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Sample records for reported outcome questionnaires

  1. The OnyCOE-t™ questionnaire: responsiveness and clinical meaningfulness of a patient-reported outcomes questionnaire for toenail onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lori P; Mathias, Susan D; Raut, Monika; Kianifard, Farid; Tavakkol, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Background This research was conducted to confirm the validity and reliability and to assess the responsiveness and clinical meaningfulness of the OnyCOE-t™, a questionnaire specifically designed to measure patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with toenail onychomycosis. Methods 504 patients with toenail onychomycosis randomized to receive 12 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day with or without target toenail debridement in the IRON-CLAD® trial completed the OnyCOE-t™ at baseline, weeks 6, 12, 24, and 48. The OnyCOE-t™ is composed of 6 multi-item scales and 1 single-item scale. These include a 7-item Toenail Symptom assessment, which comprises both Symptom Frequency and Symptom Bothersomeness scales; an 8-item Appearance Problems scale; a 7-item Physical Activities Problems scale; a 1-item Overall Problem scale; a 7-item Stigma scale; and a 3-item Treatment Satisfaction scale. In total, 33 toenail onychomycosis-specific items are included in the OnyCOE-t™. Clinical data, in particular the percent clearing of mycotic involvement in the target toenail, and OnyCOE-t™ responses were used to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results The OnyCOE-t™ was shown to be reliable and valid. Construct validity and known groups validity were acceptable. Internal consistency reliability of multi-item scales was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha > .84. Responsiveness was good, with the Treatment Satisfaction, Symptom Frequency, Overall Problem, and Appearance Problem scales demonstrating the most responsiveness (Guyatt's statistic of 1.72, 1.31, 1.13, and 1.11, respectively). MCID was evaluated for three different clinical measures, and indicated that approximately an 8.5-point change (on a 0 to 100 scale) was clinically meaningful based on a 25% improvement in target nail clearing. Conclusion The OnyCOE-t™ questionnaire is a unique, toenail-specific PRO questionnaire that can be

  2. Patient reported outcome measures for cardiac ablation procedures: a multicentre pilot to develop a new questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Withers, Kathleen L.; White, Judith; Carolan-Rees, Grace; Patrick, Hannah; O'Callaghan, Peter; Murray, Stephen; Cunningham, David; Wood, Kathryn A.; Lencioni, Mauro; Griffith, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the feasibility of administering Patient Reported Outcomes Measures (PROMs) in patients treated with ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, and to conduct the first stage of development and testing of a new PROM tool. Methods and results A new tool was developed by a multidisciplinary team and tested alongside an adaptation of the patient perception of arrhythmia questionnaire (PPAQ) and EQ-5D-5L in a multicentre retrospective audit involving 791 consecutive cardiac arrhythmia patients treated with catheter ablation at three UK centres over 13 months. Data were recorded in the National Cardiac Rhythm Management Database, part of the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research. The response rate was 71.9% (n = 569). Patients reported significant improvements across all outcomes and impacts, with reductions in symptoms of 51.7% (heart racing), 33.9% (fatigue) 31.8% (heart flutters), 43.5% (dizziness), 38.6% (breathlessness), 44.2% (chest pressure), 33.1% (trouble concentrating), 15.9% (headache), 28.3% (neck pressure), and 23.4% (fainting) (P < 0.001). The mean number of social days affected reduced by 7.49 days/month (P < 0.001); mean work/school days affected/month reduced by 6.26 (P < 0.001); mean GP/hospital visits reduced by 1.36 days/month (P < 0.001). The procedure met patient expectations in 72% of responders. Conclusions The high response rate suggests that the use of PROMs in this patient group is feasible, with rates equalling those of the National PROMs Programme. The results showed that patients experienced significant improvements in their quality of life following ablation, while feedback allowed the tools to be improved. Further work is required to validate these tools; however, the findings suggest that PROMs could be useful in the audit of ablation techniques. PMID:24627541

  3. Towards Tailored Patient's Management Approach: Integrating the Modified 2010 ACR Criteria for Fibromyalgia in Multidimensional Patient Reported Outcome Measures Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    El Miedany, Yasser; El Gaafary, Maha; Youssef, Sally; Ahmed, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change of a patient self-reported questionnaire combining the Widespread Pain Index and the Symptom Severity Score as well as construct outcome measures and comorbidities assessment in fibromyalgia patients. Methods. The PROMs-FM was conceptualized based on frameworks used by the WHO Quality of Life tool and the PROMIS. Initially, cognitive interviews were conducted to identify item pool of questions. Item selection and reduction were achieved based on patients as well as an interdisciplinary group of specialists. Rasch and internal consistency reliability analyses were implemented. The questionnaire included the modified ACR criteria main items (Symptom Severity Score and Widespread Pain Index), in addition to assessment of functional disability, quality of life (QoL), review of the systems, and comorbidities. Every patient completed HAQ and EQ-5D questionnaires. Results. A total of 146 fibromyalgia patients completed the questionnaire. The PROMs-FM questionnaire was reliable as demonstrated by a high standardized alpha (0.886–0.982). Content construct assessment of the functional disability and QoL revealed significant correlation (p < 0.01) with both HAQ and EQ-5D. Changes in functional disability and QoL showed significant (p < 0.01) variation with diseases activity status in response to therapy. There was higher prevalence of autonomic symptoms, CVS risk, sexual dysfunction, and falling. Conclusions. The developed PROMs-FM questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of fibromyalgia patients. A phased treatment regimen depending on the severity of FMS as well as preferences and comorbidities of the patient is the best approach to tailored patient management. PMID:27190648

  4. High Concordance between Self-Reported Adherence, Treatment Outcome and Satisfaction with Care Using a Nine-Item Health Questionnaire in InfCareHIV

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Gaetano; Mellgren, Åsa; Eriksson, Lars E.; Svedhem, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Background In this cross-sectional study we present an integrated analysis of a self-reported Health Questionnaire and socio-demographic and treatment outcome data from the national Swedish HIV cohort, InfCareHIV. Objectives To evaluate the Health Questionnaire and identify the main determinants of adherence. Methods A total of 2,846 patients answered a nine-item disease-specific Health Questionnaire between 2012 and 2014, corresponding to 44% of all active patients in the national InfCareHIV cohort. The questionnaire assessed patient related outcome measures (PROMs) regarding health and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and patient related experience measures (PREMs) regarding involvement in care and satisfaction with the care provider. Result We found the Health Questionnaire to be valid and reliable when used in ordinary clinical practice. There was a high concordance between self-reported adherence to ART in the past seven days and treatment outcome, with 94% of patients who reported optimal adherence having a viral load <50 copies/ml. The main determinants of optimal adherence were heterosexual transmission path, being born in Sweden, being male, not reporting experience of ART side effects and being fully satisfied with care. Conclusion The nine-item Health Questionnaire can identify patients at risk of treatment failure, those in need of clinical assessment of adverse events and those with impaired physical health. PMID:27310201

  5. Patient experiences with oily skin: The qualitative development of content for two new patient reported outcome questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Robert; Atkinson, Mark J; Clark, Marci; Abetz, Linda; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Harness, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Thiboutot, Diane; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop the content for two new patient reported outcome (PRO) measures to: a) assess the severity of symptoms; and b) the impact of facial skin oiliness on emotional wellbeing using qualitative data from face to face, and internet focus groups in Germany and the US. Methods Using input from initial treatment satisfaction focus groups (n = 42), a review of relevant literature and expert clinicians (n = 3), a discussion guide was developed to guide qualitative inquiry using Internet focus groups (IFGs). IFGs were conducted with German (n = 26) and US (n = 28) sufferers of oily skin. Questionnaire items were generated using coded transcript data from the focus groups. Cognitive debriefing was conducted online with 42 participants and face to face with an additional five participants to assess the comprehension of the items. Results There were equal numbers of male and female participants; mean age was 35.4 (SD 9.3) years. On average, participants had had oily skin for 15.2 years, and 74% (n = 40) reported having mild-moderate acne. Participants reported using visual, tactile and sensory (feel without touching their face) methods to evaluate the severity of facial oiliness. Oily facial skin had both an emotional and social impact, and was associated with feelings of unattractiveness, self-consciousness, embarrassment, irritation and frustration. Items were generated for a measure of oily skin severity (Oily Skin Self-Assessment Scale) and a measure of the impact of oily skin on emotional well-being (Oily Skin Impact Scale). Cognitive debriefing resulted in minor changes to the draft items and confirmed their face and content validity. Conclusion The research provides insight into the experience of having oily skin and illustrates significant difficulties associated with the condition. Item content was developed for early versions of two PRO measures of the symptoms and emotional impact of oily facial skin. The psychometric validation of these measures

  6. Development of a new occupational balance-questionnaire: incorporating the perspectives of patients and healthy people in the design of a self-reported occupational balance outcome instrument

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-reported outcome instruments in health research have become increasingly important over the last decades. Occupational therapy interventions often focus on occupational balance. However, instruments to measure occupational balance are scarce. The aim of the study was therefore to develop a generic self-reported outcome instrument to assess occupational balance based on the experiences of patients and healthy people including an examination of its psychometric properties. Methods We conducted a qualitative analysis of the life stories of 90 people with and without chronic autoimmune diseases to identify components of occupational balance. Based on these components, the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) was developed. Construct validity and internal consistency of the OB-Quest were examined in quantitative data. We used Rasch analyses to determine overall fit of the items to the Rasch model, person separation index and potential differential item functioning. Dimensionality testing was conducted by the use of t-tests and Cronbach’s alpha. Results The following components emerged from the qualitative analyses: challenging and relaxing activities, activities with acknowledgement by the individual and by the sociocultural context, impact of health condition on activities, involvement in stressful activities and fewer stressing activities, rest and sleep, variety of activities, adaptation of activities according to changed living conditions and activities intended to care for oneself and for others. Based on these, the seven items of the questionnaire (OB-Quest) were developed. 251 people (132 with rheumatoid arthritis, 43 with systematic lupus erythematous and 76 healthy) filled in the OB-Quest. Dimensionality testing indicated multidimensionality of the questionnaire (t = 0.58, and 1.66 after item reduction, non-significant). The item on the component rest and sleep showed differential item functioning (health condition and age

  7. Change Trajectories for the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report: Identifying Youth at Risk for Treatment Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…

  8. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Breast Reconstruction Surgery and Therapeutic Mammoplasty: Prospective Evaluation 1 Year Post-Surgery with BREAST-Q Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Laxmi; Busheri, Laleh; Dixit, Santosh; Patel, Chaula; Dhar, Upendra; Koppiker, Chaitanyanand

    2015-12-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) treatment leads to mutilation and destruction of breast shape with negative effects on body image and self-esteem.One of the main goals of reconstructive and oncoplastic breast surgery is to satisfy patients and improve their quality of life (QoL).Therefore, it is important to assess the patient experience post-surgery by means of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that focus on the patient's perception of the surgery and surgical care, as well as psychosocial well-being and physical functioning. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction such as breast appearance including implant type in a selective sample of women who underwent breast reconstruction surgery using implants. Participants in this prospective study were women, (age 26-75 years) that were newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma. All consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction between January 2013 and October 2014 were asked to complete the BREAST-Q questionnaire 1 year after surgery. 120 patients underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using implant. While 38 patients underwent reconstruction with opposite breast reduction symmertization, 27 patients underwent therapeutic mammoplasty. The response rate for BREAST-Q questionnaire completion was 98 % with 147 out of 150 study participants completed the questionnaire. From the data collected from 147 patients, the responses could be distributed into 4 distinct groups based on the reconstruction outcomes namely "very much satisfied" (93 %) or "definitely and mostly satisfied" (94 %) or "satisfied" with the outcome (88 %) or "definitely agree on having reconstruction rather than the alternative of having no breast "(91 %).The results showed significant improvement in all four areas that were evaluated after surgery namely satisfaction with the appearance of the breasts, psychosocial, sexual and physical well-being. While the reconstruction surgery had an overall

  9. Patients’ attitudes and perceptions of two health-related quality-of-life questionnaires used to collect patient-reported outcome measures in the English National Health Service: A qualitative study of patients undergoing cardiac interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hinder, Susan; Steele, Sharon; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jackson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explore patients’ views on the EuroQol-5D and Coronary Revascularisation Outcome Questionnaire, tools currently used for collecting patient-reported outcome measures in the English National Health Service. The key questions were as follows: (1) whether patients consider them sensitive enough to detect change in their health after cardiovascular disease interventions and (2) whether they consider the health-related quality-of-life questions as meaningful. Methods: Data were collected on patients’ views using focus groups. We held four focus groups selecting participants on the basis of their baseline and follow-up EuroQol-5D scores. Data were analysed using framework analysis and grounded theory. Results: Focus group participants confirmed that they had derived substantial health benefits from their cardiac interventions despite the lack of measurable effects on the EuroQol-5D scores. Participants felt that the EuroQol-5D questionnaire was limited because of the following reasons: Their health fluctuates from day to day. They had difficulty assessing their general health status on the visual analogue scale. They felt that the Coronary Revascularisation Outcome Questionnaire was limited because of the following reasons: They did not understand the clinical terms used. The impact of tiredness on their quality of life was not captured. They were unable to distinguish between the effects of their heart condition and other health issues. Additionally, neither questionnaire considers the adjustments people have made to their domestic arrangements to improve their health-related quality of life. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the two questionnaires do not capture some aspects of health that patients consider important. Furthermore, the presence of co-morbidities masks the symptoms relating to the heart disease and the effect of their cardiac interventions. Future work on patient-reported outcome measures should consider developing new

  10. Is Real-Time Feedback of Burn-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Clinical Settings Practical and Useful? A Pilot Study Implementing the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Goverman, Jeremy; Fagan, Shawn P; Wang, Chao; Kim, Julia; Sheridan, Robert L; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up care of survivors after burn injuries can potentially be improved by the application of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs can inform clinical decision-making and foster communication between the patient and provider. There are no previous reports using real-time, burn-specific PROMs in clinical practice to track and benchmark burn recovery over time. This study examines the feasibility of a computerized, burn-specific PROM, the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire (YABOQ), with real-time benchmarking feedback in a burn outpatient practice. The YABOQ was redesigned for formatting and presentation purposes using images and transcribed to a computerized format. The redesigned questionnaire was administered to young adult burn survivors (ages 19-30 years, 1-24 months from injury) via an ipad platform in the office before outpatient visits. A report including recovery curves benchmarked to a nonburned relatively healthy age-matched population and to patients with similar injuries was produced for the domains of physical function and social function limited by appearance. A copy of the domain reports as well as a complete copy of the patient's responses to all domain questions was provided for use during the clinical visit. Patients and clinicians completed satisfaction surveys at the conclusion of the visit. Free-text responses, included in the satisfaction surveys, were treated as qualitative data adding contextual information about the assessment of feasibility. Eleven patients and their providers completed the study for 12 clinical visits. All patients found the ipad survey and report "easy" or "very easy" to use. In nine instances, patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that it helped them communicate their situation to their doctor/nurse practitioner. Patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that the report helped them understand their course of recovery in 10 visits. In 11 visits, the patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that

  11. The Bilevel Structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bludworth, Jamie L.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Glidden-Tracey, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (Lambert et al., 2001) was examined in a sample of 1,100 university counseling center clients using confirmatory factor analysis. Specifically, the relative fit of 1-factor, 3-factor orthogonal, 3-factor oblique, 4-factor hierarchical, and 4-factor bilevel models were examined. Although the 3-factor…

  12. Further Evaluation of the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Suh, Hanna; Ege, Engin

    2014-01-01

    Data from clinical and nonclinical samples ("Ns" = 2,096, 618) were used to evaluate and replicate the measurement structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2. Different measurement models and invariance tests were evaluated and the best psychometric support was found for a shortened measure of two factors: overall maladjustment and…

  13. Psychometric Validation of the Preschool Outcome Questionnaire: A Preschool Treatment Outcome Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David H.; Lloyd, Thad Q.; Stewart, Peter K.; Wells, M. Gawain

    2010-01-01

    Developing normed treatment outcome measures is important to research addressing treatment effectiveness and to improved clinical care. The Preschool Outcome Questionnaire (POQ) is a new measure designed for use with preschool children aged two to six. Designed in collaboration with parents and clinicians, the POQ is brief, easy to administer,…

  14. Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nowadays, more and more clinical scales consisting in responses given by the patients to some items (Patient Reported Outcomes - PRO), are validated with models based on Item Response Theory, and more specifically, with a Rasch model. In the validation sample, presence of missing data is frequent. The aim of this paper is to compare sixteen methods for handling the missing data (mainly based on simple imputation) in the context of psychometric validation of PRO by a Rasch model. The main indexes used for validation by a Rasch model are compared. Methods A simulation study was performed allowing to consider several cases, notably the possibility for the missing values to be informative or not and the rate of missing data. Results Several imputations methods produce bias on psychometrical indexes (generally, the imputation methods artificially improve the psychometric qualities of the scale). In particular, this is the case with the method based on the Personal Mean Score (PMS) which is the most commonly used imputation method in practice. Conclusions Several imputation methods should be avoided, in particular PMS imputation. From a general point of view, it is important to use an imputation method that considers both the ability of the patient (measured for example by his/her score), and the difficulty of the item (measured for example by its rate of favourable responses). Another recommendation is to always consider the addition of a random process in the imputation method, because such a process allows reducing the bias. Last, the analysis realized without imputation of the missing data (available case analyses) is an interesting alternative to the simple imputation in this context. PMID:21756330

  15. Validation of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, Jillian; Yao, Manjiang; Bevans, Katherine B.; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Infant Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire (IGSQ), a tool to assess feeding tolerance in infants. Methods. Qualitative methods were used to develop IGSQ content across 5 symptom clusters, yielding a 13-item index of parent-reported infant digestion and elimination behaviors over the prior 7 days. Classical psychometric methods evaluated factor structure, interrater and retest reliability, and validity in 4 prospective studies of 836 infants. Results. Interrater and retest reliability were acceptable to good. IGSQ Index score was highly correlated (r = 0.89) with daily parent reports. IGSQ scores were significantly different between infants whose parents planned to switch formulas because of perceived feeding problems and those without parental concerns. Conclusions. The IGSQ is a practical, reliable, and valid method for assessment of infant gastrointestinal-related behaviors. Its use in clinical studies can provide empirical evidence to advance parent education regarding both normal and clinically meaningful feeding-related behaviors. PMID:25758425

  16. Student Outcomes Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Prince George's Community College (PGCC) created a Student Outcomes Report in December 1996 that measures course completion, retention, student achievement, program completion, transfer, and certification. Findings indicated that though the course pass rate was 75%, individual course completion ranged from 44% to 100%. Divisional pass rates ranged…

  17. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: Relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Caroline; Böhnke, Jan R; Gabe, Rhian; Croudace, Tim J; Tober, Gillian; Raistrick, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims To examine the relationship between three outcome measures used by a specialist addiction service (UK): the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ), the Social Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ) and the 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10). Design and Method A clinical sample of 715 service user records was extracted from a specialist addiction service (2011) database. The LDQ (dependence), SSQ (social satisfaction) and CORE-10 (psychological distress) were routinely administered at the start of treatment and again between 3 and 12 months post-treatment. A mixed pre/post-treatment dataset of 526 service users was subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Parallel Analysis and the Hull method were used to suggest the most parsimonious factor solution. Results Exploratory factor analysis with three factors accounted for 66.2% of the total variance but Parallel Analysis supported two factors as sufficient to account for observed correlations among items. In the two-factor solution, LDQ items and nine of the 10 CORE-10 items loaded on the first factor >0.41, and the SSQ items on factor 2 with loadings >0.63. A two dimensional summary appears sufficient and clinically meaningful. Discussion and Conclusions Among specialist addiction service users, social satisfaction appears to be a unique construct of addiction and is not the same as variation due to psychological distress or dependence. Our interpretation of the findings is that dependence is best thought of as a specific psychological condition subsumed under the construct psychological distress. [Fairhurst C, Böhnke JR, Gabe R, Croudace TJ, Tober G, Raistrick D. Factor analysis of treatment outcomes from a UK specialist addiction service: Relationship between the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Social Satisfaction Questionnaire and 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:643–650] PMID:24802233

  18. Proxy-reported questionnaires for young children with asthma: a structured review.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Amy; Clark, Marci; Demuro, Carla; Esser, Dirk

    2013-08-01

    Which proxy-reported outcome measures have been developed for use with children aged 6 years and younger to assess asthma symptoms, asthma control, and asthma-specific health-related quality of life, and do these questionnaires' measurement properties support their use as end-points in clinical trials? A two-phase literature search was conducted: 1) studies describing relevant questionnaires were identified, and the questionnaires were assessed against predefined criteria; 2) studies providing information on the measurement properties of questionnaires meeting the predefined inclusion criteria were identified. Literature sources included PubMed and EMBASE databases, scientific conference proceedings, a clinical trial registry, and a quality of life instrument database. The initial search of literature databases and conference abstracts identified 631 records. 20 paediatric asthma proxy-reported outcome instruments were identified; seven met the inclusion criteria: Childhood Asthma Control Test, Control de Asma en Niños Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Caregiver Diary, Pediatric Asthma Control Tool, PedsQL 3.0 Short-Form 22 Asthma Module, PedsQL Asthma Symptoms Scale, and Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids. Three proxy-reported outcome instruments were considered suitable for use as end-points in paediatric asthma clinical trials; the Pediatric Asthma Caregiver Diary possesses the strongest measurement properties of the three. PMID:23143547

  19. HEALTH OUTCOMES OF OBESITY AMONG OLDER PERSONS REVEALED BY COMMUNITY-BASED SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to pilot test a Nutrition Health Outcomes Questionnaire (NHOQ) designed to identify overweight/obese persons at risk for funcitonal decline and increased healthcare use. The NHOQ is a 14-item self-administered survey that queries body weight/weight change, dietary pr...

