. The second goal will raise new challenges as this will require first from the energy producers and distributors definitions of the requested input data and new technologies dedicated to the management of power plants and electricity grids and second from the meteorological measurement community to deliver suitable, short term high quality forecasts to fulfill these requests with emphasis on highly variable weather conditions and spatially distributed energy productions often located in complex terrain. This topic has been submitted for a new COST Action under the title "Short-Term High Resolution Wind and Solar Energy Production Forecasts".

Heimo, A.; Cattin, R.; Calpini, B.

2010-09-01

264

Bamboo as a renewable energy source  

SciTech Connect

Our complete dependence upon imported fossil fuels forces us to make a conscientious evaluation of the other energy sources the authors have readily available. Some of the approximately 1000 species of bamboo of some 50 genera, which range from plants the size of field grass to giants 120 ft. high and one ft. in diameter, and which grow from sea level in the tropics to 10,000 ft. mountain slopes, appear to be excellent alternate renewable energy sources. This paper presents the results obtained from a recently initiated research effort on the subject.

Molini, A.E.; Irizarry, J.G.

1982-08-01

265

A generic Southern perspective on renewable energy [1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the use of fossil fuels from about the mid-nineteenth century and their growing unsustainability led to a growing demand for renewable energy. Since this demand has even assumed a fundamentalist trend, the question arises: should the goal be sustainable development or renewable energy? Here, the position is taken that the goal should be sustainable development with renewable

Amulya K. N. Reddy

2002-01-01

266

Renewable Energy and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Renewables Subcommittee for the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) is developing a section of the IPMVP treating the special issues related to performance measurement of renewable energy systems. An industry consensus framework for measuring project benefits is important in realizing the promise of renewable energy. This work represents a voluntary, consensus-building process among sponsoring organizations from 21

A. Walker; A. Thompson; D. Mills; G. H. Kats

1999-01-01

267

Real options approach to renewable energy investments in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing nations are in transition from non-renewable to renewable energy in electricity generation. This research analyzes this type of changing investment environment for renewable energy projects such as wind farms and solar-thermal plants with the application of real options theory. The main intent is to explore the potential and to provide further insights for such a transition in developing

Neal Detert; Koji Kotani

2012-01-01

268

Financial system and Renewable Energy Development: Analysis Based on Different Types of Renewable Energy Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewable energy projects which can be used as an alternative to traditional energy industries can not only be able to bring enormous economic benefits to people, but also produce positive environmental effects. Although the RE projects have obvious advantages, but countries have many obstacles during the development of RE projects, especially the lack of financial support. Based on the

Li Fangmin; Wang Jun

2011-01-01

269

Decomposition of Chinese Energy Consumption from 1990 to 2005 and its Energy Consumption Forecasting in 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition on the energy consumption change, which is brought about by economic structure, departmental energy intensity and departmental activity, is benefit for making energy and economic policies. China's end energy consumption from 1991 to 2005 is divided into five end departments in the research, including industry (the construction is included), agriculture, transportation (post and telecommunication is involved), commercial services and

Yingling Shi; Nansheng Pang; Jianbao Zhao

2009-01-01

270

Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to en...

D. S. Arora S. Busche S. Cowlin

2010-01-01

271

Renewable Energy and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Renewables Subcommittee for the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) is developing a section of the IPMVP treating the special issues related to performance measurement of renewable energy systems. An industry consen...

Dr. A. Walker A. Thompson Dr. D. Mills G.H. Kats

1999-01-01

272

State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Portfolio Standards  

SciTech Connect

The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) mandates an increase in the use of wind, solar, biomass, and other alternatives to fossil and nuclear electric generation. This paper provides a summary of the policy objectives that commonly drive the establishment of an RPS, the key issues that states have encountered in implementing an RPS, and the strategies that some of the leading states have followed to address implementation challenges. The factors that help an RPS function best generally have been explored in other analyses. This study complements others by comparing empirical outcomes, and identifying the policies that appear to have the greatest impact on results.

Hurlbut, D.

2008-07-01

273

Solar energy education. Renewable energy: A background text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the Sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the Sun's composition and the relationship between the Earth, Sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy.

274

Green Computing: Energy Consumption Optimized Service Hosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green Computing is a recent trend towards designing, building, and operating computer systems to be energy efficient. While\\u000a programs such as Energy Star have been around since the early 1990s, recent concerns regarding global climate change and the\\u000a energy crisis have led to renewed interest in Green Computing. Data centers are a significant consumers of energy - both to\\u000a power

Walter Binder; Niranjan Suri

2009-01-01

275

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology  

SciTech Connect

An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

Not Available

1982-01-01

276

Evaluation of the Significant Renewable Energy Resources in India Using Analytical Hierarchy Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A developing country like India encounters challenges like exponential increase in population and rising per capita energy\\u000a consumption which demands an optimum usage of available energy resources. Currently the energy demands are mostly met by non\\u000a renewable energy sources, a system that puts a tremendous pressure on the economy and causes a serious threat to the environment,\\u000a flora and fauna.

Joseph Daniel; Nandigana V. R. Vishal; Bensely Albert; Iniyan Selvarsan

277

Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh has very limited nonrenewable energy resources of its own. She is facing energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. It is essential for scientists and researchers to find out the renewable energy resources and effective technologies. Bangladesh is

M. Rofiqul Islam; M. Rabiul Islam; M. Rafiqul Alam Beg

2008-01-01

278

Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The

P. Eiffert; A. Sprunt Crawley; K. Bartow

2000-01-01

279

What Role for Renewable Energy in International Law?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promotion of renewable energies is crucial to achieving the reduction targets and climate change mitigation aimed by the international law. At the global level, the year 2012 has been proclaimed by the United Nations as the International Year of Sustainable Energy (Res. 65\\/151). This is a valuable opportunity for public awareness regarding sustainable energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy. At

Mar Campins Eritja

2012-01-01

280

Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

Weilenmann, U.

2012-06-01

281

Renewable energy resources as an alternative to modify the load curve in Northern Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average annual increase in electricity consumption and peak demand in Northern Cyprus (N. Cyprus) during the past 20 years have been 7.1 and 5.5%, respectively. In recent years, the demand for electricity has been stretched to its limits in winter. This raised the question of whether renewable energy resources could be utilized to reduce the level of peak demand.

M. Ilkan; E. Erdil; F. Egelioglu

2005-01-01

282

An internet based embedded network monitoring system for renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an Internet based embedded network monitoring system is proposed for renewable energy systems. By using a low cost network communication module (RCM 3700) as a web server, one can achieve better network security, lower power consumption, compact size, and easier to use as compared with a PC based one. Also, Java language is chosen for designing a

Po-Yen Chen; Se-Kang Ho; Wei-Jen Lee; Chia-Chi Chu; Ching-Tsa Pan

2007-01-01

283

A study of the role played by renewable energies in China's sustainable energy supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first provides an overview of the context of renewable energy development in China, including the country's recent renewable energy legislation. Further, it summarizes the current status of renewable energy development and the role it plays in the national energy supply. Next it introduces the national indicative targets for renewable energies in 2010 and 2020, and conducts a long

Xiliang Zhang; Wang Ruoshui; Huo Molin; Eric Martinot

2010-01-01

284

State Energy Data Report 1997: Consumption Estimates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The State Energy Data Report 1997 presents estimates of annual energy consumption at the State and national levels by major economic sector and by principal energy type for 1960, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1997. Included in the report are document...

1999-01-01

285

Know Thyself: Monitoring and Reflecting Energy Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, a growing awareness has emerged on the impact that personal energy consump- tion have in the global levels of energy waste. Building on this trend, SmartMetering has focused on providing access to energy consumption data with increasing le- vels of granularity. In this position paper we show the results of a preliminary study of SmartMetering

Matthias Betz; Schloss Birlinghoven; Sankt Augustin

2010-01-01

286

Motivating Sustainable Energy Consumption in the Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies are just now being developed that encourage sustainable energy usage in the home. One approach is to give home residents feedback of their energy consumption, typically presented using a computer visualization. The expectation is that this feedback will motivate home residents to change their energy behaviors in positive ways. Yet little attention has been paid to what exactly motivates

Helen Ai He; Saul Greenberg

287

Pitfalls in energy consumption evaluation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption is fast emerging as a central item of research for the future Internet (FI). In an environment where the majority of users access next generation networks using battery-powered devices, energy efficiency is of equal importance to other well-established metrics of overall system and protocol performance. Nevertheless, we still lack benchmarks of what constitutes energy efficient operation in mobile

Kostas Pentikousis

2009-01-01

288

Global energy consumption and production in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as

E. L. Allen; C. Davison; R. Dougher; J. A. Edmonds; J. Reilly

1981-01-01

289

RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. However, IEUA is preparing a Supplemental report that will be mailed to the Department of Energy (DOE) by August 1, 2003, that provides additional information regarding IEUA's plan to expedite certain project activities. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings, discussions, and engineering and design activities that took place to finalize the project scope of work and complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. IEUA has decided to invite three more consulting engineering firms besides CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, to submit proposals for the design of the energy efficiency project. The proposals are currently in the evaluation phase and a decision is expected by the end of July. IEUA moved to its new headquarters building on June 13, 2003. The central plant is the system that supplies cooling and heating water to the headquarters building, and it primarily consists of equipment listed in the cooperative agreement under ''Chiller and Heater''. The central plant equipment was successfully installed and started. Other activities include gas analysis of three sources of low quality digester gas and foul air which could be used as fuel for an innovative flex microturbine. IEUA is also working with Stirling Energy Systems to determine if the Agency should be a host site for their equipment for testing the engine's operation on digester and natural gas. A matching funds update is also included in the Results and Discussion section, which presents the work effort performed by the PIER Consultant and the associated costs that serve as matching funds for the RP-5 Project during this report period.

Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

2003-07-28

290

Energy Puppet: An Ambient Awareness Interface for Home Energy Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Puppet is an ambient display device that provides peripheral awareness of energy consumption for individual home appliances. The display produces different ìpet-likeî behavioral reactions according to energy use patterns of the appliances to give homeowners an indication of their energy consumption status. The puppet would raise its ìarmsî in victory to display normal consumption rate, or its ìeyesî

Sherif Abdelmohsen; Ellen Yi-Luen Do

2008-01-01

291

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and energy consumption and employment in Pakistan. By applying techniques of co-integration and Hsiao's version of Granger causality, the results infer that economic growth causes total energy consumption. Economic growth also leads to growth in petroleum consumption, while on the other hand, neither economic growth nor gas consumption

Anjum Aqeel; Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt

2001-01-01

292

Renewable energy: A global option for global warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable-energy technologies can help dampen, and perhaps reverse, the menace of global-warming. In a report to the Congress, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended that renewable energy fulfill that promise. Some energy consultants say that the world's climate can be stabilized only if the global use of renewable energy increase from 7% (1985 figure) to 40% by the year 2025

2009-01-01

293

Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

2004-03-15

294

From Renewable Energy to Sustainability: The Challenge for Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy has an important role to play in meeting future energy needs and achieving sustainability. However, its diffusion and deployment is slow in the past decade due to low fossil fuel prices and barriers in the energy market. Rigorous methods are needed to accelerate the development and utilization of renewable energy, and to increase its contribution to the current

Sam C. M. Hui

295

Overview of Canadian activities in renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian federal government energy research and development program is outlined. Major projects, arranged in order of priority are: (1) energy conservation, (2) maintenance of adequate oil and gas supplies, (3) use of coal as an oil and gas substitute, (4) use of nuclear power, and (5) development of renewable energy sources. More specifically, the development of renewable energy sources

E. P. Cockshutt

1976-01-01

296

Market potential of renewable energy powered desalination systems in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work analyzes water management strategies based on advanced desalination schemes powered by renewable energy sources. The framework for developing a decision procedure, which monitors water shortage problems and identifies the availability of renewable energy resources to power desalination plants, is presented. Cost of alternative solutions, taking into account energy cost or profits by energy selling to grid, is

D. Voivontas; K. Yannopoulos; K. Rados; A. Zervos; D. Assimacopoulos

1999-01-01

297

Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption were studied. Observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm consumption estimates of the Department of Energy's 2.0A simulation model were obtained. Home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions were investigated. The investigation of determinants of household energy consumption is described. The underlying economic theory

L. A. Nieves; A. L. Nieves

1981-01-01

298

Optimal Substitution of Renewable Energy for Long Run Energy Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Substitutability of renewable energies with fossil fuels, due to the termination and pollution of fossil fuels was always of interest to energy planners. In this paper, by using mathematical optimisation with dynamic constraints, we have tried to find the optimal configuration of technologies in the long run in such a way that the minimum costs be exerted on the

Behdad Kiani; Takao Kashiwagi; Atsushi Akisawa; Bahman Kermanshahi

299

Technological learning and renewable energy costs: implications for US renewable energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between current renewable energy technology costs and cumulative production, research, development and demonstration expenditures, and other institutional influences. Combining the theoretical framework of ‘learning by doing’ and developments in ‘learning by searching’ with the fields of organizational learning and institutional economics offers a complete methodological framework to examine the underlying capital cost trajectory when developing

Peter H. Kobos; Jon D. Erickson; Thomas E. Drennen

2006-01-01

300

Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R&D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

2011-12-01

301

RenewableNY - An Industrial Energy Conservation Initiative  

SciTech Connect

The New York Industrial Retention Network (NYIRN) manages the RenewableNY program to assist industrial companies in New York City to implement energy efficiency projects. RenewableNY provides companies with project management assistance and grants to identify opportunities for energy savings and implement energy efficiency projects. The program helps companies identify energy efficient projects, complete an energy audit, and connect with energy contractors who install renewable energy and energy efficient equipment. It also provides grants to help cover the costs of installation for new systems and equipment. RenewableNY demonstrates that a small grant program that also provides project management assistance can incentivize companies to implement energy efficiency projects that might otherwise be avoided. Estimated savings through RenewableNY include 324,500 kWh saved through efficiency installations, 158 kW of solar energy systems installed, and 945 thm of gas avoided.

Lubarr, Tzipora

2009-09-30

302

RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project (REEP). The report summarizes, in a comprehensive manner, all the work performed during the award period extending between July 12, 2002 and June 30, 2007. This report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines and summarizes all of the activities that occurred during the award period. The RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project, under development by the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA), is comprised of a series of full-scale demonstration projects that will showcase innovative combinations of primary and secondary generation systems using methane gas derived from local processing of biosolids, dairy manure and other organic material. The goal of the project is to create renewable energy-based generation systems with energy efficiencies 65% or more. The project was constructed at the 15 MGD Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 5 located in the City of Chino in California where the Agency has constructed its new energy-efficient (platinum-LEED rating) headquarters building. Technologies that were featured in the project include internal combustion engines (ICE), absorption chillers, treatment plant secondary effluent cooling systems, heat recovery systems, thermal energy storage (TES), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) secondary power generation system, the integration of a future fuel cell system, gas cleaning requirements, and other state-of-the-art design combinations. The RP-5 REEP biogas source is coming from three manure digesters which are located within the RP-5 Complex and are joined with the RP-5 REEP through gas conveyance pipelines. Food waste is being injected into the manure digesters for digester gas production enhancement. The RP-5 REEP clearly demonstrates the biogas production and power generation viability, specifically when dealing with renewable and variable heating value (Btu) fuel. The RP-5 REEP was challenged with meeting stringent utility, gas, power, and air quality rules and regulations. Coordination with the Southern California Gas Company (SCGC), Southern California Edison (SCE), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) was continuous and extensive. The interconnecting agreement and the permit to construct and operate were major obstacles despite the early start and coordination with the utility companies and regulatory agencies. The RP-5 REEP is part of a unique RP-5 Complex approach where several facilities are tied and connected with each other; where energy and gas can be transferred from one facility to another (see attached RP-5 Complex Ultimate Energy Balance Diagram). The REEP also incorporated new technologies, such as TES and ORC, along with using heat recovery for the platinum-LEED headquarter buildings heating and cooling via efficient absorption chillers. Through the conceptual design phase, numerous innovative technologies were researched and evaluated, with the most proven and efficient selected to be part of the RP-5 REEP.

Neil Clifton; Dave Wall; Jamal Zughbi

2007-06-30

303

Revised CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary assessment of renewable energy resources on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (UIR) has been performed by CTUIR Department of Science and Engineering (DOSE). This analysis focused primarily identifying renewable resources that may be applied on or near the Umatilla Indian Reservation. In addition preliminary technical and economic feasibility of developing renewable energy resources have been prepared and initial land use planning issues identified. Renewable energies examined in the course of the investigation included solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, bioethanol, bio-diesel and bio-pellet fuel. All renewable energy options studied were found to have some potential for the CTUIR. These renewable energy options are environmentally friendly, sustainable, and compliment many of the policy goals of the CTUIR. This report seeks to provide an overall review of renewable energy technologies and applications. It tries to identify existing projects near to the CTUIR and the efforts of the federal government, state government and the private sector in the renewable energy arena. It seeks to provide an understanding of the CTUIR as an energy entity. This report intends to provide general information to assist tribal leadership in making decisions related to energy, specifically renewable energy deve lopment.

John Cox; Thomas Bailor; Theodore Repasky; Lisa Breckenridge

2005-10-31

304

The Case for WTE as a Renewable Source of Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of municipal solid wastes for generating electricity (Waste-To-Energy) has been recognized by several states as a renewable source of energy. Yet, there has been determined opposition by some environmental groups to including WTE in the portfolio of renewable energy sources that will benefit from a tax credit designed to decrease reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels. While WTE is

NICKOLAS J. THEMELIS; KARSTEN MILLRATH

305

Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling and Analysis Partnership (REMAP) sponsors ongoing workshops to discuss individual 'renewable' technologies, energy\\/economic modeling, and - to some extent - policy issues related to renewable energy. Since 2002, the group has organized seven workshops, each focusing on a different renewable technology (geothermal, solar, wind, etc.). These workshops originated and continue to be run under

N. Blair; T. Jenkin; J. Milford; W. Short; P. Sullivan; D. Evans; E. Lieberman; G. Goldstein; E. Wright; K. Jayaraman; B. Venkatech; G. Kleiman; C. Namovicz; B. Smith; K. Palmer; R. Wiser; F. Wood

2009-01-01

306

Anomaly detection in premise energy consumption data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand Response (DR) programs are designed to reduce energy consumption for relatively short time periods (e.g., a few hours per event). It has been widely recognized that DR can help to meet both reliability and market needs. In order for DR programs to achieve their full benefits, however, it is critical for utilities to accurately predict the reduction in energy

Yi Zhang; Weiwei Chen; Jason Black

2011-01-01

307

Data book for renewable energy research in the southern US  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive compilation of background data are presented at the state summary level in six major categories. The buildings data section presents inventories by state, energy consumption (in annual Btu or Btu square foot - average) by building type according to selected locations, energy consumption by sector and by state in caloric units, and energy consumption by sector and by

B. C. Jr. Trammell; F. D. Alguire

1981-01-01

308

Renewing Green Power: The Paradox of Renewable Energy and Green Political Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently hundreds of proposals for massive renewable energy projects, primarily utility-scale solar and wind power, throughout the United States. From proposals to cover the deserts of the southwest with parabolic mirrors to large wind farms on the plains, these projects present the green movement with a recurring paradox: On the one hand, greens want as much renewable power

Phil Brick

309

10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to...

2009-01-01

310

10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to...

2010-01-01

311

Canada's renewable energy resources: An assessment of potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising costs of conventional, frontier, and nuclear energy production and the prospect of future shortages have prompted a resurgence of interest in alternative, renewable energy technologies. Principal sources of renewable energy (solar radiation, wind, and biomass), as well as waves, thermal gradients, and, sensible heat sources are reviewed to establish, in general terms, their significance in the Canadian context. Next,

P. Middleton; R. Argue; T. Burrell; G. Hathaway

1976-01-01

312

Renewable energy resource study for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Newcastle Renewable Energy Resource Study is one of a series of renewable energy planning studies carried out with the support of the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). This project, which was managed by the Energy Technology Support Unit on behalf of the DTI, is the first urban study in a series. The main effort in this study

David Wood; Stuart de Turberville

1998-01-01

313

Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US\\/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural

J. Ku; E. I. Baring-Gould; K. Stroup

2005-01-01

314

Enabling science and technology for marine renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the key challenges to be met in the development of marine renewable energy technology, from its present prototype form to being a widely deployed contributor to future energy supply. Since 2000, a number of large-scale wave and tidal current prototypes have been demonstrated around the world, but marine renewable energy technology is still 10–15 years

Markus Mueller; Robin Wallace

2008-01-01

315

Identifying barriers to aboriginal renewable energy deployment in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the largest and wealthiest countries in the world, Canada stands well-positioned to take advantage of ongoing growth in North American demand for primary energy supply by expanding domestic delivery of renewable energy generation to internationally interconnected electric grids across the country. There are myriad benefits of adopting the renewable energy approach to development—as the province of Ontario

Joel Krupa

2012-01-01

316

Social, economical and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional energy sources based on oil, coal, and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress, but at the same time damaging to the environment and to human health. Keeping in mind, the social, economical and environmental effects of renewable energy system have been discussed in this paper. The uses of renewable energy system, instead of,

