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Sample records for replication proteins mcm5

  1. The DNA replication factor MCM5 is essential for Stat1-mediated transcriptional activation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Marylynn; He, Wei; Zhang, J. Jillian

    2005-01-01

    The eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance (MCM) family of proteins (MCM2–MCM7) is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human. These proteins are essential for DNA replication. The signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins are critical for the signal transduction of a multitude of cytokines and growth factors leading to the regulation of gene expression. We previously identified a strong interaction between Stat1 and MCM5. However, the physiological significance of this interaction was not clear. We show here by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses that the MCM5 protein, as well as other members of the MCM family, is inducibly recruited to Stat1 target gene promoters in response to cytokine stimulation. Furthermore, the MCM proteins are shown to move along with the RNA polymerase II during transcription elongation. We have also identified an independent domain in MCM5 that mediates the interaction between Stat1 and MCM5; overexpression of this domain can disrupt the interaction between Stat1 and MCM5 and inhibit Stat1 transcriptional activity. Finally, we used the RNA interference technique to show that MCM5 is essential for transcription activation of Stat1 target genes. Together, these results demonstrate that, in addition to their roles in DNA replication, the MCM proteins are also necessary for transcription activation. PMID:16199513

  2. MCM5 as a target of BET inhibitors in thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mio, Catia; Lavarone, Elisa; Conzatti, Ketty; Baldan, Federica; Toffoletto, Barbara; Puppin, Cinzia; Filetti, Sebastiano; Durante, Cosimo; Russo, Diego; Orlacchio, Arturo; Di Cristofano, Antonio; Di Loreto, Carla; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive thyroid cancer subtype, refractory to the current medical treatment. Among various epigenetic anticancer drugs, bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitors (BETis) are considered to be an appealing novel class of compounds. BETi target the bromodomain and extra-terminal of BET proteins that act as regulators of gene transcription, interacting with histone acetyl groups. The goal of this study is to delineate which pathway underlies the biological effects derived from BET inhibition, in order to find new potential therapeutic targets in ATC. We investigated the effects of BET inhibition on two human anaplastic thyroid cancer-derived cell lines (FRO and SW1736). The treatment with two BETis, JQ1 and I-BET762, decreased cell viability, reduced cell cycle S-phase, and determined cell death. In order to find BETi effectors, FRO and SW1736 were subjected to a global transcriptome analysis after JQ1 treatment. A significant portion of deregulated genes belongs to cell cycle regulators. Among them, MCM5 was decreased at both mRNA and protein levels in both tested cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments indicate that MCM5 is directly bound by the BET protein BRD4. MCM5 silencing reduced cell proliferation, thus underlining its involvement in the block of proliferation induced by BETis. Furthermore, MCM5 immunohistochemical evaluation in human thyroid tumor tissues demonstrated its overexpression in several papillary thyroid carcinomas and in all ATCs. MCM5 was also overexpressed in a murine model of ATC, and JQ1 treatment reduced Mcm5 mRNA expression in two murine ATC cell lines. Thus, MCM5 could represent a new target in the therapeutic approach against ATC. PMID:26911376

  3. Geminivirus C3 Protein: Replication Enhancement and Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Settlage, Sharon B.; See, Renee G.; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Most dicot-infecting geminiviruses encode a replication enhancer protein (C3, AL3, or REn) that is required for optimal replication of their small, single-stranded DNA genomes. C3 interacts with C1, the essential viral replication protein that initiates rolling circle replication. C3 also homo-oligomerizes and interacts with at least two host-encoded proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the retinoblastoma-related protein (pRBR). It has been proposed that protein interactions contribute to C3 function. Using the C3 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, we examined the impact of mutations to amino acids that are conserved across the C3 protein family on replication enhancement and protein interactions. Surprisingly, many of the mutations did not affect replication enhancement activity of C3 in tobacco protoplasts. Other mutations either enhanced or were detrimental to C3 replication activity. Analysis of mutated proteins in yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that mutations that inactivate C3 replication enhancement activity also reduce or inactivate C3 oligomerization and interaction with C1 and PCNA. In contrast, mutated C3 proteins impaired for pRBR binding are fully functional in replication assays. Hydrophobic residues in the middle of the C3 protein were implicated in C3 interaction with itself, C1, and PCNA, while polar resides at both the N and C termini of the protein are important for C3-pRBR interaction. These experiments established the importance of C3-C3, C3-C1, and C3-PCNA interactions in geminivirus replication. While C3-pRBR interaction is not required for viral replication in cycling cells, it may play a role during infection of differentiated cells in intact plants. PMID:16014949

  4. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  5. Inhibition of virus DNA replication by artificial zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Sera, Takashi

    2005-02-01

    Prevention of virus infections is a major objective in agriculture and human health. One attractive approach to the prevention is inhibition of virus replication. To demonstrate this concept in vivo, an artificial zinc finger protein (AZP) targeting the replication origin of the Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), a model DNA virus, was created. In vitro DNA binding assays indicated that the AZP efficiently blocked binding of the viral replication protein (Rep), which initiates virus replication, to the replication origin. All of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the AZP showed phenotypes strongly resistant to virus infection, and 84% of the transgenic plants showed no symptom. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that BSCTV replication was completely suppressed in the transgenic plants. Since the mechanism of viral DNA replication is well conserved among plants and mammals, this approach could be applied not only to agricultural crop protection but also to the prevention of virus infections in humans. PMID:15681461

  6. Structures of replication initiation proteins from staphylococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids reveal protein asymmetry and flexibility are necessary for replication.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stephen B; Phillips, Simon E V; Thomas, Christopher D

    2016-03-18

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a continual threat to human health, often residing in extrachromosomal plasmid DNA. Plasmids of the pT181 family are widespread and confer various antibiotic resistances to Staphylococcus aureus. They replicate via a rolling circle mechanism that requires a multi-functional, plasmid-encoded replication protein to initiate replication, recruit a helicase to the site of initiation and terminate replication after DNA synthesis is complete. We present the first atomic resolution structures of three such replication proteins that reveal distinct, functionally relevant conformations. The proteins possess a unique active site and have been shown to contain a catalytically essential metal ion that is bound in a manner distinct from that of any other rolling circle replication proteins. These structures are the first examples of the Rep_trans Pfam family providing insights into the replication of numerous antibiotic resistance plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative phage and the mobilisation of DNA by conjugative transposons. PMID:26792891

  7. Structures of replication initiation proteins from staphylococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids reveal protein asymmetry and flexibility are necessary for replication

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stephen B.; Phillips, Simon E.V.; Thomas, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a continual threat to human health, often residing in extrachromosomal plasmid DNA. Plasmids of the pT181 family are widespread and confer various antibiotic resistances to Staphylococcus aureus. They replicate via a rolling circle mechanism that requires a multi-functional, plasmid-encoded replication protein to initiate replication, recruit a helicase to the site of initiation and terminate replication after DNA synthesis is complete. We present the first atomic resolution structures of three such replication proteins that reveal distinct, functionally relevant conformations. The proteins possess a unique active site and have been shown to contain a catalytically essential metal ion that is bound in a manner distinct from that of any other rolling circle replication proteins. These structures are the first examples of the Rep_trans Pfam family providing insights into the replication of numerous antibiotic resistance plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative phage and the mobilisation of DNA by conjugative transposons. PMID:26792891

  8. Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4DBD (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences. PMID:23658226

  9. Physical Interaction between Replication Protein A (RPA) and MRN

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Greg; Tillison, Kristin; Opiyo, Stephen; Glanzer, Jason; Horn, Jeffrey M.; Patrick, Steve M.

    2009-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3 subunits that binds to ssDNA with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-dsDNA junctions or breaks and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic decreases the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates RPA interactions with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 show that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage. PMID:19586055

  10. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  11. A replicator-specific binding protein essential for site-specific initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya; Huang, Liang; Fu, Haiqing; Smith, Owen K; Lin, Chii Mei; Utani, Koichi; Rao, Mishal; Reinhold, William C; Redon, Christophe E; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; You, Yang; Hanna, Harlington; Boisclair, Yves; Long, Qiaoming; Aladjem, Mirit I

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosome replication starts from distinct sites; however, the principles governing initiation site selection are unclear because proteins essential for DNA replication do not exhibit sequence-specific DNA binding. Here we identify a replication-initiation determinant (RepID) protein that binds a subset of replication-initiation sites. A large fraction of RepID-binding sites share a common G-rich motif and exhibit elevated replication initiation. RepID is required for initiation of DNA replication from RepID-bound replication origins, including the origin at the human beta-globin (HBB) locus. At HBB, RepID is involved in an interaction between the replication origin (Rep-P) and the locus control region. RepID-depleted murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibit abnormal replication fork progression and fewer replication-initiation events. These observations are consistent with a model, suggesting that RepID facilitates replication initiation at a distinct group of human replication origins. PMID:27272143

  12. A replicator-specific binding protein essential for site-specific initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Huang, Liang; Fu, Haiqing; Smith, Owen K.; Lin, Chii Mei; Utani, Koichi; Rao, Mishal; Reinhold, William C.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; You, Yang; Hanna, Harlington; Boisclair, Yves; Long, Qiaoming; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosome replication starts from distinct sites; however, the principles governing initiation site selection are unclear because proteins essential for DNA replication do not exhibit sequence-specific DNA binding. Here we identify a replication-initiation determinant (RepID) protein that binds a subset of replication-initiation sites. A large fraction of RepID-binding sites share a common G-rich motif and exhibit elevated replication initiation. RepID is required for initiation of DNA replication from RepID-bound replication origins, including the origin at the human beta-globin (HBB) locus. At HBB, RepID is involved in an interaction between the replication origin (Rep-P) and the locus control region. RepID-depleted murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibit abnormal replication fork progression and fewer replication-initiation events. These observations are consistent with a model, suggesting that RepID facilitates replication initiation at a distinct group of human replication origins. PMID:27272143

  13. Functionality of host proteins in Cucumber mosaic virus replication: GAPDH is obligatory to promote interaction between replication-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N

    2016-07-01

    Here, we evaluated the role of two host proteins, a Bromo domain containing RNA binding protein (BRP1) and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in the replication of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). LC-MS/MS analysis of host/viral proteins pull down against BRP1 from CMV-infected plants co-infiltrated with BRP1-FLAG agroconstruct identified that BRP1 specifically interacts with a ten amino acid motif (843-SPQDVVPLVR-852) encompassing the helicase domain of replicase protein p1a. The interaction between BRP1 and p1a was subsequently confirmed using a BiFC assay. Among fourteen other host proteins identified to interact with BRP1 during CMV infection, six were found to block accumulation of viral progeny in Arabidopsis thaliana lines defective in each of these host proteins. Additional BiFC assays followed by trans-complementation assays identified that plant lines defective in the expression of GAPDH blocked CMV replication by interfering with p1a:p2a interaction. Distinct roles of BRP1 and GAPDH in the replication of CMV are discussed. PMID:27077230

  14. Adaptor Protein 1A Facilitates Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yasamut, Umpa; Tongmuang, Nopprarat; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai; Junking, Mutita; Noisakran, Sansanee; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai

    2015-01-01

    Rearrangement of membrane structure induced by dengue virus (DENV) is essential for replication, and requires host cellular machinery. Adaptor protein complex (AP)-1 is a host component, which can be recruited to components required for membrane rearrangement. Therefore, dysfunction of AP-1 may affect membrane organization, thereby decreasing replication of virus in infected cells. In the present study, AP-1-dependent traffic inhibitor inhibited DENV protein expression and virion production. We further clarified the role of AP-1A in the life cycle of DENV by RNA interference. AP-1A was not involved in DENV entry into cells. However, it facilitated DENV RNA replication. Viral RNA level was reduced significantly in Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A small interfering RNA (siRNA) compared with control siRNA. Transfection of naked DENV viral RNA into Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A siRNA resulted in less viral RNA and virion production than transfection into Huh7 cells transfected with control siRNA. Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A siRNA showed greater modification of membrane structures and fewer vesicular packets compared with cells transfected with control siRNA. Therefore, AP-1A may partly control DENV-induced rearrangement of membrane structures required for viral replication. PMID:26090672

  15. Replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus cotranslationally binds the 5′ untranslated region of genomic RNA to enable viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Huang, Ying-Ping; Miyashita, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genomic RNA of positive-strand RNA viruses replicate via complementary (i.e., negative-strand) RNA in membrane-bound replication complexes. Before replication complex formation, virus-encoded replication proteins specifically recognize genomic RNA molecules and recruit them to sites of replication. Moreover, in many of these viruses, selection of replication templates by the replication proteins occurs preferentially in cis. This property is advantageous to the viruses in several aspects of viral replication and evolution, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been characterized. Here, we used an in vitro translation system to show that a 126-kDa replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, binds a 5′-terminal ∼70-nucleotide region of TMV RNA cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally. TMV mutants that carried nucleotide changes in the 5′-terminal region and showed a defect in the binding were unable to synthesize negative-strand RNA, indicating that this binding is essential for template selection. A C-terminally truncated 126-kDa protein, but not the full-length 126-kDa protein, was able to posttranslationally bind TMV RNA in vitro, suggesting that binding of the 126-kDa protein to the 70-nucleotide region occurs during translation and before synthesis of the C-terminal inhibitory domain. We also show that binding of the 126-kDa protein prevents further translation of the bound TMV RNA. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the 126-kDa protein selects replication templates in cis and how fatal collision between translating ribosomes and negative-strand RNA-synthesizing polymerases on the genomic RNA is avoided. PMID:24711385

  16. Protein Phosphatase-1 regulates Rift Valley fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Shafagati, Nazly; Benedict, Ashwini; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hakami, Ramin M; Terasaki, Kaori; Makino, Shinji; Nekhai, Sergei; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus family Bunyaviridae, is an arthropod-borne virus endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Recent outbreaks have resulted in cyclic epidemics with an increasing geographic footprint, devastating both livestock and human populations. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of RVFV. To date there are no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines for RVF and there is an urgent need for their development. The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has previously been shown to play a significant role in the replication of several viruses. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PP1 plays a prominent role in RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle. Both siRNA knockdown of PP1α and a novel PP1-targeting small molecule compound 1E7-03, resulted in decreased viral titers across several cell lines. Deregulation of PP1 was found to inhibit viral RNA production, potentially through the disruption of viral RNA transcript/protein interactions, and indicates a potential link between PP1α and the viral L polymerase and nucleoprotein. These results indicate that PP1 activity is important for RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle and may prove an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26801627

  17. Diffusion of human Replication Protein A along single stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh; Sokoloski, Joshua; Galletto, Roberto; Elson, Elliot L.; Wold, Marc S.; Lohman, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is a eukaryotic single stranded (ss) DNA binding protein that plays critical roles in most aspects of genome maintenance, including replication, recombination and repair. RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, destabilizes DNA secondary structure and facilitates binding of other proteins to ssDNA. However, RPA must be removed from or redistributed along ssDNA during these processes. To probe the dynamics of RPA-DNA interactions, we combined ensemble and single molecule fluorescence approaches to examine human RPA diffusion along ssDNA and find that an hRPA hetero-trimer can diffuse rapidly along ssDNA. Diffusion of hRPA is functional in that it provides the mechanism by which hRPA can transiently disrupt DNA hairpins by diffusing in from ssDNA regions adjacent to the DNA hairpin. hRPA diffusion was also monitored by the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity of a Cy3 fluorophore attached to the end of ssDNA. Using a novel method to calibrate the Cy3 fluorescence intensity as a function of hRPA position on the ssDNA, we estimate a one-dimensional diffusion coefficient of hRPA on ssDNA of D1 ~5000 nucleotide2s−1 at 37°C. Diffusion of hRPA while bound to ssDNA enables it to be readily repositioned to allow other proteins access to ssDNA. PMID:25058683

  18. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. PMID:27053724

  19. Tombusviruses upregulate phospholipid biosynthesis via interaction between p33 replication protein and yeast lipid sensor proteins during virus replication in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; Sharma, Monika; Wu, Cheng-Yu; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-12-15

    Positive-stranded RNA viruses induce new membranous structures and promote membrane proliferation in infected cells to facilitate viral replication. In this paper, the authors show that a plant-infecting tombusvirus upregulates transcription of phospholipid biosynthesis genes, such as INO1, OPI3 and CHO1, and increases phospholipid levels in yeast model host. This is accomplished by the viral p33 replication protein, which interacts with Opi1p FFAT domain protein and Scs2p VAP protein. Opi1p and Scs2p are phospholipid sensor proteins and they repress the expression of phospholipid genes. Accordingly, deletion of OPI1 transcription repressor in yeast has a stimulatory effect on TBSV RNA accumulation and enhanced tombusvirus replicase activity in an in vitro assay. Altogether, the presented data convincingly demonstrate that de novo lipid biosynthesis is required for optimal TBSV replication. Overall, this work reveals that a (+)RNA virus reprograms the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway in a unique way to facilitate its replication in yeast cells. - Highlights: • Tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with FFAT-domain host protein. • Tombusvirus replication leads to upregulation of phospholipids. • Tombusvirus replication depends on de novo lipid synthesis. • Deletion of FFAT-domain host protein enhances TBSV replication. • TBSV rewires host phospholipid synthesis.

  20. Aquareovirus NS80 Initiates Efficient Viral Replication by Retaining Core Proteins within Replication-Associated Viral Inclusion Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Liming; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Yan, Shicui; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) are specific intracellular compartments for reoviruses replication and assembly. Aquareovirus nonstructural protein NS80 has been identified to be the major constituent for forming globular VIBs in our previous study. In this study, we investigated the role of NS80 in viral structural proteins expression and viral replication. Immunofluorescence assays showed that NS80 could retain five core proteins or inner-capsid proteins (VP1-VP4 and VP6), but not outer-capsid proteins (VP5 and VP7), within VIBs in co-transfected or infected cells. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that NS80 could interact with each core protein respectively. In addition, we found that newly synthesized viral RNAs co-localized with VIBs. Furthermore, time-course analysis of viral structural proteins expression showed that the expression of NS80 was detected first, followed by the detection of inner shell protein VP3, and then of other inner-capsid proteins, suggesting that VIBs were essential for the formation of viral core frame or progeny virion. Moreover, knockdown of NS80 by shRNA not only inhibited the expression of aquareovirus structural proteins, but also inhibited viral infection. These results indicated that NS80-based VIBs were formed at earlier stage of infection, and NS80 was able to coordinate the expression of viral structural proteins and viral replication. PMID:25938226

  1. Improved artificial origins for phage Φ29 terminal protein-primed replication. Insights into early replication events

    PubMed Central

    Gella, Pablo; Salas, Margarita; Mencía, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The replication machinery of bacteriophage Φ29 is a paradigm for protein-primed replication and it holds great potential for applied purposes. To better understand the early replication events and to find improved origins for DNA amplification based on the Φ29 system, we have studied the end-structure of a double-stranded DNA replication origin. We have observed that the strength of the origin is determined by a combination of factors. The strongest origin (30-fold respect to wt) has the sequence CCC at the 3′ end of the template strand, AAA at the 5′ end of the non-template strand and 6 nucleotides as optimal unpairing at the end of the origin. We also show that the presence of a correctly positioned displaced strand is important because origins with 5′ or 3′ ssDNA regions have very low activity. Most of the effect of the improved origins takes place at the passage between the terminal protein-primed and the DNA-primed modes of replication by the DNA polymerase suggesting the existence of a thermodynamic barrier at that point. We suggest that the template and non-template strands of the origin and the TP/DNA polymerase complex form series of interactions that control the critical start of terminal protein-primed replication. PMID:25081208

  2. Human DNA Helicase B (HDHB) Binds to Replication Protein A and Facilitates Cellular Recovery from Replication Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Gulfem Dilek; Liu, Hanjian; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Arnett, Diana R.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Chazin, Walter J.; Fanning, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic stability in proliferating cells depends on a network of proteins that coordinate chromosomal replication with DNA damage responses. Human DNA helicase B (HELB or HDHB) has been implicated in chromosomal replication, but its role in this coordinated network remains undefined. Here we report that cellular exposure to UV irradiation, camptothecin, or hydroxyurea induces accumulation of HDHB on chromatin in a dose- and time-dependent manner, preferentially in S phase cells. Replication stress-induced recruitment of HDHB to chromatin is independent of checkpoint signaling but correlates with the level of replication protein A (RPA) recruited to chromatin. We show using purified proteins that HDHB physically interacts with the N-terminal domain of the RPA 70-kDa subunit (RPA70N). NMR spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis reveal that HDHB docks on the same RPA70N surface that recruits S phase checkpoint signaling proteins to chromatin. Consistent with this pattern of recruitment, cells depleted of HDHB display reduced recovery from replication stress. PMID:22194613

  3. The adenovirus terminal protein influences binding of replication proteins and changes the origin structure.

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, R; van der Vliet, P C

    1993-01-01

    The adenovirus terminal protein (TP) is covalently linked to the 5' ends of the adenovirus genome and enhances DNA replication in vitro by increasing template activity. To study the effect of TP in more detail we isolated short origin fragments containing functional TP using anion exchange chromatography. These fragments were highly active as templates for DNA replication in a reconstituted system. Employing band-shift assays we found that the affinity of the precursor terminal protein-DNA polymerase complex for the TP-containing origin was increased 2 to 3-fold. Binding affinities of two other replication stimulating proteins, NFI and Oct-1, were not influenced by the terminal protein. Upon DNaseI footprinting we observed, unexpectedly, that the breakdown pattern had changed at various positions in the origin, notably in the area 3-6 and 41-51 by the presence of TP. Some differences in the footprint pattern of NFI and Oct-1 were also found. Our results indicate that TP induces subtle changes in the origin structure that influence the interaction of other replication proteins. Images PMID:8506126

  4. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5′ ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3′–5′ exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and

  5. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  6. Coat protein activation of alfalfa mosaic virus replication is concentration dependent.

    PubMed

    Guogas, Laura M; Laforest, Siana M; Gehrke, Lee

    2005-05-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarvirus RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; therefore, an understanding of coat protein's function is important for defining viral replication mechanisms. Based on in vitro replication experiments, the conformational switch model states that AMV coat protein blocks minus-strand RNA synthesis (R. C. Olsthoorn, S. Mertens, F. T. Brederode, and J. F. Bol, EMBO J. 18:4856-4864, 1999), while another report states that coat protein present in an inoculum is required to permit minus-strand synthesis (L. Neeleman and J. F. Bol, Virology 254:324-333, 1999). Here, we report on experiments that address these contrasting results with a goal of defining coat protein's function in the earliest stages of AMV replication. To detect coat-protein-activated AMV RNA replication, we designed and characterized a subgenomic luciferase reporter construct. We demonstrate that activation of viral RNA replication by coat protein is concentration dependent; that is, replication was strongly stimulated at low coat protein concentrations but decreased progressively at higher concentrations. Genomic RNA3 mutations preventing coat protein mRNA translation or disrupting coat protein's RNA binding domain diminished replication. The data indicate that RNA binding and an ongoing supply of coat protein are required to initiate replication on progeny genomic RNA transcripts. The data do not support the conformational switch model's claim that coat protein inhibits the initial stages of viral RNA replication. Replication activation may correlate with low local coat protein concentrations and low coat protein occupancy on the multiple binding sites present in the 3' untranslated regions of the viral RNAs. PMID:15827190

  7. Guanylylation-competent replication proteins of Tomato mosaic virus are disulfide-linked.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-12-01

    The 130-kDa and 180-kDa replication proteins of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) covalently bind guanylate and transfer it to the 5' end of RNA to form a cap. We found that guanylylation-competent ToMV replication proteins are in membrane-bound, disulfide-linked complexes. Guanylylation-competent replication proteins of Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus behaved similarly. To investigate the roles of disulfide bonding in the functioning of ToMV replication proteins, each of the 19 cysteine residues in the 130-kDa protein was replaced by a serine residue. Interestingly, three mutant proteins (C179S, C186S and C581S) failed not only to be guanylylated, but also to bind to the replication template and membranes. These mutants could trans-complement viral RNA replication. Considering that ToMV replication proteins recognize the replication templates, bind membranes, and are guanylylated in the cytoplasm that provides a reducing condition, we discuss the roles of cysteine residues and disulfide bonds in ToMV RNA replication. PMID:23062762

  8. Dynamic interaction of Y RNAs with chromatin and initiation proteins during human DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Tianbu; Langley, Alexander R.; Christov, Christo P.; Kheir, Eyemen; Shafee, Thomas; Gardiner, Timothy J.; Krude, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Non-coding Y RNAs are required for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in mammalian cells. It is unknown how they perform this function or if they associate with a nuclear structure during DNA replication. Here, we investigate the association of Y RNAs with chromatin and their interaction with replication proteins during DNA replication in a human cell-free system. Our results show that fluorescently labelled Y RNAs associate with unreplicated euchromatin in late G1 phase cell nuclei before the initiation of DNA replication. Following initiation, Y RNAs are displaced locally from nascent and replicated DNA present in replication foci. In intact human cells, a substantial fraction of endogenous Y RNAs are associated with G1 phase nuclei, but not with G2 phase nuclei. Y RNAs interact and colocalise with the origin recognition complex (ORC), the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) protein Cdt1, and other proteins implicated in the initiation of DNA replication. These data support a molecular ‘catch and release’ mechanism for Y RNA function during the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication, which is consistent with Y RNAs acting as replication licensing factors. PMID:21610089

  9. Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Proteins in Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Traylen, Chris; Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin; Almohammad, Rajaei; Heesom, Kate; Sweet, Steve M M; Matthews, David A; Sinclair, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The working model to describe the mechanisms used to replicate the cancer-associated virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is partly derived from comparisons with other members of the Herpes virus family. Many genes within the EBV genome are homologous across the herpes virus family. Published transcriptome data for the EBV genome during its lytic replication cycle show extensive transcription, but the identification of the proteins is limited. We have taken a global proteomics approach to identify viral proteins that are expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. We combined an enrichment method to isolate cells undergoing EBV lytic replication with SILAC-labeling coupled to mass-spectrometry and identified viral and host proteins expressed during the OPEN ACCESS Pathogens 2015, 4 740 EBV lytic replication cycle. Amongst the most frequently identified viral proteins are two components of the DNA replication machinery, the single strand DNA binding protein BALF2, DNA polymerase accessory protein BMRF1 and both subunits of the viral ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase enzyme (BORF2 and BaRF1). An additional 42 EBV lytic cycle proteins were also detected. This provides proteomic identification for many EBV lytic replication cycle proteins and also identifies post-translational modifications. PMID:26529022

  10. Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Proteins in Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Traylen, Chris; Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin; Almohammad, Rajaei; Heesom, Kate; Sweet, Steve M. M.; Matthews, David A.; Sinclair, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    The working model to describe the mechanisms used to replicate the cancer-associated virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is partly derived from comparisons with other members of the Herpes virus family. Many genes within the EBV genome are homologous across the herpes virus family. Published transcriptome data for the EBV genome during its lytic replication cycle show extensive transcription, but the identification of the proteins is limited. We have taken a global proteomics approach to identify viral proteins that are expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. We combined an enrichment method to isolate cells undergoing EBV lytic replication with SILAC-labeling coupled to mass-spectrometry and identified viral and host proteins expressed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. Amongst the most frequently identified viral proteins are two components of the DNA replication machinery, the single strand DNA binding protein BALF2, DNA polymerase accessory protein BMRF1 and both subunits of the viral ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase enzyme (BORF2 and BaRF1). An additional 42 EBV lytic cycle proteins were also detected. This provides proteomic identification for many EBV lytic replication cycle proteins and also identifies post-translational modifications. PMID:26529022

  11. Assembly of Alphavirus Replication Complexes from RNA and Protein Components in a Novel trans-Replication System in Mammalian Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Spuul, Pirjo; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Hellström, Kirsi; Golubtsov, Andrey V.; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2011-01-01

    For positive-strand RNA viruses, the viral genomic RNA also acts as an mRNA directing the translation of the replicase proteins of the virus. Replication takes place in association with cytoplasmic membranes, which are heavily modified to create specific replication compartments. Here we have expressed by plasmid DNA transfection the large replicase polyprotein of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in mammalian cells from a nonreplicating mRNA and provided a separate RNA containing the replication signals. The replicase proteins were able to efficiently and specifically replicate the template in trans, leading to accumulation of RNA and marker gene products expressed from the template RNA. The replicase proteins and double-stranded RNA replication intermediates localized to structures similar to those seen in SFV-infected cells. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) with fluorescent marker proteins to relocate those transfected cells, in which active replication was ongoing, abundant membrane modifications, representing the replication complex spherules, were observed both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular endolysosomes. Thus, replication complexes are faithfully assembled and localized in the trans-replication system. We demonstrated, using CLEM, that the replication proteins alone or a polymerase-negative polyprotein mutant together with the template did not give rise to spherule formation. Thus, the trans-replication system is suitable for cell biological dissection and examination in a mammalian cell environment, and similar systems may be possible for other positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:21389137

  12. Membrane attachment activates dnaA protein, the initiation protein of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, B.Y.; Kornberg, A.

    1988-10-01

    ADP and ATP are tightly bound to dnaA protein and are crucial to its function in DNA replication; the exchange of these nucleotides is effected specifically by the acidic phospholipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol) present in Escherichia coli membranes. We now find that phospholipids derived from membranes lacking an unsaturated fatty acid (e.g., oleic acid) are unable to promote the exchange. This observation correlates strikingly with the long-known effect of 3-decynoyl-N-acetylcysteamine, a ''suicide analog'' that prevents initiation of a cycle of replication in E. coli by inhibiting the synthesis of oleic acid, an inhibition that can be overcome by providing the cells with oleic acid. Profound influences on the specific binding of dnaA protein to phospholipids by temperature, the content of unsaturated fatty acids, and the inclusion of cholesterol can be explained by the need for the phospholipids to be in fluid-phase vesicles. These findings suggest that membrane attachment of dnaA protein is vital for its function in the initiation of chromosome replication in E. coli.

  13. Separation of the transcriptional activation and replication functions of the bovine papillomavirus-1 E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Winokur, P L; McBride, A A

    1992-11-01

    Replication of bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) DNA requires two viral gene products, the E1 protein and the full-length E2 protein. The 48 kDa E2 protein is a site-specific DNA-binding protein that binds to several sites which lie adjacent to the BPV-1 origin of replication. The 85 amino acid C-terminal domain contains the specific DNA binding and dimerization properties of the protein. The approximately 200 amino acid N-terminal domain is crucial for transcriptional activation. Both of these domains are highly conserved among different papillomaviruses. An internal hinge region separates the two functional domains. The region varies in amino acid sequence and length among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. A series of mutations were constructed within the E2 open reading frame which delete various regions of the conserved DNA binding and transactivation domains as well as the internal hinge region. Two mutated E2 proteins that lack portions of the conserved DNA-binding domain but which support DNA replication were identified using transient replication assays. These mutated E2 proteins were unable to function as transcriptional activators. Conversely, two E2 proteins containing large deletions of the hinge region were able to activate transcription, but were defective for replication. Thus, the replication and transactivation functions of the E2 protein are separable. PMID:1327758

  14. Modulation of Hepatitis C Virus Genome Replication by Glycosphingolipids and Four-Phosphate Adaptor Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan; Katikaneni, Divya S.; Han, Qingxia; Sanchez-Felipe, Lorena; Hanada, Kentaro; Ambrose, Rebecca L.; Mackenzie, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles its replication complex on cytosolic membrane vesicles often clustered in a membranous web (MW). During infection, HCV NS5A protein activates PI4KIIIα enzyme, causing massive production and redistribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) lipid to the replication complex. However, the role of PI4P in the HCV life cycle is not well understood. We postulated that PI4P recruits host effectors to modulate HCV genome replication or virus particle production. To test this hypothesis, we generated cell lines for doxycycline-inducible expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the PI4P effector, four-phosphate adaptor protein 2 (FAPP2). FAPP2 depletion attenuated HCV infectivity and impeded HCV RNA synthesis. Indeed, FAPP2 has two functional lipid-binding domains specific for PI4P and glycosphingolipids. While expression of the PI4P-binding mutant protein was expected to inhibit HCV replication, a marked drop in replication efficiency was observed unexpectedly with the glycosphingolipid-binding mutant protein. These data suggest that both domains are crucial for the role of FAPP2 in HCV genome replication. We also found that HCV significantly increases the level of some glycosphingolipids, whereas adding these lipids to FAPP2-depleted cells partially rescued replication, further arguing for the importance of glycosphingolipids in HCV RNA synthesis. Interestingly, FAPP2 is redistributed to the replication complex (RC) characterized by HCV NS5A, NS4B, or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) foci. Additionally, FAPP2 depletion disrupts the RC and alters the colocalization of HCV replicase proteins. Altogether, our study implies that HCV coopts FAPP2 for virus genome replication via PI4P binding and glycosphingolipid transport to the HCV RC. IMPORTANCE Like most viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome, HCV replicates its RNA on remodeled host membranes composed of lipids hijacked from various internal membrane compartments

  15. Host ESCRT Proteins Are Required for Bromovirus RNA Replication Compartment Assembly and Function

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Arturo; Zhang, Jiantao; Ollwerther, Abigail; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ahlquist, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses genome replication invariably is associated with vesicles or other rearranged cellular membranes. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication occurs on perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in ~70 nm vesicular invaginations (spherules). BMV RNA replication vesicles show multiple parallels with membrane-enveloped, budding retrovirus virions, whose envelopment and release depend on the host ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) membrane-remodeling machinery. We now find that deleting components of the ESCRT pathway results in at least two distinct BMV phenotypes. One group of genes regulate RNA replication and the frequency of viral replication complex formation, but had no effect on spherule size, while a second group of genes regulate RNA replication in a way or ways independent of spherule formation. In particular, deleting SNF7 inhibits BMV RNA replication > 25-fold and abolishes detectable BMV spherule formation, even though the BMV RNA replication proteins accumulate and localize normally on perinuclear ER membranes. Moreover, BMV ESCRT recruitment and spherule assembly depend on different sets of protein-protein interactions from those used by multivesicular body vesicles, HIV-1 virion budding, or tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) spherule formation. These and other data demonstrate that BMV requires cellular ESCRT components for proper formation and function of its vesicular RNA replication compartments. The results highlight growing but diverse interactions of ESCRT factors with many viruses and viral processes, and potential value of the ESCRT pathway as a target for broad-spectrum antiviral resistance. PMID:25748299

  16. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2007-09-01

    Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) relocalizes and degrades the host DNA repair protein Mre11, and efficiently initiates viral DNA replication. Mre11 associates with Ad E4 mutant DNA replication centers and is important for concatenating viral genomes. We have investigated the role of Mre11 in the E4 mutant DNA replication defect. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mre11 dramatically rescues E4 mutant DNA replication in cells that do or do not concatenate viral genomes, suggesting that Mre11 inhibits DNA replication independent of genome concatenation. The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) protein is involved in recruiting and sustaining Mre11 at sites of DNA damage following ionizing radiation. We observe foci formation by Mdc1 in response to viral infection, indicating that this damage response protein is activated. However, knockdown of Mdc1 does not prevent Mre11 from localizing at viral DNA replication foci or rescue E4 mutant DNA replication. Our results are consistent with a model in which Mre11 interferes with DNA replication when it is localized at viral DNA replication foci.

  17. Ubiquitination of tombusvirus p33 replication protein plays a role in virus replication and binding to the host Vps23p ESCRT protein

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Post-translational modifications of viral replication proteins could be widespread phenomena during the replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. In this paper, we identify two lysines in the tombusvirus p33 replication co-factor involved in ubiquitination and show that the same lysines are also important for the p33 to interact with the host Vps23p ESCRT-I factor. We find that the interaction of p33 with Vps23p is also affected by a "late-domain"-like sequence in p33. The combined mutations of the two lysines and the late-domain-like sequences in p33 reduced replication of a replicon RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus in yeast model host, in plant protoplasts and plant leaves, suggesting that p33-Vps23p ESCRT protein interaction affects tombusvirus replication. Using ubiquitin-mimicking p33 chimeras, we demonstrate that high level of p33 ubiquitination is inhibitory for TBSV replication. These findings argue that optimal level of p33 ubiquitination plays a regulatory role during tombusvirus infections. PMID:20004458

  18. Functional Analysis of DNA Replication Fork Reversal Catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Muniyappa, K.

    2012-01-01

    Initially discovered in Escherichia coli, RuvAB proteins are ubiquitous in bacteria and play a dual role as molecular motor proteins responsible for branch migration of the Holliday junction(s) and reversal of stalled replication forks. Despite mounting genetic evidence for a crucial role of RuvA and RuvB proteins in reversal of stalled replication forks, the mechanistic aspects of this process are still not fully understood. Here, we elucidate the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB (MtRuvAB) complex to catalyze the reversal of replication forks using a range of DNA replication fork substrates. Our studies show that MtRuvAB, unlike E. coli RuvAB, is able to drive replication fork reversal via the formation of Holliday junction intermediates, suggesting that RuvAB-catalyzed fork reversal involves concerted unwinding and annealing of nascent leading and lagging strands. We also demonstrate the reversal of replication forks carrying hemi-replicated DNA, indicating that MtRuvAB complex-catalyzed fork reversal is independent of symmetry at the fork junction. The fork reversal reaction catalyzed by MtRuvAB is coupled to ATP hydrolysis, is processive, and culminates in the formation of an extended reverse DNA arm. Notably, we found that sequence heterology failed to impede the fork reversal activity of MtRuvAB. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of recognition and processing of varied types of replication fork structures by RuvAB proteins. PMID:22094465

  19. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M.; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  20. P1 plasmid replication: measurement of initiator protein concentration in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Swack, J A; Pal, S K; Mason, R J; Abeles, A L; Chattoraj, D K

    1987-01-01

    To study the functions of the mini-P1 replication initiation protein RepA quantitatively, we have developed a method to measure RepA concentration by using immunoblotting. In vivo, there are about 20 RepA dimers per unit-copy plasmid DNA. RepA was deduced to be a dimer from gel filtration of the purified protein. Since there are 14 binding sites of the protein per replicon, the physiological concentration of the protein appears to be sufficiently low to be a rate-limiting factor for replication. Autoregulation is apparently responsible for the low protein level; at the physiological concentration of the protein, the repA promoter retains only 0.1% of its full activity as determined by gene fusions to lacZ. When the concentration is further decreased by a factor of 3 or increased by a factor of 40, replication is no longer detectable. Images PMID:3611028

  1. Human cytomegalovirus RL13 protein interacts with host NUDT14 protein affecting viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanping; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the host and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is important in determining the outcome of a viral infection. The HCMV RL13 gene product exerts independent, inhibitory effects on viral growth in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. At present, there are few reports on the interactions between the HCMV RL13 protein and human host proteins. The present study provided direct evidence for the specific interaction between HCMV RL13 and host nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X (nudix)‑type motif 14 (NUDT14), a UDP‑glucose pyrophosphatase, using two‑hybrid screening, an in vitro glutathione S‑transferase pull‑down assay, and co‑immunoprecipitation in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Additionally, the RL13 protein was shown to co‑localize with the NUDT14 protein in the HEK293 cell membrane and cytoplasm, demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Decreasing the expression level of NUDT14 via NUDT14‑specific small interfering RNAs increased the number of viral DNA copies in the HCMV‑infected cells. However, the overexpression of NUDT14 in a stably expressing cell line did not affect viral DNA levels significantly in the HCMV infected cells. Based on the known functions of NUDT14, the results of the present study suggested that the interaction between the RL13 protein and NUDT14 protein may be involved in HCMV DNA replication, and that NUDT14 may offer potential in the modulation of viral infection. PMID:26781650

  2. Helicases that underpin replication of protein-bound DNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Peter

    2011-04-01

    A pre-requisite for successful cell division in any organism is synthesis of an accurate copy of the genetic information needed for survival. This copying process is a mammoth task, given the amount of DNA that must be duplicated, but potential blocks to replication fork movement also pose a challenge for genome duplication. Damage to the template inhibits the replication machinery but proteins bound to the template such as RNA polymerases also present barriers to replication. This review discusses recent results from Escherichia coli that shed light on the roles of helicases in overcoming protein-DNA barriers to replication and that may illustrate fundamental aspects of how duplication of protein-bound DNA is underpinned in all organisms. PMID:21428948

  3. Novel Mechanism of Regulation of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Replication by Cellular WW-Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Kovalev, Nikolay; Qin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Replication of (+)RNA viruses depends on several co-opted host proteins but is also under the control of cell-intrinsic restriction factors (CIRFs). By using tombusviruses, small model viruses of plants, we dissect the mechanism of inhibition of viral replication by cellular WW-domain-containing proteins, which act as CIRFs. By using fusion proteins between the WW domain and the p33 replication protein, we show that the WW domain inhibits the ability of p33 to bind to the viral RNA and to other p33 and p92 replication proteins leading to inhibition of viral replication in yeast and in a cell extract. Overexpression of WW-domain protein in yeast also leads to reduction of several co-opted host factors in the viral replicase complex (VRC). These host proteins, such as eEF1A, Cdc34 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and ESCRT proteins (Bro1p and Vps4p), are known to be involved in VRC assembly. Simultaneous coexpression of proviral cellular factors with WW-domain protein partly neutralizes the inhibitory effect of the WW-domain protein. We propose that cellular WW-domain proteins act as CIRFs and also as regulators of tombusvirus replication by inhibiting the assembly of new membrane-bound VRCs at the late stage of infection. We suggest that tombusviruses could sense the status of the infected cells via the availability of cellular susceptibility factors versus WW-domain proteins for binding to p33 replication protein that ultimately controls the formation of new VRCs. This regulatory mechanism might explain how tombusviruses could adjust the efficiency of RNA replication to the limiting resources of the host cells during infections. IMPORTANCE Replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses, which are major pathogens of plants, animals, and humans, is inhibited by several cell-intrinsic restriction factors (CIRFs) in infected cells. We define here the inhibitory roles of the cellular Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase and its WW domain in plant-infecting tombusvirus

  4. Interaction between Brome Mosaic Virus Proteins and RNAs: Effects on RNA Replication, Protein Expression, and RNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, K.; Dragnea, B.; Kao, C.

    2005-01-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication has been examined in a number of systems, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed an efficient T-DNA-based gene delivery system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transiently express BMV RNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana. The expressed RNAs can systemically infect plants and provide material to extract BMV replicase that can perform template-dependent RNA-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro. We also expressed the four BMV-encoded proteins from nonreplicating RNAs and analyzed their effects on BMV RNA accumulation. The capsid protein that coinfiltrated with constructs expressing RNA1 and RNA2 suppressed minus-strand levels but increased plus-strand RNA accumulation. The replication proteins 1a and 2a could function in trans to replicate and transcribe the BMV RNAs. None of the BMV proteins or RNA could efficiently suppress posttranscriptional silencing. However, 1a expressed in trans will suppress the production of a recombinant green fluorescent protein expressed from the nontranslated portions of BMV RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting that 1a may regulate translation from BMV RNAs. BMV replicase proteins 1a did not affect the accumulation of the BMV RNAs in the absence of RNA replication, unlike the situation reported for S. cerevisiae. This work demonstrates that the Agrobacterium-mediated gene delivery system can be used to study the cis- and trans-acting requirements for BMV RNA replication in plants and that significant differences can exist for BMV RNA replication in different hosts. PMID:16254357

  5. A novel DNA replication origin identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    A general and sensitive method for the mapping of initiation sites of DNA replication in vivo, developed by Vassilev and Johnson, has revealed replication origins in the region of simian virus 40 ori, in the regions upstream from the human c-myc gene and downstream from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene, and in the enhancer region of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Here we report that the region containing the promoter of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene was identified as a DNA replication origin in HeLa cells by this method. Several segments of the region were cloned into pUC19 and examined for autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity. The plasmids carrying the segments replicated episomally and semiconservatively when transfected into HeLa cells. The segments of ARS activity contained the sequences previously identified as binding sequences for a c-myc protein complex (T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1130:166-174, 1992). Mutations introduced within the c-myc protein complex binding sequences abolished the ARS activity. Moreover, the ARS plasmids stably replicated at episomal state for a long time in established cell lines. The results suggest that the promoter region of the human hsp70 gene plays a role in DNA replication as well as in transcription. Images PMID:8065368

  6. Different roles of the human Orc6 protein in the replication initiation process.

    PubMed

    Thomae, Andreas W; Baltin, Jens; Pich, Dagmar; Deutsch, Manuel J; Ravasz, Máté; Zeller, Krisztina; Gossen, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Wolfgang; Schepers, Aloys

    2011-11-01

    In eukaryotes, binding of the six-subunit origin recognition complex (ORC) to DNA provides an interactive platform for the sequential assembly of pre-replicative complexes. This process licenses replication origins competent for the subsequent initiation step. Here, we analyze the contribution of human Orc6, the smallest subunit of ORC, to DNA binding and pre-replicative complex formation. We show that Orc6 not only interacts with Orc1-Orc5 but also with the initiation factor Cdc6. Biochemical and imaging experiments reveal that this interaction is required for licensing DNA replication competent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Orc6 contributes to the interaction of ORC with the chaperone protein HMGA1a (high mobility group protein A1a). Binding of human ORC to replication origins is not specified at the level of DNA sequence and the functional organization of origins is poorly understood. We have identified HMGA1a as one factor that might direct ORC to AT-rich heterochromatic regions. The systematic analysis of the interaction between ORC and HMGA1a revealed that Orc6 interacts with the acidic C-terminus of HMGA1a and also with its AT-hooks. Both domains support autonomous replication if targeted to DNA templates. As such, Orc6 functions at different stages of the replication initiation process. Orc6 can interact with ORC chaperone proteins such as HMGA1a to facilitate chromatin binding of ORC and is also an essential factor for pre-RC formation. PMID:21461783

  7. Replication stalling at unstable inverted repeats: Interplay between DNA hairpins and fork stabilizing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Voineagu, Irina; Narayanan, Vidhya; Lobachev, Kirill S.; Mirkin, Sergei M.

    2008-01-01

    DNA inverted repeats (IRs) are hotspots of genomic instability in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This feature is commonly attributed to their ability to fold into hairpin- or cruciform-like DNA structures interfering with DNA replication and other genetic processes. However, direct evidence that IRs are replication stall sites in vivo is currently lacking. Here, we show by 2D electrophoretic analysis of replication intermediates that replication forks stall at IRs in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We found that DNA hairpins, rather than DNA cruciforms, are responsible for the replication stalling by comparing the effects of specifically designed imperfect IRs with varying lengths of their central spacer. Finally, we report that yeast fork-stabilizing proteins, Tof1 and Mrc1, are required to counteract repeat-mediated replication stalling. We show that the function of the Tof1 protein at DNA structure-mediated stall sites is different from its previously described effect on protein-mediated replication fork barriers. PMID:18632578

  8. Uracil DNA Glycosylase BKRF3 Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Replication through Physical Interactions with Proteins in Viral DNA Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmunoprecipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme

  9. A Unique Role for the Host ESCRT Proteins in Replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Jiang, Yi; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Plus-stranded RNA viruses replicate in infected cells by assembling viral replicase complexes consisting of viral- and host-coded proteins. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host revealed the involvement of seven ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. In this paper, we show that the expression of dominant negative Vps23p, Vps24p, Snf7p, and Vps4p ESCRT factors inhibited virus replication in the plant host, suggesting that tombusviruses co-opt selected ESCRT proteins for the assembly of the viral replicase complex. We also show that TBSV p33 replication protein interacts with Vps23p ESCRT-I and Bro1p accessory ESCRT factors. The interaction with p33 leads to the recruitment of Vps23p to the peroxisomes, the sites of TBSV replication. The viral replicase showed reduced activity and the minus-stranded viral RNA in the replicase became more accessible to ribonuclease when derived from vps23Δ or vps24Δ yeast, suggesting that the protection of the viral RNA is compromised within the replicase complex assembled in the absence of ESCRT proteins. The recruitment of ESCRT proteins is needed for the precise assembly of the replicase complex, which might help the virus evade recognition by the host defense surveillance system and/or prevent viral RNA destruction by the gene silencing machinery. PMID:20041173

  10. Protein aggregates are associated with replicative aging without compromising protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Saarikangas, Juha; Barral, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of cellular lineages is facilitated by asymmetric segregation of fate determinants between dividing cells. In budding yeast, various aging factors segregate to the aging (mother)-lineage, with poorly understood consequences. In this study, we show that yeast mother cells form a protein aggregate during early replicative aging that is maintained as a single, asymmetrically inherited deposit over the remaining lifespan. Surprisingly, deposit formation was not associated with stress or general decline in proteostasis. Rather, the deposit-containing cells displayed enhanced degradation of cytosolic proteasome substrates and unimpaired clearance of stress-induced protein aggregates. Deposit formation was dependent on Hsp42, which collected non-random client proteins of the Hsp104/Hsp70-refolding machinery, including the prion Sup35. Importantly, loss of Hsp42 resulted in symmetric inheritance of its constituents and prolonged the lifespan of the mother cell. Together, these data suggest that protein aggregation is an early aging-associated differentiation event in yeast, having a two-faceted role in organismal fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06197.001 PMID:26544680

  11. Inhibition of tomato yellow leaf curl virus replication by artificial zinc-finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Koshino-Kimura, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we designed an artificial zinc-finger protein (AZP) for blocking a replication protein (Rep) of beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) from binding to its replication origin and demonstrated that transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the AZP are completely resistant to the virus infection. Here we applied the AZP technology to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infective to an important agricultural crop, tomato. We designed an AZP binding to the direct repeat to block the TYLCV Rep binding and confirmed in gel shift assays that the designed AZP has a higher affinity to the replication origin than that of Rep. Furthermore, we demonstrated in competitive binding assays that the AZP effectively inhibited the Rep binding in vitro. We discuss properties of the AZP for inhibition of TYLCV replication in detail. PMID:18029770

  12. A Novel DNA Motif Contributes to Selective Replication of a Geminivirus-Associated Betasatellite by a Helper Virus-Encoded Replication-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Xu, Xiongbiao; Huang, Changjun; Qian, Yajuan; Li, Zhenghe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rolling-circle replication of single-stranded genomes of plant geminiviruses is initiated by sequence-specific DNA binding of the viral replication-related protein (Rep) to its cognate genome at the replication origin. Monopartite begomovirus-associated betasatellites can be trans replicated by both cognate and some noncognate helper viruses, but the molecular basis of replication promiscuity of betasatellites remains uncharacterized. Earlier studies showed that when tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) or tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) is coinoculated with both cognate and noncognate betasatellites, the cognate betasatellite dominates over the noncognate one at the late stages of infection. In this study, we constructed reciprocal chimeric betasatellites between tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite and tobacco curly shoot betasatellite and assayed their competitiveness against wild-type betasatellite when coinoculated with TYLCCNV or TbCSV onto plants. We mapped a region immediately upstream of the conserved rolling-circle cruciform structure of betasatellite origin that confers the cognate Rep-mediated replication advantage over the noncognate satellite. DNase I protection and in vitro binding assays further identified a novel sequence element termed Rep-binding motif (RBM), which specifically binds to the cognate Rep protein and to the noncognate Rep, albeit at lower affinity. Furthermore, we showed that RBM-Rep binding affinity is correlated with betasatellite replication efficiency in protoplasts. Our data suggest that although strict specificity of Rep-mediated replication does not exist, betasatellites have adapted to their cognate Reps for efficient replication during coevolution. IMPORTANCE Begomoviruses are numerous circular DNA viruses that cause devastating diseases of crops worldwide. Monopartite begomoviruses are frequently associated with betasatellites which are essential for induction of typical disease symptoms

  13. HIV Vpr protein upregulates microRNA-122 expression and stimulates hepatitis C virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Milin; Xiao, Xinqiang; He, Yan; Jiang, Yongfang; Zhang, Min; Peng, Feng; Tian, Yi; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is characterized by higher serum HCV RNA loads compared with HCV mono-infection. However, the relationship between HIV and HCV replication remains to be clarified. HIV Vpr has been shown to play an essential role in HIV replication. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Vpr in HCV replication and pathogenesis. We therefore used the genotype 2a full-length HCV strain JFH1 infection system and the genotype 1b full-length HCV replicon OR6 cell line to analyse the effects of Vpr on HCV replication. We found that Vpr promoted HCV 5′ UTR activity, HCV RNA replication and HCV protein expression in two HCV infection cell models. Additionally, lymphocyte-produced Vpr significantly induced HCV 5′ UTR activity and HCV replication in hepatocytes. We also found that Vpr upregulated the expression of miR-122 by stimulating its promoter activity. Furthermore, an miR-122 inhibitor suppressed the Vpr-mediated enhancement of both HCV 5′ UTR activity and HCV replication. In summary, our results revealed that the Vpr-upregulated expression of miR-122 is closely related to the stimulation of HCV 5′ UTR activity and HCV replication by Vpr, providing new evidence for how HIV interacts with HCV during HIV/HCV co-infection. PMID:25920531

  14. A Host Small GTP-binding Protein ARL8 Plays Crucial Roles in Tobamovirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5′-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions. PMID:22174675

  15. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions. PMID:22174675

  16. Structure and Function of the PriC DNA Replication Restart Protein.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Sarah R; Cornilescu, Claudia C; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Metz, Alice; Leroux, Maxime; Hu, Kaifeng; Sandler, Steven J; Markley, John L; Keck, James L

    2016-08-26

    Collisions between DNA replication complexes (replisomes) and barriers such as damaged DNA or tightly bound protein complexes can dissociate replisomes from chromosomes prematurely. Replisomes must be reloaded under these circumstances to avoid incomplete replication and cell death. Bacteria have evolved multiple pathways that initiate DNA replication restart by recognizing and remodeling abandoned replication forks and reloading the replicative helicase. In vitro, the simplest of these pathways is mediated by the single-domain PriC protein, which, along with the DnaC helicase loader, can load the DnaB replicative helicase onto DNA bound by the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB). Previous biochemical studies have identified PriC residues that mediate interactions with ssDNA and SSB. However, the mechanisms by which PriC drives DNA replication restart have remained poorly defined due to the limited structural information available for PriC. Here, we report the NMR structure of full-length PriC from Cronobacter sakazakii PriC forms a compact bundle of α-helices that brings together residues involved in ssDNA and SSB binding at adjacent sites on the protein surface. Disruption of these interaction sites and of other conserved residues leads to decreased DnaB helicase loading onto SSB-bound DNA. We also demonstrate that PriC can directly interact with DnaB and the DnaB·DnaC complex. These data lead to a model in which PriC acts as a scaffold for recruiting DnaB·DnaC to SSB/ssDNA sites present at stalled replication forks. PMID:27382050

  17. 3C protein of feline coronavirus inhibits viral replication independently of the autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Li-En; Huang, Wei-Pang; Tang, Da-Jay; Wang, Ying-Ting; Chen, Ching-Tang; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-12-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) can cause either asymptomatic enteric infection or fatal peritonitis in cats. Although the mutation of FCoV accessory gene 3c has been suggested to be related to the occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), how the 3C protein is involved in this phenomenon remains unknown. To investigate the role of the 3C protein, a full-length 3c gene was transiently expressed and the cytoplasmic distribution of the protein was found to be primarily in the perinuclear region. Using 3c-stable expression cells, the replication of a 3c-defective FCoV strain was titrated and a significant decrease in replication (p<0.05) was observed. The mechanism underlying the decreased FIPV replication caused by the 3C protein was further investigated; neither the induction nor inhibition of autophagy rescued the viral replication. Taken together, our data suggest that the 3C protein might have a virulence-suppressing effect in FCoV-infected cats. Deletion of the 3c gene could therefore cause more efficient viral replication, which leads to a fatal infection. PMID:24050534

  18. Cyclophilin A Restricts Influenza A Virus Replication through Degradation of the M1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chongfeng; Sun, Lei; Chen, Jilong; Zhang, Lianfeng; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a typical member of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases and is involved in the replication of several viruses. Previous studies indicate that CypA interacts with influenza virus M1 protein and impairs the early stage of the viral replication. To further understand the molecular mechanism by which CypA impairs influenza virus replication, a 293T cell line depleted for endogenous CypA was established. The results indicated that CypA inhibited the initiation of virus replication. In addition, the infectivity of influenza virus increased in the absence of CypA. Further studies indicated that CypA had no effect on the stages of virus genome replication or transcription and also did not impair the nuclear export of the viral mRNA. However, CypA decreased the viral protein level. Additional studies indicated that CypA enhanced the degradation of M1 through the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that CypA restricts influenza virus replication through accelerating degradation of the M1 protein. PMID:22347431

  19. phiX174 cistron A protein is a multifunctional enzyme in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S; Griffith, J; Kornberg, A

    1977-08-01

    The cistron A protein induced by phage varphiX174 nicks (produces a single-strand break in) the viral strand of the superhelical varphiX duplex DNA, thereby forming a complex with the DNA. The protein, seen bound to the DNA in the electron microscope, was located in the restriction endonuclease fragment between nucleotides 4290 and 4330 on the varphiX map [Sanger, F., Air, G. M., Barrel, B. G., Brown, N. L., Coulson, A. R., Fiddes, J. C., Hutchison, C. A., III, Slocomb, P. M. Y. & Smith, M. (1977) Nature 265, 687-695]. Replication also was initiated at this point, thus identifying the site of cistron A protein nicking and binding as the origin of replication. The cisA-DNA complex (separated from free cistron A protein), upon the addition of Escherichia coli rep protein, ATP, and DNA binding protein, is unwound to generate a single-stranded linear [presumably the nicked (+) strand] and a circular [presumably the (-) strand] molecule. The cisA-DNA complex, upon the further addition of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme and deoxynucleoside triphosphates, supports replication to generate viral, single-stranded circles, as many as 15 circles per cisA-DNA complex. The replicating intermediates seen in the electron microscope are a novel form of "rolling circle" [Gilbert, W. & Dressler, D. H. (1969) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 33, 473-485]. The 5' end (presumably with the cistron A protein bound to it) is locked in the replication fork and loops back to accompany the strand-separation and replication fork around the template [(-) strand] circle. Thus, the multiple functions of cistron A protein include: (i) nicking the viral strand at the origin of replication to initiate a round of replication, (ii) participating in a complex which supports fork movement in strand separation and replication, (iii) nicking again at the regenerated origin to produce a unit-length DNA, and (iv) ligating the newly generated 3'-OH end to the 5'-phosphate-complexed end to form a circular

  20. Identification and functional characterization of Bet protein as a negative regulator of BFV3026 replication.

    PubMed

    Bing, Tiejun; Wu, Kai; Cui, Xiaoxu; Shao, Peng; Zhang, Qicheng; Bai, Xiaobo; Tan, Juan; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-06-01

    Foamy virus (FV) establishes persistent infection in the host without causing apparent disease. Besides the transactivator Tas protein, another auxiliary protein--Bet--has been reported in prototype foamy virus, equine foamy virus, and feline foamy virus. Here, we found the putative bbet gene in clone C74 from a cDNA library of bovine foamy virus strain 3026 (BFV3026) by comparison of gene localization, composition, and splicing features with other known bet genes. Subsequently, BBet protein was detected in BFV3026-infected cells by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Analysis of the BBet mutant infectious clone (pBS-BFVdelBBet) revealed that BBet could inhibit BFV3026 replication. Consistent with this result, overexpression of BBet in Cf2Th cells reduced BFV replication by approximately threefold. Furthermore, virus replication levels similarly were reduced by approximately threefold in pBS-BFV-transfected and BFV3026-infected Cf2Th cells stably expressing BBet compared with control cells. After three passages, BFV3026 replicated more slowly in BBet-expressing cells. This study implicates BBet as a negative regulator of BFV replication and provides a resource for future studies on the function of this protein in the virus lifecycle. PMID:24615636

  1. A versatile transreplication-based system to identify cellular proteins involved in geminivirus replication.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Gabriel; Castillo, Araceli G; Preiss, Werner; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2006-04-01

    A versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette containing the replication origins of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is described. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants containing one copy of the cassette stably integrated into their genome were superinfected with TYLCSV, which mobilized and replicated the cassette as an episomal replicon. The expression of the reporter gene (the GFP gene) was thereby modified. Whereas GFP fluorescence was dimmed in the intercostal areas, an increase of green fluorescence in veins of all leaves placed above the inoculation site, as well as in transport tissues of roots and stems, was observed. The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV. This expression system is able to monitor the replication status of TYLCSV in plants, as induction of GFP expression is only produced in those tissues where Rep is present. To further confirm this notion, the expression of a host factor required for geminivirus replication, the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) was transiently silenced. Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing. PMID:16537630

  2. A Versatile Transreplication-Based System To Identify Cellular Proteins Involved in Geminivirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Castillo, Araceli G.; Preiss, Werner; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2006-01-01

    A versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette containing the replication origins of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is described. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants containing one copy of the cassette stably integrated into their genome were superinfected with TYLCSV, which mobilized and replicated the cassette as an episomal replicon. The expression of the reporter gene (the GFP gene) was thereby modified. Whereas GFP fluorescence was dimmed in the intercostal areas, an increase of green fluorescence in veins of all leaves placed above the inoculation site, as well as in transport tissues of roots and stems, was observed. The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV. This expression system is able to monitor the replication status of TYLCSV in plants, as induction of GFP expression is only produced in those tissues where Rep is present. To further confirm this notion, the expression of a host factor required for geminivirus replication, the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) was transiently silenced. Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing. PMID:16537630

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase B mediates an oxygen-dependent replication switch

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-07

    In the majority of cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by little or no bacterial replication and drug tolerance. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Mtb encodes eleven serine/threonine protein kinases, a family of signaling molecules known to regulate similar replicative adaptations in other bacteria. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in hypoxia. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle - active disease, latency, and reactivation.