  20. Introducing an Outcome Expectation Questionnaire and Its Psychometric Properties Regarding Leisure Time Physical Activity for Iranian Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Outcome expectation (OE) is known as a psychosocial determinant of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Despite importance of this construct evaluation, there is no evidence of special questionnaire for measuring OE in Persian speaking Iranian male adolescents. Objectives: This article reports development and psychometric evaluation process of a specific questionnaire that evaluates OE about LTPA among Iranian male adolescents. Materials and Methods: Literature review and group discussions were used to select 26 items of this questionnaire based on 3 dimensions of OE (self-evaluation, social expectancy, and physical expectancy). All Participants (n = 720) were divided into two groups randomly after evaluating comprehensibility, face and content validity, and items analysis. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were separately operated on one of these groups for evaluation of the construct validity of questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was estimated by the Cronbach α. Results: EFA extracted 3 main factors explained 45.80%, 10.31%, and 7.51% of OE variance, respectively. Almost all fit indexes in CFA were acceptable (CMIN = 107.39, CMIN/DF = 2.619, CFI = 0.938, PCFI = 0.699, RMSEA = 0.067, PCLOSE = 0.034). Finally 11 items remained in the questionnaire, which showed excellent reliability on main study (α = 0.85). Conclusions: This study provided evidence regarding the reliability and validity of the Iranian male adolescent outcome expectation about leisure time physical activity (IMAO-PAC) and illustrated that this new questionnaire can be used to measure the perceived exercise benefits among target group in observational and interventional studies. PMID:26082851

  1. How useful are the BSUG database outcome criteria: validation using the MESA questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Elbiss, H M; Thomson, A J M; Moran, P A

    2010-01-01

    Urinary stress incontinence is common, but there is a wide range of prevalence which might account for variations in definition of incontinence and variations in study methodology. Our study assessed the validity and reliability of the British Society of Urogynaecology's (BSUG) database subjective outcome scores after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), by correlating these with the changes in the Medical Epidemiologic and Social Aspects of Ageing (MESA) questionnaire score. A total of 100 women with urodynamic stress incontinence underwent TVT, completed a MESA questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. We also collected information about three outcome measures of the BSUG database, patients' global impression of outcome and stress and urge symptom analyses. Our study showed that the postoperative patients' global impression of outcome improved significantly in 85% of cases and had 73.89% reduction in mean MESA scores (p < 0.001). The outcome measures of the BSUG database relates well to symptom improvement, based on MESA scores and these subjective assessments currently used by the BSUG's database are a valid assessment of TVT outcome. PMID:20925618

  2. [Patient-reported outcomes: definition and measurement].

    PubMed

    Botturi, Davide; Rodella, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The concept of "patient-reported outcomes" have been proposed by the Food and Drug Administration in the year 2000, in order to describe one of the different and potential sources of information on the drug's safety and effectiveness. It represents an "umbrella" term, which covers a multiplicity of meanings and primarily identifies a conceptual approach and a methodology specifically oriented to the patients' point of view on outcomes, instead of the traditional clinical and professional perspective. The patient-reported outcomes measures are frequently self-completed questionnaires. The measures can be classified in general and specific. The first one, general, relates to the assessment of the quality of life or the health status, in the general population or in subgroups with particular health problems (eg. SF-36 Health Survey, EQ-5D). The second one, specific, mainly relates to the assessment of particular types of symptoms (eg. pain, anxiety, fear, depression) and functions (eg. daily living activities), in population's subgroups with definite health problems, undergoing or not to a healthcare procedure (eg. Adult Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument, Oxford Hip Score, Oxford Knee Score). For the selection of an instrument a series of criteria needs to be taken into account, among which the psychometric properties, the expert judgement, the interpretability, the acceptability, and the feasibility of the entire process. PMID:25002284

  3. Prospects: Student Outcomes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Karweit, Nancy; Price, Cristofer; Ricciuti, Anne; Thompson, William; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael

    This report is one of a series presenting findings from "Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity." This study, conducted in response to the 1988 Hawkins-Stafford Amendments, was a major effort to examine the effects of Chapter 1 on student achievement and other school-related educational outcomes. Data…

  4. Doubtful outcome of the validation of the Rome II questionnaire: validation of a symptom based diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used in research and clinical practice. For gastrointestinal complaints the Rome II questionnaire is internationally known but not validated. The aim of this study was to validate a printed and a computerized version of Rome II, translated into Swedish. Results from various analyses are reported. Methods Volunteers from a population based colonoscopy study were included (n = 1011), together with patients seeking general practice (n = 45) and patients visiting a gastrointestinal specialists' clinic (n = 67). The questionnaire consists of 38 questions concerning gastrointestinal symptoms and complaints. Diagnoses are made after a special code. Our validation included analyses of the translation, feasibility, predictability, reproducibility and reliability. Kappa values and overall agreement were measured. The factor structures were confirmed using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency. Results and Discussion Translation and back translation showed good agreement. The questionnaire was easy to understand and use. The reproducibility test showed kappa values of 0.60 for GERS, 0.52 for FD, and 0.47 for IBS. Kappa values and overall agreement for the predictability when the diagnoses by the questionnaire were compared to the diagnoses by the clinician were 0.26 and 90% for GERS, 0.18 and 85% for FD, and 0.49 and 86% for IBS. Corresponding figures for the agreement between the printed and the digital version were 0.50 and 92% for GERS, 0.64 and 95% for FD, and 0.76 and 95% for IBS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for GERS was 0.75 with a span per item of 0.71 to 0.76. For FD the figures were 0.68 and 0.54 to 0.70 and for IBS 0.61 and 0.56 to 0.66. The Rome II questionnaire has never been thoroughly validated before even if diagnoses made by the Rome criteria have been compared to diagnoses made in clinical practice. Conclusion The accuracy of the Swedish version of the Rome II is of

  5. Patient reported outcome measures in septorhinoplasty surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, LR; Ward, MJ; Sunkaraneni, VS; Harries, PG; Salib, RJ

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgical procedures incorporating a cosmetic element such as septorhinoplasty and otoplasty are currently under threat in the National Health Service (NHS) as they are deemed to be procedures of ‘limited clinical benefit’ by many primary care providers. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), which assess the quality of care delivered from the patients’ perspective, are becoming increasingly important in documenting the effectiveness of such procedures. Methods The Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE) questionnaire, a validated PROM tool, was used to assess patient satisfaction in 141 patients undergoing septorhinoplasty surgery over a 90-month period at the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust. Results Overall, 100 patients with a mean follow-up period of 36 months completed the study. The mean ROE score was 73.3%. In addition, 75% of patients questioned were happy with the final result of their operation and 83% would undergo the procedure again if required. These benefits occurred irrespective of age, sex and primary versus revision surgery, and were maintained for up to 71 months following surgery. Conclusions This study has shown that patients are generally satisfied with their functional and cosmetic outcomes following septorhinoplasty surgery. These results help support the case for septorhinoplasty surgery to continue being funded as an NHS procedure. PMID:25519270

  6. Psychometrics of the Personal Questionnaire: A client-generated outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Robert; Wagner, John; Sales, Célia M D; Rodgers, Brian; Alves, Paula; Café, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    We present a range of evidence for the reliability and validity of data generated by the Personal Questionnaire (PQ), a client-generated individualized outcome measure, using 5 data sets from 3 countries. Overall pretherapy mean internal consistency (alpha) across clients was .80, and within-client alphas averaged .77; clients typically had 1 or 2 items that did not vary with the other items. Analyses of temporal structure indicated high levels of between-clients variance (58%), moderate pretherapy test-retest correlation (r = .57), and high session-to-session Lag-1 autocorrelation (.82). Scores on the PQ provided clear evidence of convergence with a range of outcome measures (within-client r = .41). Mean pre-post effects were large (d = 1.25). The results support a revised caseness cutoff of 3.25 and a reliable change index interval of 1.67. We conclude that PQ data meet criteria for evidence-based, norm-referenced measurement of client psychological distress for supporting psychotherapy practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075406

  7. Measuring health outcomes of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with chronic environmental conditions using an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Roy; Sampalli, Tara; Fox, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study. PMID:21197341

  8. Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire for Systemic Mastocytosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis (ASM); Systemic Mastocytosis With Associated Clonal Hematological Non-mast Cell Lineage Disease (SM-AHNMD); Mast Cell Leukemia (MCL); Smoldering Systemic Mastocytosis (SSM); Indolent Systemic Mastocytosis (ISM) [ISM Subgroup Fully Recruited

  9. The Menstrual Joy Questionnaire Items Alone Can Positively Prime Reporting of Menstrual Attitudes and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubeeluck, Aimee; Maguire, Moira

    2002-01-01

    Chrisler, Johnston, Champagne, and Preston (1994) reported that the title of the Menstrual Joy Questionnaire (MJQ) could prime participants to report positive changes on the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) and greater endorsement of "menstruation as a natural event" on the Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ). This study is a partial…

  10. Patient-reported outcomes in borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Jacob, Gitta A.; Brändle, Laura S.; Schulte-Vels, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes. PMID:25152662

  11. Outcome-Reporting Bias in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Williams, Ryan T.; Canada, Dericka D.

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-reporting bias occurs when primary studies do not include information about all outcomes measured in a study. When studies omit findings on important measures, efforts to synthesize the research using systematic review techniques will be biased and interpretations of individual studies will be incomplete. Outcome-reporting bias has been…

  12. Development of a Short Questionnaire to Measure an Extended Set of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Positive Health Outcomes: The New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; SHIMOMITSU, Teruichi; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi; HARATANI, Takashi; YOSHIKAWA, Toru; SHIMAZU, Akihito; ODAGIRI, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of a new version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ), which measures an extended set of psychosocial factors at work by adding new scales/items to the current version of the BJSQ. Additional scales/items were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaires in several countries. Scales/items were field-tested and refined through a pilot internet survey. Finally, an 84-item questionnaire (141 items in total when combined with the current BJSQ) was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to employees in Japan (n=1,633) to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Principal component analyses showed that the first factor explained 50% or greater proportion of the variance in most scales. A scale factor analysis and a correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the New BJSQ scales are reliable and valid. Although more detailed content and construct validity should be examined in future study, the New BJSQ is a useful instrument to evaluate psychosocial work environment and positive mental health outcomes in the current workplace. PMID:24492763

  13. Reported Voice Difficulties in Student Teachers: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Carol; Richards, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As professional voice users, teachers are particularly at risk of abusing their voices and developing voice disorders during their career. In spite of this, attention paid to voice care in the initial training and further professional development of teachers is unevenly spread and insufficient. This article describes a questionnaire survey of 171…

  14. Correlation of Patient-reported Symptom Outcomes and Treadmill Test Outcomes after Treatment for Aortoiliac Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Cohen, David J.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Mohler, Emile R.; Cerezo, Joselyn; Oldenburg, Niki C.; Thum, Claudia C.; Goldberg, Suzanne; Hirsch, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between objective treadmill test outcomes and subjective symptom outcomes among patients with claudication treated with stent revascularization (ST) compared with supervised exercise (SE). Materials and Methods Five scales of the Peripheral Artery Questionnaire and Walking Impairment Questionnaire were correlated with peak walking time and treadmill claudication onset time. Results The correlation between change in disease-specific quality of life (QOL) and change in peak walking time differed according to treatment group, with statistically significant correlations for all five scales for the ST group and weaker trends for the SE group, only one of which was statistically significant. In contrast, improvements in disease-specific QOL correlated well with increases in claudication onset time, with no significant interaction with treatment group for any of the five scales. Conclusions Disease-specific QOL results at 6 months in the CLEVER (Claudication: Exercise Vs. Endoluminal Revascularization) study show that improved maximal treadmill walking in patients with claudication treated with SE correlated poorly with self-reported symptom relief. Conversely, patients treated with ST showed good correlation between improved maximal treadmill walking and self-reported symptom improvement. The correlation between claudication onset time and self-reported symptom relief was good across treatment groups. This finding indicates that traditional objective treadmill test outcomes may not correlate well with symptom relief in patients with claudication. Future studies should investigate these data and improve understanding of patient relevance of traditional objective treadmill-based treatment outcomes. PMID:23906799

  15. Outcome Measure of Pain in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation: Validation Study of the Iranian version of Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Azhari, Shirzad; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Nayeb Aghaei, Hossain; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and culturally adapt an Iranian version of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) in Iran. Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods The PSQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. A total of 101 patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and 39 healthy cases were included in the study. All participants completed the PSQ and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, known group comparison, criterion validity and item-scale correlations were assessed. Results The mean age of participants was 51.7 years. Reliability, validity and correlation of PSQ and PCS showed satisfactory results. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.81 for PSQ-total, 0.82 for PSQ-minor, and 0.82 for PSQ-moderate. The intraclass correlation coefficients value was 0.84 (0.616–0.932) indicating an excellent test-retest reliability. The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in a standard predictive measure of LDH surgery (the Finneson–Cooper score). Total PSQ were also significantly correlated with the total scores of the PCS, lending support to its good convergent validity. Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the PSQ indicated acceptable results, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. Conclusions The adapted Iranian PSQ is a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of pain in patients with LDH. PMID:27340527

  16. Student Outcomes: Annual Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research.

    Each year a study is conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to update student outcomes data using quantifiable measures of student achievement. Data for the 1989 study were obtained from the college's student information system, the University of Maryland (UM) system, and surveys of all 825 fiscal year 1988 graduates and 118 of…

  17. Advances in Patient-Reported Outcomes: The NIH PROMIS® Measures

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joan E.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Rothrock, Nan; Crane, Paul K.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are questionnaire measures of patients’ symptoms, functioning, and health-related quality of life. They are designed to provide important clinical information that generally cannot be captured with objective medical testing. In 2004, the National Institutes of Health launched a research initiative to improve the clinical research enterprise by developing state-of-the-art PROs. The NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS) and Assessment Center are the products of that initiative. Adult, pediatric, and parent-proxy item banks have been developed by using contemporary psychometric methods, yielding rapid, accurate measurements. PROMIS currently provides tools for assessing physical, mental, and social health using short-form and computer-adaptive testing methods. The PROMIS tools are being adopted for use in clinical trials and translational research. They are also being introduced in clinical medicine to assess a broad range of disease outcomes. Recent legislative developments in the United States support greater efforts to include patients’ reports of health experience in order to evaluate treatment outcomes, engage in shared decision-making, and prioritize the focus of treatment. PROs have garnered increased attention by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for evaluating drugs and medical devices. Recent calls for comparative effectiveness research favor inclusion of PROs. PROs could also potentially improve quality of care and disease outcomes, provide patient-centered assessment for comparative effectiveness research, and enable a common metric for tracking outcomes across providers and medical systems. PMID:25848562

  18. The Parenting Questionnaire: An Inventory for Assessing Outcomes of Adlerian Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Jeanne; Tollefson, Nona

    This study field tests and evaluates the Parenting Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess parental attitudes and behavior, based on the child-raising theories of Dreikurs and Dinkmeyer and the Adlerian model for parent study groups. Dreikurs and Adler stress the purposive nature of children's behavior or misbehavior, and teach parents to…

  19. Staff Stressors and Staff Outcomes in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: The Staff Stressor Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Rivers, Morna; Mason, Heidi; Mason, Linda; Kiernan, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Alborz, Alison; Reeves, David

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 512 staff serving individuals with mental retardation investigated the validity of the 33-item Staff Stressor Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ measures potential stressors, including user challenging behavior, poor user skills, lack of staff support, lack of resources, low-status job, bureaucracy, and work/home conflict. Results show…

  20. Validating a Children's Self-Report Plate Waste Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrestal, Sarah G.; Issel, L. Michele; Kviz, Frederick J.; Chávez, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The National School Lunch Program is well situated to address the vulnerability of lower income children at increased risk for both under and overnutrition. Evidence suggests, however, that a significant amount of food served in the program goes uneaten. One way to monitor this problem is through children's self-reported plate…

  1. Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Designed to meet the mandate of the 1988 Reorganization of Maryland Higher Education Act, this 1991 report summarizes data from a number of studies of student achievement at Prince George's Community College (PGCC). Because PGCC has routinely collected and analyzed data on many of the required indicators, longitudinal data are presented where…

  2. Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: a questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Madeline; Thompson, Neill; Crampton, Paul; Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Gray, Christopher; Illing, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and impact of bullying behaviours between staff in the National Health Service (NHS) workplace, and to explore the barriers to reporting bullying. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Setting 7 NHS trusts in the North East of England. Participants 2950 NHS staff, of whom 43 took part in a telephone interview. Main outcome measures Prevalence of bullying was measured by the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R) and the impact of bullying was measured using indicators of psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), intentions to leave work, job satisfaction and self-reported sickness absence. Barriers to reporting bullying and sources of bullying were also examined. Results Overall, 20% of staff reported having been bullied by other staff to some degree and 43% reported having witnessed bullying in the last 6 months. Male staff and staff with disabilities reported higher levels of bullying. There were no overall differences due to ethnicity, but some differences were detected on several negative behaviours. Bullying and witnessing bullying were associated with lower levels of psychological health and job satisfaction, and higher levels of intention to leave work. Managers were the most common source of bullying. Main barriers to reporting bullying were the perception that nothing would change, not wanting to be seen as a trouble-maker, the seniority of the bully and uncertainty over how policies would be implemented and bullying cases managed. Data from qualitative interviews supported these findings and identified workload pressures and organisational culture as factors contributing to workplace bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a persistent problem in healthcare organisations which has significant negative outcomes for individuals and organisations.