A. K. Akella; R. P. Saini; M. P. Sharma

2009-01-01

317

Emissions Trading and Promotion of Renewable Energy: We Need Both  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions trading and the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources are key elements of German and European energy and climate policy. However, some critics oppose a targeted promotion of renewable energy, arguing in particular that this is ineffective or even damaging in conjunction with European emissions trading. Yet upon closer examination, the coexistence of emissions trading and

Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

2009-01-01

318

Renewable energy from corn residues by thermochemical conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining fossil oil reserve, skyrocket price, unsecured supplies, and environment pollution are among the many energy problems we are facing today. It is our conviction that renewable energy is a solution to these problems. The long term goal of the proposed research is to develop commercially practical technologies to produce energy from renewable resources. The overall objective of my research

Fei Yu

2007-01-01

319

Strategies in developing renewable energy resources  

SciTech Connect

The pattern of energy utilization in rural India shows that about 80% of its requirements are met by renewable sources which include firewood, agricultural wastes and animal dung. Of the total energy utilization in the whole country (both the urban and rural sectors), biomass accounts for nearly 43%. However, there are indications that a fall in this figure is inevitable and that serious consideration should be given to the development of these sources. The rural population of India is expected to grow from nearly 440 million in 1971 to approximately 800 million in 2000. Thus, India's energy strategy should be based largely on the needs of the rural and agricultural sectors. The immediate need to establish fuelwood plantations to supplement existing resources, not only in the declared forest areas but also on all the available land, is pointed out. The selection of plantation locations and size, suitability of fuelwood species, energy plantation vs. economic plantation question and criteria to assess the success of an energy plantation program are also discussed.

Gnanam, A.; Mannan, R.M.

1982-02-01

320

Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10% of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10% mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: Growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

Not Available

1984-06-01

321

Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; and improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

Not Available

1984-06-01

322

Role of Renewable Energy Certificates in Developing New Renewable Energy Projects  

SciTech Connect

For more than a decade, renewable energy certificates (RECs) have grown in use, becoming a common way to track ownership of the renewable and environmental attributes of renewable electricity generation. In recent years, however, questions have risen about the role RECs play in the decision to build new renewable energy projects. Information from a variety of market participants suggests that the importance of RECs in building new projects varies depending on a number of factors, including electricity market prices, the cost-competitiveness of the project, the presence or absence of public policies supportive of new projects, contract duration, and the perspective of different market participants. While there is no single answer to the role that RECs play, there are situations in which REC revenues are essential to project economics, as well as some where REC revenues may have little impact. To strengthen the role RECs play in both compliance and voluntary markets, there are a number of options that could be considered. In compliance markets, lawmakers or regulators would have to adopt measures that strengthen the role of RECs in the development of new projects, while in voluntary markets, it would be up to program leaders and market participants themselves to implement measures.

Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Bird, L.

2011-06-01

323

Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

Not Available

1978-12-01

324

Alternative scenarios of the utilisation of renewable energy sources in small prefectures: a case study in Lasithi Prefecture, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sector of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is growing very fast, with many innovations and applications becoming a reality. The continuous reduction of natural resources has forced all policymakers to turn to alternative energy sources. The total energy (oil and electricity consumption) consumed in the prefecture of Lasithi during the years 1997?2002 in correlation with the RES exploitation potential in

G. Xydis; C. Koroneos

2009-01-01

325

Electricity sector reforms in four Latin-American countries and their impact on carbon dioxide emissions and renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to energy consumption for electricity generation in four Latin-American countries in the context of the liberalization process. From 1990 to 2006, power plants based on renewable energy sources decreased its share in power installed capacity, and the carbon index defined as CO2 emission by unit of energy for electricity production stayed almost

Belizza Janet Ruiz-Mendoza; Claudia Sheinbaum-Pardo

2010-01-01

326

Renewable energy lab dedicates ethanol plant  

SciTech Connect

An alternative fuels user facility and ethanol pilot plant has been designed to allow scaleup of biofuel technologies that show commercial promise in the laboratory. Dedicated recently at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., the unit will play a critical role in bringing homegrown transportation fuels produced from biomass to the US marketplace, according to an NREL spokesman. The pilot plant will apply recent genetic engineering breakthroughs at NREL that have yielded a new organism to process a wider range of biomass types than before. The biomass types include wood chips, wastepaper, trees and grass, municipal solid waste, and agricultural and forestry residues. One of the first customers is Amoco Corp., which will test the feasibility of using wastepaper as a feedstock to make ethanol.

Illman, D.

1994-08-15

327

The Sustainability of Renewable Energy Projects:- Wind Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of renewable energy projects cannot be taken for granted, as illustrated by the controversial projects such as the Three Gorges Hydro Scheme in China, the ill-fated Gordon Below Franklin hydro scheme in Tasmania and the stalled development of land-based wind farms in the UK. While these are extreme cases, similar factors are at play to varying degrees in

H. Outhred; K. Mallon; R. Passey; M. Watt; I. MacGill

2002-01-01

328

A high frequency link multiport converter utility interface for renewable energy resources with integrated energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of renewable energy resources for bulk energy generation brings a requirement for energy storage systems to support intermittent renewable resources. Energy storage has many uses on the electric grid, and in those capacities renewable energy resources can be combined with energy storage systems. The circuit topologies to connect them with the grid are similar. This paper follows up

Joseph Carr; J. C. Balda; A. Mantooth

2010-01-01

329

RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period from October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2003. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. In coordination with the DOE, IEUA has revised the original Cooperative Agreement to reflect the actual and current project scope of work. The original Agreement statement of work (SOW) included conceptual and preliminary equipment and systems, which were further evaluated for feasibility and suitability for the project. As a result, some of the equipment was taken out of the project scope. In response to questions from the DOE, IEUA has submitted a summary report on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) secondary power generation units for availability and suitability for this project and associated safety concerns pointed out by the DOE. IEUA has awarded the consulting engineering contract to Parsons Water and Infrastructure, Inc. to provide the project's design and construction services. The project's pre-design kickoff meeting was held at IEUA's headquarters on December 11, 2003. IEUA has submitted a proposal for a grant offered by California Energy Commission (CEC) which if awarded to IEUA, will add value to this project. IEUA has finalized and signed the agreement with Stirling Energy Systems (SES) to host a 25 kW Stirling Engine at the RP-5 plant site for reliability and performance testing using digester and natural gas. As a result of further evaluation of the flexible microturbine system, IEUA has decided to take it out of the project's scope of work; however, it may be considered in future projects at other locations. IEUA has installed a 60 kW Photovoltaic (PV) power generation system on the roof of the new headquarters building. A matching funds update is also included in the Results and Discussion section. The update presents the work effort performed by CH2M Hill, the PIER Consultant, and the associated costs that serve as matching funds for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project during this report period.

Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

2004-01-29

330

The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing and the financing fee. c) Capital contributions by the sponsor are not relevant to the rate of return (IRR) over the life of the project. Overall conclusion is that financial structures can have a major impact on renewable energy, meeting energy demand in an economic manner. At the end, the dissertation lays down the foundation for future research that can be conducted in this field. Key Words: Renewable energy investments, structured finance, financial structuring

Rana, Vishwajeet

331

Distributed-dispersed renewable energy systems and novel control strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable green-energy systems are re-emerging as viable economic alternative sources of environmentally safe power generation in place of conventional fossil fuels. In terms of power quality and safety, this research investigates a number of renewable green-energy (wind, photovoltaic and fuel cells) interface schemes and control strategies that ensure maximum energy utilization, voltage and frequency stabilization and minimum impact on the host electric grid systems. The research key objectives are to study efficient and robust renewable energy converter schemes with associated control strategies and validate their operations for both stand-alone and electric utility grid interfacing. The research work investigates both stand-alone and grid connected renewable green-energy utilization schemes with a number of power electronic converter topologies and robust control schemes for both dispersed and hybrid renewable energy systems. Different sample study systems and control strategies are digitally simulated and fully validated using the MATLAB-Simulink-SimPower environment.

Aljankawey, Abdualah S.

332

A Preliminary Analysis on Household Energy Consumption of Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growth of urbanization and increase of household expenditure, household energy consumption dramatically increases. The consumption style of consumers will greatly influence industries in the upstream and markets in the downstream. Therefore, it is crucial to assess household energy consumption systemically. By employing input-output analysis model, this paper carries out an empirical study on household energy consumption of Shanghai,

Ru Guo; Zhongyuan Ren; Fengting Li

2011-01-01

333

Self-contained renewable energy system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an integrated system for exploiting renewable energy sources, the system comprising: (a) a solar heat collector; (b) a low heat engine, and heat conducting means between the solar collector and the engine; (c) a wind power generator comprising propeller means for tapping energy from wind; (d) an electric generator means, and mechanical connection means between the propeller and the electric generator means; (e) storage battery means in electrical conduction with the electric generator means for storing wind energy; (f) electrical load means for operating various devices; (g) power control switches, the power control switches being in electrical conduction with the electrical generator means, the load means, and the storage battery means, such that any two of the load means can be alternatively or simultaneously in electrical conduction with the generator means and the storage batteries; (h) pump drive means for transferring power from the low-heat engine; (i) mechanical pumping means in driven connection with the pump drive means and designed to be powered by the low-heat engine.

Perry, J.H. Jr.; Bhatt, B.K.; Capps, J.; Eldridge, P.M.; Greiner, L.; Lockyer, R.W.; Martin, M.; McNeice, R.R.; Misiaszek, S.M.; Perry, S.S.

1988-10-11

334

Green Learning Canada: Adventures in renewable energy technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of resources for secondary teachers and learners on renewable energy sources. It contains lesson plans and content support for clean energy technologies. Detailed construction plans are provided for students to construct working models of solar ovens, wind turbines, hydroelectric generators, and biogas generators. Related links and backgrounders in renewable energy basics, solar heat, solar electricity, wind power, water power, biomass energy, and other clean energy technologies are also provided.

2007-10-23

335

NREL's Renewable Energy Development Expertise Reduces Project Risks (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) success story fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

Not Available

2012-12-01

336

Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions from urban passenger transportation versus availability of renewable energy: The example of the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of all private and transit vehicles from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada are analysed for the year 2000. The energy figures are then compared with the Province's renewable energy potential. Results indicate that electric trolley buses and the automated rapid transit SkyTrain were eight times as energy efficient as private vehicles.