  4. ITRACONAZOLE INHIBITS ENTEROVIRUS REPLICATION BY TARGETING THE OXYSTEROL-BINDING PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Strating, Jeroen R.P.M.; van der Linden, Lonneke; Albulescu, Lucian; Bigay, Joëlle; Arita, Minetaro; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Ulferts, Rachel; Drin, Guillaume; Schlinck, Nina; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Sever, Navdar; Head, Sarah A.; Liu, Jun O.; Beachy, Philip A.; De Matteis, Maria A.; Shair, Matthew D.; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Itraconazole (ITZ) is a well-known antifungal agent that also has anti-cancer activity. In this study, we identified ITZ as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-71, rhinovirus). We demonstrate that ITZ inhibits viral RNA replication by targeting oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related protein 4 (ORP4). Consistently, OSW-1, a specific OSBP/ORP4 antagonist, also inhibits enterovirus replication. Knockdown of OSBP inhibits virus replication whereas overexpression of OSBP or ORP4 counteracts the antiviral effects of ITZ and OSW-1. ITZ binds OSBP and inhibits its function, i.e. shuttling of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate between membranes, thereby likely perturbing the virus-induced membrane alterations essential for viral replication organelle formation. ITZ also inhibits hepatitis C virus replication, which also relies on OSBP. Together, these data implicate OSBP/ORP4 as novel molecular targets of ITZ and point to an essential role of OSBP/ORP4-mediated lipid exchange in virus replication that can be targeted by antiviral drugs. PMID:25640182

  5. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication.

    PubMed

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M; Androphy, Elliot J

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. PMID:25666521

  6. Characterization of the nuclear localization signals of duck circovirus replication proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wu, Z; Xiang, Q; Li, Z; Zhang, R; Chen, J; Xia, L; Lin, S; Yu, W; Ma, Z; Xie, Z; Jiang, S

    2015-12-01

    Duck circovirus (DuCV) possess a circular, single-stranded DNA genome that requires the replication protein (Rep) for its replication. Based on the viral genotype, there are two categories of Rep proteins: Rep1 and Rep2. To characterize the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) conferring the nuclear localization of the Rep proteins, defined coding regions of the rep gene of two genotypes of DuCV were cloned and co-expressed with the red fluorescent protein DsRed2. The results showed that deleting the putative N-terminal NLS located at amino acid residues 10-37 of Rep1 and Rep2 abrogated nuclear translocation, while deleting the putative C-terminal NLS located at residues 244-274 of Rep1 did not significantly alter its subcellular localization, confirming that only the NLS located at residues 10-37 in the N-termini of the Rep proteins had nuclear targeting activity. PMID:26666192

  7. Regulation of DNA replication proteins in parasitic protozoans: possible role of CDK-like kinases.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Abhijit S; Agarwal, Meetu; Dhar, Suman Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory roles of CDKs in fundamental processes including cell cycle progression and transcription are well conserved in metazoans. This family of proteins has undergone significant evolutionary divergence and specialization. Several CDK-like kinases have been identified and characterized in parasitic protozoans. However, clear functional role and physiological relevance of these proteins in protozoans still remain elusive. In continuation with the recent finding that CDK-like protein PfPK5 regulates important DNA replication protein like origin recognition complex subunit 1 in Plasmodium falciparum, here we have discussed the emerging significance of CDK1/2 homologs in DNA replication of parasitic protozoans. In fact, involvement of these proteins in crucial cellular processes projects them as potential drug targets. The possibilities that CDKs offer as potential therapeutic targets in controlling parasite progression have also been explored. PMID:26780367

  8. Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor of Replication Protein A Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Fragment Linking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Andreas O.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Waterson, Alex G.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Patrone, James D.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Camper, DeMarco V.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein-protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA damage response and sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein-protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N-ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA. PMID:24147804

  9. The critical protein interactions and structures that elicit growth deregulation in cancer and viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Horng D.; May, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to define the critical targets and network interactions that are subverted to elicit growth deregulation in human cells. Understanding and developing rational treatments for cancer requires a definition of the key molecular targets and how they interact to elicit the complex growth deregulation phenotype. Viral proteins provide discerning and powerful probes to understand both how cells work and how they can be manipulated using a minimal number of components. The small DNA viruses have evolved to target inherent weaknesses in cellular protein interaction networks to hijack the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery. In the battle to escape the inevitability of senescence and programmed cell death, cancers have converged on similar mechanisms, through the acquisition and selection of somatic mutations that drive unchecked cellular replication in tumors. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms through which a minimal number of viral proteins promote host cells to undergo unscheduled and pathological replication is a powerful strategy to identify critical targets that are also disrupted in cancer. Viruses can therefore be used as tools to probe the system-wide protein-protein interactions and structures that drive growth deregulation in human cells. Ultimately this can provide a path for developing system context-dependent therapeutics. This review will describe ongoing experimental approaches using viruses to study pathways deregulated in cancer, with a particular focus on viral cellular protein-protein interactions and structures. PMID:21061422

  10. The critical protein interactions and structures that elicit growth deregulation in cancer and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Ou, Horng D; May, Andrew P; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to define the critical targets and network interactions that are subverted to elicit growth deregulation in human cells. Understanding and developing rational treatments for cancer requires a definition of the key molecular targets and how they interact to elicit the complex growth deregulation phenotype. Viral proteins provide discerning and powerful probes to understand both how cells work and how they can be manipulated using a minimal number of components. The small DNA viruses have evolved to target inherent weaknesses in cellular protein interaction networks to hijack the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery. In the battle to escape the inevitability of senescence and programmed cell death, cancers have converged on similar mechanisms, through the acquisition and selection of somatic mutations that drive unchecked cellular replication in tumors. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms through which a minimal number of viral proteins promote host cells to undergo unscheduled and pathological replication is a powerful strategy to identify critical targets that are also disrupted in cancer. Viruses can therefore be used as tools to probe the system-wide protein-protein interactions and structures that drive growth deregulation in human cells. Ultimately this can provide a path for developing system context-dependent therapeutics. This review will describe ongoing experimental approaches using viruses to study pathways deregulated in cancer, with a particular focus on viral cellular protein-protein interactions and structures. PMID:21061422

  11. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  12. The Escherichia coli Fis protein prevents initiation of DNA replication from oriC in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Wold, S; Crooke, E; Skarstad, K

    1996-01-01

    Fis protein participates in the normal control of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli. However, the mechanism by which it executes its effect is largely unknown. We demonstrate an inhibitory influence of purified Fis protein on replication from oriC in vitro. Fis inhibits DNA synthesis equally well in replication systems either dependent upon or independent of RNA polymerase, even when the latter is stimulated by the presence of HU or IHF. The extent of inhibition by Fis is modulated by the concentrations of DnaA protein and RNA polymerase; the more limiting the amounts of these, the more severe the inhibition by Fis. Thus, the level of inhibition seems to depend on the ease with which the open complex can be formed. Fis-mediated inhibition of DNA replication does not depend on a functional primary Fis binding site between DnaA boxes R2 and R3 in oriC, as mutations that cause reduced binding of Fis to this site do not affect the degree of inhibition. The data presented suggest that Fis prevents formation of an initiation-proficient structure at oriC by forming an alternative, initiation-preventive complex. This indicates a negative role for Fis in the regulation of replication initiation. PMID:8836178

  13. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of the replication initiator protein DnaA

    SciTech Connect

    Wemmer, David E.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Rosalind; Yokota, Hisao; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-08-07

    DnaA is an essential component in the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication. DnaA binds to a series of 9 base pair repeats leading to oligomerization, recruitment of the DnaBC helicase, and the assembly of the replication fork machinery. The structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-100) of DnaA from Mycoplasma genitalium was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The backbone r.m.s.d. for the first 86 residues was 0.6 +/- 0.2 Angstrom based on 742 NOE, 50 hydrogen bond, 46 backbone angle, and 88 residual dipolar coupling restraints. Ultracentrifugation studies revealed that the domain is monomeric in solution. Features on the protein surface include a hydrophobic cleft flanked by several negative residues on one side, and positive residues on the other. A negatively charged ridge is present on the opposite face of the protein. These surfaces may be important sites of interaction with other proteins involved in the replication process. Together, the structure and NMR assignments should facilitate the design of new experiments to probe the protein-protein interactions essential for the initiation of DNA replication.

  14. Protein import, replication, and inheritance of a vestigial mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Regoes, Attila; Zourmpanou, Danai; León-Avila, Gloria; van der Giezen, Mark; Tovar, Jorge; Hehl, Adrian B

    2005-08-26

    Mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes) that exist in a range of "amitochondrial" eukaryotic organisms represent ideal models for the study of mitochondrial evolution and for the establishment of the minimal set of proteins required for the biogenesis of an endosymbiosis-derived organelle. Giardia intestinalis, often described as the earliest branching eukaryote, contains double membrane-bounded structures involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, an essential function of mitochondria. Here we present evidence that Giardia mitosomes also harbor Cpn60, mtHsp70, and ferredoxin and that despite their advanced state of reductive evolution they have retained vestiges of presequence-dependent and -independent protein import pathways akin to those that operate in mammalian mitochondria. Although import of IscU and ferredoxin is still reliant on their amino-terminal presequences, targeting of Giardia Cpn60, IscS, or mtHsp70 into mitosomes no longer requires cleavable presequences, a derived feature from their mitochondrial homologues. In addition, we found that division and segregation of a single centrally positioned mitosome tightly associated with the microtubular cytoskeleton is coordinated with the cell cycle, whereas peripherally located mitosomes are inherited into daughter cells stochastically. PMID:15985435

  15. Replication of alfamo- and ilarviruses: role of the coat protein.

    PubMed

    Bol, John F

    2005-01-01

    In the family Bromoviridae, a mixture of the three genomic RNAs of bromo-, cucumo-, and oleaviruses is infectious as such, whereas the RNAs of alfamo- and ilarviruses require binding of a few molecules of coat protein (CP) to the 3' end to initiate infection. Most studies on the early function of CP have been done on the alfamovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). The 3' 112 nucleotides of AMV RNAs can adopt two different conformations. One conformer consists of a tRNA-like structure that, together with an upstream hairpin, is required for minus-strand promoter activity. The other conformer consists of four hairpins interspersed by AUGC-sequences and represents a strong binding site for CP. Binding of CP to this conformer enhances the translational efficiency of viral RNAs in vivo 40-fold and blocks viral minus-strand RNA synthesis in vitro. AMV CP is proposed to initiate infection by mimicking the function of the poly(A)-binding protein. PMID:16078876

  16. Subcellular localization of host and viral proteins associated with tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yuka; Komoda, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Takuya; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Funada, Ryo; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2003-01-15

    Arabidopsis TOM1 (AtTOM1) and TOM2A (AtTOM2A) are integral membrane proteins genetically identified to be necessary for efficient intracellular multiplication of tobamoviruses. AtTOM1 interacts with the helicase domain polypeptide of tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins and with AtTOM2A, suggesting that both AtTOM1 and AtTOM2A are integral components of the tobamovirus replication complex. We show here that AtTOM1 and AtTOM2A proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) are targeted to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast)-like structures in plant cells. In subcellular fractionation analyses, GFP-AtTOM2A, AtTOM2A and its tobacco homolog NtTOM2A were predominantly fractionated to low-density tonoplast-rich fractions, whereas AtTOM1-GFP, AtTOM1 and its tobacco homolog NtTOM1 were distributed mainly into the tonoplast-rich fractions and partially into higher-buoyant-density fractions containing membranes from several other organelles. The tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins were co-fractionated with both NtTOM1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. The replication proteins were also found in the fractions containing non-membrane-bound proteins, but neither NtTOM1 nor the polymerase activity was detected there. These observations suggest that the formation of tobamoviral RNA replication complex occurs on TOM1-containing membranes and is facilitated by TOM2A. PMID:12514140

  17. Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by Balsamin, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein of Momordica balsamina

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Mangeat, Bastien; Piguet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4+ T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections. PMID:24040067

  18. HBx protein of hepatitis B virus promotes reinitiation of DNA replication by regulating expression and intracellular stability of replication licensing factor CDC6.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-06-01

    Prevention of re-replication via negative regulation of replication initiator proteins, such as CDC6, is key to maintenance of genomic integrity, whereas their up-regulation is generally associated with perturbation in cell cycle, genomic instability, and potentially, tumorigenesis. The HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus is well known to deregulate cell cycle and has been intricately linked to development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite a clear understanding of the proliferative effects of HBx on cell cycle, a mechanistic link between HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis and host cell DNA replication remains poorly perused. Here we show that HBx overexpression in both the cellular as well as the transgenic environment resulted in the accumulation of CDC6 through transcriptional and post-translational up-regulation. The HBx-mediated increase in CDK2 activity altered the E2F1-Rb (retinoblastoma) balance, which favored CDC6 gene expression by E2F1. Besides, HBx impaired the APC(Cdh1)-dependent protein degradation pathway and conferred intracellular stability to CDC6 protein. Increase in CDC6 levels correlated with increase in CDC6 occupancy on the β-globin origin of replication, suggesting increment in origin licensing and re-replication. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest a novel role for CDC6 in abetting the oncogenic sabotage carried out by HBx and support the paradigm that pre-replicative complex proteins have a role in oncogenic transformation. PMID:22523071

  19. Cellular Casein Kinase 2 and Protein Phosphatase 2A Modulate Replication Site Assembly of Bluetongue Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Mohl, Bjorn-Patrick; Roy, Polly

    2016-01-01

    A number of cytoplasmic replicating viruses produce cytoplasmic inclusion bodies or protein aggregates; however, a hallmark of viruses of the Reoviridae family is that they utilize these sites for purposes of replication and capsid assembly, functioning as viral assembly factories. Here we have used bluetongue virus (BTV) as a model system for this broad family of important viruses to understand the mechanisms regulating inclusion body assembly. Newly synthesized viral proteins interact with sequestered viral RNA molecules prior to capsid assembly and double-stranded RNA synthesis within viral inclusion bodies (VIBs). VIBs are predominantly comprised of a BTV-encoded non-structural protein 2 (NS2). Previous in vitro studies indicated that casein kinase 2 (CK2) mediated the phosphorylation of NS2, which regulated the propensity of NS2 to form larger aggregates. Using targeted pharmacological reagents, specific mutation in the viral genome by reverse genetics and confocal microscopy, here we demonstrate that CK2 activity is important for BTV replication. Furthermore, we show that a novel host cell factor, protein phosphatase 2A, is involved in NS2 dephosphorylation and that, together with CK2, it regulates VIB morphology and virus replication. Thus, these two host enzymes influence the dynamic nature of VIB assembly/disassembly, and these concerted activities may be relevant to the assembly and the release of these cores from VIBs. PMID:27226558

  20. Replication protein A subunit 3 and the iron efficiency response in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], iron deficiency results in interveinal chlorosis and decreased photosynthetic capacity, leading to stunting and yield loss. In this study, gene expression analyses investigated the role of soybean replication protein A (RPA) subunits during iron stress. Nine RP...

  1. The Drosophila suppressor of underreplication protein binds to late-replicating regions of polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Makunin, I V; Volkova, E I; Belyaeva, E S; Nabirochkina, E N; Pirrotta, V; Zhimulev, I F

    2002-01-01

    In many late-replicating euchromatic regions of salivary gland polytene chromosomes, DNA is underrepresented. A mutation in the SuUR gene suppresses underreplication and leads to normal levels of DNA polytenization in these regions. We identified the SuUR gene and determined its structure. In the SuUR mutant stock a 6-kb insertion was found in the fourth exon of the gene. A single SuUR transcript is present at all stages of Drosophila development and is most abundant in adult females and embryos. The SuUR gene encodes a protein of 962 amino acids whose putative sequence is similar to the N-terminal part of SNF2/SWI2 proteins. Staining of salivary gland polytene chromosomes with antibodies directed against the SuUR protein shows that the protein is localized mainly in late-replicating regions and in regions of intercalary and pericentric heterochromatin. PMID:11901119

  2. Novel checkpoint response to genotoxic stress mediated by nucleolin-replication protein a complex formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung; Dimitrova, Diana D; Carta, Kristine M; Saxena, Anjana; Daras, Mariza; Borowiec, James A

    2005-03-01

    Human replication protein A (RPA), the primary single-stranded DNA-binding protein, was previously found to be inhibited after heat shock by complex formation with nucleolin. Here we show that nucleolin-RPA complex formation is stimulated after genotoxic stresses such as treatment with camptothecin or exposure to ionizing radiation. Complex formation in vitro and in vivo requires a 63-residue glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) domain located at the extreme C terminus of nucleolin, with this domain sufficient to inhibit DNA replication in vitro. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies demonstrate that the nucleolin-RPA interaction after stress occurs both in the nucleoplasm and in the nucleolus. Expression of the GAR domain or a nucleolin mutant (TM) with a constitutive interaction with RPA is sufficient to inhibit entry into S phase. Increasing cellular RPA levels by overexpression of the RPA2 subunit minimizes the inhibitory effects of nucleolin GAR or TM expression on chromosomal DNA replication. The arrest is independent of p53 activation by ATM or ATR and does not involve heightened expression of p21. Our data reveal a novel cellular mechanism that represses genomic replication in response to genotoxic stress by inhibition of an essential DNA replication factor. PMID:15743838

  3. Effect of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 deficiency on the locations of DNA replication origins

    PubMed Central

    Kunnev, Dimiter; Freeland, Amy; Qin, Maochun; Leach, Robert W.; Wang, Jianmin; Shenoy, Rajani M.

    2015-01-01

    Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are loaded onto chromatin during G1-phase and define potential locations of DNA replication initiation. MCM protein deficiency results in genome instability and high rates of cancer in mouse models. Here we develop a method of nascent strand capture and release and show that MCM2 deficiency reduces DNA replication initiation in gene-rich regions of the genome. DNA structural properties are shown to correlate with sequence motifs associated with replication origins and with locations that are preferentially affected by MCM2 deficiency. Reduced nascent strand density correlates with sites of recurrent focal CNVs in tumors arising in MCM2-deficient mice, consistent with a direct relationship between sites of reduced DNA replication initiation and genetic damage. Between 10% and 90% of human tumors, depending on type, carry heterozygous loss or mutation of one or more MCM2-7 genes, which is expected to compromise DNA replication origin licensing and result in elevated rates of genome damage at a subset of gene-rich locations. PMID:25762552

  4. SUMO Modification Stabilizes Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 5 To Support Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chan-I; Tseng, Chung-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) participates in a reversible posttranslational modification process (SUMOylation) that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes and plays important roles for numerous viruses during infection. However, the roles of viral protein SUMOylation in dengue virus (DENV) infection have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that the SUMOylation pathway was involved in the DENV life cycle, since DENV replication was reduced by silencing the cellular gene Ubc9, which encodes the sole E2-conjugating enzyme required for SUMOylation. By in vivo and in vitro SUMOylation assays, the DENV NS5 protein was identified as an authentic SUMO-targeted protein. By expressing various NS5 mutants, we found that the SUMO acceptor sites are located in the N-terminal domain of NS5 and that a putative SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) of this domain is crucial for its SUMOylation. A DENV replicon harboring the SUMOylation-defective SIM mutant showed a severe defect in viral RNA replication, supporting the notion that NS5 SUMOylation is required for DENV replication. SUMOylation-defective mutants also failed to suppress the induction of STAT2-mediated host antiviral interferon signaling. Furthermore, the SUMOylation of NS5 significantly increased the stability of NS5 protein, which could account for most of the biological functions of SUMOylated NS5. Collectively, these findings suggest that the SUMOylation of DENV NS5 is one of the mechanisms regulating DENV replication. IMPORTANCE SUMOylation is a common posttranslational modification that regulates cellular protein functions but has not been reported in the proteins of dengue virus. Here, we found that the replicase of DENV, nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), can be SUMOylated. It is well known that providing RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and antagonizing host antiviral IFN signaling are a “double indemnity” of NS5 to support DENV replication. Without SUMOylation, NS5 fails to

  5. DRC1, DNA replication and checkpoint protein 1, functions with DPB11 to control DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Elledge, S J

    1999-03-30

    In addition to DNA polymerase complexes, DNA replication requires the coordinate action of a series of proteins, including regulators Cdc28/Clb and Dbf4/Cdc7 kinases, Orcs, Mcms, Cdc6, Cdc45, and Dpb11. Of these, Dpb11, an essential BRCT repeat protein, has remained particularly enigmatic. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of DPB11, cut5, has been implicated in the DNA replication checkpoint as has the POL2 gene with which DPB11 genetically interacts. Here we describe a gene, DRC1, isolated as a dosage suppressor of dpb11-1. DRC1 is an essential cell cycle-regulated gene required for DNA replication. We show that both Dpb11 and Drc1 are required for the S-phase checkpoint, including the proper activation of the Rad53 kinase in response to DNA damage and replication blocks. Dpb11 is the second BRCT-repeat protein shown to control Rad53 function, possibly indicating a general function for this class of proteins. DRC1 and DPB11 show synthetic lethality and reciprocal dosage suppression. The Drc1 and Dpb11 proteins physically associate and function together to coordinate DNA replication and the cell cycle. PMID:10097122

  6. Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor of Replication Protein A Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Fragment-Linking Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Andreas O.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Waterson, Alex G.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Patrone, James D.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Camper, DeMarco V.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-10-22

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA-damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein–protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA-damage response and to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein–protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N–ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA.

  7. The heat-shock DnaK protein is required for plasmid R1 replication and it is dispensable for plasmid ColE1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo-Suárez, R; Fernández-Tresguerres, E; Díaz-Orejas, R; Malki, A; Kohiyama, M

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid R1 replication in vitro is inactive in extracts prepared from a dnaK756 strain but is restored to normal levels upon addition of purified DnaK protein. Replication of R1 in extracts of a dnaKwt strain can be specifically inhibited with polyclonal antibodies against DnaK. RepA-dependent replication of R1 in dnaK756 extracts supplemented with DnaKwt protein at maximum concentration is partially inhibited by rifampicin and it is severely inhibited at sub-optimal concentrations of DnaK protein. The copy number of a run-away R1 vector is reduced in a dnaK756 background at 30 degrees C and at 42 degrees C the amplification of the run-away R1 vector is prevented. However a runaway R1 vector containing dnaK gene allows the amplification of the plasmid at high temperature. These data indicate that DnaK is required for both in vitro and in vivo replication of plasmid R1 and show a partial compensation for the low level of DnaK by RNA polymerase. In contrast ColE1 replication is not affected by DnaK as indicated by the fact that ColE1 replicates with the same efficiency in extracts from dnaKwt and dnaK756 strains. Images PMID:8265367

  8. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaA(ATP) is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  9. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaAATP is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  10. A Critical Role of a Cellular Membrane Traffic Protein in Poliovirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Belov, George A.; Feng, Qian; Nikovics, Krisztina; Jackson, Catherine L.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2008-01-01

    Replication of many RNA viruses is accompanied by extensive remodeling of intracellular membranes. In poliovirus-infected cells, ER and Golgi stacks disappear, while new clusters of vesicle-like structures form sites for viral RNA synthesis. Virus replication is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), implicating some components(s) of the cellular secretory pathway in virus growth. Formation of characteristic vesicles induced by expression of viral proteins was not inhibited by BFA, but they were functionally deficient. GBF1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small cellular GTPases, Arf, is responsible for the sensitivity of virus infection to BFA, and is required for virus replication. Knockdown of GBF1 expression inhibited virus replication, which was rescued by catalytically active protein with an intact N-terminal sequence. We identified a mutation in GBF1 that allows growth of poliovirus in the presence of BFA. Interaction between GBF1 and viral protein 3A determined the outcome of infection in the presence of BFA. PMID:19023417

  11. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga; Kang, Misun; Rho, Jaerang

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  12. Replication of origin containing adenovirus DNA fragments that do not carry the terminal protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, B G; van der Ley, P A; van Driel, W; van Mansfeld, A D; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infected HeLa cells were used to study the template requirements for adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. When XbaI digested Ad5 DNA, containing the parental terminal protein (TP), was used as a template preferential synthesis of the terminal fragments was observed. The newly synthesized DNA was covalently bound to the 82 kD preterminal protein (pTP). Plasmid DNAs containing the Ad2 origin sequence or the Ad12 origin sequence with small deletions were analyzed for their capacity to support pTP-primed DNA replication. Circular plasmid DNAs were inactive. When plasmids were linearized to expose the adenovirus origin, both Ad2 and Ad12 TP-free fragments could support initiation and elongation similarly as Ad5 DNA-TP, although with lower efficiency. These observations indicate that the parental terminal protein is dispensable for initiation in vitro. The presence of 29 nucleotides ahead of the molecular end or a deletion of 14 base pairs extending into the conserved sequence (9-22) destroyed the template activity. DNA with a large deletion within the first 8 base pairs could still support replication while a small deletion could not. The results suggest that only G residues at a distance of 4-8 nucleotides from the start of the conserved sequence can be used as template during initiation of DNA replication. Images PMID:6300787

  13. Conserved mechanism for coordinating replication fork helicase assembly with phosphorylation of the helicase

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) phosphorylates minichromosome maintenance 2 (Mcm2) during S phase in yeast, and Sld3 recruits cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) to minichromosome maintenance 2-7 (Mcm2-7). We show here DDK-phosphoryled Mcm2 preferentially interacts with Cdc45 in vivo, and that Sld3 stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2 by 11-fold. We identified a mutation of the replication initiation factor Sld3, Sld3-m16, that is specifically defective in stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Wild-type expression levels of sld3-m16 result in severe growth and DNA replication defects. Cells expressing sld3-m16 exhibit no detectable Mcm2 phosphorylation in vivo, reduced replication protein A-ChIP signal at an origin, and diminished Go, Ichi, Ni, and San association with Mcm2-7. Treslin, the human homolog of Sld3, stimulates human DDK phosphorylation of human Mcm2 by 15-fold. DDK phosphorylation of human Mcm2 decreases the affinity of Mcm5 for Mcm2, suggesting a potential mechanism for helicase ring opening. These data suggest a conserved mechanism for replication initiation: Sld3/Treslin coordinates Cdc45 recruitment to Mcm2-7 with DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2 during S phase. PMID:26305950

  14. Viral precursor protein P3 and its processed products perform discrete and essential functions in the poliovirus RNA replication complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential use of protein precursors and their products is a key strategy used during poliovirus replication. To characterize the role of protein precursors during replication, we examined the complementation profiles of mutants that inhibited 3D polymerase or 3C-RNA binding activity. We showe...

  15. Rabies virus phosphoprotein interacts with ribosomal protein L9 and affects rabies virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Youwen; Dong, Wanyu; Shi, Yuejun; Deng, Feng; Chen, Xi; Wan, Chunyun; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-01-15

    Rabies virus is a highly neurotropic virus that can cause fatal infection of the central nervous system in warm-blooded animals. The RABV phosphoprotein (P), an essential cofactor of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, the ribosomal protein L9, which has functions in protein translation, is identified as P-interacting cellular factor using phage display analysis. Direct binding between the L9 and P was confirmed by protein pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. It was further demonstrated that L9 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with P in cells infected with RABV or transfected with P gene. RABV replication was reduced with L9 overexpression and enhanced with L9 knockdown. Thus, we propose that during RABV infection, P binds to L9 that translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, inhibiting the initial stage of RABV transcription. PMID:26655239

  16. Inhibition of HIV replication by pokeweed antiviral protein targeted to CD4+ cells by monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarling, Joyce M.; Moran, Patricia A.; Haffar, Omar; Sias, Joan; Richman, Douglas D.; Spina, Celsa A.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Kuebelbeck, Virginia; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Uckun, Fatih M.

    1990-09-01

    FUNCTIONAL impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells1,2. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in patients' CD4+ cells which contain proviral DNA3,4. We report here that HIV-1 replication in normal primary CD4+ T cells can be inhibited by pokeweed antiviral protein, a plant protein of relative molecular mass 30,000 (ref. 5), which inhibits replication of certain plant RNA viruses6-8, and of herpes simplex virus, poliovirus and influenza virus9-11. Targeting pokeweed antiviral protein to CD4+ T cells by conjugating it to monoclonal antibodies reactive with CDS, CD7 or CD4 expressed on CD4+ cells, increased its anti-HIV potency up to 1,000-fold. HIV-1 replication is inhibited at picomolar concentrations of conjugates of pokeweed antiviral protein and monoclonal antibodies, which do not inhibit proliferation of normal CD4+ T cells or CD4-dependent responses. These conjugates inhibit HIV-1 protein synthesis and also strongly inhibit HIV-1 production in activated CD4+ T cells from infected patients.

  17. Viral terminal protein directs early organization of phage DNA replication at the bacterial nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Holguera, Isabel; Ballesteros-Plaza, David; Carballido-López, Rut; Salas, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism leading to protein-primed DNA replication has been studied extensively in vitro. However, little is known about the in vivo organization of the proteins involved in this fundamental process. Here we show that the terminal proteins (TPs) of phages ϕ29 and PRD1, infecting the distantly related bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively, associate with the host bacterial nucleoid independently of other viral-encoded proteins. Analyses of phage ϕ29 revealed that the TP N-terminal domain (residues 1–73) possesses sequence-independent DNA-binding capacity and is responsible for its nucleoid association. Importantly, we show that in the absence of the TP N-terminal domain the efficiency of ϕ29 DNA replication is severely affected. Moreover, the TP recruits the phage DNA polymerase to the bacterial nucleoid, and both proteins later are redistributed to enlarged helix-like structures in an MreB cytoskeleton-dependent way. These data disclose a key function for the TP in vivo: organizing the early viral DNA replication machinery at the cell nucleoid. PMID:20823229

  18. DNA-protein interaction dynamics at the Lamin B2 replication origin

    PubMed Central

    Puzzi, Luca; Marchetti, Laura; Peverali, Fiorenzo A; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To date, a complete understanding of the molecular events leading to DNA replication origin activation in mammalian cells still remains elusive. In this work, we report the results of a high resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation study to detect proteins interacting with the human Lamin B2 replication origin. In addition to the pre-RC component ORC4 and to the transcription factors USF and HOXC13, we found that 2 components of the AP-1 transcription factor, c-Fos and c-Jun, are also associated with the origin DNA during the late G1 phase of the cell cycle and that these factors interact with ORC4. Both DNA replication and AP-1 factor binding to the origin region were perturbed by cell treatment with merbarone, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, suggesting that DNA topology is essential for determining origin function.

  19. Crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of the replication initiation protein E1 from papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Enemark, E J; Chen, G; Vaughn, D E; Stenlund, A; Joshua-Tor, L

    2000-07-01

    Papillomaviral infection causes both benign and malignant lesions and is a necessary cause of cervical carcinoma. Replication of this virus requires the replication initiation proteins E1 and E2, which bind cooperatively at the origin of replication (ori) as an (E1)2-(E2)2-DNA complex. This is a precursor to larger E1 complexes that distort and unwind the ori. We present the crystal structure of the E1 DNA binding domain refined to 1.9 A resolution. Residues critical for DNA binding are located on an extended loop and an alpha helix. We identify the E1 dimerization surface by selective mutations at an E1/E1 interface observed in the crystal and propose a model for the (E1)2-DNA complex. These and other observations suggest how the E1 DNA binding domain orchestrates assembly of the hexameric helicase on the ori. PMID:10949036

  20. Hepatitis C Virus NS2 Protein Triggers Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Suppresses its Own Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    von dem Bussche, Annette; Machida, Raiki; Li, Ke; Loevinsohn, Gideon; Khander, Amrin; Wang, Jianguo; Wakita, Takaji; Wands, Jack R.; Li, Jisu

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously reported that the NS2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibits the expression of reporter genes driven by a variety of cellular and viral promoters. The aim of the study was to determine whether the broad transcriptional repression is caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Methods Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α and HCV replication were detected by Western and Northern blot, respectively. De novo protein synthesis was measured by metabolic labeling. Activation of ER stress responsive genes was determined by promoter reporter assay, as well as mRNA and protein measurement by real time PCR and Western blot. Results Transient or inducible NS2 protein expression increased eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced de novo protein synthesis. It up-regulated promoter activities and transcript levels of ER stress inducible genes including GRP78, ATF6, and GADD153, as well as GRP78 protein level. The same effect was observed when NS2 was synthesized as part of the core-E1-E2-p7-NS2 polypeptide. NS2 protein also inhibited reporter gene expression from the HCV internal ribosome entry site and consequently reduced HCV replication. The full-length HCV replicon activated GRP78, ATF6, and GADD153 promoters more efficiently than the subgenomic replicon lacking the coding sequence for both the structural proteins and NS2. Abrogation of HCV infection/replication, by an inhibitor of the NS3 protease, relieved ER stress. Conclusions HCV infection can induce ER stress, with NS2 protein being a major mediator. The stress can be relieved by a feedback mechanism. PMID:20801537

  1. The oligomeric Rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely replicative helicase

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Malik, Punjab Singh; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Kaliappan, Kosalai; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Geminiviruses replicate by rolling circle mode of replication (RCR) and the viral Rep protein initiates RCR by the site-specific nicking at a conserved nonamer (TAATATT↓ AC) sequence. The mechanism of subsequent steps of the replication process, e.g. helicase activity to drive fork-elongation, etc. has largely remained obscure. Here we show that Rep of a geminivirus, namely, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), acts as a replicative helicase. The Rep-helicase, requiring ≥6 nt space for its efficient activity, translocates in the 3′→5′ direction, and the presence of forked junction in the substrate does not influence the activity to any great extent. Rep forms a large oligomeric complex and the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric conformation (∼24mer). The role of Rep as a replicative helicase has been demonstrated through ex vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in planta analyses in Nicotiana tabacum. We also establish that such helicase activity is not confined to the MYMIV system alone, but is also true with at least two other begomoviruses, viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV). PMID:17142233

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr Protein Kinase B Mediates an Oxygen-Dependent Replication Switch

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by drug tolerance and little or no bacterial replication. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in reaeration. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability and gross morphological defects in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle—active disease, latency, and reactivation. PMID:24409094

  3. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency. PMID:26994425

  4. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  5. The role of bacteriophage T7 gene 2 protein in DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, P Q; North, R; Molineux, I J

    1980-01-01

    The in vivo function of the gene 2 protein of bacteriophage T7 has been examined. The gene 2 protein appears to modulate the activity of the gene 3 endonuclease in order to prevent the premature degradation of any newly-formed DNA concatemers. This modulation is not however a direct interacton between the two proteins. In single-burst experiments rifamycin can substitute for the gene 2 protein, allowing formation of fast-sedimenting replicative DNA intermediates and progeny phage production. This suggests that the sole function of the gene 2 protein is inhibition of the host RNA polymerase and that the latter enzyme directs or promotes the endonucleolytic action of the gene 3 protein. PMID:7001361

  6. Role of the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair proteins in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Moolenaar, G F; Moorman, C; Goosen, N

    2000-10-01

    DNA polymerase I (PolI) functions both in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and in the processing of Okazaki fragments that are generated on the lagging strand during DNA replication. Escherichia coli cells completely lacking the PolI enzyme are viable as long as they are grown on minimal medium. Here we show that viability is fully dependent on the presence of functional UvrA, UvrB, and UvrD (helicase II) proteins but does not require UvrC. In contrast, delta polA cells grow even better when the uvrC gene has been deleted. Apparently UvrA, UvrB, and UvrD are needed in a replication backup system that replaces the PolI function, and UvrC interferes with this alternative replication pathway. With specific mutants of UvrC we could show that the inhibitory effect of this protein is related to its catalytic activity that on damaged DNA is responsible for the 3' incision reaction. Specific mutants of UvrA and UvrB were also studied for their capacity to support the PolI-independent replication. Deletion of the UvrC-binding domain of UvrB resulted in a phenotype similar to that caused by deletion of the uvrC gene, showing that the inhibitory incision activity of UvrC is mediated via binding to UvrB. A mutation in the N-terminal zinc finger domain of UvrA does not affect NER in vivo or in vitro. The same mutation, however, does give inviability in combination with the delta polA mutation. Apparently the N-terminal zinc-binding domain of UvrA has specifically evolved for a function outside DNA repair. A model for the function of the UvrA, UvrB, and UvrD proteins in the alternative replication pathway is discussed. PMID:11004168

  7. Macrophage Replication Screen Identifies a Novel Francisella Hydroperoxide Resistance Protein Involved in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Anna C.; Bina, James E.; Weiss, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Recently, genome-wide screens have identified Francisella genes required for virulence in mice. However, the mechanisms by which most of the corresponding proteins contribute to pathogenesis are still largely unknown. To further elucidate the roles of these virulence determinants in Francisella pathogenesis, we tested whether each gene was required for replication of the model pathogen F. novicida within macrophages, an important virulence trait. Fifty-three of the 224 genes tested were involved in intracellular replication, including many of those within the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), validating our results. Interestingly, over one third of the genes identified are annotated as hypothetical, indicating that F. novicida likely utilizes novel virulence factors for intracellular replication. To further characterize these virulence determinants, we selected two hypothetical genes to study in more detail. As predicted by our screen, deletion mutants of FTN_0096 and FTN_1133 were attenuated for replication in macrophages. The mutants displayed differing levels of attenuation in vivo, with the FTN_1133 mutant being the most attenuated. FTN_1133 has sequence similarity to the organic hydroperoxide resistance protein Ohr, an enzyme involved in the bacterial response to oxidative stress. We show that FTN_1133 is required for F. novicida resistance to, and degradation of, organic hydroperoxides as well as resistance to the action of the NADPH oxidase both in macrophages and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that F. holarctica LVS, a strain derived from a highly virulent human pathogenic species of Francisella, also requires this protein for organic hydroperoxide resistance as well as replication in macrophages and mice. This study expands our knowledge of Francisella's largely uncharacterized intracellular lifecycle and demonstrates that FTN_1133 is

  8. Synthesis of Site-Specific DNA–Protein Conjugates and Their Effects on DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) are bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions that form in the genome upon exposure to common antitumor drugs, environmental/occupational toxins, ionizing radiation, and endogenous free-radical-generating systems. As a result of their considerable size and their pronounced effects on DNA–protein interactions, DPCs can interfere with DNA replication, transcription, and repair, potentially leading to mutagenesis, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity. However, the biological consequences of these ubiquitous lesions are not fully understood due to the difficulty of generating DNA substrates containing structurally defined, site-specific DPCs. In the present study, site-specific cross-links between the two biomolecules were generated by copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition (click reaction) between an alkyne group from 5-(octa-1,7-diynyl)-uracil in DNA and an azide group within engineered proteins/polypeptides. The resulting DPC substrates were subjected to in vitro primer extension in the presence of human lesion bypass DNA polymerases η, κ, ν, and ι. We found that DPC lesions to the green fluorescent protein and a 23-mer peptide completely blocked DNA replication, while the cross-link to a 10-mer peptide was bypassed. These results indicate that the polymerases cannot read through the larger DPC lesions and further suggest that proteolytic degradation may be required to remove the replication block imposed by bulky DPC adducts. PMID:24918113

  9. Interaction of the replication terminator protein of Bacillus subtilis with DNA probed by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Adam F.; Otting, Gottfried; Folmer, Rutger H.A.; Duggin, Iain G.; Wake, R. Gerry; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A. . E-mail: Jackie.Wilce@med.monash.edu.au

    2005-09-23

    Termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis involves the polar arrest of replication forks by a specific complex formed between the dimeric 29 kDa replication terminator protein (RTP) and DNA terminator sites. We have used NMR spectroscopy to probe the changes in {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlation spectra of a {sup 15}N-labelled RTP.C110S mutant upon the addition of a 21 base pair symmetrical DNA binding site. Assignment of the {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N correlations was achieved using a suite of triple resonance NMR experiments with {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C,70% {sup 2}H enriched protein recorded at 800 MHz and using TROSY pulse sequences. Perturbations to {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N spectra revealed that the N-termini, {alpha}3-helices and several loops are affected by the binding interaction. An analysis of this data in light of the crystallographically determined apo- and DNA-bound forms of RTP.C110S revealed that the NMR spectral perturbations correlate more closely to protein structural changes upon complex formation rather than to interactions at the protein-DNA interface.

  10. Synthesis of site-specific DNA-protein conjugates and their effects on DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jung Eun; Wickramaratne, Susith; Khatwani, Santoshkumar; Wang, Yen-Chih; Vervacke, Jeffrey; Distefano, Mark D; Tretyakova, Natalia Y

    2014-08-15

    DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions that form in the genome upon exposure to common antitumor drugs, environmental/occupational toxins, ionizing radiation, and endogenous free-radical-generating systems. As a result of their considerable size and their pronounced effects on DNA-protein interactions, DPCs can interfere with DNA replication, transcription, and repair, potentially leading to mutagenesis, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity. However, the biological consequences of these ubiquitous lesions are not fully understood due to the difficulty of generating DNA substrates containing structurally defined, site-specific DPCs. In the present study, site-specific cross-links between the two biomolecules were generated by copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition (click reaction) between an alkyne group from 5-(octa-1,7-diynyl)-uracil in DNA and an azide group within engineered proteins/polypeptides. The resulting DPC substrates were subjected to in vitro primer extension in the presence of human lesion bypass DNA polymerases η, κ, ν, and ι. We found that DPC lesions to the green fluorescent protein and a 23-mer peptide completely blocked DNA replication, while the cross-link to a 10-mer peptide was bypassed. These results indicate that the polymerases cannot read through the larger DPC lesions and further suggest that proteolytic degradation may be required to remove the replication block imposed by bulky DPC adducts. PMID:24918113

  11. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H.; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA–DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  12. Preparation and use of Xenopus egg extracts to study DNA replication and chromatin associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Peter J.; Gambus, Agnieszka; Blow, J. Julian

    2012-01-01

    The use of cell-free extracts prepared from eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, has led to many important discoveries in cell cycle research. These egg extracts recapitulate the key nuclear transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. DNA added to the extract is first assembled into a nucleus and is then efficiently replicated. Progression of the extract into mitosis then allows the separation of paired sister chromatids. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. In this article we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei for the study of DNA replication in vitro. We also detail how DNA replication can be quantified in this system. In addition, we describe methods for isolating chromatin and chromatin-bound protein complexes from egg extracts. These recently developed and revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in DNA replication. PMID:22521908

  13. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S

    2016-07-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA-DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  14. Coxiella burnetii Effector Proteins That Localize to the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane Promote Intracellular Replication

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles L.; Beare, Paul A.; Voth, Daniel E.; Howe, Dale; Cockrell, Diane C.; Bastidas, Robert J.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires host endolysosomal components. Formation of a PV that supports C. burnetii replication requires a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS) that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. Thus, a subset of T4BSS effectors are presumed to direct PV biogenesis. Recently, the PV-localized effector protein CvpA was found to promote C. burnetii intracellular growth and PV expansion. We predict additional C. burnetii effectors localize to the PV membrane and regulate eukaryotic vesicle trafficking events that promote pathogen growth. To identify these vacuolar effector proteins, a list of predicted C. burnetii T4BSS substrates was compiled using bioinformatic criteria, such as the presence of eukaryote-like coiled-coil domains. Adenylate cyclase translocation assays revealed 13 proteins were secreted in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion by C. burnetii during infection of human THP-1 macrophages. Four of the Dot/Icm substrates, termed Coxiella vacuolar protein B (CvpB), CvpC, CvpD, and CvpE, labeled the PV membrane and LAMP1-positive vesicles when ectopically expressed as fluorescently tagged fusion proteins. C. burnetii ΔcvpB, ΔcvpC, ΔcvpD, and ΔcvpE mutants exhibited significant defects in intracellular replication and PV formation. Genetic complementation of the ΔcvpD and ΔcvpE mutants rescued intracellular growth and PV generation, whereas the growth of C. burnetii ΔcvpB and ΔcvpC was rescued upon cohabitation with wild-type bacteria in a common PV. Collectively, these data indicate C. burnetii encodes multiple effector proteins that target the PV membrane and benefit pathogen replication in human macrophages. PMID:25422265

  15. A conserved OmpA-like protein in Legionella pneumophila required for efficient intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Ian P; Kumova, Ogan K; Ninio, Shira

    2016-08-01

    The OmpA-like protein domain has been associated with peptidoglycan-binding proteins, and is often found in virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila encodes for six proteins that contain the OmpA-like domain, among them the highly conserved uncharacterized protein we named CmpA. Here we set out to characterize the CmpA protein and determine its contribution to intracellular survival of L. pneumophila Secondary structure analysis suggests that CmpA is an inner membrane protein with a peptidoglycan-binding domain at the C-teminus. A cmpA mutant was able to replicate normally in broth, but failed to compete with an isogenic wild-type strain in an intracellular growth competition assay. The cmpA mutant also displayed significant intracellular growth defects in both the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii and in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, where uptake into the cells was also impaired. The cmpA phenotypes were completely restored upon expression of CmpA in trans The data presented here establish CmpA as a novel virulence factor of L. pneumophila that is required for efficient intracellular replication in both mammalian and protozoan hosts. PMID:27421957

  16. The expression of N-terminal deletion DNA pilot proteins inhibits the early stages of phiX174 replication.

    PubMed

    Ruboyianes, Mark V; Chen, Min; Dubrava, Mathew S; Cherwa, James E; Fane, Bentley A

    2009-10-01

    The phiX174 DNA pilot protein H contains four predicted C-terminal coiled-coil domains. The region of the gene encoding these structures was cloned, expressed in vivo, and found to strongly inhibit wild-type replication. DNA and protein synthesis was investigated in the absence of de novo H protein synthesis and in wild-type-infected cells expressing the inhibitory proteins (DeltaH). The expression of the DeltaH proteins interfered with early stages of DNA replication, which did not require de novo H protein synthesis, suggesting that the inhibitory proteins interfere with the wild-type H protein that enters the cell with the penetrating DNA. As transcription and protein synthesis are dependent on DNA replication in positive single-stranded DNA life cycles, viral protein synthesis was also reduced. However, unlike DNA synthesis, efficient viral protein synthesis required de novo H protein synthesis, a novel function for this protein. A single amino acid change in the C terminus of protein H was both necessary and sufficient to confer resistance to the inhibitory DeltaH proteins, restoring both DNA and protein synthesis to wild-type levels. DeltaH proteins derived from the resistant mutant did not inhibit wild-type or resistant mutant replication. The inhibitory effects of the DeltaH proteins were lessened by the coexpression of the internal scaffolding protein, which may suppress H-H protein interactions. While coexpression relieved the block in DNA biosynthesis, viral protein synthesis remained suppressed. These data indicate that protein H's role in DNA replication and stimulating viral protein synthesis can be uncoupled. PMID:19640994

  17. Intramitochondrial localization of universal minicircle sequence-binding protein, a trypanosomatid protein that binds kinetoplast minicircle replication origins.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elneel, K; Robinson, D R; Drew, M E; Englund, P T; Shlomai, J

    2001-05-14

    Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the mitochondrial DNA of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata, is a unique structure containing 5,000 DNA minicircles topologically linked into a massive network. In vivo, the network is condensed into a disk-shaped structure. Replication of minicircles initiates at unique origins that are bound by universal minicircle sequence (UMS)-binding protein (UMSBP), a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. This protein, encoded by a nuclear gene, localizes within the cell's single mitochondrion. Using immunofluorescence, we found that UMSBP localizes exclusively to two neighboring sites adjacent to the face of the kDNA disk nearest the cell's flagellum. This site is distinct from the two antipodal positions at the perimeter of the disk that is occupied by DNA polymerase beta, topoisomerase II, and a structure-specific endonuclease. Although we found constant steady-state levels of UMSBP mRNA and protein and a constant rate of UMSBP synthesis throughout the cell cycle, immunofluorescence indicated that UMSBP localization within the kinetoplast is not static. The intramitochondrial localization of UMSBP and other kDNA replication enzymes significantly clarifies our understanding of the process of kDNA replication. PMID:11352934

  18. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  19. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  20. HMGB1 Protein Binds to Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein and Promotes Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Moisy, Dorothée; Avilov, Sergiy V.; Jacob, Yves; Laoide, Brid M.; Ge, Xingyi; Baudin, Florence; Jestin, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus has evolved replication strategies that hijack host cell pathways. To uncover interactions between viral macromolecules and host proteins, we applied a phage display strategy. A library of human cDNA expression products displayed on filamentous phages was submitted to affinity selection for influenza viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). High-mobility-group box (HMGB) proteins were found to bind to the nucleoprotein (NP) component of vRNPs. HMGB1 and HMGB2 bind directly to the purified NP in the absence of viral RNA, and the HMG box A domain is sufficient to bind the NP. We show that HMGB1 associates with the viral NP in the nuclei of infected cells, promotes viral growth, and enhances the activity of the viral polymerase. The presence of a functional HMGB1 DNA-binding site is required to enhance influenza virus replication. Glycyrrhizin, which reduces HMGB1 binding to DNA, inhibits influenza virus polymerase activity. Our data show that the HMGB1 protein can play a significant role in intranuclear replication of influenza viruses, thus extending previous findings on the bornavirus and on a number of DNA viruses. PMID:22696656

  1. Investigating the role of the Est3 protein in yeast telomere replication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaesung; Mandell, Edward K.; Rao, Timsi; Wuttke, Deborah S.; Lundblad, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The Est3 subunit of yeast telomerase, which adopts a predicted OB-fold, is essential for telomere replication. To assess the possible contributions that Est3 might make to enzyme catalysis, we compared telomerase activity from wild type and est3-Δ strains of Saccharomyces castellii, which revealed that loss of the Est3 subunit results in a 2- to 3-fold decline in nucleotide addition. This effect was not primer-specific, based on assessment of a panel of primers that spanned the template of the S. castellii telomerase RNA. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift perturbation, no chemical shift change was observed at any site in the protein upon addition of single-stranded DNA, arguing against a role for Est3 in recognition of telomeric substrates by telomerase. Addition of exogenous Est3 protein, including mutant Est3 proteins that are severely impaired for telomere replication in vivo, fully restored activity in est3-Δ telomerase reactions. Thus, Est3 performs an in vivo regulatory function in telomere replication, which is distinct from any potential contribution that Est3 might make to telomerase activity. PMID:20047960

  2. Intracellular Locations of Replication Proteins and the Origin of Replication during Chromosome Duplication in the Slowly Growing Human Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Kamran, Mohammad; Verma, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We followed the position of the replication complex in the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori using antibodies raised against the single-stranded DNA binding protein (HpSSB) and the replicative helicase (HpDnaB). The position of the replication origin, oriC, was also localized in growing cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescence-labeled DNA sequences adjacent to the origin. The replisome assembled at oriC near one of the cell poles, and the two forks moved together toward the cell center as replication progressed in the growing cell. Termination and resolution of the forks occurred near midcell, on one side of the septal membrane. The duplicated copies of oriC did not separate until late in elongation, when the daughter chromosomes segregated into bilobed nucleoids, suggesting sister chromatid cohesion at or near the oriC region. Components of the replication machinery, viz., HpDnaB and HpDnaG (DNA primase), were found associated with the cell membrane. A model for the assembly and location of the H. pylori replication machinery during chromosomal duplication is presented. PMID:24363345

  3. Proteome-Wide Overexpression of Host Proteins for Identification of Factors Affecting Tombusvirus RNA Replication: an Inhibitory Role of Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Shah Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad; Martinez-Ochoa, Natalia; Pascal, Helene; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Herbst, Christin; Xu, Kai; Baker, Jannine; Sharma, Monika; Herbst, Alan

    2012-01-01

    To identify host genes affecting replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a small model positive-stranded RNA virus, we overexpressed 5,500 yeast proteins individually in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which supports TBSV replication. In total, we identified 141 host proteins, and overexpression of 40 of those increased and the remainder decreased the accumulation of a TBSV replicon RNA. Interestingly, 36 yeast proteins were identified previously by various screens, greatly strengthening the relevance of these host proteins in TBSV replication. To validate the results from the screen, we studied the effect of protein kinase C1 (Pkc1), a conserved host kinase involved in many cellular processes, which inhibited TBSV replication when overexpressed. Using a temperature-sensitive mutant of Pkc1p revealed a high level of TBSV replication at a semipermissive temperature, further supporting the idea that Pkc1p is an inhibitor of TBSV RNA replication. A direct inhibitory effect of Pkc1p was shown in a cell-free yeast extract-based TBSV replication assay, in which Pkc1p likely phosphorylates viral replication proteins, decreasing their abilities to bind to the viral RNA. We also show that cercosporamide, a specific inhibitor of Pkc-like kinases, leads to increased TBSV replication in yeast, in plant single cells, and in whole plants, suggesting that Pkc-related pathways are potent inhibitors of TBSV in several hosts. PMID:22718827

  4. Genetic Confirmation that the H5 Protein Is Required for Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Kathleen A.; Greseth, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The duplication of the poxvirus double-stranded DNA genome occurs in cytoplasmic membrane-delimited factories. This physical autonomy from the host nucleus suggests that poxvirus genomes encode the full repertoire of proteins committed for genome replication. Biochemical and genetic analyses have confirmed that six viral proteins are required for efficient DNA synthesis; indirect evidence has suggested that the multifunctional H5 protein may also have a role. Here we show that H5 localizes to replication factories, as visualized by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, and can be retrieved upon purification of the viral polymerase holoenzyme complex. The temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant Dts57, which was generated by chemical mutagenesis and has a lesion in H5, exhibits defects in DNA replication and morphogenesis under nonpermissive conditions, depending upon the experimental protocol. The H5 variant encoded by the genome of this mutant is ts for function but not stability. For a more precise investigation of how H5 contributes to DNA synthesis, we placed the ts57 H5 allele in an otherwise wild-type viral background and also performed small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of H5. Finally, we generated a complementing cell line, CV-1–H5, which allowed us to generate a viral recombinant in which the H5 open reading frame was deleted and replaced with mCherry (vΔH5). Analysis of vΔH5 allowed us to demonstrate conclusively that viral DNA replication is abrogated in the absence of H5. The loss of H5 does not compromise the accumulation of other early viral replication proteins or the uncoating of the virion core, suggesting that H5 plays a direct and essential role in facilitating DNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most notorious member of the Poxviridae family. Poxviruses are unique among DNA viruses that infect mammalian cells, in that their replication is restricted to the cytoplasm of the cell

  5. Sialylation of the prion protein glycans controls prion replication rate and glycoform ratio

    PubMed Central

    Katorcha, Elizaveta; Makarava, Natallia; Savtchenko, Regina; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2015-01-01

    Prion or PrPSc is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded and aggregated form of a sialoglycoprotein called prion protein or PrPC. PrPC has two sialylated N-linked carbohydrates. In PrPSc, the glycans are directed outward, with the terminal sialic acid residues creating a negative charge on the surface of prion particles. The current study proposes a new hypothesis that electrostatic repulsion between sialic residues creates structural constraints that control prion replication and PrPSc glycoform ratio. In support of this hypothesis, here we show that diglycosylated PrPC molecules that have more sialic groups per molecule than monoglycosylated PrPC were preferentially excluded from conversion. However, when partially desialylated PrPC was used as a substrate, recruitment of three glycoforms into PrPSc was found to be proportional to their respective populations in the substrate. In addition, hypersialylated molecules were also excluded from conversion in the strains with the strongest structural constraints, a strategy that helped reduce electrostatic repulsion. Moreover, as predicted by the hypothesis, partial desialylation of PrPC significantly increased the replication rate. This study illustrates that sialylation of N-linked glycans creates a prion replication barrier that controls replication rate and glycoform ratios and has broad implications. PMID:26576925

  6. Herpes simplex virus origin-binding protein (UL9) loops and distorts the viral replication origin.

    PubMed Central

    Koff, A; Schwedes, J F; Tegtmeyer, P

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the role of the herpes simplex virus origin-binding protein (UL9) in the initiation of DNA replication, we have examined the effect of UL9 binding on the structure of the viral origin of replication. UL9 loops and alters the DNA helix of the origin regardless of the phasing of the binding sites. DNase I and micrococcal nuclease footprinting show that UL9 binds two sites in the origin and loops the AT-rich DNA between them independent of the topology of the DNA. KMnO4 and dimethyl sulfate footprinting further show that UL9 alters the DNA helix in the AT region. In contrast to the looping reaction, however, helical distortion requires the free energy of supercoiled DNA. UL9 also loops and distorts the origin DNA of a replication-defective mutant with a 6-bp insertion in the AT region. Because the helical distortion of this mutant DNA is different from that of functional origins, we conclude that an imperfect tertiary structure of the mutant DNA may contribute to its loss of replication function. Images PMID:1851878

  7. Increased origin activity in transformed versus normal cells: identification of novel protein players involved in DNA replication and cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Domenic; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Chan, Man Kid; Arvanitis, Dina N.; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Using libraries of replication origins generated previously, we identified three clones that supported the autonomous replication of their respective plasmids in transformed, but not in normal cells. Assessment of their in vivo replication activity by in situ chromosomal DNA replication assays revealed that the chromosomal loci corresponding to these clones coincided with chromosomal replication origins in all cell lines, which were more active by 2–3-fold in the transformed by comparison to the normal cells. Evaluation of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) protein abundance at these origins in transformed and normal cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, using anti-ORC2, -cdc6 and -cdt1 antibodies, showed that they were bound by these pre-RC proteins in all cell lines, but a 2–3-fold higher abundance was observed in the transformed by comparison to the normal cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) performed on the most efficiently replicating clone, using nuclear extracts from the transformed and normal cells, revealed the presence of a DNA replication complex in transformed cells, which was barely detectable in normal cells. Subsequent supershift EMSAs suggested the presence of transformation-specific complexes. Mass spectrometric analysis of these complexes revealed potential new protein players involved in DNA replication that appear to correlate with cellular transformation. PMID:20064876

  8. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1–471) of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection. PMID:26871941

  9. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  10. Phylogeny of replication initiator protein TrfA reveals a highly divergent clade of incompatibility group P1 plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incompatibility group P-1 (incP-1) includes broad host range plasmids of Gram negative bacteria and are classified into five subgroups (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon). The incP-1 replication module consists of the trfA gene, encoding the replication initiator protein TrfA, and the origin o...