  3. Case identification of depression with self-report questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark

    2002-01-31

    Many self-report measures that are used to identify cases of depression are symptom severity measures that are adopted for diagnostic purposes by use of cutoff scores. A troublesome problem with this approach is that optimal cutoff scores often vary across studies, which increases the difficulty of cross-study comparisons. This study evaluated the performance of a DSM-IV based depression screening scale, the Diagnostic Inventory for Depression. We compared the diagnostic performance of two different approaches to scoring the DID: a cutoff scoring approach and a standardized DSM-IV symptom-summation algorithm. Clinical diagnosis based on a semi-structured interview was the standard of comparison. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that a DID cutoff score performed comparably to the DID algorithmic approach in identifying cases. This finding is in contrast to prior research which suggested that algorithmic approaches might improve test performance over the cutoff score approach. The manner by which a user might choose the appropriate scale-scoring method for case identification is discussed. PMID:11850051

  4. The impact of an electronic health questionnaire on symptom management and behavior reporting for breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Bock, Meredith; Moore, Dan; Hwang, Jimmy; Shumay, Dianne; Lawson, Laurell; Hamolsky, Deborah; Esserman, Laura; Rugo, Hope; Chien, A Jo; Park, John; Munster, Pamela; Melisko, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer (BC) patients experience multiple symptoms as a result of diagnosis and treatment. While surveillance for detecting cancer recurrence is fundamental to follow-up care, managing symptoms, and promoting health behaviors are equally important. UCSF has implemented a secure online health questionnaire enabling BC patients to provide updates of their health history and symptoms. We randomly selected a sample of stage I-III BC patients (n = 106) who completed a questionnaire before a medical oncology visit between August 2010 and January 2011 and consented to have data used for research. We conducted a chart review calculating the number of symptoms reported in the questionnaire, the clinic note only, and both questionnaire and clinic note, excluding chronic symptoms addressed previously. Self-reported data on exercise and alcohol consumption was compared to documentation of these lifestyle factors in clinic notes. Patients reported significantly more symptoms using the online questionnaire (mean = 3.8, range 0-13) than were documented by the provider in clinic notes (mean = 1.8, range 0-7; p < 0.001 for the difference). A regression plot comparing the percentage of symptoms agreed upon by the patient and provider and the percentage of symptoms addressed yields a slope of 0.56 (95 % CI 0.41-0.71). The number of self-reported symptoms correlates with self-reported Karnofsky scale such that the number of symptoms reported by the patient increases linearly with this score until a threshold and it then plateaus (p < 0.001). Exercise behavior and alcohol consumption were reported in 100 % of the online questionnaires, but was documented in only 30/106 (28 %) and 75/106 (70 %) of charts reviewed. In 19/75 (25 %) charts with alcohol consumption documented, there was substantial discordance between patient and clinician reporting. Electronic data collection of BC patient-reported outcomes has a positive effect on symptom management and identification of

  5. Measuring Resource Utilization: A Systematic Review of Validated Self-Reported Questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Laura E; Khadaroo, Rachel G; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Hanson, Heather; Wagg, Adrian; Padwal, Raj; Clement, Fiona

    2016-03-01

    A variety of methods may be used to obtain costing data. Although administrative data are most commonly used, the data available in these datasets are often limited. An alternative method of obtaining costing is through self-reported questionnaires. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that summarize self-reported resource utilization instruments from the published literature.The aim of the study was to identify validated self-report healthcare resource use instruments and to map their attributes.A systematic review was conducted. The search identified articles using terms like "healthcare utilization" and "questionnaire." All abstracts and full texts were considered in duplicate. For inclusion, studies had to assess the validity of a self-reported resource use questionnaire, to report original data, include adult populations, and the questionnaire had to be publically available. Data such as type of resource utilization assessed by each questionnaire, and validation findings were extracted from each study.In all, 2343 unique citations were retrieved; 2297 were excluded during abstract review. Forty-six studies were reviewed in full text, and 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Six assessed resource utilization of patients with chronic conditions; 5 assessed mental health service utilization; 3 assessed resource utilization by a general population; and 1 assessed utilization in older populations. The most frequently measured resources included visits to general practitioners and inpatient stays; nonmedical resources were least frequently measured. Self-reported questionnaires on resource utilization had good agreement with administrative data, although, visits to general practitioners, outpatient days, and nurse visits had poorer agreement.Self-reported questionnaires are a valid method of collecting data on healthcare resource utilization. PMID:26962773

  6. Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS) Outcomes Report analyzes the characteristics of high school graduates, those who were eligible to receive the scholarship, and those who went on to make use of it during the three years of the scholarship's existence. The analysis includes their geographic, gender, ethnic, and socioeconomic…

  7. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  8. Patient-reported Outcomes in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Christopher H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been tremendous progress in the area of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). A PRO instrument is defined as any measure of a patient's health status that is elicited directly from the patient and assesses how the patient “feels or functions with respect to his or her health condition.” The advances seen in clinical research regarding PROs has been mirrored in research in cystic fibrosis (CF). A large number of instruments have been used for both therapeutic and nontherapeutic clinical research for many chronic conditions. This review will summarize a history of the development of PROs and how PROs are viewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We will then review the current state of the art of patient-reported outcomes in CF, specifically addressing the evaluation of different PRO instruments in terms of their reliability and validity. Finally, we will delineate further areas for development of PROs in CF. We believe that the future of CF research will incorporate a more diverse selection of PRO outcome measures; these outcome measures ultimately may be incorporated into clinical care to standardize symptom assessment and provide information regarding the need for specific clinical interventions to improve the quality of care delivered to these patients. PMID:17652505

  9. Using Data Linkage to Investigate Inconsistent Reporting of Self-Harm and Questionnaire Non-Response.

    PubMed

    Mars, Becky; Cornish, Rosie; Heron, Jon; Boyd, Andy; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Tilling, Kate; Macleod, John; Gunnell, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine agreement between self-reported and medically recorded self-harm, and investigate whether the prevalence of self-harm differs in questionnaire responders vs. non-responders. A total of 4,810 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed a self-harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Data from consenting participants were linked to medical records (number available for analyses ranges from 205-3,027). The prevalence of self-harm leading to hospital admission was somewhat higher in questionnaire non-responders than responders (2.0 vs. 1.2%). Hospital attendance with self-harm was under-reported on the questionnaire. One third reported self-harm inconsistently over time; inconsistent reporters were less likely to have depression and fewer had self-harmed with suicidal intent. Self-harm prevalence estimates derived from self-report may be underestimated; more accurate figures may come from combining data from multiple sources. PMID:26789257

  10. Using Data Linkage to Investigate Inconsistent Reporting of Self-Harm and Questionnaire Non-Response

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Becky; Cornish, Rosie; Heron, Jon; Boyd, Andy; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Tilling, Kate; Macleod, John; Gunnell, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine agreement between self-reported and medically recorded self-harm, and investigate whether the prevalence of self-harm differs in questionnaire responders vs. non-responders. A total of 4,810 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed a self-harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Data from consenting participants were linked to medical records (number available for analyses ranges from 205–3,027). The prevalence of self-harm leading to hospital admission was somewhat higher in questionnaire non-responders than responders (2.0 vs. 1.2%). Hospital attendance with self-harm was under-reported on the questionnaire. One third reported self-harm inconsistently over time; inconsistent reporters were less likely to have depression and fewer had self-harmed with suicidal intent. Self-harm prevalence estimates derived from self-report may be underestimated; more accurate figures may come from combining data from multiple sources. PMID:26789257

  11. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Michaud, Kaleb

    2016-05-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and their measures have a long and important history for determining the status and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This article describes the history and evolution of PROs for RA and the current state of the field, with key examples of accepted and widely used measures, and offers some reflection on the roles of PROs for the study and management of RA. PMID:27133486

  12. Staff Behavior toward Children and Adolescents in a Residential Facility: A Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitink, C.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Veerman, J. W.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninety-nine care staff completed the SBC and the Strengths and…

  13. Does participation in an intervention affect responses on self-reported questionnaires?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can change participants' interpretation of the items on a self-report questionnaire, thereby distorting subsequent responses and biasing results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis us...

  14. A Comparison of Father and Mother Report of Child Behaviour on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Senior, Rob; Sherr, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been no comparison of father and mother report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a standardised measure of child behaviour used widely in the UK in clinical practice and research. The objectives of the study were to investigate differences and agreement between parents on the various SDQ domains of child…

  15. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: Validation of a Parent-Report Screening Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples…

  16. Does Participation in an Intervention Affect Responses on Self-Report Questionnaires?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Tom; Allen, Diane D.; Masse, Louise C.; Wilson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can change participants' interpretation of the items on a self-report questionnaire thereby distorting subsequent responses and biasing results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using item response modeling can ascertain possible…

  17. Measuring changes in self-concept: a qualitative evaluation of outcome questionnaires in people having acupuncture for their chronic health problems

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Background Changes in self-concept are an important potential outcome for many interventions for people with long-term conditions. This study sought to identify and evaluate outcome questionnaires suitable for quantifying changes in self-concept in people with long-term conditions, in the context of treatment with acupuncture and Chinese medicine. Methods A literature search was followed by an evaluation of three questionnaires: The Wellbeing Questionnaire W-BQ12, the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI), and the Arizona Integrative Outcome Scale (AIOS). A convenience sample of 23 people completed the questionnaires on two occasions and were interviewed about their experience and their questionnaire responses. All acupuncturists were interviewed. Results Changes in self-concept were common and emerged over time. The three questionnaires had different strengths and weaknesses in relation to measuring changes in self-concept. The generic AIOS had face validity and was sensitive to changes in self-concept over time, but it lacked specificity. The PEI was sensitive and specific in measuring these changes but had lower acceptability. The sensitivity of the W-BQ12 was affected by initial high scores (ceiling effect) and a shorter timescale but was acceptable and is suitable for repeated administration. The PEI and W-BQ12 questionnaires worked well in combination. Conclusion Changes in self-concept are important outcomes of complex interventions for people with long-term illness and their measurement requires carefully evaluated tools and long-term follow-up. The literature review and the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the questionnaires is a resource for other researchers. The W-BQ12 and the PEI both proved useful for this population and a larger quantitative study is planned. PMID:16539737

  18. A self-reported questionnaire for quantifying illness symptoms in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Alexander; Pyne, David; Saunders, Philo; Fallon, Kieran; Fricker, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a questionnaire that quantifies the self-reported frequency, duration and severity of illness symptoms in highly-trained athletes. We examined whether runners had more symptoms than recreationally-active individuals, and whether runners more prone to illness were undertaking more strenuous training programs. Methods A daily illness questionnaire was administered for three months during the summer to quantify the type, frequency, duration, and severity of illness symptoms as well as the functional impact on the ability to undertake exercise performance. A total of 35 participants (12 highly-trained runners living in a community setting and 23 recreationally-active medical students) completed the questionnaire. Results Runners had a similar frequency of illness (2.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.8 ± 2.3 episodes, mean ± SD, P = 0.58), but substantially longer duration (5.5 ± 9.9 vs 2.8 ± 3.1 days, P < 0.01) and illness load (7.7 ± 16.2 vs 4.5 ± 4.8 units, P = 0.001) than age- and sex-matched recreationally-active individuals respectively. Runners more prone to illness symptoms had marginally higher training loads. Conclusions The athlete illness questionnaire is useful for quantifying the pattern of self-reported symptoms of illness in field settings. Highly-trained runners experience longer episodes of illness with a greater impact on daily activity than recreationally-active individuals. PMID:24198538

  19. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; Ogdie, Alexis

    2016-05-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are an important component to assessing disease impact and therapy response in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Overall, there are few PsA-specific PROs. Most PROs used in PsA are borrowed from other diseases (eg, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or general population PROs. PROs are used in PsA clinical trials and in the clinical management of PsA. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used PRO in PsA, including their inclusion in composite measures. Future studies may be helpful to determine the best performing PROs in patients with PsA. PMID:27133489

  20. Development and Validation of the "iCAN!"--A Self-Administered Questionnaire Measuring Outcomes/Competences and Professionalism of Medical Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Tseretopoulou, Xanthippi; Tzamalis, Theodoros; Bazoukis, George; Benos, Alexis; Gogos, Charalambos; Malizos, Konstantinos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Thermos, Kyriaki; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Iordanis N.; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The Tuning-Medicine Project produced a set of "level one" and "level two" learning outcomes/competences to be met by European medical graduates. In the learner-centered era self-assessment becomes more and more important. Our aim was to develop a self-completion questionnaire ("iCAN!") evaluating graduates' learning…

  1. Assessing quality of life in patients with chronic leg ulceration using the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; McCullagh, Lynn; Moffatt, Christine J

    2003-02-01

    Clinician awareness of the importance of recognizing, assessing, and ultimately addressing the negative impact of chronic wounds on patient quality of life is increasing. One hundred, eighteen (118) patients (average age 78 years) participated in a study to evaluate the use of the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 for assessing the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic leg ulceration. Most patients (104, 88%) were treated at home by community nurses. A medical history was obtained and patients completed the Short Form-36 questionnaire at baseline and after 12 weeks of receiving standard ulcer care. Published normative data were used to ascertain the effect of leg ulcers on health-related quality of life. Short Form-36 responsiveness was determined by comparing baseline and 12-week scores. Results suggest that the questionnaire is reliable for five of eight Short Form-36 domains (alpha > 0.8), with the remainder alpha > 0.7. Compared to age-sex adjusted published normative scores, patients with leg ulcers had significantly lower mean scores in the following domains: role-emotional (d = 28.6, P <0.001), social functioning (d = 22.8, P <0.001), role-functioning (d = 20.8, P <0.001), role-physical (d = 20.7, P <0.001), and bodily pain (d = 12.3, P <0.001). Short Form-36 scores barely changed between baseline and the 12-week assessment, but bodily pain improved in the 31 patients whose ulcers healed during that time (d = 14.6, P = 0.006; SRM = 0.60). Pain did not improve in patients whose ulcers remained open (d = -2.1, P = 0.45). Compared to patients whose ulcers did not heal, patients with healed ulcers experienced greater improvements in the following domains: body pain (d = 16.8, P = 0.003), mental health (d = 9.4, P = 0.013), role-physical (d = 19.7, P = 0.06), role-emotional (d = 17.2, P = 0.12), and vitality (d = 9.0, P = 0.052). The results of this study suggest that leg ulcers reduce patient quality of life and that the Short Form-36 can be used

  2. Electronic patient-reported outcome systems in oncology clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Antonia V; Jensen, Roxanne E; Basch, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires assess topics a patient can report about his or her own health. This includes symptoms (eg, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, pain, or frequent urination), physical functioning (eg, difficulty climbing stairs or difficulty fastening buttons), and mental health (eg, anxiety, fear, or worry). Electronic PRO (ePRO) systems are used in oncology clinical care because of 1) their ability to enhance clinical care by flagging important symptoms and saving clinicians time; 2) the availability of standardized methods for creating and implementing PROs in clinics; and 3) the existence of user-friendly platforms for patient self-reporting like tablet computers and automated telephone surveys. Many ePRO systems can provide actionable links to clinical care such as summary reports in a patient's electronic medical record and real-time e-mail alerts to providers when patients report acute needs. This review presents 5 examples of ePRO systems currently in use in oncology practice. These systems support multiple clinical activities, including assessment of symptoms and toxicities related to chemotherapy and radiation, postoperative surveillance, and symptom management during palliative care and hospice. Patient self-reporting is possible both at clinical visits and between visits over the Internet or by telephone. The implementation of an ePRO system requires significant resources and expertise, as well as user training. ePRO systems enable regular monitoring of patient symptoms, function, and needs, and can enhance the efficiency and quality of care as well as communication with patients. PMID:22811342

  3. Imagery Assessment through Self-Report: What Do Imagery Questionnaires Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill

    1978-01-01

    Examined imagery questionnaires and addressed issues of reliability, agreement among questionnaires, social desirability, and construct validity. The Betts and Gordon scales and the Paivio Individual Differences Questionnaire were examined. Reliability of the Paivio inventory was satisfactory and equivalent to other imagery questionnaires. Imagery…

  4. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization

    PubMed Central

    Terluin, Berend; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Adèr, Herman J; de Vet, Henrica CW; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Hermens, Marleen LM; van Boeijen, Christine A; van Balkom, Anton JLM; van der Klink, Jac JL; Stalman, Wim AB

    2006-01-01

    Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. Methods Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores with clinical diagnoses, the GPs' diagnosis of any psychosocial problem for Distress, standardised psychiatric diagnoses for Depression and Anxiety, and GPs' suspicion of somatization for Somatization. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Construct validity was evaluated by investigating the inter-correlations between the scales, the factorial structure, the associations with other symptom questionnaires, and the associations with stress, personality and social functioning. The factorial structure of the 4DSQ was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The associations with other questionnaires were assessed with Pearson correlations and regression analyses. Results Regarding criterion validity, the Distress scale was associated with any psychosocial diagnosis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.79), the Depression scale was associated with major depression (AUC = 0.83), the Anxiety scale was associated with anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.66), and the Somatization scale was associated with the GPs' suspicion of somatization (AUC = 0.65). Regarding the construct validity, the 4DSQ scales appeared to have considerable inter-correlations (r = 0.35-0.71). However, 30–40% of the variance of each scale was unique for that scale. CFA confirmed the 4-factor structure with a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.92. The 4DSQ scales correlated with most other questionnaires measuring corresponding constructs. However, the 4DSQ Distress scale appeared to correlate with some other depression scales more

  5. Utility of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Anita A; Spertus, John; Pang, Peter; Pierson, Renee F; Cody, Robert J; Pina, Ileana L; Hernandez, Adrian; Butler, Javed

    2016-03-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are defined as reports coming directly from patients about how they feel or function in relation to a health condition and its therapy. Although there are numerous compelling reasons why PRO could be an important help in clinical care, they have not evolved into clinical tools integrated into care. The purpose of this review is to assess existing PRO instruments for heart failure with respect to their psychometric properties and potential for use in clinical care. We performed a systematic search of articles published between July 2008 and January 2015 within the MEDLINE, PROMIS, PROQOLID, and Cochrane Library databases. Included instruments had to be developed and tested for heart failure and have had their development processes and psychometric properties described. A total of 31 instruments were identified, 9 of which met all inclusion criteria. After evaluating each remaining instrument in terms of psychometric and clinical criteria and symptom coverage, only 2 instruments-Minnesota Living with Heart Failure and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy questionnaire-met all evaluation criteria. Although clinically useful PRO instruments exist, increasing education to providers on the value and interpretability of PRO instruments, as well as a more streamlined approach to their implementation in the clinical setting is necessary. A clinical trial comparing the routine use of disease-specific PRO with clinical care could further support their incorporation into practice. PMID:26874386

  6. Postsecondary Student Outcomes: A Feasibility Study. Feasibility Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korb, Roslyn

    This report presents the findings from a study designed: (1) to determine the current availability and utility of student outcome statistics in the nation; and (2) to examine the feasibility and desirability of nationwide institutional reporting of student outcome data. Following an introductory section on the purposes of the report and the…

  7. Patient reported outcomes in hip arthroplasty registries.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Aksel

    2014-05-01

    PROs are used increasingly in orthopedics and in joint registries, but still many aspects of use in this area have not been examined in depth. To be able to introduce PROs in the DHR in a scientific fashion, my studies were warranted; the feasibility of four often used PROs (OHS, HOOS, EQ-5D and SF-12) was examined in a registry context. Having the PROs in the target language is an absolute necessity, so I translated, cross-culturally adapted and validated a Danish language version of an often used PRO (OHS), since this PRO had no properly developed Danish language version. To minimize data loss and to maximize the data quality I validated our data capture procedure, an up to date AFP system, by comparing scannable, paper-based PROs, with manual single-key- and double-key entered data. To help further registry-PRO studies, I calculated the number of patients needed to discriminate between subgroups of age, sex, diagnosis, and prosthesis type for each of four often used PROs (OHS, HOOS, EQ-5D and SF-12), and to simplify the clinical interpretation of PRO scores and PRO change scores in PRO studies, I estimated MCII and PASS for two often used PROs (EQ-5D and HOOS). The feasibility study included 5,747 THA patients registered in the DHR, and I found only minor differences between the disease-specific and the generic PROs regarding ceiling and floor effects as well as discarded items. The HOOS, the OHS, the SF-12, and the EQ-5D are all appropriate PROs for administration in a hip registry. I found that group sizes from 51 to 1,566 were needed for subgroup analysis, depending on descriptive factors and choice of PRO. The AFP study included 200 THA patients (398 PROs, 4,875 items and 21,887 data fields), and gave excellent results provided use of highly structured questionnaires. OMR performed equally as well as manual double-key entering, and better than single-key entering. The PRO translation and validation study included 2,278 patients (and 212 patients for the test

  8. Patient reported outcome measures in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    Many interventions for neurogenic bladder patients are directed towards improving quality of life (QOL). Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are the primary method of evaluating QOL, and they provide an important quantification of symptoms which can’t be measured objectively. Our goal was to review general measurement principles, and identify and discuss PROMs relevant to neurogenic bladder patients. We identify two recent reviews of the state of the literature and updated the results with an additional Medline search up to September 1, 2015. Using the previous identified reviews, and our updated literature review, we identified 16 PROMs which are used for the assessment of QOL and symptoms in neurogenic bladder patients. Several are specifically designed for neurogenic bladder patients, such as the Qualiveen (for neurogenic bladder related QOL), and the Neurogenic Bladder Symptom Score (NBSS) (for neurogenic bladder symptoms). We also highlight general QOL measures for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI) which include questions about bladder symptoms, and incontinence PROMs which are commonly used, but not specifically designed for neurogenic bladder patients. It is essential for clinicians and researchers with an interest in neurogenic bladder to be aware of the current PROMs, and to have a basic understanding of the principals of measurement in order to select the most appropriate one for their purpose. PMID:26904409