Pascal Poudenx; Walter Merida

2007-01-01

337

Cost and benefit of renewable energy in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment is made as to whether renewable energy use for electricity generation in the EU was beneficial throughout the cycle of high and low oil prices. Costs and benefits are calculated with the EU statistics for the period of low oil prices 1998–2002 and high oil prices 2003–2009. The share of renewable energy in electricity production was 21% of

Y. Krozer

2012-01-01

338

Renewable Energy Financing: The Role of Policy and Economics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have rapidly developed momentum in certain sections of the United States and throughout the world, primarily in response to climate and energy security concerns. This presentation at the RPS Symposium, sponsored by the Electric Utility Consultants Inc., will discuss renewable energy financing and the economics of such policies.

Cory, K.

2008-03-27

339

Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Report contains results from utility scale analysis and site visits, as well as facility scale screening and site visits.

Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Van Geet, O.

2012-05-01

340

Renewable Energy: Today's Contribution, Tomorrow's Promise. Worldwatch Paper 81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the position that renewable energy sources offer a timely alternative to dwindling oil supplies and to environmentally damaging coal combustion, although public support and financial backing need to be strengthened. An expanded use of renewables and a greater commitment to energy efficiency are the most cost-effective and…

Shea, Cynthia Pollock

341

Incentives and disincentives for using renewable energy: Turkish students’ ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-form questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas of Turkish school students in years 7 and 8 (age 13–14 years) about renewable power generation. The questionnaire investigated students’ ideas about the characteristics of renewable energy, its perceived advantages and disadvantgaes, and, separately, their views about the importance of the characteristics of energy production; it is likely that

Ahmet K?l?nç; Martin Stanisstreet; Edward Boyes

2009-01-01

342

Adapting California's energy markets to growth in renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power generation is the second-largest category of greenhouse gas emissions in California, next to transportation. California's administration, legislature, and energy regulators have adopted aggressive targets for renewable energy due to heavy reliance on natural gas as a fuel for electric generation, which will result in profound changes in markets and system operations. The growth of renewable in-state generation involves

James E. Price; Anjali Sheffrin

2010-01-01

343

Water shortage and renewable energies (RE) desalination — possible technological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays an oil crisis is going on. The impact of rising fuel prices of all energy sources, except renewable ones is destructive. It is an opportunity and a challenge to promote renewable energies by application of the existing technology and simultaneously by intensive research to lower costs and improve technology for more compact installations, less expensive materials and longer life.

V. Belessiotis; E. Delyannis

2001-01-01

344

Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately

Judith A. Cherni; Joanna Kentish

2007-01-01

345

Status report on renewable energy in the States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2)

B. Swezey; K. Sinclair

1992-01-01

346

Experience with Promotion of Renewable Energy: Successes and Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Abstract: Renewable energy is becoming economic in all markets as its rapid growth results in more competitive prices. It is particularly appropriate and increasingly being adopted for providing electric power services to rural areas in developing countries unlikely to be served by grid electricity. Policies needed to implement renewable energy systems in rural areas are discussed in this paper.

Richard L. Ottinger

347

APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE ENERGY IN RURAL AREAS OF CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese Government has made strong policy commitments to expand the use of renewable energy systems in rural electrification as a means of achieving sustainable development. International experience has shown that there are technical, social, cultural, institutional and economic barriers to the deployment of renewable energy systems and, thus, to their ability to contribute to the development goals of the

Long Seng To

348

Applied general equilibrium analysis of renewable energy policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop an applied general equilibrium framework for assessing socio-economic impacts of alternative renewable energy policies and apply it to the bioenergy sector. The policy scenarios are assessed in a comparative static analysis. The numerical simulation results allow us to assess and compare welfare and distributional impacts of alternative renewable energy policies. Our empirical findings suggest that

d’Artis Kancs

2007-01-01

349

Renewable energy credit driven wind power growth for system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns over electric power generation from conventional sources has led to widespread public support for renewable energy sources. Governments throughout the world have responded by providing various forms of financial incentives to promote power generation from renewable energy sources. The rapid growth of wind power since the last decade has primarily been driven by governmental subsidies. Long-term growth of

Rajesh Karki

2007-01-01

350

High performance hybrid cascaded inverter for renewable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage source inverter is commonly used as the interface to connect the renewable energy source and the power grid. In order to improve the performance of renewable energy system, the topology and control method of the inverter system need to be analyzed. In this paper, a single-phase hybrid cascaded inverter is proposed. It is based on two kinds of power

Xiaonan Lu; Kai Sun; Yiwei Ma; Lipei Huang; Seiki Igarashi

2011-01-01

351

Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

2008-01-01

352

Energy Storage Methods for Renewable Energy Integration and Grid Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent intermittency of the two fastest growing renewable energy sources, wind and solar, presents a significant barrier to widespread penetration and replacement of fossil-fuel sourced baseload generation. These intermittencies range from short term ramp events experienced by wind farms to the diurnal fluctuation of solar installations. In this paper, two options for short-to-medium term energy storage are presented: compressed

Dustin Shively; John Gardner; Todd Haynes; James Ferguson

2008-01-01

353

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science  

SciTech Connect

A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

Not Available

1980-01-01

354

Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

Oswalt, Felix E.

355

Compression Techniques for Minimum Energy Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power sensor nodes are integral parts of large- scale wireless sensor networks, which find extensive applications in domains such as military surveillance, transportation control, and environmental monitoring. This paper explores energy- consumption trade-offs associated with lossless data compression in low power sensor nodes. We focus specifically on compression of acoustic signals. The processing of acoustic signals in digital form

Sebastian Puthenpurayil; Ruirui Gu; Shuvra S Bhattacharyya

2006-01-01

356

IC test using the energy consumption ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic-current based test techniques can potentially address the drawbacks of traditional and Iddq test methodologies. The qual- ity of dynamic current based test is degraded by process variations in IC manufacture. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) is a new metric that improves the effectiveness of dynamic current test by reducing the impact of process variations by an order of magni-

Wanli Jiang; Bapiraju Vinnakota

1999-01-01

357

Lowering of Energy Consumption in Plastics Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to explore the potentials of a new plastics processing device--the Recycle Screw--to lower energy consumption and to improve the overall efficiency of the plastics extrusion process. The method used to conduct the researc...

I. Klein R. Klein D. W. Riley

1978-01-01

358

Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

2011-03-01

359

Energy consumption in the pipeline industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of U.S. pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desirable to calculate EI in Btu\\/Ton-Mile, and this is done, although the necessary unit conversions introduce additional uncertainties. Since water and sewer lines operate

1977-01-01

360

Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source  

SciTech Connect

Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

1983-01-01

361

OUT Success Stories: Renewable Energy at the Olympics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies were featured at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Most of the projects that contributed to the Olympics continue to provide a meaningful demonstration and learning experience for the people of Atlanta.

B. Green

1998-01-01

362

OUT Success Stories: Renewable Energy at the Olympics  

SciTech Connect

Many energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies were featured at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Most of the projects that contributed to the Olympics continue to provide a meaningful demonstration and learning experience for the people of Atlanta.

Green, B.

2000-08-31

363

Global energy consumption and production in 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as a consequence of continuing efficiency improvements, which, in turn, result from higher energy prices. Slower rates of economic growth are expected in all groups of countries, developed and underdeveloped.

Allen, E. L.; Davison, C.; Dougher, R.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reilly, J.

1981-02-01

364

Economic evaluation of renewable energy systems under varying scenarios and its implications to Korea’s renewable energy plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies economics of renewable energy systems with consideration of future prospects on costs and uncertain external conditions that may affect competitiveness in the power plant market. The concept of learning curve is adopted to compute estimates on the costs of installing and operating renewable energy systems in the future; fuel costs and carbon price are modeled as scenario-dependent

Jamin Koo; Kyungtae Park; Dongil Shin; En Sup Yoon

2011-01-01

365

System studies for analyzing the efficiency of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and mathematical models are presented that have been developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute, Siberian\\u000a Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences for studying the efficiency of renewable energy sources and estimating the field in\\u000a which they can compete with the traditional energy technologies and prospects for their further applications. Results obtained\\u000a from studies of renewable energy sources at

O. V. Marchenko; S. V. Solomin

2010-01-01

366

Economics of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonrenewable sources are subject to intertemporal optimization. Electrical and renewable sources, which are exogenous, can be integrated and treated on nonrenewable sources. For typical conditions, the model predicts that prices will increase and flows will fall more abruptly than is generally expected. These trends are exacerbated by limits on renewable sources. Predicted price trajectories should permit the introduction of alternative

Canavan

1991-01-01

367

Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2010-05-31

368

Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE) Program  

SciTech Connect

OAK - B135 Advancement in the use of renewable energy over the past decade is due, in part, to progress in coordinating renewable energy policies, programs and initiatives across all governmental levels and all sectors of business. Through recent efforts by IREC?s DSIRE project, information on existing federal, state, local, and utility programs and incentives has been easier for the general public and government agencies to access and, as a result, use of these programs is beginning to increase. Increasing awareness of incentives can directly and positively impact the use of renewable energy. The DSIRE project?s primary objective, therefore, is to provide a single resource for all available incentive programs. Information produced by DSIRE is of increasing value to an audience of: · State and local energy offices and regulatory agencies that may be considering new programs or initiatives, or extensions and expansions of past programs; · State regulatory agencies or utility commissions that have approval or influence over the creation of regulatory incentives; · Utility companies who may be considering the creation of new programs and incentives for renewable energy; · Consumers, businesses, and renewable energy industries that need timely information on such incentives for purchasing and business planning; · Schools and youth activity organizations seeking exciting and innovative applications of science and technology; and · Renewable energy, environmental and consumer organizations actively promoting the utilization of renewable energy technologies.

Jane M. Weissman, Executive Director Susan Gouchoe, North Carolina Solar Center

2002-11-14

369

48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217...contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting...electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term is defined in section...