  11. UvrD controls the access of recombination proteins to blocked replication forks.

    PubMed

    Lestini, Roxane; Michel, Bénédicte

    2007-08-22

    Blocked replication forks often need to be processed by recombination proteins prior to replication restart. In Escherichia coli, the UvrD repair helicase was recently shown to act at inactivated replication forks, where it counteracts a deleterious action of RecA. Using two mutants affected for different subunits of the polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol IIIh), we show here that the anti-RecA action of UvrD at blocked forks reflects two different activities of this enzyme. A defective UvrD mutant is able to antagonize RecA in cells affected for the Pol IIIh catalytic subunit DnaE. In this mutant, RecA action at blocked forks specifically requires the protein RarA (MgsA). We propose that UvrD prevents RecA binding, possibly by counteracting RarA. In contrast, at forks affected for the Pol IIIh clamp (DnaN), RarA is not required for RecA binding and the ATPase function of UvrD is essential to counteract RecA, supporting the idea that UvrD removes RecA from DNA. UvrD action on RecA is conserved in evolution as it can be performed in E. coli by the UvrD homologue from Bacillus subtilis, PcrA. PMID:17641684

  12. UvrD controls the access of recombination proteins to blocked replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Lestini, Roxane; Michel, Bénédicte

    2007-01-01

    Blocked replication forks often need to be processed by recombination proteins prior to replication restart. In Escherichia coli, the UvrD repair helicase was recently shown to act at inactivated replication forks, where it counteracts a deleterious action of RecA. Using two mutants affected for different subunits of the polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol IIIh), we show here that the anti-RecA action of UvrD at blocked forks reflects two different activities of this enzyme. A defective UvrD mutant is able to antagonize RecA in cells affected for the Pol IIIh catalytic subunit DnaE. In this mutant, RecA action at blocked forks specifically requires the protein RarA (MgsA). We propose that UvrD prevents RecA binding, possibly by counteracting RarA. In contrast, at forks affected for the Pol IIIh clamp (DnaN), RarA is not required for RecA binding and the ATPase function of UvrD is essential to counteract RecA, supporting the idea that UvrD removes RecA from DNA. UvrD action on RecA is conserved in evolution as it can be performed in E. coli by the UvrD homologue from Bacillus subtilis, PcrA. PMID:17641684

  13. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%–99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy. PMID:26114473

  14. Diverse roles of host RNA binding proteins in RNA virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghe; Nagy, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Plus-strand +RNA viruses co-opt host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to perform many functions during viral replication. A few host RBPs have been identified that affect the recruitment of viral +RNAs for replication. Other subverted host RBPs help the assembly of the membrane-bound replicase complexes, regulate the activity of the replicase and control minus- or plus-strand RNA synthesis. The host RBPs also affect the stability of viral RNAs, which have to escape cellular RNA degradation pathways. While many host RBPs seem to have specialized functions, others participate in multiple events during infection. Several conserved RBPs, such as eEF1A, hnRNP proteins and Lsm 1-7 complex, are co-opted by evolutionarily diverse +RNA viruses, underscoring some common themes in virus-host interactions. On the other hand, viruses also hijack unique RBPs, suggesting that +RNA viruses could utilize different RBPs to perform similar functions. Moreover, different +RNA viruses have adapted unique strategies for co-opting unique RBPs. Altogether, a deeper understanding of the functions of the host RBPs subverted for viral replication will help development of novel antiviral strategies and give new insights into host RNA biology. PMID:21505273

  15. Interactome Analysis of the Influenza A Virus Transcription/Replication Machinery Identifies Protein Phosphatase 6 as a Cellular Factor Required for Efficient Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    York, Ashley; Hutchinson, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The negative-sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). The viral RdRP is an important host range determinant, indicating that its function is affected by interactions with cellular factors. However, the identities and the roles of most of these factors remain unknown. Here, we employed affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the influenza A virus RdRP in infected human cells. We purified RdRPs using a recombinant influenza virus in which the PB2 subunit of the RdRP is fused to a Strep-tag. When this tagged subunit was purified from infected cells, copurifying proteins included the other RdRP subunits (PB1 and PA) and the viral nucleoprotein and neuraminidase, as well as 171 cellular proteins. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry revealed that the most abundant of these host proteins were chaperones, cytoskeletal proteins, importins, proteins involved in ubiquitination, kinases and phosphatases, and mitochondrial and ribosomal proteins. Among the phosphatases, we identified three subunits of the cellular serine/threonine protein phosphatase 6 (PP6), including the catalytic subunit PPP6C and regulatory subunits PPP6R1 and PPP6R3. PP6 was found to interact directly with the PB1 and PB2 subunits of the viral RdRP, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the catalytic subunit of PP6 in infected cells resulted in the reduction of viral RNA accumulation and the attenuation of virus growth. These results suggest that PP6 interacts with and positively regulates the activity of the influenza virus RdRP. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses are serious clinical and veterinary pathogens, causing substantial health and economic impacts. In addition to annual seasonal epidemics, occasional global pandemics occur when viral strains adapt to humans from other species. To replicate efficiently and cause disease, influenza

  16. Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Yazdi, Mina; Ande, Sudharsana R; Alizadeh, Javad; Wiechec, Emilia; Lindsay, Robbin; Drebot, Michael; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26781343

  17. Active site of the replication protein of the rolling circle plasmid pC194.

    PubMed Central

    Noirot-Gros, M F; Bidnenko, V; Ehrlich, S D

    1994-01-01

    Mutation analysis of the rolling circle (RC) replication initiator protein RepA of plasmid pC194 was targeted to tyrosine and acidic amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) which are well conserved among numerous related plasmids. The effect of mutations was examined by an in vivo activity test. Mutations of one tyrosine and two glutamate residues were found to greatly impair or abolish activity, without affecting affinity for the origin, as deduced from in vitro gel mobility assays. We conclude that all three amino acids have a catalytic role. Tyrosine residues were found previously in active sites of different RC plasmid Rep proteins and topoisomerases, but not in association with acidic residues, which are a hallmark of the active sites of DNA hydrolyzing enzymes, such as the exo- and endonucleases. We propose that the active site of RepA contains two different catalytic centers, corresponding to a tyrosine and a glutamate. The former may be involved in the formation of the covalent DNA-protein intermediate at the initiation step of RC replication, and the latter may catalyze the release of the protein from the intermediate at the termination step. Images PMID:7925284

  18. Hepatitis C virus RNA codes for proteins and replicates: does it also trigger the interferon response?

    PubMed

    Branch, A D

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense virus with a genomic RNA molecule roughly 9,600 nucleotides in length. The single-stranded genomic RNA has a nontranslated region (NTR) at each end and a long open reading frame (coding region) in between. The 5'NTR and portions of the 3'NTR are the most conserved parts of HCV RNA. These conserved regions contain signals for replication and translation. Much of the 5'NTR is folded into a structure that binds ribosomes. This structure, an internal ribosome entry site, promotes the initiation of protein synthesis and is critical for HCV gene expression. The ribosome binding site may extend into the coding region; its exact boundaries are not known. The open reading frame encodes the HCV polyprotein, which is slightly more than 3,000 amino acids in length. The 3'NTR plays a key role in HCV replication and may also influence the rate of HCV protein synthesis. During replication, the genomic RNA is copied by virally encoded enzymes into a complementary antigenomic RNA, which itself is a template for the synthesis of progeny RNAs. At steady state, genomic strands outnumber antigenomic strands about 10 to 1. HCV RNA replication is thought to take place in the cytoplasm and is an error-prone process. It generates a mixed population of RNA sequences (quasispecies), including mutants that may be more fit than the parental type, less fit, or equally fit (but distinct). Natural selection acts upon the progeny RNAs, causing the population to change and drift. Over time, mutation, selection, and population bottlenecks led to the evolution of varied genotypes. The HCV replication complex is a potential source of double-stranded RNA, a powerful inducer of interferon. Thus, HCV-specific double-stranded RNA may trigger the first steps of innate immunity; however, for unknown reasons, the immune system often fails to clear the infection. The plasticity of the HCV genome and the low level of HCV gene expression may counterbalance any

  19. Regulation of DNA Replication Timing on Human Chromosome by a Cell-Type Specific DNA Binding Protein SATB1

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Masako; Kanoh, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Masai, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Background Replication timing of metazoan DNA during S-phase may be determined by many factors including chromosome structures, nuclear positioning, patterns of histone modifications, and transcriptional activity. It may be determined by Mb-domain structures, termed as “replication domains”, and recent findings indicate that replication timing is under developmental and cell type-specific regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined replication timing on the human 5q23/31 3.5-Mb segment in T cells and non-T cells. We used two independent methods to determine replication timing. One is quantification of nascent replicating DNA in cell cycle-fractionated stage-specific S phase populations. The other is FISH analyses of replication foci. Although the locations of early- and late-replicating domains were common between the two cell lines, the timing transition region (TTR) between early and late domains were offset by 200-kb. We show that Special AT-rich sequence Binding protein 1 (SATB1), specifically expressed in T-cells, binds to the early domain immediately adjacent to TTR and delays the replication timing of the TTR. Measurement of the chromosome copy number along the TTR during synchronized S phase suggests that the fork movement may be slowed down by SATB1. Conclusions Our results reveal a novel role of SATB1 in cell type-specific regulation of replication timing along the chromosome. PMID:22879953

  20. Investigating the role of viral integral membrane proteins in promoting the assembly of nepovirus and comovirus replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Formation of plant virus membrane-associated replication factories requires the association of viral replication proteins and viral RNA with intracellular membranes, the recruitment of host factors and the modification of membranes to form novel structures that house the replication complex. Many viruses encode integral membrane proteins that act as anchors for the replication complex. These hydrophobic proteins contain transmembrane domains and/or amphipathic helices that associate with the membrane and modify its structure. The comovirus Co-Pro and NTP-binding (NTB, putative helicase) proteins and the cognate nepovirus X2 and NTB proteins are among the best characterized plant virus integral membrane replication proteins and are functionally related to the picornavirus 2B, 2C, and 3A membrane proteins. The identification of membrane association domains and analysis of the membrane topology of these proteins is discussed. The evidence suggesting that these proteins have the ability to induce membrane proliferation, alter the structure and integrity of intracellular membranes, and modulate the induction of symptoms in infected plants is also reviewed. Finally, areas of research that need further investigation are highlighted. PMID:23439982

  1. NB protein does not affect influenza B virus replication in vitro and is not required for replication in or transmission between ferrets.

    PubMed

    Elderfield, Ruth A; Koutsakos, Marios; Frise, Rebecca; Bradley, Konrad; Ashcroft, Jonathan; Miah, Shanhjahan; Lackenby, Angie; Barclay, Wendy S

    2016-03-01

    The influenza B virus encodes a unique protein, NB, a membrane protein whose function in the replication cycle is not, as yet, understood. We engineered a recombinant influenza B virus lacking NB expression, with no concomitant difference in expression or activity of viral neuraminidase (NA) protein, an important caveat since NA is encoded on the same segment and initiated from a start codon just 4 nt downstream of NB. Replication of the virus lacking NB was not different to wild-type virus with full-length NB in clonal immortalized or complex primary cell cultures. In the mouse model, virus lacking NB induced slightly lower IFN-α levels in infected lungs, but this did not affect virus titres or weight loss. In ferrets infected with a mixture of viruses that did or did not express NB, there was no fitness advantage for the virus that retained NB. Moreover, virus lacking NB protein was transmitted following respiratory droplet exposure of sentinel animals. These data suggest no role for NB in supporting replication or transmission in vivo in this animal model. The role of NB and the nature of selection to retain it in all natural influenza B viruses remain unclear. PMID:26703440

  2. Involvement of Fis protein in replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Filutowicz, M; Ross, W; Wild, J; Gourse, R L

    1992-01-01

    We report evidence indicating that Fis protein plays a role in initiation of replication at oriC in vivo. At high temperatures, fis null mutants form filamentous cells, show aberrant nucleoid segregation, and are unable to form single colonies. DNA synthesis is inhibited in these fis mutant strains following upshift to 44 degrees C. The pattern of DNA synthesis inhibition upon temperature upshift and the requirement for RNA synthesis, but not protein synthesis, for resumed DNA synthesis upon downshift to 32 degrees C indicate that synthesis is affected in the initiation phase. fis mutations act synergistically with gyrB alleles known to affect initiation. oriC-dependent plasmids are poorly established and maintained in fis mutant strains. Finally, purified Fis protein interacts in vitro with sites in oriC. These interactions could be involved in mediating the effect of Fis on DNA synthesis in vivo. Images PMID:1309527

  3. Cloning of two sea urchin DNA-binding proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Megli, Fiammetta; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro; Roberti, Marina

    2002-03-01

    The cloning of the cDNA for two mitochondrial proteins involved in sea urchin mtDNA replication and transcription is reported here. The cDNA for the mitochondrial D-loop binding protein (mtDBP) from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has been cloned by a polymerase chain reaction-based approach. The protein displays a very high similarity with the Paracentrotus lividus homologue as it contains also the two leucine zipper-like domains which are thought to be involved in intramolecular interactions needed to expose the two DNA binding domains in the correct position for contacting DNA. The cDNA for the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB) from P. lividus has been also cloned by a similar approach. The precursor protein is 146 amino acids long with a presequence of 16 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest homology with the Xenopus laevis protein and the lowest with the Drosophila mtSSB. The computer modeling of the tertiary structure of P. lividus mtSSB shows a structure very similar to that experimentally determined for human mtSSB, with the conservation of the main residues involved in protein tetramerization and in DNA binding. PMID:11943466

  4. Identification of Proteins Bound to Dengue Viral RNA In Vivo Reveals New Host Proteins Important for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Stacia L.; Soderblom, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus is the most prevalent cause of arthropod-borne infection worldwide. Due to the limited coding capacity of the viral genome and the complexity of the viral life cycle, host cell proteins play essential roles throughout the course of viral infection. Host RNA-binding proteins mediate various aspects of virus replication through their physical interactions with viral RNA. Here we describe a technique designed to identify such interactions in the context of infected cells using UV cross-linking followed by antisense-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified interactions, several of them novel, between host proteins and dengue viral RNA in infected Huh7 cells. Most of these interactions were subsequently validated using RNA immunoprecipitation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing, we showed that more than half of these host proteins are likely involved in regulating virus replication, demonstrating the utility of this method in identifying biologically relevant interactions that may not be identified using traditional in vitro approaches. PMID:26733069

  5. Gene A protein cleavage of recombinant plasmids containing the phi X174 replication origin.

    PubMed Central

    Fluit, A C; Baas, P D; Van Boom, J H; Veeneman, G H; Jansz, H S

    1984-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides, DNA ligase and DNA polymerase were used to construct double-stranded DNA fragments homologous to the first 25, 27 or 30 b.p. of the origin of replication of bacteriophage phi X174 (nucleotides 4299-4328 of the phi X174 DNA sequence). The double-stranded DNA fragments were cloned into the unique SmaI or HindIII restriction sites in the kanamycin-resistance gene of pACYC177 (AmpR, KmR). Recombinant plasmids were picked up by colony hybridization. DNA sequencing showed that not only recombinant plasmids with the expected insert were formed, but also recombinant plasmids with a shorter insert. Recombinant plasmids with an insert homologous to the first 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 or all 30 b.p. of the phi X174 origin region were thus obtained. Supercoiled plasmids containing a sequence homologous to the first 27, 28 or 30 b.p. of the phi X174 origin region are nicked by the phi X174 gene A protein. However, the other supercoiled plasmids are not nicked by the phi X174 gene A protein. These results show that the first 27 b.p. of the phi X174 origin region are sufficient as well as required for the initiation step in phi X174 RF DNA replication, i.e. the cleavage by gene A protein. Images PMID:6236428

  6. A small molecule directly inhibits the p53 transactivation domain from binding to replication protein A

    PubMed Central

    Glanzer, Jason G.; Carnes, Katie A.; Soto, Patricia; Liu, Shengqin; Parkhurst, Lawrence J.; Oakley, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), essential for DNA replication, repair and DNA damage signalling, possesses six ssDNA-binding domains (DBDs), including DBD-F on the N-terminus of the largest subunit, RPA70. This domain functions as a binding site for p53 and other DNA damage and repair proteins that contain amphipathic alpha helical domains. Here, we demonstrate direct binding of both ssDNA and the transactivation domain 2 of p53 (p53TAD2) to DBD-F, as well as DBD-F-directed dsDNA strand separation by RPA, all of which are inhibited by fumaropimaric acid (FPA). FPA binds directly to RPA, resulting in a conformational shift as determined through quenching of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence in full length RPA. Structural analogues of FPA provide insight on chemical properties that are required for inhibition. Finally, we confirm the inability of RPA possessing R41E and R43E mutations to bind to p53, destabilize dsDNA and quench tryptophan fluorescence by FPA, suggesting that protein binding, DNA modulation and inhibitor binding all occur within the same site on DBD-F. The disruption of p53–RPA interactions by FPA may disturb the regulatory functions of p53 and RPA, thereby inhibiting cellular pathways that control the cell cycle and maintain the integrity of the human genome. PMID:23267009

  7. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Strycharska, Melania S.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Erzberger, Jan P.; O’Shea, Valerie; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Berger, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB complexed with nucleotide reveals a new conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active, but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an auto-regulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to nucleotide and both replication initiation and elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  8. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function.

    PubMed

    Strycharska, Melania S; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Erzberger, Jan P; O'Shea, Valerie L; Bustamante, Carlos J; Berger, James M

    2013-12-26

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB, complexed with nucleotide, reveals a newly discovered conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an autoregulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to both nucleotide and replication initiation/elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  9. The importance of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein dimers in the initiation of replication.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Kim, Bong-Suk; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Loesch-Fries, Sue

    2003-01-01

    Deletion and substitution mutations affecting the oligomerization of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) were studied in protoplasts to determine their effect on genome activation, an early step in AMV replication. The CP mutants that formed dimers, CPDeltaC9 and CPC-A(R)F, were highly active in initiating replication with 63-84% of wild-type (wt) CP activity. However, all mutants that did not form dimers, CPDeltaC18, CPDeltaC19, CPC-WFP, and CPC-W, were much less active with 19-33% of wt CP activity. The accumulation and solubility of mutant CPs expressed from a virus-based vector in Nicotiana benthamiana were similar to that of wt CP. Analysis of CP-RNA interactions indicated that CP dimers and CP monomers interacted very differently with AMV RNA 3' ends. These results suggest that CP dimers are more efficient for replication than CP monomers because of differences in RNA binding rather than differences in expression and accumulation of the mutant CPs in infected cells. PMID:12504539

  10. Control of human papillomavirus type 11 origin of replication by the E2 family of transcription regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Chiang, C M; Dong, G; Broker, T R; Chow, L T

    1992-09-01

    Replication of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) DNA requires the full-length viral E1 and E2 proteins (C.-M. Chiang, M. Ustav, A. Stenlund, T. F. Ho, T. R. Broker, and L. T. Chow, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:5799-5803, 1992). Using transient transfection of subgenomic HPV DNA into hamster CHO and human 293 cells, we have localized an origin of replication (ori) to an 80-bp segment in the upstream regulatory region spanning nucleotide 1. It overlaps the E6 promoter region and contains a short A + T-rich segment and a sequence which is homologous to the binding site of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E1 protein in the BPV-1 ori. However, unlike the BPV-1 ori, for which half an E2-responsive sequence (E2-RS) or binding site suffices, an intact binding site is essential for the HPV-11 ori. Replication was more efficient when additional E2-RSs were present. The intact HPV-11 genome also replicated in both cell lines when supplied with E1 and E2 proteins. Expression vectors of transcription repressor proteins that lack the N-terminal domain essential for E2 transcriptional trans activation did not support replication in collaboration with the E1 expression vector. Rather, cotransfection with the repressor expression vectors inhibited ori replication by the E1 and E2 proteins. These results demonstrate the importance of the N-terminal domain of the E2 protein in DNA replication and indicate that the family of E2 proteins positively and negatively regulates both viral DNA replication and E6 promoter transcription. PMID:1323690

  11. DNA-Binding Proteins Regulating pIP501 Transfer and Replication.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual function: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and, in addition, prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII), which indirectly increases RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII). Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter overlapping with the origin of transfer (oriT). The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4-like coupling

  12. DNA-Binding Proteins Regulating pIP501 Transfer and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual function: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and, in addition, prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII), which indirectly increases RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII). Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter overlapping with the origin of transfer (oriT). The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4-like coupling

  13. Staufen1 promotes HCV replication by inhibiting protein kinase R and transporting viral RNA to the site of translation and replication in the cells

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Updesh; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Mishra, Priya; Sengupta, Amitabha; Pandey, Virendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic hepatitis C (CHC), which often progresses to liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms that establish CHC and cause its subsequent development into LC and HCC are poorly understood. We have identified a cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA binding protein, Stau1, which is crucial for HCV replication. In this study, Stau1 specifically interacted with the variable-stem-loop region in the 3′ NTR and domain IIId of the HCV-IRES in the 5′ NTR, and promoted HCV replication and translation. Stau1 coimmunoprecipitates HCV NS5B and a cell factor, protein kinase R (PKR), which is critical for interferon-induced cellular antiviral and antiproliferative responses. Like Stau1, PKR displayed binding specificity to domain IIId of HCV-IRES. Stau1 binds to PKR and strongly inhibits PKR-autophosphorylation. We demonstrated that the transport of HCV RNA on the polysomes is Stau1-dependent, being mainly localized in the monosome fractions when Stau1 is downregulated and exclusively localized in the polysomes when Stau1 is overexpressed. Our findings suggest that HCV may appropriate Stau1 to its advantage to prevent PKR-mediated inhibition of eIF2α, which is required for the synthesis of HCV proteins for translocation of viral RNA genome to the polysomes for efficient translation and replication. PMID:27106056

  14. Staufen1 promotes HCV replication by inhibiting protein kinase R and transporting viral RNA to the site of translation and replication in the cells.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Updesh; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Mishra, Priya; Sengupta, Amitabha; Pandey, Virendra N

    2016-06-20

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic hepatitis C (CHC), which often progresses to liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms that establish CHC and cause its subsequent development into LC and HCC are poorly understood. We have identified a cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA binding protein, Stau1, which is crucial for HCV replication. In this study, Stau1 specifically interacted with the variable-stem-loop region in the 3' NTR and domain IIId of the HCV-IRES in the 5' NTR, and promoted HCV replication and translation. Stau1 coimmunoprecipitates HCV NS5B and a cell factor, protein kinase R (PKR), which is critical for interferon-induced cellular antiviral and antiproliferative responses. Like Stau1, PKR displayed binding specificity to domain IIId of HCV-IRES. Stau1 binds to PKR and strongly inhibits PKR-autophosphorylation. We demonstrated that the transport of HCV RNA on the polysomes is Stau1-dependent, being mainly localized in the monosome fractions when Stau1 is downregulated and exclusively localized in the polysomes when Stau1 is overexpressed. Our findings suggest that HCV may appropriate Stau1 to its advantage to prevent PKR-mediated inhibition of eIF2α, which is required for the synthesis of HCV proteins for translocation of viral RNA genome to the polysomes for efficient translation and replication. PMID:27106056

  15. Protein biogenesis machinery is a driver of replicative aging in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Georges E; Meinema, Anne C; González, Javier; Wolters, Justina C; Schmidt, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Bischoff, Rainer; Wit, Ernst C; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Heinemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    An integrated account of the molecular changes occurring during the process of cellular aging is crucial towards understanding the underlying mechanisms. Here, using novel culturing and computational methods as well as latest analytical techniques, we mapped the proteome and transcriptome during the replicative lifespan of budding yeast. With age, we found primarily proteins involved in protein biogenesis to increase relative to their transcript levels. Exploiting the dynamic nature of our data, we reconstructed high-level directional networks, where we found the same protein biogenesis-related genes to have the strongest ability to predict the behavior of other genes in the system. We identified metabolic shifts and the loss of stoichiometry in protein complexes as being consequences of aging. We propose a model whereby the uncoupling of protein levels of biogenesis-related genes from their transcript levels is causal for the changes occurring in aging yeast. Our model explains why targeting protein synthesis, or repairing the downstream consequences, can serve as interventions in aging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08527.001 PMID:26422514

  16. Protein biogenesis machinery is a driver of replicative aging in yeast.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Georges E; Meinema, Anne C; González, Javier; Wolters, Justina C; Schmidt, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Bischoff, Rainer; Wit, Ernst C; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Heinemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    An integrated account of the molecular changes occurring during the process of cellular aging is crucial towards understanding the underlying mechanisms. Here, using novel culturing and computational methods as well as latest analytical techniques, we mapped the proteome and transcriptome during the replicative lifespan of budding yeast. With age, we found primarily proteins involved in protein biogenesis to increase relative to their transcript levels. Exploiting the dynamic nature of our data, we reconstructed high-level directional networks, where we found the same protein biogenesis-related genes to have the strongest ability to predict the behavior of other genes in the system. We identified metabolic shifts and the loss of stoichiometry in protein complexes as being consequences of aging. We propose a model whereby the uncoupling of protein levels of biogenesis-related genes from their transcript levels is causal for the changes occurring in aging yeast. Our model explains why targeting protein synthesis, or repairing the downstream consequences, can serve as interventions in aging. PMID:26422514

  17. Structural organization of poliovirus RNA replication is mediated by viral proteins of the P2 genomic region.

    PubMed Central

    Bienz, K; Egger, D; Troxler, M; Pasamontes, L

    1990-01-01

    Transcriptionally active replication complexes bound to smooth membrane vesicles were isolated from poliovirus-infected cells. In electron microscopic, negatively stained preparations, the replication complex appeared as an irregularly shaped, oblong structure attached to several virus-induced vesicles of a rosettelike arrangement. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of such preparations demonstrated that the poliovirus replication complex contains the proteins coded by the P2 genomic region (P2 proteins) in a membrane-associated form. In addition, the P2 proteins are also associated with viral RNA, and they can be cross-linked to viral RNA by UV irradiation. Guanidine hydrochloride prevented the P2 proteins from becoming membrane bound but did not change their association with viral RNA. The findings allow the conclusion that the protein 2C or 2C-containing precursor(s) is responsible for the attachment of the viral RNA to the vesicular membrane and for the spatial organization of the replication complex necessary for its proper functioning in viral transcription. A model for the structure of the viral replication complex and for the function of the 2C-containing P2 protein(s) and the vesicular membranes is proposed. Images PMID:2154600

  18. Heat shock protein 70 is associated with CSFV NS5A protein and enhances viral RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Kang, Kai; Ning, Pengbo; Peng, Yangxin; Lin, Zhi; Cui, Hongjie; Cao, Zhi; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yanming

    2015-08-01

    The non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is proven to be involved in viral replication and can also modulate cellular signaling via to its ability to interact with various cellular proteins. Here, HSP70/NS5A complex formation is confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pulldown studies. Additionally, the N-terminal amino acids (29-240) of NS5A were identified as the interaction region through in vivo deletion analyses, and confocal microscopy showed that NS5A and HSP70 colocalized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of HSP70 via the eukaryotic expression plasmid pDsRED N1 or lentivirus significantly promoted viral RNA synthesis. Whereas the knockdown of HSP70 by lentivirus-mediated shRNA or inhibition by quercetin markedly decreased the viral load. These data suggest that HSP70 plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, particularly during the virus RNA replication period. The investigation of HSP70 protein functions may be beneficial for developing new strategies to treat CSFV infection. PMID:25827528

  19. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Promotes Degradation of SMC5/6 to Enhance HBV Replication.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christopher M; Xu, Yanping; Li, Feng; Nio, Kouki; Reszka-Blanco, Natalia; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Yaxu; Yu, Yanbao; Xiong, Yue; Su, Lishan

    2016-09-13

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) regulatory protein X (HBx) activates gene expression from the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) genome. Interaction of HBx with the DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 (CRL4) E3 ligase is critical for this function. Using substrate-trapping proteomics, we identified the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complex proteins SMC5 and SMC6 as CRL4(HBx) substrates. HBx expression and HBV infection degraded the SMC5/6 complex in human hepatocytes in vitro and in humanized mice in vivo. HBx targets SMC5/6 for ubiquitylation by the CRL4(HBx) E3 ligase and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Using a minicircle HBV (mcHBV) reporter system with HBx-dependent activity, we demonstrate that SMC5/6 knockdown, or inhibition with a dominant-negative SMC6, enhance HBx null mcHBV-Gluc gene expression. Furthermore, SMC5/6 knockdown rescued HBx-deficient HBV replication in human hepatocytes. These results indicate that a primary function of HBx is to degrade SMC5/6, which restricts HBV replication by inhibiting HBV gene expression. PMID:27626656

  20. Cofolding organizes alfalfa mosaic virus RNA and coat protein for replication.

    PubMed

    Guogas, Laura M; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-12-17

    Alfalfa mosaic virus genomic RNAs are infectious only when the viral coat protein binds to the RNA 3' termini. The crystal structure of an alfalfa mosaic virus RNA-peptide complex reveals that conserved AUGC repeats and Pro-Thr-x-Arg-Ser-x-x-Tyr coat protein amino acids cofold upon interacting. Alternating AUGC residues have opposite orientation, and they base pair in different adjacent duplexes. Localized RNA backbone reversals stabilized by arginine-guanine interactions place the adenosines and guanines in reverse order in the duplex. The results suggest that a uniform, organized 3' conformation, similar to that found on viral RNAs with transfer RNA-like ends, may be essential for replication. PMID:15604410

  1. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem-loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay. PMID:17182628

  2. Relative, label-free protein quantitation: spectral counting error statistics from nine replicate MudPIT samples.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bret; Feng, Jian; Garrett, Wesley M

    2010-09-01

    Nine replicate samples of peptides from soybean leaves, each spiked with a different concentration of bovine apotransferrin peptides, were analyzed on a mass spectrometer using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Proteins were detected from the peptide tandem mass spectra, and the numbers of spectra were statistically evaluated for variation between samples. The results corroborate prior knowledge that combining spectra from replicate samples increases the number of identifiable proteins and that a summed spectral count for a protein increases linearly with increasing molar amounts of protein. Furthermore, statistical analysis of spectral counts for proteins in two- and three-way comparisons between replicates and combined replicates revealed little significant variation arising from run-to-run differences or data-dependent instrument ion sampling that might falsely suggest differential protein accumulation. In these experiments, spectral counting was enabled by PANORAMICS, probability-based software that predicts proteins detected by sets of observed peptides. Three alternative approaches to counting spectra were also evaluated by comparison. As the counting thresholds were changed from weaker to more stringent, the accuracy of ratio determination also changed. These results suggest that thresholds for counting can be empirically set to improve relative quantitation. All together, the data confirm the accuracy and reliability of label-free spectral counting in the relative, quantitative analysis of proteins between samples. PMID:20541435

  3. Dynamics of replication proteins during lagging strand synthesis: A crossroads for genomic instability and cancer.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amit Laxmikant; Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Deependra Kumar; Maurya, Pooja; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    DNA replication is a complex phenomenon that requires the concerted action of several enzymes, together with their protein and non-protein cofactors. In the nucleus, the two DNA strands are duplicated by two completely independent methods due to their anti-parallel orientation and the restrictive nature of DNA polymerases that allow DNA synthesis in the 5'-3' direction only. In this review, we focus on the proteins that are involved in the more complex and discontinuous process of lagging strand DNA synthesis by the formation of small DNA fragments called Okazaki fragments which are later sealed to form a continuous strand of DNA. We try and connect all the protein-protein interactions important for lagging strand synthesis in the S-phase of the cell cycle, describe the dynamics of these interactions and go on to discuss the post-translational modifications that affect them. We also look at how mutations in any of the players of the lagging strand synthesis can cause genomic instability leading to cancer and discuss if any of the players may be targeted for cancer therapy. PMID:27161865

  4. DNA translocation activity of the multifunctional replication protein ORF904 from the archaeal plasmid pRN1

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Martin; Drechsler, Markus; Stark, Holger; Lipps, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The replication protein ORF904 from the plasmid pRN1 is a multifunctional enzyme with ATPase-, primase- and DNA polymerase activity. Sequence analysis suggests the presence of at least two conserved domains: an N-terminal prim/pol domain with primase and DNA polymerase activities and a C-terminal superfamily 3 helicase domain with a strong double-stranded DNA dependant ATPase activity. The exact molecular function of the helicase domain in the process of plasmid replication remains unclear. Potentially this motor protein is involved in duplex remodelling and/or origin opening at the plasmid replication origin. In support of this we found that the monomeric replication protein ORF904 forms a hexameric ring in the presence of DNA. It is able to translocate along single-stranded DNA in 3′–5′ direction as well as on double-stranded DNA. Critical residues important for ATPase activity and DNA translocation activity were identified and are in agreement with a homology model of the helicase domain. In addition we propose that a winged helix DNA-binding domain at the C-terminus of the helicase domain could assist the binding of the replication protein specifically to the replication origin. PMID:19762479

  5. Coordinate effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein Tat and cellular protein Puralpha on DNA replication initiated at the JC virus origin.

    PubMed

    Daniel, D C; Wortman, M J; Schiller, R J; Liu, H; Gan, L; Mellen, J S; Chang, C F; Gallia, G L; Rappaport, J; Khalili, K; Johnson, E M

    2001-07-01

    JC virus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a demyelinating disease in brains of individuals with AIDS. Previous work has shown that the Tat protein, encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), can interact with cellular protein Puralpha to enhance both TAR-dependent HIV-1 transcription and JCV late gene transcription. Tat has been shown to activate JCV transcription through interaction with Puralpha, which binds to promoter sequence elements near the JCV origin of replication. DNA footprinting has shown that Puralpha and large T-antigen cooperatively interact at several binding sites in the origin and transcriptional control region. Overexpression of Puralpha inhibits replication initiated at the JCV origin by T-antigen. In transfected glial cells Tat reversed this inhibition and enhanced DNA replication. In an in vitro replication system maximal activation by Tat, more than sixfold the levels achieved with T-antigen alone, was achieved in the presence of Puralpha. Effects of mutant Tat proteins on both activation of replication and binding to Puralpha have revealed that Cys22 exerts a conformational effect that affects both activities. The origin of an archetypal strain of JCV was less susceptible to activation of replication by Tat relative to the rearranged Mad-1 strain. These results have revealed a previously undocumented role for Tat in DNA replication and have indicated a regulatory role for JCV origin auxiliary sequences in replication and activation by Tat. PMID:11413364

  6. The "tobacco mosaic virus" 126-kDa protein associated with virus replication and movement suppresses RNA silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic symptoms induced on "Nicotiana tabacum" cv. Xanthi by "Tobacco mosaic virus" (TMV) are modulated by one or both amino-coterminal viral 126- and 183-kDa proteins, proteins involved in virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Here we compare the systemic accumulation and gene silencing c...

  7. Relative, label-free protein quantitation: spectral counting error statistics from nine replicate MudPIT samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine replicate samples of peptides from soybean leaves, each spiked with a different concentration of bovine apotransferrin peptides, were analyzed on a mass spectrometer using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Proteins were detected from the peptide tandem mass spectra a...

  8. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine inhibits replication of human enteroviruses B and D by targeting viral protein 2C.

    PubMed

    Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2013-04-01

    Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)--a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor--inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound. PMID:23335743

  9. Tomato mosaic virus replication protein suppresses virus-targeted posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kenji; Tsuda, Shinya; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2003-10-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a homology-dependent RNA degradation system, has a role in defending against virus infection in plants, but plant viruses encode a suppressor to combat PTGS. Using transgenic tobacco in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is posttranscriptionally silenced, we investigated a tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-encoded PTGS suppressor. Infection with wild-type ToMV (L strain) interrupted GFP silencing in tobacco, coincident with visible symptoms, whereas some attenuated strains of ToMV (L(11) and L(11)A strains) failed to suppress GFP silencing. Analyses of recombinant viruses containing the L and L(11)A strains revealed that a single base change in the replicase gene, which causes an amino acid substitution, is responsible for the symptomless and suppressor-defective phenotypes of the attenuated strains. An agroinfiltration assay indicated that the 130K replication protein acts as a PTGS suppressor. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 21 to 25 nucleotides accumulated during ToMV infection, suggesting that the major target of the ToMV-encoded suppressor is downstream from the production of siRNAs in the PTGS pathway. Analysis with GFP-tagged recombinant viruses revealed that the suppressor inhibits the establishment of the ToMV-targeted PTGS system in the inoculated leaves but does not detectably suppress the activity of the preexisting, sequence-specific PTGS machinery there. Taken together, these results indicate that it is likely that the ToMV-encoded suppressor, the 130K replication protein, blocks the utilization of silencing-associated small RNAs, so that a homology-dependent RNA degradation machinery is not newly formed. PMID:14512550

  10. Theoretical prediction of the binding free energy for mutants of replication protein A.

    PubMed

    Carra, Claudio; Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-07-01

    The replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric (70, 32, and 14 kDa subunits), single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein required for pivotal functions in the cell metabolism, such as chromosomal replication, prevention of hairpin formation, DNA repair and recombination, and signaling after DNA damage. Studies based on deletions and mutations have identified the high affinity ssDNA binding domains in the 70 kDa subunit of RPA, regions A and B. Individually, the domain A and B have a low affinity for ssDNA, while tandems composed of AA, AB, BB, and BA sequences bind the ssDNA with moderate to high affinity. Single and double point mutations on polar residues in the binding domains leads to a reduction in affinity of RPA for ssDNA, in particular when two hydrophilic residues are involved. In view of these results, we performed a study based on molecular dynamics simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental change in binding free energy, ΔΔG, of RPA70 mutants to further elucidate the nature of the protein-ssDNA interaction. The MM-PB(GB)SA methods implemented in Amber10 and the code FoldX were used to estimate the binding free energy. The theoretical and experimental ΔΔG values correlate better when the results are obtained by MM-PBSA calculated on individual trajectories for each mutant. In these conditions, the correlation coefficient between experimental and theoretical ΔΔG reaches a value of 0.95 despite the overestimation of the energy change by one order of magnitude. The decomposition of the MM-GBSA energy per residue allows us to correlate the change of the affinity with the residue polarity and energy contribution to the binding. The method revealed reliable predictions of the change in the affinity in function of mutations, and can be used to identify new mutants with distinct binding properties. PMID:22160652

  11. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Lira, C.B.B.; Giardini, M.A.; Khater, L.; Perez, A.M.; Peroni, L.A.; Reis, J.R.R. dos; Freitas-Junior, L.H.; Ramos, C.H.I.; Cano, M.I.N. . E-mail: micano@ibb.unesp.br

    2007-06-29

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 is a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres.

  12. Molecular Evolution and Functional Diversification of Replication Protein A1 in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Aklilu, Behailu B.; Culligan, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA binding complex required for eukaryotic DNA replication, repair, and recombination. RPA is composed of three subunits, RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3. In contrast to single RPA subunit genes generally found in animals and yeast, plants encode multiple paralogs of RPA subunits, suggesting subfunctionalization. Genetic analysis demonstrates that five Arabidopsis thaliana RPA1 paralogs (RPA1A to RPA1E) have unique and overlapping functions in DNA replication, repair, and meiosis. We hypothesize here that RPA1 subfunctionalities will be reflected in major structural and sequence differences among the paralogs. To address this, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide sequences of RPA1 paralogs from 25 complete genomes representing a wide spectrum of plants and unicellular green algae. We find here that the plant RPA1 gene family is divided into three general groups termed RPA1A, RPA1B, and RPA1C, which likely arose from two progenitor groups in unicellular green algae. In the family Brassicaceae the RPA1B and RPA1C groups have further expanded to include two unique sub-functional paralogs RPA1D and RPA1E, respectively. In addition, RPA1 groups have unique domains, motifs, cis-elements, gene expression profiles, and pattern of conservation that are consistent with proposed functions in monocot and dicot species, including a novel C-terminal zinc-finger domain found only in plant RPA1C-like sequences. These results allow for improved prediction of RPA1 subunit functions in newly sequenced plant genomes, and potentially provide a unique molecular tool to improve classification of Brassicaceae species. PMID:26858742

  13. Rift Valley Fever Virus Nonstructural Protein NSs Promotes Viral RNA Replication and Transcription in a Minigenome System

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Peters, C. J.; Makino, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, has a tripartite negative-strand genome (S, M, and L segments) and is an important mosquito-borne pathogen for domestic animals and humans. We established an RVFV T7 RNA polymerase-driven minigenome system in which T7 RNA polymerase from an expression plasmid drove expression of RNA transcripts for viral proteins and minigenome RNA transcripts carrying a reporter gene between both termini of the M RNA segment in 293T cells. Like other viruses of the Bunyaviridae family, replication and transcription of the RVFV minigenome required expression of viral N and L proteins. Unexpectedly, the coexpression of an RVFV nonstructural protein, NSs, with N and L proteins resulted in a significant enhancement of minigenome RNA replication. Coexpression of NSs protein with N and L proteins also enhanced minigenome mRNA transcription in the cells expressing viral-sense minigenome RNA transcripts. NSs protein expression increased the RNA replication of minigenomes that originated from S and L RNA segments. Enhancement of minigenome RNA synthesis by NSs protein occurred in cells lacking alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) genes, indicating that the effect of NSs protein on minigenome RNA replication was unrelated to a putative NSs protein-induced inhibition of IFN-α/β production. Our finding that RVFV NSs protein augmented minigenome RNA synthesis was in sharp contrast to reports that Bunyamwera virus (genus Bunyavirus) NSs protein inhibits viral minigenome RNA synthesis, suggesting that RVFV NSs protein and Bunyamwera virus NSs protein have distinctly different biological roles in viral RNA synthesis. PMID:15827175

  14. Three different proteins recognize a multifunctional determinant that controls replication initiation, fork arrest and transcription in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, M; Saha, S; Kapler, G M

    2000-02-01

    Type I elements regulate the initiation of DNA replication, elongation of replication forks and transcription of the Tetrahymena thermophila rDNA minichromosome. Previous studies identified a 24 kDa protein, ssA-TIBF, which binds the A-rich strand of type I elements. Here we describe two additional type I element binding activities (native mol. wt approximately 65 and approximately 250 kDa) that interact with DNA via previously unidentified 32 and 110 kDa polypeptides. The 65 kDa activity was purified to homogeneity and consists of a homodimer of a 32 kDa polypeptide. In contrast to the other type I element binding factors, the 65 kDa activity partitions preferentially to the nuclear fraction during isolation. Levels of the 65 kDa activity increase dramatically in starved cells, raising the possibility that it might negatively regulate replication or transcription. By comparison, the other two binding activities were elevated slightly during macronuclear development, when the rDNA was undergoing DNA replication. Previous studies indicate that the initiation of rDNA replication is regulated by long range interactions between dispersed type I elements. Competitive DNA binding or cooperative protein-protein interactions between the factors described here may play a regulatory role in replication or expression of the rDNA minichromosome. PMID:10637338

  15. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie; Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter; Zhao, Haiyan; Tang, Liang

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  16. CTXφ Replication Depends on the Histone-Like HU Protein and the UvrD Helicase.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Eriel; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, François-Xavier

    2015-05-01

    The Vibrio cholerae bacterium is the agent of cholera. The capacity to produce the cholera toxin, which is responsible for the deadly diarrhea associated with cholera epidemics, is encoded in the genome of a filamentous phage, CTXφ. Rolling-circle replication (RCR) is central to the life cycle of CTXφ because amplification of the phage genome permits its efficient integration into the genome and its packaging into new viral particles. A single phage-encoded HUH endonuclease initiates RCR of the proto-typical filamentous phages of enterobacteriaceae by introducing a nick at a specific position of the double stranded DNA form of the phage genome. The rest of the process is driven by host factors that are either essential or crucial for the replication of the host genome, such as the Rep SF1 helicase. In contrast, we show here that the histone-like HU protein of V. cholerae is necessary for the introduction of a nick by the HUH endonuclease of CTXφ. We further show that CTXφ RCR depends on a SF1 helicase normally implicated in DNA repair, UvrD, rather than Rep. In addition to CTXφ, we show that VGJφ, a representative member of a second family of vibrio integrative filamentous phages, requires UvrD and HU for RCR while TLCφ, a satellite phage, depends on Rep and is independent from HU. PMID:25992634

  17. Replication-competent influenza A viruses expressing a red fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Like most animal viruses, studying influenza A in model systems requires secondary methodologies to identify infected cells. To circumvent this requirement, we describe the generation of replication-competent influenza A red fluorescent viruses. These influenza A viruses encode mCherry fused to the viral non-structural 1 (NS1) protein and display comparable growth kinetics to wild-type viruses in vitro. Infection of cells with influenza A mCherry viruses was neutralized with monoclonal antibodies and inhibited with antivirals to levels similar to wild-type virus. Influenza A mCherry viruses were also able to lethally infect mice, and strikingly, dose- and time-dependent kinetics of viral replication were monitored in whole excised mouse lungs using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). By eliminating the need for secondary labeling of infected cells, influenza A mCherry viruses provide an ideal tool in the ongoing struggle to better characterize the virus and identify new therapeutics against influenza A viral infections. PMID:25553516

  18. A DNA Binding Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Transcription in Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Shi, Yanghui; Quan, Yanping; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A DNA-binding protein (DBP) [GenBank accession number: M63416] of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has been reported to be a regulatory factor in BmNPV, but its detailed functions remain unknown. In order to study the regulatory mechanism of DBP on viral proliferation, genome replication, and gene transcription, a BmNPV dbp gene knockout virus dbp-ko-Bacmid was generated by the means of Red recombination system. In addition, dbp-repaired virus dbp-re-Bacmid was constructed by the means of the Bac to Bac system. Then, the Bacmids were transfected into BmN cells. The results of this viral titer experiment revealed that the TCID50 of the dbp-ko-Bacmid was 0; however, the dbp-re-Bacmid was similar to the wtBacmid (p>0.05), indicating that the dbp-deficient would lead to failure in the assembly of virus particles. In the next step, Real-Time PCR was used to analyze the transcriptional phases of dbp gene in BmN cells, which had been infected with BmNPV. The results of the latter experiment revealed that the transcript of dbp gene was first detected at 3 h post-infection. Furthermore, the replication level of virus genome and the transcriptional level of virus early, late, and very late genes in BmN cells, which had been transfected with 3 kinds of Bacmids, were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. The demonstrating that the replication level of genome was lower than that of wtBacmid and dbp-re-Bacmid (p<0.01). The transcriptional level of dbp-ko-Bacmid early gene lef-3, ie-1, dnapol, late gene vp39 and very late gene p10 were statistically significantly lower than dbp-re-Bacmid and wtBacmid (p<0.01). The results presented are based on Western blot analysis, which indicated that the lack of dbp gene would lead to low expressions of lef3, vp39, and p10. In conclusion, dbp was not only essential for early viral replication, but also a viral gene that has a significant impact on transcription and expression during all periods of baculovirus life cycle. PMID:27414795

  19. Roles of Serine and Threonine Residues of Mumps Virus P Protein in Viral Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Elson, Andrew; Li, Zhuo; Zengel, James

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus containing a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome, is a human pathogen that causes an acute infection with symptoms ranging from parotitis to mild meningitis and severe encephalitis. Vaccination against mumps virus has been effective in reducing mumps cases. However, recently large outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations. There is no anti-MuV drug. Understanding replication of MuV may lead to novel antiviral strategies. MuV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase minimally consists of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large protein (L). The P protein is heavily phosphorylated. To investigate the roles of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues of P in viral RNA transcription and replication, P was subjected to mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. P, a 392-amino acid residue protein, has 64 S and T residues. We have found that mutating nine S/T residues significantly reduced and mutating residue T at 101 to A (T101A) significantly enhanced activity in a minigenome system. A recombinant virus containing the P-T101A mutation (rMuV-P-T101A) was recovered and analyzed. rMuV-P-T101A grew to higher titers and had increased protein expression at early time points. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of MuV-P-T101 plays a negative role in viral RNA synthesis. This is the first time that the P protein of a paramyxovirus has been systematically analyzed for S/T residues that are critical for viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Mumps virus (MuV) is a reemerging paramyxovirus that caused large outbreaks in the United States, where vaccination coverage is very high. There is no anti-MuV drug. In this work, we have systematically analyzed roles of Ser/Thr residues of MuV P in viral RNA synthesis. We have identified S/T residues of P critical for MuV RNA synthesis and phosphorylation sites that are important for viral RNA synthesis. This work leads to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis as well as to potential

  20. Conserved amino acids within the N-terminus of the West Nile virus NS4A protein contribute to virus replication, protein stability and membrane proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, R.L.; Mackenzie, J.M.

    2015-07-15

    The West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) NS4A protein is a multifunctional protein involved in many aspects of the virus life-cycle and is a major component of the WNV{sub KUN} replication complex (RC). Previously we identified a conserved region in the C-terminus of NS4A regulating proteolytic processing and RC assembly, and now investigate key conserved residues in the N-terminus of NS4A and their contribution to WNV{sub KUN} replication. Mutation of P13 completely ablated replication, whereas, mutation of P48 and D49, near the first transmembrane helix, and G66 within the helix, showed variable defects in replication, virion secretion and membrane proliferation. Intriguingly, the P48 and G66 NS4A mutants resulted in specific proteasome depletion of NS4A that could in part be rescued with a proteasome inhibitor. Our results suggest that the N-terminus of NS4A contributes to correct folding and stability, essential for facilitating the essential roles of NS4A during replication. - Highlights: • Mutation of Proline13 of the WNV NS4A protein is lethal to replication. • 1st TMB helix of NS4A contributes to protein stability and membrane remodelling. • Unstable mutants of NS4A can be rescued with a proteasome inhibitor. • This study (and of others) contributes to a functional mapping of the NS4A protein.