  9. Incomplete Reporting: Addressing the Prevalence of Outcome-Reporting Bias in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Brian; Polanin, Joshua; Williams, Ryan; Pigott, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Outcome reporting bias refers to the practice of omitting from primary studies outcomes that were actually collected. When primary studies do not report on all the outcomes assessed, there is an incomplete understanding of a phenomenon that may be compounded when the study is included in a systematic review of research. Outcome reporting bias is…

  10. Outcome-Based Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, James M.

    This paper presents a summary of research on outcome-based education (OBE). The first section provides an overview of the evolution and history of OBE in the United States. Other outcome-based models are described in the second section. The third section reviews research on OBE and related concepts, including mastery learning, cooperative…

  11. The impact of patient preselection on reported IVF outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H

    2016-04-01

    We, in this manuscript, address the fact that increasing numbers of published studies in reproductive medicine selectively report outcomes for only favorably selected patients; while failing to note that, so reported outcome data,therefore, cannot be applied to unselected patient populations. Almost all favorablepatient selection methods, starting with prolonged embryo culture to blastocyst stage, have, thus, been widely misrepresented in the literature since they almost universally report outcomes only in reference to embryo transfer. These outcome reports, however, do not include outcomes for poorer prognosis patients who do not reach embryo transfer. Study outcomes are universally applicable only if performed in unselected patient populations and reported with reference point cycle start (intent to treat). All other studies greatly exaggerate clinical pregnancy and live birth rates if applied to general populations, unless specifically noting that they can be extrapolated only to women who reach embryo transfer. PMID:26861966

  12. Interpreting and reporting results based on patient-reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Revicki, Dennis A; Erickson, Pennifer A; Sloan, Jeff A; Dueck, Amylou; Guess, Harry; Santanello, Nancy C

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into clinical trials and focuses on issues associated with the interpretation and reporting of PRO data. The primary focus and context of this information relates to the evidentiary support and reporting for a labeling or advertising claim of a PRO benefit for a new or approved pharmaceutical product. This manuscript focuses on issues associated with assessing clinical significance and common pitfalls to avoid in presenting results related to PROs. Specifically, the questions addressed by this manuscript involve: What are the best methods to assess clinical significance for PROs? How should investigators present PRO data most effectively in a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) application? In labeling or in a scientific publication? Guidelines for interpreting clinical significance of PROs and for comprehensively reporting on the methods, measures and results of clinical trials that incorporate PROs are important for clinicians, regulatory agencies, and most of all to patients. Clear specifications for considering a finding on a PRO measure, as clinically meaningful, need to be determined by instrument developers and psychometricians; they need to be reported for all clinical trials involving PRO end points. Clinical trial reports need to be comprehensive, clear, and sufficient to enable any reader to understand the methods, PRO measures, statistical analysis, and results. PMID:17995470

  13. Patient-reported outcome measures in nonmelanoma skin cancer of the face: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bates, A S; Davis, C R; Takwale, A; Knepil, G J

    2013-06-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the western world, with an incidence of 98,000 in the U.K. Since 2009 the Department of Health (DoH) has collected patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) data following four common surgical procedures. However, a DoH PROM for NMSC does not exist. A systematic review of questionnaires published on patient concerns due to NMSC of the face was conducted. Keywords relevant to PROMs, NMSC and the facial region were comprehensively searched in medical databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that questionnaires from relevant papers recruited patients with NMSC for both the item formulation and subsequent validation. Questionnaires were then discussed by a multispecialty skin cancer research team. Initially 2548 papers were found; after exclusion criteria were applied, 73 articles were retrieved. Four patient questionnaires for NMSC featured adequate development and validation according to the inclusion criteria. The Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI) was the only PROM specific to facial NMSC. Additional questionnaires identified included the Skin Cancer Quality of Life Impact Tool, Skindex, and Dermatology Life Quality Index. There is a scarcity of data relating to NMSC PROMs and appearance concerns. Only one questionnaire--the FSCI--was specific to patients with facial NMSC. We recommend nationally standardized data collection from patients with NMSC in order to create an evidence-based validated PROM for patients with facial skin cancer. PMID:23387431

  14. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma).

    PubMed

    Pellar, Russell E; Tingey, Theresa M; Pope, Janet Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disease that can damage multiple organs and reduce quality of life. Patient-reported outcome measures capture the patient's perspective. Some measures are specific to systemic sclerosis and others are general. Patient-reported outcomes in systemic sclerosis are important to aid in understanding the impact of systemic sclerosis on patients. PMID:27133491

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Self-Report Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hyuk; Min, Seongho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the self-report Korean version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Kr) in the community sample. Methods The SDQ-Kr was administered to a large sample of school children and adolescents (n=2814) and youth attendees of a psychiatric clinic (n=385) aged 11-16 years. To examine temporal stability, the same questionnaire was administered to a subsample of 167 school youths five to six weeks after the initial assessment. To examine the reliability, we calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency and Pearson's correlations for test-retest stability. In order to evaluate the factorial structure of the SDQ-Kr items, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation. Finally, discriminant validity was examined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves employing the area under the curve (AUC) as an index of discriminant ability. Results Although the internal consistency of some subscales of the SDQ-Kr was somewhat less satisfactory (alpha coefficients; 0.28-0.54) than the English original, coefficients for the total difficulties scores approached sufficient levels (coefficients; 0.69). Other psychometric properties including discriminant validity (AUC for total difficulties and four subscales >0.7) were comparable to those obtained in other language studies. Conclusion The self-report SDQ-Kr exhibited a low level of reliability, indicating that some items need to be further evaluated and revised to improve the psychometric properties. We suggest that the total difficulties score could be used with more confidence for screening possible mental health problems in youths. PMID:26508960

  16. [Patient-reported and patient-weighted outcomes in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Scheibler, F; Finger, R P; Grosselfinger, R; Dintsios, C-M

    2010-03-01

    Considering patients' values and preferences in comparative effectiveness research (CER) is one of the main challenges in ophthalmology (value-based medicine). This article defines core terms in CER. The concept of patient-relevant (or patient-important) outcomes is distinguished from patient-reported outcomes (PRO) by means of examples in the field of ophthalmology. In order to be able to give a consistant recommendation if an intervention leads to conflicting results for different outcomes (trade-off), a ranking of outcomes will be necessary. Examples of studies in glaucoma patients are provided that demonstrate the possibilities of ranking of outcomes based on patient preferences. PMID:20024566

  17. Critical Limb Ischemia: Reporting Outcomes and Quality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impetus to pursue quality in limb salvage is high in the current economic environment. This has been spurred on by the diffusion of multiple technologies, the lack of well-defined cost-effectiveness benchmarks, and the paucity of process and structure benchmarks. Furthermore, no national database exists to capture current activity and trends, and lead structure and process changes that could analyze outcomes and improve standards in peripheral interventions for limb salvage. This manuscript examines the challenges in measuring outcomes and quality in limb salvage and explores the components necessary for ensuring quality in limb salvage interventions. PMID:23342183

  18. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lundervold, Astri J; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993-1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  19. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  20. Institutional Outcomes Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Rainey Harper Coll., Palatine, IL. Office of Planning and Research.

    This document presents the institutional outcomes for 2002-2003 for William Rainey Harper College. The document begins with the Presidents Introduction, which includes a list of accomplishments of the college. Some of these success are: (1) 90% retention rates for students involved in retention services and programs; (2) achieving a hiring…

  1. Advances in Patient-Reported Outcomes: The NIH PROMIS(®) Measures.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Joan E; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Rothrock, Nan; Crane, Paul K; Forrest, Christopher B

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are questionnaire measures of patients' symptoms, functioning, and health-related quality of life. They are designed to provide important clinical information that generally cannot be captured with objective medical testing. In 2004, the National Institutes of Health launched a research initiative to improve the clinical research enterprise by developing state-of-the-art PROs. The NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS) and Assessment Center are the products of that initiative. Adult, pediatric, and parent-proxy item banks have been developed by using contemporary psychometric methods, yielding rapid, accurate measurements. PROMIS currently provides tools for assessing physical, mental, and social health using short-form and computer-adaptive testing methods. The PROMIS tools are being adopted for use in clinical trials and translational research. They are also being introduced in clinical medicine to assess a broad range of disease outcomes. Recent legislative developments in the United States support greater efforts to include patients' reports of health experience in order to evaluate treatment outcomes, engage in shared decision-making, and prioritize the focus of treatment. PROs have garnered increased attention by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for evaluating drugs and medical devices. Recent calls for comparative effectiveness research favor inclusion of PROs. PROs could also potentially improve quality of care and disease outcomes, provide patient-centered assessment for comparative effectiveness research, and enable a common metric for tracking outcomes across providers and medical systems. PMID:25848562

  2. Toward Ensuring Health Equity: Readability and Cultural Equivalence of OMERACT Patient-reported Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Welch, Vivian; Rader, Tamara; Lyddiatt, Anne; Clerehan, Rosemary; Christensen, Robin; Boonen, Annelies; Goel, Niti; Maxwell, Lara J.; Toupin-April, Karine; De Wit, Maarten; Barton, Jennifer; Flurey, Caroline; Jull, Janet; Barnabe, Cheryl; Sreih, Antoine G.; Campbell, Willemina; Pohl, Christoph; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Tugwell, Peter S.; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. Methods The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group participants to gain their perspectives on the importance of comprehensibility and cross-cultural adaptation for PROM. Results Thirty-one OMERACT delegates attended the equity session. Twenty-six participants agreed that PROM should be assessed for comprehensibility and for use of suitable methods (4 abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement for improving translation and adaptation. Conclusion Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures. PMID:26077410

  3. Evaluating the quality of pain management in a hospital setting: testing the psychometric properties of the Icelandic version of the revised American Pain Society patient outcome questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Zoëga, Sigridur; Ward, Sandra; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur

    2014-03-01

    Pain management is an important aspect of providing quality health care, and monitoring patient-related outcomes is a recommended quality improvement practice. Valid and reliable tools are needed for this purpose. The American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ) is widely used to measure quality of pain management. The APS-POQ was recently revised to reflect advances in pain management. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the revised version in Icelandic patients in the hospital setting. The questionnaire was translated according to an adaptation of Brislin's model. Data were collected from 143 patients on 23 wards in a university hospital. Participants were ≥ 18 years old, hospitalized for >24 hours, alert, not too ill to participate, and in pain ≥ 1 on a 0-10 scale in the past 24 hours. Mean (SD) age was 66 (18) years, 51.4% were women, 48.6% men. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation confirmed a five-component structure, but four items lowered reliability and were removed from the scales. The final version consists of four components, with Cronbach α >.70, explaining 64.2% of the variance. Participants had little difficulty in answering the questionnaire, but two additional items about participation in decisions and pain medications were added in response to patients' comments and suggestions. Administering the Icelandic version of the APS-POQ-R was found to be feasible, and the questionnaire has acceptable construct validity and reliability. The results support the use of the APS-POQ-R-I to evaluate the quality of pain management in hospitals in Iceland. PMID:23318415

  4. Reported Outcome Measures in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Maire; Elgheriani, Ali; Kolias, Angelos G.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Hutchinson, Peter J. A.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Kotter, Mark R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497) was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective) or >200 patients (retrospective), reporting outcomes of DCM were eligible. Results 108 studies, assessing 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. Reported outcome themes included function (reported by 97, 90% of studies), complications (reported by 56, 52% of studies), quality of life (reported by 31, 29% of studies), pain (reported by 29, 27% of studies) and imaging (reported by 59, 55% of studies). Only 7 (6%) studies considered all of domains in a single publication. All domains showed variability in reporting. Conclusions Significant heterogeneity exists in the reporting of outcomes in DCM. The development of a consensus minimum dataset will facilitate future research synthesis. PMID:27482710

  5. Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Mentalizing: The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Moulton-Perkins, Alesia; Lee, Ya-Wen; Warren, Fiona; Howard, Susan; Ghinai, Rosanna; Fearon, Pasco; Lowyck, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Reflective functioning or mentalizing is the capacity to interpret both the self and others in terms of internal mental states such as feelings, wishes, goals, desires, and attitudes. This paper is part of a series of papers outlining the development and psychometric features of a new self-report measure, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), designed to provide an easy to administer self-report measure of mentalizing. We describe the development and initial validation of the RFQ in three studies. Study 1 focuses on the development of the RFQ, its factor structure and construct validity in a sample of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Eating Disorder (ED) (n = 108) and normal controls (n = 295). Study 2 aims to replicate these findings in a fresh sample of 129 patients with personality disorder and 281 normal controls. Study 3 addresses the relationship between the RFQ, parental reflective functioning and infant attachment status as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. In both Study 1 and 2, confirmatory factor analyses yielded two factors assessing Certainty (RFQ_C) and Uncertainty (RFQ_U) about the mental states of self and others. These two factors were relatively distinct, invariant across clinical and non-clinical samples, had satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest stability, and were largely unrelated to demographic features. The scales discriminated between patients and controls, and were significantly and in theoretically predicted ways correlated with measures of empathy, mindfulness and perspective-taking, and with both self-reported and clinician-reported measures of borderline personality features and other indices of maladaptive personality functioning. Furthermore, the RFQ scales were associated with levels of parental reflective functioning, which in turn predicted infant attachment status in the SSP. Overall, this study lends

  6. Interformat Reliability of Digital Psychiatric Self-Report Questionnaires: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hursti, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done. Objective This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research. Methods Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales. Results From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats. Conclusions When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient

  7. The Perceived Deficits Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Allison; Nikelshpur, Olga M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction affects approximately 43% to 70% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is an important determinant of several functional outcomes in MS and quality of life. Brief neuropsychological test batteries have been developed specifically for use in MS and are widely used to aid clinicians in assessing levels of cognitive impairment in MS. Neuropsychologists and neurologists also frequently use briefer screening measures, such as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), to assist in determining whether a more extensive neuropsychological evaluation is warranted. However, despite the ease of such measures, the relationship between self-report and objective cognitive impairment has been inconsistent, at best. Moreover, factors such as depression, fatigue, anxiety, and personality have been found to be more related to reports of cognitive difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between subjective cognitive concerns and objective cognitive impairment while accounting for related symptoms. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported cognitive concerns on the PDQ with objective cognitive measures, as well as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Results: There was no relationship between self-reported cognitive concerns and objective performance. Rather, reports on the PDQ were more correlated with reports of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Depression and poor self-efficacy can contribute to reports of cognitive difficulties. Effective treatment to improve these factors seems warranted given the impact of perceived cognitive impairment on outcomes in MS and the potential for more accurate self-reports. PMID:27551243

  8. The Derivation of Job Compensation Index Values from the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Ernest J.; And Others

    The study deals with the job component method of establishing compensation rates. The basic job analysis questionnaire used in the study was the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) (Form B). On the basis of a principal components analysis of PAQ data for a large sample (2,688) of jobs, a number of principal components (job dimensions) were…

  9. The Use of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) for Establishing the Job Component Validity of Tests. Report No. 5. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Ernest J.; And Others

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), a structured job analysis questionnaire that provides for the analysis of individual jobs in terms of each of 187 job elements, was used to establish the job component validity of certain commercially-available vocational aptitude tests. Prior to the general analyses reported here, a statistical analysis…

  10. Internal consistency of the self-reporting questionnaire-20 in occupational groups

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kionna Oliveira Bernardes; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the internal consistency of the measurements of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) in different occupational groups. METHODS A validation study was conducted with data from four surveys with groups of workers, using similar methods. A total of 9,959 workers were studied. In all surveys, the common mental disorders were assessed via SRQ-20. The internal consistency considered the items belonging to dimensions extracted by tetrachoric factor analysis for each study. Item homogeneity assessment compared estimates of Cronbach’s alpha (KD-20), the alpha applied to a tetrachoric correlation matrix and stratified Cronbach’s alpha. RESULTS The SRQ-20 dimensions showed adequate values, considering the reference parameters. The internal consistency of the instrument items, assessed by stratified Cronbach’s alpha, was high (> 0.80) in the four studies. CONCLUSIONS The SRQ-20 showed good internal consistency in the professional categories evaluated. However, there is still a need for studies using alternative methods and additional information able to refine the accuracy of latent variable measurement instruments, as in the case of common mental disorders. PMID:27007682

  11. Examining the validity of the adapted Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Global Report Version.

    PubMed

    Maguin, Eugene; Nochajski, Thomas H; De Wit, David J; Safyer, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively examine the validity of an adapted version of the parent global report form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) with respect to its factor structure, relationships with demographic and response style covariates, and differential item functioning (DIF). The APQ was adapted by omitting the corporal punishment and the other discipline items. The sample consisted of 674 Canadian and United States families having a 9- to 12-year-old child and at least 1 parent figure who had received treatment within the past 5 years for alcohol problems or met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. The primary parent in each family completed the APQ. The 4-factor CFA model of the 4 published scales used and the 3-factor CFA model of those scales from prior research were rejected. Exploratory structural equation modeling was then used. The final 3-factor model combined the author-defined Involvement and Positive Parenting scales and retained the original Poor Monitoring/Supervision and Inconsistent Discipline scales. However, there were substantial numbers of moderate magnitude cross-loadings and large magnitude residual covariances. Differential item functioning (DIF) was observed for a number of APQ items. Controlling for DIF, response style and demographic variables were related significantly to the factors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348028

  12. Usefulness of the rivermead postconcussion symptoms questionnaire and the trail-making test for outcome prediction in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    de Guise, Elaine; Bélanger, Sara; Tinawi, Simon; Anderson, Kirsten; LeBlanc, Joanne; Lamoureux, Julie; Audrit, Hélène; Feyz, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) is a better tool for outcome prediction than an objective neuropsychological assessment following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The study included 47 patients with mTBI referred to an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. The RPQ and a brief neuropsychological battery were performed in the first few days following the trauma. The outcome measure used was the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) which was completed within the first 3 months. The only variable associated with results on the MPAI-4 was the RPQ score (p < .001). The predictive outcome model including age, education, and the results of the Trail-Making Test-Parts A and B (TMT) had a pseudo-R(2) of .02. When the RPQ score was added, the pseudo-R(2) climbed to .19. This model indicates that the usefulness of the RPQ score and the TMT in predicting moderate-to-severe limitations, while controlling for confounders, is substantial as suggested by a significant increase in the model chi-square value, delta (1df) = 6.517, p < .001. The RPQ and the TMT provide clinicians with a brief and reliable tool for predicting outcome functioning and can help target the need for further intervention and rehabilitation following mTBI. PMID:26571267

  13. Self-Report of Tobacco Use Status: Comparison of Paper-Based Questionnaire, Online Questionnaire, and Direct Face-to-Face Interview—Implications for Meaningful Use

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Hays, J. Taylor; Newcomb, Richard D.; Molella, Robin G.; Cha, Stephen S.; Hagen, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Identifying tobacco use status is essential to address use and provide resources to help patients quit. Being able to collect this information in an electronic format will become increasingly important, as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has included the assessment of tobacco use as part of its Stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. The objective was to compare the accuracy of online vs. paper assessment methods to ascertain cigarette smoking status using a face-to-face structured interview as the gold standard. This was a retrospective analysis of a stratified opportunity sample of consecutive patients, reporting in 2010 for a periodic health evaluation, who completed either a scannable paper-based form or an online questionnaire and underwent a standardized rooming interview. Compared with face-to-face structured interview, the overall observed agreement and kappa coefficient for both methods combined (paper and online) were 97.7% and 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.86) . For the online form they were 97.4% and 0.61 (95% CI 0.33–0.90), and for the paper form they were 97.9% and 0.75 (95% CI 0.54–0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in agreement between the online and paper-based methods (P=0.76) compared with a face-to-face structured interview. Online assessment of tobacco use status is as accurate as a paper questionnaire, and both methods have greater than 97% observed agreement with a face-to-face structured interview. The use of online assessment of tobacco use status has several advantages and more widespread use should be explored. (Population Health Management 2014;17:185–189) PMID:24476559

  14. Self-report of tobacco use status: comparison of paper-based questionnaire, online questionnaire, and direct face-to-face interview--implications for meaningful use.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Mark W; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Hays, J Taylor; Newcomb, Richard D; Molella, Robin G; Cha, Stephen S; Hagen, Philip T

    2014-06-01

    Identifying tobacco use status is essential to address use and provide resources to help patients quit. Being able to collect this information in an electronic format will become increasingly important, as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has included the assessment of tobacco use as part of its Stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. The objective was to compare the accuracy of online vs. paper assessment methods to ascertain cigarette smoking status using a face-to-face structured interview as the gold standard. This was a retrospective analysis of a stratified opportunity sample of consecutive patients, reporting in 2010 for a periodic health evaluation, who completed either a scannable paper-based form or an online questionnaire and underwent a standardized rooming interview. Compared with face-to-face structured interview, the overall observed agreement and kappa coefficient for both methods combined (paper and online) were 97.7% and 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.86) . For the online form they were 97.4% and 0.61 (95% CI 0.33-0.90), and for the paper form they were 97.9% and 0.75 (95% CI 0.54-0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in agreement between the online and paper-based methods (P=0.76) compared with a face-to-face structured interview. Online assessment of tobacco use status is as accurate as a paper questionnaire, and both methods have greater than 97% observed agreement with a face-to-face structured interview. The use of online assessment of tobacco use status has several advantages and more widespread use should be explored. PMID:24476559

  15. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) outcome questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Swedish version evaluated in 176 patients.