2012-10-01

370

UNCERTAINTY OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC BUILDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption

H. Brohus; P. Heiselberg; A. Simonsen; K. C. Sørensen

371

A Method to Evaluate the Energy Consumption of Suburban Neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy use in buildings, transportation systems and lighting networks represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption in urban and suburban areas. This paper presents a method to evaluate the energy consumption of suburban neighborhoods from these three points of view, aiming to highlight the most relevant variables linking urban form and neighborhoods energy consumptions. The method includes three

Anne-Françoise Marique; Sigrid Reiter

2011-01-01

372

An Entropy-Based Energy Consumption Analysis of a Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy consumption by the Internet is rising at an unprecedented rate. Future networks should be able to provide the means for meeting this energy demand. Although, numerous researches have been carried out to understand the energy consumption level of a network, there have been few studies that develop a metric of energy consumption for a network in the perspective

Suyong Eum; Shin'ichi Arakawa; Masayuki Murata

2011-01-01

373

A method to evaluate the energy consumption of suburban neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy use in buildings, transportation systems, and lighting networks represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption in urban and suburban areas. This article presents a method to evaluate the energy consumption of suburban neighborhoods from these three points of view, aiming to highlight the most relevant variables linking urban form and neighborhoods’ energy consumptions. The method includes three

Anne-Françoise Marique; Sigrid Reiter

2012-01-01

374

On the energy consumption and performance of systems software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of energy consumption and performance are necessary to understand and identify system behavior, prior to designing advanced controls that can balance out performance and energy use. This paper considers the energy consumption and performance of servers running a relatively simple file-compression workload. We found that standard techniques for system identification do not produce acceptable models of energy consumption and

Zhichao Li; Radu Grosu; Priya Sehgal; Scott A. Smolka; Scott D. Stoller; Erez Zadok

2011-01-01

375

Analysis of Energy Consumption in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering is one of the most important approaches used in wireless sensor networks to save energy. Transmission range affects the clustering and in turn affects the energy consumption in the network. We establish an energy consumption model for clustered wireless sensor networks and solve the optimal transmission range problem. Using this model, the total energy consumption can be estimated beforehand

Bolian Yin; Hongchi Shi; Yi Shang

2007-01-01

376

Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data,

Jing Zhao; Yajuan Xin; Dingding Tong

2012-01-01

377

The energy subsidisation policies of Cyprus and their effect on renewable energy systems economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the energy subsidisation policies that are in effect in Cyprus are investigated with respect to their effect on renewable energy systems economics. Two subsidisation policies are investigated, those of renewable energy and fuels. These are contradictory, as one is in favour and the other is against the exploitation of renewable energies on the island, which is the

Soteris A. Kalogirou

2003-01-01

378

Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.  

PubMed Central

1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage.

Casado, J; Fernandez-Lopez, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argiles, J M; Alemany, M

1990-01-01

379

The Contribution of Renewable Energies to a Sustainable Energy Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ince the beginning of industrialization, energy consumption has increased considerably more rapidly than the world population. In addition to the limited resources, exhaust gases resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels have adverse effects on the world climate and the health of its population. Sustainable and socially acceptable develop- ment is, therefore, only possible if more rational and technologically advanced

H. Müller-Steinhagen; J. Nitsch

2005-01-01

380

Renewable Energy Supply for Electric Vehicle Operations in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale

Anthony Papavasiliou

381

Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of large-scale studies have been conducted in the United States and Europe that examine the ability for electric grids to accommodate higher penetrations of variable renewable energy generation. Renewable sources, such as wind and solar, can pose...

L. Bird M. Milligan

2012-01-01

382

Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage the development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. As part of this effort, EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport,

R. Robichaud; G. Mosey; D. Olis

2012-01-01

383

Biomass as a Renewable Energy Source for Sustainable Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to establish regenerative energy sources are still being rejected. Only since the oil crises, have regenerative energy sources been included in energy policy discussions. Compared with conventional sources of energy that have been used a much longer period of time, there appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge on regenerative sources of energy. In contrast, renewable sources of

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

384

16 CFR 260.15 - Renewable energy claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifying the source of the renewable energy (e.g., wind or solar energy). (c) It...wind power.â The marketer buys wind energy for 50% of the energy it uses...marketer stated, âWe purchase wind energy for half of our manufacturing...

2013-01-01

385

Economics of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonrenewable sources are subject to intertemporal optimization. Electrical and renewable sources, which are exogenous, can be integrated and treated on nonrenewable sources. For typical conditions, the model predicts that prices will increase and flows wi...

G. H. Canavan

1991-01-01

386

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2003 Research Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In-depth articles on several NREL technologies and advances, including: production of hydrogen using renewable resources and technologies; use of carbon nanotubes for storing hydrogen; enzymatic reduction of cellulose to simple sugars as a platform for ma...

2004-01-01

387

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition  

SciTech Connect

The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

Vaughan, K.H.

1993-06-01

388

Economics of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources  

SciTech Connect

Nonrenewable sources are subject to intertemporal optimization. Electrical and renewable sources, which are exogenous, can be integrated and treated on nonrenewable sources. For typical conditions, the model predicts that prices will increase and flows will fall more abruptly than is generally expected. These trends are exacerbated by limits on renewable sources. Predicted price trajectories should permit the introduction of alternative fuels if available, but their late introduction could be costly. Greater imports do not appear likely or appropriate. 17 refs., 24 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-05-01

389

Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa  

SciTech Connect

American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.

Shupe, J.W. (USDOE San Francisco Operations Office, Honolulu, HI (USA). Pacific Site Office); Stevens, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-11-01

390

Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site  

PubMed Central

Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is needed to assess potential future impacts and allow optimal siting of devices. Here, we provide a baseline benthic survey for the Big Russel in Guernsey, UK, a potential site for tidal energy development. To assess the suitability of proposed sites for marine renewable energy in the Big Russel and to identify potential control sites, we compared species assemblages and habitat types. This baseline survey can be used to select control habitats to compare and monitor the benthic communities after installation of the device and contribute towards the optimal siting of any future installation.

Sheehan, Emma V.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

391

Implications of Regional Transmission Organization Design for Renewable Energy Technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and assesses the potential implications of market rules for renewable energy technologies. The report focuses on scheduling provisions, as these have proved problematic in some cases for intermittent renewable energy technologies. Market rules of four RTOs-the Pennsylvania-Maryland-New Jersey ISO, the ERCOT ISO, the Midwest ISO and the New York ISO (NYISO)-were examined to determine the impact on intermittent renewable energy projects such as wind energy generators. Also, a more general look was taken at how biomass power may fare in RTOs, specifically whether these technologies can participate in ancillary service markets. Lastly, an assessment was made regarding the implications for renewable energy technologies of a Northeast-wide RTO that would combine the three existing Northeast ISOs (the aforementioned PJM and NYISOs, as well as ISO New England).

Porter, K.

2002-05-01

392

Disaggregate Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence From Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Inthis paper we investigated ,energy consumption ,economic growth ,relation disaggregates using oil and electricity consumption,for energy consumption,for 1970-2003 periods in Turkey. We employed ,Bounds ,test approach ,by Pesaran ,at al ,(2001) for cointegration relationship. Co-integration test results shows ,that in short ,run both oil consumption,and electricity consumption,has positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth, however, in long run

Erman Erbaykal

393

Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS)  

SciTech Connect

Imputation procedures were designed for the 1983 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using 1979 NBECS data. The study included methodology development, data analysis, regression analyses, empirical evaluations of the regression models, and imputation procedures. Models considered were engineering models, stepwise regression, weighted regression, nonlinear regression, and log transformation regression. A method for determining the appropriateness of the imputation model for a particular set of independent variables is recommended. Although this study was completed in 1985, this final version of the report is being issued due to continuing requests for information. 32 tabs.

Flanagan, D.M.; Tsao, H.J.; Schmoyer, R.L. Jr.; MacDonald, J.M.

1990-10-01

394

Delay and Energy Consumption Analysis of Conventional SRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy consumption and delay in read\\/write operation of conventional SRAM is investigated analytically as well as by simulation. Explicit analytical expressions for the energy consumption and delay in read and write operation as a function of device parameters and supply voltage are derived. The expressions are useful in predicting the effect of parameter changes on the energy consumption and

Arash Azizi-Mazreah; Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani; Hamid Barati; Ali Barati; CONVENTIONAL SRAM

2008-01-01

395

10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section 451.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4...

2013-01-01

396

A new scheme for the promotion of renewable energies in developing countries: the renewable energy regulated purchase tariff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this policy-support document is to attract policy-makers attention in renewable energies\\u000adeployment, offering to energy and development stakeholders an alternative subsidy-scheme to support\\u000aelectrification in a village-scale mini-grid based on the good performance of the renewable electricity generation.\\u000aMarket support mechanisms are required to stimulate the deployment of most renewable energy technologies\\u000abecoming already competitive with

M. Moner-Girona; H. Aulich; P. Ahm; P. Adelmann; A. Bounia; E. Fabre; E. Fioravanti; F. Hosini; G. J. Jongerden; P. Jourde; T. Kukuczka; P. Llamas; E. Macias; D. Mayer; Y. Maigne; M. Moner; B. McNelis; F. Nemac; O. Sener; F. Ribeiro; I. Samak; J. Schmid; Arvind Shah; A. Shanker; W. G. J. H. M. van Sark; X. Vallvé; A. Wohlthat; M. Wollny; F. Wouters

2008-01-01

397

Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The systems include solar heating, solar electric (photovoltaic or PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal energy systems. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, FEMP co-funded seven such projects, working with the Indian Health Service in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and their project partners. The new renewable energy systems are helping to save money that would otherwise be spent on conventional energy and reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels.

Eiffert, P.; Sprunt Crawley, A.; Bartow, K.

2000-05-15

398

Focus issue introduction: renewable energy and the environment.  

PubMed

This focus issue highlights selected contributions from authors who presented promising concepts at OSA's Renewable Energy and the Environment Optics and Photonics Congress held 11-15 November 2012 in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. PMID:24104430

Seassal, Christian; Koshel, John

2013-05-01

399

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities. Passive solar design  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities using passive solar designs are presented. More than one million residences and 1, 700 commercial buildings across the U.S. now employ passive solar designs.

NONE

1996-05-01

400

CORECT: Committee on Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade, 1991  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the activities of CORECT (Committee on Renewable Energy, Commerce and Trade) for 1991 is presented as a series of highlights and photographs of projects underway in Mexico, Guatemala, Montserrat, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and others.

Not Available

1992-12-01

401

77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...site visits. Participating companies will learn firsthand the current condition of reconstruction following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the role of renewable energy in those efforts, including local government incentives. Upon returning...

2012-10-03

402

77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sendai for site visits. Participants will learn firsthand the current condition of reconstruction following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the role of renewable energy in those efforts, including local government incentives. The U.S....

2012-10-22

403

Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

Gevorgian, V.

2011-05-01

404

78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. app. 2 (FACA), notice is hereby given that the Surface Transportation Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee...

2013-09-23

405

Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development  

SciTech Connect

State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

2009-07-01

406

Hydrogen Transport and the Spatial Requirements of Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike oil and coal, which are compressed forms of energy, renewable energy requires unusually large land areas. This article calculates the consequences of a switch to hydrogen-cell vehicles powered by electricity from wind turbines. It then re-does the calculation for three other green energy sources : wave power ; biofuels ; solar energy. We argue that policy-makers and social scientists

Hezlin Ashraf-Ball; Andrew J. Oswald; James I. Oswald

2009-01-01

407

Impact of decentralized renewable energy systems on electric utility companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effort of homeowners centering around the displacement of conventional energy supplies through utilization of decentralized renewable energy systems is described. The impact of this effort on utilities is discussed. Field tests are being performed on active solar systems; passive, superinsulated, and underground houses; wind generators; photovoltaic cells; and energy efficient appliances involving interfacing decentralized energy resources with utility systems

R. T. DAquanni; D. L. Ouellette

1981-01-01

408

On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economic potential, we construct cost-supply curves. As the economic potential also depends

Monique Maria Hoogwijk

2004-01-01

409

Renewable and sustainable energy use in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources are becoming attractive for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution mitigation in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

410

Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

411

Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2008-09-01

412

(Renewable energy project opportunities in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand)  

SciTech Connect

I traveled to Jakarta, Manila, and Bangkok with a team of four other specialists to evaluate the potential for renewable energy project development in each respective country. The mission was sponsored by the Committee on Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade (CORECT) as the first step in a three-part process to increase trade opportunities between US equipment and services suppliers and potential markets in Southeast Asia. Several attractive opportunities were identified, that should be tracked closely by the industry groups and CORECT.