  1. Signals at the bacteriophage phi 29 DNA replication origins required for protein p6 binding and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, M; Gutiérrez, J; Prieto, I; Hermoso, J M; Salas, M

    1989-01-01

    Protein p6 of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 binds specifically to the ends of the viral DNA that contain the replication origins, giving rise to a nucleoprotein structure. DNA regions recognized by protein p6 have been mapped by deletion analysis and DNase I footprinting. Main protein p6-recognition signals have been located between nucleotides 62 and 125 at the right phi 29 DNA end and between nucleotides 46 and 68 at the left end. In addition, recognition signals are also present at other sites within 200-300 bp at each phi 29 DNA end. Protein p6 does not seem to recognize a specific sequence in the DNA, but rather a structural feature, which could be bendability. The formation of the protein p6-DNA nucleoprotein complex is likely to be the structural basis for the protein p6 activity in the initiation of replication. Images PMID:2767056

  2. Baculovirus DNA Replication-Specific Expression Factors Trigger Apoptosis and Shutoff of Host Protein Synthesis during Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Friesen, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important antivirus defense. To define the poorly understood pathways by which invertebrates respond to viruses by inducing apoptosis, we have identified replication events that trigger apoptosis in baculovirus-infected cells. We used RNA silencing to ablate factors required for multiplication of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) complementary to the AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) that are designated as replicative lefs (lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, lef-11, p143, dnapol, and ie-1/ie-0) blocked virus DNA synthesis and late gene expression in permissive Spodoptera frugiperda cells. dsRNAs specific to designated nonreplicative lefs (lef-8, lef-9, p47, and pp31) blocked late gene expression without affecting virus DNA replication. Thus, both classes of lefs functioned during infection as defined. Silencing the replicative lefs prevented AcMNPV-induced apoptosis of Spodoptera cells, whereas silencing the nonreplicative lefs did not. Thus, the activity of replicative lefs or virus DNA replication is sufficient to trigger apoptosis. Confirming this conclusion, AcMNPV-induced apoptosis was suppressed by silencing the replicative lefs in cells from a divergent species, Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing replicative but not nonreplicative lefs also abrogated AcMNPV-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis, suggesting that virus DNA replication triggers inhibition of host biosynthetic processes and that apoptosis and translational arrest are linked. Our findings suggest that baculovirus DNA replication triggers a host cell response similar to the DNA damage response in vertebrates, which causes translational arrest and apoptosis. Pathways for detecting virus invasion and triggering apoptosis may therefore be conserved between insects and mammals. PMID:19706708

  3. The 1:1 N-NS protein complex of vesicular stomatitis virus is essential for efficient genome replication.

    PubMed Central

    La Ferla, F M; Peluso, R W

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect pH had on the N-NS protein complex to determine its role in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genome replication, as we had previously shown that VSV genome replication in vitro requires the interaction of the viral N and NS proteins into a 1:1 complex. A previous report showed that the growth of VSV in L cells was sensitive to the pH of the environment (M. Fiszman, J. B. Leaute, C. Chany, and M. Girard, J. Virol. 13:801-808, 1974). We hypothesized that low pH might disrupt the N-NS protein complex, and so we investigated the molecular events leading to inhibition of viral RNA replication in vitro from extracts that were prepared from VSV-infected cells incubated at pH 6.6. We found that viral genome RNA synthesis in vitro was reduced when infected cells were maintained at pH 6.6. Through immunoprecipitation analysis of the viral soluble protein pool, we found that a complex that usually exists between the N and NS proteins at pH 7.4 was altered in extracts from infected cells maintained at pH 6.6, and this was responsible for the observed effects on viral replication. The effect of low pH on the N-NS protein complex could not be abolished by increasing the concentration of the altered complex, indicating that the effects is more than simply a decrease in the level of the protein complex in the cell. Our data provide additional evidence that the 1:1 N-NS protein complex, and not the N protein alone, serves as the substrate for viral RNA replication in vivo. Images PMID:2548001

  4. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  5. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  6. Interferon-inducible protein SCOTIN interferes with HCV replication through the autolysosomal degradation of NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nari; Kim, Min-Jung; Sung, Pil Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes autophagy to promote its propagation. Here we show the autophagy-mediated suppression of HCV replication via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein SCOTIN. SCOTIN overexpression inhibits HCV replication and infectious virion production in cells infected with cell culture-derived HCV. HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein, which is a critical factor for HCV RNA replication, interacts with the IFN-β-inducible protein SCOTIN, which transports NS5A to autophagosomes for degradation. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of SCOTIN on HCV replication is impaired in both ATG7-silenced cells and cells treated with autophagy or lysosomal inhibitors. SCOTIN does not affect the overall flow of autophagy; however, it is a substrate for autophagic degradation. The physical association between the transmembrane/proline-rich domain (TMPRD) of SCOTIN and Domain-II of NS5A is essential for autophagosomal trafficking and NS5A degradation. Altogether, our findings suggest that IFN-β-induced SCOTIN recruits the HCV NS5A protein to autophagosomes for degradation, thereby restricting HCV replication. PMID:26868272

  7. Stepwise assembly of initiation proteins at budding yeast replication origins in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Takashi; Diffley, John F. X.

    2000-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs in two sequential and mutually exclusive steps. Prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) containing origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6p, and the MCM2–7 proteins assemble only under conditions of low cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity during G1, whereas origin activation is driven by the increase in Cdk activity at the end of G1. As a first step toward the reconstitution of this two-step process in vitro, we describe a system in which extracts prepared from G1-arrested cells promote sequential assembly of ORC, Cdc6p, and MCM2–7 proteins onto exogenously added origin-containing DNA. This reaction requires an intact ARS consensus sequence and requires ATP for two distinct steps. Extracts from cells arrested in mitosis also can support the binding of ORC but are unable to load either Cdc6p or MCM2–7 proteins. This system should be useful for studying the mechanism and regulation of pre-RC assembly. PMID:11121019

  8. A novel inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Dai, Dongcheng; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Berhanu, Aklile; Jones, Kevin F; Cardwell, Kara B; Schneider, Christine; Wineinger, Kristin A; Page, Jessica M; Harver, Chris; Stavale, Eric; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar; Stone, Melialani A; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Scaturro, Pietro; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV) infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide per year, of which 500,000 develop severe life-threatening disease. This mosquito-borne illness is endemic in most tropical and subtropical countries and has spread significantly over the last decade. While there are several promising vaccine candidates in clinical trials, there are currently no approved vaccines or therapeutics available for treatment of dengue infection. Here, we describe a novel small-molecule compound, ST-148, that is a potent inhibitor of all four serotypes of DENV in vitro. ST-148 significantly reduced viremia and viral load in vital organs and tended to lower cytokine levels in the plasma in a nonlethal model of DENV infection in AG129 mice. Compound resistance mapped to the DENV capsid (C) gene, and a direct interaction of ST-148 with C protein is suggested by alterations of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein in the presence of compound. Thus, ST-148 appears to interact with the DENV C protein and inhibits a distinct step(s) of the viral replication cycle. PMID:23070172

  9. Replication protein A is required for meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Soustelle, Christine; Vedel, Michèle; Kolodner, Richard; Nicolas, Alain

    2002-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, meiotic recombination is initiated by transient DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). These DSBs undergo a 5' --> 3' resection to produce 3' single-stranded DNA ends that serve to channel DSBs into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. In vitro studies strongly suggest that several proteins of this pathway--Rad51, Rad52, Rad54, Rad55, Rad57, and replication protein A (RPA)--play a role in the strand exchange reaction. Here, we report a study of the meiotic phenotypes conferred by two missense mutations affecting the largest subunit of RPA, which are localized in the protein interaction domain (rfa1-t11) and in the DNA-binding domain (rfa1-t48). We find that both mutant diploids exhibit reduced sporulation efficiency, very poor spore viability, and a 10- to 100-fold decrease in meiotic recombination. Physical analyses indicate that both mutants form normal levels of meiosis-specific DSBs and that the broken ends are processed into 3'-OH single-stranded tails, indicating that the RPA complex present in these rfa1 mutants is functional in the initial steps of meiotic recombination. However, the 5' ends of the broken fragments undergo extensive resection, similar to what is observed in rad51, rad52, rad55, and rad57 mutants, indicating that these RPA mutants are defective in the repair of the Spo11-dependent DSBs that initiate homologous recombination during meiosis. PMID:12072452

  10. Stem-loop binding protein is a multifaceted cellular regulator of HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Tucker, Lynne D; Asara, John M; Cheruiyot, Collins K; Lu, Huafei; Wu, Zhijin J; Newstein, Michael C; Dooner, Mark S; Friedman, Jennifer; Lally, Michelle A; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    A rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals is able to maintain plasma viral load (VL) at low levels without antiretroviral treatment. Identifying the mechanisms underlying this atypical response to infection may lead to therapeutic advances for treating HIV-1. Here, we developed a proteomic analysis to compare peripheral blood cell proteomes in 20 HIV-1-infected individuals who maintained either high or low VL with the aim of identifying host factors that impact HIV-1 replication. We determined that the levels of multiple histone proteins were markedly decreased in cohorts of individuals with high VL. This reduction was correlated with lower levels of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), which is known to control histone metabolism. Depletion of cellular SLBP increased promoter engagement with the chromatin structures of the host gene high mobility group protein A1 (HMGA1) and viral long terminal repeat (LTR), which led to higher levels of HIV-1 genomic integration and proviral transcription. Further, we determined that TNF-α regulates expression of SLBP and observed that plasma TNF-α levels in HIV-1-infected individuals correlated directly with VL levels and inversely with cellular SLBP levels. Our findings identify SLBP as a potentially important cellular regulator of HIV-1, thereby establishing a link between histone metabolism, inflammation, and HIV-1 infection. PMID:27454292

  11. The role of accessory proteins in the replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-03-23

    The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs. PMID:23182908

  12. Replication of Tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses have served as models for studying the mechanisms of viral RNA replication. In tobamoviruses, genomic RNA replication occurs via several steps: (a) synthesis of viral replication proteins by translation of the genomic RNA; (b) translation-coupled binding of the replication proteins to a 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA; (c) recruitment of the genomic RNA by replication proteins onto membranes and formation of a complex with host proteins TOM1 and ARL8; (d) synthesis of complementary (negative-strand) RNA in the complex; and (e) synthesis of progeny genomic RNA. This article reviews current knowledge on tobamovirus RNA replication, particularly regarding how the genomic RNA is specifically selected as a replication template and how the replication proteins are activated. We also focus on the roles of the replication proteins in evading or suppressing host defense systems. PMID:27296148

  13. In vivo occupancy of mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein supports the strand displacement mode of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Miralles Fusté, Javier; Shi, Yonghong; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Zhu, Xuefeng; Jemt, Elisabeth; Persson, Örjan; Sabouri, Nasim; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for proteins required for oxidative phosphorylation, and mutations affecting the genome have been linked to a number of diseases as well as the natural ageing process in mammals. Human mtDNA is replicated by a molecular machinery that is distinct from the nuclear replisome, but there is still no consensus on the exact mode of mtDNA replication. We here demonstrate that the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) directs origin specific initiation of mtDNA replication. MtSSB covers the parental heavy strand, which is displaced during mtDNA replication. MtSSB blocks primer synthesis on the displaced strand and restricts initiation of light-strand mtDNA synthesis to the specific origin of light-strand DNA synthesis (OriL). The in vivo occupancy profile of mtSSB displays a distinct pattern, with the highest levels of mtSSB close to the mitochondrial control region and with a gradual decline towards OriL. The pattern correlates with the replication products expected for the strand displacement mode of mtDNA synthesis, lending strong in vivo support for this debated model for mitochondrial DNA replication. PMID:25474639

  14. Human DNA helicase B interacts with the replication initiation protein Cdc45 and facilitates Cdc45 binding onto chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Guler, Gulfem D.; Fanning, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells begins at replication initation sites, which are marked by the assembly of the pre-replication complexes in early G1. At the G1/S transition, recruitment of additional replication initiation proteins enables origin DNA unwinding and loading of DNA polymerases. We found that depletion of the human DNA helicase B (HDHB) inhibits the initiation of DNA replication, suggesting a role of HDHB in the beginning of the DNA synthesis. To gain insight into the function of HDHB during replication initiation, we examined the physical interactions of purified recombinant HDHB with key initiation proteins. HDHB interacts directly with two initiation factors TopBP1 and Cdc45. In addition we found that both, the N-terminus and helicase domain of HDHB bind to the N-terminus of Cdc45. Furthermore depletion of HDHB from human cells diminishes Cdc45 association with chromatin, suggesting that HDHB may facilitate Cdc45 recruitment at G1/S in human cells. PMID:25933514

  15. Soj/ParA stalls DNA replication by inhibiting helix formation of the initiator protein DnaA.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Graham; Errington, Jeff; Murray, Heath

    2012-03-21

    Control of DNA replication initiation is essential for normal cell growth. A unifying characteristic of DNA replication initiator proteins across the kingdoms of life is their distinctive AAA+ nucleotide-binding domains. The bacterial initiator DnaA assembles into a right-handed helical oligomer built upon interactions between neighbouring AAA+ domains, that in vitro stretches DNA to promote replication origin opening. The Bacillus subtilis protein Soj/ParA has previously been shown to regulate DnaA-dependent DNA replication initiation; however, the mechanism underlying this control was unknown. Here, we report that Soj directly interacts with the AAA+ domain of DnaA and specifically regulates DnaA helix assembly. We also provide critical biochemical evidence indicating that DnaA assembles into a helical oligomer in vivo and that the frequency of replication initiation correlates with the extent of DnaA oligomer formation. This work defines a significant new regulatory mechanism for the control of DNA replication initiation in bacteria. PMID:22286949

  16. GBF1- and ACBD3-Independent Recruitment of PI4KIIIβ to Replication Sites by Rhinovirus 3A Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Cristina M.; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A.; Sittig, Simone P.; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Belov, George A.; van der Schaar, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    PI4KIIIβ recruitment to Golgi membranes relies on GBF1/Arf and ACBD3. Enteroviruses such as poliovirus and coxsackievirus recruit PI4KIIIβ to their replication sites via their 3A proteins. Here, we show that human rhinovirus (HRV) 3A also recruited PI4KIIIβ to replication sites. Unlike other enterovirus 3A proteins, HRV 3A failed to bind GBF1. Although HRV 3A was previously shown to interact with ACBD3, our data suggest that PI4KIIIβ recruitment occurred independently of both GBF1 and ACBD3. PMID:25410869

  17. Transcriptional and replicational activation functions in the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein are encoded by different structural determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Abroi, A; Kurg, R; Ustav, M

    1996-01-01

    A set of E2 proteins with mutations in the amino-terminal transactivation domain was made by a scheme called clustered charged-to-alanine scan. These mutant E2 proteins were tested for expression, stability, and compartmentalization in cells and for sequence-specific DNA binding, as well as in functional assays for transcriptional and replicational activation. We identified four groups of mutants. First, mutants K111A, K112A, and E176A were unable to activate replication and transcription because of oligomerization-induced retention of oligomers in the cytoplasm. Second, although fractions of the mutant proteins E74A and D143A/ R172C existed in the oligomeric form, they were localized in the nucleus. Certain fractions of these proteins existed as a dimer able to form a specific complex and activate replication; however, these proteins were inactive in transcriptional activation. Third, mutants R37A and D122A were localized in the nucleus, existed in the dimeric form, supported replication efficiently, and were severely crippled in transcriptional activation. The fourth group of mutants did not differ considerably from the wild-type protein. The activation of transcription by the wild type as well as mutant E2 proteins was dependent on the concentration of input E2 expression vector DNA and had a bell-like shape. We suggest that the reduction of transcriptional activation at higher E2 concentrations, the self-squelching activity, is caused by oligomerization of the E2 transactivator and is one of the mechanisms for the regulation of E2 activity. Our results also show that transcriptional and replicational activation activities are encoded by different determinants in the E2 protein. PMID:8709243

  18. NIRF, a Novel Ubiquitin Ligase, Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication Through Effect on HBV Core Protein and H3 Histones.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guanhua; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Danlin; Xuan, Yanyan; Bai, Lu; Duan, Changzhu

    2015-05-01

    Np95/ICBP90-like RING finger protein (NIRF), a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to interact with HBc and promote its degradation. This study investigated the effects of NIRF on replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the mechanisms. We have shown that NIRF inhibits replication of HBV DNA and secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 cells transfected with pAAV-HBV1.3. NIRF also inhibits the replication and secretion of HBV in a mouse model that expressed HBV. NIRF reduces acetylation of HBV cccDNA-bound H3 histones. These results showed that NIRF is involved in the HBV replication cycle not only through direct interaction with HBc but also reduces acetylation of HBV cccDNA-bound H3 histones. PMID:25664994

  19. MCMV-mediated Inhibition of the Pro-apoptotic Bak Protein Is Required for Optimal In Vivo Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Peter; Kvansakul, Marc; Voigt, Valentina; Kile, Benjamin T.; Kluck, Ruth M.; Huang, David C. S.; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A.; Andoniou, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Successful replication and transmission of large DNA viruses such as the cytomegaloviruses (CMV) family of viruses depends on the ability to interfere with multiple aspects of the host immune response. Apoptosis functions as a host innate defence mechanism against viral infection, and the capacity to interfere with this process is essential for the replication of many viruses. The Bcl-2 family of proteins are the principle regulators of apoptosis, with two pro-apoptotic members, Bax and Bak, essential for apoptosis to proceed. The m38.5 protein encoded by murine CMV (MCMV) has been identified as Bax-specific inhibitor of apoptosis. Recently, m41.1, a protein product encoded by the m41 open reading frame (ORF) of MCMV, has been shown to inhibit Bak activity in vitro. Here we show that m41.1 is critical for optimal MCMV replication in vivo. Growth of a m41.1 mutant was attenuated in multiple organs, a defect that was not apparent in Bak−/− mice. Thus, m41.1 promotes MCMV replication by inhibiting Bak-dependent apoptosis during in vivo infection. The results show that Bax and Bak mediate non-redundant functions during MCMV infection and that the virus produces distinct inhibitors for each protein to counter the activity of these proteins. PMID:23468630

  20. Bluetongue Virus Nonstructural Protein NS3/NS3a Is Not Essential for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    van Gennip, René G. P.; van de Water, Sandra G. P.; van Rijn, Piet A.

    2014-01-01

    Orbiviruses form the largest genus of the family Reoviridae consisting of at least 23 different virus species. One of these is the bluetongue virus (BTV) and causes severe hemorrhagic disease in ruminants, and is transmitted by bites of Culicoides midges. BTV is a non-enveloped virus which is released from infected cells by cell lysis and/or a unique budding process induced by nonstructural protein NS3/NS3a encoded by genome segment 10 (Seg-10). Presence of both NS3 and NS3a is highly conserved in Culicoides borne orbiviruses which is suggesting an essential role in virus replication. We used reverse genetics to generate BTV mutants to study the function of NS3/NS3a in virus replication. Initially, BTV with small insertions in Seg-10 showed no CPE but after several passages these BTV mutants reverted to CPE phenotype comparable to wtBTV, and NS3/NS3a expression returned by repair of the ORF. These results show that there is a strong selection for functional NS3/NS3a. To abolish NS3 and/or NS3a expression, Seg-10 with one or two mutated start codons (mutAUG1, mutAUG2 and mutAUG1+2) were used to generate BTV mutants. Surprisingly, all three BTV mutants were generated and the respective AUGMet→GCCAla mutations were maintained. The lack of expression of NS3, NS3a, or both proteins was confirmed by westernblot analysis and immunostaining of infected cells with NS3/NS3a Mabs. Growth of mutAUG1 and mutAUG1+2 virus in BSR cells was retarded in both insect and mammalian cells, and particularly virus release from insect cells was strongly reduced. Our findings now enable research on the role of RNA sequences of Seg-10 independent of known gene products, and on the function of NS3/NS3a proteins in both types of cells as well as in the host and insect vector. PMID:24465709

  1. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Brosey, Chris A; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Heller, William T; Rambo, Robert P; Tainer, John A; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    By coupling the protection and organization of ssDNA with the recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, Replication Protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA manages to coordinate the biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA s DNA binding activity, combining small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA s DNA-binding core. It has been long held that RPA engages ssDNA in three stages, but our data reveal that RPA undergoes two rather than three transitions as it binds ssDNA. In contrast to previous models, RPA is more compact when fully engaged on 20-30 nucleotides of ssDNA than when DNA-free, and there is no evidence for significant population of a highly compacted structure in the initial 8-10 nucleotide binding mode. These results provide a new framework for understanding the integration of ssDNA into DNA processing machinery and how binding partners may manipulate RPA architecture to gain access to the substrate.

  2. Archaeal Genome Guardians Give Insights into Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Damage Response Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shin, David S.; Pratt, Ashley J.; Tainer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    As the third domain of life, archaea, like the eukarya and bacteria, must have robust DNA replication and repair complexes to ensure genome fidelity. Archaea moreover display a breadth of unique habitats and characteristics, and structural biologists increasingly appreciate these features. As archaea include extremophiles that can withstand diverse environmental stresses, they provide fundamental systems for understanding enzymes and pathways critical to genome integrity and stress responses. Such archaeal extremophiles provide critical data on the periodic table for life as well as on the biochemical, geochemical, and physical limitations to adaptive strategies allowing organisms to thrive under environmental stress relevant to determining the boundaries for life as we know it. Specifically, archaeal enzyme structures have informed the architecture and mechanisms of key DNA repair proteins and complexes. With added abilities to temperature-trap flexible complexes and reveal core domains of transient and dynamic complexes, these structures provide insights into mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity despite extreme environmental stress. The DNA damage response protein structures noted in this review therefore inform the basis for genome integrity in the face of environmental stress, with implications for all domains of life as well as for biomanufacturing, astrobiology, and medicine. PMID:24701133

  3. Cellular COPII Proteins Are Involved in Production of the Vesicles That Form the Poliovirus Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Rust, René C.; Landmann, Lukas; Gosert, Rainer; Tang, Bor Luen; Hong, Wanjin; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Egger, Denise; Bienz, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) replicates its genome in association with membranous vesicles in the cytoplasm of infected cells. To elucidate the origin and mode of formation of PV vesicles, immunofluorescence labeling with antibodies against the viral vesicle marker proteins 2B and 2BC, as well as cellular markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), anterograde transport vesicles, and the Golgi complex, was performed in BT7-H cells. Optical sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy were subjected to a deconvolution process to enhance resolution and signal-to-noise ratio and to allow for a three-dimensional representation of labeled membrane structures. The mode of formation of the PV vesicles was, on morphological grounds, similar to the formation of anterograde membrane traffic vesicles in uninfected cells. ER-resident membrane markers were excluded from both types of vesicles, and the COPII components Sec13 and Sec31 were both found to be colocalized on the vesicular surface, indicating the presence of a functional COPII coat. PV vesicle formation during early time points of infection did not involve the Golgi complex. The expression of PV protein 2BC or the entire P2 and P3 genomic region led to the production of vesicles carrying a COPII coat and showing the same mode of formation as vesicles produced after PV infection. These results indicate that PV vesicles are formed at the ER by the cellular COPII budding mechanism and thus are homologous to the vesicles of the anterograde membrane transport pathway. PMID:11559814

  4. Replication Protein A (RPA) deficiency activates the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seok-Won; Jung, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Min

    2016-09-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway regulates DNA inter-strand crosslink (ICL) repair. Despite our greater understanding of the role of FA in ICL repair, its function in the preventing spontaneous genome instability is not well understood. Here, we show that depletion of replication protein A (RPA) activates the FA pathway. RPA1 deficiency increases chromatin recruitment of FA core complex, leading to FANCD2 monoubiquitination (FANCD2-Ub) and foci formation in the absence of DNA damaging agents. Importantly, ATR depletion, but not ATM, abolished RPA1 depletion-induced FANCD2-Ub, suggesting that ATR activation mediated FANCD2-Ub. Interestingly, we found that depletion of hSSB1/2-INTS3, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein complex, induces FANCD2-Ub, like RPA1 depletion. More interestingly, depletion of either RPA1 or INTS3 caused increased accumulation of DNA damage in FA pathway deficient cell lines. Taken together, these results indicate that RPA deficiency induces activation of the FA pathway in an ATR-dependent manner, which may play a role in the genome maintenance. PMID:27398742

  5. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Brosey, Chris; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan; Heller, William; Rambo, Robert; Tainer, John; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter

    2013-01-17

    By coupling the protection and organization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, replication protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA coordinates biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA's DNA-binding activity, combining small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA's DNA-binding core. The scattering data reveal compaction promoted by DNA binding; DNA-free RPA exists in an ensemble of states with inter-domain mobility and becomes progressively more condensed and less dynamic on binding ssDNA. Our results contrast with previous models proposing RPA initially binds ssDNA in a condensed state and becomes more extended as it fully engages the substrate. Moreover, the consensus view that RPA engages ssDNA in initial, intermediate and final stages conflicts with our data revealing that RPA undergoes two (not three) transitions as it binds ssDNA with no evidence for a discrete intermediate state. These results form a framework for understanding how RPA integrates the ssDNA substrate into DNA processing machinery, provides substrate access to its binding partners and promotes the progression and selection of DNA processing pathways.

  6. Interplay of DNA damage and cell cycle signaling at the level of human replication protein A.

    PubMed

    Borgstahl, Gloria E O; Brader, Kerry; Mosel, Adam; Liu, Shengqin; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Goettsch, Kaitlin A; Kolar, Carol; Nasheuer, Heinz-Peter; Oakley, Greg G

    2014-09-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is the main human single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein. It is essential for cellular DNA metabolism and has important functions in human cell cycle and DNA damage signaling. RPA is indispensable for accurate homologous recombination (HR)-based DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and its activity is regulated by phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. HR occurs only during S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. All three subunits of RPA contain phosphorylation sites but the exact set of HR-relevant phosphorylation sites on RPA is unknown. In this study, a high resolution capillary isoelectric focusing immunoassay, used under native conditions, revealed the isoforms of the RPA heterotrimer in control and damaged cell lysates in G2. Moreover, the phosphorylation sites of chromatin-bound and cytosolic RPA in S and G2 phases were identified by western and IEF analysis with all available phosphospecific antibodies for RPA2. Strikingly, most of the RPA heterotrimers in control G2 cells are phosphorylated with 5 isoforms containing up to 7 phosphates. These isoforms include RPA2 pSer23 and pSer33. DNA damaged cells in G2 had 9 isoforms with up to 14 phosphates. DNA damage isoforms contained pSer4/8, pSer12, pThr21, pSer23, and pSer33 on RPA2 and up to 8 unidentified phosphorylation sites. PMID:25091156

  7. A single-molecule view of DNA replication: the dynamic nature of multi-protein complexes revealed.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Hylkje J; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in the development of single-molecule approaches have made it possible to study the dynamics of biomolecular systems in great detail. More recently, such tools have been applied to study the dynamic nature of large multi-protein complexes that support multiple enzymatic activities. In this review, we will discuss single-molecule studies of the replisome, the protein complex responsible for the coordinated replication of double-stranded DNA. In particular, we will focus on new insights obtained into the dynamic nature of the composition of the DNA-replication machinery and how the dynamic replacement of components plays a role in the regulation of the DNA-replication process. PMID:23890728

  8. The FIS protein binds and bends the origin of chromosomal DNA replication, oriC, of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gille, H; Egan, J B; Roth, A; Messer, W

    1991-01-01

    The FIS protein (factor for inversion stimulation) is known to stimulate site-specific recombination processes, such as the inversion of the G segment of bacteriophage Mu, by binding to specific enhancer sequences. It has also been shown to activate transcription from rRNA promoters both in vitro and in vivo. We have identified a specific binding site for FIS in the center of the origin of chromosomal DNA replication, oriC. The DNA bends upon FIS binding. Occupation of the FIS site and binding of DnaA, the initiator protein, to its adjacent binding site (R3) are mutually exclusive. A fis mutant strain can not be efficiently transformed with plasmids which carry and replicate from oriC, suggesting that FIS is required for minichromosome replication. Images PMID:1870971

  9. Temporal expression of a membrane-associated protein putatively involved in repression of initiation of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Eident-Wilkinson, B; Mele, L; Laffan, J; Firshein, W

    1992-01-01

    A Bacillus subtilis membrane-associated protein that binds specifically to the origin region of DNA replication may act as an inhibitor of DNA replication (J. Laffan and W. Firshein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:7452-7456, 1988). This protein, originally estimated to be 64 kDa, had a slightly lower molecular size (57 kDa), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis during these studies. The size difference may be due to processing that results in modification of the protein. The protein can be extracted from both cytosol and membrane fractions, and the amounts in these fractions vary during the developmental cycle of B. subtilis. A complex pattern of expression in which significant levels were detected in spores was revealed; levels decreased dramatically during germination and increased after the first round of DNA replication. The decrease during germination was due to protease activity, as demonstrated by the addition of protease inhibitors and radioactive-labeling chase experiments. During vegetative growth, the protein levels increased until stationary phase, after which there was another decrease during sporulation. The decrease during sporulation may be partially due to sequestering of the protein into forespores, since as the putative repressor protein decreased in the mother cell, it increased in the forespores. However, protease activity was also involved in the decrease in the mother cell. The changes in expression of this protein are consistent with its role as a repressor of initiation of DNA replication. Additional studies, including sequence analysis and further antibody analysis, show that this protein is not a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This relationship had been a possibility based upon the results of others (H. Hemila, A. Pavla, L. Paulin, S. Arvidson, and I. Palva, J. Bacteriol. 172:5052-5063, 1990). Images PMID:1729239

  10. Two homologous host proteins interact with potato virus X RNAs and CPs and affect viral replication and movement

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Because viruses encode only a small number of proteins, all steps of virus infection rely on specific interactions between viruses and hosts. We previously screened several Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) proteins that interact with the stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA structure located at the 5′ end of the potato virus X (PVX) genome. In this study, we characterized two of these proteins (NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b), which are homologous and are induced upon PVX infection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that both proteins bind to either SL1(+) or SL1(−) RNAs of PVX. The two proteins also interact with the PVX capsid protein (CP) in planta. Overexpression of NbCPIP2a positively regulated systemic movement of PVX in N. benthamiana, whereas NbCPIP2b overexpression did not affect systemic movement of PVX. Transient overexpression and silencing experiments demonstrated that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b are positive regulators of PVX replication and that the effect on replication was greater for NbCPIP2a than for NbCPIP2b. Although these two host proteins are associated with plasma membranes, PVX infection did not affect their subcellular localization. Taken together, these results indicate that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b specifically bind to PVX SL1 RNAs as well as to CP and enhance PVX replication and movement. PMID:27353522

  11. Degenerate in vitro genetic selection reveals mutations that diminish alfalfa mosaic virus RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Gail; Petrillo, Jessica; Guogas, Laura; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-08-01

    The alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; however, the mechanisms describing coat protein's role during replication are disputed. We reasoned that mechanistic details might be revealed by identifying RNA mutations in the 3'-terminal coat protein binding domain that increased or decreased RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding. Degenerate (doped) in vitro genetic selection, based on a pool of randomized 39-mers, was used to select 30 variant RNAs that bound coat protein with high affinity. AUGC sequences that are conserved among AMV and ilarvirus RNAs were among the invariant nucleotides in the selected RNAs. Five representative clones were analyzed in functional assays, revealing diminished viral RNA expression resulting from apparent defects in replication and/or translation. These data identify a set of mutations, including G-U wobble pairs and nucleotide mismatches in the 5' hairpin, which affect viral RNA functions without significant impact on coat protein binding. Because the mutations associated with diminished function were scattered over the 3'-terminal nucleotides, we considered the possibility that RNA conformational changes rather than disruption of a precise motif might limit activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments showed that the 3' RNA conformation was indeed altered by nucleotide substitutions. One interpretation of the data is that coat protein binding to the AUGC sequences determines the orientation of the 3' hairpins relative to one another, while local structural features within these hairpins are also critical determinants of functional activity. PMID:15254175

  12. Replication of Epstein-Barr virus oriLyt: lack of a dedicated virally encoded origin-binding protein and dependence on Zta in cotransfection assays.

    PubMed Central

    Fixman, E D; Hayward, G S; Hayward, S D

    1995-01-01

    Using a transient replication assay in which cosmid DNAs were cotransfected into Vero cells, we had previously demonstrated that oriLyt replication required six Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded replication genes. No oriLyt origin-binding protein was identified in this study, but oriLyt replication in the cotransfection assay was also dependent on the three lytic cycle transactivators Zta, Rta, and Mta and an activity encoded by the EBV Sal/I F fragment. We have now used expression plasmids for the six known replication proteins to further examine the question of the requirement for an oriLyt origin-binding protein. The activity in Sal/I-F was shown to be encoded by BKRF3. The predicted product of this open reading frame is an enzyme, uracyl DNA glycosylase, not an origin-binding protein, and is dispensable for replication in assays using expression plasmids. BBLF2, which is positionally related to the gene for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL9 origin-binding protein, was confirmed to be expressed as a spliced transcript with BBLF3 and not as an independent product. Examination of the requirement for the EBV transactivators revealed that Rta, while contributing to replication efficiency, was dispensable. Mta could be substituted by HSV IE63, and in complementation experiments with HSV replication genes, Mta was no longer required for replication of EBV oriLyt, suggesting that the contribution of Mta to replication may be indirect. Zta continued to be required for detectable oriLyt replication both with the EBV replication proteins and in the complementation assays with HSV replication proteins. We conclude that EBV does not encode an equivalent of HSV UL9 and that Zta is the sole virally encoded protein serving an essential origin-binding function. PMID:7707526

  13. Are the SSB-Interacting Proteins RecO, RecG, PriA and the DnaB-Interacting Protein Rep Bound to Progressing Replication Forks in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Bentchikou, Esma; Chagneau, Carine; Long, Emilie; Matelot, Mélody; Allemand, Jean-François; Michel, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    In all organisms several enzymes that are needed upon replication impediment are targeted to replication forks by interaction with a replication protein. In most cases these proteins interact with the polymerase clamp or with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In Escherichia coli an accessory replicative helicase was also shown to interact with the DnaB replicative helicase. Here we have used cytological observation of Venus fluorescent fusion proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in live E. coli cells to determine whether DNA repair and replication restart proteins that interact with a replication protein travel with replication forks. A custom-made microscope that detects active replisome molecules provided that they are present in at least three copies was used. Neither the recombination proteins RecO and RecG, nor the replication accessory helicase Rep are detected specifically in replicating cells in our assay, indicating that either they are not present at progressing replication forks or they are present in less than three copies. The Venus-PriA fusion protein formed foci even in the absence of replication forks, which prevented us from reaching a conclusion. PMID:26244508

  14. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C.; Agnes, J. T.; Behrens, N.; Tagawa, Y.; Gershwin, L. J.; Corbeil, L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2—RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15—ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  15. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Agnes, J T; Behrens, N; Shao, M; Tagawa, Y; Gershwin, L J; Corbeil, L B

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  16. Novel Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium protein that is indispensable for virulence and intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    van der Straaten, T; van Diepen, A; Kwappenberg, K; van Voorden, S; Franken, K; Janssen, R; Kusters, J G; Granger, D L; van Dissel, J T

    2001-12-01

    Upon contact with host cells, the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium promotes its uptake, targeting, and survival in intracellular niches. In this process, the bacterium evades the microbicidal effector mechanisms of the macrophage, including oxygen intermediates. This study reports the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant that is hypersusceptible to superoxide. The susceptible phenotype is due to a MudJ insertion-inactivation of a previously undescribed Salmonella gene designated sspJ that is located between 54.4 and 64 min of the Salmonella chromosome and encodes a 392-amino-acid protein. In vivo, upon intraperitoneal injection of 10(4) to 10(7) bacteria in C3H/HeN and 10(1) to 10(4) bacteria in BALB/c mice, the mutant strain was less virulent than the wild type. Consistent with this finding, during the first hour after ingestion by macrophage-like J774 and RAW264.7 cells in vitro, the intracellular killing of the strain carrying sspJ::MudJ is enhanced fivefold over that of wild-type microorganisms. Wild-type salmonellae displayed significant intracellular replication during the first 24 h after uptake, but sspJ::MudJ mutants failed to do so. This phenotype could be restored to that of the wild type by sspJ complementation. The SspJ protein is found in the cytoplasmic membrane and periplasmic space. Amino acid sequence homology analysis did reveal a leader sequence and putative pyrroloquinoline quinone-binding domains, but no putative protein function. We excluded the possibility that SspJ is a scavenger of superoxide or has superoxide dismutase activity. PMID:11705915

  17. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA. PMID:27599637

  18. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA. PMID:27599637

  19. DNA Helicase Activity Is Associated with the Replication Initiator Protein Rep of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Clérot, Danielle; Bernardi, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a single-stranded DNA virus of plants, is the replication initiator essential for virus replication. TYLCSV Rep has been classified among ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ ATPases), in superfamily 3 of small DNA and RNA virus replication initiators whose paradigmatic member is simian virus 40 large T antigen. Members of this family are DNA- or RNA-dependent ATPases with helicase activity necessary for viral replication. Another distinctive feature of AAA+ ATPases is their quaternary structure, often composed of hexameric rings. TYLCSV Rep has ATPase activity, but the helicase activity, which is instrumental in further characterization of the mechanism of rolling-circle replication used by geminiviruses, has been a longstanding question. We present results showing that TYLCSV Rep lacking the 121 N-terminal amino acids has helicase activity comparable to that of the other helicases: requirements for a 3′ overhang and 3′-to-5′ polarity of unwinding, with some distinct features and with a minimal AAA+ ATPase domain. We also show that the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric state of the protein. PMID:16943286

  20. Identification of a new dengue virus inhibitor that targets the viral NS4B protein and restricts genomic RNA replication.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Kaptein, Suzanne J F; Davidson, Andrew D; Jacobs, Michael; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human arthropod-borne virus with a major impact on public health. Nevertheless, a licensed vaccine or specific treatment is still lacking. We therefore screened the NIH Clinical Collection (NCC), a library of drug-like small molecules, for inhibitors of DENV replication using a cell line that contains a stably replicating DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) subgenomic replicon. The most potent DENV inhibitor in the NCC was δ opioid receptor antagonist SDM25N. This compound showed antiviral activity against wild-type DENV2 in both Hela and BHK-21 cells, but not in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. The structurally related compound naltrindole also inhibited DENV replication, albeit less potently. Using a transient subgenomic replicon, we demonstrate that SDM25N restricts genomic RNA replication rather than translation of the viral genome. We identified a single amino acid substitution (F164L) in the NS4B protein that confers resistance to SDM25N. Remarkably, an NS4B amino acid substitution (P104L), which was previously shown to confer resistance to the DENV inhibitor NITD-618, also provided resistance to SDM25N. In conclusion, we have identified a new DENV inhibitor, SDM25N, which restricts genomic RNA replication by - directly or indirectly - targeting the viral NS4B protein. PMID:23735301

  1. Mutant Rep protein of the porcine circovirus type 2 N-glycosylation:23-25aa, 256-258aa mutation reduced virus replication but 286-288aa mutation enhanced virus replication in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianli; Peng, Zhe; Fu, Fang; Xu, Shaojian; Xu, Shengnan; Cong, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jiaqiang; Sun, Wenbo; Du, Yijun; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinbao

    2015-06-12

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Rep protein and the splice variant Rep' protein impact genome replication. The Rep protein contains three potential N-glycosylation at positions 23-25aa (NPS), 256-258aa (NQT) and 286-288aa (NAT). Three double copy infectious clones with Rep protein N-glycosylation at positions mutations 23-25aa (DPS), 256-258aa (DQT) and 286-288aa (DAT) were constructed and their function in virus replication in PK-15 cells was investigated. The results showed that the double copy infectious clone with N-glycosylation site mutation could be rescued in vitro and 23-25aa, 256-258aa mutation reduced virus replication but 286-288aa mutation enhanced virus replication. PMID:25829242

  2. Function of ubiquitin (Ub) specific protease 15 (USP15) in HIV-1 replication and viral protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Pyeon, Dohun; Timani, Khalid Amine; Gulraiz, Fahad; He, Johnny J; Park, In-Woo

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 Nef is necessary and may be sufficient for HIV-1-associated AIDS pathogenicity, in that knockout of Nef alone can protect HIV-infected patients from AIDS. We therefore investigated the feasibility of physical knockout of Nef, using the host ubiquitin proteasome system in HIV-1-infected cells. Our co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Nef interacted with ubiquitin specific protease 15 (USP15), and that USP15, which is known to stabilize cellular proteins, degraded Nef. Nef could also cause decay of USP15, although Nef-mediated degradation of USP15 was weaker than USP15-mediated Nef degradation. Direct interaction between Nef and USP15 was essential for the observed reciprocal decay of the proteins. Further, USP15 degraded not only Nef but also HIV-1 structural protein, Gag, thereby substantially inhibiting HIV-1 replication. However, Gag did not degrade USP15, indicating that the Nef and USP15 complex, in distinction to other viral proteins, play an integral role in coordinating viral protein degradation and hence HIV-1 replication. Moreover, Nef and USP15 globally suppressed ubiquitylation of cellular proteins, indicating that these proteins are major determinants for the stability of cellular as well as viral proteins. Taken together, these data indicate that Nef and USP15 are vital in regulating degradation of viral and cellular proteins and thus HIV-1 replication, and specific degradation of viral, not cellular proteins, by USP15 points to USP15 as a candidate therapeutic agent to combat AIDS by eliminating viral proteins from the infected cells via USP15-mediated proteosomal degradation. PMID:27460547

  3. 14-3-3sigma is a cruciform DNA binding protein and associates in vivo with origins of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Novac, Olivia; Callejo, Mario; Ruiz, Marcia T; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A human cruciform binding protein (CBP) was previously shown to bind to cruciform DNA in a structure-specific manner and be a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. CBP had been found to contain the 14-3-3 isoforms beta, gamma, epsilon, and zeta. Here, we show by Western blot analysis that the CBP-cruciform DNA complex eluted from band-shift polyacrylamide gels also contains the 14-3-3sigma isoform, which is present in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. An antibody specific for the 14-3-3sigma isoform was able to interfere with the formation of the CBP-cruciform DNA complex. The effect of the same anti-14-3-3sigma antibody in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of the monkey origin ors8, was also analyzed. Pre-incubation of total HeLa cell extracts with this antibody decreased p186 in vitro replication to approximately 30% of control levels, while non-specific antibodies had no effect. 14-3-3sigma was found to associate in vivo with the monkey origins of DNA replication ors8 and ors12 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay that involved formaldehyde cross-linking, followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-14-3-3sigma antibody and quantitative PCR. The association of 14-3-3sigma with the replication origins was maximal at the G(1)/S phase. The results indicate that 14-3-3sigma is an origin binding protein involved in the regulation of DNA replication via cruciform DNA binding. PMID:12244572

  4. Nuclear Envelope Protein SUN2 Promotes Cyclophilin-A-Dependent Steps of HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Xavier; Satoh, Takeshi; Gentili, Matteo; Cerboni, Silvia; Silvin, Aymeric; Conrad, Cécile; Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Rodriguez, Elisa C.; Guichou, Jean-François; Bosquet, Nathalie; Piel, Matthieu; Le Grand, Roger; King, Megan C.; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Manel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the early phase of replication, HIV reverse transcribes its RNA and crosses the nuclear envelope while escaping host antiviral defenses. The host factor Cyclophilin A (CypA) is essential for these steps and binds the HIV capsid; however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we identify related capsid mutants in HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVmac that are restricted by CypA. This antiviral restriction of mutated viruses is conserved across species and prevents nuclear import of the viral cDNA. Importantly, the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN2 is required for the antiviral activity of CypA. We show that wild-type HIV exploits SUN2 in primary CD4+ T cells as an essential host factor that is required for the positive effects of CypA on reverse transcription and infection. Altogether, these results establish essential CypA-dependent functions of SUN2 in HIV infection at the nuclear envelope. PMID:27149839

  5. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein is downregulated in response to Newcastle disease virus infection to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xinxin; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Guangyao; Zhang, Pingze; Meng, Xin; Ai, Lili; Xu, Rongyi; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a severe and economically significant disease affecting almost the entire poultry industry worldwide. However, factors that affect NDV replication in host cells are poorly understood. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of c-RAF kinase and NF-κB signalling, known for their functions in the control of immune response as well as tumour invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of overexpression of host RKIP during viral infection. We demonstrate that NDV infection represses RKIP expression thereby promoting virus replication. Experimental upregulation of RKIP in turn acts as a potential antiviral defence mechanism in host cells that restricts NDV replication by repressing the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK and IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathways. Our results not only extend the concept of linking NDV-host interactions, but also reveal RKIP as a new class of protein-kinase-inhibitor protein that affects NDV replication with therapeutic potential. PMID:26297355

  6. The interaction between the Hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B–NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits. PMID:25462354

  7. Development of an Insect Vector Cell Culture and RNA Interference System To Investigate the Functional Role of Fijivirus Replication Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Zheng, Ailing; Chen, Qian; Liu, Qifei; Xie, Lianhui

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of primary cells from white-backed planthopper, an insect vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus, was established to study replication of the virus. Viroplasms, putative sites of viral replication, contained the nonstructural viral protein P9-1, viral RNA, outer-capsid proteins, and viral particles in virus-infected cultured insect vector cells, as revealed by transmission electron and confocal microscopy. Formation of viroplasm-like structures in non-host insect cells upon expression of P9-1 suggested that the matrix of viroplasms observed in virus-infected cells was composed basically of P9-1. In cultured insect vector cells, knockdown of P9-1 expression due to RNA interference (RNAi) induced by synthesized double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from the P9-1 gene strongly inhibited viroplasm formation and viral infection. RNAi induced by ingestion of dsRNA strongly abolished viroplasm formation, preventing efficient viral spread in the body of intact vector insects. All these results demonstrated that P9-1 was essential for viroplasm formation and viral replication. This system, combining insect vector cell culture and RNA interference, can further advance our understanding of the biological activities of fijivirus replication proteins. PMID:22398296

  8. Identification of a large protein network involved in epigenetic transmission in replicating DNA of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Sergi; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Ernfors, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by transcriptional activities and chromatin modifying complexes highly organized within the chromatin. Although much effort has been focused on identifying genome-binding sites, little is known on their dynamic association with chromatin across cell divisions. Here, we used a modified version of the iPOND (isolation of proteins at nascent DNA) technology to identify a large protein network enriched at nascent DNA in ESCs. This comprehensive and unbiased proteomic characterization in ESCs reveals that, in addition to the core replication machinery, proteins relevant for pluripotency of ESCs are present at DNA replication sites. In particular, we show that the chromatin remodeller HDAC1–NuRD complex is enriched at nascent DNA. Interestingly, an acute block of HDAC1 in ESCs leads to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 at nascent DNA together with a concomitant loss of methylation. Consistently, in contrast to what has been described in tumour cell lines, these chromatin marks were found to be stable during cell cycle progression of ESCs. Our results are therefore compatible with a rapid deacetylation-coupled methylation mechanism during the replication of DNA in ESCs that may participate in the preservation of pluripotency of ESCs during replication. PMID:24852249

  9. FKBP8 interact with classical swine fever virus NS5A protein and promote virus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Helin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Cui, Hongjie; Guo, Kangkang; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Tianyue; Liang, Wulong; Lv, Qizhuang; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is proven to be involved in viral replication and can also modulate cellular signaling and host cellular responses via to its ability to interact with various cellular proteins. FKBP8 is also reported to promote virus replication. Here, we show that NS5A specifically interacts with FKBP8 through coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pulldown studies. Additionally, confocal microscopy study showed that NS5A and FKBP8 colocalized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of FKBP8 via the eukaryotic expression plasmid pDsRED N1 significantly promoted viral RNA synthesis. The cells knockdown of FKBP8 by lentivirus-mediated shRNA markedly decreased the virus replication when infected with CSFV. These data suggest that FKBP8 plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, particularly during the virus RNA replication period. The investigation of FKBP8 protein functions may be beneficial for developing new strategies to treat CSFV infection. PMID:26748656

  10. Diverse circular replication-associated protein encoding viruses circulating in invertebrates within a lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Anisha; Galatowitsch, Mark L; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Harding, Jon S; Roumagnac, Philippe; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Over the last five years next-generation sequencing has become a cost effective and efficient method for identifying known and unknown microorganisms. Access to this technique has dramatically changed the field of virology, enabling a wide range of environmental viral metagenome studies to be undertaken of organisms and environmental samples from polar to tropical regions. These studies have led to the discovery of hundreds of highly divergent single stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus-like sequences encoding replication-associated proteins. Yet, few studies have explored how viruses might be shared in an ecosystem through feeding relationships. Here we identify 169 circular molecules (160 CRESS DNA molecules, nine circular molecules) recovered from a New Zealand freshwater lake, that we have tentatively classified into 51 putatively novel species and five previously described species (DflaCV-3, -5, -6, -8, -10). The CRESS DNA viruses identified in this study were recovered from molluscs (Echyridella menzeisii, Musculium novaezelandiae, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Physella acuta) and insect larvae (Procordulia grayi, Xanthocnemis zealandica, and Chironomus zealandicus) collected from Lake Sarah, as well as from the lake water and benthic sediments. Extensive diversity was observed across most CRESS DNA molecules recovered. The putative capsid protein of one viral species was found to be most similar to those of members of the Tombusviridae family, thus expanding the number of known RNA-DNA hybrid viruses in nature. We noted a strong association between the CRESS DNA viruses and circular molecules identified in the water and browser organisms (C. zealandicus, P. antipodarum and P. acuta), and between water sediments and undefended prey species (C. zealandicus). However, we were unable to find any significant correlation of viral assemblages to the potential feeding relationships of the host aquatic invertebrates. PMID:26873065

  11. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus. PMID:25785312

  12. Functions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins in response to DNA damage and to DNA replication stress.

    PubMed Central

    Lottersberger, Francisca; Rubert, Fabio; Baldo, Veronica; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2003-01-01

    Two members of the 14-3-3 protein family, involved in key biological processes in different eukaryotes, are encoded by the functionally redundant Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMH1 and BMH2 genes. We produced and characterized 12 independent bmh1 mutant alleles, whose presence in the cell as the sole 14-3-3 source causes hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, indicating that Bmh proteins are required for proper response to DNA damage. In particular, the bmh1-103 and bmh1-266 mutant alleles cause defects in G1/S and G2/M DNA damage checkpoints, whereas only the G2/M checkpoint is altered by the bmh1-169 and bmh1-221 alleles. Impaired checkpoint responses correlate with the inability to maintain phosphorylated forms of Rad53 and/or Chk1, suggesting that Bmh proteins might regulate phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of these checkpoint kinases. Moreover, several bmh1 bmh2Delta mutants are defective in resuming DNA replication after transient deoxynucleotide depletion, and all display synthetic effects when also carrying mutations affecting the polalpha-primase and RPA DNA replication complexes, suggesting a role for Bmh proteins in DNA replication stress response. Finally, the bmh1-169 bmh2Delta and bmh1-170 bmh2Delta mutants show increased rates of spontaneous gross chromosomal rearrangements, indicating that Bmh proteins are required to suppress genome instability. PMID:14704161

  13. Activity-based protein profiling identifies a host enzyme, carboxylesterase 1, which is differentially active during hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Blais, David R; Lyn, Rodney K; Joyce, Michael A; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Steenbergen, Rineke; Barsby, Nicola; Zhu, Lin-Fu; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Stolow, Albert; Tyrrell, David L; Pezacki, John Paul

    2010-08-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) relies on many interactions with host cell proteins for propagation. Successful HCV infection also requires enzymatic activity of host cell enzymes for key post-translational modifications. To identify such enzymes, we have applied activity-based protein profiling to examine the activity of serine hydrolases during HCV replication. Profiling of hydrolases in Huh7 cells replicating HCV identified CES1 (carboxylesterase 1) as a differentially active enzyme. CES1 is an endogenous liver protein involved in processing of triglycerides and cholesterol. We observe that CES1 expression and activity were altered in the presence of HCV. The knockdown of CES1 with siRNA resulted in lower levels of HCV replication, and up-regulation of CES1 was observed to favor HCV propagation, implying an important role for this host cell protein. Experiments in HCV JFH1-infected cells suggest that CES1 facilitates HCV release because less intracellular HCV core protein was observed, whereas HCV titers remained high. CES1 activity was observed to increase the size and density of lipid droplets, which are necessary for the maturation of very low density lipoproteins, one of the likely vehicles for HCV release. In transgenic mice containing human-mouse chimeric livers, HCV infection also correlates with higher levels of endogenous CES1, providing further evidence that CES1 has an important role in HCV propagation. PMID:20530478

  14. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Barajas, Daniel; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses exploit host cells by co-opting host factors and lipids and escaping host antiviral responses. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the model host yeast have identified 18 cellular genes that are part of the actin network. In this paper, we show that the p33 viral replication factor interacts with the cellular cofilin (Cof1p), which is an actin depolymerization factor. Using temperature-sensitive (ts) Cof1p or actin (Act1p) mutants at a semi-permissive temperature, we find an increased level of TBSV RNA accumulation in yeast cells and elevated in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase. We show that the large p33 containing replication organelle-like structures are located in the close vicinity of actin patches in yeast cells or around actin cable hubs in infected plant cells. Therefore, the actin filaments could be involved in VRC assembly and the formation of large viral replication compartments containing many individual VRCs. Moreover, we show that the actin network affects the recruitment of viral and cellular components, including oxysterol binding proteins and VAP proteins to form membrane contact sites for efficient transfer of sterols to the sites of replication. Altogether, the emerging picture is that TBSV, via direct interaction between the p33 replication protein and Cof1p, controls cofilin activities to obstruct the dynamic actin network that leads to efficient subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. In summary, the discovery that TBSV interacts with cellular cofilin and blocks the severing of existing filaments and the formation of new actin filaments in infected cells opens a new window to unravel the way by which viruses could subvert/co-opt cellular proteins and lipids. By regulating the functions of cofilin and the actin network, which are central nodes in cellular pathways, viruses could gain supremacy in subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. PMID:26863541

  15. Interaction of HTLV-1 Tax with minichromosome maintenance proteins accelerates the replication timing program.

    PubMed

    Boxus, Mathieu; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Legros, Sébastien; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The Tax oncoprotein encoded by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 plays a pivotal role in viral persistence and pathogenesis. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected cells proliferate faster than normal lymphocytes, expand through mitotic division, and accumulate genomic lesions. Here, we show that Tax associates with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase complex and localizes to origins of replication. Tax modulates the spatiotemporal program of origin activation and fires supplementary origins at the onset of S phase. Thereby, Tax increases the DNA replication rate, accelerates S phase progression, but also generates a replicative stress characterized by the presence of genomic lesions. Mechanistically, Tax favors p300 recruitment and histone hyperacetylation at late replication domains, advancing their replication timing in early S phase. PMID:22058115

  16. Dengue virus NS1 protein interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL18: this interaction is required for viral translation and replication in Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Angel-Ambrocio, Antonio H; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Hurtado-Monzon, Arianna M; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Ludert, Juan E; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Given dengue virus (DENV) genome austerity, it uses cellular molecules and structures for virion entry, translation and replication of the genome. NS1 is a multifunctional protein key to viral replication and pathogenesis. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with NS1 may help in further understanding the functions of NS1. In this paper we isolated a total of 64 proteins from DENV infected human hepatic cells (Huh-7) that interact with NS1 by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays. The subcellular location and expression levels during infection of the ribosomal proteins RPS3a, RPL7, RPL18, RPL18a plus GAPDH were determined. None of these proteins changed their expression levels during infection; however, RPL-18 was redistributed to the perinuclear region after 48hpi. Silencing of the RPL-18 does not affect cell translation efficiency or viability, but it reduces significantly viral translation, replication and viral yield, suggesting that the RPL-18 is required during DENV replicative cycle. PMID:26092250

  17. System-wide Analysis of SUMOylation Dynamics in Response to Replication Stress Reveals Novel Small Ubiquitin-like Modified Target Proteins and Acceptor Lysines Relevant for Genome Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Chang, Jer-Gung; Hendriks, Ivo A.; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Olsen, Jesper V.; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can cause replication fork stalling in dividing cells because of DNA lesions, eventually leading to replication fork collapse when the damage is not repaired. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMOs) are known to counteract replication stress, nevertheless, only a small number of relevant SUMO target proteins are known. To address this, we have purified and identified SUMO-2 target proteins regulated by replication stress in human cells. The developed methodology enabled single step purification of His10-SUMO-2 conjugates under denaturing conditions with high yield and high purity. Following statistical analysis on five biological replicates, a total of 566 SUMO-2 targets were identified. After 2 h of hydroxyurea treatment, 10 proteins were up-regulated for SUMOylation and two proteins were down-regulated for SUMOylation, whereas after 24 h, 35 proteins were up-regulated for SUMOylation, and 13 proteins were down-regulated for SUMOylation. A site-specific approach was used to map over 1000 SUMO-2 acceptor lysines in target proteins. The methodology is generic and is widely applicable in the ubiquitin field. A large subset of these identified proteins function in one network that consists of interacting replication factors, transcriptional regulators, DNA damage response factors including MDC1, ATR-interacting protein ATRIP, the Bloom syndrome protein and the BLM-binding partner RMI1, the crossover junction endonuclease EME1, BRCA1, and CHAF1A. Furthermore, centromeric proteins and signal transducers were dynamically regulated by SUMOylation upon replication stress. Our results uncover a comprehensive network of SUMO target proteins dealing with replication damage and provide a framework for detailed understanding of the role of SUMOylation to counteract replication stress. Ultimately, our study reveals how a post-translational modification is able to orchestrate a large variety of different proteins to integrate different nuclear processes with the

  18. Host Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein Regulates Replication Complex Assembly and Activity of a Positive-Strand RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Diaz, Arturo; Mao, Lan; Ahlquist, Paul

    2012-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their replication complexes. Similarly, brome mosaic virus (BMV) induces two alternate forms of membrane-bound RNA replication complexes: vesicular spherules and stacks of appressed double-membrane layers. The mechanisms by which these membrane rearrangements are induced, however, remain unclear. We report here that host ACB1-encoded acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) binding protein (ACBP) is required for the assembly and activity of both BMV RNA replication complexes. ACBP is highly conserved among eukaryotes, specifically binds to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, and promotes general lipid synthesis. Deleting ACB1 inhibited BMV RNA replication up to 30-fold and resulted in formation of spherules that were ∼50% smaller but ∼4-fold more abundant than those in wild-type (wt) cells, consistent with the idea that BMV 1a invaginates and maintains viral spherules by coating the inner spherule membrane. Furthermore, smaller and more frequent spherules were preferentially formed under conditions that induce layer formation in wt cells. Conversely, cellular karmella structures, which are arrays of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes formed upon overexpression of certain cellular ER membrane proteins, were formed normally, indicating a selective inhibition of 1a-induced membrane rearrangements. Restoring altered lipid composition largely complemented the BMV RNA replication defect, suggesting that ACBP was required for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Smaller and more frequent spherules are also induced by 1a mutants with specific substitutions in a membrane-anchoring amphipathic α-helix, implying that the 1a-lipid interactions play critical roles in viral replication complex assembly. PMID:22345450

  19. Replication Protein A Unfolds G-Quadruplex Structures with a Varying Degree of Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Mohammad H.; Ray, Sujay; Sewell, Abby L.; Basu, Soumitra; Balci, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is known to interact with G-rich sequences that adopt G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. Most studies in the literature have been performed on GQ formed by homogenous sequences, such as the human telomeric repeat, and RPA’s ability to unfold GQ structures of differing stability is not known. We compared the thermal stability of three potential GQ forming DNA sequences (PQS) to their stability against RPA mediated unfolding using single molecule FRET and bulk biophysical and biochemical experiments. One of these sequences is the human telomeric repeat and the other two located in the promoter region of tyrosine hydroxylase gene are highly heterogeneous sequences, which better represent PQS in the genome. The three GQ constructs have thermal stabilities that are significantly different from each other. Our measurements showed that the most thermally stable structure (Tm= 86 °C) was also the most stable against RPA mediated unfolding, although the least thermally stable structure (Tm= 69 °C) had at least an order of magnitude higher stability against RPA mediated unfolding compared to the structure with intermediate thermal stability (Tm= 78 °C). The significance of this observation becomes more evident when considered within the context of cellular environment where protein-DNA interactions can be an important determinant of GQ viability. Considering these, we conclude that thermal stability is not necessarily an adequate criterion for predicting physiological viability of GQ structures. Finally, we measured the time it takes for an RPA molecule to unfold a GQ from a fully folded to a fully unfolded conformation using a single molecule stopped-flow type method. All three GQ structures were unfolded within Δt≈0.30±0.10 sec, a surprising result as the unfolding time does not correlate with thermal stability or stability against RPA mediated unfolding. These results suggest that the limiting step in G-quadruplex unfolding by RPA is simply

  20. The N Terminus of the Retinoblastoma Protein Inhibits DNA Replication via a Bipartite Mechanism Disrupted in Partially Penetrant Retinoblastomas.