    PubMed

    Atroshi, I; Gummesson, C; Andersson, B; Dahlgren, E; Johansson, A

    2000-12-01

    The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire is a self-administered region-specific outcome instrument developed to measure upper-extremity disability and symptoms. The DASH consists mainly of a 30-item disability/symptom scale. We performed cross-cultural adaptation of the DASH to Swedish, using a process that included double forward and backward translations, expert and lay review, as well as field-testing to achieve linguistic and conceptual equivalence. The Swedish version's reliability and validity were then evaluated in 176 patients with upper-extremity conditions. The patients completed the DASH and SF-12 generic health questionnaire before elective surgery or physical therapy. Internal consistency of the DASH was high (Cronbach alpha 0.96). Test-retest reliability, evaluated in a subgroup of 67 patients who completed the DASH on two occasions, with a median interval of 7 days, was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92). Construct validity was shown by a positive correlation of DASH scores with the SF-12 scores (worse upper-extremity disability correlating with worse general health), stronger correlation with the SF-12 physical than with the mental health component, correlation of worse DASH scores with worse self-rated global health, and ability to discriminate among conditions known to differ in severity. The Swedish version of the DASH is a reliable and valid instrument that can provide a standardized measure of patient-centered outcomes in upper-extremity musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:11145390

  16. Can the painDETECT Questionnaire score and MRI help predict treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol for the Frederiksberg hospital's Rheumatoid Arthritis, pain assessment and Medical Evaluation (FRAME-cohort) study

    PubMed Central

    Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Anton Wulf; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie; Locht, Henning; Amris, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered to be of inflammatory origin. Despite better control of inflammation, some patients still report pain as a significant concern, even when being in clinical remission. This suggests that RA may prompt central sensitisation—one aspect of chronic pain. In contrast, other patients report good treatment response, although imaging shows signs of inflammation, which could indicate a possible enhancement of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. When assessing disease activity in patients with central sensitisation, the commonly used disease activity scores (eg, DAS28-CRP (C reactive protein)) will yield constant high total scores due to high tender joint count and global health assessments, whereas MRI provides an isolated estimate of inflammation. The objective of this study is, in patients with RA initiating anti-inflammatory treatment, to explore the prognostic value of a screening questionnaire for central sensitisation, hand inflammation assessed by conventional MRI, and the interaction between them regarding treatment outcome evaluated by clinical status (DAS28-CRP). For the purpose of further exploratory analyses, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is performed. Method and analysis The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ), originally developed to screen for a neuropathic pain component, is applied to indicate the presence of central sensitisation. Adults diagnosed with RA are included when either (A) initiating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, or (B) initiating or switching to biological therapy. We anticipate that 100 patients will be enrolled, tested and reassessed after 4 months of treatment. Data collection includes Clinical data, conventional MRI, DCE-MRI, blood samples and patient-reported outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study aims at supporting rheumatologists to define strategies to reach optimal treatment outcomes in patients with RA based on chronic pain

  17. Knotted stents: Case report and outcome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Na; Hwang, Hokyeong

    2015-01-01

    A knotted ureteral stent is an extremely rare condition, with fewer than 20 cases reported in the literature; however, it is difficult to treat. We report a case in which a folded Terumo guidewire was successfully used to remove a knotted stent percutaneously without anesthesia. We also review the current literature on predisposing factors and management strategies for knotted ureteral stents. PMID:25964843

  18. Conceptual and methodological advances in child-reported outcomes measurement

    PubMed Central

    Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Moon, JeanHee; Forrest, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, clinical, pharmaceutical and translational research studies use patient-reported outcomes as primary and secondary end points. Obtaining this type of information from children themselves is now possible, but effective assessment requires developmentally sensitive conceptual models of child health and an appreciation for the rapid change in children’s cognitive capacities. To overcome these barriers, outcomes researchers have capitalized on innovations in modern measurement theory, qualitative methods for instrument development and new computerized technologies to create reliable and valid methods for obtaining self-reported health data among 8–17-year-old children. This article provides a developmentally focused framework for selecting child-report health assessment instruments. Several generic health-related quality of life instruments and the assessment tools developed by the NIH-sponsored Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System network are discussed to exemplify advances in the measurement of children’s self-reported health, illness, wellbeing and quality of life. PMID:20715916

  19. The Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire: A Parent-Report Measure of Childhood Gender-Related Behavior in China

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong

    2008-01-01

    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children’s gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children’s sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6–12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children’s gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986

  20. The child play behavior and activity questionnaire: a parent-report measure of childhood gender-related behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong

    2010-06-01

    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986

  1. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chi Ming; Yim, Chi Lap; Yan, Connie T Y; Chan, Cheuk Chi; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Mak, Arthur D P; Fok, Marcella Lei-Yee; Ungvari, Gabor S

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar II (BP-II) depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP) depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P) was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8%) were males and 233 (78.2%) females. There were 112 (37.6%) subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%), BP-II = 70 (23.5%)] and 182 (62.4%) with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results. PMID:26963908

  2. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Chi Ming; Yim, Chi Lap; Yan, Connie T. Y.; Chan, Cheuk Chi; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Fok, Marcella Lei-Yee; Ungvari, Gabor S.

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar II (BP-II) depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP) depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P) was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8%) were males and 233 (78.2%) females. There were 112 (37.6%) subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%), BP-II = 70 (23.5%)] and 182 (62.4%) with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results. PMID:26963908

  3. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  4. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  5. The Adult Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A): A Self-Report Measure of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sarah L.; Uljarevic, Mirko; Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Leekam, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and…

  6. The Application of Structured Job Analysis Information Based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Final Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Ernest J.

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a job analysis instrument consisting of 187 job elements organized into six divisions. The PAQ was used in the eight studies summarized in this final report. The studies were: (1) ratings of the attribute requirements of PAQ job elements, (2) a series of principal components analyses of these attribute…

  7. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire: Russian Validation of the Teacher Version and Comparison of Teacher and Student Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To confirm factor structure of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and to compare teacher and student reports in Russian youth. Method: The SDQ and psychopathology measures were completed by teachers in a representative sample of urban adolescents (N = 528). The factor structure was examined on two randomly…

  8. Brief Report: Preliminary Reliability, Construct Validity and Standardization of the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelhoff, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    The Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) evaluates abnormal behavioral responses to auditory stimulation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study reports preliminary reliability, construct validity and standardization of the ABQ. Parents of children with ASD aged 7-21 years (n = 165) completed the ABQ on-line. Cronbach's alpha…

  9. The Design and Validation of a Parent-Report Questionnaire for Assessing the Characteristics and Quality of Early Intervention Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Gascon-Ramos, Maria; Campbell, Malcolm; Bamford, John

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns a parent-report repeat questionnaire to evaluate the quality of multiprofessional early intervention following early identification of deafness. It discusses the rationale for the design of the instrument, its theoretical underpinnings, its psychometric properties, and its usability. Results for the validity and reliability of the instrument are based on completion by 82 parents. The questionnaire is divided into four sections. “The description of the structure of professional services” demonstrated good face and content validity; the “content of intervention scale” yielded high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.88) and reliability (6-month test–retest correlations, rho = 0.88, r = .68; 12-month test–retest correlations, rho = 0.60, r = .82); the “process of intervention” scale yielded high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.93) and high reliability on test–retest administration (6-month test–retest correlations, r = 0.64; 12 month test–retest correlations, r = .82); and the short “overall impact” questions were answered well. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire was used to control for influence of parental disposition on ratings of quality of intervention. Evaluating the goodness of fit between early intervention and parental priorities/values is discussed as a vital component in improving child and family outcomes. PMID:19617378

  10. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Williams, David A; Kratz, Anna L

    2016-05-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is classified as a chronic pain condition accompanied by symptoms of fatigue, sleep problems, problems with cognition, negative mood, limited functional status, and the presence of other chronic overlapping pain conditions. Comprehensive assessment of all of these components can be challenging. This paper provides an overview of patient-reported approaches that can be taken to assess FM in the contexts of diagnosis, symptom monitoring, phenotyping/characterization, and for purposes of clinical trials. PMID:27133492

  11. Patient-Reported Shoulder Outcome Measures Utilized in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Shana; Michener, Lori A; Kendig, Tiffany; Miale, Susan; George, Steven Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To identify English Language published patient-reported upper extremity outcome measures used in breast cancer research and 2) To examine construct validity and responsiveness in patient-reported upper extremity outcome measures used in breast cancer research. Data Sources PubMed, CINAHL and ProQuest MEDLINE® databases were searched up to February 5, 2013. Study Selection Studies were included if a patient-reported upper extremity outcome measure was administered, the participants were diagnosed with breast cancer, and published in English. Data Extraction Eight hundred and sixty-five articles were screened. Fifty-nine full text articles were assessed for eligibility. A total of 46 articles met the initial eligibility criteria for aim 1. Eleven of these articles reported mean and standard deviations for the outcome scores, and included a comparison group analysis for aim 2. Data Synthesis Construct validity was evaluated by calculating effect sizes for known group differences in 6 studies using the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Penn Shoulder Score, Shoulder Disability Questionnaire-Dutch, and 10 Questions by Wingate (Wingate). Responsiveness was analyzed comparing a treatment and control group by calculating the coefficient of responsiveness in 5 studies for the DASH and Wingate. Conclusions Eight different patient-reported upper extremity outcome measures have been reported in the peer-review literature for women with breast cancer, some (n=3) were specifically developed for breast cancer survivors and others that were not (n=5). Based on the current evidence we recommend administering the DASH to assess patient-reported upper extremity function in breast cancer survivors because the DASH had most consistently large effects sizes for construct validity and responsiveness. Future large studies are needed for more definitive recommendations. PMID:23932969

  12. Outcome Measures for Artificial Pancreas Clinical Trials: A Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Buckingham, Bruce A; Castle, Jessica R; Cinar, Ali; Damiano, Edward R; Dassau, Eyal; DeVries, J Hans; Doyle, Francis J; Griffen, Steven C; Haidar, Ahmad; Heinemann, Lutz; Hovorka, Roman; Jones, Timothy W; Kollman, Craig; Kovatchev, Boris; Levy, Brian L; Nimri, Revital; O'Neal, David N; Philip, Moshe; Renard, Eric; Russell, Steven J; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Zisser, Howard; Lum, John W

    2016-07-01

    Research on and commercial development of the artificial pancreas (AP) continue to progress rapidly, and the AP promises to become a part of clinical care. In this report, members of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project Consortium in collaboration with the wider AP community 1) advocate for the use of continuous glucose monitoring glucose metrics as outcome measures in AP trials, in addition to HbA1c, and 2) identify a short set of basic, easily interpreted outcome measures to be reported in AP studies whenever feasible. Consensus on a broader range of measures remains challenging; therefore, reporting of additional metrics is encouraged as appropriate for individual AP studies or study groups. Greater consistency in reporting of basic outcome measures may facilitate the interpretation of study results by investigators, regulatory bodies, health care providers, payers, and patients themselves, thereby accelerating the widespread adoption of AP technology to improve the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:27330126

  13. Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening (ToPAS) questionnaire: a report from the GRAPPA 2009 annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Vinod; Gladman, Dafna D

    2011-03-01

    The Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening questionnaire (ToPAS) was developed as a tool to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in patients with psoriasis as well as in the general population. Thus, it differs from PsA-specific screening tools and may be used to screen for PsA in epidemiologic and family investigations. In a presentation at the 2009 annual meeting of GRAPPA (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis) in Stockholm, Sweden, the authors described the development, testing, and validation of the ToPAS tool. Results of a comparison of the ToPAS questionnaire with the Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE) questionnaire were also presented. Modification and further validation of the ToPAS are under way. PMID:21362783

  14. Temporal preference in individuals reporting chronic pain: discounting of delayed pain-related and monetary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, D Andrew; Johnson, Patrick S; Smith, Michael T; Strain, Eric C; Edwards, Robert R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-08-01

    Opioid therapy for pain is associated with an increased risk for substance use disorders. This study's purpose was to determine the association between opioid misuse propensity (Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised) and delay discounting (DD), a behavioral process linked to substance use disorders, which quantifies the extent to which outcomes are devalued because of their delay. Participants reporting chronic pain (N = 249) answered pain and opioid use questions and then completed 4 DD tasks. Each of these tasks assessed either money or pain consequences, framed as either rewards or punishments. Each task involved hypothetical choices between immediate smaller vs delayed larger consequences. The extant Monetary Choice Questionnaire assessed DD of money rewards, and a modified version assessed discounting of money losses (immediate smaller loss vs larger delayed loss). Based on the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, the novel Pain Relief Choice Questionnaire assessed choices between an immediate short duration of pain relief vs a longer duration of pain relief. Similarly, the novel Additional Pain Choice Questionnaire assessed choices between an immediate short duration of additional pain vs a longer duration of additional pain. Discounting of both additional pain and money losses were significantly associated with high Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised scores-indicating participants at greatest risk for opioid misuse discount future punishments rather than future rewards compared with those at low risk. Measures of DD may have promise in more accurately identifying individuals at highest risk for opioid misuse during chronic opioid therapy. PMID:27075431

  15. Clients' Perception of Outcome of Team-Based Prenatal and Reproductive Genetic Counseling in Serbian Service Using the Perceived Personal Control (PPC) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Cuturilo, Goran; Vucinic, Olivera Kontic; Novakovic, Ivana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Mijovic, Marija; Sulovic, Nenad; Vukolic, Dusan; Komnenic, Milica; Tadic, Jasmina; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Belic, Aleksandra; Ljubic, Aleksandar

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe dedicated to clients' perception of outcome and efficiency of prenatal and reproductive genetic counseling. The primary aim of this study was to assess overall value and success of genetic counseling in prenatal and reproductive care with regard to perceived personal control of clients, reflecting also in a part patient comprehension, knowledge retention, and empowerment in decision-making. The standardized Perceived Personal Control questionnaire (PPC) was used for the assessment of 239 female participants. First, we performed a complete validation of the psychometric characteristics of the Serbian-language version of the PPC questionnaire. The validation of the questionnaire permits other researchers from Serbian-speaking regions of South-East Europe to use this standard instrument to assess the effectiveness of prenatal genetic counseling in their communities and analyze advantages and disadvantages of their counseling models. We also measured social and demographic characteristics of participants. Further, we analyzed effects of our team-based prenatal and reproductive genetic counseling model through (a) calculation of PPC scores at three different stages (before initial, after initial, and before second counseling session), and (b) by assessing participants' responses by indication for referral (advanced maternal age, abnormal biochemical screening, family history of hereditary disorders, maternal exposure to drugs, exposure to radiation, exposure to infective agents, infertility or recurrent abortions, and miscellaneous). The results indicate that participants' knowledge after initial counseling increased significantly and after that remained stable and sustainable. A satisfactory level of confidence among participants had been achieved, in that many felt an increased sense of control over their situation and emotional response to it. Indirectly, these results indicate the success of a

  16. Power and Sample Size Determination for the Group Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes with Rasch Family Models

    PubMed Central

    Blanchin, Myriam; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Guillemin, Francis; Falissard, Bruno; Sébille, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) that comprise all self-reported measures by the patient are important as endpoint in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Models from the Item Response Theory (IRT) are increasingly used to analyze these particular outcomes that bring into play a latent variable as these outcomes cannot be directly observed. Preliminary developments have been proposed for sample size and power determination for the comparison of PRO in cross-sectional studies comparing two groups of patients when an IRT model is intended to be used for analysis. The objective of this work was to validate these developments in a large number of situations reflecting real-life studies. Methodology The method to determine the power relies on the characteristics of the latent trait and of the questionnaire (distribution of the items), the difference between the latent variable mean in each group and the variance of this difference estimated using Cramer-Rao bound. Different scenarios were considered to evaluate the impact of the characteristics of the questionnaire and of the variance of the latent trait on performances of the Cramer-Rao method. The power obtained using Cramer-Rao method was compared to simulations. Principal Findings Powers achieved with the Cramer-Rao method were close to powers obtained from simulations when the questionnaire was suitable for the studied population. Nevertheless, we have shown an underestimation of power with the Cramer-Rao method when the questionnaire was less suitable for the population. Besides, the Cramer-Rao method stays valid whatever the values of the variance of the latent trait. Conclusions The Cramer-Rao method is adequate to determine the power of a test of group effect at design stage for two-group comparison studies including patient-reported outcomes in health sciences. At the design stage, the questionnaire used to measure the intended PRO should be carefully chosen in relation to the studied

  17. Of the Report of the Questionnaire Study of English Teaching Conditions in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    Teachers in Arizona were surveyed by questionnaire to determine the present quality of English instruction and to prepare a profile of English teachers and English teaching in the state. Returns were received from 81 of 113 schools surveyed (647 of 1026 teachers). Information obtained on English teachers indicated that (1) 41% of the English…

  18. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 56A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006…

  19. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 58A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying frequency tables, "Longitudinal Surveys of…

  20. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 3 (2011)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 72A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 3 (2011) data set.

  1. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 2 (2010)-- Questionnaire. Technical Report 71A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 2 (2010) data set.

  2. Initial Psychometric Properties of the Experiences Questionnaire: Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Decentering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Segal, Zindel V.; Ma, S. Helen; Teasdale, John D.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated…

  3. IITS Students' Evaluation Questionnaire for the Fall Semester of 1991. A Summary and Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ted

    A mail survey of students enrolled in distance education classes in library science and health education and promotion was conducted after the courses were first offered in the fall semester of 1991. The 77-item questionnaire explored attitudes, opinions, and preferences relating to the Intercampus, Interactive Telecommunications System (IITS),…

  4. Results of the College Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) Fall 1973. Research Report No. 348.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Dale C.