Waddle, D.B.

1990-07-06

413

Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Consumption and Expenditures, April 1984 Through March 1985: Part 1, National Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents data collected in the 1984 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 1984 RECS was the sixth national survey of US households and their energy suppliers. The purpose of ...

1987-01-01

414

Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010  

SciTech Connect

India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to ensure that India is able to meet both economic and environmental objectives and has supported the development of renewable energy through several policy actions. This paper describes the status of renewable energy in India as of DIREC 2010. It begins by describing the institutional framework guiding energy development in India, the main policy drivers impacting energy, and the major policy actions India has taken that impact renewable energy deployment. The paper presents estimates of potential for wind, solar, small hydro, and bioenergy and the deployment of each of these technologies to date in India. The potential for India to meet both large-scale generation needs and provide access to remote, unelectrified populations are covered. Finally, the enabling environment required to facilitate rapid scale of renewables is discussed, including issues of technology transfer and the status of financing in India.

Arora, D. S.; Busche, S.; Cowlin, S.; Engelmeier, T.; Jaritz, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Wang, S.

2010-10-01

415

Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

Mackin, Thomas

2012-06-30

416

Effect of wind energy system performance on optimal renewable energy model—an analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Optimal Renewable Energy Model (OREM) has been developed to determine the optimum level of renewable energy sources utilisation in India for the year 2020–21. The model aims at minimising cost?efficiency ratio and determines the optimum allocation of different renewable energy sources for various end-uses. The extent of social acceptance level, potential limit, demand and reliability will decide the renewable

S. Iniyan; T. R. Jagadeesan

1998-01-01

417

Powering Los Angeles with renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The City of Los Angeles is nearly two thirds of the way towards its goal of generating a third of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020; cities around the world can glean valuable technical, economic and political lessons from its experience.

Villaraigosa, Mayor Antonio R.; Sivaram, Varun; Nichols, Ron

2013-09-01

418

A mixed bag: The economic case for renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of renewable energy, including solar, wind, and biomass (wood and plant matter), are available for generating electricity throughout the United States. In some states - especially those in the West and Midwest - the wind and biomass potential alone far exceeds current and foreseeable electricity demand. Moreover, since the 1970s, renewable energy technologies have come down dramatically in cost and have established an impressive record of reliability in grid- and nongrid-connected applications. Despite their promise, however, renewable energy sources are for the most part ignored in utility resource plans. One obstacle is a lack of reliable information about renewable resources and technologies, a problem that is slowly being overcome. Just as important, however, most utility planners fail to recognize the substantial economic benefits of adding renewable energy to their resource mix. In a time of uncertainty about customer load growth, fuel prices, and environmental regulation, renewable energy sources can represent a sound insurance policy against financial losses for utilities and customers alike.

Brower, M.C.; Tennis, M.W.; Denzler, E.W.

1994-05-01

419

Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

2012-05-01

420

Renewable energy research and development outlook, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy technologies represent a significant opportunity to increase diversity and flexibility within the energy supply system. This report (Volumes 1 and 2) presents a recent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy to: (1) gauge the potential payoff of numerous renewable energy technology options, (2) prioritize research and development activities meeting technology development objectives obtainable over the next five years, and (3) evaluate the Government's role in performing these activities. Volume 2 contains appendices which discuss detailed data that support the method and conclusions discussed in Volume 1. This study was performed to develop five year R and D directions for the broad family of renewable energy technologies. The study included a calculation of the energy contribution potential (ECP) of each technology, a structured evaluation of the effectiveness of potential R and D activities in meeting critical technology development objectives and an evaluation of the appropriate federal role in each detailed R and D activity.

1985-12-01

421

A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy

Brenda M Malinauskas; Victor G Aeby; Reginald F Overton; Tracy Carpenter-Aeby; Kimberly Barber-Heidal

2007-01-01

422

Integrated assessment modeling of energy consumption behavior and carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes elements of an integrated modeling approach to human behavior and energy consumption. Developing a sustainable society is a key aspect of international security, and understanding the areas where consumption and carbon emissions can be reduced is essential. We employ statistical analysis of residential energy consumption in the US and other countries to describe the underlying patterns of

Thomas F. Sanquist; Bin Shui; Heather Orr

2010-01-01

423

Decentralised Energy Management System with comprehension of fluctuated renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under integration of renewable energy resources many still understand only proof procedures to connect new power plant to public grid. The existing management systems aim to observe electrical and thermal grid condition. In defined situations renewable power plants will be turned off. Another huge problem is the natural fluctuation of direct renewable energy converter such as photovoltaic and wind turbine.

A. Dowrueng; J. zum Hingst; A. Mbuy; E.-A. Wehrmann; H.-P. Beck

2009-01-01

424

Prospects for renewable energy and green energy markets in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK's renewable energy programme has been underway for more than 20 years. It was launched following the oil crisis in 1973\\/74. The intervening years have seen renewables grow from being of marginal importance to becoming a major energy option around the world, and in the UK the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in 1990 gave renewables a boost.

David Elliott

1999-01-01

425

A model of technological breakthrough in the renewable energy sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models with induced technological change in the energy sector often predict a gradual expansion of renewable energies, and a substantial share of fossil fuels remaining in the energy mix through the end of our century. However, there are historical examples where new products or technologies expanded rapidly and achieved a high output in a relatively short period of time. This

Robert C. Schmidt; Robert Marschinski

2009-01-01

426

Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive

Çiçek Bezir Nalan; Öztürk Murat; Özek Nuri

2009-01-01

427

Conservation and renewable energy technology use: a technology transfer challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

NATAS is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program that provides tailored technical and commercialization assistance to users of energy-related appropriate technologies. NATAS helps individuals using conservation and renewable energy products and services and provides business assistance to entrepreneurs and innovators in these fields. NATAS is operated for DOE by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), which has provided

Sesso

2009-01-01

428

Domestic Potential of Solar and Other Renewable Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study of the present and potential use in the United States of the renewable energy resources generally included under the term solar energy. In particular, the study attempts to estimate the likely energy costs and potential market penetrations...

1979-01-01

429

State of and perspectives for the renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewable energy resources (RER) have been known, and some of them have even been used, for many thousands of years, and the contemporary science has turned them lately into a more effective, comfortable and economical means of production of energy. The particularities of the basic kinds of alternative energy resources are brought forward as well as the policies carried

Maria Kotzeva

2003-01-01

430

Renewable energy technologies for Mexico: Assessing carbon emissions reductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitution of renewable energy technologies (RETs) for fossil fuel energy technologies can reduce carbon emissions because RETs result in zero or nearly zero carbon emissions. Developing countries, because of their high projected energy growth rates, are expected to be major contributors to future worldwide carbon emissions. A methodology has been developed to identify promising RETs with the potential to

D. Corbus; J. Mark; M. Martinez

1993-01-01

431

Renewable Energies and CO2 Emissions in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of renewable energy in the European Union (EU) constitutes a strategic question that addresses simultaneously the objectives of energy security and the fulfilment of the Kyoto commitment. The EU has strongly supported the generation of green electricity in the past decades but energy obtained from fossil fuels still prevails throughout the region. In order to discover which mechanisms

A. Bengochea; O. Faet

2012-01-01

432

Sustainability by combining nuclear, fossil, and renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy industries face two sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace traditional crude oil as the basis of our transport system. Radical changes in our energy system will be required to meet these challenges. These challenges may require tight coupling of different energy sources (nuclear, fossil, and renewable) to produce liquid fuels for

Charles W. Forsberg

2009-01-01

433

Sustainability by combining nuclear, fossil, and renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy industries face two sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace traditional crude oil as the basis of our transport system. Radical changes in our energy system will be required to meet these challenges. These challenges may require tight coupling of different energy sources (nuclear, fossil, and renewable) to produce liquid fuels for

Charles W. Forsberg

2008-01-01

434

Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The project, “Renewable Energy Feasibility Study” was designed to expand upon previous work done by the Tribe in evaluating utility formation, generation development opportunities, examining options for creating self-sufficiency in energy matters, and integrating energy management with the Tribe’s economic development goals. The evaluation of project locations and economic analysis, led to a focus primarily on solar projects.

Carolyn Stewart, Red Mountain Tribal Energy

2008-03-31

435

Renewable Energy for a Clean and Sustainable Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the growing need of energy in both developed and developing countries, and the acute population growth, which will exceed 10 billion by the year 2050. How can a world of 10 billion people be provided with adequate supplies of energy, cleanly, safely and substantially? There is a growing consensus that renewable energy sources will be a very

SELCUK BILGEN; KAMIL KAYGUSUZ; AHMET SARI

2004-01-01

436

Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings  

PubMed Central

In a national online survey, 505 participants reported their perceptions of energy consumption and savings for a variety of household, transportation, and recycling activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve energy, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., turning off lights, driving less) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., installing more efficient light bulbs and appliances), in contrast to experts’ recommendations. For a sample of 15 activities, participants underestimated energy use and savings by a factor of 2.8 on average, with small overestimates for low-energy activities and large underestimates for high-energy activities. Additional estimation and ranking tasks also yielded relatively flat functions for perceived energy use and savings. Across several tasks, participants with higher numeracy scores and stronger proenvironmental attitudes had more accurate perceptions. The serious deficiencies highlighted by these results suggest that well-designed efforts to improve the public's understanding of energy use and savings could pay large dividends.

Attari, Shahzeen Z.; DeKay, Michael L.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Bruine de Bruin, Wandi

2010-01-01

437

Barriers and opportunities of using the clean development mechanism to advance renewable energy development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the barriers and opportunities of using clean development mechanism (CDM) to advance renewable energy deployment in China has a practical significance to achieve its ambitious renewable energy plan which affects the global efforts to curb carbon emission. This paper analyses the role of CDM in promoting renewable energy development in China by reviewing the CDM activities, especially renewable energy

Qiang Wang; Yong Chen

2010-01-01

438

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Campbell, Tennessee/Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Campbell, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Campbell took place on June 10, 2010.

Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Kora, Angela R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Nesse, Ronald J.

2011-03-31

439

Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

2010-01-01

440

Global energy consumption and production in 2000  

SciTech Connect

Detailed energy supply and demand analyses are projected to the year 2000 for the world as a whole, after projections in 4 categories: (1) the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); (2) the centrally planned economies; (3) the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); and (4) a group of non-OPEC, free-world developing countries. This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as a consequence of continuing efficiency improvements, which, in turn, result from higher energy prices. Slower rates of economic growth are expected in all groups of countries, developed and underdeveloped. But the authors expect the pace of expansion in the OPEC and non-OPEC developing world will be far faster than in the more-advanced nations. The global demand for energy in 2000, roughly 500 exajoules, can be met largely from the increased output of fossil fuels and within the modest price increases postulated in the scenarios. The total non-Communist demand projected in this scenario for 2000 is less than that projected in scenarios prepared a few years ealier by other organizations.

Allen, E.L.; Davison, C.; Dougher, R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.

1981-02-01

441

The employment impacts of economy-wide investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the employment impacts of investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency in the U.S. A broad expansion of the use of renewable energy in place of carbon-based energy, in addition to investments in energy efficiency, comprise a prominent strategy to slow or reverse the effects of anthropogenic climate change. This study first explores the literature on the

Heidi Garrett-Peltier

2010-01-01

442

Energy Technologies for the 21st Century-The Roles of Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources, originating for the most part from the sun's radiant energy, are ubiquitous, long-lived, essentially free of carbon emissions, and have the potential to contribute significantly to mounting energy needs of the globe. In terms of percentage increase in installed capacity, renewable energy collectively is the fastest growing energy source. Even assuming that the developing world raises its

Schock

2005-01-01

443

Design considerations for energy storage power electronics interfaces for high penetration of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses design considerations of power electronics interfaces between renewable energy sources and energy storage. When renewable energy sources—including photovoltaic modules, wind generators, and fuel cells—are used to generate power, there are certain electrical properties of each source that need to be considered for the design of energy storage power electronics interface. In addition, energy storage's charging and discharging

Junseok Song; Ruichen Zhao; Alexis Kwasinski

2011-01-01

444

The renewable energy applications for uninterruptible power supply based on compressed air energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose a modeling of the renewable energy applications for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) based on compressed air energy storage system (CAES). The system is composite technology, which composes of energy storage system and electric power supply system. The energy will transfer from the renewable energy resource to the CAES system drives the air

Varin Vongmanee

2009-01-01

445

Tradable renewable energy credits in California: the struggle with implementation  

SciTech Connect

On Mar. 11, 2010, the California Public Utilities Commission authorized the use of tradable renewable energy credits to satisfy at least a portion of the obligations imposed by California's Renewables Portfolio Standard. The decision allows California's largest investor-owned utilities and other retail providers to purchase TRECs to meet up to 25 percent of their annual RPS compliance obligations, but implementation has raised a series of questions. (author)

Hilton, Seth D.; Marriott, Chad T.

2010-07-15

446

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

1996-04-22

447

Energy consumption for the echo station (DSS 12)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy consumption for the Echo Station is analyzed. The HVAC equipment including vapor compression refrigeration units, absorption chillers, annd heating units such as boilers and heat pumps is shown to be the largest consumer of electrical energy. The energy consumption for the buildings at the station is itemized and compared to the electrical meter data. The figures for energy consumption as predicted by the ECP computer program are found to agree well with the meter data.

Guiar, C. N.; Schonfeld, D.

1981-12-01

448

An Investigation into Fixed Energy Consumption of Machine Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Improving energy efficiency of manufacturing processes requires knowledge about the energy consumption as a function of the\\u000a machine tool and cutting process itself. Both theoretical and empirical models of unit process energy consumption have emphasized\\u000a the relevance of fixed energy consumption which ensures the machine readiness. However, the machine tool behavior during the\\u000a stand-by mode is lack of thorough study.

Wen Li; André Zein; Sami Kara; Christoph Herrmann

449

Energy usage/consumption analysis for Woodstock Inn, Woodstock, Vermont  

SciTech Connect

A detailed analysis is given of energy consumption and energy use profiles for the Woodstock Inn, Woodstock, Vermont. Data were collected primarily during the heating and cooling seasons and show where energy is used, how much is used and when it is used. Energy consumption was measured in the kitchen and guest rooms, and was used for space heating and domestic water heating. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-12-01

450

National Policies to Promote Renewable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is entering a new energy era marked by concerns over energy security, climate change, and access by the poor to modern energy services. Yet the current energy path is not compatible with sustainable development objectives. Global demand for energy will continue to grow; so will CO2 emissions. Achieving a low-carbon energy world will require an unprecedented technological transformation

Mohamed T. El-Ashry

2012-01-01

451

Sustainable and Renewable Energy Resources — Alternative Forms of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to move towards a sustainable existence in our critically energy dependent society there is a continuing need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods for energy production, storage and conversion. A fuel cell is an energy conversion device that generates electricity and heat by electrochemically combining a gaseous fuel and an oxidant gas through electrodes and across an ion conducting electrolyte. The use of fuel cells in both stationary and mobile power applications can offer significant advantages for the sustainable conversion of energy. Currently the cost of fuel cell systems is greater than that of similar, already available products, mainly because of small scale production and the lack of economies of scale. The best fuel for fuel cells is hydrogen and another barrier is fuel flexibility. Benefits arising from the use of fuel cells include efficiency and reliability, as well as economy, unique operating characteristics and planning flexibility and future development potential. By integrating the application of fuel cells, in series with renewable energy storage and production methods, sustainable energy requirements may be realized. As fuel cell application increases and improved fuel storage methods and handlings are developed, it is expected that the costs associated with fuel cell systems will fall dramatically in the future.

Rao, M. C.

452

State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update Through 2003 (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

As of the end of 2003, 15 States had legislated programs to encourage the development of renewable energy for electricity generation. Of the 17 programs (two States have multiple programs), 9 are renewable portfolio standards (RPS), 4 are renewable energy mandates, and 4 are renewable energy goals.

Information Center

2005-02-01

453

Microprocessor system for controlling the operation of renewable energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the management system to control, monitor and supervisory of renewable energy resources, energy storages and loads. System can also be implemented as management controller for local grid, which may cooperates with distribution networks. The system uses real-time Ethernet technology, which combined with a fast signal processor allows to perform a complex analysis of the network and to

Miroslaw Wlas; Wojciech Kolbusz; Marek Gackowski

2011-01-01

454

Distribution system design enabling renewable energy resource deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a description of a panel presentation on the subject of enabling renewable energy resources in power distribution systems. The main elements of the presentation relate to: control methods; fault current management; safety considerations; improvement of system reliability; energy management; and infrastructure issues. A discussion of multiobjective management is given, and a hierarchical control infrastructure is proposed for distribution

G. T. Heydt; B. R. Sathyanarayana; V. Vittal

2009-01-01

455

Online Strategizing Distributed Renewable Energy Resource Access in Islanded Microgrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart grid, perceived as the next generation power grid, uses two-way flow of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network. By grouping distributed renewable energy generations and loads, a microgrid, which is seen as one of the cornerstones of the future smart grids, can disconnect from the macrogrid and function autonomously. This intentional islanding

Xi Fang; Dejun Yang; Guoliang Xue

2011-01-01

456

Workbook for Community-Based Renewable Energy Initiatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last decade or so, major changes in the power and energy markets offer opportunities to gain ground for renewable energy options. Since the mid-1990s, environmental and other community-based organizations have led the way locally with efforts to pr...

2005-01-01

457

Ecological impact of renewable resource based energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources based energy technologies are currently gaining strong interest, particularly in the light of global climate change and volatile energy markets. A major argument for their use is their ecological advantage. The paper will compare the ecological impact of various biofuel technologies, technologies providing electricity and heat on the base of different resources, both biogenic and direct as well

Michael Eder; Nora Sandor; Karl-Heinz Kettl; Michael Narodoslawsky

458

How carbon credits could drive the emergence of renewable energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift to renewable energy options and low-carbon technologies, in response to the concerns over energy security and climate change, is proceeding more slowly than many would like. The usual argument against rapid deployment of new technologies is the costs imposed on the economy, commonly interpreted in terms of upfront costs to be borne or involving large cash transfers to

John A. Mathews

2008-01-01

459

Who formulates renewable-energy policy? A Swedish example  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad participation by stakeholders and an extensive reliance on expert advice are often seen as preconditions for a legitimate and successfully implemented renewable energy policy. However, we have lacked systematic data for testing this argument. This article’s contribution is to examine the actors who take part in the making of Swedish energy policy with the help of data on

Katrin Uba

2010-01-01

460

Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination  

SciTech Connect

An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

Thomas, K.E.

1997-04-01

461

Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

Pryde, Philip R.

462

New and Renewable Energy Projects: From Policy to Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of various findings relating to future energy scene in India, the development of new and renewable energy sources have been given substantial emphasis in the Sixth Plan. Some evidence from field level experience of a few of these technologies has become available through micro studies. The focus of this paper is (a) to review this evidence to

Srivastava Uma Kant; Subramanian Ashok K

463

Promotional policy and perspectives of usage renewable energy in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article outlines renewable energy (RE) sources according to the energy efficiency policy in Lithuania as well as practical experience of implementation of RE projects within the framework of the government policy to promote RES use due to the requirement of the European Union. The main goal of the country is to reduce the import of fossil fuel, to improve

Vladislovas Katinas; Antanas Markevicius

2006-01-01

464

Multisensor event detection under temporal correlations with renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor networks have major applications in environmental monitoring, relief operations, surveillance, health-care and defense. Future sensor networks would comprise of sensing devices with energy harvesting capabilities from renewable energy sources such as solar power. Multiple sensor nodes deployed in the region of interest would collaborate to achieve a global objective, such as detection of application specific events. This paper focuses

Neeraj Jaggi; Koushik Kar

2009-01-01

465

100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100% renewable energy system by the year 2050 are presented for a complete energy system including transport. Two short-term

Brian Vad Mathiesen; Henrik Lund; Kenneth Karlsson

2011-01-01

466

The potential role of renewable energy in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) is developing an increasingly close relationship with Moldova, going beyond cooperation, to gradual economic integration and a deepening of political cooperation. This fact indicates that eventually the adoption of EU legislation in the energy sector is a necessity. Therefore, the provision of a clear picture of the country’s renewable energy potential is considered essential, bearing in

Charikleia Karakosta; Stamatia Dimopoulou; Haris Doukas; John Psarras

2011-01-01

467

How Do I Use Renewable Energy in My Region?  