    PubMed

    Borysov, Sergiy I; Nepon-Sixt, Brook S; Alexandrow, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor protein (RbN) harbors in-frame exon deletions in partially penetrant hereditary retinoblastomas and is known to impair cell growth and tumorigenesis. However, how such RbN deletions contribute to Rb tumor- and growth-suppressive functions is unknown. Here we establish that RbN directly inhibits DNA replication initiation and elongation using a bipartite mechanism involving N-terminal exons lost in cancer. Specifically, Rb exon 7 is necessary and sufficient to target and inhibit the replicative CMG helicase, resulting in the accumulation of inactive CMGs on chromatin. An independent N-terminal loop domain, which forms a projection, specifically blocks DNA polymerase α (Pol-α) and Ctf4 recruitment without affecting DNA polymerases ε and δ or the CMG helicase. Individual disruption of exon 7 or the projection in RbN or Rb, as occurs in inherited cancers, partially impairs the ability of Rb/RbN to inhibit DNA replication and block G1-to-S cell cycle transit. However, their combined loss abolishes these functions of Rb. Thus, Rb growth-suppressive functions include its ability to block replicative complexes via bipartite, independent, and additive N-terminal domains. The partial loss of replication, CMG, or Pol-α control provides a potential molecular explanation for how N-terminal Rb loss-of-function deletions contribute to the etiology of partially penetrant retinoblastomas. PMID:26711265

  1. DNA Replication Catalyzed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Proteins Reveals Trombone Loops at the Fork*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bermek, Oya; Willcox, Smaranda; Griffith, Jack D.

    2015-01-01

    Using purified replication factors encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 and a 70-base minicircle template, we obtained robust DNA synthesis with leading strand products of >20,000 nucleotides and lagging strand fragments from 600 to 9,000 nucleotides as seen by alkaline gel electrophoresis. ICP8 was crucial for the synthesis on both strands. Visualization of the deproteinized products using electron microscopy revealed long, linear dsDNAs, and in 87%, one end, presumably the end with the 70-base circle, was single-stranded. The remaining 13% had multiple single-stranded segments separated by dsDNA segments 500 to 1,000 nucleotides in length located at one end. These features are diagnostic of the trombone mechanism of replication. Indeed, when the products were examined with the replication proteins bound, a dsDNA loop was frequently associated with the replication complex located at one end of the replicated DNA. Furthermore, the frequency of loops correlated with the fraction of DNA undergoing Okazaki fragment synthesis. PMID:25471368

  2. Thioredoxin 2 Is a Novel E2-Interacting Protein That Inhibits the Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Wang, Jinghan; He, Wen-Rui; Feng, Shuo; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Liao, Yajin; Qin, Hua-Yang; Li, Lian-Feng; Dong, Hong; Sun, Yuan; Luo, Yuzi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E2 protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is an envelope glycoprotein that is involved in virus attachment and entry. To date, the E2-interacting cellular proteins and their involvement in viral replication have been poorly documented. In this study, thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) was identified to be a novel E2-interacting partner using yeast two-hybrid screening from a porcine macrophage cDNA library. Trx2 is a mitochondrion-associated protein that participates in diverse cellular events. The Trx2-E2 interaction was further confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown, in situ proximity ligation, and laser confocal assays. The thioredoxin domain of Trx2 and the asparagine at position 37 (N37) in the E2 protein were shown to be critical for the interaction. Silencing of the Trx2 expression in PK-15 cells by small interfering RNAs significantly promotes CSFV replication, and conversely, overexpression of Trx2 markedly inhibits viral replication of the wild-type (wt) CSFV and to a greater extent that of the CSFV N37D mutant, which is defective in binding Trx2. The wt CSFV but not the CSFV N37D mutant was shown to reduce the Trx2 protein expression in PK-15 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Trx2 increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) promoter activity by promoting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Notably, activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) significantly inhibits CSFV replication in PK-15 cells, whereas blocking the NF-κB activation in Trx2-overexpressing cells no longer suppresses CSFV replication. Taken together, our findings reveal that Trx2 inhibits CSFV replication via the NF-κB signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a mitochondrion-associated protein that participates in diverse cellular events, such as antioxidative and antiapoptotic processes and the modulation of transcription factors. However, little is known about the involvement of

  3. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C.; Sinning, Allan; Henegar, Jeffrey; Norcross, Erin; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2010-09-30

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  4. EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING OF DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR PROTEINS FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILE SULFOLOBUS SOLFATARICUS

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, S.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; Hammel, M.; Hura, G.L.; Tainer, J.A.; Yannone, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Vital molecular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and maintenance occur through transient protein interactions. Elucidating the mechanisms by which these protein complexes and interactions function could lead to treatments for diseases related to DNA damage and cell division control. In the recent decades since its introduction as a third domain, Archaea have shown to be simpler models for complicated eukaryotic processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription, and translation. Sulfolobus solfataricus is one such model organism. A hyperthermophile with an optimal growth temperature of 80°C, Sulfolobus protein-protein complexes and transient protein interactions should be more stable at moderate temperatures, providing a means to isolate and study their structure and function. Here we provide the initial steps towards characterizing three DNA-related Sulfolobus proteins with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): Sso0257, a cell division control and origin recognition complex homolog, Sso0768, the small subunit of the replication factor C, and Sso3167, a Mut-T like protein. SAXS analysis was performed at multiple concentrations for both short and long exposure times. The Sso0257 sample was determined to be either a mixture of monomeric and dimeric states or a population of dynamic monomers in various conformational states in solution, consistent with a fl exible winged helix domain. Sso0768 was found to be a complex mixture of multimeric states in solution. Finally, molecular envelope reconstruction from SAXS data for Sso3167 revealed a novel structural component which may function as a disordered to ordered region in the presence of its substrates and/or protein partners.

  5. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  6. Bromovirus RNA replication and transcription require compatibility between the polymerase- and helicase-like viral RNA synthesis proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Dinant, S; Janda, M; Kroner, P A; Ahlquist, P

    1993-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA bromoviruses encode two nonstructural proteins, 1a and 2a, involved in RNA-dependent RNA replication. These proteins have extensive sequence similarities with methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase proteins of other plant and animal viruses. 1a and 2a can also form a complex in vitro. To explore whether 1a-2a interaction is required for RNA replication in vivo, we reassorted the 1a and 2a genes from two different bromoviruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). 1a and 2a were expressed independently of viral replication by using RNA- or DNA-based transient expression, and their in vivo RNA replication activities were tested in protoplasts with BMV and CCMV RNA3 templates. RNA-based transient expression confirmed prior indications that bromovirus RNA replication is more sensitive to reductions in 1a expression than to reductions in 2a expression. DNA-based expression of the homologous combinations of 1a and 2a supported high levels of RNA synthesis, but both 1a-2a heterologous combinations exhibited RNA synthesis defects. The combination of CCMV 1a and BMV 2a did not support detectable synthesis of negative-strand, positive-strand, or subgenomic RNA. The converse combination of BMV 1a and CCMV 2a was preferentially defective in positive-strand and subgenomic RNA accumulation, showing that 1a-2a interaction is involved in these processes in ways distinct from negative-strand RNA synthesis, which was only slightly affected. These results indicate that at least some functions of 1a and 2a operate in a mutually dependent manner in vivo and that the mechanisms of positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis are differentiated in part by features of such interactions. Images PMID:8230440

  7. The N-terminus of porcine circovirus type 2 replication protein is required for nuclear localization and ori binding activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-L.; Chien, M.-S.; Du, Y.-W.; Wu, P.-C.; Huang Chienjin

    2009-02-20

    Porcine circovirus type 2 possesses a circular, single-stranded DNA genome that requires the replication protein (Rep) for virus replication. To characterize the DNA binding potential and the significant region that confers the nuclear localization of the Rep protein, the defined coding regions of rep gene were cloned and expressed. All of the recombinant proteins except for the N-terminal 110 residues deletion mutant could bind to the double-stranded minimal binding site of replication origin (ori). In addition, the N-terminal deletion mutant lacking 110 residues exhibited mainly cytoplasmic staining in the transfected cells in contrast to the others, which localized dominantly in the nucleus, suggesting that this N-terminal domain is essential for nuclear localization. Furthermore, a series of green fluorescence proteins (GFP) containing potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences were tested for their cellular distribution. The ability of the utmost 20 residues of the N-terminal region to target the GFP to the nucleus confirmed its role as a functional NLS.

  8. Versatile Trans-Replication Systems for Chikungunya Virus Allow Functional Analysis and Tagging of Every Replicase Protein

    PubMed Central

    Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Saul, Sirle; Hellström, Kirsi; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, and the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-strand RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns) or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression and RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein and template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase and encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates and synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein and nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs and a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional and maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA and wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules) was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability and represents an efficient, sensitive and reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process. PMID:26963103

  9. The N-terminus of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein 2 modulates viral genome RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wu, Rui; Zheng, Fengwei; Zhao, Cheng; Pan, Zishu

    2015-12-01

    Pestivirus nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) is a multifunctional, hydrophobic protein with an important but poorly understood role in viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. In the present study, based on sequence analysis, we mutated several representative conserved residues within the N-terminus of NS2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and investigated how these mutations affected viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. Our results demonstrated that the mutation of two aspartic acids, NS2/D60A or NS2/D60K and NS2/D78K, in the N-terminus of NS2 abolished infectious virus production and that the substitution of arginine for alanine at position 100 (NS2/R100A) resulted in significantly decreased viral titer. The serial passage of cells containing viral genomic RNA molecules generated the revertants NS2/A60D, NS2/K60D and NS2/K78D, leading to the recovery of infectious virus. In the context of the NS2/R100A mutant, the NS2/I90L mutation compensated for infectious virus production. The regulatory roles of the indicated amino acid residues were identified to occur at the viral RNA replication level. These results revealed a novel function for the NS2 N-terminus of CSFV in modulating viral RNA replication. PMID:26232654

  10. Lipid Droplet-Binding Protein TIP47 Regulates Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication through Interaction with the Viral NS5A Protein

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Dorothee A.; Camus, Grégory; Herker, Eva; Webster, Brian R.; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Greene, Warner C.; Yen, Tien-Sze Benedict; Ott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web) and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs). To identify host proteins that interact with NS5A, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminus of NS5A (amino acids 1–31), a well-studied α-helical domain important for the membrane tethering of NS5A. Our studies identified the LD-associated host protein, Tail-Interacting Protein 47 (TIP47) as a novel NS5A interaction partner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments in Huh7 hepatoma cells confirmed the interaction of TIP47 with full-length NS5A. shRNA-mediated knockdown of TIP47 caused a more than 10-fold decrease in the propagation of full-length infectious HCV in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. A similar reduction was observed when TIP47 was knocked down in cells harboring an autonomously replicating HCV RNA (subgenomic replicon), indicating that TIP47 is required for efficient HCV RNA replication. A single point mutation (W9A) in NS5A that disrupts the interaction with TIP47 but preserves proper subcellular localization severely decreased HCV RNA replication. In biochemical membrane flotation assays, TIP47 cofractionated with HCV NS3, NS5A, NS5B proteins, and viral RNA, and together with nonstructural viral proteins was uniquely distributed to lower-density LD-rich membrane fractions in cells actively replicating HCV RNA. Collectively, our data support a model where TIP47—via its interaction with NS5A—serves as a novel cofactor for HCV infection possibly by integrating LD membranes into the membranous web. PMID:23593007

  11. Co-opted Oxysterol-Binding ORP and VAP Proteins Channel Sterols to RNA Virus Replication Sites via Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Brandizzi, Federica; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses recruit cellular membranes and subvert cellular proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis to build viral replicase complexes and replication organelles. Among the lipids, sterols are important components of membranes, affecting the shape and curvature of membranes. In this paper, the tombusvirus replication protein is shown to co-opt cellular Oxysterol-binding protein related proteins (ORPs), whose deletion in yeast model host leads to decreased tombusvirus replication. In addition, tombusviruses also subvert Scs2p VAP protein to facilitate the formation of membrane contact sites (MCSs), where membranes are juxtaposed, likely channeling lipids to the replication sites. In all, these events result in redistribution and enrichment of sterols at the sites of viral replication in yeast and plant cells. Using in vitro viral replication assay with artificial vesicles, we show stimulation of tombusvirus replication by sterols. Thus, co-opting cellular ORP and VAP proteins to form MCSs serves the virus need to generate abundant sterol-rich membrane surfaces for tombusvirus replication. PMID:25329172

  12. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura T.; Sutera, Vincent A.; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S.; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3’ azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5’ to 3’ helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3’ exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication. PMID:26544712

  13. High-resolution crystal structure of a hepatitis B virus replication inhibitor bound to the viral core protein.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Klaus; Lam, Angela M; Lukacs, Christine; Vogel, Robert; Ren, Suping; Espiritu, Christine; Baydo, Ruth; Atkins, Kateri; Abendroth, Jan; Liao, Guochun; Efimov, Andrey; Hartman, George; Flores, Osvaldo A

    2015-12-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is essential for HBV replication and an important target for antiviral drug discovery. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution crystal structure of an antiviral compound bound to the HBV core protein. The compound NVR-010-001-E2 can induce assembly of the HBV core wild-type and Y132A mutant proteins and thermostabilize the proteins with a Tm increase of more than 10 °C. NVR-010-001-E2 binds at the dimer-dimer interface of the core proteins, forms a new interaction surface promoting protein-protein interaction, induces protein assembly, and increases stability. The impact of naturally occurring core protein mutations on antiviral activity correlates with NVR-010-001-E2 binding interactions determined by crystallography. The crystal structure provides understanding of a drug efficacy mechanism related to the induction and stabilization of protein-protein interactions and enables structure-guided design to improve antiviral potency and drug-like properties. PMID:26598693

  14. The DnaA Protein Is Not the Limiting Factor for Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Flåtten, Ingvild; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig; Taipale, Riikka; Martinsen, Silje; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial replication cycle is driven by the DnaA protein which cycles between the active ATP-bound form and the inactive ADP-bound form. It has been suggested that DnaA also is the main controller of initiation frequency. Initiation is thought to occur when enough ATP-DnaA has accumulated. In this work we have performed cell cycle analysis of cells that contain a surplus of ATP-DnaA and asked whether initiation then occurs earlier. It does not. Cells with more than a 50% increase in the concentration of ATP-DnaA showed no changes in timing of replication. We suggest that although ATP-DnaA is the main actor in initiation of replication, its accumulation does not control the time of initiation. ATP-DnaA is the motor that drives the initiation process, but other factors will be required for the exact timing of initiation in response to the cell’s environment. We also investigated the in vivo roles of datA dependent DnaA inactivation (DDAH) and the DnaA-binding protein DiaA. Loss of DDAH affected the cell cycle machinery only during slow growth and made it sensitive to the concentration of DiaA protein. The result indicates that compromised cell cycle machines perform in a less robust manner. PMID:26047361

  15. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. PMID:27458800

  16. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12785.001 PMID:27458800

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus LF2 Protein Regulates Viral Replication by Altering Rta Subcellular Localization▿†

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Andreas M. F.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Johannsen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The switch from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection to lytic replication is governed by two viral transactivators, Zta and Rta. We previously reported that the EBV protein LF2 binds Rta, inhibits Rta promoter activation, and blocks EBV replication in cells. In addition, LF2 induces SUMO2/3 modification of Rta. We now show that this modification occurs at four lysines within the Rta activation domain (426, 446, 517, and 530) and that sumoylation of Rta is not essential for its repression. Coexpression studies demonstrated that Rta is sequestered to the extranuclear cytoskeleton in the presence of LF2. We mapped the LF2 binding site to Rta amino acids (aa) 476 to 519 and showed that LF2 binding is critical for Rta relocalization and repression. The core of this binding site, Rta aa 500 to 526, confers LF2-mediated relocalization and repression onto the artificial transcription factor GAL4-VP16. Mutational analysis of LF2 provided further evidence that Rta redistribution is essential for repression. Rta localization changes during replication of the LF2-positive P3HR1 genome, but not during replication of the LF2-negative B95-8 genome. BLRF2 protein expression was decreased and delayed in P3HR1 cells compared with B95-8 cells, consistent with reduced Rta activity. By contrast, BMRF1 expression, regulated primarily by Zta, did not differ significantly between the two cell lines. Our results support a model in which LF2 regulates EBV replication by binding to Rta and redistributing it out of the nucleus. PMID:20631124

  18. The nsp2 Replicase Proteins of Murine Hepatitis Virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Are Dispensable for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rachel L.; Sims, Amy C.; Brockway, Sarah M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Denison, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2, respectively). Infectious MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Δnsp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVΔnsp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVΔnsp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  19. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rachel L; Sims, Amy C; Brockway, Sarah M; Baric, Ralph S; Denison, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2, respectively). Infectious MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Deltansp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVDeltansp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVDeltansp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  20. Poly(A)-binding protein interacts with the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and participates in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoye; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Yufeng; Jiang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between host factors and the viral protein play important roles in host adaptation and regulation of virus replication. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), a host cellular protein that enhances translational efficiency by circularizing mRNAs, was identified by yeast two-hybrid screening as a cellular partner for PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein in porcine alveolar macrophages. The specific interaction of PRRSV N protein with PABP was confirmed in infected cells by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro by GST pull-down assay. We showed by confocal microscopy that the PABP co-localized with the PRRSV N protein. Using a series of deletion mutants, the interactive domain of N protein with PABP was mapped to a region of amino acids 52-69. For PABP, C-terminal half, which interestingly interacts other translation regulators, was determined to be the domain interactive with N protein. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of PABP in cells resulted in significantly reduced PRRSV RNA synthesis, viral encoded protein expression and viral titer. Overall, the results presented here point toward an important role for PABP in regulating PRRSV replication. PMID:22985629

  1. The capsid protein of beak and feather disease virus binds to the viral DNA and is responsible for transporting the replication-associated protein into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Heath, Livio; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P

    2006-07-01

    Circoviruses lack an autonomous DNA polymerase and are dependent on the replication machinery of the host cell for de novo DNA synthesis. Accordingly, the viral DNA needs to cross both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope before replication can occur. Here we report on the subcellular distribution of the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in an insect cell system and test the hypothesis that the CP is responsible for transporting the viral genome, as well as Rep, across the nuclear envelope. The intracellular localization of the BFDV CP was found to be directed by three partially overlapping bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated between residues 16 and 56 at the N terminus of the protein. Moreover, a DNA binding region was also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and falls within the region containing the three putative NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome. Interestingly, whereas Rep expressed on its own in insect cells is restricted to the cytoplasm, coexpression with CP alters the subcellular localization of Rep to the nucleus, strongly suggesting that an interaction with CP facilitates movement of Rep into the nucleus. PMID:16809327

  2. The Capsid Protein of Beak and Feather Disease Virus Binds to the Viral DNA and Is Responsible for Transporting the Replication-Associated Protein into the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Livio; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    Circoviruses lack an autonomous DNA polymerase and are dependent on the replication machinery of the host cell for de novo DNA synthesis. Accordingly, the viral DNA needs to cross both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope before replication can occur. Here we report on the subcellular distribution of the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in an insect cell system and test the hypothesis that the CP is responsible for transporting the viral genome, as well as Rep, across the nuclear envelope. The intracellular localization of the BFDV CP was found to be directed by three partially overlapping bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated between residues 16 and 56 at the N terminus of the protein. Moreover, a DNA binding region was also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and falls within the region containing the three putative NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome. Interestingly, whereas Rep expressed on its own in insect cells is restricted to the cytoplasm, coexpression with CP alters the subcellular localization of Rep to the nucleus, strongly suggesting that an interaction with CP facilitates movement of Rep into the nucleus. PMID:16809327

  3. A Crystal Structure of the Dengue Virus NS5 Protein Reveals a Novel Inter-domain Interface Essential for Protein Flexibility and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongqian; Soh, Tingjin Sherryl; Zheng, Jie; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Phoo, Wint Wint; Lee, Chin Chin; Tay, Moon Y. F.; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Cornvik, Tobias C.; Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong; Lescar, Julien; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Luo, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Flavivirus RNA replication occurs within a replication complex (RC) that assembles on ER membranes and comprises both non-structural (NS) viral proteins and host cofactors. As the largest protein component within the flavivirus RC, NS5 plays key enzymatic roles through its N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) and C-terminal RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, and constitutes a major target for antivirals. We determined a crystal structure of the full-length NS5 protein from Dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3) at a resolution of 2.3 Å in the presence of bound SAH and GTP. Although the overall molecular shape of NS5 from DENV3 resembles that of NS5 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), the relative orientation between the MTase and RdRp domains differs between the two structures, providing direct evidence for the existence of a set of discrete stable molecular conformations that may be required for its function. While the inter-domain region is mostly disordered in NS5 from JEV, the NS5 structure from DENV3 reveals a well-ordered linker region comprising a short 310 helix that may act as a swivel. Solution Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis reveals an increased mobility of the thumb subdomain of RdRp in the context of the full length NS5 protein which correlates well with the analysis of the crystallographic temperature factors. Site-directed mutagenesis targeting the mostly polar interface between the MTase and RdRp domains identified several evolutionarily conserved residues that are important for viral replication, suggesting that inter-domain cross-talk in NS5 regulates virus replication. Collectively, a picture for the molecular origin of NS5 flexibility is emerging with profound implications for flavivirus replication and for the development of therapeutics targeting NS5. PMID:25775415

  4. Inhibition of host protein synthesis by Sindbis virus: correlation with viral RNA replication and release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; García-Moreno, Manuel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Infection of mammalian cells by Sindbis virus (SINV) profoundly blocks cellular mRNA translation. Experimental evidence points to viral non-structural proteins (nsPs), in particular nsP2, as the mediator of this inhibition. However, individual expression of nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 or nsP1-4 does not block cellular protein synthesis in BHK cells. Trans-complementation of a defective SINV replicon lacking most of the coding region for nsPs by the co-expression of nsP1-4 propitiates viral RNA replication at low levels, and inhibition of cellular translation is not observed. Exit of nuclear proteins including T-cell intracellular antigen and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is clearly detected in SINV-infected cells, but not upon the expression of nsPs, even when the defective replicon was complemented. Analysis of a SINV variant with a point mutation in nsP2, exhibiting defects in the shut-off of host protein synthesis, indicates that both viral RNA replication and the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm are greatly inhibited. Furthermore, nucleoside analogues that inhibit cellular and viral RNA synthesis impede the blockade of host mRNA translation, in addition to the release of nuclear proteins. Prevention of the shut-off of host mRNA translation by nucleoside analogues is not due to the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, as this prevention is also observed in PKR(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not phosphorylate eIF2α after SINV infection. Collectively, our observations are consistent with the concept that for the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis to occur, viral RNA replication must take place at control levels, leading to the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm. PMID:25329362

  5. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication and Virus Particle Assembly Require Specific Dimerization of the NS4A Protein Transmembrane Domain

    PubMed Central

    Kohlway, Andrew; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Barrera, Francisco N.; Potapova, Olga; Engelman, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4A is a single-pass transmembrane (TM) protein essential for viral replication and particle assembly. The sequence of the NS4A TM domain is highly conserved, suggesting that it may be important for protein-protein interactions. To test this hypothesis, we measured the potential dimerization of the NS4A TM domain in a well-characterized two-hybrid TM protein interaction system. The NS4A TM domain exhibited a strong homotypic interaction that was comparable in affinity to glycophorin A, a well-studied human blood group antigen that forms TM homodimers. Several mutations predicted to cluster on a common surface of the NS4A TM helix caused significant reductions in dimerization, suggesting that these residues form an interface for NS4A dimerization. Mutations in the NS4A TM domain were further examined in the JFH-1 genotype 2a replicon system; importantly, all mutations that destabilized NS4A dimers also caused defects in RNA replication and/or virus assembly. Computational modeling of NS4A TM interactions suggests a right-handed dimeric interaction of helices with an interface that is consistent with the mutational effects. Furthermore, defects in NS4A oligomerization and virus particle assembly of two mutants were rescued by NS4A A15S, a TM mutation recently identified through forward genetics as a cell culture-adaptive mutation. Together, these data provide the first example of a functionally important TM dimer interface within an HCV nonstructural protein and reveal a fundamental role of the NS4A TM domain in coordinating HCV RNA replication and virus particle assembly. PMID:24173222

  6. Adenovirus preterminal protein synthesized in COS cells from cloned DNA is active in DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, S C; Horwitz, M S; Engler, J A

    1988-01-01

    Replication of the DNA genome of human adenovirus serotype 2 requires three virus-encoded proteins. Two of these proteins, the preterminal protein (pTP) and the adenovirus DNA polymerase, are transcribed from a single promoter at early times after virus infection. The mRNAs for these proteins share several exons, including one encoded near adenovirus genome coordinate 39. By using plasmids containing DNA fragments postulated to encode the various exons of pTP mRNA, the contributions of each exon to the synthesis of an active pTP have been measured. Only plasmids that contain both the open reading frame for pTP (genome coordinates 29.4 to 23.9) and the HindIII J fragment that contains the exon at genome coordinate 39 can express functional pTP. Images PMID:3336069

  7. Three of the four nucleocapsid proteins of Marburg virus, NP, VP35, and L, are sufficient to mediate replication and transcription of Marburg virus-specific monocistronic minigenomes.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, E; Lötfering, B; Klenk, H D; Becker, S

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the first reconstituted replication system established for a member of the Filoviridae, Marburg virus (MBGV). MBGV minigenomes containing the leader and trailer regions of the MBGV genome and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were constructed. In MBGV-infected cells, these minigenomes were replicated and encapsidated and could be passaged. Unlike most other members of the order Mononegavirales, filoviruses possess four proteins presumed to be components of the nucleocapsid (NP, VP35, VP30, and L). To determine the protein requirements for replication and transcription, a reverse genetic system was established for MBGV based on the vaccinia virus T7 expression system. Northern blot analysis of viral RNA revealed that three nucleocapsid proteins (NP, VP35, and L) were essential and sufficient for transcription as well as replication and encapsidation. These data indicate that VP35, rather than VP30, is the functional homologue of rhabdo- and paramyxovirus P proteins. The reconstituted replication system was profoundly affected by the NP-to-VP35 expression ratio. To investigate whether CAT gene expression was achieved entirely by mRNA or in part by full-length plus-strand minigenomes, a copy-back minireplicon containing the CAT gene but lacking MBGV-specific transcriptional start sites was employed in the artificial replication system. This construct was replicated without accompanying CAT activity. It was concluded that the CAT activity reflected MBGV-specific transcription and not replication. PMID:9765419

  8. Turnover Rate of NS3 Proteins Modulates Bluetongue Virus Replication Kinetics in a Host-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Ftaich, Najate; Ciancia, Claire; Viarouge, Cyril; Barry, Gerald; Ratinier, Maxime; van Rijn, Piet A.; Breard, Emmanuel; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stephan; Palmarini, Massimo; Terzian, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the Culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. In mammalian cells, BTV particles are released primarily by virus-induced cell lysis, while in insect cells they bud from the plasma membrane and establish a persistent infection. BTV possesses a ten-segmented double-stranded RNA genome, and NS3 proteins are encoded by segment 10 (Seg-10). The viral nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) plays a key role in mediating BTV egress as well as in impeding the in vitro synthesis of type I interferon in mammalian cells. In this study, we asked whether genetically distant NS3 proteins can alter BTV-host interactions. Using a reverse genetics approach, we showed that, depending on the NS3 considered, BTV replication kinetics varied in mammals but not in insects. In particular, one of the NS3 proteins analyzed harbored a proline at position 24 that leads to its rapid intracellular decay in ovine but not in Culicoides cells and to the attenuation of BTV virulence in a mouse model of disease. Overall, our data reveal that the genetic variability of Seg-10/NS3 differentially modulates BTV replication kinetics in a host-specific manner and highlight the role of the host-specific variation in NS3 protein turnover rate. IMPORTANCE BTV is the causative agent of a severe disease transmitted between ruminants by biting midges of Culicoides species. NS3, encoded by Seg-10 of the BTV genome, fulfills key roles in BTV infection. As Seg-10 sequences from various BTV strains display genetic variability, we assessed the impact of different Seg-10 and NS3 proteins on BTV infection and host interactions. In this study, we revealed that various Seg-10/NS3 proteins alter BTV replication kinetics in mammals but not in insects. Notably, we found that NS3 protein turnover may vary in ovine but not in Culicoides cells due to a single amino acid residue that, most

  9. High-resolution crystal structure of a hepatitis B virus replication inhibitor bound to the viral core protein

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Klaus; Lam, Angela M.; Lukacs, Christine; Vogel, Robert; Ren, Suping; Espiritu, Christine; Baydo, Ruth; Atkins, Kateri; Abendroth, Jan; Liao, Guochun; Efimov, Andrey; Hartman, George; Flores, Osvaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is essential for HBV replication and an important target for antiviral drug discovery. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution crystal structure of an antiviral compound bound to the HBV core protein. The compound NVR-010–001-E2 can induce assembly of the HBV core wild-type and Y132A mutant proteins and thermostabilize the proteins with a Tm increase of more than 10 °C. NVR-010–001-E2 binds at the dimer–dimer interface of the core proteins, forms a new interaction surface promoting protein–protein interaction, induces protein assembly, and increases stability. The impact of naturally occurring core protein mutations on antiviral activity correlates with NVR-010–001-E2 binding interactions determined by crystallography. The crystal structure provides understanding of a drug efficacy mechanism related to the induction and stabilization of protein–protein interactions and enables structure-guided design to improve antiviral potency and drug-like properties. PMID:26598693

  10. Conformational plasticity of RepB, the replication initiator protein of promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158

    PubMed Central

    Boer, D. Roeland; Ruiz-Masó, José Angel; Rueda, Manuel; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Machón, Cristina; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Orozco, Modesto; del Solar, Gloria; Coll, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication initiation is a vital and tightly regulated step in all replicons and requires an initiator factor that specifically recognizes the DNA replication origin and starts replication. RepB from the promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158 is a hexameric ring protein evolutionary related to viral initiators. Here we explore the conformational plasticity of the RepB hexamer by i) SAXS, ii) sedimentation experiments, iii) molecular simulations and iv) X-ray crystallography. Combining these techniques, we derive an estimate of the conformational ensemble in solution showing that the C-terminal oligomerisation domains of the protein form a rigid cylindrical scaffold to which the N-terminal DNA-binding/catalytic domains are attached as highly flexible appendages, featuring multiple orientations. In addition, we show that the hinge region connecting both domains plays a pivotal role in the observed plasticity. Sequence comparisons and a literature survey show that this hinge region could exists in other initiators, suggesting that it is a common, crucial structural element for DNA binding and manipulation. PMID:26875695

  11. Improved method for rapid and efficient determination of genome replication and protein expression of clinical hepatitis B virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanli; Zhang, Jiming; Garcia, Tamako; Ito, Kiyoaki; Gutelius, Danielle; Li, Jisu; Wands, Jack; Tong, Shuping

    2011-04-01

    Different hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and variants are associated with different clinical outcomes and/or response to antiviral therapy, yet the comparison of the in vitro replication capacity of a large number of clinical isolates remains technically challenging and time-consuming. Although the full-length HBV genome can be amplified from high-titer blood samples by PCR using High Fidelity(plus) DNA polymerase and primers targeting the conserved precore region, the HBV clones thus generated are replication deficient due to the inability to generate the terminally redundant pregenomic RNA essential for genome replication. The transfection experiment is further complicated by PCR errors and the presence of viral quasispecies. A previous study found that the precise removal of non-HBV sequence by SapI digestion led to HBV replication in transfected cells, possibly due to low-level genome circularization by a cellular enzyme. We released HBV genome from the cloning vector using BspQI, an inexpensive isoschizomer of SapI, and increased the efficiency of genome replication by an extra step of in vitro DNA ligation. The uncut plasmid DNA can be used for transfection if the sole purpose is to study envelope protein expression. We found significant PCR errors associated with the High Fidelity(plus) DNA polymerase, which could be greatly diminished using Phusion DNA polymerase or masked by the use of a clone pool. The reduced PCR error and modified enzymatic steps prior to transfection should facilitate a more widespread functional characterization of clinical HBV isolates, while the clone pool approach is useful for samples with significant sequence heterogeneity. PMID:21289153

  12. Improved Method for Rapid and Efficient Determination of Genome Replication and Protein Expression of Clinical Hepatitis B Virus Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yanli; Zhang, Jiming; Garcia, Tamako; Ito, Kiyoaki; Gutelius, Danielle; Li, Jisu; Wands, Jack; Tong, Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Different hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and variants are associated with different clinical outcomes and/or response to antiviral therapy, yet the comparison of the in vitro replication capacity of a large number of clinical isolates remains technically challenging and time-consuming. Although the full-length HBV genome can be amplified from high-titer blood samples by PCR using High Fidelityplus DNA polymerase and primers targeting the conserved precore region, the HBV clones thus generated are replication deficient due to the inability to generate the terminally redundant pregenomic RNA essential for genome replication. The transfection experiment is further complicated by PCR errors and the presence of viral quasispecies. A previous study found that the precise removal of non-HBV sequence by SapI digestion led to HBV replication in transfected cells, possibly due to low-level genome circularization by a cellular enzyme. We released HBV genome from the cloning vector using BspQI, an inexpensive isoschizomer of SapI, and increased the efficiency of genome replication by an extra step of in vitro DNA ligation. The uncut plasmid DNA can be used for transfection if the sole purpose is to study envelope protein expression. We found significant PCR errors associated with the High Fidelityplus DNA polymerase, which could be greatly diminished using Phusion DNA polymerase or masked by the use of a clone pool. The reduced PCR error and modified enzymatic steps prior to transfection should facilitate a more widespread functional characterization of clinical HBV isolates, while the clone pool approach is useful for samples with significant sequence heterogeneity. PMID:21289153

  13. Absence of the BaeR protein leads to the early initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Wunier, W; Morigen, M

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells have dozens of two-component systems to sense and respond to various stimuli, and thereby cope with changing environments. BaeS/BaeR is one such two-component system, and it deals with a variety of envelope stresses. Interestingly, the ArcA/ArcB and TorS/TorR two-component systems are known to be associated with initiation of DNA replication; however, the effects of BaeS/BaeR on initiation of DNA replication remain unknown. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the average number of replication origins (oriCs) per cell in ΔbaeR mutants was approximately 30% higher than that in wild-type cells. So was the growth rate of ΔbaeR cells. Ectopic expression of BaeR from the pbaeR plasmid reversed the ΔbaeR mutant phenotypes. The results indicate that absence of BaeR leads to the early initiation of DNA replication. Further, deletion of BaeR caused an increase in the amount of DnaA per cell, but did not change concentration of DnaA, which is the initiator protein.The average number of oriCs per cell in Δspy mutants was the same as that found in the wild-type cells although spy gene expression is controlled by BaeR. These results suggest that BaeR may indirectly affect initiation of replication by controlling expression of the dnaA gene. PMID:26681035

  14. Two single amino acid substitutions in the intervening region of Newcastle disease virus HN protein attenuate viral replication and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Ji, Yanhong; Lin, Zhongqing; Fu, Yuguang; Muhammad Dafallah, Rihab; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Among the proteins encoded by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the attachment protein (HN) is an important determinant of virulence and pathogenicity. HN has been molecularly characterized at the protein level; however, the relationship between the molecular character of HN and the animal pathotype it causes has not been well explored. Here, we revisited the intervening region (IR) of the HN stalk and extended the known biological functions of HN. Three distinct substitutions (A89Q, P93A, and L94A) in the IR of genotype VII NDV (G7 strain) HN protein were analyzed. The A89Q and L94A mutations weakened the fusion promotion activity of HN to 44% and 41% of that of wild type, respectively, whereas P93A decreased the neuraminidase activity to 21% of the parental level. At the virus level, P93A and L94A-bearing viruses displayed impaired receptor recognition ability, neuraminidase activity, and fusion-promoting activity, all of which led to virus attenuation. In addition, the L94A-mutated virus showed a dramatic decline in replication and was attenuated in cells and in chickens. Our data demonstrate that the HN biological activities and functions modulated by these specific amino acids in the IR are associated with NDV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:26267791

  15. Mitochondrial Heat Shock Protein Machinery Hsp70/Hsp40 Is Indispensable for Proper Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Týč, Jiří; Klingbeil, Michele M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Mitochondrial chaperones have multiple functions that are essential for proper functioning of mitochondria. In the human-pathogenic protist Trypanosoma brucei, we demonstrate a novel function of the highly conserved machinery composed of mitochondrial heat shock proteins 70 and 40 (mtHsp70/mtHsp40) and the ATP exchange factor Mge1. The mitochondrial DNA of T. brucei, also known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is represented by a single catenated network composed of thousands of minicircles and dozens of maxicircles packed into an electron-dense kDNA disk. The chaperones mtHsp70 and mtHsp40 and their cofactor Mge1 are uniformly distributed throughout the single mitochondrial network and are all essential for the parasite. Following RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of each of these proteins, the kDNA network shrinks and eventually disappears. Ultrastructural analysis of cells depleted for mtHsp70 or mtHsp40 revealed that the otherwise compact kDNA network becomes severely compromised, a consequence of decreased maxicircle and minicircle copy numbers. Moreover, we show that the replication of minicircles is impaired, although the lack of these proteins has a bigger impact on the less abundant maxicircles. We provide additional evidence that these chaperones are indispensable for the maintenance and replication of kDNA, in addition to their already known functions in Fe-S cluster synthesis and protein import. PMID:25670781

  16. Oxidative damage to specific proteins in replicative and chronological-aged Saccharomyces cerevisiae: common targets and prevention by calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Cabiscol, Elisa; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim

    2004-07-23

    Oxidative modifications of cellular components have been described as one of the main contributions to aged phenotype. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two distinct life spans can be considered, replicative and chronological. The relationship between both aging models is still not clear despite suggestions that these phenomena may be related. In this work, we show that replicative and chronological-aged yeast cells are affected by an oxidative stress situation demonstrated by increased protein carbonylation when compared with young cells. The data on the identification of these oxidatively modified proteins gives clues to better understand cellular dysfunction that occurs during aging. Strikingly, although in both aging models metabolic differences are important, major targets are almost the same. Common targets include stress resistance proteins (Hsp60 and Hsp70) and enzymes involved in glucose metabolism such as enolase, glyceraldehydes-3-P dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. In both aging models, calorie restriction results in decreased damage to these proteins. In addition, chronological-aged cells grown under glucose restriction displayed lowered levels of lipid peroxidation product lipofuscin. Intracellular iron concentration is kept almost unchanged, whereas in non-restricted cells, the values increase up 4-5 times. The pro-oxidant effects of such increased iron concentration would account for the damage observed. Also, calorie-restricted cells show undamaged catalase, which clearly appears carbonylated in cells grown at a high glucose concentration. These results may explain lengthening of the viability of chronological-aged cells and could have an important role in replicative life span extension by calorie restriction. PMID:15166233

  17. Synaptogyrin-2 Promotes Replication of a Novel Tick-borne Bunyavirus through Interacting with Viral Nonstructural Protein NSs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiyu; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Li, Dexin; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2016-07-29

    Synaptogyrin-2 is a non-neuronal member of the synaptogyrin family involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis and trafficking. Little is known about the function of synaptogyrin-2. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia with high mortality, caused by a novel tick-borne phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Our previous studies have shown that the viral nonstructural protein NSs forms inclusion bodies (IBs) that are involved in viral immune evasion, as well as viral RNA replication. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which NSs formed the IBs, a lipid droplet-based structure confirmed by NSs co-localization with perilipin A and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Through a high throughput screening, we identified synaptogyrin-2 to be highly up-regulated in response to SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) infection and to be a promoter of viral replication. We demonstrated that synaptogyrin-2 interacted with NSs and was translocated into the IBs, which were reconstructed from lipid droplets into large structures in infection. Viral RNA replication decreased, and infectious virus titers were lowered significantly when synaptogyrin-2 was silenced in specific shRNA-expressing cells, which correlated with the reduced number of the large IBs restructured from regular lipid droplets. We hypothesize that synaptogyrin-2 is essential to promoting the formation of the IBs to become virus factories for viral RNA replication through its interaction with NSs. These findings unveil the function of synaptogyrin-2 as an enhancer in viral infection. PMID:27226560

  18. Replication Protein A: Single-stranded DNA's first responder : Dynamic DNA-interactions allow Replication Protein A to direct single-strand DNA intermediates into different pathways for synthesis or repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Wold, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Replication Protein A (RPA), the major single-stranded DNA-binding protein in eukaryotic cells, is required for processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates found in replication, repair and recombination. Recent studies have shown that RPA binding to ssDNA is highly dynamic and that more than high-affinity binding is needed for function. Analysis of DNA binding mutants identified forms of RPA with reduced affinity for ssDNA that are fully active, and other mutants with higher affinity that are inactive. Single molecule studies showed that while RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, the RPA complex can rapidly diffuse along ssDNA and be displaced by other proteins that act on ssDNA. Finally, dynamic DNA binding allows RPA to prevent error-prone repair of double-stranded breaks and promote error-free repair. Together, these findings suggest a new paradigm where RPA acts as a first responder at sites with ssDNA, thereby actively coordinating DNA repair and DNA synthesis. PMID:25171654

  19. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3). PMID:25768890

  20. Bacteriophage replication modules.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Christoph; Seitz, Harald

    2006-05-01

    Bacteriophages (prokaryotic viruses) are favourite model systems to study DNA replication in prokaryotes, and provide examples for every theoretically possible replication mechanism. In addition, the elucidation of the intricate interplay of phage-encoded replication factors with 'host' factors has always advanced the understanding of DNA replication in general. Here we review bacteriophage replication based on the long-standing observation that in most known phage genomes the replication genes are arranged as modules. This allows us to discuss established model systems--f1/fd, phiX174, P2, P4, lambda, SPP1, N15, phi29, T7 and T4--along with those numerous phages that have been sequenced but not studied experimentally. The review of bacteriophage replication mechanisms and modules is accompanied by a compendium of replication origins and replication/recombination proteins (available as supplementary material online). PMID:16594962

  1. Immunodetection and N-terminal sequencing of DNA replication proteins of bacteriophage BFK20 - lytic phage of Brevibacterium flavum.

    PubMed

    Bukovská, G; Halgašová, N; Hromadová, L; Koščová, H; Bukovský, M

    2014-01-01

    Phages are excellent models for studying the mechanism of DNA replication in prokaryotes. Identification of phage proteins involved in phage DNA replication is the first prerequisite for elucidation of the phage replication module. We focused on replication proteins gp41 (a putative helicase from SF2 superfamily), gp43 (a RepA-like protein), and gp44 (a putative DNA polymerase A) of phage BFK20 grown in Brevibacterium flavum. To identify them in the phage-host system, we prepared antibodies to these proteins which were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as his-tagged recombinant proteins. After purification to homogeneity the recombinant proteins served for raising specific polyclonal antibodies in mice. Using these antibodies in Western blot analysis the phage proteins gp41, gp43 and gp44 were detected during the phage growth cycle. The proteins gp41 and gp43, prepared from cell lysate by ammonium sulphate precipitation, were N-terminally sequenced and found to contain the sequences N-SVKPRELR-C and N-MLGSTML-C, respectively. This means that gp41 starts with serine but not with common methionine. We consider these findings an initial but important step towards more thorough characterization of replication proteins of phage BFK20. PMID:24957720

  2. The photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex protein PsbP interacts with the coat protein of Alfalfa mosaic virus and inhibits virus replication.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Kim, Bong-Suk; Hutchens-Williams, Heather M; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-10-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) is essential for many steps in virus replication from early infection to encapsidation. However, the identity and functional relevance of cellular factors that interact with CP remain unknown. In an unbiased yeast two-hybrid screen for CP-interacting Arabidopsis proteins, we identified several novel protein interactions that could potentially modulate AMV replication. In this report, we focus on one of the novel CP-binding partners, the Arabidopsis PsbP protein, which is a nuclear-encoded component of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. We validated the protein interaction in vitro with pull-down assays, in planta with bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, and during virus infection by co-immunoprecipitations. CP interacted with the chloroplast-targeted PsbP in the cytosol and mutations that prevented the dimerization of CP abolished this interaction. Importantly, PsbP overexpression markedly reduced virus accumulation in infected leaves. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that AMV CP dimers interact with the chloroplast protein PsbP, suggesting a potential sequestration strategy that may preempt the generation of any PsbP-mediated antiviral state. PMID:24940990

  3. A geminivirus replication protein interacts with the retinoblastoma protein through a novel domain to determine symptoms and tissue specificity of infection in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Jie; Orozco, Beverly M.; Roe, Judith L.; Nagar, Steve; Ou, Sharon; Feiler, Heidi S.; Durfee, Tim; Miller, Ann B.; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Robertson, Dominique; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Geminiviruses replicate in nuclei of mature plant cells after inducing the accumulation of host DNA replication machinery. Earlier studies showed that the viral replication factor, AL1, is sufficient for host induction and interacts with the cell cycle regulator, retinoblastoma (pRb). Unlike other DNA virus proteins, AL1 does not contain the pRb binding consensus, LXCXE, and interacts with plant pRb homo logues (pRBR) through a novel amino acid sequence. We mapped the pRBR binding domain of AL1 between amino acids 101 and 180 and identified two mutants that are differentially impacted for AL1–pRBR interactions. Plants infected with the E-N140 mutant, which is wild-type for pRBR binding, developed wild-type symptoms and accumulated viral DNA and AL1 protein in epidermal, mesophyll and vascular cells of mature leaves. Plants inoculated with the KEE146 mutant, which retains 16% pRBR binding activity, only developed chlorosis along the veins, and viral DNA, AL1 protein and the host DNA synthesis factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were localized to vascular tissue. These results established the importance of AL1–pRBR interactions during geminivirus infection of plants. PMID:10880461

  4. The replication initiation protein of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is activated by the ClpX chaperone.

    PubMed

    Konieczny, I; Helinski, D R

    1997-12-23

    Initiation and control of replication of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 requires two plasmid-encoded elements, the replication origin (oriV) and the initiation protein TrfA. Purified TrfA is largely in the form of a dimer; however, only the monomeric form of the protein can bind specifically to the direct repeats (iterons) at the RK2 origin. The largely dimeric form of wild-type TrfA is inactive in the initiation of replication of RK2 in an in vitro replication system reconstituted from purified components. However, preincubation of the TrfA protein with the ClpX molecular chaperone isolated from Escherichia coli activates the initiator protein for replication in the purified system. We further observed that ClpX, in an ATP-dependent reaction, greatly increases the proportion of TrfA monomers and, therefore, the ability of this protein to bind to iterons localized within RK2 origin. Finally, a copy-up mutant of the TrfA protein which is largely in the monomer form is active in the reconstituted in vitro replication system, and its activity is not affected by ClpX. PMID:9405620

  5. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  6. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. PMID:27212684

  7. Role of Accessory Proteins of HTLV-1 in Viral Replication, T Cell Activation, and Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amithraj; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and initiates a variety of immune mediated disorders. The viral genome encodes common structural and enzymatic proteins characteristic of all retroviruses and utilizes alternative splicing and alternate codon usage to make several regulatory and accessory proteins encoded in the pX region (pX ORF I to IV). Recent studies indicate that the accessory proteins p12I, p27I, p13II, and p30II, encoded by pX ORF I and II, contribute to viral replication and the ability of the virus to maintain typical in vivo expression levels. Proviral clones that are mutated in either pX ORF I or II, while fully competent in cell culture, are severely limited in their replicative capacity in a rabbit model. These HTLV-1 accessory proteins are critical for establishment of viral infectivity, enhance T- lymphocyte activation and potentially alter gene transcription and mitochondrial function. HTLV-1 pX ORF I expression is critical to the viral infectivity in resting primary lymphocytes suggesting a role for the calcineurin-binding protein p12I in lymphocyte activation. The endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi localizing p12I activates NFAT, a key T cell transcription factor, through calcium-mediated signaling pathways and may lower the threshold of lymphocyte activation via the JAK/STAT pathway. In contrast p30II localizes to the nucleus and represses viral promoter activity, but may regulate cellular gene expression through p300/CBP or related co-activators of transcription. The mitochondrial localizing p13II induces morphologic changes in the organelle and may influence energy metabolism infected cells. Future studies of the molecular details HTLV-1 “accessory” proteins interactions will provide important new directions for investigations of HTLV-1 and related viruses associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Thus, the accessory proteins of HTLV-1, once thought to be dispensable for

  8. Mutations in the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Newcastle Disease Virus Fusion Protein Confer Hyperfusogenic Phenotypes Modulating Viral Replication and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sweety; Khattar, Sunil K.; Paldurai, Anandan; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Zhu, Xiaoping; Collins, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) mediates fusion of viral and host cell membranes and is a major determinant of NDV pathogenicity. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of functional properties of F cytoplasmic tail (CT) amino acids on virus replication and pathogenesis. Out of a series of C-terminal deletions in the CT, we were able to rescue mutant viruses lacking two or four residues (rΔ2 and rΔ4). We further rescued viral mutants with individual amino acid substitutions at each of these four terminal residues (rM553A, rK552A, rT551A, and rT550A). In addition, the NDV F CT has two conserved tyrosine residues (Y524 and Y527) and a dileucine motif (LL536-537). In other paramyxoviruses, these residues were shown to affect fusion activity and are central elements in basolateral targeting. The deletion of 2 and 4 CT amino acids and single tyrosine substitution resulted in hyperfusogenic phenotypes and increased viral replication and pathogenesis. We further found that in rY524A and rY527A viruses, disruption of the targeting signals did not reduce the expression on the apical or basolateral surface in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, whereas in double tyrosine mutant, it was reduced on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. Interestingly, in rL536A and rL537A mutants, the F protein expression was more on the apical than on the basolateral surface, and this effect was more pronounced in the rL537A mutant. We conclude that these wild-type residues in the NDV F CT have an effect on regulating F protein biological functions and thus modulating viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23843643

  9. hCLE/C14orf166, a cellular protein required for viral replication, is incorporated into influenza virus particles

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Frandsen, Ariel; de Lucas, Susana; Pérez-González, Alicia; Pérez-Cidoncha, Maite; Roldan-Gomendio, Alejandro; Pazo, Alejandra; Marcos-Villar, Laura; Landeras-Bueno, Sara; Ortín, Juan; Nieto, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A virus polymerase associates with a number of cellular transcription-related factors, including the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We previously described that the cellular protein hCLE/C14orf166 interacts with and stimulates influenza virus polymerase as well as RNAP II activities. Here we show that, despite the considerable cellular shut-off observed in infected cells, which includes RNAP II degradation, hCLE protein levels increase throughout infection in a virus replication-dependent manner. Human and avian influenza viruses of various subtypes increase hCLE levels, but other RNA or DNA viruses do not. hCLE colocalises and interacts with viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNP) in the nucleus, as well as in the cytoplasm late in infection. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of purified virus particles and immunoelectron microscopy of infected cells show hCLE in virions, in close association with viral vRNP. These findings indicate that hCLE, a cellular protein important for viral replication, is one of the very few examples of transcription factors that are incorporated into particles of an RNA-containing virus. PMID:26864902

  10. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibited hepatitis C virus replication by binding viral NS3 protein.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xijing; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian

    2016-05-01

    HCV infection has a complex and dynamic process which involves a large number of viral and host factors. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibits liver fibrosis and liver tumor migration and invasion. However, the contribution of GAS5 on HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, GAS5 was gradually upregulated during HCV infection in Huh7 cells. In addition, GAS5 attenuated virus replication with its 5' end sequences, as confirmed by different GAS5 truncations. Moreover, this 5' end sequences showed RNA-protein interaction with HCV NS3 protein that could act as a decoy to inhibit its functions, which contributed to the suppression of HCV replication. Finally, the innate immune responses remained low in HCV infected Huh7 cells, ruling out the possibility of GAS5 to modulate innate immunity. Thus, HCV stimulated endogenous GAS5 can suppress HCV infection by acting as HCV NS3 protein decoy, providing a potential role of GAS5 as a diagnostic or therapeutic target. PMID:26945984

  11. The Salmonella Typhimurium effector protein SopE transiently localizes to the early SCV and contributes to intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Sellin, Mikael E; Cardini, Steven; Singh, Vikash; Barthel, Manja; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that induces entry into non-phagocytic cells by a Type III secretion system (TTSS) and cognate effector proteins. Upon host cell entry, S. Tm expresses a second TTSS and subverts intracellular trafficking to create a replicative niche - the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). SopE, a guanidyl exchange factor (GEF) for Rac1 and Cdc42, is translocated by the TTSS-1 upon host cell contact and promotes entry through triggering of actin-dependent ruffles. After host cell entry, the bulk of SopE undergoes proteasomal degradation. Here we show that a subfraction is however detectable on the nascent SCV membrane up to ∼ 6 h post infection. Membrane localization of SopE and the closely related SopE2 differentially depend on the Rho-GTPase-binding GEF domain, and to some extent involves also the unstructured N-terminus. SopE localizes transiently to the early SCV, dependent on continuous synthesis and secretion by the TTSS-1 during the intracellular state. Mutant strains lacking SopE or SopE2 are attenuated in early intracellular replication, while complementation restores this defect. Hence, the present study reveals an unanticipated role for SopE and SopE2 in establishing the Salmonella replicative niche, and further emphasizes the importance of entry effectors in later stages of host-cell manipulation. PMID:25052734

  12. Specific binding of the adenovirus terminal protein precursor-DNA polymerase complex to the origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Rijnders, A W; van Bergen, B G; van der Vliet, P C; Sussenbach, J S

    1983-01-01

    Initiation of adenovirus DNA replication is dependent on a complex of the precursor of the terminal protein and the adenovirus-coded DNA polymerase (pTP-pol complex). This complex catalyzes the formation of a covalent linkage between dCMP and pTP in the presence of a functional origin of DNA replication residing in the terminal nucleotide sequence of adenovirus DNA. We have purified the pTP-pol complex of adenovirus type 5 and studied its binding to double-stranded DNA. Using DNA-cellulose chromatography it could be shown that the pTP-pol complex has a higher affinity for adenovirus DNA than for calf thymus or pBR322 DNA. From the differential binding of the pTP-pol complex to plasmids containing adenovirus terminal sequences with different deletions, it has been concluded that a sequence of 14 nucleotide pairs at positions 9-22 plays a crucial role in the binding of pTP-pol to adenovirus DNA. This region is conserved in the DNA's of all human adenovirus serotypes and is obviously an important structural element of the adenovirus origin of DNA replication. Comparative binding studies with adenovirus DNA polymerase and pTP-pol indicated that pTP is responsible for the binding. The nature of the binding of pTP-pol to the conserved sequence will be discussed. Images PMID:6672772

  13. Sequence-specific interactions between a cellular DNA-binding protein and the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Traut, W.; Fanning, E.