    The 109-item College Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) was designed to assess student attitudes toward a variety of activities occurring before classes begin at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The CDQ was administered to the 4,502 freshmen (58% of the total freshmen class) who attended the College Diagnostic Testing Session…

  5. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 75A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). The document presents the questionnaire for LSAY…

  6. Application of Bother in patient reported outcomes instruments across cultures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the term bother, as used in Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) instruments that will be translated into foreign languages from English for the United States. Bother is versatile in English for the U.S., in that it can describe negative mental states and physical sensations, as well as social disturbances. Bother has many different meanings across cultures, due to this versatility. Alternatives for bother were explored for future PRO instrument development. Methods A PRO instrument used to evaluate the degree of bother resulting from psoriasis was analyzed. This disease can negatively impact patients physically, emotionally and socially. Translations of bother were analyzed to determine its meaning when translated into other languages. Cognitive debriefing was conducted on psoriasis patients with the instrument containing bother. Following cognitive debriefing, a questionnaire was distributed to linguists and cognitive debriefing subjects to collect definitions of bother in each target language, and detail any difficulty with translation. To establish alternatives to bother and demonstrate the breakdown of concepts within bother, translations of the Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) were analyzed. This instrument was selected for its focus on psoriasis and use of terminology that lacks the ambiguity of bother. Results An analysis of back-translations revealed that bother yielded a back-translation that was conceptually different from the source 20% of the time (5/26). Analysis of alternative terminology found in the DLQI revealed much greater conceptual equivalence when translated into other languages. Conclusion When developing the wording of PRO instruments, the terminology chosen should be applicable across languages to allow for international pooling and comparison of data. While all linguists and subjects of cognitive debriefing understood bother to have a negative connotation, a

  7. The History of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Leigh F

    2016-05-01

    The rheumatology community began incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the early 1980s, helping shift the care of chronic diseases from a narrower biomedical model to a broader biopsychosocial model of health. Early efforts were focused primarily in clinical trials and clinical research, but over the last decade there has been increasing use in routine rheumatology clinical care. More than 250 valid and reliable scales to assess domains of importance to patients with rheumatic conditions have been developed. The approach to measurement continues to be refined. Rheumatology has much to be proud of in contributions to the important field of patient-reported outcomes. PMID:27133485

  8. Brief report: A confirmatory approach to the validation of the peer group norm questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Denton, Rhea; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates the internal validity of the "Perception of Peer Group Norms Questionnaire" (PPGNQ), a 17-item measure that assesses middle school students' perceptions of positive and negative norms among their grade mates. The sample consisted of 1073 Grade 6 students. The factorability of the two hypothesized factors was assessed with Exploratory Factor Analysis and a clear two-factor structure emerged. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis this two-factor model evidenced good fit once items of similar wording and subject matter were permitted to correlate. Support was found for metric, strict, scalar, construct and latent means invariance between genders, suggesting that boys and girls perceived items similarly. The results indicate that the PPGNQ may be recommended as a research questionnaire that demonstrates high internal validity and measurement invariance, and can be used to study the influence of the perception of both negative and positive norms on adolescent behavior in school settings. PMID:27163173

  9. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Vicente E.; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a non-clinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled: 1) Interactions with strangers, 2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, 3) Interactions with the opposite sex, 4) Criticism and embarrassment, and 5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a ROC analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. PMID:25774643

  10. Assessing adult leisure activities: an extension of a self-report activity questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. The proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: 3 types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical activities, developmental activities, experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in 2 independent samples. A higher order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measures of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals. PMID:20230157

  11. Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, we enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities, and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. Our proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: three types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical, developmental, and experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in two independent samples. A higher-order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented VLS activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measure of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals. PMID:20230157

  12. Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Soh, Pauline; Ong, Clarissa; Esmond Seow, Lee Seng; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article was to provide an overview of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and related measures that have been examined in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current review focused on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that evaluated three broad outcome domains: functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and OCD-related symptoms. The present review ultimately included a total of 155 unique articles and 22 PROMs. An examination of the PROs revealed that OCD patients tend to suffer from significant functional disability, and report lower HRQoL than controls. OCD patients report greater symptom severity than patients with other mental disorders and evidence indicates that PROMs are sensitive to change and may be even better than clinician-rated measures at predicting treatment outcomes. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the measures reviewed lacked patient input in their development. Future research on PROMs must involve patient perspectives and include rigorous psychometric evaluation of these measures. PMID:25152661

  13. Meeting Report: Outcomes from the Undergraduate Research Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes from the undergraduate research summit held on August 2003 at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. This summit brought together an array of stakeholders from the chemistry community, ranging from those with a long history of success in undergraduate research to junior faculty members who have started on a trajectory…

  14. 'The patient': at the center of patient-reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Awad, A George

    2015-01-01

    The recent emphasis of including patient reports in their own care management is reviewed in terms of the factors that contributed to its popularity. The role change of patients as being active participants in their own care as a result of the rising consumerism and advocacy has led to increased pressures for including patients in the therapeutic decision-making process. As consumers of clinical services, their perspectives and attitudes towards health and illness acquired more importance. The rising cost of healthcare has added another dimension in cost containment by empowering patients and sharing responsibility in their recovery, which hopefully can improve outcomes. Challenges in the development and implementation of patient-reported outcomes in psychiatry are reviewed and include the still unresolved subjective/objective dichotomy, identification of the most appropriate and relevant patient-reported outcomes. Few outcomes are identified and include: subjective tolerability of medication, self-reported health-related quality of life, preferences, patients' attitudes towards health and illness, satisfaction with medication and overall satisfaction of quality of care, and functional state, with particular focus on social functioning. PMID:26289737

  15. Student Reports of Peer Threats of Violence: Prevalence and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…

  16. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  17. Raising future forensic pathologists (first report): results of a preliminary questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    The shortage of future forensic pathologists is a serious problem both in Japan and overseas. In Japan, however, factors such as government budget cuts and increasing the autopsy rates, make the condition even worse. In an attempt to improve this situation, we implemented a questionnaire survey to investigate the particular features necessary when selecting a career in forensic medicine. As a preliminary study, we sent the questionnaire along with an anonymous answer sheet to all forensic pathologists with a degree in medicine M.D., who were affiliated with universities in Hokkaido and the Tohoku district of Japan as of August 2011. Thirteen physicians in nine universities (response rate 77.8%) returned the answer sheet. Characteristics of participants are listed below: years of experience, board specialty and number of years as board certified specialists, percentage of work effort spent on autopsy practice, the time when they decided to work as a forensic pathologist, the time when to best recommend forensic pathologist as a career, and crucial factors in choosing the specialty of forensic medicine. As a result of this research, we've revealed the importance of undergraduate medical education or the effect on the role models. Furthermore, we've also extracted miscellaneous comments, such as standardization of minimum requirements. In our study, we' ve found some clues to increase future candidates in the field forensic medicine. However, we must collect further samples for our questionnaire survey to validate the study, and, as a future project, we must also address this problem at the congress of forensic medicine. PMID:23016267

  18. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. PMID:27500829

  19. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. PMID:27500829

  20. Health Services OutPatient Experience questionnaire: factorial validity and reliability of a patient-centered outcome measure for outpatient settings in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Coluccia, Anna; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The patient-centered approach to health care does not seem to be sufficiently developed in the Italian context, and is still characterized by the biomedical model. In addition, there is a lack of validated outcome measures to assess outpatient experience as an aspect common to a variety of settings. The current study aimed to evaluate the factorial validity, reliability, and invariance across sex of the Health Services OutPatient Experience (HSOPE) questionnaire, a short ten-item measure of patient-centeredness for Italian adult outpatients. The rationale for unidimensionality of the measure was that it could cover global patient experience as a process common to patients with a variety of diseases and irrespective of the phase of treatment course. Patients and methods The HSOPE was compiled by 1,532 adult outpatients (51% females, mean age 59.22 years, standard deviation 16.26) receiving care in ten facilities at the Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena, Italy. The sample represented all the age cohorts. Twelve percent were young adults, 57% were adults, and 32% were older adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate factor structure. Reliability was evaluated as internal consistency using Cronbach’s α. Factor invariance was assessed through multigroup analyses. Results Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses suggested a clearly defined unidimensional structure of the measure, with all the ten items having salient loadings on a single factor. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.95). Indices of model fit supported a single-factor structure for both male and female outpatient groups. Young adult outpatients had significantly lower scores on perceived patient-centeredness relative to older adults. No significant difference emerged on patient-centeredness between male and female outpatients. Conclusion The HSOPE questionnaire seemed to be a tool with high acceptability and excellent psychometric

  1. Patient-reported outcomes as primary end points in clinical trials of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Williet, Nicolas; Sandborn, William J; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is moving from the Crohn's Disease Activity Index to patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and objective measures of disease, such as findings from endoscopy. PROs will become an important aspect of assessing activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and for labeling specific drugs for this disease. PROs always have been considered in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis, and have included measurements of quality of life, disability, or fatigue. Several disease-specific scales have been developed to assess these PROs and commonly are used in clinical trials. Outcomes reported by patients in clinical trials of IBD initially focused on quality of life, measured by the Short-Form 36 questionnaire or disease-specific scales such as the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire or its shorter version. Recently considered factors include fatigue, depression and anxiety, and work productivity, as measured by the Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, the Hospital Anxiety Depression, and the Work Productivity Activity Impairment Questionnaire, respectively. However, few data are available on how treatment affects these factors in patients with IBD. Although disability generally is recognized in patients with IBD, it is not measured. The international IBD disability index currently is being validated. None of the PROs currently used in IBD were developed according to FDA guidance for PRO development. PROs will be a major primary end point of future trials. FDA guidance is needed to develop additional PROs for IBD that can be incorporated into trials, to better compare patients' experience with different therapies. PMID:24534550

  2. Predictable Outcomes with Porcelain Laminate Veneers: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Welson; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi; Costa, Priscila Paganini; Jorge, Mônica Zacharias; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    This clinical report describes how to achieve predictable outcomes for anterior teeth esthetic restorations with porcelain laminate veneers by associating the digital planning and design of the restoration with interim restorations. The previous digital smile design of the restoration eliminates the communication barrier with the patient and assists the clinician throughout patient treatment. Interim restorations (diagnostic mock-ups) further enhance communication with the patient and prevent unnecessary tooth reduction for conservative tooth preparation. Adequate communication between patient and clinician contributes to successful definitive restorations and patient satisfaction with the final esthetic outcome. PMID:26633080

  3. The Gutenberg Health Study: measuring psychosocial factors at work and predicting health and work-related outcomes with the ERI and the COPSOQ questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several instruments have been developed to assess psychosocial workload. We compared two of these instruments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) with regard to congruent validity and internal validity. Methods This analysis is based on a population-based sample of the baseline examination of 2,783 employees from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). About half of the participants completed the ERI questionnaire (n = 1,342), the other half completed the COPSOQ (n = 1,441). First, the two samples were compared and descriptive analyses were carried out calculating mean values for both instruments in general, then separately for age, gender and main occupational groups. Second, we analyzed the relationship between ERI and COPSOQ scales on the workplace situation and on the workplace outcomes: job satisfaction, general health, burnout, satisfaction with life, by applying stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results and discussion For the majority of occupations, high effort as reflected by the ERI corresponded with high demands as reflected by the COPSOQ. Comparably, high reward (according to ERI) yielded a good agreement with high “influence and development” (according to COPSOQ). However, we could also find differences between ERI and COPSOQ concerning the intensity of psychosocial workload in some occupations (e.g., physicians/pharmacists or warehouse managers/warehousemen/transport workers). These differences point to differing theoretical concepts of ERI and COPSOQ. When the ability of ERI and COPSOQ was examined to determine the associations with health and work outcomes, burnout could be better predicted by the COPSOQ; this might be due to the fact that COPSOQ comprises the constructs “work-privacy conflict” and “emotional demand”, which are closely related to burnout. However, methodological differences between these instruments limit their direct comparability. Conclusions

  4. Validation of a self-report questionnaire version of the Child Activity Limitations Interview (CALI): The CALI-21

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Lewandowski, Amy S.; Long, Anna C.; Burant, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The Child Activity Limitations Interview (CALI) is a measure designed to assess functional impairment due to chronic pain in school-age children. In this study, we present a self-report questionnaire version of the CALI (the CALI-21) that extends the original interview measure. The purpose of the current study was to provide internal consistency, cross-informant reliability and construct validity of the CALI-21 on a clinical sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions. One hundred fifty-five children and adolescents (65 males, 90 females; ages 8–18 years, M = 14.31, SD =2.45) with chronic pain completed questionnaires as part of their clinic intake procedures at their consultation visit in a pediatric pain management clinic. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to measure latent constructs within the broader domain of functional impairment. Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors representing limitation in Active and Routine activities on both parent and child report. Parent and child total CALI scores correlated with measures of pain intensity, however, different patterns of correlations emerged between age, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and the Active and Routine factors. The CALI-21 showed good internal consistency, high cross-informant reliability, and demonstrated construct validity. The CALI-21 provides increased flexibility via the questionnaire format in the assessment of pain-related activity limitations in children. Factor analysis extends information about specific types of activity limitations experienced by children. PMID:18692316

  5. Developing core outcomes sets: methods for identifying and including patient-reported outcomes (PROs)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synthesis of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data is hindered by the range of available PRO measures (PROMs) composed of multiple scales and single items with differing terminology and content. The use of core outcome sets, an agreed minimum set of outcomes to be measured and reported in all trials of a specific condition, may improve this issue but methods to select core PRO domains from the many available PROMs are lacking. This study examines existing PROMs and describes methods to identify health domains to inform the development of a core outcome set, illustrated with an example. Methods Systematic literature searches identified validated PROMs from studies evaluating radical treatment for oesophageal cancer. PROM scale/single item names were recorded verbatim and the frequency of similar names/scales documented. PROM contents (scale components/single items) were examined for conceptual meaning by an expert clinician and methodologist and categorised into health domains. A patient advocate independently checked this categorisation. Results Searches identified 21 generic and disease-specific PROMs containing 116 scales and 32 single items with 94 different verbatim names. Identical names for scales were repeatedly used (for example, ‘physical function’ in six different measures) and others were similar (overlapping face validity) although component items were not always comparable. Based on methodological, clinical and patient expertise, 606 individual items were categorised into 32 health domains. Conclusion This study outlines a methodology for identifying candidate PRO domains from existing PROMs to inform a core outcome set to use in clinical trials. PMID:24495582

  6. Integrating Patient Reported Outcomes With Clinical Cancer Registry Data: A Feasibility Study of the Electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes From Cancer Survivors (ePOCS) System

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Helen; Thomas, James; Newsham, Alex; Downing, Amy; Morris, Eva; Brown, Julia; Velikova, Galina; Forman, David; Wright, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine measurement of Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) linked with clinical data across the patient pathway is increasingly important for informing future care planning. The innovative electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors (ePOCS) system was developed to integrate PROs, collected online at specified post-diagnostic time-points, with clinical and treatment data in cancer registries. Objective This study tested the technical and clinical feasibility of ePOCS by running the system with a sample of potentially curable breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer patients in their first 15 months post diagnosis. Methods Patients completed questionnaires comprising multiple Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) via ePOCS within 6 months (T1), and at 9 (T2) and 15 (T3) months, post diagnosis. Feasibility outcomes included system informatics performance, patient recruitment, retention, representativeness and questionnaire completion (response rate), patient feedback, and administration burden involved in running the system. Results ePOCS ran efficiently with few technical problems. Patient participation was 55.21% (636/1152) overall, although varied by approach mode, and was considerably higher among patients approached face-to-face (61.4%, 490/798) than by telephone (48.8%, 21/43) or letter (41.0%, 125/305). Older and less affluent patients were less likely to join (both P<.001). Most non-consenters (71.1%, 234/329) cited information technology reasons (ie, difficulty using a computer). Questionnaires were fully or partially completed by 85.1% (541/636) of invited participants at T1 (80 questions total), 70.0% (442/631) at T2 (102-108 questions), and 66.3% (414/624) at T3 (148-154 questions), and fully completed at all three time-points by 57.6% (344/597) of participants. Reminders (mainly via email) effectively prompted responses. The PROs were successfully linked with cancer registry data for 100% of patients (N=636). Participant feedback

  7. Parenting Behavior in Mothers of Preschool Children with ASD: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child's behavior and development effectively. PMID:26605085

  8. The measurement of patient-reported outcomes of refractive surgery: the refractive status and vision profile.

    PubMed Central

    Schein, O D

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a questionnaire, the Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP), to assess health-related quality of life associated with refractive error and its correction. METHODS: The published literature on patient report of visual and overall function was reviewed, and the RSVP was self-administered by 550 participants with refractive error. Cross-sectional validation was performed using standard psychometric techniques. The responsiveness of the RSVP to surgical intervention was assessed prospectively in a subset of 176 patients. The principal outcomes measures were scores on the overall RSVP scale (S) and on 8 RSVP subscales (functioning, driving, concern, expectations, symptoms, glare, optical problems, problems with corrective lenses). RESULTS: The RSVP (S) and its subscales demonstrated very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, 0.70-0.93). S and several subscale scores were independently associated with satisfaction with vision and were more correlated with satisfaction with vision than with either visual acuity or refractive error. Higher refractive error was associated with lower scores on S and on 5 subscales. In the prospective surgical cohort, 15% of patients had some worsening in their total RSVP score; however, substantial variation was seen in the individual subscales where worsening ranged from 7% (problems with corrective lenses) to 41% (driving). The effect size (measure of responsiveness) of the RSVP and most of its subscales was very high. Approximately 14% of patients had significant worsening in 3 or more subscales, and this outcome was found to be independently associated with being dissatisfied with vision following surgery (OR, 5.84; 95% CI, 1.88, 8.13). CONCLUSIONS: The RSVP has been validated as a questionnaire that measures patient-reported quality of life related to refractive error and its correction. It is responsive to surgical intervention and provides important information regarding patient outcomes not available

  9. A proposed set of metrics for standardized outcome reporting in the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Clement, R Carter; Welander, Adina; Stowell, Caleb; Cha, Thomas D; Chen, John L; Davies, Michelle; Fairbank, Jeremy C; Foley, Kevin T; Gehrchen, Martin; Hagg, Olle; Jacobs, Wilco C; Kahler, Richard; Khan, Safdar N; Lieberman, Isador H; Morisson, Beth; Ohnmeiss, Donna D; Peul, Wilco C; Shonnard, Neal H; Smuck, Matthew W; Solberg, Tore K; Stromqvist, Bjorn H; Hooff, Miranda L Van; Wasan, Ajay D; Willems, Paul C; Yeo, William; Fritzell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Outcome measurement has been shown to improve performance in several fields of healthcare. This understanding has driven a growing interest in value-based healthcare, where value is defined as outcomes achieved per money spent. While low back pain (LBP) constitutes an enormous burden of disease, no universal set of metrics has yet been accepted to measure and compare outcomes. Here, we aim to define such a set. Patients and methods An international group of 22 specialists in several disciplines of spine care was assembled to review literature and select LBP outcome metrics through a 6-round modified Delphi process. The scope of the outcome set was degenerative lumbar conditions. Results Patient-reported metrics include numerical pain scales, lumbar-related function using the Oswestry disability index, health-related quality of life using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, and questions assessing work status and analgesic use. Specific common and serious complications are included. Recommended follow-up intervals include 6, 12, and 24 months after initiating treatment, with optional follow-up at 3 months and 5 years. Metrics for risk stratification are selected based on pre-existing tools. Interpretation The outcome measures recommended here are structured around specific etiologies of LBP, span a patient’s entire cycle of care, and allow for risk adjustment. Thus, when implemented, this set can be expected to facilitate meaningful comparisons and ultimately provide a continuous feedback loop, enabling ongoing improvements in quality of care. Much work lies ahead in implementation, revision, and validation of this set, but it is an essential first step toward establishing a community of LBP providers focused on maximizing the value of the care we deliver. PMID:25828191

  10. Patient-Reported Outcome Coordinator Did Not Improve Quality of Life Assessment Response Rates: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donna; Gerbing, Robert; Alonzo, Todd; Aplenc, Richard; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Schulte, Fiona; Cullen, Patricia; Sung, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Health related quality of life (HRQL) assessments during therapy for pediatric cancer provide valuable information to better understand the patient experience. Our objective was to determine the impact of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) coordinator on HRQL questionnaire completion rates during a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) trial. Methods AAML1031 is a multicenter Children’s Oncology Group therapeutic trial for de novo AML with a secondary aim to assess HRQL of children and adolescents treated with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Parents/guardians are the primary respondents and four questionnaires are administered at eight time points. The questionnaires are the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, PedsQL 3.0 Acute Cancer Module, PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. To improve response rates, a central PRO coordinator was instituted and reminded sites about upcoming and delinquent questionnaires. The proportion of HRQL questionnaires completed were compared prior to, and following institution of the PRO coordinator. This analysis evaluated the first five assessment time points. Results There were231 families who consented to participate in the HRQL aim. Overall response rates for all questionnaires were 73–83%. At time point 1, within 14 days of chemotherapy initiation, post-PRO coordinator completion rates were significantly higher for three of four questionnaires. However, the effect was not sustained and at time point 4, one month following last chemotherapy or HSCT, completion rates were significantly lower post-PRO coordinator for all four questionnaires. Conclusion Addition of a central PRO coordinator did not result in sustained improvement in HRQL questionnaire completion rates. Efforts to improve response rates must consider other strategies. PMID:25915772

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of a combination of salivary hemoglobin levels, self-report questionnaires, and age in periodontitis screening