SciTech Connect

NREL can asses renewable energy resource information and integrate it with data using geographic information systems (GIS) and interface the data with key analytical models. Planners and energy developers use these integrated resource assessments to make decisions about the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and risks of developing projects in specific locations and for regional planning.

Not Available

2005-11-01

468

Renewable energy policy in the UK: Problems and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The privatisation of the UK Electricity Supply industry in 1989\\/90 was expected to provide an opportunity for novel energy technologies to develop. This paper reviews the experience of renewable energy technologies, following the introduction, as part of the privatisation programme, of a cross subsidy system paid for by consumers designed to provide interim market support and stimulation for selected non-fossil

David Elliott

1996-01-01

469

Financing conservation and renewable energy in the eighties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the reported research was to determine if any financial barriers are likely to inhibit economically sound conservation and renewable energy development, and, if so, what measures can be taken to eliminate them. The major focus is on the inefficiencies in the financial marketplace affecting energy conservation and development. Basic financing issues are outlined that will affect policy

D. Hansen; T. Bolle

1982-01-01

470

A Framework for Portfolio Management of Renewable Hybrid Energy Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy systems modeling tool must address variability of ecological and socio-economic sensitivities in order to practically guide policy and budget related decisions. The aim of this effort is to produce an advisory and design tool geared toward aiding entities with robust planning of effective renewable energy solutions based on trusted models. A tool was developed that enables tradeoffs between

Tommer R. Ender; Jonathan Murphy; Comas Lamar Haynes

2010-01-01

471

Renewable energy alternatives - a growing opportunity for engineering & technology education  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A hallmark of the United States’ economic growth is an ever-increasing demand for energy, which has traditionally been met primarily by combusting the hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. As national security and environmental concerns grow, renewable energy resources are gaining increased attention...

472

Renewable highest capacity VB2/air energy storage.  

PubMed

The first renewable electrochemical energy system which stores more energy than gasoline is presented, and with an order of magnitude higher capacity than lithium-ion batteries, VB(2) opens a pathway towards electric vehicles with a viable driving range. PMID:18622436

Licht, Stuart; Wu, Huiming; Yu, Xingwen; Wang, Yufei

2008-06-17

473

Purification of phenol with reduced energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Phenol (10) produced by the cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide is chemically treated with a base (12) such as a polyamine, is optionally then treated with an acid or acid anhydride (15) such as phthalic anhydride, is then steamed distilled (12) to remove a lites fraction as a water azeotrope (21) and the bottoms (34) of the steam distillation are vacuum distilled (35) to recover high purity phenol (36) as an overhead. The overheads (21) of the steam distillation are condensed (22) and may be phase separated (23) into an aqueous phase (25) and organic phase (24), with the aqueous phase (25) mixed (26) with an organic solvent (27) which preferentially dissolves benzofuran impurities. This mixture is phase separated into an organic solvent phase (30, 130) and a recycle aqueous phase (31). Alternatively, the entire condensed overheads (21) may be extracted (146-151 and 153) with organic solvent. In some forms, the organic solvent phase (130) is washed with aqueous base (142) to remove phenol and impurities and the organic solvent (127) is regenerated for again mixing with the aqueous phase. In other forms the organic solvent is a portion (152) of the high purity phenol product (36). This treatment and careful control of the chemical treatment to minimize formation of benzofuran impurities reduces the steam consumption of the steam distillation step, thereby producing high purity phenol with reduced energy consumption.

Cochran, J.R.; Hollenbach, G.E.; Insinger, T.H.; Piskorz, R.F.; Smith, A.M.

1981-11-03

474

Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented approach to investigating how to facilitate renewable energy projects through barrier removal. Thus, we recommend that further research should focus on how to efficiently remove renewable energy implementation barriers as a means to improve developing countries participation in meaningful emission reduction while at the same time meeting the needs of sustainable economic development.

Gilau, Asmerom M.

475

Conservation and renewable energy programs: Technical and financial assistance  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Technical and Financial Assistance (OTFA) promotes the application of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices by working cooperatively with state and local governments and private and nonprofit organizations, providing technical and financial assistance and serving as network for sharing information. This report is an overview of some of the programs designed to aid in solving our national energy problems.

Not Available

1991-05-01

476

Renewable Energy Sources in Slovenia: Facts and Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

As amember of the EuropeanUnion, Slovenia follows a European energy policy and its objectives of a sustainable, competitive\\u000a and secure supply of energy. Renewable energy sources (RES) have an important role in the global fight against climate change\\u000a and are at the same time an important factor for a long-term security of energy supply.With about 11% RES share in the

Urška Lavren?i? Štangar; Evald Kranj?evi?

477

Renewable: A key component of our global energy future  

SciTech Connect

Inclusion of renewable energy sources in national and international energy strategies is a key component of a viable global energy future. The global energy balance is going to shift radically in the near future brought about by significant increases in population in China and India, and increases in the energy intensity of developing countries. To better understand the consequences of such global shifts in energy requirements and to develop appropriate energy strategies to respond to these shifts, we need to look at the factors driving choices among supply options by geopolitical consumers and the impact these factors can have on the future energy mix.

Hartley, D.

1995-12-31

478

7 CFR 4280.188 - Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance. 4280.188 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

2013-01-01

479

7 CFR 4280.192 - Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications. 4280...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

2013-01-01

480

7 CFR 4280.196 - Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants. 4280.196 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

2013-01-01

481

Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations  

SciTech Connect

Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

2011-09-01

482

FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation  

SciTech Connect

This FY2009 Annual Report surveys the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) accomplishments in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development, commercialization and deployment of technologies, and strategic energy analysis. It offers NREL's vision and progress in building a clean, sustainable research campus and reports on community involvement.

Not Available

2010-01-01

483

Renewable Energy and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol  

SciTech Connect

The Renewables Subcommittee for the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) is developing a section of the IPMVP treating the special issues related to performance measurement of renewable energy systems. An industry consensus framework for measuring project benefits is important in realizing the promise of renewable energy. This work represents a voluntary, consensus-building process among sponsoring organizations from 21 countries and several disciplines. Measurement and Verification (M&V) can provide a common tool for standardization to support performance-based contracting, financing, and emissions trading. M&V can ensure that savings and generation requirements in energy projects will be achieved accurately and objectively. The protocol defines procedures that are consistently applicable to similar projects, internationally accepted, and reliable. Actual M&V project results can demonstrate success and provide developers, investors, lenders, and customers with more confidence in the value of future projects.

Walker, A.; Thompson, A. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Mills, D. (School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia); Kats, G. H. (U.S. Department of Energy)

1999-04-14

484

Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures  

ScienceCinema

Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

485

Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of an analysis which identifies and quantifies Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity are summarized. Data on estimated cost of incentives used to stimulate energy consumption by incentive type and energy source are tabulated for coal, oil, gas, and electricity. It is suggested that the examination of past incentives can be useful in developing guidelines and limits for the use of incentives to stimulate consumption of solar energy. (MCW)

Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

1981-04-01

486

Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least

Martha Carmen Ballistreri; Clarissa Mendonça Corradi-Webster

2008-01-01

487

On energy consumption for size-reduction and yields from ...  

Treesearch

The pretreated wood chips were then milled using a laboratory disk mill under ... energy consumption, pretreatment, sugars, cellulose, hydrolysis, lodgepole pine, ... enzymes, biotechnology, industrial applications, wood chips, lignocellulose, ...

488

Energy consumption in commerical buildings: a comparison with BEPS budgets  

SciTech Connect

Metered energy consumption data have been collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20% above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

None

1980-09-22

489

Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lamds of Viejas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Renewable Energy Development on the lands of the Viejas Band of the Kumeyaay Indian Nation. In addition, the study will investigate the feasibility of forming a renewable energy based tribal utility. Viejas contracted with Black & Veatch and Fredericks, Pelcyger & Hester, LLC to assist in the development of a feasibility study to ascertain the economics and operational factors of forming an electric and water utility. This report is the result of the investigation conducted by Black & Veatch, with input from Viejas Tribal Government.

Terrence Meyer (Black & Veatch); Mike Elenbaas (Black & Veatch)

2005-09-30

490

Renewable energy resources and technologies applicable to Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy consumed in Ireland is primarily achieved by the combustion of fossil fuels. Ireland's only indigenous fossil fuel is peat; all other fossil fuels are imported. As fossil fuels continually become more expensive, their use as an energy source also has a negative impact on the environment. Ireland's energy consumption can be separated into three divisions: transportation, electricity generation

Fergal O. Rourke; Fergal Boyle; Anthony Reynolds

2009-01-01

491

Renewable Sources of Energy and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviewed are the status of conventional sources of energy, prospects for the development of alternative sources of energy, and the consequences of that development on countries that are in the process of industrialization. (BT)|

Diatta, Christian Sina

1979-01-01

492

Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems.  

PubMed

Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to convert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present-day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies. PMID:20855321

Wood, Robert J K; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Turnock, Stephen R; Wang, Ling; Evans, Martin

2010-10-28

493

PROSPECTS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and\\/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from

Zeeshan Alam Nayyer

494

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection...CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation...

2013-07-01

495

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...kilowatt hours generated by qualified renewable energy generation. Allowances will be allocated...allocated under this subpart for qualified energy conservation measures or renewable energy generation sources that are operational on or after...

2013-07-01

496

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hours generated by qualified renewable energy generation. Allowances will be allocated...allocated under this subpart for qualified energy conservation measures or renewable energy generation sources that are operational on or after...

2010-07-01

497

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hours generated by qualified renewable energy generation. Allowances will be allocated...allocated under this subpart for qualified energy conservation measures or renewable energy generation sources that are operational on or after...

2009-07-01

498

The Contribution of Renewable Resources and Energy Conservation as Alternatives to Imported Oil in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses the role of renewable energy sources and conservation in meeting the future energy demands of developing countries. It appears possible that renewable energy sources (biomass, solar, wind, small-scale hydro, and geothermal) could red...

P. F. Palmedo P. Baldwin

1980-01-01

499

Residential Energy Consumption Survey: consumption and expenditures, April 1982 through March 1983. Part 2. Regional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the third in a continuing series of reports presenting data from the 1982 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Included here are data, at the Census region and division level, for consumption and expenditures of the major fuels used in the household - electricity, natural gas, fuel oil\\/kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Data are also presented for

Thompson

1984-01-01

500

Chinese Energy Policy Outlook: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic development will face serious problems from the point of view of current supply and demand of its energy resource. The main issues include: 1) China will face an extremely serious issue of limits on energy resources; 2) Low technical levels in energy utilization technologies have resulted in low efficiency of energy use; 3) The problems of environmental pollution

Li Junfeng; Ren Dongming