    1988-02-01

    The core origin of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication is composed of a 64-base-pair sequence encompassing T-antigen-binding site II and adjacent sequences on either side. A 7-base-pair sequence to the early side of T-antigen-binding site II which is conserved among the papovavirus genomes SV40, BK, JC and SA12 was recently shown to be part of a 10-base-pair sequence required for origin activity, but its functional role was not defined. In the present report, the authors used gel retention assays to identify a monkey cell factor that interacts specifically with double-stranded DNA carrying this sequence and also binds to single-stranded DNA. DNA-protein complexes formed with extracts from primate cells are more abundant and display electrophoretic mobilities distinct from those formed with rodent cell extracts. The binding activity of the factor on mutant templates is correlate with the replication activity of the origin. The results suggest that the monkey cell factor may be involved in SV40 DNA replication.

  14. A Cysteine-Rich Motif in Poliovirus Protein 2CATPase Is Involved in RNA Replication and Binds Zinc In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Thomas; Jones, Keith W.; Wimmer, Eckard

    2000-01-01

    Protein 2CATPase of picornaviruses is involved in the rearrangement of host cell organelles, viral RNA replication, and encapsidation. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which 2CATPase engages in these processes are not known. To characterize functional domains of 2CATPase, we have focused on a cysteine-rich motif near the carboxy terminus of poliovirus 2CATPase. This region, which is well conserved among enteroviruses and rhinoviruses displaying an amino acid arrangement resembling zinc finger motifs, was studied by genetic and biochemical analyses. A mutation that replaced the first cysteine residue of the motif with a serine was lethal. A mutant virus which lacked the second of four potential coordination sites for zinc was temperature sensitive. At the restrictive temperature, RNA replication was inhibited whereas translation and polyprotein processing, assayed in vitro and in vivo, appeared to be normal. An intragenomic second-site revertant which reinserted the missing coordination site for zinc and recovered RNA replication at the restrictive temperature was isolated. The cysteine-rich motif was sufficient to bind zinc in vitro, as assessed in the presence of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol by a colorimetric assay. Zinc binding, however, was not required for hydrolysis of ATP. 2CATPase as well as its precursors 2BC and P2 were found to exist in a reduced form in poliovirus-infected cells. PMID:10590122

  15. Distinct host cell proteins incorporated by SIV replicating in CD4+ T Cells from natural disease resistant versus non-natural disease susceptible hosts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Enveloped viruses including the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicating within host cells acquire host proteins upon egress from the host cells. A number of studies have catalogued such host proteins, and a few have documented the potential positive and negative biological functions of such host proteins. The studies conducted herein utilized proteomic analysis to identify differences in the spectrum of host proteins acquired by a single source of SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease resistant sooty mangabeys and disease susceptible rhesus macaques. Results While a total of 202 host derived proteins were present in viral preparations from CD4+ T cells from both species, there were 4 host-derived proteins that consistently and uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from rhesus macaques but not sooty mangabeys; and, similarly, 28 host-derived proteins that uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from sooty mangabeys, but not rhesus macaques. Of interest was the finding that of the 4 proteins uniquely present in SIV preparations from rhesus macaques was a 26 S protease subunit 7 (MSS1) that was shown to enhance HIV-1 'tat" mediated transactivation. Among the 28 proteins found in SIV preparations from sooty mangabeys included several molecules associated with immune function such as CD2, CD3ε, TLR4, TLR9 and TNFR and a bioactive form of IL-13. Conclusions The finding of 4 host proteins that are uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease susceptible rhesus macaques and 28 host proteins that are uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease resistant sooty mangabeys provide the foundation for determining the potential role of each of these unique host-derived proteins in contributing to the polarized clinical outcome in these 2 species of nonhuman primates. PMID:21162735

  16. Mutations in Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3A Protein Uncouple the Dependency of Genome Replication on Host Factors Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα and Oxysterol-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Cristina M.; Albulescu, Lucian; Lyoo, Heyrhyoung; van Kampen, Mirjam; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lohmann, Volker; Harak, Christian; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Strating, Jeroen R. P. M.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate “replication organelles” (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner. Single-point mutations in 3A render enteroviruses resistant to both PI4KB and OSBP inhibition, indicating coupled dependency on these host factors. Recently, we showed that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus that belongs to the Cardiovirus genus, also builds PI4P/cholesterol-enriched ROs. Like the hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the Flaviviridae family, it does so by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). Here we provide genetic evidence for the critical involvement of EMCV protein 3A in this process. Using a genetic screening approach, we selected EMCV mutants with single amino acid substitutions in 3A, which rescued RNA virus replication upon small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KA. In the presence of PI4KA inhibitors, the mutants no longer induced PI4P, OSBP, or cholesterol accumulation at ROs, which aggregated into large cytoplasmic clusters. In contrast to the enterovirus escape mutants, we observed little if any cross-resistance of EMCV mutants to OSBP inhibitors, indicating an uncoupled level of dependency of their RNA replication on PI4KA and OSBP activities. This report may contribute to a better understanding of the roles of PI4KA and OSBP in membrane modifications induced by (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses modulate lipid

  17. Mutations in Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3A Protein Uncouple the Dependency of Genome Replication on Host Factors Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα and Oxysterol-Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Dorobantu, Cristina M; Albulescu, Lucian; Lyoo, Heyrhyoung; van Kampen, Mirjam; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lohmann, Volker; Harak, Christian; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate "replication organelles" (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner. Single-point mutations in 3A render enteroviruses resistant to both PI4KB and OSBP inhibition, indicating coupled dependency on these host factors. Recently, we showed that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus that belongs to the Cardiovirus genus, also builds PI4P/cholesterol-enriched ROs. Like the hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the Flaviviridae family, it does so by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). Here we provide genetic evidence for the critical involvement of EMCV protein 3A in this process. Using a genetic screening approach, we selected EMCV mutants with single amino acid substitutions in 3A, which rescued RNA virus replication upon small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KA. In the presence of PI4KA inhibitors, the mutants no longer induced PI4P, OSBP, or cholesterol accumulation at ROs, which aggregated into large cytoplasmic clusters. In contrast to the enterovirus escape mutants, we observed little if any cross-resistance of EMCV mutants to OSBP inhibitors, indicating an uncoupled level of dependency of their RNA replication on PI4KA and OSBP activities. This report may contribute to a better understanding of the roles of PI4KA and OSBP in membrane modifications induced by (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses modulate lipid homeostasis to

  18. An Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Protein Complex Requires an Origin of Lytic Replication In Cis to Mediate Late Gene Transcription.

    PubMed

    Djavadian, Reza; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Johannsen, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication is accomplished by an intricate cascade of gene expression that integrates viral DNA replication and structural protein synthesis. Most genes encoding structural proteins exhibit "true" late kinetics-their expression is strictly dependent on lytic DNA replication. Recently, the EBV BcRF1 gene was reported to encode a TATA box binding protein homolog, which preferentially recognizes the TATT sequence found in true late gene promoters. BcRF1 is one of seven EBV genes with homologs found in other β- and γ-, but not in α-herpesviruses. Using EBV BACmids, we systematically disrupted each of these "βγ" genes. We found that six of them, including BcRF1, exhibited an identical phenotype: intact viral DNA replication with loss of late gene expression. The proteins encoded by these six genes have been found by other investigators to form a viral protein complex that is essential for activation of TATT-containing reporters in EBV-negative 293 cells. Unexpectedly, in EBV infected 293 cells, we found that TATT reporter activation was weak and non-specific unless an EBV origin of lytic replication (OriLyt) was present in cis. Using two different replication-defective EBV genomes, we demonstrated that OriLyt-mediated DNA replication is required in cis for TATT reporter activation and for late gene expression from the EBV genome. We further demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the late BcLF1 mRNA localizes to EBV DNA replication factories. These findings support a model in which EBV true late genes are only transcribed from newly replicated viral genomes. PMID:27348612

  19. An Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Protein Complex Requires an Origin of Lytic Replication In Cis to Mediate Late Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Djavadian, Reza; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Johannsen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication is accomplished by an intricate cascade of gene expression that integrates viral DNA replication and structural protein synthesis. Most genes encoding structural proteins exhibit “true” late kinetics–their expression is strictly dependent on lytic DNA replication. Recently, the EBV BcRF1 gene was reported to encode a TATA box binding protein homolog, which preferentially recognizes the TATT sequence found in true late gene promoters. BcRF1 is one of seven EBV genes with homologs found in other β- and γ-, but not in α-herpesviruses. Using EBV BACmids, we systematically disrupted each of these “βγ” genes. We found that six of them, including BcRF1, exhibited an identical phenotype: intact viral DNA replication with loss of late gene expression. The proteins encoded by these six genes have been found by other investigators to form a viral protein complex that is essential for activation of TATT-containing reporters in EBV-negative 293 cells. Unexpectedly, in EBV infected 293 cells, we found that TATT reporter activation was weak and non-specific unless an EBV origin of lytic replication (OriLyt) was present in cis. Using two different replication-defective EBV genomes, we demonstrated that OriLyt-mediated DNA replication is required in cis for TATT reporter activation and for late gene expression from the EBV genome. We further demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the late BcLF1 mRNA localizes to EBV DNA replication factories. These findings support a model in which EBV true late genes are only transcribed from newly replicated viral genomes. PMID:27348612

  20. Replication-competent recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viruses expressing indicator proteins and antiviral cytokines.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Shi, Jishu; Sang, Wenjing; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFNω5 ° IFNα1 > IFN-β > IFNδ3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more

  1. Local regulation of the Srs2 helicase by the SUMO-like domain protein Esc2 promotes recombination at sites of stalled replication

    PubMed Central

    Urulangodi, Madhusoodanan; Sebesta, Marek; Menolfi, Demis; Szakal, Barnabas; Sollier, Julie; Sisakova, Alexandra; Krejci, Lumir; Branzei, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Accurate completion of replication relies on the ability of cells to activate error-free recombination-mediated DNA damage bypass at sites of perturbed replication. However, as anti-recombinase activities are also recruited to replication forks, how recombination-mediated damage bypass is enabled at replication stress sites remained puzzling. Here we uncovered that the conserved SUMO-like domain-containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Esc2 facilitates recombination-mediated DNA damage tolerance by allowing optimal recruitment of the Rad51 recombinase specifically at sites of perturbed replication. Mechanistically, Esc2 binds stalled replication forks and counteracts the anti-recombinase Srs2 helicase via a two-faceted mechanism involving chromatin recruitment and turnover of Srs2. Importantly, point mutations in the SUMO-like domains of Esc2 that reduce its interaction with Srs2 cause suboptimal levels of Rad51 recruitment at damaged replication forks. In conclusion, our results reveal how recombination-mediated DNA damage tolerance is locally enabled at sites of replication stress and globally prevented at undamaged replicating chromosomes. PMID:26443850

  2. A sequence of basic residues in the porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein is crucial for its co-expression and co-localization with the replication protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Renne, Nicolaas Van; Liu, Changming; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes two major proteins: the replication protein (Rep) and the capsid protein (Cap). Cap displays a conserved stretch of basic residues situated on the inside of the capsid, whose role is so far unknown. We used a reverse-genetics approach to investigate its function and found that mutations in these amino acids hindered Cap mRNA translation and hampered Cap/Rep co-localization, yielding unfit viruses. Intriguingly, co-transfection with a WT PCV2 of a different genotype partially rescued mutant Cap expression, showing the importance of this basic pattern for efficient translation of Cap mRNA into protein. Our results show that Cap and Rep are expressed independently of each other, and that this amino acid sequence of Cap is vital for virus propagation. This study provides a method for studying unfit PCV2 virions and offers new insights into the intracellular modus vivendi of PCV2. PMID:26415571

  3. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed. PMID:25421597

  4. Lipidation of the FPI protein IglE contributes to Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida intramacrophage replication and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jesse Q; Gilley, Ryan P; Zogaj, Xhavit; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Klose, Karl E

    2014-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the human disease tularemia. The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes a secretion system related to type VI secretion systems (T6SS) which allows F. tularensis to escape the phagosome and replicate within the cytosol of infected macrophages and ultimately cause disease. A lipoprotein is typically found encoded within T6SS gene clusters and is believed to anchor portions of the secretion apparatus to the outer membrane. We show that the FPI protein IglE is a lipoprotein that incorporates (3)H-palmitate and localizes to the outer membrane. A C22G IglE mutant failed to be lipidated and failed to localize to the outer membrane, consistent with C22 being the site of lipidation. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida expressing IglE C22G is defective for replication in macrophages and unable to cause disease in mice. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that IglE interacts with the C-terminal portion of the FPI inner membrane protein PdpB, and PhoA fusion analysis indicated the PdpB C-terminus is located within the periplasm. We predict this interaction facilitates channel formation to allow secretion through this system. PMID:24616435

  5. Lipidation of the FPI protein IglE contributes to Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida intramacrophage replication and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jesse Q.; Gilley, Ryan P.; Zogaj, Xhavit; Rodriguez, Stephen A.; Klose, Karl E.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the human disease tularemia. The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes a secretion system related to type VI secretion systems (T6SS) which allows F. tularensis to escape the phagosome and replicate within the cytosol of infected macrophages and ultimately cause disease. A lipoprotein is typically found encoded within T6SS gene clusters and is believed to anchor portions of the secretion apparatus to the outer membrane. We show that the FPI protein IglE is a lipoprotein that incorporates 3H-palmitate and localizes to the outer membrane. A C22G IglE mutant failed to be lipidated and failed to localize to the outer membrane, consistent with C22 being the site of lipidation. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida expressing IglE C22G is defective for replication in macrophages and unable to cause disease in mice. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that IglE interacts with the C-terminal portion of the FPI inner membrane protein PdpB, and PhoA fusion analysis indicated the PdpB C-terminus is located within the periplasm. We predict this interaction facilitates channel formation to allow secretion through this system. PMID:24616435

  6. Inhibition of Newcastle disease virus replication by RNA interference targeting the matrix protein gene in chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Ding, Zhuang; Liu, Xinxin; Mu, Lianzhi; Cong, Yanlong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious viral disease of birds caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (AMPV-1), which leads to severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, the application of RNA interference (RNAi) for inhibiting the replication of NDV in cell culture by targeting the viral matrix protein gene (M) is described. Two M-specific shRNA-expressing plasmid constructs, named pS(M641) and pS(M827), were evaluated for antiviral activity against the NDV strain NA-1 by cytopathic effects (CPE), virus titration and real-time RT-PCR. After 36h of infection, both pS(M641) and pS(M827) reduced virus titers by 79.4- and 31.6-fold, respectively, and they down-regulated mRNA expression levels of the matrix protein gene M by 94.6% and 84.8%, respectively, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, while only pS(M641) significantly decreased CPE, compared to the control group. These results indicated that the M gene 641 and 827 sites represent potential antiviral therapy targets, and RNAi targeting of the M gene could not only represent an effective treatment in Newcastle disease but also aid as a method for studying the replication of NDV. PMID:20171246

  7. An interaction between the DNA repair factor XPA and replication protein A appears essential for nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Lu, X; Peterson, C A; Legerski, R J

    1995-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is required for simian virus 40-directed DNA replication in vitro and for nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we report that RPA and the human repair protein XPA specifically interact both in vitro and in vivo. Mapping of the RPA-interactive domains in XPA revealed that both of the largest subunits of RPA, RPA-70 and RPA-34, interact with XPA at distinct sites. A domain involved in mediating the interaction with RPA-70 was located between XPA residues 153 and 176. Deletion of highly conserved motifs within this region identified two mutants that were deficient in binding RPA in vitro and highly defective in NER both in vitro and in vivo. A second domain mediating the interaction with RPA-34 was identified within the first 58 residues in XPA. Deletion of this region, however, only moderately affects the complementing activity of XPA in vivo. Finally, the XPA-RPA complex is shown to have a greater affinity for damaged DNA than XPA alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the interaction between XPA and RPA is required for NER but that only the interaction with RPA-70 is essential. PMID:7565690

  8. Alleviation of respiratory syncytial virus replication and inflammation by fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-fve from Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Chow, Yen-Hung; Sun, Hai-Lun; Liu, Yu-Fan; Lee, Yu-Tzu; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes bronchiolitis in children followed by inflammation and asthma-like symptoms. The development of preventive therapy for this virus continues to pose a challenge. Fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) exhibit anti-inflammatory function. FIP-fve is an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Flammulina velutipes. To determine whether FIP-fve affects the infection or consequence of immunity of RSV, we investigated viral titers of RSV and inflammatory cytokine levels in vivo and in vitro. Oral FIP-fve decreased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and IL-6 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of BALB/c mice. RSV replication and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in RSV-infected HEp-2 cells were compared before and after FIP-fve treatment. FIP-fve inhibited viral titers on plaque assay and Western blot, as well as inhibited RSV-stimulated expression of IL-6 on ELISA and RT-PCR. The results of this study suggested that FIP-fve decreases RSV replication, RSV-induced inflammation and respiratory pathogenesis. FIP-fve is a widely used, natural compound from F.velutipes that may be a safe agent for viral prevention and even therapy. PMID:25131377

  9. Induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of Melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kanda, Ayami; Ohnishi, Jun; Ohki, Takehiro; Tsuda, Shinya

    2009-08-01

    The virulence factor of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), a virus that induces systemic necrotic spot disease on melon plants, was investigated. When the replication protein p29 was expressed in N. benthamiana using a Cucumber mosaic virus vector, necrotic spots appeared on the leaf tissue. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial aggregation in these tissues. Fractionation of tissues expressing p29 and confocal imaging using GFP-tagged p29 revealed that p29 associated with the mitochondrial membrane as an integral membrane protein. Expression analysis of p29 deletion fragments and prediction of hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) in p29 showed that deletion of the second putative TMD from p29 led to deficiencies in both the mitochondrial localization and virulence of p29. Taken together, these results indicated that MNSV p29 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane and that p29 may be a virulence factor causing the observed necrosis.

  10. The Role of Cdkn1A-Interacting Zinc Finger Protein 1 (CIZ1) in DNA Replication and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Niu, Na; Wada, Youichiro; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cdkn1A-interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) was first identified in a yeast-2-hybrid system searching for interacting proteins of CDK2 inhibitor p21Cip1/Waf1. Ciz1 also binds to CDK2, cyclin A, cyclin E, CDC6, PCNA, TCF4 and estrogen receptor-α. Recent studies reveal numerous biological functions of CIZ1 in DNA replication, cell proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, splicing variants of CIZ1 mRNA is associated with a variety of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease, and mutations of the CIZ1 gene lead to cervical dystonia. CIZ1 expression is increased in cancers and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we will summarize the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of CIZ1 in these physiological and pathological processes. PMID:26861296

  11. A Novel Trypanosoma cruzi Protein Associated to the Flagellar Pocket of Replicative Stages and Involved in Parasite Growth

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Ignacio M.; Cámara, María de los Milagros; Buscaglia, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The flagellar pocket constitutes an active and strategic site in the body of trypanosomatids (i.e. parasitic protozoa that cause important human and/or livestock diseases), which participates in several important processes such as cell polarity, morphogenesis and replication. Most importantly, the flagellar pocket is the unique site of surface protein export and nutrient uptake in trypanosomatids, and thus constitutes a key portal for the interaction with the host. In this work, we identified and characterized a novel Trypanosoma cruzi protein, termed TCLP 1, that accumulates at the flagellar pocket area of parasite replicative forms, as revealed by biochemical, immuno-cytochemistry and electron microscopy techniques. Different in silico analyses revealed that TCLP 1 is the founding member of a family of chimeric molecules restricted to trypanosomatids bearing, in addition to eukaryotic ubiquitin-like and protein-protein interacting domains, a motif displaying significant structural homology to bacterial multi-cargo chaperones involved in the secretion of virulence factors. Using the fidelity of an homologous expression system we confirmed TCLP 1 sub-cellular distribution and showed that TCLP 1-over-expressing parasites display impaired survival and accelerated progression to late stationary phase under starvation conditions. The reduced endocytic capacity of TCLP 1-over-expressors likely underlies (at least in part) this growth phenotype. TCLP 1 is involved in the uptake of extracellular macromolecules required for nutrition and hence in T. cruzi growth. Due to the bacterial origin, sub-cellular distribution and putative function(s), we propose TCLP 1 and related orthologs in trypanosomatids as appealing therapeutic targets for intervention against these health-threatening parasites. PMID:26086767

  12. Concentration-Dependent Exchange of Replication Protein A on Single-Stranded DNA Revealed by Single-Molecule Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Gergoudis, Stephanie C.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein necessary for all aspects of DNA metabolism involving an ssDNA intermediate, including DNA replication, repair, recombination, DNA damage response and checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance [1], [2], [3]. The role of RPA in most of these reactions is to protect the ssDNA until it can be delivered to downstream enzymes. Therefore a crucial feature of RPA is that it must bind very tightly to ssDNA, but must also be easily displaced from ssDNA to allow other proteins to gain access to the substrate. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and nanofabricated DNA curtains to visualize the behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA on individual strands of ssDNA in real-time. Our results show that RPA remains bound to ssDNA for long periods of time when free protein is absent from solution. In contrast, RPA rapidly dissociates from ssDNA when free RPA is present in solution allowing rapid exchange between the free and bound states. In addition, the S. cerevisiae DNA recombinase Rad51 and E. coli single-stranded binding protein (SSB) also promote removal of RPA from ssDNA. These results reveal an unanticipated exchange between bound and free RPA suggesting a binding mechanism that can confer exceptionally slow off rates, yet also enables rapid displacement through a direct exchange mechanism that is reliant upon the presence of free ssDNA-binding proteins in solution. Our results indicate that RPA undergoes constant microscopic dissociation under all conditions, but this is only manifested as macroscopic dissociation (i.e. exchange) when free proteins are present in solution, and this effect is due to mass action. We propose that the dissociation of RPA from ssDNA involves a partially dissociated intermediate, which exposes a small section of ssDNA allowing other proteins to access to the DNA. PMID:24498402

  13. Conserved Arginines of Bovine Adenovirus-3 33K Protein Are Important for Transportin-3 Mediated Transport and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Azharul; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    The L6 region of bovine adenovirus (BAdV)-3 encodes a spliced protein designated 33K. The 33K specific sera detected five major proteins and three minor proteins in transfected or virus infected cells, which could arise by internal initiation of translation and alternative splicing. The 33K protein is predominantly localized to the nucleus of BAdV-3 infected cells. The 33K nuclear transport utilizes both classical importin-α/-β and importin-β dependent nuclear import pathways and preferentially binds to importin-α5 and transportin-3 receptors, respectively. Analysis of mutant 33K proteins demonstrated that amino acids 201–240 of the conserved C-terminus of 33K containing RS repeat are required for nuclear localization and, binding to both importin-α5 and transportin-3 receptors. Interestingly, the arginine residues of conserved RS repeat are required for binding to transportin-3 receptor but not to importin-α5 receptor. Moreover, mutation of arginines residues of RS repeat proved lethal for production of progeny virus. Our results suggest that arginines of RS repeat are required for efficient nuclear transport of 33K mediated by transportin-3, which appears to be essential for replication and production of infectious virion. PMID:25019945

  14. Two distinct regions of the BPV1 E1 replication protein interact with the activation domain of E2.

    PubMed

    Moscufo, N; Sverdrup, F; Breiding, D E; Androphy, E J

    1999-12-15

    Papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins co-operation in viral DNA replication is mediated by protein-protein interactions that lead to formation of an E1-E2 complex. To identify the domains involved, portions of the two proteins were expressed as fusions to the DNA-binding protein LexA or the transactivation domain of VP16 and analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid system. The C-terminal 266 amino acids of BPV1 E1 (E1C266) interacted strongly with E2 in the yeast system and in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. VP16-E1C266 interacted with a region encompassing amino acids 1-200 of the transactivation domain of E2 that was fused to LexA. The interaction between E1 full length and E2 was clearly observed only when E1 was expressed as LexA-E1 chimera. In addition, we found that in the LexA context also the N-terminal region encompassing the first 340 amino acids of E1 (E1N340) interacted with E2 full length. The interactions of E1N340 and E1C266 with E2 were confirmed also by in vitro binding studies. These observations demonstrate that two distinct regions of E1 mediate the interaction with E2 in vivo. PMID:10581387

  15. New World and Old World Alphaviruses Have Evolved to Exploit Different Components of Stress Granules, FXR and G3BP Proteins, for Assembly of Viral Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dal Young; Reynaud, Josephine M.; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; Akhrymuk, Ivan; Mobley, James A.; Frolov, Ilya; Frolova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA viruses initiate their amplification in the cell from a single genome delivered by virion. This single RNA molecule needs to become involved in replication process before it is recognized and degraded by cellular machinery. In this study, we show that distantly related New World and Old World alphaviruses have independently evolved to utilize different cellular stress granule-related proteins for assembly of complexes, which recruit viral genomic RNA and facilitate formation of viral replication complexes (vRCs). Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) utilizes all members of the Fragile X syndrome (FXR) family, while chikungunya and Sindbis viruses exploit both members of the G3BP family. Despite being in different families, these proteins share common characteristics, which determine their role in alphavirus replication, namely, the abilities for RNA-binding and for self-assembly into large structures. Both FXR and G3BP proteins interact with virus-specific, repeating amino acid sequences located in the C-termini of hypervariable, intrinsically disordered domains (HVDs) of viral nonstructural protein nsP3. We demonstrate that these host factors orchestrate assembly of vRCs and play key roles in RNA and virus replication. Only knockout of all of the homologs results in either pronounced or complete inhibition of replication of different alphaviruses. The use of multiple homologous proteins with redundant functions mediates highly efficient recruitment of viral RNA into the replication process. This independently evolved acquisition of different families of cellular proteins by the disordered protein fragment to support alphavirus replication suggests that other RNA viruses may utilize a similar mechanism of host factor recruitment for vRC assembly. The use of different host factors by alphavirus species may be one of the important determinants of their pathogenesis. PMID:27509095

  16. Activation of budding yeast replication origins and suppression of lethal DNA damage effects on origin function by ectopic expression of the co-chaperone protein Mge1.

    PubMed

    Trabold, Peter A; Weinberger, Martin; Feng, Li; Burhans, William C

    2005-04-01

    Initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes requires the origin recognition complex (ORC) and other proteins that interact with DNA at origins of replication. In budding yeast, the temperature-sensitive orc2-1 mutation alters these interactions in parallel with defects in initiation of DNA replication and in checkpoints that depend on DNA replication forks. Here we show that DNA-damaging drugs modify protein-DNA interactions at budding yeast replication origins in association with lethal effects that are enhanced by the orc2-1 mutation or suppressed by a different mutation in ORC. A dosage suppressor screen identified the budding yeast co-chaperone protein Mge1p as a high copy suppressor of the orc2-1-specific lethal effects of adozelesin, a DNA-alkylating drug. Ectopic expression of Mge1p also suppressed the temperature sensitivity and initiation defect conferred by the orc2-1 mutation. In wild type cells, ectopic expression of Mge1p also suppressed the lethal effects of adozelesin in parallel with the suppression of adozelesin-induced alterations in protein-DNA interactions at origins, stimulation of initiation of DNA replication, and binding of the precursor form of Mge1p to nuclear chromatin. Mge1p is the budding yeast homologue of the Escherichia coli co-chaperone protein GrpE, which stimulates initiation at bacterial origins of replication by promoting interactions of initiator proteins with origin sequences. Our results reveal a novel, proliferation-dependent cytotoxic mechanism for DNA-damaging drugs that involves alterations in the function of initiation proteins and their interactions with DNA. PMID:15647270

  17. Box C/D snoRNA-associated proteins: two pairs of evolutionarily ancient proteins and possible links to replication and transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D R; Kuhn, J F; Shanab, G M; Maxwell, E S

    2000-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleolus contains a diverse population of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) essential for ribosome biogenesis. The box C/D snoRNA family possesses conserved nucleotide boxes C and D that are multifunctional elements required for snoRNA processing, snoRNA transport to the nucleolus, and 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal RNA. We have previously demonstrated that the assembly of an snoRNP complex is essential for processing the intronic box C/D snoRNAs and that specific nuclear proteins associate with the box C/D core motif in vitro. Using a box C/D motif derived from mouse U14 snoRNA, we have now affinity purified and defined four mouse proteins that associate with this minimal RNA substrate. These four proteins consist of two protein pairs: members of each pair are highly related in sequence. One protein pair corresponds to the essential yeast nucleolar proteins Nop56p and Nop58p. Affinity purification of mouse Nop58 confirms observations made in yeast that Nop58 is a core protein of the box C/D snoRNP complex. Isolation of Nop56 using this RNA motif defines an additional snoRNP core protein. The second pair of mouse proteins, designated p50 and p55, are also highly conserved among eukaryotes. Antibody probing of nuclear fractions revealed a predominance of p55 and p50 in the nucleoplasm, suggesting a possible role for the p50/p55 pair in snoRNA production and/or nucleolar transport. The reported interaction of p55 with TATA-binding protein (TBP) and replication A protein as well as the DNA helicase activity of p55 and p50 may suggest the coordination of snoRNA processing and snoRNP assembly with replication and/or transcriptional events in the nucleus. Homologs for both snoRNA-associated protein pairs occur in Archaea, strengthening the hypothesis that the box C/D RNA elements and their interacting proteins are of ancient evolutionary origin. PMID:10864044

  18. Telomere-associated proteins add deoxynucleotides to terminal proteins during replication of the telomeres of linear chromosomes and plasmids in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chien-Chin; Tseng, Shu-Min; Chen, Carton W.

    2015-01-01

    Typical telomeres of linear chromosomes and plasmids of soil bacteria Streptomyces consist of tightly packed palindromic sequences with a terminal protein (‘TP’) covalently attached to the 5′ end of the DNA. Replication of these linear replicons is initiated internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the telomeres, which leaves single-strand overhangs at the 3′ ends. These overhangs are filled by DNA synthesis using the TPs as the primers (‘end patching’). The gene encoding for typical TP, tpg, forms an operon with tap, encoding an essential telomere-associated protein, which binds TP and the secondary structures formed by the 3′ overhangs. Previously one of the two translesion synthesis DNA polymerases, DinB1 or DinB2, was proposed to catalyze the protein-primed synthesis. However, using an in vitro end-patching system, we discovered that Tpg and Tap alone could carry out the protein-primed synthesis to a length of 13 nt. Similarly, an ‘atypical’ terminal protein, Tpc, and its cognate telomere-associated protein, Tac, of SCP1 plasmid, were sufficient to achieve protein-primed synthesis in the absence of additional polymerase. These results indicate that these two telomere-associated proteins possess polymerase activities alone or in complex with the cognate TPs. PMID:25883134

  19. At the crossroads of autophagy and infection: Noncanonical roles for ATG proteins in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Solvik, Tina; Debnath, Jayanta

    2016-08-29

    Autophagy-related (ATG) proteins have increasingly demonstrated functions other than cellular self-eating. In this issue, Mauthe et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201602046) conduct an unbiased RNA interference screen of the ATG proteome to reveal numerous noncanonical roles for ATG proteins during viral infection. PMID:27573461

  20. Baculovirus replication induces the expression of heat shock proteins in vivo and in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent handful of studies have linked baculovirus infection with the induction of heat shock proteins, a highly conserved family of cytoprotective proteins. Here, we demonstrate baculovirus-stimulated upregulation of hsp70 transcription in the natural host, Helicoverpa zea. Larvae lethally infec...

  1. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis. PMID:27240978

  2. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by targeting ribonucleotide reductase M2 protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Xu, Zhijian; Hou, Chuanwei; Wang, Meng; Chen, Xinhuan; Lin, Qinghui; Song, Rui; Lou, Meng; Zhu, Lijun; Qiu, Yunqing; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Chunhao; Zhu, Weiliang; Shao, Jimin

    2016-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a key factor for hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) regulates the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates biosynthesis and serves as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Here, we demonstrate that RR is essential for HBV replication and the viral covalently-closed-circular DNA (cccDNA) synthesis in host liver cells. By performing computer-assisted virtual screening against the crystal structure of RR small subunit M2 (RRM2), osalmid, was identified as a potential RRM2-targeting compound. Osalmid was shown to be 10-fold more active in inhibiting RR activity than hydroxyurea, and significantly inhibited HBV DNA and cccDNA synthesis in HepG2.2.15 cells. In contrast, hydroxyurea and the RR large subunit (RRM1)-inhibitory drug gemcitabine showed little selective activity against HBV replication. In addition, osalmid also was shown to possess potent activity against a 3TC-resistant HBV strain, suggesting utility in treating drug-resistant HBV infections. Interestingly, osalmid showed synergistic effects with lamivudine (3TC) in vitro and in vivo without significant toxicity, and was shown to inhibit RR activity in vivo, thus verifying its in vivo function. Furthermore, 4-cyclopropyl-2-fluoro-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) benzamide (YZ51), a novel derivative of osalmid, showed higher efficacy than osalmid with more potent RR inhibitory activity. These results suggest that RRM2 might be targeted for HBV inhibition, and the RRM2-targeting compound osalmid and its derivative YZ51 could be a novel class of anti-HBV candidates with potential use for hepatitis B and HBV-related HCC treatment. PMID:26774458

  3. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus replicative protein nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding subunit unique in the RNA virus world

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Ferron, François; Campanacci, Valérie; Longhi, Sonia; Rancurel, Corinne; Dutartre, Hélène; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The recently identified etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) belongs to Coronaviridae (CoV), a family of viruses replicating by a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.7-Å resolution of nsp9, a hitherto uncharacterized subunit of the SARS-CoV replicative polyproteins. We show that SARS-CoV nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding protein displaying a previously unreported, oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide fold-like fold. The presence of this type of protein has not been detected in the replicative complexes of RNA viruses, and its presence may reflect the unique and complex CoV viral replication/transcription machinery. PMID:15007178

  4. Human monoclonal ScFv specific to NS1 protein inhibits replication of influenza viruses across types and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Yodsheewan, Rungrueang; Maneewatch, Santi; Srimanote, Potjanee; Thueng-In, Kanyarat; Songserm, Thaweesak; Dong-Din-On, Fonthip; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Sookrung, Nitat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2013-10-01

    Currently, there is a need of new anti-influenza agents that target influenza virus proteins other than ion channel M2 and neuraminidase. Non-structural protein-1 (NS1) is a highly conserved multifunctional protein which is indispensable for the virus replication cycle. In this study, fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) that bound specifically to recombinant and native NS1 were produced from three huscfv-phagemid transformed Escherichia coli clones (nos. 3, 10 and 11) selected from a human ScFv phage display library. Western blot analysis, mimotope searching/epitope identification, homology modeling/molecular docking and phage mimotope ELISA inhibition indicated that HuScFv of clone no. 3 reacted with NS1 R domain important for host innate immunity suppression; HuScFv of clone nos. 10 and 11 bound to E domain sites necessary for NS1 binding to the host eIF4GI and CPSF30, respectively. The HuScFv of all clones could enter the influenza virus infected cells and interfered with the NS1 activities leading to replication inhibition of viruses belonging to various heterologous A subtypes and type B by 2-64-fold as semi-quantified by hemagglutination assay. Influenza virus infected cells treated with representative HuScFv (clone 10) had up-expression of IRF3 and IFN-β genes by 14.75 and 4.95-fold, respectively, in comparison with the controls, indicating that the antibodies could restore the host innate immune response. The fully human single chain antibodies have high potential for developing further as a safe (adjunctive) therapeutic agent for mitigating, if not abrogating, severe symptoms of influenza. PMID:23928258

  5. Viral DNA tethering domains complement replication-defective mutations in the p12 protein of MuLV Gag.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William M; Brzezinski, Jonathon D; Aiyer, Sriram; Malani, Nirav; Gyuricza, Mercedes; Bushman, Frederic D; Roth, Monica J

    2013-06-01

    The p12 protein of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) group-specific antigen (Gag) is associated with the preintegration complex, and mutants of p12 (PM14) show defects in nuclear entry or retention. Here we show that p12 proteins engineered to encode peptide sequences derived from known viral tethering proteins can direct chromatin binding during the early phase of viral replication and rescue a lethal p12-PM14 mutant. Peptides studied included segments of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)(1-23), human papillomavirus 8 E2, and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences. Amino acid substitutions in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences that blocked nucleosome association failed to rescue MuLV p12-PM14. Rescue by a larger LANA peptide, LANA(1-32), required second-site mutations that are predicted to reduce peptide binding affinity to chromosomes, suggesting that excessively high binding affinity interfered with Gag/p12 function. This is supported by confocal microscopy of chimeric p12-GFP fusion constructs showing the reverted proteins had weaker association to condensed mitotic chromosomes. Analysis of the integration-site selection of these chimeric viruses showed no significant change in integration profile compared with wild-type MuLV, suggesting release of the tethered p12 post mitosis, before viral integration. PMID:23661057

  6. Bortezomib-induced unfolded protein response increases oncolytic HSV-1 replication resulting in synergistic, anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Hurwitz, Brian S; Bolyard, Chelsea; Yu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Jianying; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Rath, Kellie S; He, Shun; Bailey, Zachary; Eaves, David; Cripe, Timothy P; Parris, Deborah S.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Yu, Jianhua; Old, Matthew; Kaur, Balveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Bortezomib is an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. We tested the impact of combining bortezomib with oHSV for anti-tumor efficacy. Methods The synergistic interaction between oHSV and bortezomib was calculated using Chou-Talalay analysis. Viral replication was evaluated using plaque assay and immune fluorescence. Western-blot assays were used to evaluate induction of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Inhibitors targeting Hsp90 were utilized to investigate the mechanism of cell killing. Anti-tumor efficacy in vivo was evaluated using subcutaneous and intracranial tumor xenografts of glioma and head and neck cancer. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and two-sided log rank test. Results Combination treatment with bortezomib and oHSV, 34.5ENVE, displayed strong synergistic interaction in ovarian cancer, head & neck cancer, glioma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells. Bortezomib treatment induced ER stress, evident by strong induction of Grp78, CHOP, PERK and IRE1α (western blot analysis) and the UPR (induction of hsp40, 70 and 90). Bortezomib treatment of cells at both sublethal and lethal doses increased viral replication (p value <0.001), but inhibition of Hsp90 ablated this response, reducing viral replication and synergistic cell killing. The combination of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in multiple different tumor models in vivo. Conclusions The dramatic synergy of bortezomib and 34.5ENVE is mediated by bortezomib- induced UPR and warrants future clinical testing in patients. PMID:24815720

  7. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein

    PubMed Central

    van der Schaar, H. M.; Melia, C. E.; van Bruggen, J. A. C.; Strating, J. R. P. M.; van Geenen, M. E. D.; Koster, A. J.; Bárcena, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition

  8. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein.

    PubMed

    van der Schaar, H M; Melia, C E; van Bruggen, J A C; Strating, J R P M; van Geenen, M E D; Koster, A J; Bárcena, M; van Kuppeveld, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition specialized for

  9. Initiation of polyoma virus DNA replication in vitro and its dependence on the viral gene A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Clertant, P; Cuzin, F

    1980-01-01

    Initiation of polyoma virus DNA replication is dependent on the activity of the early protein affected by the tsa mutations (large-T antigen). An in vitro DNA synthesizing system blocked at the initiation stage was designed by preparing nuclei from cells shifted to high temperature after infection with a polyoma tsa mutant. Addition to these nuclei of extracts from wild type virus-infected cells resulted in a limited, but reproducible stimulation of deoxynucleoside monophosphate incorporation. At least for a significant part, this stimulation was shown to correspond to an increased synthesis of molecules identified as polyoma replicative intermediates by their sedimentation coefficient and endonuclease Hpa II cleavage pattern. The non-random distribution of label observed among restriction fragments was that expected from an initiation event occuring at the physiological origin. This activity was reduced to background level in extracts from tsa-infected cells shifted to high temperature and was specifically inhibited by addition of Fab fragments from anti-polyoma virus T antigen immunoglobulins. Images PMID:6253915

  10. Systematic mutagenesis of genes encoding predicted autotransported proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei identifies factors mediating virulence in mice, net intracellular replication and a novel protein conferring serum resistance.

    PubMed

    Lazar Adler, Natalie R; Stevens, Mark P; Dean, Rachel E; Saint, Richard J; Pankhania, Depesh; Prior, Joann L; Atkins, Timothy P; Kessler, Bianca; Nithichanon, Arnone; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Galyov, Edouard E

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v) normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA). Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE). A single mutant (bpaC) was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA), those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE), the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA). Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors and were

  11. Systematic Mutagenesis of Genes Encoding Predicted Autotransported Proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identifies Factors Mediating Virulence in Mice, Net Intracellular Replication and a Novel Protein Conferring Serum Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Natalie R. Lazar; Stevens, Mark P.; Dean, Rachel E.; Saint, Richard J.; Pankhania, Depesh; Prior, Joann L.; Atkins, Timothy P.; Kessler, Bianca; Nithichanon, Arnone; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Galyov, Edouard E.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v) normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA). Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE). A single mutant (bpaC) was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA), those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE), the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA). Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors and were

  12. Novel Function of the Fanconi Anemia Group J or RECQ1 Helicase to Disrupt Protein-DNA Complexes in a Replication Protein A-stimulated Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Joshua A.; Banerjee, Taraswi; Hinds, Twila; Wan, Bingbing; Wold, Marc S.; Lei, Ming; Brosh, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how cellular machinery deals with chromosomal genome complexity is an important question because protein bound to DNA may affect various cellular processes of nucleic acid metabolism. DNA helicases are at the forefront of such processes, yet there is only limited knowledge how they remodel protein-DNA complexes and how these mechanisms are regulated. We have determined that representative human RecQ and Fe-S cluster DNA helicases are potently blocked by a protein-DNA interaction. The Fanconi anemia group J (FANCJ) helicase partners with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein replication protein A (RPA) to displace BamHI-E111A bound to duplex DNA in a specific manner. Protein displacement was dependent on the ATPase-driven function of the helicase and unique properties of RPA. Further biochemical studies demonstrated that the shelterin proteins TRF1 and TRF2, which preferentially bind the telomeric repeat found at chromosome ends, effectively block FANCJ from unwinding the forked duplex telomeric substrate. RPA, but not the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein or shelterin factor Pot1, stimulated FANCJ ejection of TRF1 from the telomeric DNA substrate. FANCJ was also able to displace TRF2 from the telomeric substrate in an RPA-dependent manner. The stimulation of helicase-catalyzed protein displacement is also observed with the DNA helicase RECQ1, suggesting a conserved functional interaction of RPA-interacting helicases. These findings suggest that partnerships between RPA and interacting human DNA helicases may greatly enhance their ability to dislodge proteins bound to duplex DNA, an activity that is likely to be highly relevant to their biological roles in DNA metabolism. PMID:24895130

  13. Cellular Protein WDR11 Interacts with Specific Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins at the trans-Golgi Network To Promote Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryne E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has recently been proposed that the herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein ICP0 has cytoplasmic roles in blocking antiviral signaling and in promoting viral replication in addition to its well-known proteasome-dependent functions in the nucleus. However, the mechanisms through which it produces these effects remain unclear. While investigating this further, we identified a novel cytoplasmic interaction between ICP0 and the poorly characterized cellular protein WDR11. During an HSV infection, WDR11 undergoes a dramatic change in localization at late times in the viral replication cycle, moving from defined perinuclear structures to a dispersed cytoplasmic distribution. While this relocation was not observed during infection with viruses other than HSV-1 and correlated with efficient HSV-1 replication, the redistribution was found to occur independently of ICP0 expression, instead requiring viral late gene expression. We demonstrate for the first time that WDR11 is localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where it interacts specifically with some, but not all, HSV virion components, in addition to ICP0. Knockdown of WDR11 in cultured human cells resulted in a modest but consistent decrease in yields of both wild-type and ICP0-null viruses, in the supernatant and cell-associated fractions, without affecting viral gene expression. Although further study is required, we propose that WDR11 participates in viral assembly and/or secondary envelopment. IMPORTANCE While the TGN has been proposed to be the major site of HSV-1 secondary envelopment, this process is incompletely understood, and in particular, the role of cellular TGN components in this pathway is unknown. Additionally, little is known about the cellular functions of WDR11, although the disruption of this protein has been implicated in multiple human diseases. Therefore, our finding that WDR11 is a TGN-resident protein that interacts with specific viral proteins to enhance viral yields improves both

  14. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication Depends on Specific Cis- and Trans-Acting Activities of Viral Nonstructural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazakov, Teymur; Yang, Feng; Ramanathan, Harish N.; Kohlway, Andrew; Diamond, Michael S.; Lindenbach, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Many positive-strand RNA viruses encode genes that can function in trans, whereas other genes are required in cis for genome replication. The mechanisms underlying trans- and cis-preferences are not fully understood. Here, we evaluate this concept for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important cause of chronic liver disease and member of the Flaviviridae family. HCV encodes five nonstructural (NS) genes that are required for RNA replication. To date, only two of these genes, NS4B and NS5A, have been trans-complemented, leading to suggestions that other replicase genes work only in cis. We describe a new quantitative system to measure the cis- and trans-requirements for HCV NS gene function in RNA replication and identify several lethal mutations in the NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B genes that can be complemented in trans, alone or in combination, by expressing the NS3–5B polyprotein from a synthetic mRNA. Although NS5B RNA binding and polymerase activities can be supplied in trans, NS5B protein expression was required in cis, indicating that NS5B has a cis-acting role in replicase assembly distinct from its known enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the RNA binding and NTPase activities of the NS3 helicase domain were required in cis, suggesting that these activities play an essential role in RNA template selection. A comprehensive complementation group analysis revealed functional linkages between NS3-4A and NS4B and between NS5B and the upstream NS3–5A genes. Finally, NS5B polymerase activity segregated with a daclatasvir-sensitive NS5A activity, which could explain the synergy of this antiviral compound with nucleoside analogs in patients. Together, these studies define several new aspects of HCV replicase structure-function, help to explain the potency of HCV-specific combination therapies, and provide an experimental framework for the study of cis- and trans-acting activities in positive-strand RNA virus replication more generally. PMID:25875808

  15. Swine Interferon-Inducible Transmembrane Proteins Potently Inhibit Influenza A Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Caroline; Yángüez, Emilio; Andenmatten, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Human interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) were identified as restriction factors of influenza A virus (IAV). Given the important role of pigs in the zoonotic cycle of IAV, we cloned swine IFITMs (swIFITMs) and found two IFITM1-like proteins, one homologue of IFITM2, and a homologue of IFITM3. We show that swIFITM2 and swIFITM3 localize to endosomes and display potent antiviral activities. Knockdown of swIFITMs strongly reduced virus inhibition by interferon, establishing the swIFITMs as potent restriction factors in porcine cells. PMID:25320322

  16. A plant virus replication system to assay the formation of RNA pseudotriloop motifs in RNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, P C Joost; Bol, John F; Olsthoorn, René C L

    2003-10-28

    A pseudotriloop is formed by transloop base pairing between the first (5') and the fifth nucleotide in a hexanucleotide RNA loop ("hexaloop") to subtend a triloop of nucleotides 2-4. This structure has been found in hairpins involved in the regulation of iron metabolism in mammalian cells and in transcription of plant virus subgenomic RNA. Several hexaloop hairpins, including HIV-transactivation-responsive element and hepatitis B virus , potentially adopt a pseudotriloop conformation. Here we show that an RNA plant virus whose replication depends on a conventional triloop hairpin can be used to verify the existence of pseudotriloop structures in vivo. Our data suggest that the pseudotriloop may represent a common motif in RNA-protein recognition. PMID:14569004

  17. p53-Derived Host Restriction of HIV-1 Replication by Protein Kinase R-Mediated Tat Phosphorylation and Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Byeon, Se Eun; Jeong, Yideul; Lee, Jinjoo; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jinseu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor suppressor p53 has been suggested to be a host restriction factor against HIV-1 replication, but the detailed molecular mechanism has remained elusive for decades. Here, we demonstrate that p53-mediated HIV-1 suppression is attributed to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-mediated HIV-1 trans-activator (Tat) phosphorylation and inactivation. p53 silencing significantly enhanced HIV-1 replication in infected cells. Ectopic expression of p53 suppressed Tat activity, which was rescued by PKR silencing. In addition, ectopic expression of PKR abolished Tat activity in p53−/− and eIF2αCA cells. Finally, we found that HIV-1 infection activates p53, followed by the induction and activation of PKR. PKR directly interacted with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription in three critical steps: (i) phosphorylation near the arginine-rich motif (ARM) inhibits Tat translocation into the nucleus, (ii) accumulation of Tat phosphorylation abolishes Tat–Tat-responsive region (TAR) binding, and (iii) Tat phosphorylation at T23 and/or T40 obliterates the Tat-cyclin T1 interaction. These five Ser/Thr sites on Tat were highly conserved in HIV-1 strains prevalent in Europe and the United States. Taken together, our findings indicate that p53-derived host restriction of HIV-1 replication is likely attributable, at least in part, to a noncanonical p53/PKR/Tat phosphorylation and inactivation pathway in HIV-1 infection and AIDS pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE HIV-1-mediated disease progression to AIDS lasts for years to decades after primary infection. Host restriction and associated viral latency have been studied for several decades. p53 has been suggested as an important host restriction factor against HIV-1 replication. However, the detailed molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we found that the p53

  18. Dynamic spatial organization of multi-protein complexes controlling microbial polar organization, chromosome replication, and cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, Harley; Shapiro, Lucille; Horowitz, Mark; Andersen, Gary; Downing, Kenneth; Earnest, Thomas; Ellisman, Mark; Gitai, Zemer; Larabell, Carolyn; Viollier, Patrick

    2012-06-18

    This project was a program to develop high-throughput methods to identify and characterize spatially localized multiprotein complexes in bacterial cells. We applied a multidisciplinary systems engineering approach to the detailed characterization of localized multi-protein structures in vivo a problem that has previously been approached on a fragmented, piecemeal basis.

  19. Quaternary Structure of Pathological Prion Protein as a Determining Factor of Strain-Specific Prion Replication Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Jaumain, Emilie; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. They are essentially composed of PrPSc, an aggregated, misfolded conformer of the ubiquitously expressed host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Stable variations in PrPSc conformation are assumed to encode the phenotypically tangible prion strains diversity. However the direct contribution of PrPSc quaternary structure to the strain biological information remains mostly unknown. Applying a sedimentation velocity fractionation technique to a panel of ovine prion strains, classified as fast and slow according to their incubation time in ovine PrP transgenic mice, has previously led to the observation that the relationship between prion infectivity and PrPSc quaternary structure was not univocal. For the fast strains specifically, infectivity sedimented slowly and segregated from the bulk of proteinase-K resistant PrPSc. To carefully separate the respective contributions of size and density to this hydrodynamic behavior, we performed sedimentation at the equilibrium and varied the solubilization conditions. The density profile of prion infectivity and proteinase-K resistant PrPSc tended to overlap whatever the strain, fast or slow, leaving only size as the main responsible factor for the specific velocity properties of the fast strain most infectious component. We further show that this velocity-isolable population of discrete assemblies perfectly resists limited proteolysis and that its templating activity, as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification outcompetes by several orders of magnitude that of the bulk of larger size PrPSc aggregates. Together, the tight correlation between small size, conversion efficiency and duration of disease establishes PrPSc quaternary structure as a determining factor of prion replication dynamics. For certain strains, a subset of PrP assemblies appears to be the best template for prion replication. This has

  20. Opposing role of condensin hinge against replication protein A in mitosis and interphase through promoting DNA annealing

    PubMed Central

    Akai, Yuko; Kurokawa, Yumiko; Nakazawa, Norihiko; Tonami-Murakami, Yuko; Suzuki, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shige H.; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shiroiwa, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Shibata, Eri; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Condensin is required for chromosome dynamics and diverse DNA metabolism. How condensin works, however, is not well understood. Condensin contains two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits with the terminal globular domains connected to coiled-coil that is interrupted by the central hinge. Heterotrimeric non-SMC subunits regulate SMC. We identified a novel fission yeast SMC hinge mutant, cut14-Y1, which displayed defects in DNA damage repair and chromosome segregation. It contains an amino acid substitution at a conserved hinge residue of Cut14/SMC2, resulting in diminished DNA binding and annealing. A replication protein A mutant, ssb1-418, greatly alleviated the repair and mitotic defects of cut14-Y1. Ssb1 protein formed nucleolar foci in cut14-Y1 cells, but the number of foci was diminished in cut14-Y1 ssb1-418 double mutants. Consistent with the above results, Ssb1 protein bound to single-strand DNA was removed by condensin or the SMC dimer through DNA reannealing in vitro. Similarly, RNA hybridized to DNA may be removed by the SMC dimer. Thus, condensin may wind up DNA strands to unload chromosomal components after DNA repair and prior to mitosis. We show that 16 suppressor mutations of cut14-Y1 were all mapped within the hinge domain, which surrounded the original L543 mutation site. PMID:22645654

  1. Efficient replication of a paramyxovirus independent of full zippering of the fusion protein six-helix bundle domain

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Melinda A.; Plattet, Philippe; Plemper, Richard Karl

    2014-01-01

    Enveloped viruses such as HIV and members of the paramyxovirus family use metastable, proteinaceous fusion machineries to merge the viral envelope with cellular membranes for infection. A hallmark of the fusogenic glycoproteins of these pathogens is refolding into a thermodynamically highly stable fusion core structure composed of six antiparallel α-helices, and this structure is considered instrumental for pore opening and/or enlargement. Using a paramyxovirus fusion (F) protein, we tested this paradigm by engineering covalently restricted F proteins that are predicted to be unable to close the six-helix bundle core structure fully. Several candidate bonds formed efficiently, resulting in F trimers and higher-order complexes containing covalently linked dimers. The engineered F complexes were incorporated into recombinant virions efficiently and were capable of refolding into a postfusion conformation without temporary or permanent disruption of the disulfide bonds. They efficiently formed fusion pores based on virus replication and quantitative cell-to-cell and virus-to-cell fusion assays. Complementation of these F mutants with a monomeric, fusion-inactive F variant enriched the F oligomers for heterotrimers containing a single disulfide bond, without affecting fusion complementation profiles compared with standard F protein. Our demonstration that complete closure of the fusion core does not drive paramyxovirus entry may aid the design of strategies for inhibiting virus entry. PMID:25157143

  2. Surface hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by the outer membrane protein Rv0888 supports replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Speer, Alexander; Sun, Jim; Danilchanka, Olga; Meikle, Virginia; Rowland, Jennifer L; Walter, Kerstin; Buck, Bradford R; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Hölscher, Christoph; Ehrt, Sabine; Niederweis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sphingomyelinases secreted by pathogenic bacteria play important roles in host-pathogen interactions ranging from interfering with phagocytosis and oxidative burst to iron acquisition. This study shows that the Mtb protein Rv0888 possesses potent sphingomyelinase activity cleaving sphingomyelin, a major lipid in eukaryotic cells, into ceramide and phosphocholine, which are then utilized by Mtb as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources, respectively. An Mtb rv0888 deletion mutant did not grow on sphingomyelin as a sole carbon source anymore and replicated poorly in macrophages indicating that Mtb utilizes sphingomyelin during infection. Rv0888 is an unusual membrane protein with a surface-exposed C-terminal sphingomyelinase domain and a putative N-terminal channel domain that mediated glucose and phosphocholine uptake across the outer membrane in an M. smegmatis porin mutant. Hence, we propose to name Rv0888 as SpmT (sphingomyelinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Erythrocyte membranes contain up to 27% sphingomyelin. The finding that Rv0888 accounts for half of Mtb's hemolytic activity is consistent with its sphingomyelinase activity and the observation that Rv0888 levels are increased in the presence of erythrocytes and sphingomyelin by 5- and 100-fold, respectively. Thus, Rv0888 is a novel outer membrane protein that enables Mtb to utilize sphingomyelin as a source of several essential nutrients during intracellular growth. PMID:26036301

  3. Screening of a Library of FDA-Approved Drugs Identifies Several Enterovirus Replication Inhibitors That Target Viral Protein 2C.