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the predictive performance of a combination of self-report questionnaires, salivary hemoglobin levels, and age as a non-invasive screening method for periodontitis. Methods The periodontitis status of 202 adults was examined using salivary hemoglobin levels, responses to 10 questions on a self-report questionnaire, and the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The ability of those two variables and the combination thereof with age to predict the presence of CPI scores of 3–4 and 4 was assessed using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results CPI scores of 3–4 and 4 were present among 79.7% and 46.5% of the sample, respectively. The area under the ROC curves (AUROCs) of salivary hemoglobin levels for predicting prevalence of CPI scores of 3–4 and 4 were 0.63 and 0.67, respectively (with sensitivity values of 71% and 60% and specificity values of 56% and 72%, respectively). Two distinct sets of five questions were associated with CPI scores of 3–4 and 4, with AUROCs of 0.73 and 0.71, sensitivity values of 76% and 66%, and specificity values of 63% and 69%. The combined model incorporating both variables and age showed the best predictive performance, with AUROCs of 0.78 and 0.76, sensitivity values of 71% and 65%, and specificity values of 68% and 77% for CPI scores of 3–4 and 4, respectively. Conclusions The combination of salivary hemoglobin levels and self-report questionnaires was shown to be a valuable screening method for detecting periodontitis. PMID:26937290

  12. Concurrent Validity of a Self-Reported Physical Activity “Vital Sign” Questionnaire With Adult Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Elizabeth A.; Gren, Lisa H.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction No tool currently used by primary health care providers to assess physical activity has been evaluated for its ability to determine whether or not patients achieve recommended levels of activity. The purpose of this study was to assess concurrent validity of physical activity self-reported to the brief (<30 sec) Physical Activity “Vital Sign” questionnaire (PAVS) compared with responses to the lengthier (3–5 min), validated Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Methods Agreement between activity reported to the PAVS and MAQ by primary care patients at 2 clinics in 2014 was assessed by using percentages and κ coefficients. Agreement consisted of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Aerobic Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PA Guidelines) of the US Department of Health and Human Services. We compared self-reported usual minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among patients at a primary care clinic in 2014 who reported to PAVS and to MAQ by using Pearson correlation and Bland–Altman plots of agreement. Results Among 269 consenting patients who reported physical activity, PAVS results agreed with those of MAQ 89.6% of the time and demonstrated good agreement in identifying patients who did not meet PA Guidelines recommendations (κ = 0.55, ρ = 0.57; P < .001). Usual minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reported to PAVS had a high positive correlation with the same reported to MAQ (r = 0.71; P < .001). Conclusion PAVS may be a valid tool for identifying primary care patients who need counseling about physical activity. PAVS should be assessed further for agreement with repeated objective measures of physical activity in the patient population. PMID:26851335

  13. Variation in outcomes in trials reporting effects of diet and lifestyle based intervention on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rogozinska, E; Fen, Y; Molyneaux, E; Khan, K S; Thangaratinam, S

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is a growing threat to women of childbearing age. Increased maternal weight or excessive weight gain in pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on a number of clinical outcomes. There is no consensus amongst the trialists on the core outcomes that need to be reported to inform the clinical care of pregnant women. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate variation in the type and quality of outcomes reported in systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials on diet and lifestyle interventions on maternal and fetal outcomes. We will assess the correlation between the type of outcome, the quality of the studies and journal impact factor. We searched the major databases from the inception to October 2013 without language restrictions. We used current recommendations for quality of outcome reporting using a 6-point scale. The quality assessment of systematic reviews and RCTs was performed using the AMSTAR and Jadad scoring systems. Additionally we obtained journals' impact factor in the year of publication. We calculated Spearman rank coefficient to assess the correlation between the type of outcome, and study quality. An overview of outcome reporting will show the current attitude of the researchers towards outcomes of importance when conducting trials on diet and lifestyle management in pregnancy. If our abstract is accepted, we will provide the details of the results. PMID:26104628

  14. Brief Report: Methods for Collecting Sexual Behaviour Information from South African Adolescents--A Comparison of Paper versus Personal Digital Assistant Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspan, Heather B.; Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Mathews, Catherine; Seebregts, Chris; Berwick, Jessica R.; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2007-01-01

    Reporting bias in adolescent behavioural research may be overcome with the use of personal digital assistants (PDA) or other computer based technologies. However, there is little insight into the use of these tools among adolescents in low resource settings. We compared self-administered paper questionnaires with PDA questionnaires to collect…

  15. Development of the PMPQ: A Structural Job Analysis Questionnaire for the Study of Professional and Managerial Positions. PMPQ Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jimmy L.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    The development and analysis of the Professional and Managerial Position Questionnaire (PMPQ) is reported. PMPQ is intended to serve as a job analysis instrument for higher level occupations than those assessed by the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approaches to job analysis are described with different emphases on the requirements of…

  16. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  17. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  18. Interactive voice response and web-based questionnaires for population-based infectious disease reporting.

    PubMed

    Bexelius, Christin; Merk, Hanna; Sandin, Sven; Nyrén, Olof; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Linde, Annika; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2010-10-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the web and an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) phone service as vehicles in population-based infectious disease surveillance. Fourteen thousand subjects were randomly selected from the Swedish population register and asked to prospectively report all respiratory tract infections, including Influenza-like Illness (ILI-clinical symptoms indicative of influenza but no laboratory confirmation), immediately as they occurred during a 36-week period starting October 2007. Participants were classified as belonging to the web or IVR group based on their choice of technology for initial registration. In all, 1,297 individuals registered via IVR while 2,044 chose the web. The latter were more often young and well-educated than those registered via IVR. Overall, 52% of the participants reported at least one infection episode. The risk of an infectious disease report was 14% (95% CI: 6, 22%) higher in the web group than in the IVR group. For ILI the excess was 27% (95% CI: 11, 47%). After adjustments for socio-demographic factors, statistically non-significant excesses of 1 and 8% remained, indicating trivial differences potentially attributable to the two reporting techniques. With attention to confounding, it should be possible to combine the web and IVR for simple reporting of infectious disease symptoms. PMID:20596884

  19. The distinction of 'psychosomatogenic family types' based on parents' self reported questionnaire information: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Ceulemans, Eva; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Desoete, Annemie; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-06-01

    The theory of 'psychosomatogenic family types' is often used in treatment of somatizing adolescents. This study investigated the validity of distinguishing 'psychosomatogenic family types' based on parents' self-reported family features. The study included a Flemish general population sample of 12-year olds (n = 1428). We performed cluster analysis on 3 variables concerning parents' self-reported problems in family functioning. The distinguished clusters were examined for differences in marital problems, parental emotional problems, professional help for family members, demographics, and adolescents' somatization. Results showed the existence of 5 family types: 'chaotic family functioning,' 'average amount of family functioning problems,' 'few family functioning problems,' 'high amount of support and communication problems,' and 'high amount of sense of security problems' clusters. Membership of the 'chaotic family functioning' and 'average amount of family functioning problems' cluster was significantly associated with higher levels of somatization, compared with 'few family functioning problems' cluster membership. Among additional variables, only marital and parental emotional problems distinguished somatization relevant from non relevant clusters: parents in 'average amount of family functioning problems' and 'chaotic family functioning' clusters reported higher problems. The data showed that 'apparently perfect' or 'enmeshed' patterns of family functioning may not be assessed by means of parent report as adopted in this study. In addition, not only adolescents from 'extreme' types of family functioning may suffer from somatization. Further, professionals should be careful assuming that families in which parents report average to high amounts of family functioning problems also show different demographic characteristics. PMID:24749676

  20. Present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean atomic bomb survivors: a mail questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many Koreans were forced to move to Japan while Korea was occupied by Japan. Consequently, when the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki an estimated 40,000 Koreans died and 30,000 survived. In 2004, 2,235 Koreans were registered as A-bomb survivors in South Korea. A mail questionnaire survey to evaluate the present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean survivors was conducted. In total, 1,256 questionnaires were returned and analysed. The most frequent chronic diseases reported by Korean survivors were hypertension (40.1 per cent), peptic ulcer disease (25.7 per cent), anaemia (23.3 per cent) and cataracts (23.1 per cent). The most frequent malignant diseases were stomach cancer (1.9 per cent), colon cancer (0.5 per cent) and leukaemia/multiple myeloma (0.4 per cent). This study suggests that further investigations are needed into the health concerns of the survivors and into health protection measures. PMID:16180735

  1. Begging the Questionnaire: Instrument Effect on Readers' Responses to a Self-Report Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Alastair I. C. G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of having English-as-a-Second-Language test-takers select from a checklist the strategies they believe they use when answering multiple choice reading comprehension questions. Results suggest that the self-report checklist discussed above exercised to an unknown extent an instrument effect on the readers who…

  2. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…

  3. The relationship between pain severity and patient-reported outcomes among patients with chronic low back pain in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, William; Vietri, Jeffrey; Shi, Jing; Ogawa, Kei; Kariyasu, Sawako; Alev, Levent; Nakamura, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of pain severity on patient-reported outcomes among individuals diagnosed with chronic low back pain in Japan. Methods Data were provided by the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (N=29,997), a web-based survey of individuals in Japan aged ≥18 years. This analysis included respondents diagnosed with low back pain of ≥3-month duration. Measures included the revised Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Survey Instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: General Health questionnaire, and self-reported all-cause health care visits (6 months). Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and severity of pain in the past week as reported on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (pain as bad as you can imagine), controlling for length of diagnosis, sociodemographics, and general health characteristics. Results A total of 290 respondents were included in the analysis; mean age was 56 years, 41% were females, and 56% were employed. Pain severity was 3/10 for the first quartile, 5/10 for the median, and 7/10 for the third quartile of this sample. Increasing severity was associated with lower scores for mental and physical component summaries and Short-Form 6D health utility, higher depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) scores, greater absenteeism and presenteeism, greater activity impairment, and more health care provider visits (all P<0.0001). Conclusion The impact of chronic low back pain on health-related quality of life, depression and anxiety symptoms, impairment to work and daily activities, and health care use increases with the severity of pain. Interventions reducing the severity of pain may improve numerous health outcomes even if the pain cannot be eliminated. PMID:27330326

  4. Feasibility of Frequent Patient-Reported Outcome Surveillance in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William A.; Deal, Allison M.; Abernethy, Amy; Basch, Ethan; Battaglini, Claudio; Kim, Yoon Hie; Whitley, Julia; Shatten, Charlotte; Serody, Jon; Shea, Thomas; Reeve, Bryce B.

    2012-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), including symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), provide a patient-centered description of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-related toxicity. These data characterize the patient experience after HCT and may have prognostic usefulness for long-term outcomes after HCT. We conducted a study of 32 patients after HCT (10 autologous HCT recipients, 11 full-intensity conditioning allogeneic HCT recipients, and 11 reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HCT recipients) to determine the feasibility of weekly electronic PRO collection from HCT until day (D) + 100. We used questions from the PRO version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to capture symptoms, and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health scale to measure physical and mental HRQOL. The vast majority (94%) of patients used the electronic PRO system, with only 6% opting for paper-and-pencil only. The median weekly percentage of participants who completed the surveys was 100% in all cohorts through hospital discharge, and remained 100% for the autologous HCT and reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT cohorts through D+100. Patients were satisfied with the electronic system, giving high marks for readability, comfort, and questionnaire length. Symptom severity varied by absolute level and type of symptom across the 3 cohorts, with the full-intensity allogeneic HCT cohort exhibiting the greatest median overall symptom severity, peaking at D+7. Median physical health HRQOL scores decreased with time in the 3 cohorts, and HRQOL was generally correlated with overall symptom severity. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of frequent electronic PROs in the early post-HCT period. Future studies in larger populations to explore predictive models using frequent PRO data for outcomes, including long-term HRQOL and survival, are warranted. PMID:23253558

  5. Patient-Reported Outcomes Are Changing the Landscape in Oncology Care: Challenges and Opportunities for Payers

    PubMed Central

    Zagadailov, Erin; Fine, Michael; Shields, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background A patient-reported outcome (PRO) is a subjective report that comes from a patient without interpretation by a clinician. Because of the increasingly significant role of PROs in the development and evaluation of new medicines, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a formal guidance to describe how PRO instruments will be reviewed and evaluated with respect to claims in approved medical product labeling. Meanwhile, PROs continue to appear in oncology clinical trials more frequently; however, it is unclear how payers and policymakers can use PRO data in the context of decision-making for cancer treatments. Objective The objective of this article is to discuss the challenges and opportunities of incorporating oncology-related PRO data into payer decision-making. Discussion Payer concerns with PRO instruments are often related to issues regarding measurement, relevance, quality, and interpretability of PROs. Payers may dismiss PROs that do not independently predict improved outcomes. The FDA guidance released in 2009 demonstrates, as evidenced by the case of ruxolitinib, how PRO questionnaires can be generated in a relevant, trustworthy, and meaningful way, which provides an opportunity for payers and policy decision makers to focus on how to use PRO data in their decision-making. This is particularly relevant in oncology, where a recent and sizable number of clinical trials include PRO measures. Conclusion As an increasing number of oncology medications enter the market with product labeling claims that contain PRO data, payers will need to better familiarize themselves with the opportunities associated with PRO questionnaires when making coverage decisions. PRO measures will continue to provide valuable information regarding the risk–benefit profile of novel agents. As such, PRO measures may provide evidence that should be considered in payers' decisions and discussions; however, the formal role of PROs and the pertinence of PROs in decision

  6. Patient-reported outcome measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Matary, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used in both research and clinical health settings. With the recent development of United States Food and Drug Administration guidance on PROMs, more attention is being devoted to their role and importance in health care. Several methodological challenges in the development, validation and implementation of PROMs must be resolved to ensure their appropriate utilization and interpretation. The present review discusses recent developments and updates in PROMs, with specific focus on the area of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25390615

  7. Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review of the Literature Focusing on Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chari, Aswin; Hocking, Katie C; Broughton, Ellie; Turner, Carole; Santarius, Thomas; Hutchinson, Peter J; Kolias, Angelos G

    2016-07-01

    The plethora of studies in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has not resulted in the development of an evidence-based treatment strategy, largely due to heterogeneous outcome measures that preclude cross-study comparisons and guideline development. This study aimed to identify and quantify the heterogeneity of outcome measures reported in the CSDH literature and to build a case for the development of a consensus-based core outcome set. This systematic review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42014007266). All full-text English language studies with >10 patients (prospective) or >100 patients (retrospective) published after 1990 examining clinical outcomes in CSDH were eligible for inclusion. One hundred two eligible studies were found. There were 14 (13.7%) randomized controlled trials, one single arm trial (1.0%), 25 (24.5%) cohort comparison studies, and 62 (60.8%) prospective or retrospective cohort studies. Outcome domains reported by the studies included mortality (63.8% of included studies), recurrence (94.1%), complications (48.0%), functional outcomes (40.2%), and radiological (38.2%) outcomes. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of the outcome measures, as evidenced by the seven different definitions of the term "recurrence," with no definition given in 19 studies. The time-points of assessment for all the outcome domains varied greatly from inpatient/hospital discharge to 18 months. This study establishes and quantifies the heterogeneity of outcome measure reporting in CSDH and builds the case for the development of a robust consensus-based core outcome set for future studies to adhere to as part of the Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in CSDH (CODE-CSDH) project. PMID:26295586

  8. Utility of Washington Early Recognition Center Self-Report Screening Questionnaires in the Assessment of Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Christina J.; Godwin, Douglass; Mamah, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Early identification and treatment are associated with improved outcomes in bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Screening for the presence of these disorders usually involves time-intensive interviews that may not be practical in settings where mental health providers are limited. Thus, individuals at earlier stages of illness are often not identified. The Washington Early Recognition Center Affectivity and Psychosis (WERCAP) screen is a self-report questionnaire originally developed to identify clinical risk for developing bipolar or psychotic disorders. The goal of the current study was to investigate the utility of the WERCAP Screen and two complementary questionnaires, the WERC Stress Screen and the WERC Substance Screen, in identifying individuals with established SCZ or BPD. Participants consisted of 35 BPD and 34 SCZ patients, as well as 32 controls (CON), aged 18–30 years. Univariate analyses were used to test for score differences between groups. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify diagnostic predictors. Significant group differences were found for the psychosis section of the WERCAP (pWERCAP; p < 0.001), affective section of the WERCAP (aWERCAP; p = 0.001), and stress severity (p = 0.027). No significant group differences were found in the rates of substance use as measured by the WERC Substance Screen (p = 0.267). Only the aWERCAP and pWERCAP scores were useful predictors of diagnostic category. ROC curve analysis showed the optimal cut point on the aWERCAP to identify BPD among our participant groups was a score of >20 [area under the curve (AUC): 0.87; sensitivity: 0.91; specificity: 0.71], while that for the pWERCAP to identify SCZ was a score of >13 (AUC: 0.89; sensitivity: 0.88; specificity: 0.82). These results indicate that the WERCAP Screen may be useful in screening individuals for BPD and SCZ and that identifying stress and substance-use severity can be

  9. Utility of Washington Early Recognition Center Self-Report Screening Questionnaires in the Assessment of Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Christina J; Godwin, Douglass; Mamah, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Early identification and treatment are associated with improved outcomes in bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Screening for the presence of these disorders usually involves time-intensive interviews that may not be practical in settings where mental health providers are limited. Thus, individuals at earlier stages of illness are often not identified. The Washington Early Recognition Center Affectivity and Psychosis (WERCAP) screen is a self-report questionnaire originally developed to identify clinical risk for developing bipolar or psychotic disorders. The goal of the current study was to investigate the utility of the WERCAP Screen and two complementary questionnaires, the WERC Stress Screen and the WERC Substance Screen, in identifying individuals with established SCZ or BPD. Participants consisted of 35 BPD and 34 SCZ patients, as well as 32 controls (CON), aged 18-30 years. Univariate analyses were used to test for score differences between groups. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify diagnostic predictors. Significant group differences were found for the psychosis section of the WERCAP (pWERCAP; p < 0.001), affective section of the WERCAP (aWERCAP; p = 0.001), and stress severity (p = 0.027). No significant group differences were found in the rates of substance use as measured by the WERC Substance Screen (p = 0.267). Only the aWERCAP and pWERCAP scores were useful predictors of diagnostic category. ROC curve analysis showed the optimal cut point on the aWERCAP to identify BPD among our participant groups was a score of >20 [area under the curve (AUC): 0.87; sensitivity: 0.91; specificity: 0.71], while that for the pWERCAP to identify SCZ was a score of >13 (AUC: 0.89; sensitivity: 0.88; specificity: 0.82). These results indicate that the WERCAP Screen may be useful in screening individuals for BPD and SCZ and that identifying stress and substance-use severity can be

  10. Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty registries.