    PubMed

    Ulferts, Rachel; de Boer, S Matthijn; van der Linden, Lonneke; Bauer, Lisa; Lyoo, Hey Rhyoung; Maté, Maria J; Lichière, Julie; Canard, Bruno; Lelieveld, Daphne; Omta, Wienand; Egan, David; Coutard, Bruno; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-05-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) represent many important pathogens of humans. Unfortunately, no antiviral compounds currently exist to treat infections with these viruses. We screened the Prestwick Chemical Library, a library of approved drugs, for inhibitors of coxsackievirus B3, identified pirlindole as a potent novel inhibitor, and confirmed the inhibitory action of dibucaine, zuclopenthixol, fluoxetine, and formoterol. Upon testing of viruses of several EV species, we found that dibucaine and pirlindole inhibited EV-B and EV-D and that dibucaine also inhibited EV-A, but none of them inhibited EV-C or rhinoviruses (RVs). In contrast, formoterol inhibited all enteroviruses and rhinoviruses tested. All compounds acted through the inhibition of genome replication. Mutations in the coding sequence of the coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) 2C protein conferred resistance to dibucaine, pirlindole, and zuclopenthixol but not formoterol, suggesting that 2C is the target for this set of compounds. Importantly, dibucaine bound to CV-B3 protein 2C in vitro, whereas binding to a 2C protein carrying the resistance mutations was reduced, providing an explanation for how resistance is acquired. PMID:26856848

  4. Screening of a Library of FDA-Approved Drugs Identifies Several Enterovirus Replication Inhibitors That Target Viral Protein 2C

    PubMed Central

    Ulferts, Rachel; de Boer, S. Matthijn; van der Linden, Lonneke; Bauer, Lisa; Lyoo, Hey Rhyoung; Maté, Maria J.; Lichière, Julie; Canard, Bruno; Lelieveld, Daphne; Omta, Wienand; Egan, David; Coutard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) represent many important pathogens of humans. Unfortunately, no antiviral compounds currently exist to treat infections with these viruses. We screened the Prestwick Chemical Library, a library of approved drugs, for inhibitors of coxsackievirus B3, identified pirlindole as a potent novel inhibitor, and confirmed the inhibitory action of dibucaine, zuclopenthixol, fluoxetine, and formoterol. Upon testing of viruses of several EV species, we found that dibucaine and pirlindole inhibited EV-B and EV-D and that dibucaine also inhibited EV-A, but none of them inhibited EV-C or rhinoviruses (RVs). In contrast, formoterol inhibited all enteroviruses and rhinoviruses tested. All compounds acted through the inhibition of genome replication. Mutations in the coding sequence of the coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) 2C protein conferred resistance to dibucaine, pirlindole, and zuclopenthixol but not formoterol, suggesting that 2C is the target for this set of compounds. Importantly, dibucaine bound to CV-B3 protein 2C in vitro, whereas binding to a 2C protein carrying the resistance mutations was reduced, providing an explanation for how resistance is acquired. PMID:26856848

  5. Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Hodgins, Douglas; Calvert, Jay G.; Welch, Siao-Kun W.; Jolie, Rika; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a

  6. Investigations of π Initiator Protein-mediated Interaction between Replication Origins α and γ of the Plasmid R6K*

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Mukesh; Singh, Samarendra; Zzaman, Shamsu; Bastia, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    A typical plasmid replicon of Escherichia coli, such as ori γ of R6K, contains tandem iterons (iterated initiator protein binding sites), an AT-rich region that melts upon initiator-iteron interaction, two binding sites for the bacterial initiator protein DnaA, and a binding site for the DNA-bending protein IHF. R6K also contains two structurally atypical origins called α and β that are located on either side of γ and contain a single and a half-iteron, respectively. Individually, these sites do not bind to initiator protein π but access it by DNA looping-mediated interaction with the seven π-bound γ iterons. The π protein exists in 2 interconvertible forms: inert dimers and active monomers. Initiator dimers generally function as negative regulators of replication by promoting iteron pairing (“handcuffing”) between pairs of replicons that turn off both origins. Contrary to this existing paradigm, here we show that both the dimeric and the monomeric π are necessary for ori α-driven plasmid maintenance. Furthermore, efficient looping interaction between α and γ or between 2 γ iterons in vitro also required both forms of π. Why does α-γ iteron pairing promote α activation rather than repression? We show that a weak, transitory α-γ interaction at the iteron pairs was essential for α-driven plasmid maintenance. Swapping the α iteron with one of γ without changing the original sequence context that caused enhanced looping in vitro caused a significant inhibition of α-mediated plasmid maintenance. Therefore, the affinity of α iteron for π-bound γ and not the sequence context determined whether the origin was activated or repressed. PMID:20029091

  7. Mutations in the fusion protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 confer increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro but not increased replication and pathogenicity in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. The F cleavage site sequence of APMV-4 (DIQPR↓F) contains a single basic amino acid, at the -1 position. Six mutant APMV-4 viruses were recovered in which the F protein cleavage site was mutated to contain increased numbers of basic amino acids or to mimic the naturally occurring cleavage sites of several paramyxoviruses, including neurovirulent and avirulent strains of NDV. The presence of a glutamine residue at the -3 position was found to be important for mutant virus recovery. In addition, cleavage sites containing the furin protease motif conferred increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro. However, analysis of viral pathogenicity in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and 3-week-old ducks showed that none the F protein cleavage site mutations altered the replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of APMV-4, and no significant differences were observed among the parental and mutant APMV-4 viruses in vivo. Although parental and mutant viruses replicated somewhat better in ducks than in chickens, they all were highly restricted and avirulent in both species. These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks. PMID:23341874

  8. Mutations in the Fusion Protein Cleavage Site of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 4 Confer Increased Replication and Syncytium Formation In Vitro but Not Increased Replication and Pathogenicity in Chickens and Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. The F cleavage site sequence of APMV-4 (DIQPR↓F) contains a single basic amino acid, at the -1 position. Six mutant APMV-4 viruses were recovered in which the F protein cleavage site was mutated to contain increased numbers of basic amino acids or to mimic the naturally occurring cleavage sites of several paramyxoviruses, including neurovirulent and avirulent strains of NDV. The presence of a glutamine residue at the -3 position was found to be important for mutant virus recovery. In addition, cleavage sites containing the furin protease motif conferred increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro. However, analysis of viral pathogenicity in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and 3-week-old ducks showed that none the F protein cleavage site mutations altered the replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of APMV-4, and no significant differences were observed among the parental and mutant APMV-4 viruses in vivo. Although parental and mutant viruses replicated somewhat better in ducks than in chickens, they all were highly restricted and avirulent in both species. These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks. PMID:23341874

  9. The Hop-Like Stress-Induced Protein 1 Cochaperone Is a Novel Cell-Intrinsic Restriction Factor for Mitochondrial Tombusvirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Lin, Jing-Yi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent genome-wide screens reveal that the host cells express an arsenal of proteins that inhibit replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses by functioning as cell-intrinsic restriction factors of viral infections. One group of cell-intrinsic restriction factors against tombusviruses contains tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains that directly interact with the viral replication proteins. In this paper, we find that the TPR domain-containing Hop-like stress-inducible protein 1 (Sti1p) cochaperone selectively inhibits the mitochondrial membrane-based replication of Carnation Italian ringspot tombusvirus (CIRV). In contrast, Sti1/Hop does not inhibit the peroxisome membrane-based replication of the closely related Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) or Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) in a yeast model or in plants. Deletion of STI1 in yeast leads to up to a 4-fold increase in CIRV replication, and knockdown of the orthologous Hop cochaperone in plants results in a 3-fold increase in CIRV accumulation. Overexpression of Sti1p derivatives in yeast reveals that the inhibitory function depends on the TPR1 domain known to interact with heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), but not on the TPR2 domain interacting with Hsp90. In vitro CIRV replication studies based on isolated mitochondrial preparations and purified recombinant proteins has confirmed that Sti1p, similar to the TPR-containing Cyp40-like Cpr7p cyclophilin and the Ttc4 oncogene-like Cns1 cochaperone, is a strong inhibitor of CIRV replication. Sti1p interacts and colocalizes with the CIRV replication proteins in yeast. Our findings indicate that the TPR-containing Hop/Sti1 cochaperone could act as a cell-intrinsic virus restriction factor of the mitochondrial CIRV, but not against the peroxisomal tombusviruses in yeast and plants. IMPORTANCE The host cells express various cell-intrinsic restriction factors that inhibit the replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. In this paper, the authors find that the Hop

  10. Epigenetically regulated miR-449a enhances hepatitis B virus replication by targeting cAMP-responsive element binding protein 5 and modulating hepatocytes phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhanglian; Deng, Wangyu; Wu, Chunchen; Qin, Bo; Hou, Jinlin; Lu, Mengji

    2016-01-01

    Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to influence hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication directly by binding to HBV transcripts or indirectly by targeting cellular factors. Here, we investigate the effect of epigenetically regulated miR-449a on HBV replication and the underlying mechanisms. miR-449a expression was lower in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells than in primary hepatocytes and could be induced by trichostatin A. Ectopic miR-449a expression in HCC cells strongly enhanced HBV replication, transcription, progeny virions secretion, and antigen expression in a dose-dependent manner. miR-449a directly targeted cAMP-responsive element binding protein 5 (CREB5), which in turn induced the expression of farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα), a transcription factor that facilitates HBV replication. CREB5 knockdown and overexpression demonstrated that it is a negative regulator of HBV replication. Additionally, miR-449a overexpression inhibited proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest, and promoted HCC cell differentiation. The results indicated that epigenetically regulated miR-449a targets CREB5 to increase FXRα expression, thereby promoting HBV replication and gene expression. Our findings provide a new understanding of the role of miRNAs in HBV replication. PMID:27138288

  11. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-02-12

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced "conquer and compromise" strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  12. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced “conquer and compromise” strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  13. Interaction between HP1{alpha} and replication proteins in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Auth, Tanja . E-mail: tauth@uni-bonn.de; Kunkel, Elisabeth; Grummt, Friedrich . E-mail: grummt@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    HP1 is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein known to play an important role in the organization of heterochromatin as well as in the transcriptional regulation of heterochromatic and euchromatic genes both in repression and activation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation, we report here that murine HP1{alpha} interacts with the preRC proteins ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6. Immunofluorescence staining and EGFP/DsRed fusion proteins revealed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6 in heterochromatin, supporting the notion that ORC and probably CDC6 play an important role in murine HP1{alpha} function. Besides that, we also observed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with {gamma}-tubulin suggesting a centrosomal localization of HP1{alpha} in murine cells. To gain insight into HP1{alpha} function, we applied the RNAi technique. Depletion of HP1{alpha} leads to a slow down of cell proliferation, an aberrant cell cycle progression as well as to multinucleated cells with insufficiently organized microtubule. These results together indicate that HP1{alpha} exerts functions in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  14. The RdgC protein of Escherichia coli binds DNA and counters a toxic effect of RecFOR in strains lacking the replication restart protein PriA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Timothy; McGlynn, Peter; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Sharples, Gary J.; Lloyd, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    PriA protein provides a means to load the DnaB replicative helicase at DNA replication fork and D loop structures, and is therefore a key factor in the rescue of stalled or broken forks and subsequent replication restart. We show that the nucleoid-associated RdgC protein binds non-specifically to single-stranded (ss) DNA and double-stranded DNA. It is also essential for growth of a strain lacking PriA, indicating that it might affect replication fork progression or fork rescue. dnaC suppressors of priA overcome this inviability, especially when RecF, RecO or RecR is inactivated, indicating that RdgC avoids or counters a toxic effect of these proteins. Mutations modifying ssDNA-binding (SSB) protein also negate this toxic effect, suggesting that the toxicity reflects inappropriate loading of RecA on SSB-coated ssDNA, leading to excessive or untimely RecA activity. We suggest that binding of RdgC to DNA limits RecA loading, avoiding problems at replication forks that would otherwise require PriA to promote replication restart. Mutations in RNA polymerase also reduce the toxic effect of RecFOR, providing a further link between DNA replication, transcription and repair. PMID:12554673

  15. PROTEOLYTIC REMOVAL OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF THE T4 GENE 32 HELIX-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN ALTERS THE T4 IN VITRO REPLICATION COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.L.; Alberts, B.M.; Hosoda, J.

    1980-07-01

    The proteolytic removal of about 60 amino acids from the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 helix-destabilizing protein (gene 32 protein) produces 32*I, a 27,000-dalton fragment which still binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA. The substitution of 32*I protein for intact 32 protein in the seven-protein T4 replication complex results in dramatic changes in some of the reactions catalyzed by this in vitro DNA replication system, while leaving others largely unperturbed. (1) Like intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein promotes DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase when the T4 polymerase accessory proteins (gene 44/62 and 45 proteins) are also present. The host helix-destabilizing protein (Escherichia coli ssb protein) cannot replace the 32*I protein for this synthesis. (2) Unlike intact 32 protein, 32*I protein strongly inhibits DNA synthesis catalyzed by the T4 DNA polymerase alone on a primed single-stranded DNA template. (3) Unlike intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein strongly inhibits RNA primer synthesis catalyzed by the T4 gene 41 and 61 proteins and also reduces the efficiency of RNA primer utilization. As a result, de novo DNA chain starts are blocked completely in the complete T4 replication system, and no lagging strand DNA synthesis occurs. (4) The 32*I protein does not bind to either the T4 DNA polymerase or to the T4 gene 61 protein in the absence of DNA; these associations (detected with intact 32 protein) would therefore appear to be essential for the normal control of 32 protein activity, and to account at least in part for observations 2 and 3, above. We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of intact 32 protein functions to guide its interactions with the T4 DNA polymerase and the T4 gene 61 RNA-priming protein. When this domain is removed, as in 32*I protein, the helix destabilization induced by the protein is controlled inadequately, so that polymerizing enzymes tend to be displaced from the growing 3{prime}-OH end of a

  16. The transient nature of Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression: effects of increased stability of NSs protein on virus replication.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Ingeborg; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Elliott, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    The NSs proteins of bunyaviruses are the viral interferon antagonists, counteracting the host's antiviral response to infection. During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. Through the use of inhibitors this was shown to be the result of proteasomal degradation. A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. However, despite repeated attempts, no direct ubiquitylation of NSs in infected cells could be demonstrated. This suggests that degradation of NSs, although lysine-dependent, may be achieved through an indirect mechanism. Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth advantage over wtBUNV in interferon-competent cells, presumably due to the increased and prolonged presence of NSs. In cultured mosquito cells there was no difference in growth between wild-type BUNV and rBUN4KR, but surprisingly NSs4KR was not stabilised compared to the wild-type NSs protein. PMID:23667701

  17. The Transient Nature of Bunyamwera Orthobunyavirus NSs Protein Expression: Effects of Increased Stability of NSs Protein on Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    van Knippenberg, Ingeborg; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Elliott, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    The NSs proteins of bunyaviruses are the viral interferon antagonists, counteracting the host's antiviral response to infection. During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. Through the use of inhibitors this was shown to be the result of proteasomal degradation. A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. However, despite repeated attempts, no direct ubiquitylation of NSs in infected cells could be demonstrated. This suggests that degradation of NSs, although lysine-dependent, may be achieved through an indirect mechanism. Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth advantage over wtBUNV in interferon-competent cells, presumably due to the increased and prolonged presence of NSs. In cultured mosquito cells there was no difference in growth between wild-type BUNV and rBUN4KR, but surprisingly NSs4KR was not stabilised compared to the wild-type NSs protein. PMID:23667701

  18. Telomere replication: poised but puzzling

    PubMed Central

    Sampathi, Shilpa; Chai, Weihang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Faithful replication of chromosomes is essential for maintaining genome stability. Telomeres, the chromosomal termini, pose quite a challenge to replication machinery due to the complexity in their structures and sequences. Efficient and complete replication of chromosomes is critical to prevent aberrant telomeres as well as to avoid unnecessary loss of telomere DNA. Compelling evidence supports the emerging picture of synergistic actions between DNA replication proteins and telomere protective components in telomere synthesis. This review discusses the actions of various replication and telomere-specific binding proteins that ensure accurate telomere replication and their roles in telomere maintenance and protection. PMID:21122064

  19. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: Evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Saribas, A. Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K.; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. PMID:24418532

  20. The HMG protein T160 colocalizes with DNA replication foci and is down-regulated during cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hertel, L; De Andrea, M; Bellomo, G; Santoro, P; Landolfo, S; Gariglio, M

    1999-08-01

    The high mobility group protein T160, the murine homolog of the human structure-specific recognition protein 1, was first supposed to be involved in the process of V-(D)-J recombination, since it could bind to recombination signal sequence probes. We have recently cloned T160 by using an unrelated DNA probe and shown that it binds to either cruciform or linear DNA with no sequence specificity. In this work, we performed a detailed analysis of T160 expression and immunolocalization. We show that T160 is a phosphoprotein broadly conserved from yeast to mammals, with a high level of expression in all the cell lines tested and in tissues containing a high degree of proliferating cells. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis by confocal laser microscopy revealed that T160 distribution in the cell nucleus is not uniform, and focus-like staining was observed. Cell cycle studies by BrdU incorporation suggest that the appearance of T160 nuclear foci is specific of mid to late S phase. Furthermore, while T160 expression does not change during the cell cycle, it is dramatically down-regulated when cells begin to differentiate, as highlighted in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes. The disappearance of T160 nuclear staining in multinucleated myotubes is shown. Taken together, these data suggest that its function may be less specific than V-(D)-J recombination and more related to some cellular basic process, such as DNA replication or repair. PMID:10413586

  1. Small Hydrophobic Protein of Human Metapneumovirus Does Not Affect Virus Replication and Host Gene Expression In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Miranda; Herfst, Sander; Aarbiou, Jamil; Burgers, Peter C.; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Bijl, Maarten; van IJcken, Wilfred; Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Luider, Theo M.; Scholte, Bob J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Andeweg, Arno C.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein of unknown function. HMPV from which the SH open reading frame was deleted (HMPVΔSH) was viable and displayed similar replication kinetics, cytopathic effect and plaque size compared with wild type HMPV in several cell-lines. In addition, no differences were observed in infection efficiency or cell-to-cell spreading in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HPBEC) cultured at an air-liquid interphase. Host gene expression was analyzed in A549 cells infected with HMPV or HMPVΔSH using microarrays and mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques at multiple time points post infection. Only minor differences were observed in mRNA or protein expression levels. A possible function of HMPV SH as apoptosis blocker, as proposed for several members of the family Paramyxoviridae, was rejected based on this analysis. So far, a clear phenotype of HMPV SH deletion mutants in vitro at the virus and host levels is absent. PMID:23484037

  2. The Structure-Specific Recognition Protein 1 Associates with Lens Epithelium-Derived Growth Factor Proteins and Modulates HIV-1 Replication.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Angelica P; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Garcia-Rivera, Jose; Urias, Eduardo; Salinas, Sandra A; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Llano, Manuel

    2016-07-17

    The lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a chromatin-bound protein essential for efficient lentiviral integration. Genome-wide studies have located LEDGF/p75 inside actively transcribed genes where it mediates lentiviral integration. Although its role in HIV-1 integration is clearly established, the role of LEDGF/p75-associated proteins in HIV-1 infection remains unexplored. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we demonstrated that LEDGF/p75 complexes with a chromatin-remodeling complex facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT), a heterodimer of the structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) and the human homolog of suppressor of Ty 16 (hSpt16). Detailed analysis of the interaction of LEDGF/p75 with the FACT complex indicates that LEDGF/p75 interacts with SSRP1 in an hSpt16-independent manner that requires the PWWP domain of LEDGF proteins and the HMG domain of SSRP1. Functional characterizations demonstrate a LEDGF/p75-independent role of SSRP1 in the regulation of HIV-1 replication. shRNA-mediated partial knockdown of SSRP1 reduces HIV-1 infection, but not Murine Leukemia Virus, in human CD4(+) T cells. Similarly, SSRP1 knockdown affects infection by HIV-1-derived viruses that express genes from the viral LTR but not from an internal immediate-early CMV promoter, suggesting a role of SSRP1 in LTR-driven gene expression but not in viral DNA integration. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time the association of LEDGF proteins with the FACT complex and give further support to a role of SSRP1 in HIV-1 infection. PMID:27216501

  3. RRB1 and RRB2 encode maize retinoblastoma-related proteins that interact with a plant D-type cyclin and geminivirus replication protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ach, R A; Durfee, T; Miller, A B; Taranto, P; Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Zambryski, P C; Gruissem, W

    1997-01-01

    Unlike mammalian and yeast cells, little is known about how plants regulate G1 progression and entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. In mammalian cells, a key regulator of this process is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB). In contrast, G1 control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not utilize an RB-like protein. We report here the cloning of cDNAs from two Zea mays genes, RRB1 and RRB2, that encode RB-related proteins. Further, RRB2 transcripts are alternatively spliced to yield two proteins with different C termini. At least one RRB gene is expressed in all the tissues examined, with the highest levels seen in the shoot apex. RRB1 is a 96-kDa nuclear protein that can physically interact with two mammalian DNA tumor virus oncoproteins, simian virus 40 large-T antigen and adenovirus E1A, and with a plant D-type cyclin. These associations are abolished by mutation of a conserved cysteine residue in RRB1 that is also essential for RB function. RRB1 binding potential is also sensitive to deletions in the conserved A and B domains, although differences exist in these effects compared to those of human RB. RRB1 can also bind to the AL1 protein from tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), a protein which is essential for TGMV DNA replication. These results suggest that G1 regulation in plant cells is controlled by a mechanism which is much more similar to that found in mammalian cells than that in yeast. PMID:9271385

  4. FUSE Binding Protein 1 Facilitates Persistent Hepatitis C Virus Replication in Hepatoma Cells by Regulating Tumor Suppressor p53

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Updesh; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Liu, Zhihe; Kumar, Sushil; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Klein, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry of archived HCC tumors showed abundant FBP1 expression in HCC tumors with the CHC background. Oncomine data analysis of normal versus HCC tumors with the CHC background indicated a 4-fold increase in FBP1 expression with a concomitant 2.5-fold decrease in the expression of p53. We found that FBP1 promotes HCV replication by inhibiting p53 and regulating BCCIP and TCTP, which are positive and negative regulators of p53, respectively. The severe inhibition of HCV replication in FBP1-knockdown Huh7.5 cells was restored to a normal level by downregulation of either p53 or BCCIP. Although p53 in Huh7.5 cells is transcriptionally inactive as a result of Y220C mutation, we found that the activation and DNA binding ability of Y220C p53 were strongly suppressed by FBP1 but significantly activated upon knockdown of FBP1. Transient expression of FBP1 in FBP1 knockdown cells fully restored the control phenotype in which the DNA binding ability of p53 was strongly suppressed. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we found no significant difference in in vitro target DNA binding affinity of recombinant wild-type p53 and its Y220C mutant p53. However, in the presence of recombinant FBP1, the DNA binding ability of p53 is strongly inhibited. We confirmed that FBP1 downregulates BCCIP, p21, and p53 and upregulates TCTP under radiation-induced stress. Since FBP1 is overexpressed in most HCC tumors with an HCV background, it may have a role in promoting persistent virus infection and tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE It is our novel finding that FUSE binding protein 1 (FBP1) strongly inhibits the function of tumor suppressor p53 and is an essential host cell factor required for HCV replication. Oncomine data analysis of a large number of samples has revealed that overexpression of

  5. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenjun; Babu, I. Ramesh; Su, Dan; Yin, Shanye; Begley, Thomas J.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2) modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) in tRNAArg(UCU) and tRNAGlu(UUC) and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell. PMID:26670883

  6. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory . E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.edu

    2007-02-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes {approx} 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-II{alpha}). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-II{alpha} triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins.

  7. Effects of ER stress on unfolded protein responses, cell survival, and viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shigemi, Zenpei; Baba, Yusuke; Hara, Naoko; Matsuhiro, Jumpei; Kagawa, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2016-01-15

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a subtype of non-Hodgkin's B-lymphoma, is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which induces expression of ER chaperones, which in turn decrease ER stress, leading to ER homeostasis. The UPR is necessary for not only ER homeostasis but also persistent infection by, and replication of, many viruses. However, the precise roles and regulation of the UPR in KSHV infection remain poorly understood. Here, we found that IRE1α and PERK were significantly downregulated in PEL cells cultured under normal conditions, compared with KSHV-uninfected B-lymphoma cells. IRE1α and PERK mRNA levels were decreased in PEL cells, and KSHV-encoded LANA and v-cyclin D led to suppressed IRE1α transcription. Thapsigargin-induced ER stress activated the UPR and increased the mRNA levels of UPR-related molecules, including IRE1α and PERK, in PEL cells. However the IRE1α and PERK mRNA levels in PEL cells were lower than those in KSHV-uninfected cells. Furthermore, ER stress induced by brefeldin A and thapsigargin dramatically reduced the viability of PEL cells, compared with KSHV-uninfected cells, and induced apoptosis of PEL cells via the pro-apoptotic UPR through expression of CHOP and activation of caspase-9. In addition to the pro-apoptotic UPR, thapsigargin-induced ER stress enhanced transcription of lytic genes, including RTA, K-bZIP and K8.1, and viral production in PEL cells resulted in induction of the lytic cycle. Thus, we demonstrated downregulation of IRE1α and PERK in PEL cells, transcriptional suppression of IRE1α by LANA and v-cyclin D, apoptosis induction in PEL cells by ER stress, and potentiation of lytic replication by ER stress. PMID:26692493

  8. WSTF does it all: a multifunctional protein in transcription, repair and replication

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Chris; Krebs, Jocelyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Williams Syndrome Transcription Factor (WSTF) has emerged as an incredibly versatile nuclear protein. WSTF and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in which it exists, WINAC, WICH and B-WICH have been studied in a variety of organisms. This research has revealed roles for WSTF in a number of diverse molecular events. WSTF function includes chromatin assembly, Pol I and III gene regulation, vitamin D metabolism and DNA repair. In addition to functioning as a subunit of several ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, WSTF binds specifically to acetylated histones and is itself a histone kinase, as well as a target of phosphorylation. This review will describe the three known WSTF-containing complexes and discuss their various roles as well as mechanisms of regulating WSTF activity. PMID:21326359

  9. The evolution of replicators.

    PubMed Central

    Szathmáry, E

    2000-01-01

    Replicators of interest in chemistry, biology and culture are briefly surveyed from a conceptual point of view. Systems with limited heredity have only a limited evolutionary potential because the number of available types is too low. Chemical cycles, such as the formose reaction, are holistic replicators since replication is not based on the successive addition of modules. Replicator networks consisting of catalytic molecules (such as reflexively autocatalytic sets of proteins, or reproducing lipid vesicles) are hypothetical ensemble replicators, and their functioning rests on attractors of their dynamics. Ensemble replicators suffer from the paradox of specificity: while their abstract feasibility seems to require a high number of molecular types, the harmful effect of side reactions calls for a small system size. No satisfactory solution to this problem is known. Phenotypic replicators do not pass on their genotypes, only some aspects of the phenotype are transmitted. Phenotypic replicators with limited heredity include genetic membranes, prions and simple memetic systems. Memes in human culture are unlimited hereditary, phenotypic replicators, based on language. The typical path of evolution goes from limited to unlimited heredity, and from attractor-based to modular (digital) replicators. PMID:11127914

  10. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of the Proteins Interacting with the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Origin of Replication

    PubMed Central

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Mumtsidu, Eleni; Konarev, Peter; Makhov, Alexander M.; Fullerton, Stephen W.; Sinz, Andrea; Kalkhof, Stefan; McGeehan, John E.; Cary, Peter D.; Griffith, Jack D.; Svergun, Dmitri; Kneale, Geoff G.; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The C terminus of the herpes simplex virus type 1 origin-binding protein, UL9ct, interacts directly with the viral single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. We show that a 60-amino acid C-terminal deletion mutant of ICP8 (ICP8ΔC) also binds very strongly to UL9ct. Using small angle x-ray scattering, the low resolution solution structures of UL9ct alone, in complex with ICP8ΔC, and in complex with a 15-mer double-stranded DNA containing Box I of the origin of replication are described. Size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, backed up by isothermal titration calorimetry measurements, are used to show that the stoichiometry of the UL9ct-dsDNA15-mer complex is 2:1 at micromolar protein concentrations. The reaction occurs in two steps with initial binding of UL9ct to DNA (Kd ∼ 6 nm) followed by a second binding event (Kd ∼ 0.8 nm). It is also shown that the stoichiometry of the ternary UL9ct-ICP8ΔC-dsDNA15-mer complex is 2:1:1, at the concentrations used in the different assays. Electron microscopy indicates that the complex assembled on the extended origin, oriS, rather than Box I alone, is much larger. The results are consistent with a simple model whereby a conformational switch of the UL9 DNA-binding domain upon binding to Box I allows the recruitment of a UL9-ICP8 complex by interaction between the UL9 DNA-binding domains. PMID:19329432

  11. Roles of Phosphorylation of the Nucleocapsid Protein of Mumps Virus in Regulating Viral RNA Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, James; Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Lin, Alita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV) is a paramyxovirus with a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome. The viral RNA genome is encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (NP) to form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which serves as a template for transcription and replication. In this study, we investigated the roles of phosphorylation sites of NP in MuV RNA synthesis. Using radioactive labeling, we first demonstrated that NP was phosphorylated in MuV-infected cells. Using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and in silico modeling, we identified nine putative phosphorylated residues within NP. We mutated these nine residues to alanine. Mutation of the serine residue at position 439 to alanine (S439A) was found to reduce the phosphorylation of NP in transfected cells by over 90%. The effects of these mutations on the MuV minigenome system were examined. The S439A mutant was found to have higher activity, four mutants had lower activity, and four mutants had similar activity compared to wild-type NP. MuV containing the S439A mutation had 90% reduced phosphorylation of NP and enhanced viral RNA synthesis and viral protein expression at early time points after infection, indicating that S439 is the major phosphorylation site of NP and its phosphorylation plays an important role in downregulating viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus, is an important human pathogen that is reemerging in human populations. Nucleocapsid protein (NP) of MuV is essential for viral RNA synthesis. We have identified the major phosphorylation site of NP. We have found that phosphorylation of NP plays a critical role in regulating viral RNA synthesis. The work will lead to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis and possible novel targets for antiviral drug development. PMID:25948749

  12. The PriA Replication Restart Protein Blocks Replicase Access Prior to Helicase Assembly and Directs Template Specificity through Its ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Carol M.; McHenry, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The PriA protein serves as an initiator for the restart of DNA replication on stalled replication forks and as a checkpoint protein that prevents the replicase from advancing in a strand displacement reaction on forks that do not contain a functional replicative helicase. We have developed a primosomal protein-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay using a minimal fork substrate composed of synthetic oligonucleotides. We demonstrate that a self-loading reaction, which proceeds at high helicase concentrations, occurs by threading of a preassembled helicase over free 5′-ends, an event that can be blocked by attaching a steric block to the 5′-end or coating DNA with single-stranded DNA binding protein. The specificity of PriA for replication forks is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase. ATPase-defective PriA K230R shows a strong preference for substrates that contain no gap between the leading strand and the duplex portion of the fork, as demonstrated previously. Wild-type PriA prefers substrates with larger gaps, showing maximal activity on substrates on which PriA K230R is inactive. We demonstrate that PriA blocks replicase function on forks by blocking its binding. PMID:23264623

  13. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    PubMed

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Bacillus subtilis replication termination protein in complex with the 37-base-pair TerI-binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, J. P.; Porter, C.; Wilce, J. A.; Wilce, M. C. J.

    2006-11-01

    A preparation of replication terminator protein (RTP) of B. subtilis and a 37-base-pair TerI sequence (comprising two binding sites for RTP) has been purified and crystallized. The replication terminator protein (RTP) of Bacillus subtilis binds to specific DNA sequences that halt the progression of the replisome in a polar manner. These terminator complexes flank a defined region of the chromosome into which they allow replication forks to enter but not exit. Forcing the fusion of replication forks in a specific zone is thought to allow the coordination of post-replicative processes. The functional terminator complex comprises two homodimers each of 29 kDa bound to overlapping binding sites. A preparation of RTP and a 37-base-pair TerI sequence (comprising two binding sites for RTP) has been purified and crystallized. A data set to 3.9 Å resolution with 97.0% completeness and an R{sub sym} of 12% was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal using synchrotron radiation. The diffraction data are consistent with space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 118.8, c = 142.6 Å.

  15. The human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein directly interacts with E2 and enhances E2-dependent replication and transcription activation

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqa, Abida; Léon, Karen Campos; James, Claire D.; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Roberts, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein is a multifunctional protein essential for the control of virus gene expression, genome replication and persistence. E2 is expressed throughout the differentiation-dependent virus life cycle and is functionally regulated by association with multiple viral and cellular proteins. Here, we show for the first time to our knowledge that HPV16 E2 directly associates with the major capsid protein L1, independently of other viral or cellular proteins. We have mapped the L1 binding region within E2 and show that the α-2 helices within the E2 DNA-binding domain mediate L1 interaction. Using cell-based assays, we show that co-expression of L1 and E2 results in enhanced transcription and virus origin-dependent DNA replication. Upon co-expression in keratinocytes, L1 reduces nucleolar association of E2 protein, and when co-expressed with E1 and E2, L1 is partially recruited to viral replication factories. Furthermore, co-distribution of E2 and L1 was detected in the nuclei of upper suprabasal cells in stratified epithelia of HPV16 genome-containing primary human keratinocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the interaction between E2 and L1 is important for the regulation of E2 function during the late events of the HPV life cycle. PMID:25911730

  16. An siRNA screen for ATG protein depletion reveals the extent of the unconventional functions of the autophagy proteome in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Mauthe, Mario; Langereis, Martijn; Jung, Jennifer; Zhou, Xingdong; Jones, Alex; Omta, Wienand; Tooze, Sharon A; Stork, Björn; Paludan, Søren Riis; Ahola, Tero; Egan, Dave; Behrends, Christian; Mokry, Michal; de Haan, Cornelis; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2016-08-29

    Autophagy is a catabolic process regulated by the orchestrated action of the autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Recent work indicates that some of the ATG proteins also have autophagy-independent roles. Using an unbiased siRNA screen approach, we explored the extent of these unconventional functions of ATG proteins. We determined the effects of the depletion of each ATG proteome component on the replication of six different viruses. Our screen reveals that up to 36% of the ATG proteins significantly alter the replication of at least one virus in an unconventional fashion. Detailed analysis of two candidates revealed an undocumented role for ATG13 and FIP200 in picornavirus replication that is independent of their function in autophagy as part of the ULK complex. The high numbers of unveiled ATG gene-specific and pathogen-specific functions of the ATG proteins calls for caution in the interpretation of data, which rely solely on the depletion of a single ATG protein to specifically ablate autophagy. PMID:27573464

  17. The human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein directly interacts with E2 and enhances E2-dependent replication and transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqa, Abida; Léon, Karen Campos; James, Claire D; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Roberts, Sally; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-08-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein is a multifunctional protein essential for the control of virus gene expression, genome replication and persistence. E2 is expressed throughout the differentiation-dependent virus life cycle and is functionally regulated by association with multiple viral and cellular proteins. Here, we show for the first time to our knowledge that HPV16 E2 directly associates with the major capsid protein L1, independently of other viral or cellular proteins. We have mapped the L1 binding region within E2 and show that the α-2 helices within the E2 DNA-binding domain mediate L1 interaction. Using cell-based assays, we show that co-expression of L1 and E2 results in enhanced transcription and virus origin-dependent DNA replication. Upon co-expression in keratinocytes, L1 reduces nucleolar association of E2 protein, and when co-expressed with E1 and E2, L1 is partially recruited to viral replication factories. Furthermore, co-distribution of E2 and L1 was detected in the nuclei of upper suprabasal cells in stratified epithelia of HPV16 genome-containing primary human keratinocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the interaction between E2 and L1 is important for the regulation of E2 function during the late events of the HPV life cycle. PMID:25911730

  18. Loss of Anticodon Wobble Uridine Modifications Affects tRNALys Function and Protein Levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Roland; Grunewald, Pia; Thüring, Kathrin L.; Eichler, Christian; Helm, Mark; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, wobble uridines in the anticodons of tRNALysUUU, tRNAGluUUC and tRNAGlnUUG are modified to 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio-uridine (mcm5s2U). While mutations in subunits of the Elongator complex (Elp1-Elp6), which disable mcm5 side chain formation, or removal of components of the thiolation pathway (Ncs2/Ncs6, Urm1, Uba4) are individually tolerated, the combination of both modification defects has been reported to have lethal effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to such absolute requirement of mcm5s2U for viability, we demonstrate here that in the S. cerevisiae S288C-derived background, both pathways can be simultaneously inactivated, resulting in combined loss of tRNA anticodon modifications (mcm5U and s2U) without a lethal effect. However, an elp3 disruption strain displays synthetic sick interaction and synergistic temperature sensitivity when combined with either uba4 or urm1 mutations, suggesting major translational defects in the absence of mcm5s2U modifications. Consistent with this notion, we find cellular protein levels drastically decreased in an elp3uba4 double mutant and show that this effect as well as growth phenotypes can be partially rescued by excess of tRNALysUUU. These results may indicate a global translational or protein homeostasis defect in cells simultaneously lacking mcm5 and s2 wobble uridine modification that could account for growth impairment and mainly originates from tRNALysUUU hypomodification and malfunction. PMID:25747122

  19. Visualization of feline calicivirus replication in real-time with recombinant viruses engineered to express fluorescent reporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Abente, Eugenio J; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Green, Kim Y

    2010-04-25

    Caliciviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis was used to insert a transprimer sequence into random sites of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome. A site in the LC gene (encoding the capsid leader protein) of the FCV genome was identified that could tolerate foreign insertions, and two viable recombinant FCV variants expressing LC fused either to AcGFP, or DsRedFP were recovered. The effects of the insertions on LC processing, RNA replication, and stability of the viral genome were analyzed, and the progression of a calicivirus single infection and co-infection were captured by real-time imaging fluorescent microscopy. The ability to engineer viable recombinant caliciviruses expressing foreign markers enables new approaches to investigate virus and host cell interactions, as well as studies of viral recombination, one of the driving forces of calicivirus evolution. PMID:20137802

  20. Cycloviruses, gemycircularviruses and other novel replication-associated protein encoding circular viruses in Pacific flying fox (Pteropus tonganus) faeces.

    PubMed

    Male, Maketalena F; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Kami, Viliami; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Viral metagenomic studies have demonstrated that animal faeces can be a good sampling source for exploring viral diversity associated with the host and its environment. As part of an continuing effort to identify novel circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses circulating in the Tongan archipelago, coupled with the fact that bats are a reservoir species of a large number of viruses, we used a metagenomic approach to investigate the CRESS DNA virus diversity in Pacific flying fox (Pteropus tonganus) faeces. Faecal matter from four roosting sites located in Ha'avakatolo, Kolovai, Ha'ateiho and Lapaha on Tongatapu Island was collected in April 2014 and January 2015. From these samples we identified five novel cycloviruses representing three putative species, 25 gemycircularviruses representing at least 14 putative species, 17 other CRESS DNA viruses (15 putative species), two circular DNA molecules and a putative novel multi-component virus for which we have identified three cognate molecules. This study demonstrates that there exists a large diversity of CRESS DNA viruses in Pacific flying fox faeces. PMID:26873064

  1. A Motif Unique to the Human Dead-Box Protein DDX3 Is Important for Nucleic Acid Binding, ATP Hydrolysis, RNA/DNA Unwinding and HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Di Cicco, Giulia; Dietrich, Ursula; Maga, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are enzymes endowed with nucleic acid-dependent ATPase, RNA translocase and unwinding activities. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 has been shown to play important roles in tumor proliferation and viral infections. In particular, DDX3 has been identified as an essential cofactor for HIV-1 replication. Here we characterized a set of DDX3 mutants biochemically with respect to nucleic acid binding, ATPase and helicase activity. In particular, we addressed the functional role of a unique insertion between motifs I and Ia of DDX3 and provide evidence for its implication in nucleic acid binding and HIV-1 replication. We show that human DDX3 lacking this domain binds HIV-1 RNA with lower affinity. Furthermore, a specific peptide ligand for this insertion selected by phage display interferes with HIV-1 replication after transduction into HelaP4 cells. Besides broadening our understanding of the structure-function relationships of this important protein, our results identify a specific domain of DDX3 which may be suited as target for antiviral drugs designed to inhibit cellular cofactors for HIV-1 replication. PMID:21589879

  2. Structural analysis of the interactions between hsp70 chaperones and the yeast DNA replication protein Orc4p.

    PubMed

    Moreno-del Alamo, María; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Serrano, Ana M; Prieto, Alicia; Cuéllar, Jorge; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Valpuesta, José M; Giraldo, Rafael

    2010-10-15

    Hsp70 chaperones, besides their role in assisting protein folding, are key modulators of protein disaggregation, being consistently found as components of most macromolecular assemblies isolated in proteome-wide affinity purifications. A wealth of structural information has been recently acquired on Hsp70s complexed with Hsp40 and NEF co-factors and with small hydrophobic target peptides. However, knowledge of how Hsp70s recognize large protein substrates is still limited. Earlier, we reported that homologue Hsp70 chaperones (DnaK in Escherichia coli and Ssa1-4p/Ssb1-2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) bind strongly, both in vitro and in vivo, to the AAA+ domain in the Orc4p subunit of yeast origin recognition complex (ORC). ScORC is the paradigm for eukaryotic DNA replication initiators and consists of six distinct protein subunits (ScOrc1p-ScOrc 6p). Here, we report that a hydrophobic sequence (IL(4)) in the initiator specific motif (ISM) in Orc4p is the main target for DnaK/Hsp70. The three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction of a stable Orc4p(2)-DnaK complex suggests that the C-terminal substrate-binding domain in the chaperone clamps the AAA+ IL(4) motif in one Orc4p molecule, with the substrate-binding domain lid subdomain wedging apart the other Orc4p subunit. Pairwise co-expression in E. coli shows that Orc4p interacts with Orc1/2/5p. Mutation of IL(4) selectively disrupts Orc4p interaction with Orc2p. Allelic substitution of ORC4 by mutants in each residue of IL(4) results in lethal (I184A) or thermosensitive (L185A and L186A) initiation-defective phenotypes in vivo. The interplay between Hsp70 chaperones and the Orc4p-IL(4) motif might have an adaptor role in the sequential, stoichiometric assembly of ScORC subunits. PMID:20732327

  3. The presence of tomato leaf curl Kerala virus AC3 protein enhances viral DNA replication and modulates virus induced gene-silencing mechanism in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses encode few viral proteins. Most of the geminiviral proteins are multifunctional and influence various host cellular processes for the successful viral infection. Though few viral proteins like AC1 and AC2 are well characterized for their multiple functions, role of AC3 in the successful viral infection has not been investigated in detail. Results We performed phage display analysis with the purified recombinant AC3 protein with Maltose Binding Protein as fusion tag (MBP-AC3). Putative AC3 interacting peptides identified through phage display were observed to be homologous to peptides of proteins from various metabolisms. We grouped these putative AC3 interacting peptides according to the known metabolic function of the homologous peptide containing proteins. In order to check if AC3 influences any of these particular metabolic pathways, we designed vectors for assaying DNA replication and virus induced gene-silencing of host gene PCNA. Investigation with these vectors indicated that AC3 enhances viral replication in the host plant tomato. In the PCNA gene-silencing experiment, we observed that the presence of functional AC3 ORF strongly manifested the stunted phenotype associated with the virus induced gene-silencing of PCNA in tomato plants. Conclusions Through the phage display analysis proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified as putative AC3 interacting proteins. By utilizing the vectors developed, we could analyze the role of AC3 in viral DNA replication and host gene-silencing. Our studies indicate that AC3 is also a multifunctional protein. PMID:21496351

  4. Investigation of Pokemon-regulated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xin; Jin, Yibao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is a transcription regulator involved in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. It is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple human cancers including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is considered as a promising biomarker for HCC. In this work, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to investigate the proteomic profile associated with Pokemon in human HCC cell line QGY7703 and human hepatocyte line HL7702. Samples were labeled with four-plex iTRAQ reagents followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 24 differentially expressed proteins were selected as significant. Nine proteins were potentially up-regulated by Pokemon while 15 proteins were potentially down-regulated and many proteins were previously identified as potential biomarkers for HCC. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment revealed that the listed proteins were mainly involved in DNA metabolism and biosynthesis process. The changes of glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD, up-regulated) and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large sub-unit (RIM1, down-regulated) were validated by Western blotting analysis and denoted as Pokemon's function of oncogenesis. We also found that Pokemon potentially repressed the expression of highly clustered proteins (MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7) which played key roles in promoting DNA replication. Altogether, our results may help better understand the role of Pokemon in HCC and promote the clinical applications. PMID:24261083

  5. The MobA-Linked Primase Is the Only Replication Protein of R1162 Required for Conjugal Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Dorian; Meyer, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Cells newly transformed with plasmid R1162 DNA were used as donors in conjugal matings to determine if the plasmid replication genes are necessary for transfer. An intact system for vegetative replication is not required for transfer at normal frequency, but the plasmid primase, in the form linked to the nickase, must be present in donor cells. PMID:10217797

  6. Nucleolin Interacts with the Feline Calicivirus 3′ Untranslated Region and the Protease-Polymerase NS6 and NS7 Proteins, Playing a Role in Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Galvan-Mendoza, Iván; Ureña, Luis; Vashist, Surender; Goodfellow, Ian; Salas-Benito, Juan; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena

    2011-01-01

    Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication. PMID:21680514

  7. Nucleolin interacts with the feline calicivirus 3' untranslated region and the protease-polymerase NS6 and NS7 proteins, playing a role in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Galvan-Mendoza, Iván; Ureña, Luis; Vashist, Surender; Goodfellow, Ian; Salas-Benito, Juan; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication. PMID:21680514

  8. Membrane-bound tomato mosaic virus replication proteins participate in RNA synthesis and are associated with host proteins in a pattern distinct from those that are not membrane bound.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Dohi, Koji; Mori, Masashi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of vacuole-depleted, tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-infected plant protoplasts contained an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that utilized an endogenous template to synthesize ToMV-related positive-strand RNAs in a pattern similar to that observed in vivo. Despite the fact that only minor fractions of the ToMV 130- and 180-kDa replication proteins were associated with membranes, the RdRp activity was exclusively associated with membranes. A genome-sized, negative-strand RNA template was associated with membranes and was resistant to micrococcal nuclease unless treated with detergents. Non-membrane-bound replication proteins did not exhibit RdRp activity, even in the presence of ToMV RNA. While the non-membrane-bound replication proteins remained soluble after treatment with Triton X-100, the same treatment made the membrane-bound replication proteins in a form that precipitated upon low-speed centrifugation. On the other hand, the detergent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) efficiently solubilized the membrane-bound replication proteins. Upon LPC treatment, the endogenous template-dependent RdRp activity was reduced and exogenous ToMV RNA template-dependent RdRp activity appeared instead. This activity, as well as the viral 130-kDa protein and the host proteins Hsp70, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), TOM1, and TOM2A copurified with FLAG-tagged viral 180-kDa protein from LPC-solubilized membranes. In contrast, Hsp70 and only small amounts of the 130-kDa protein and eEF1A copurified with FLAG-tagged non-membrane-bound 180-kDa protein. These results suggest that the viral replication proteins are associated with the intracellular membranes harboring TOM1 and TOM2A and that this association is important for RdRp activity. Self-association of the viral replication proteins and their association with other host proteins may also be important for RdRp activity. PMID:16912296

  9. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit L protein interacts with Flavivirus NS5 and may modulate yellow fever virus replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yellow fever virus (YFV) belongs to the Flavivirus genus and causes an important disease. An alarming resurgence of viral circulation and the expansion of YFV-endemic zones have been detected in Africa and South America in recent years. NS5 is a viral protein that contains methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, which are essential for viral replication, and the interactions between NS5 and cellular proteins have been studied to better understand viral replication. The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction of the NS5 protein with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit L (eIF3L) and to evaluate the role of eIF3L in yellow fever replication. Methods To identify interactions of YFV NS5 with cellular proteins, we performed a two-hybrid screen using the YFV NS5 RdRp domain as bait with a human cDNA library, and RNApol deletion mutants were generated and analyzed using the two-hybrid system for mapping the interactions. The RNApol region involved was segmented into three fragments and analyzed using an eIF3L-expressing yeast strain. To map the NS5 residues that are critical for the interactions, we performed site-direct mutagenesis in segment 3 of the interaction domain (ID) and confirmed the interaction using in vitro assays and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation. The significance of eIF3L for YFV replication was investigated using eIF3L overexpression and RNA interference. Results In this work, we describe and characterize the interaction of NS5 with the translation factor eIF3L. The interaction between NS5 and eIF3L was confirmed using in vitro binding and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays. This interaction occurs at a region (the interaction domain of the RNApol domain) that is conserved in several flaviviruses and that is, therefore, likely to be relevant to the genus. eIF3L overexpression and plaque reduction assays showed a slight effect on YFV replication, indicating that the interaction of eIF3L

  10. Inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling under replication stress induced by nucleotide depletion in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    DNA replication checkpoint is a highly conserved cellular signaling pathway critical for maintaining genome integrity in eukaryotes. It is activated when DNA replication is perturbed. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, perturbed replication forks activate the sensor kinase Rad3 (ATR/Mec1), which works cooperatively with mediator Mrc1 and the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp to phosphorylate the effector kinase Cds1 (CHK2/Rad53). Phosphorylation of Cds1 promotes autoactivation of the kinase. Activated Cds1 diffuses away from the forks and stimulates most of the checkpoint responses under replication stress. Although this signaling pathway has been well understood in fission yeast, how the signaling is initiated and thus regulated remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that deletion of lem2(+) sensitizes cells to the inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, hydroxyurea. However, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. This study shows that in the presence of hydroxyurea, Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling for Cds1 activation. Without Lem2, all known Rad3-dependent phosphorylations critical for replication checkpoint signaling are seriously compromised, which likely causes the aberrant mitosis and drug sensitivity observed in this mutant. Interestingly, the mutant is not very sensitive to DNA damage and the DNA damage checkpoint remains largely intact, suggesting that the main function of Lem2 is to facilitate checkpoint signaling in response to replication stress. Since Lem2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein, these results also suggest that the replication checkpoint may be spatially regulated inside the nucleus, a previously unknown mechanism. PMID:26746798

  11. Construction of a subgenomic CV-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. PMID:26800776

  12. Aminoterminal amphipathic α-helix AH1 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 4B possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production.

    PubMed

    Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

    2014-10-01

    Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic α-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic α-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic α-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

  13. Nuclear localization of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 does not strictly correlate with efficient viral RNA replication and inhibition of type I interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Bühler, Sandra; Selisko, Barbara; Davidson, Andrew; Mulder, Klaas; Canard, Bruno; Miller, Sven; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human pathogen, especially in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. DENV replication occurs in the cytoplasm; however, a high proportion of nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), containing methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activities, accumulates in the nuclei of infected cells. The present study investigates the impact of nuclear localization of NS5 on its known functions, including viral RNA replication and subversion of the type I interferon response. By using a mutation analysis approach, we identified the most critical residues within the αβ nuclear localization signal (αβNLS), which are essential for the nuclear accumulation of this protein. Although we observed an overall correlation between reduced nuclear accumulation of NS5 and impaired RNA replication, we identified one mutant with drastically reduced amounts of nuclear NS5 and virtually unaffected RNA replication, arguing that nuclear localization of NS5 does not correlate strictly with DENV replication, at least in cell culture. Because NS5 plays an important role in blocking interferon signaling via STAT-2 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 2) degradation, the abilities of the NLS mutants to block this pathway were investigated. All mutants were able to degrade STAT-2, with accordingly similar type I interferon resistance phenotypes. Since the NLS is contained within the RdRp domain, the MTase and RdRp activities of the mutants were determined by using recombinant full-length NS5. We found that the C-terminal region of the αβNLS is a critical functional element of the RdRp domain required for polymerase activity. These results indicate that efficient DENV RNA replication requires only minimal, if any, nuclear NS5, and they identify the αβNLS as a structural element required for proper RdRp activity. PMID:23408610

  14. The PSO4 Protein Complex Associates with Replication Protein A (RPA) and Modulates the Activation of Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR)*

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The PSO4 core complex is composed of PSO4/PRP19/SNEV, CDC5L, PLRG1, and BCAS2/SPF27. Besides its well defined functions in pre-mRNA splicing, the PSO4 complex has been shown recently to participate in the DNA damage response. However, the specific role for the PSO4 complex in the DNA damage response pathways is still not clear. Here we show that both the BCAS2 and PSO4 subunits of the PSO4 complex directly interact and colocalize with replication protein A (RPA). Depletion of BCAS2 or PSO4 impairs the recruitment of ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to DNA damage sites and compromises CHK1 activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that both the RPA1-binding ability of BCAS2 and the E3 ligase activity of PSO4 are required for efficient accumulation of ATRIP at DNA damage sites and the subsequent CHK1 activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the PSO4 complex functionally interacts with RPA and plays an important role in the DNA damage response. PMID:24443570

  15. At least three distinct proteins are necessary for the reconstitution of a specific multiprotein complex at a eukaryotic chromosomal origin of replication.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, H G; Robinson, B S; Eisenberg, S

    1992-01-01

    We have reconstituted in vitro a multistage assembly of a protein complex that specifically recognizes a yeast genomic origin of replication, the autonomously replicating sequence ARS121. The first step in the assembly was the interaction of the known origin-binding factor OBF1 and another factor, OBF2, with the ARS121 origin of replication to form the OBF1-OBF2-origin complex. This complex was the substrate for the ATP-dependent binding of a third DNA-binding activity, the core binding factor, CBF. Binding of CBF to the origin, identified by the retarded mobility of the origin DNA fragment in agarose gels, required, in addition to ATP and the OBF1-OBF2-origin complex, a functional essential core nucleotide sequence. ARS121 DNA containing mutations in the core, which inactivate the origin in vivo, did not sustain stable CBF binding, whereas ARS121 DNA mutated outside the boundaries of the essential core, which has normal origin function, bound CBF as wild type. This tight, direct correlation between the ability of the origin to bind CBF and its function as an origin of replication in vivo strongly suggest that the multiprotein complex reconstituted in vitro has a key role in the initiation of DNA replication. Images PMID:1454793

  16. The Eukaryotic Replication Machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; O'Donnell, M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular replicating machine, or "replisome," is composed of numerous different proteins. The core replication proteins in all cell types include a helicase, primase, DNA polymerases, sliding clamp, clamp loader, and single-strand binding (SSB) protein. The core eukaryotic replisome proteins evolved independently from those of bacteria and thus have distinct architectures and mechanisms of action. The core replisome proteins of the eukaryote include: an 11-subunit CMG helicase, DNA polymerase alpha-primase, leading strand DNA polymerase epsilon, lagging strand DNA polymerase delta, PCNA clamp, RFC clamp loader, and the RPA SSB protein. There are numerous other proteins that travel with eukaryotic replication forks, some of which are known to be involved in checkpoint regulation or nucleosome handling, but most have unknown functions and no bacterial analogue. Recent studies have revealed many structural and functional insights into replisome action. Also, the first structure of a replisome from any cell type has been elucidated for a eukaryote, consisting of 20 distinct proteins, with quite unexpected results. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the eukaryotic core replisome proteins, their structure, individual functions, and how they are organized at the replication fork as a machine. PMID:27241931

  17. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Masmudur M; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  18. Myxoma Virus Protein M029 Is a Dual Function Immunomodulator that Inhibits PKR and Also Conscripts RHA/DHX9 to Promote Expanded Host Tropism and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Masmudur M.; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M.; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  19. Translational infidelity-induced protein stress results from a deficiency in Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ashish; Chan, Clement T.Y.; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Rooney, John P.; Dedon, Peter C.; Begley, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Correct codon-anticodon pairing promotes translational fidelity, with these interactions greatly facilitated by modified nucleosides found in tRNA. We hypothesized that wobble uridine modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) are essential for translational fidelity. In support, we have used phenotypic, reporter and protein-based assays to demonstrate increased translational infidelity in trm9Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Codon reengineering studies suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications promote fidelity during the translation of specific genes, those rich in arginine and glutamic acid codons from mixed boxes. Using quantitative tRNA modification analysis, we determined that trm9Δ cells are only deficient in 2 of 23 tRNA modifications, with those 2, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm5U) and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U), classified as key determinants of translational fidelity. We also show that in the absence of mcm5U and mcm5s2U, the resulting translational infidelity promotes protein errors and activation of unfolded protein and heat shock responses. These data support a model in which Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications promote fidelity during the translation of specific transcripts, with decreased wobble base modification leading to translational infidelity, protein errors and activation of protein stress response pathways. PMID:22832247

  20. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 V protein inhibits interferon production and signaling and is required for replication in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; D’Angelo, Christopher; Scull, Margaret A.; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Nishio, Machiko; Pickles, Raymond J.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Schmidt, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    In wild-type human parainfluenza virus type 2 (WT HPIV2), one gene (the P/V gene) encodes both the polymerase-associated phosphoprotein (P) and the accessory V protein. We generated a HPIV2 virus (rHPIV2-Vko) in which the P/V gene encodes only the P protein to examine the role of V in replication in vivo and as a potential live attenuated virus vaccine. Preventing expression of V protein severely impaired virus recovery from cDNA and growth in vitro, particularly in IFN-competent cells. rHPIV2-Vko, unlike WT HPIV2, strongly induced IFN-β and permitted IFN signaling, leading to establishment of a robust antiviral state. rHPIV2-Vko infection induced extensive syncytia and cytopathicity that was due to both apoptosis and necrosis. Replication of rHPIV2-Vko was highly restricted in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys and in differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, suggesting that V protein is essential for efficient replication of HPIV2 in organized epithelial cells and that rHPIV2-Vko is over-attenuated for use as a live attenuated vaccine. PMID:19969320

  1. A Cell Internalizing Antibody Targeting Capsid Protein (p24) Inhibits the Replication of HIV-1 in T Cells Lines and PBMCs: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed A.; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Choon, Tan Soo; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    There remains a need for newer therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS. Viral capsid protein p24 plays important roles in HIV pathogenesis. Peptides and small molecule inhibitors targeting p24 have shown to inhibit virus replication in treated cell. High specificity and biological stability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) make them an attractive contender for in vivo treatments. However, mAbs do not enter into cells, thus are restricted to target surface molecules. This also makes targeting intracellular HIV-1 p24 a challenge. A mAb specific to p24 that can internalize into the HIV-infected cells is hypothesized to inhibit the virus replication. We selected a mAb that has previously shown to inhibit p24 polymerization in an in vitro assay and chemically conjugated it with cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to generate cell internalizing anti-p24 mAbs. Out of 8 CPPs tested, κFGF-MTS -conjugated mAbs internalized T cells most efficiently. At nontoxic concentration, the κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs reduced the HIV-1 replication up to 73 and 49% in T-lymphocyte and PBMCs respectively. Marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in relevant cells by κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs represents a viable strategy to target HIV proteins present inside the cells. PMID:26741963

  2. A Cell Internalizing Antibody Targeting Capsid Protein (p24) Inhibits the Replication of HIV-1 in T Cells Lines and PBMCs: A Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed A; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Choon, Tan Soo; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    There remains a need for newer therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS. Viral capsid protein p24 plays important roles in HIV pathogenesis. Peptides and small molecule inhibitors targeting p24 have shown to inhibit virus replication in treated cell. High specificity and biological stability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) make them an attractive contender for in vivo treatments. However, mAbs do not enter into cells, thus are restricted to target surface molecules. This also makes targeting intracellular HIV-1 p24 a challenge. A mAb specific to p24 that can internalize into the HIV-infected cells is hypothesized to inhibit the virus replication. We selected a mAb that has previously shown to inhibit p24 polymerization in an in vitro assay and chemically conjugated it with cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to generate cell internalizing anti-p24 mAbs. Out of 8 CPPs tested, κFGF-MTS -conjugated mAbs internalized T cells most efficiently. At nontoxic concentration, the κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs reduced the HIV-1 replication up to 73 and 49% in T-lymphocyte and PBMCs respectively. Marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in relevant cells by κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs represents a viable strategy to target HIV proteins present inside the cells. PMID:26741963

  3. Replication-specific conversion of the Staphylococcus aureus pT181 initiator protein from an active homodimer to an inactive heterodimer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, A; Wang, P Z; Novick, R P

    1994-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus rolling circle plasmid pT181 regulates its replication by controlling the synthesis of its initiator protein RepC. RepC is inactivated during pT181 replication by the addition of an oligodeoxynucleotide, giving rise to a new form, RepC*. We analyzed RepC and RepC* in four classes of mutants: plasmid copy number mutants, two classes of RepC mutants affecting different portions of the protein and oriC (origin) mutants. We have found that in the cell with wild-type RepC there are similar relative amounts of RepC and RepC*, regardless of copy number, and that the conversion of RepC to RepC* is replication dependent. Genetic and biochemical evidence is presented that RepC functions as a dimer and that during replication the RepC homodimer is converted to the RepC/RepC* heterodimer. Images PMID:7957090

  4. The K526R substitution in viral protein PB2 enhances the effects of E627K on influenza virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjun; Wang, Pui; Mok, Bobo Wing-Yee; Lau, Siu-Ying; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Wai-Lan; Zheng, Min; Wen, Xi; Yang, Shigui; Chen, Yu; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Chen, Honglin

    2014-01-01

    Host-adaptive strategies, such as the E627K substitution in the PB2 protein, are critical for replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammalian hosts. Here we show that mutation PB2-K526R is present in some human H7N9 influenza isolates, in nearly 80% of H5N1 human isolates from Indonesia and, in conjunction with E627K, in almost all seasonal H3N2 viruses since 1970. Polymerase complexes containing PB2-526R derived from H7N9, H5N1 or H3N2 viruses exhibit increased polymerase activity. PB2-526R also enhances viral transcription and replication in cells. In comparison with viruses carrying 627K, H7N9 viruses carrying both 526R and 627K replicate more efficiently in mammalian (but not avian) cells and in mouse lung tissues, and cause greater body weight loss and mortality in infected mice. PB2-K526R interacts with nuclear export protein and our results suggest that it contributes to enhance replication for certain influenza virus subtypes, particularly in combination with 627K. PMID:25409547

  5. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N.

    2014-09-15

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER.

  6. Hepatitis C virus p7 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum when it is encoded by a replication-competent genome.

    PubMed

    Haqshenas, G; Mackenzie, J M; Dong, X; Gowans, E J

    2007-01-01

    p7 protein is a small protein encoded by Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that functions as an ion channel in planar lipid bilayers. The function of p7 is vital for the virus life cycle. In this study, the p7 protein of genotype 2a (strain JFH1; the only strain that replicates and produces virus progeny in vitro) was tagged with either an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or a haemagglutinin (HA) epitope to facilitate tracking of the protein in the intracellular environment. The tagged viral polyprotein was expressed transiently in the cells after transfection with the recombinant RNA transcripts. Confocal microscopy revealed that the tagged p7 protein was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not associated with mitochondria. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the p7 localization data and, moreover, showed that intracellular virus-like particles formed in the cells transfected with the wild-type, but not the recombinant, transcripts. Following a few passages of the transfected cells, the recombinant genome with the HA tag reverted to wild-type and the entire tag was deleted. Therefore, in this study, it has been demonstrated that the p7 protein in the context of the full-length polyprotein encoded by a replication competent genome is only localized to the ER and has a possible role in HCV particle formation. PMID:17170445

  7. Circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses identified in the faecal matter of various animals in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Steel, Olivia; Kraberger, Simona; Sikorski, Alyssa; Young, Laura M; Catchpole, Ryan J; Stevens, Aaron J; Ladley, Jenny J; Coray, Dorien S; Stainton, Daisy; Dayaram, Anisha; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, innovations in molecular techniques and sequencing technologies have resulted in a rapid expansion in the number of known viral sequences, in particular those with circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA genomes. CRESS DNA viruses are present in the virome of many ecosystems and are known to infect a wide range of organisms. A large number of the recently identified CRESS DNA viruses cannot be classified into any known viral families, indicating that the current view of CRESS DNA viral sequence space is greatly underestimated. Animal faecal matter has proven to be a particularly useful source for sampling CRESS DNA viruses in an ecosystem, as it is cost-effective and non-invasive. In this study a viral metagenomic approach was used to explore the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses present in the faeces of domesticated and wild animals in New Zealand. Thirty-eight complete CRESS DNA viral genomes and two circular molecules (that may be defective molecules or single components of multicomponent genomes) were identified from forty-nine individual animal faecal samples. Based on shared genome organisations and sequence similarities, eighteen of the isolates were classified as gemycircularviruses and twelve isolates were classified as smacoviruses. The remaining eight isolates lack significant sequence similarity with any members of known CRESS DNA virus groups. This research adds significantly to our knowledge of CRESS DNA viral diversity in New Zealand, emphasising the prevalence of CRESS DNA viruses in nature, and reinforcing the suggestion that a large proportion of CRESS DNA viruses are yet to be identified. PMID:27211884

  8. Differentiation of Varicella-Zoster Virus ORF47 Protein Kinase and IE62 Protein Binding Domains and Their Contributions to Replication in Human Skin Xenografts in the SCID-hu Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Jaya; Sommer, Marvin H.; Zerboni, Leigh; Bagowski, Christoph P.; Ito, Hideki; Moffat, Jennifer; Ku, Chia-Chi; Arvin, Ann M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of the ORF47 protein kinase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), we constructed VZV recombinants with targeted mutations in conserved motifs of ORF47 and a truncated ORF47 and characterized these mutants for replication, phosphorylation, and protein-protein interactions in vitro and for infectivity in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. Previous experiments showed that ROka47S, a null mutant that makes no ORF47 protein, did not replicate in skin in vivo (J. F. Moffat, L. Zerboni, M. H. Sommer, T. C. Heineman, J. I. Cohen, H. Kaneshima, and A. M. Arvin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:11969-11974, 1998). The construction of VZV recombinants with targeted ORF47 mutations made it possible to assess the effects on VZV infection of human skin xenografts of selectively abolishing ORF47 protein kinase activity. ORF47 mutations that resulted in a C-terminal truncation or disrupted the DYS kinase motif eliminated ORF47 kinase activity and were associated with extensive nuclear retention of ORF47 and IE62 proteins in vitro. Disrupting ORF47 kinase function also resulted in a marked decrease in VZV replication and cutaneous lesion formation in skin xenografts in vivo. However, infectivity in vivo was not blocked completely as long as the capacity of ORF47 protein to bind IE62 protein was preserved, a function that we identified and mapped to the N-terminal domain of ORF47 protein. These experiments indicate that ORF47 kinase activity is of critical importance for VZV infection and cell-cell spread in human skin in vivo but suggest that it is the formation of complexes between ORF47 and IE62 proteins, both VZV tegument components, that constitutes the essential contribution of ORF47 protein to VZV replication in vivo. PMID:12719588

  9. Characterization of a Non-Canonical Signal Peptidase Cleavage Site in a Replication Protein from Tomato Ringspot Virus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Chisholm, Joan; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The NTB-VPg polyprotein from tomato ringspot virus is an integral membrane replication protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum membranes. A signal peptidase (SPase) cleavage was previously detected in the C-terminal region of NTB-VPg downstream of a 14 amino acid (aa)-long hydrophobic region (termed TM2). However, the exact location of the cleavage site was not determined. Using in vitro translation assays, we show that the SPase cleavage site is conserved in the NTB-VPg protein from various ToRSV isolates, although the rate of cleavage varies from one isolate to another. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the NTB-VPg SPase cleavage sites of two ToRSV isolates allowed the identification of sequences that affect cleavage efficiency. We also present evidence that SPase cleavage in the ToRSV-Rasp2 isolate occurs within a GAAGG sequence likely after the AAG (GAAG/G). Mutation of a downstream MAAV sequence to AAAV resulted in SPase cleavage at both the natural GAAG/G and the mutated AAA/V sequences. Given that there is a distance of seven aa between the two cleavage sites, this indicates that there is flexibility in the positioning of the cleavage sites relative to the inner surface of the membrane and the SPase active site. SPase cleavage sites are typically located 3-7 aa downstream of the hydrophobic region. However, the NTB-VPg GAAG/G cleavage site is located 17 aa downstream of the TM2 hydrophobic region, highlighting unusual features of the NTB-VPg SPase cleavage site. A putative 11 aa-long amphipathic helix was identified immediately downstream of the TM2 region and five aa upstream of the GAAG/G cleavage site. Based on these results, we present an updated topology model in which the hydrophobic and amphipathic domains form a long tilted helix or a bent helix in the membrane lipid bilayer, with the downstream cleavage site(s) oriented parallel to the membrane inner surface. PMID:27589230

  10. The Oncogenic Small Tumor Antigen of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Is an Iron-Sulfur Cluster Protein That Enhances Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sabrina H.; Wang, Ranran; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Knight, Simon A. B.; Buck, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) plays an important role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV small T (sT) antigen has emerged as the key oncogenic driver in MCC carcinogenesis. It has also been shown to promote MCPyV LT-mediated replication by stabilizing LT. The importance of MCPyV sT led us to investigate sT functions and to identify potential ways to target this protein. We discovered that MCPyV sT purified from bacteria contains iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis showed that MCPyV sT coordinates a [2Fe-2S] and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. We also observed phenotypic conservation of Fe/S coordination in the sTs of other polyomaviruses. Since Fe/S clusters are critical cofactors in many nucleic acid processing enzymes involved in DNA unwinding and polymerization, our results suggested the hypothesis that MCPyV sT might be directly involved in viral replication. Indeed, we demonstrated that MCPyV sT enhances LT-mediated replication in a manner that is independent of its previously reported ability to stabilize LT. MCPyV sT translocates to nuclear foci containing actively replicating viral DNA, supporting a direct role for sT in promoting viral replication. Mutations of Fe/S cluster-coordinating cysteines in MCPyV sT abolish its ability to stimulate viral replication. Moreover, treatment with cidofovir, a potent antiviral agent, robustly inhibits the sT-mediated enhancement of MCPyV replication but has little effect on the basal viral replication driven by LT alone. This finding further indicates that MCPyV sT plays a direct role in stimulating viral DNA replication and introduces cidofovir as a possible drug for controlling MCPyV infection. IMPORTANCE MCPyV is associated with a highly aggressive form of skin cancer in humans. Epidemiological surveys for MCPyV seropositivity and sequencing analyses of healthy human skin suggest that MCPyV may represent a common component of the human skin microbial flora. However, much of the

  11. NO66, a Highly Conserved Dual Location Protein in the Nucleolus and in a Special Type of Synchronously Replicating ChromatinD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Eilbracht, Jens; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Hergt, Michaela; Schnölzer, Martina; Heid, Hans; Stöhr, Michael; Franke, Werner W.; Schmidt-Zachmann, Marion S.

    2004-01-01

    It has recently become clear that the nucleolus, the most prominent nuclear subcompartment, harbors diverse functions beyond its classic role in ribosome biogenesis. To gain insight into nucleolar functions, we have purified amplified nucleoli from Xenopus laevis oocytes using a novel approach involving fluorescence-activated cell sorting techniques. The resulting protein fraction was analyzed by mass spectrometry and used for the generation of monoclonal antibodies directed against nucleolar components. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a novel, ubiquitous protein, which in most cell types appears to be a constitutive nucleolar component. Immunolocalization studies have revealed that this protein, termed NO66, is highly conserved during evolution and shows in most cells analyzed a dual localization pattern, i.e., a strong enrichment in the granular part of nucleoli and in distinct nucleoplasmic entities. Colocalizations with proteins Ki-67, HP1α, and PCNA, respectively, have further shown that the staining pattern of NO66 overlaps with certain clusters of late replicating chromatin. Biochemical experiments have revealed that protein NO66 cofractionates with large preribosomal particles but is absent from cytoplasmic ribosomes. We propose that in addition to its role in ribosome biogenesis protein NO66 has functions in the replication or remodeling of certain heterochromatic regions. PMID:14742713

  12. The death-associated protein DAXX is a novel histone chaperone involved in the replication-independent deposition of H3.3

    PubMed Central

    Drané, Pascal; Ouararhni, Khalid; Depaux, Arnaud; Shuaib, Muhammad; Hamiche, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The histone variant H3.3 marks active chromatin by replacing the conventional histone H3.1. In this study, we investigate the detailed mechanism of H3.3 replication-independent deposition. We found that the death domain-associated protein DAXX and the chromatin remodeling factor ATRX (α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome protein) are specifically associated with the H3.3 deposition machinery. Bacterially expressed DAXX has a marked binding preference for H3.3 and assists the deposition of (H3.3–H4)2 tetramers on naked DNA, thus showing that DAXX is a H3.3 histone chaperone. In DAXX-depleted cells, a fraction of H3.3 was found associated with the replication-dependent machinery of deposition, suggesting that cells adapt to the depletion. The reintroduced DAXX in these cells colocalizes with H3.3 into the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) bodies. Moreover, DAXX associates with pericentric DNA repeats, and modulates the transcription from these repeats through assembly of H3.3 nucleosomes. These findings establish a new link between the PML bodies and the regulation of pericentric DNA repeat chromatin structure. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DAXX functions as a bona fide histone chaperone involved in the replication-independent deposition of H3.3. PMID:20504901

  13. Ultrastructural Studies of H-1 Parvovirus Replication VI. Simultaneous Autoradiographic and Immunochemical Intranuclear Localization of Viral DNA Synthesis and Protein Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Irwin I.; Rhode, Solon L.

    1978-01-01

    The localization of H-1 viral replicative-form double-stranded DNA and progeny single-stranded DNA replication in parasynchronously infected, simian virus 40-transformed newborn human kidney cells was studied with high-resolution electron microscope autoradiography (80-nm silver grains). We analyzed wild-type H-1 and ts1 H-1 (a conditional mutant defective in progeny single-stranded DNA synthesis). The proportion of the total DNA synthesis that was viral was estimated to be >90% by comparing the amount of [3H]thymidine uptake in cultures infected with wild-type H-1 versus ts14 (an H-1 mutant defective in DNA replication). Simultaneous staining with cytochrome c-conjugated anti-H-1 immunoglobulin G was performed to ensure that cells incorporating [3H]thymidine (2- to 60-min pulses) were H-1 infected. The sites of H-1 replicative-form (in ts1-infected cells) and progeny (in wild-type-infected cells) DNA synthesis were identical. Immunospecifically labeled nuclei at the earliest stages of infection exhibited dense clusters of silver grains over material extruded from nucleolar fibrillar centers. These foci became larger with increasing cellular damage, forming a limited number of H-1 DNA synthetic centers in the euchromatin. Each island-like focus was surrounded by tufts of heterochromatin containing high concentrations of unassembled H-1 capsid proteins. In late phases of infection, the heterochromatin became completely marginated, and the nucleoplasm contained only euchromatin that exhibited randomly distributed sites of H-1 DNA replication. This indicates that H-1 DNA synthesis begins at localized euchromatic or nucleolar sites and then spreads outward. Immunostained heterochromatin and nucleolar chromatin never incorporated [3H]thymidine. Our results suggest that H-1 proteins and cellular cofactors associated with the fibrillar component of the nucleolus and the euchromatin may play a role in the regulation of H-1 DNA synthesis. Images PMID:340710

  14. Loss of RCC1, a nuclear DNA-binding protein, uncouples the completion of DNA replication from the activation of cdc2 protein kinase and mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, H; Ohtsubo, M; Yamashita, K; Iida, H; Pines, J; Yasudo, H; Shibata, Y; Hunter, T; Nishimoto, T

    1991-01-01

    The temperature-sensitive mutant cell line tsBN2, was derived from the BHK21 cell line and has a point mutation in the RCC1 gene. In tsBN2 cells, the RCC1 protein disappeared after a shift to the non-permissive temperature at any time in the cell cycle. From S phase onwards, once RCC1 function was lost at the non-permissive temperature, p34cdc2 was dephosphorylated and M-phase specific histone H1 kinase was activated. However, in G1 phase, shifting to the non-permissive temperature did not activate p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase. The activation of p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase required protein synthesis in addition to the presence of a complex between p34cdc2 and cyclin B. Upon the loss of RCC1 in S phase of tsBN2 cells and the consequent p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activation, a normal mitotic cycle is induced, including the formation of a mitotic spindle and subsequent reformation of the interphase-microtubule network. Exit from mitosis was accompanied by the disappearance of cyclin B, and a decrease in p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activity. The kinetics of p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activation correlated well with the appearance of premature mitotic cells and was not affected by the presence of a DNA synthesis inhibitor. Thus the normal inhibition of p34cdc2 activation by incompletely replicated DNA is abrogated by the loss of RCC1. Images PMID:1851087

  15. The Caulobacter crescentus Homolog of DnaA (HdaA) Also Regulates the Proteolysis of the Replication Initiator Protein DnaA

    PubMed Central

    Wargachuk, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is not known how diverse bacteria regulate chromosome replication. Based on Escherichia coli studies, DnaA initiates replication and the homolog of DnaA (Hda) inactivates DnaA using the RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA) mechanism that thereby prevents extra chromosome replication cycles. RIDA may be widespread, because the distantly related Caulobacter crescentus homolog HdaA also prevents extra chromosome replication (J. Collier and L. Shapiro, J Bacteriol 191:5706–5715, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00525-09). To further study the HdaA/RIDA mechanism, we created a C. crescentus strain that shuts off hdaA transcription and rapidly clears HdaA protein. We confirm that HdaA prevents extra replication, since cells lacking HdaA accumulate extra chromosome DNA. DnaA binds nucleotides ATP and ADP, and our results are consistent with the established E. coli mechanism whereby Hda converts active DnaA-ATP to inactive DnaA-ADP. However, unlike E. coli DnaA, C. crescentus DnaA is also regulated by selective proteolysis. C. crescentus cells lacking HdaA reduce DnaA proteolysis in logarithmically growing cells, thereby implicating HdaA in this selective DnaA turnover mechanism. Also, wild-type C. crescentus cells remove all DnaA protein when they enter stationary phase. However, cells lacking HdaA retain stable DnaA protein even when they stop growing in nutrient-depleted medium that induces complete DnaA proteolysis in wild-type cells. Additional experiments argue for a distinct HdaA-dependent mechanism that selectively removes DnaA prior to stationary phase. Related freshwater Caulobacter species also remove DnaA during entry to stationary phase, implying a wider role for HdaA as a novel component of programed proteolysis. IMPORTANCE Bacteria must regulate chromosome replication, and yet the mechanisms are not completely understood and not fully exploited for antibiotic development. Based on Escherichia coli studies, DnaA initiates replication, and

  16. Expression of Porcine Fusion Protein IRF7/3(5D) Efficiently Controls Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Díaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Hickman, Danielle; Long, Charles R.; Zhu, James; Rodríguez, Luis L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type I, II, or III interferons (IFNs) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector expressing IFNs can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. In this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poIRF7/3(5D), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of IFN activity against FMD virus (FMDV). We showed that poIRF7/3(5D) is a potent inducer of type I IFNs, including alpha IFN (IFN-α), IFN-β, and IFN-ω but not type III IFN (interleukin-28B), without inducing cytotoxicity. Expression of poIRF7/3(5D) significantly and steadily reduced FMDV titers by up to 6 log10 units in swine and bovine cell lines. Treatment with an IFN receptor inhibitor (B18R) combined with an anti-IFN-α antibody neutralized the antiviral activity in the supernatants of cells transduced with an Ad5 vector expressing poIRF7/3(5D) [Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D)]. However, several transcripts with known antiviral function, including type I IFNs, were still highly upregulated (range of increase, 8-fold to over 500-fold) by poIRF7/3(5D) in the presence of B18R. Furthermore, the sera of mice treated with Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) showed antiviral activity that was associated with the induction of high levels of IFN-α and resulted in complete protection against FMDV challenge at 6, 24, or 48 h posttreatment. This study highlights for the first time the antiviral potential of Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) in vitro and in vivo against FMDV. IMPORTANCE FMD remains one of the most devastating diseases that affect livestock worldwide. Effective vaccine formulations are available but are serotype specific and require approximately 7 days before they are able to elicit protective immunity. We have shown that vector-delivered IFN is an option to protect animals against many FMDV serotypes as soon as 24 h

  17. S. cerevisiae Replication Protein A (scRPA) Binds to Single–stranded DNA in Multiple Salt-dependent Modes†

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Sangaralingam; Kozlov, Alexander G.; Lohman, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the single stranded DNA binding properties of the S. cerevisiae Replication Protein A (scRPA) using fluorescence titrations, isothermal titration calorimetry and sedimentation equilibrium in order to determine whether scRPA can bind to ssDNA in multiple binding modes. We measured the occluded site size for scRPA binding poly(dT), as well as the stoichiometry, equilibrium binding constants and binding enthalpy of scRPA-((dT)L) complexes as a function of oligodeoxynucleotide length, L. Sedimentation equilibrium studies show that scRPA is stable hetero-trimer over the range of [NaCl] examined (0.02 M to 1.5 M). However, the occluded site size, n, undergoes a salt-dependent transition between values of n=18−20 nucleotides at low [NaCl] to n=26−28 nucleotides at high [NaCl], with a transition midpoint near 0.36 M NaCl (25.0°C, pH 8.1). Measurements of the stoichiometry of scRPA-(dT)L complexes also show a [NaCl]-dependent change in stoichiometry consistent with the observed change in occluded site size. Measurements of the ΔHobs for scRPA binding to (dT)L at 1.5 M NaCl, yield a contact site size of 28 nucleotides, similar to the occluded site size determined at this [NaCl]. Altogether, these data support a model in which scRPA can bind to ssDNA in at least two binding modes, a low site size mode (n = 18 ± 1 nucleotides), stabilized at low [NaCl], in which only three of its OB-folds are used, and a higher site size mode (n = 27 ± 1 nucleotides), stabilized at higher [NaCl], which uses four of its OB-folds. No evidence for highly cooperative binding of scRPA to ssDNA was found either under any conditions examined. Thus, scRPA shows some similar behavior to the E. coli SSB homo-tetramer, which also shows binding mode transitions, but some significant differences also exist. PMID:17002295

  18. Replication-Competent Influenza A and B Viruses Expressing a Fluorescent Dynamic Timer Protein for In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Steven F.; Perez, Daniel R.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV, respectively) cause annual seasonal human respiratory disease epidemics. In addition, IAVs have been implicated in occasional pandemics with inordinate health and economic consequences. Studying influenza viruses in vitro or in vivo requires the use of laborious secondary methodologies to identify infected cells. To circumvent this requirement, replication-competent infectious influenza viruses expressing an easily traceable fluorescent reporter protein can be used. Timer is a fluorescent protein that undergoes a time-dependent color emission conversion from green to red. The rate of spectral change is independent of Timer protein concentration and can be used to chronologically measure the duration of its expression. Here, we describe the generation of replication-competent IAV and IBV where the viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1) was fused to the fluorescent dynamic Timer protein. Timer-expressing IAV and IBV displayed similar plaque phenotypes and growth kinetics to wild-type viruses in tissue culture. Within infected cells, Timer’s spectral shift can be used to measure the rate and cell-to-cell spread of infection using fluorescent microscopy, plate readers, or flow cytometry. The progression of Timer-expressing IAV infection was also evaluated in a mouse model, demonstrating the feasibility to characterize IAV cell-to-cell infections in vivo. By providing the ability to chronologically track viral spread, Timer-expressing influenza viruses are an excellent option to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo dynamics of viral infection. PMID:26809059

  19. A single amino acid change, Q114R, in the cleavage-site sequence of Newcastle disease virus fusion protein attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sweety; Kumar, Sachin; Khattar, Sunil K; Samal, Siba K

    2011-10-01

    A key determinant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence is the amino acid sequence at the fusion (F) protein cleavage site. The NDV F protein is synthesized as an inactive precursor, F(0), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between amino acids 116 and 117 to produce two disulfide-linked subunits, F(1) and F(2). The consensus sequence of the F protein cleavage site of virulent [(112)(R/K)-R-Q-(R/K)-R↓F-I(118)] and avirulent [(112)(G/E)-(K/R)-Q-(G/E)-R↓L-I(118)] strains contains a conserved glutamine residue at position 114. Recently, some NDV strains from Africa and Madagascar were isolated from healthy birds and have been reported to contain five basic residues (R-R-R-K-R↓F-I/V or R-R-R-R-R↓F-I/V) at the F protein cleavage site. In this study, we have evaluated the role of this conserved glutamine residue in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV by using the moderately pathogenic Beaudette C strain and by making Q114R, K115R and I118V mutants of the F protein in this strain. Our results showed that changing the glutamine to a basic arginine residue reduced viral replication and attenuated the pathogenicity of the virus in chickens. The pathogenicity was further reduced when the isoleucine at position 118 was substituted for valine. PMID:21677091

  20. DNA Replication Origins

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alan C.; Méchali, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The onset of genomic DNA synthesis requires precise interactions of specialized initiator proteins with DNA at sites where the replication machinery can be loaded. These sites, defined as replication origins, are found at a few unique locations in all of the prokaryotic chromosomes examined so far. However, replication origins are dispersed among tens of thousands of loci in metazoan chromosomes, thereby raising questions regarding the role of specific nucleotide sequences and chromatin environment in origin selection and the mechanisms used by initiators to recognize replication origins. Close examination of bacterial and archaeal replication origins reveals an array of DNA sequence motifs that position individual initiator protein molecules and promote initiator oligomerization on origin DNA. Conversely, the need for specific recognition sequences in eukaryotic replication origins is relaxed. In fact, the primary rule for origin selection appears to be flexibility, a feature that is modulated either by structural elements or by epigenetic mechanisms at least partly linked to the organization of the genome for gene expression. PMID:23838439

  1. Isolation of a 25-kDa protein binding to a curved DNA upstream the origin of the L strand replication in the rat mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Gadaleta, G; D'Elia, D; Capaccio, L; Saccone, C; Pepe, G

    1996-06-01

    The presence of a curved DNA sequence in the gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2 of rat mitochondrial genome, upstream from the origin of the light strand replication have been demonstrated through theoretical analysis and experimental approaches. Gel retardation assays showed that this structure makes a complex with a protein component extracted from the mitochondrial matrix. The isolation and purification of this protein is reported. With a Sepharose CL-6B and magnetic DNA affinity chromatography a polypeptide was purified to homogeneity having 25-kDa mass as shown by gel electrophoresis. To functionally characterize this protein, its capability to bind to other sequences of the homologous or heterologous DNA and to specific riboprobes was also investigated. A role for this protein as a trans-acting agent required for the expression of the mammalian mitochondrial genome is suggested. PMID:8662779

  2. Peptide Aptamers That Bind to Geminivirus Replication Proteins Confer a Resistance Phenotype to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Mottle Virus Infection in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria Ines; Nash, Tara E.; Dallas, Mary M.; Ascencio-Ibáñez, J. Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses constitute a large family of single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious losses in important crops worldwide. They often exist in disease complexes and have high recombination and mutation rates, allowing them to adapt rapidly to new hosts and environments. Thus, an effective resistance strategy must be general in character and able to target multiple viruses. The geminivirus replication protein (Rep) is a good target for broad-based disease control because it is highly conserved and required for viral replication. In an earlier study, we identified a set of peptide aptamers that bind to Rep and reduce viral replication in cultured plant cells. In this study, we selected 16 of the peptide aptamers for further analysis in yeast two-hybrid assays. The results of these experiments showed that all 16 peptide aptamers interact with all or most of the Rep proteins from nine viruses representing the three major Geminiviridae genera and identified two peptide aptamers (A22 and A64) that interact strongly with different regions in the Rep N terminus. Transgenic tomato lines expressing A22 or A64 and inoculated with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus or Tomato mottle virus exhibited delayed viral DNA accumulation and often contained lower levels of viral DNA. Strikingly, the effect on symptoms was stronger, with many of the plants showing no symptoms or strongly attenuated symptoms. Together, these results established the efficacy of using Rep-binding peptide aptamers to develop crops that are resistant to diverse geminiviruses. PMID:23824791

  3. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W Matthew

    2016-06-17

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes. PMID:27129245

  4. Increasing Rate of Cleavage at Boundary between Non-structural Proteins 4B and 5A Inhibits Replication of Hepatitis C Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Herod, Morgan R.; Jones, Daniel M.; McLauchlan, John; McCormick, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus, non-structural proteins are cleaved from the viral polyprotein by viral encoded proteases. Although proteolytic processing goes to completion, the rate of cleavage differs between different boundaries, primarily due to the sequence at these positions. However, it is not known whether slow cleavage is important for viral replication or a consequence of restrictions on sequences that can be tolerated at the cleaved ends of non-structural proteins. To address this question, mutations were introduced into the NS4B side of the NS4B5A boundary, and their effect on replication and polyprotein processing was examined in the context of a subgenomic replicon. Single mutations that modestly increased the rate of boundary processing were phenotypically silent, but a double mutation, which further increased the rate of boundary cleavage, was lethal. Rescue experiments relying on viral RNA polymerase-induced error failed to identify second site compensatory mutations. Use of a replicon library with codon degeneracy did allow identification of second site compensatory mutations, some of which fell exclusively within the NS5A side of the boundary. These mutations slowed boundary cleavage and only enhanced replication in the context of the original lethal NS4B double mutation. Overall, the data indicate that slow cleavage of the NS4B5A boundary is important and identify a previously unrecognized role for NS4B5A-containing precursors requiring them to exist for a minimum finite period of time. PMID:22084249

  5. Inhibition of the HCV core protein on the immune response to HBV surface antigen and on HBV gene expression and replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenbo; Wu, Chunchen; Deng, Wanyu; Pei, Rongjun; Wang, Yun; Cao, Liang; Qin, Bo; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen

    2012-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is a multifunctional protein that can interfere with the induction of an immune response. It has been reported that the HCV core protein inhibits HBV replication in vitro. In this study, we test the effect of the HCV core gene on the priming of the immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and on the replication of HBV in vivo. Our results showed that the full-length HCV core gene inhibits the induction of an immune response to the heterogeneous antigen, HBsAg, at the site of inoculation when HCV core (pC191) and HBsAg (pHBsAg) expression plasmids are co-administered as DNA vaccines into BALB/c mice. The observed interference effect of the HCV core occurs in the priming stage and is limited to the DNA form of the HBsAg antigen, but not to the protein form. The HCV core reduces the protective effect of the HBsAg when the HBsAg and the HCV core are co-administered as vaccines in an HBV hydrodynamic mouse model because the HCV core induces immune tolerance to the heterogeneous HBsAg DNA antigen. These results suggest that HCV core may play an important role in viral persistence by the attenuation of host immune responses to different antigens. We further tested whether the HCV core interfered with the priming of the immune response in hepatocytes via the hydrodynamic co-injection of an HBV replication-competent plasmid and an HCV core plasmid. The HCV core inhibited HBV replication and antigen expression in both BALB/c (H-2d) and C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice, the mouse models of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infections. Thus, the HCV core inhibits the induction of a specific immune response to an HBsAg DNA vaccine. However, HCV C also interferes with HBV gene expression and replication in vivo, as observed in patients with coinfection. PMID:23024803

  6. Expression of porcine fusion protein IRF7/3(5D) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have demonstrated that administration of type I, II, or III interferons (IFN) delivered using a replication defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector is effective to control Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, high doses are requi...

  7. SARS-CoV ORF1b-encoded nonstructural proteins 12-16: replicative enzymes as antiviral targets.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Imbert, Isabelle; Ferron, François; Collet, Axelle; Coutard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic caused ten years ago by the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology of coronaviruses. This research has provided significant new insight into many mechanisms used by the coronavirus replication-transcription complex (RTC). The RTC directs and coordinates processes in order to replicate and transcribe the coronavirus genome, a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of outstanding length (∼27-32kilobases). Here, we review the up-to-date knowledge on SARS-CoV replicative enzymes encoded in the ORF1b, i.e., the main RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), the helicase/triphosphatase (nsp13), two unusual ribonucleases (nsp14, nsp15) and RNA-cap methyltransferases (nsp14, nsp16). We also review how these enzymes co-operate with other viral co-factors (nsp7, nsp8, and nsp10) to regulate their activity. These last ten years of research on SARS-CoV have considerably contributed to unravel structural and functional details of one of the most fascinating replication/transcription machineries of the RNA virus world. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses". PMID:24269475

  8. Identification of DNA-Damage DNA-Binding Protein 1 as a Conditional Essential Factor for Cytomegalovirus Replication in Interferon-γ-Stimulated Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trilling, Mirko; Le, Vu Thuy Khanh; Fiedler, Manuela; Zimmermann, Albert; Bleifuß, Elke; Hengel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    The mouse cytomegaloviral (MCMV) protein pM27 represents an indispensable factor for viral fitness in vivo selectively, antagonizing signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)-mediated interferon signal transduction. We wished to explore by which molecular mechanism pM27 accomplishes this effect. We demonstrate that pM27 is essential and sufficient to curtail the protein half-life of STAT2 molecules. Pharmacologic inhibition of the proteasome restored STAT2 amounts, leading to poly-ubiquitin-conjugated STAT2 forms. PM27 was found in complexes with an essential host ubiquitin ligase complex adaptor protein, DNA-damage DNA-binding protein (DDB) 1. Truncation mutants of pM27 showed a strict correlation between DDB1 interaction and their ability to degrade STAT2. SiRNA-mediated knock-down of DDB1 restored STAT2 in the presence of pM27 and strongly impaired viral replication in interferon conditioned cells, thus phenocopying the growth attenuation of M27-deficient virus. In a constructive process, pM27 recruits DDB1 to exploit ubiquitin ligase complexes catalyzing the obstruction of the STAT2-dependent antiviral state of cells to permit viral replication. PMID:21698215

  9. Interactome Analysis of the NS1 Protein Encoded by Influenza A H1N1 Virus Reveals a Positive Regulatory Role of Host Protein PRP19 in Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Li, Zong-Hua; Li, Li-Hsin; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Tam, Ee-Hong; Liu, Helene M; Liu, Hao-Ping; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2016-05-01

    Influenza A virus, which can cause severe respiratory illnesses in infected individuals, is responsible for worldwide human pandemics. The NS1 protein encoded by this virus plays a crucial role in regulating the host antiviral response through various mechanisms. In addition, it has been reported that NS1 can modulate cellular pre-mRNA splicing events. To investigate the biological processes potentially affected by the NS1 protein in host cells, NS1-associated protein complexes in human cells were identified using coimmunoprecipitation combined with GeLC-MS/MS. By employing software to build biological process and protein-protein interaction networks, NS1-interacting cellular proteins were found to be related to RNA splicing/processing, cell cycle, and protein folding/targeting cellular processes. By monitoring spliced and unspliced RNAs of a reporter plasmid, we further validated that NS1 can interfere with cellular pre-mRNA splicing. One of the identified proteins, pre-mRNA-processing factor 19 (PRP19), was confirmed to interact with the NS1 protein in influenza A virus-infected cells. Importantly, depletion of PRP19 in host cells reduced replication of influenza A virus. In summary, the interactome of influenza A virus NS1 in host cells was comprehensively profiled, and our findings reveal a novel regulatory role for PRP19 in viral replication. PMID:27096427

  10. The 6-Aminoquinolone WC5 Inhibits Human Cytomegalovirus Replication at an Early Stage by Interfering with the Transactivating Activity of Viral Immediate-Early 2 Protein ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Loregian, Arianna; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Muratore, Giulia; Sinigalia, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Massari, Serena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gatto, Barbara; Palumbo, Manlio; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    WC5 is a 6-aminoquinolone that potently inhibits the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) but has no activity, or significantly less activity, against other herpesviruses. Here we investigated the nature of its specific anti-HCMV activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on a small series of analogues showed that WC5 possesses the most suitable pattern of substitutions around the quinolone scaffold to give potent and selective anti-HCMV activity. Studies performed to identify the possible target of WC5 indicated that it prevents viral DNA synthesis but does not significantly affect DNA polymerase activity. In yield reduction experiments with different multiplicities of infection, the anti-HCMV activity of WC5 appeared to be highly dependent on the viral inoculum, suggesting that WC5 may act at an initial stage of virus replication. Consistently, time-of-addition and time-of-removal studies demonstrated that WC5 affects a phase of the HCMV replicative cycle that precedes viral DNA synthesis. Experiments to monitor the effects of the compound on virus attachment and entry showed that it does not inhibit either process. Evaluation of viral mRNA and protein expression revealed that WC5 targets an event of the HCMV replicative cycle that follows the transcription and translation of immediate-early genes and precedes those of early and late genes. In cell-based assays to test the effects of WC5 on the transactivating activity of the HCMV immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein, WC5 markedly interfered with IE2-mediated transactivation of viral early promoters. Finally, WC5 combined with ganciclovir in checkerboard experiments exhibited highly synergistic activity. These findings suggest that WC5 deserves further investigation as a candidate anti-HCMV drug with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:20194695

  11. Dual effect of nitric oxide on SARS-CoV replication: Viral RNA production and palmitoylation of the S protein are affected

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstroem, Sara; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Keng, Choong Tat; Tan, Yee-Joo; Mirazimi, Ali

    2009-12-05

    Nitric oxide is an important molecule playing a key role in a broad range of biological process such as neurotransmission, vasodilatation and immune responses. While the anti-microbiological properties of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) such as peroxynitrite, are known, the mechanism of these effects are as yet poorly studied. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, was first identified during 2002-2003. Mortality in SARS patients ranges from between 6 to 55%. We have previously shown that nitric oxide inhibits the replication cycle of SARS-CoV in vitro by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we have further investigated the mechanism of the inhibition process of nitric oxide against SARS-CoV. We found that peroxynitrite, an intermediate product of nitric oxide in solution formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide, has no effect on the replication cycle of SARS-CoV, suggesting that the inhibition is either directly effected by NO or a derivative other than peroxynitrite. Most interestingly, we found that NO inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV by two distinct mechanisms. Firstly, NO or its derivatives cause a reduction in the palmitoylation of nascently expressed spike (S) protein which affects the fusion between the S protein and its cognate receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2. Secondly, NO or its derivatives cause a reduction in viral RNA production in the early steps of viral replication, and this could possibly be due to an effect on one or both of the cysteine proteases encoded in Orf1a of SARS-CoV.

  12. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.

  13. Nucleoprotein of influenza A virus negatively impacts antiapoptotic protein API5 to enhance E2F1-dependent apoptosis and virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Mayank, A K; Sharma, S; Nailwal, H; Lal, S K

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of host cells profoundly influences virus propagation and dissemination, events that are integral to influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis. The trigger for activation of apoptosis is regulated by an intricate interplay between cellular and viral proteins, with a strong bearing on IAV replication. Though the knowledge of viral proteins and mechanisms employed by IAV to induce apoptosis has advanced considerably of late, we know relatively little about the repertoire of host factors targeted by viral proteins. Thus, identification of cellular proteins that are hijacked by the virus will help us not only to understand the molecular underpinnings of IAV-induced apoptosis, but also to design future antiviral therapies. Here we show that the nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV directly interacts with and suppresses the expression of API5, a host antiapoptotic protein that antagonizes E2F1-dependent apoptosis. siRNA-mediated depletion of API5, in NP-overexpressed as well as IAV-infected cells, leads to upregulation of apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1), a downstream modulator of E2F1-mediated apoptosis, and cleavage of caspases 9 and 3, although a reciprocal pattern of these events was observed on ectopic overexpression of API5. In concordance with these observations, annexin V and 7AAD staining assays exhibit downregulation of early and late apoptosis in IAV-infected or NP-transfected cells on overexpression of API5. Most significantly, while overexpression of API5 decreases viral titers, cellular NP protein as well as mRNA levels in IAV-infected A549 cells, silencing of API5 expression causes a steep rise in the same parameters. From the data reported in this manuscript, we propose a proapoptotic role for NP in IAV pathogenesis, whereby it suppresses expression of antiapoptotic factor API5, thus potentiating the E2F1-dependent apoptotic pathway and ensuring viral replication. PMID:26673663

  14. Purification of a cellular, double-stranded DNA-binding protein required for initiation of adenovirus DNA replication by using a rapid filter-binding assay.

    PubMed Central

    Diffley, J F; Stillman, B

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative nitrocellulose filter-binding assay is described for the detection of nuclear factor I, a HeLa cell sequence-specific DNA-binding protein required for the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. In this assay, the abundant nonspecific DNA-binding activity present in unfractionated HeLa nuclear extracts was greatly reduced by preincubation of these extracts with a homopolymeric competitor DNA. Subsequently, specific DNA-binding activity was detected as the preferential retention of a labeled 48-base-pair DNA fragment containing a functional nuclear factor I binding site compared with a control DNA fragment to which nuclear factor I did not bind specifically. This specific DNA-binding activity was shown to be both quantitative and time dependent. Furthermore, the conditions of this assay allowed footprinting of nuclear factor I in unfractionated HeLa nuclear extracts and quantitative detection of the protein during purification. Using unfrozen HeLa cells and reagents known to limit endogenous proteolysis, nuclear factor I was purified to near homogeneity from HeLa nuclear extracts by a combination of standard chromatography and specific DNA affinity chromatography. Over a 400-fold purification of nuclear factor I, on the basis of the specific activity of both sequence-specific DNA binding and complementation of adenovirus DNA replication in vitro, was affected by this purification. The most highly purified fraction was greatly enriched for a polypeptide of 160 kilodaltons on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Furthermore, this protein cosedimented with specific DNA-binding activity on glycerol gradients. That this fraction indeed contained nuclear factor I was demonstrated by both DNase I footprinting and its function in the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. Finally, the stoichiometry of specific DNA binding by nuclear factor I is shown to be most consistent with 2 mol of the 160-kilodalton polypeptide

  15. Chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 contributes to the replication of infectious bursal disease virus via interaction with the capsid protein VP2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhou; Ren, Xiangang; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Nian; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Li, Kai; Jiang, Lili; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The capsid protein VP2 of IBDV plays multiple roles in its life cycle. To more comprehensively understand the functions of VP2 involved in the communication between virus and host, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the cellular factors that interact with this protein. We found that chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 (CSGalNAcT2), a typical type II transmembrane protein located in Golgi apparatus, could interact with VP2, and we confirmed this interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy assays. Additionally, up-regulation of CSGalNAcT2 during IBDV infection was observed. Overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of CSGalNAcT2 assays suggested that CSGalNAcT2 promoted IBDV replication. Moreover, this enhancing effect of CSGalNAcT2 could be inhibited by Brefeldin A, which is a Golgi-disturbing agent. This indicated that the integrity of Golgi apparatus structure was involved in the function of CSGalNAcT2. Taken together, we concluded that CSGalNAcT2, located in the Golgi apparatus, contributed to the replication of IBDV via interaction with VP2. PMID:25807054

  16. Site-specific cleavage of the host poly(A) binding protein by the encephalomyocarditis virus 3C proteinase stimulates viral replication.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Arias, Carolina; Garabedian, Alexandra; Palmenberg, Ann C; Mohr, Ian

    2012-10-01

    Although picornavirus RNA genomes contain a 3'-terminal poly(A) tract that is critical for their replication, the impact of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection on the host poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) remains unknown. Here, we establish that EMCV infection stimulates site-specific PABP proteolysis, resulting in accumulation of a 45-kDa N-terminal PABP fragment in virus-infected cells. Expression of a functional EMCV 3C proteinase was necessary and sufficient to stimulate PABP cleavage in uninfected cells, and bacterially expressed 3C cleaved recombinant PABP in vitro in the absence of any virus-encoded or eukaryotic cellular cofactors. N-terminal sequencing of the resulting C-terminal PABP fragment identified a 3C(pro) cleavage site on PABP between amino acids Q437 and G438, severing the C-terminal protein-interacting domain from the N-terminal RNA binding fragment. Single amino acid substitution mutants with changes at Q437 were resistant to 3C(pro) cleavage in vitro and in vivo, validating that this is the sole detectable PABP cleavage site. Finally, while ongoing protein synthesis was not detectably altered in EMCV-infected cells expressing a cleavage-resistant PABP variant, viral RNA synthesis and infectious virus production were both reduced. Together, these results establish that the EMCV 3C proteinase mediates site-specific PABP cleavage and demonstrate that PABP cleavage by 3C regulates EMCV replication. PMID:22837200

  17. A telomerase-derived peptide regulates reactive oxygen species and hepatitis C virus RNA replication in HCV-infected cells via heat shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung-Ae; Kim, Jinhee; Sim, Jihyun; Kim, Sang-Gyune; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Hang-Rae; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2016-02-26

    GV1001, a synthetic peptide derived from human telomerase, has a range of diverse biological activities, including an antioxidant function. Here, we investigated the role of GV1001 in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected Huh7.5 (JFH-1) cells. We showed that GV1001 inhibited the production of ROS with decreased MAP kinase signaling. Interestingly, GV1001 lost its antioxidant activity as ROS levels decreased, resulting in a reduction in extracellular heat shock protein 90 (eHSP90) as low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was blocked or knocked-down. GV1001 binds to eHSP90 and is delivered into the cell by endocytosis via LRP1. Endocytosed GV1001 finally suppressed ROS generation, presumably by hindering the interaction between eHSP90 and NADPH oxidase (NOX). Importantly, GV1001 suppressed HCV RNA replication in JFH-1 cells by inhibiting the binding of HSP90 to FKBP8, a member of the FK506-binding protein family. We also found that HSP90 expression was high in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Therefore, our data suggest that GV1001 may be a good therapeutic agent by controlling HCV RNA replication, as well as by preferentially targeting cells under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:26828270

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 Contributes to the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus via Interaction with the Capsid Protein VP2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhou; Ren, Xiangang; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Nian; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Li, Kai; Jiang, Lili; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a birnavirus that causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The capsid protein VP2 of IBDV plays multiple roles in its life cycle. To more comprehensively understand the functions of VP2 involved in the communication between virus and host, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the cellular factors that interact with this protein. We found that chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2 (CSGalNAcT2), a typical type II transmembrane protein located in Golgi apparatus, could interact with VP2, and we confirmed this interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy assays. Additionally, up-regulation of CSGalNAcT2 during IBDV infection was observed. Overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of CSGalNAcT2 assays suggested that CSGalNAcT2 promoted IBDV replication. Moreover, this enhancing effect of CSGalNAcT2 could be inhibited by Brefeldin A, which is a Golgi-disturbing agent. This indicated that the integrity of Golgi apparatus structure was involved in the function of CSGalNAcT2. Taken together, we concluded that CSGalNAcT2, located in the Golgi apparatus, contributed to the replication of IBDV via interaction with VP2. PMID:25807054

  19. Human Heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) promotes influenza A virus replication by assisting nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Jyoti; Tripathi, Shashank; Kumar, Amrita; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cox, Nancy J.; Lal, Renu B.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lal, Sunil K.

    2016-01-01

    A unique feature of influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle is replication of the viral genome in the host cell nucleus. The nuclear import of IAV genome is an indispensable step in establishing virus infection. IAV nucleoprotein (NP) is known to mediate the nuclear import of viral genome via its nuclear localization signals. Here, we demonstrate that cellular heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) facilitates the nuclear import of incoming IAV viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and is important for efficient IAV replication. Hsp40 was found to interact with NP component of IAV RNPs during early stages of infection. This interaction is mediated by the J domain of Hsp40 and N-terminal region of NP. Drug or RNAi mediated inhibition of Hsp40 resulted in reduced nuclear import of IAV RNPs, diminished viral polymerase function and attenuates overall viral replication. Hsp40 was also found to be required for efficient association between NP and importin alpha, which is crucial for IAV RNP nuclear translocation. These studies demonstrate an important role for cellular chaperone Hsp40/DnaJB1 in influenza A virus life cycle by assisting nuclear trafficking of viral ribonucleoproteins. PMID:26750153

  20. Human Heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) promotes influenza A virus replication by assisting nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Batra, Jyoti; Tripathi, Shashank; Kumar, Amrita; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cox, Nancy J; Lal, Renu B; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lal, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    A unique feature of influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle is replication of the viral genome in the host cell nucleus. The nuclear import of IAV genome is an indispensable step in establishing virus infection. IAV nucleoprotein (NP) is known to mediate the nuclear import of viral genome via its nuclear localization signals. Here, we demonstrate that cellular heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) facilitates the nuclear import of incoming IAV viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and is important for efficient IAV replication. Hsp40 was found to interact with NP component of IAV RNPs during early stages of infection. This interaction is mediated by the J domain of Hsp40 and N-terminal region of NP. Drug or RNAi mediated inhibition of Hsp40 resulted in reduced nuclear import of IAV RNPs, diminished viral polymerase function and attenuates overall viral replication. Hsp40 was also found to be required for efficient association between NP and importin alpha, which is crucial for IAV RNP nuclear translocation. These studies demonstrate an important role for cellular chaperone Hsp40/DnaJB1 in influenza A virus life cycle by assisting nuclear trafficking of viral ribonucleoproteins. PMID:26750153

  1. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) inhibits Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (HCV IRES)-mediated translation, but does not affect HCV replication.

    PubMed

    Tischendorf, J J W; Beger, C; Korf, M; Manns, M P; Krüger, M

    2004-10-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) has previously been shown to affect Hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES-mediated translation. In the present study we investigated the functional role of PTB for HCV translation, replication and chronic HCV infection. Bicistronic HCV IRES reporter plasmids and two different subgenomic replicons (bicistronic: pHCVrep1bBB7 (s1179I); monocistronic: pFK1-389/hyg-ubi/NS3-3'/5.1) were used to analyze the effects of PTB. Following transfection of plasmids expressing PTB RNA in sense or antisense orientation, translational activity and HCV RNA were analyzed by luciferase assay, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and northern blot analysis. Additionally, in liver tissue (n = 53) intrahepatic PTB RNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Significant inhibition of HCV IRES activity up to 42.6% was observed upon PTB sense RNA expression for HCV IRES reporter plasmids, while translational activity was enhanced up to 63.8% for PTB antisense RNA expression. In the HCV replicons PTB did not affect replication and no correlation was found between intrahepatic PTB mRNA levels and serum HCV RNA or histological changes in liver tissue of HCV infected patients. Although PTB inhibits HCV IRES-mediated translation from bicistronic reporter constructs, data obtained from two subgenomic HCV replicons and liver tissue do not indicate a significant role of PTB for HCV replication and chronic HCV infection. PMID:15669107

  2. Functional analysis of the N-terminal basic motif of a eukaryotic satellite RNA virus capsid protein in replication and packaging.

    PubMed

    Sivanandam, Venkatesh; Mathews, Deborah; Garmann, Rees; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Zandi, Roya; Rao, A L N

    2016-01-01

    Efficient replication and assembly of virus particles are integral to the establishment of infection. In addition to the primary role of the capsid protein (CP) in encapsidating the RNA progeny, experimental evidence on positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses suggests that the CP also regulates RNA synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that replication of Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is controlled by the cooperative interaction between STMV CP and the hel