    PubMed

    Rolfson, Ola; Eresian Chenok, Kate; Bohm, Eric; Lübbeke, Anne; Denissen, Geke; Dunn, Jennifer; Lyman, Stephen; Franklin, Patricia; Dunbar, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Garellick, Göran; Dawson, Jill

    2016-07-01

    The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Steering Committee established the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group to convene, evaluate, and advise on best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs and to support the adoption and use of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty in registries worldwide. The 2 main types of PROMs include generic (general health) PROMs, which provide a measure of general health for any health state, and specific PROMs, which focus on specific symptoms, diseases, organs, body regions, or body functions. The establishment of a PROM instrument requires the fulfillment of methodological standards and rigorous testing to ensure that it is valid, reliable, responsive, and acceptable to the intended population. A survey of the 41 ISAR member registries showed that 8 registries administered a PROMs program that covered all elective hip or knee arthroplasty patients and 6 registries collected PROMs for sample populations; 1 other registry had planned but had not started collection of PROMs. The most common generic instruments used were the EuroQol 5 dimension health outcome survey (EQ-5D) and the Short Form 12 health survey (SF-12) or the similar Veterans RAND 12-item health survey (VR-12). The most common specific PROMs were the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and the University of California at Los Angeles Activity Score (UCLA). PMID:27168175

  11. Systematic review of the measurement properties of self-report physical activity questionnaires in healthy adult populations

    PubMed Central

    Silsbury, Zoë; Goldsmith, Robert; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluated the measurement properties of current self-report physical activity questionnaires (SRPAQs) completed within healthy adult populations. Design Two reviewers independently searched seven electronic databases and hand searched for articles investigating measurement properties of a SRPAQ evaluating physical activity over the previous 6 months. Articles published from 1 May 2001 to 4 December 2014 were systematically screened and eligible studies were not limited to English language sources. Articles investigating specific race, gender or socioeconomic populations were excluded. Results 10 studies investigating 10 SRPAQs were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and ranged from ‘poor’ to ‘good’. The Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaires and Physical Activity Assessment Tool demonstrated good/excellent test–retest reliability (intra-class coefficient (ICC)=0.76, p<0.0001; r=0.627–0.91; r=0.618, p<0.001, respectively), but variable criterion validity (r=0.67, p<0.0001; r=−0.02–0.43; r=0.392, p<0.01, respectively). The single-item measure showed significant criterion validity against an accelerometer (for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) k=0.23, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.41; and physical activity ≥10 min bouts 0.39 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.64). Construct validity of the six-point scale and Human Activity Profile varied significantly with age, marital status and presence of comorbidities (p<0.05, <0.01, <0.000 and p<0.05, <0.05, <0.000, respectively). The 1 week Godlin-Shephard recall demonstrated ‘moderate’ validity with the gold standard measure of accelerometry (r=0.43). Conclusions Inconclusive evidence exists. Further investigation of criterion validity of the short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire is

  12. Assessing Repetitive Negative Thinking Using Categorical and Transdiagnostic Approaches: A Comparison and Validation of Three Polish Language Adaptations of Self-Report Questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Kornacka, Monika; Buczny, Jacek; Layton, Rebekah L

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a transdiagnostic process involved in the risk, maintenance, and relapse of serious conditions including mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, and addictions. Processing mode theory provides a theoretical model to assess, research, and treat RNT using a transdiagnostic approach. Clinical researchers also often employ categorical approaches to RNT, including a focus on depressive rumination or worry, for similar purposes. Three widely used self-report questionnaires have been developed to assess these related constructs: the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and the Mini-Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale (Mini-CERTS). Yet these scales have not previously been used in conjunction, despite useful theoretical distinctions only available in Mini-CERTS. The present validation of the methods in a Polish speaking population provides psychometric parameters estimates that contribute to current efforts to increase reliable replication of theoretical outcomes. Moreover, the following study aims to present particular characteristics and a comparison of the three methods. Although there has been some exploration of a categorical approach, the comparison of transdiagnostic methods is still lacking. These methods are particularly relevant for developing and evaluating theoretically based interventions like concreteness training, an emerging field of increasing interest, which can be used to address the maladaptive processing mode in RNT that can lead to depression and other disorders. Furthermore, the translation of these measures enables the examination of possible cross-cultural structural differences that may lead to important theoretical progress in the measurement and classification of RNT. The results support the theoretical hypothesis. As expected, the dimensions of brooding, general repetitive negative thinking, as well as abstract analytical thinking, can all be classified

  13. Assessing Repetitive Negative Thinking Using Categorical and Transdiagnostic Approaches: A Comparison and Validation of Three Polish Language Adaptations of Self-Report Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Kornacka, Monika; Buczny, Jacek; Layton, Rebekah L.

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a transdiagnostic process involved in the risk, maintenance, and relapse of serious conditions including mood disorders, anxiety, eating disorders, and addictions. Processing mode theory provides a theoretical model to assess, research, and treat RNT using a transdiagnostic approach. Clinical researchers also often employ categorical approaches to RNT, including a focus on depressive rumination or worry, for similar purposes. Three widely used self-report questionnaires have been developed to assess these related constructs: the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and the Mini-Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale (Mini-CERTS). Yet these scales have not previously been used in conjunction, despite useful theoretical distinctions only available in Mini-CERTS. The present validation of the methods in a Polish speaking population provides psychometric parameters estimates that contribute to current efforts to increase reliable replication of theoretical outcomes. Moreover, the following study aims to present particular characteristics and a comparison of the three methods. Although there has been some exploration of a categorical approach, the comparison of transdiagnostic methods is still lacking. These methods are particularly relevant for developing and evaluating theoretically based interventions like concreteness training, an emerging field of increasing interest, which can be used to address the maladaptive processing mode in RNT that can lead to depression and other disorders. Furthermore, the translation of these measures enables the examination of possible cross-cultural structural differences that may lead to important theoretical progress in the measurement and classification of RNT. The results support the theoretical hypothesis. As expected, the dimensions of brooding, general repetitive negative thinking, as well as abstract analytical thinking, can all be classified

  14. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Review of Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Krohe, Meaghan; Hao, Yanni; Lamoureux, Roger E.; Galipeau, Nina; Globe, Denise; Foley, Catherine; Mazar, Iyar; Solomon, Jeffrey; Shields, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures serve to capture vital patient information not otherwise obtained by primary study endpoints. This paper examines how PROs are utilized as endpoints in industry-sponsored metastatic breast cancer clinical trials. METHODS A search was conducted in the clinicaltrials.gov web site for trials involving common treatments for metastatic breast cancer. Thirty-eight clinical trials were identified which included a PRO endpoint in the study, and data were extracted and summarized. RESULTS Overall, 17 unique PRO questionnaires and 14 concepts of measurement were identified as secondary or exploratory endpoints. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy—Breast was the most frequently utilized questionnaire, commonly implemented to assess quality of life. The EORTC QLQ-C30 was also frequently used to measure quality of life or pain. CONCLUSION This review shares insights into the role of PROs in trials for metastatic breast cancer from which treatment developers and other stakeholders can enhance successful implementation of the patient voice into future trials. PMID:27441001

  15. Predictive validity of self-report questionnaires in the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Bram B; Horwitz, E H; Teunisse, J P; Kan, C C; Vissers, Ctwm; Forceville, Ejm; Van Voorst, Ajp; Geurts, H M

    2015-10-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the AQ-28 and AQ-10, in 210 patients referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment and in 63 controls. Of the 210 patients, 139 received an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and 71 received another psychiatric diagnosis. The positive predictive values indicate that these tests correctly identified autism spectrum disorder patients in almost 80% of the referred cases. However, the negative predictive values suggest that only half of the referred patients without autism spectrum disorder were correctly identified. The sensitivity and specificity of each of these instruments were much lower than the values reported in the literature. In this study, the sensitivity of the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised was the highest (73%), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient short forms had the highest specificity (70% and 72%). Based on the similar area under the curve values, there is no clear preference for any of the three instruments. None of these instruments have sufficient validity to reliably predict a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in outpatient settings. PMID:26088060

  16. Patient-reported outcomes in lupus clinical trials with biologics.

    PubMed

    Annapureddy, N; Devilliers, H; Jolly, M

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic advances in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are greatly needed. Despite advances in our knowledge of pathogenesis of the disease and targets, treatment remains a significant challenge. Finding effective and relatively safe medications remains one of the top priorities. SLE significantly impairs quality of life (QoL), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure a unique aspect of the disease not captured by disease activity. Inclusion of PRO measurements is encouraged in SLE clinical trials, as they allow capturing benefits of a proposed intervention in language patients can relate to and in areas deemed pertinent and important to and by patients. Availability of patient-reported and patient-centric clinical trials data may facilitate patients in informed and shared decision making, and allow for comparative cost-effectiveness evaluation for future resource allocation and reimbursements. Herein we review clinical trials with biologic therapies wherein PRO tools were included in the study design. PMID:27497256

  17. Assessment of Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Janice N.; Askew, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Assessment of patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been shown to provide important information to assist with clinical decision-making. There has been significant progress in the field of PROs over the last two decades with the introduction of a variety of validated disease- and symptom-specific instruments. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Melanoma (FACT-M) is a melanoma-specific module to accompany the FACT-General which has been validated to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for patients with all stages of melanoma. Melanoma-specific health state utilities, which are essential for calculating quality adjusted life years and performing cost-effectiveness studies, have also been reported from a number of studies. Assessment of PROs should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to inform clinicians and researchers of the patient perspective for clinical decision-making and to evaluate the effects of psychosocial and medical interventions. PMID:21111967

  18. Development and initial validation of a traditional Chinese medicine symptom-specific outcome measure: a Zheng-related atopic dermatitis symptom questionnaire (ZRADSQ)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zheng represents pattern differentiation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as the basic unit and a key concept in TCM therapeutic theory, is based on the physiology and pathology of TCM. None of the outcome measurements of atopic dermatitis (AD) are Zheng-specific. The effectiveness of TCM is likely to be underestimated without a Zheng-related symptom-specific instrument. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring the Zheng-related symptom-specific status of patients with AD. Methods We followed standard methodology to develop the instrument, including item generation and selection, item reduction and presentation, and pretesting, and recruited 188 patients with AD involved in a six-center randomized-controlled trial (ChiCTR-TRC-08000156) to validate the questionnaire. We conducted construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness analysis. The standardized effect size (SES) and standardized response mean (SRM) were used to calculate the responsiveness of additional items and the total score for the rating items. Results ZRADSQ has 15 items, with 12 rating items and 3 additional items. The 12 rating items fall within three domains: AD symptoms (n = 6 items); Heat (n = 4 items) and Mood (n = 2 items). Confirmatory factor analysis provided good support for a three-factor model (d.f. = 51, x2=97.11, RMSEA = 0.07, CFI = 0.96), and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between ZRADSQ and Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was 0.40 (P < 0.001). The reliability was also good, with a Cronbach’s alpha value for ZRADSQ of 0.84, a split-half coefficient of 0.75, and a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.98. The standardized effect size and standardized response mean were close to or larger than 1, which indicated moderate to good responsiveness. Conclusions The ZRADSQ demonstrates promising reliability, validity, and responsiveness. It can be used to determine whether Zheng-specific or

  19. Designing of Intelligent Multilingual Patient Reported Outcome System (IMPROS)

    PubMed Central

    Pourasghar, Faramarz; Partovi, Yeganeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: By self-reporting outcome procedure the patients themselves record disease symptoms outside medical centers and then report them to medical staff in specific periods of time. One of the self-reporting methods is the application of interactive voice response (IVR), in which some pre-designed questions in the form of voice tracks would be played and then the caller responses the questions by pressing phone’s keypad bottoms. Aim: The present research explains the main framework of such system designing according to IVR technology that is for the first time designed and administered in Iran. Methods: Interactive Voice Response system was composed by two main parts of hardware and software. Hardware section includes one or several digital phone lines, a modem card with voice playing capability and a PC. IVR software on the other hand, acts as an intelligent control center, records call information and controls incoming data. Results: One of the main features of the system is its capability to be administered in common PCs, utilizing simple and cheap modems, high speed to take responses and it’s appropriateness to low literate patients. The system is applicable for monitoring chronic diseases, cancer and also in psychological diseases and can be suitable for taking care of elders and Children who require long term cares. Other features include user-friendly, decrease in direct and indirect costs of disease treatment and enjoying from high level of security to access patients’ profiles. Conclusions: Intelligent multilingual patient reported outcome system (IMPROS) by controlling diseases gives the opportunity to patients to have more participation during treatment and it improves mutual interaction between patient and medical staff. Moreover it increases the quality of medical services, Additional to empowering patients and their followers. PMID:26635441

  20. Musculoskeletal symptoms amongst clinical radiologists and the implications of reporting environment ergonomics--a multicentre questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jonathan C L; Morgan, Steven; Augustine, Katharine; Clague, Gavin; Pearce, Tim; Pollentine, Adrian; Wallis, Adam; Wilson, David; McCoubrie, Paul

    2014-04-01

    This multicentre study aimed to assess compliance of the reporting environment with best ergonomic practice and to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms related to working as a radiologist. All 148 radiology trainees and consultants in 10 hospitals across the region were invited to complete a musculoskeletal symptoms and reporting ergonomics questionnaire. Best ergonomic reporting practice was defined, following literature review, as being able to alter the following: monitor, desk, chair and armrest height, chair back support, ambient light, and temperature. The frequency that these facilities were available and how often they were used was determined. One hundred and twenty-three out of 148 (83%) radiologists responded, and 38% reported radiology-associated occupational injury. Lower back discomfort was the commonest radiology associated musculoskeletal symptom (41%). Only 13% of those with occupational injury sought the advice of occupational health. No reporting environments conformed completely to best ergonomic practice. Where certain facilities were available, less than a third of radiologists made personal ergonomic adjustments prior to starting a reporting session. Radiologists who had good self-assessed knowledge of best ergonomic practice had significantly less back discomfort than those with poor self-assessed knowledge (P < 0.005). We demonstrated high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms amongst radiologists. Poor compliance of the reporting environment with best ergonomic practice, in combination with our other findings of a low level of ergonomic awareness, low rates of making ergonomic adjustments and seeking appropriate help, may be implicated. We hope this study raises awareness of this issue and helps prevent long-term occupational injury amongst radiologists from poor ergonomic practice. PMID:24113846

  1. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Self-Reported Outcomes at 24 Months

    PubMed Central

    Soose, Ryan J.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Steward, David L.; Strohl, Kingman P.; Baskin, Jonathan Z.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Badr, M. Safwan; Lin, Ho-sheng; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Mickelson, Sam; Chasens, Eileen; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term (24-mo) effect of cranial nerve upper airway stimulation (UAS) therapy on patient-centered obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) outcome measures. Methods: Prospective, multicenter, cohort study of 126 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had difficulty adhering to positive pressure therapy and received the surgically implanted UAS system. Outcomes were measured at baseline and postoperatively at 12 mo and 24 mo, and included self- and bedpartner-report of snoring intensity, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ). Additional analysis included FOSQ subscales, FOSQ-10, and treatment effect size. Results: Significant improvement in mean FOSQ score was observed from baseline (14.3) to 12 mo (17.3), and the effect was maintained at 24 mo (17.2). Similar improvements and maintenance of effect were seen with all FOSQ subscales and FOSQ-10. Subjective daytime sleepiness, as measured by mean ESS, improved significantly from baseline (11.6) to 12 mo (7.0) and 24 mo (7.1). Self-reported snoring severity showed increased percentage of “no” or “soft” snoring from 22% at baseline to 88% at 12 mo and 91% at 24 mo. UAS demonstrated large effect size (> 0.8) at 12 and 24 mo for overall ESS and FOSQ measures, and the effect size compared favorably to previously published effect size with other sleep apnea treatments. Conclusions: In a selected group of patients with moderate to severe OSA and body mass index ≤ 32 kg/m2, hypoglossal cranial nerve stimulation therapy can provide significant improvement in important sleep related quality-of-life outcome measures and the effect is maintained across a 2-y follow-up period. Citation: Soose RJ, Woodson BT, Gillespie MB, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Steward DL, Strohl KP, Baskin JZ, Padhya TA, Badr MS, Lin H, Vanderveken OM, Mickelson S, Chasens E, Strollo Jr PJ, STAR Trial Investigators. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: self-reported

  2. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Self-Report Questionnaires and Composite Clinical Disease Index for Assessing Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity: Identification of Cut-Off Points for Routine Care

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Di Carlo, Marco; De Angelis, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methods. Results. 303 RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+) and PASS (−) groups (p < 0.0001). The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID) score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA) index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD) questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p = 0.0007) and functional state level (0.006). Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS. PMID:26167506

  3. Day-to-day measurement of patient-reported outcomes in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kocks, Jan Willem H; van den Berg, Jan Willem K; Kerstjens, Huib AM; Uil, Steven M; Vonk, Judith M; de Jong, Ynze P; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; van der Molen, Thys

    2013-01-01

    Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major burden to patients and to society. Little is known about the possible role of day-to-day patient-reported outcomes during an exacerbation. This study aims to describe the day-to-day course of patient-reported health status during exacerbations of COPD and to assess its value in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods Data from two randomized controlled COPD exacerbation trials (n = 210 and n = 45 patients) were used to describe both the feasibility of daily collection of and the day-to-day course of patient-reported outcomes during outpatient treatment or admission to hospital. In addition to clinical parameters, the BORG dyspnea score, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire were used in Cox regression models to predict treatment failure, time to next exacerbation, and mortality in the hospital study. Results All patient-reported outcomes showed a distinct pattern of improvement. In the multivariate models, absence of improvement in CCQ symptom score and impaired lung function were independent predictors of treatment failure. Health status and gender predicted time to next exacerbation. Five-year mortality was predicted by age, forced expiratory flow in one second % predicted, smoking status, and CCQ score. In outpatient management of exacerbations, health status was found to be less impaired than in hospitalized patients, while the rate and pattern of recovery was remarkably similar. Conclusion Daily health status measurements were found to predict treatment failure, which could help decision-making for patients hospitalized due to an exacerbation of COPD. PMID:23766644

  4. The validity of questionnaire self-report of psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality in juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Breuk, R E; Clauser, C A C; Stams, G J J M; Slot, N W; Doreleijers, T A H

    2007-10-01

    The present study focuses on the validity of questionnaire self-report of psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality for juvenile delinquents with severe behavioural and psychiatric disorders by comparing information derived from questionnaire self-report with information from other sources, including parent report, in-depth interviewing, behavioural observation by clinicians, and official criminal records. The sample consisted of N=33 juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders. The juvenile delinquents did not report increased levels of psychopathology or poor relationships with their parents, which is inconsistent with the fact that all juvenile delinquents were in day treatment for severe behavioural maladaptation and relationship problems. Moreover, parent ratings of psychopathology were consistently in the clinical range and relationship quality was evaluated as very poor by the parents (d>.80). We conclude that screening instruments for psychopathology and assessment of relationship quality relying on questionnaire self-report may not yield valid scores in this (extreme) population of juvenile delinquents. PMID:17161456

  5. Patient-reported outcomes for US oncology labeling: review and discussion of score interpretation and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Shields, Alan; Coon, Cheryl; Hao, Yanni; Krohe, Meaghan; Yaworsky, Andrew; Mazar, Iyar; Foley, Catherine; Globe, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes ways to approach the conceptual and practical challenges associated with interpreting the clinical meaning of scores produced by patient reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, particularly when used to inform efficacy decisions for regulatory approval for oncology products. Score interpretation estimates are not inherent to PRO questionnaires per se, instead, vary dependent upon sample and study design characteristics. Scores from PRO measures can be interpreted at the individual and group level, and each carries its own set of statistics for evaluating differences. Oncology researchers have a variety of methods and data analytic strategies available to support their score interpretation needs, which should be considered in the context of their a priori knowledge of the target patient population, the hypothesized effects of treatment, the study design and assessment schedule, and the inferences and decisions to be made from the PRO data. PMID:26594897

  6. Variation in the reporting of outcomes among pregnant women with epilepsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Placzek, Anna; Troko, Joy; Pirie, Alexander M; Khan, Khalid S; McCorry, Dougall; Zamora, Javier; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2015-12-01

    Studies on pregnant women with epilepsy should evaluate both neurological and pregnancy outcomes. We undertook a systematic review of the literature of studies on pregnant women with epilepsy to collate the outcomes reported, and the quality of outcomes report in these studies. We searched major electronic databases (from 1999 until January 2015). Two independent reviewers selected studies and extracted data on study design, the risk of bias of the studies, journal impact factor and the quality of reported outcomes. We assessed the quality outcomes report using a six items standardised tool (score range 0-6). There were 70 different outcomes reported in 232 studies (maternal neurological (13/70, 19%), fetal and neonatal (28/70, 40%), and obstetric outcomes (29/70, 41%)). Most studies reported on major congenital fetal abnormalities (103/232, 44%), followed by live birth (60/232, 26%). Quality of the reported outcomes was poor (mean 1.54, SD 1.36). It was associated with journal impact factor (p=0.007), but not with study design (p=0.60), or risk of bias (p=0.17). The outcomes reported in studies on pregnant women with epilepsy varied widely, and the quality of the outcomes report was poor. There is a need to identify a set of core outcome to harmonise reporting in future clinical studies. PMID:26588438

  7. Patient-reported outcomes in stuttering treatment: conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Franic, Duska M; Bothe, Anne K

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation of: Yaruss JS, Quesal RW. Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES): documenting multiple outcomes in stuttering treatment. J. Fluency Disord. 31(2), 90-115 (2006) [1] . These authors presented the first complete instrument intended to measure the impact of stuttering in adults who stutter (Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering; [OASES]). OASES is a 100-item self-report metric with four sections: general information, reactions to stuttering, communication in daily situations and quality of life. Its conceptual framework includes historic views of the influence of emotional and cognitive variables on stuttering; the WHO's International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH); and the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). However, both this conceptual framework and the psychometric data presented to support the OASES are problematic in ways that clinicians and researchers in areas well-beyond stuttering may find informative as they consider their own applications. PMID:20528401

  8. Patient reported outcomes in head and neck cancer: selecting instruments for quality of life integration in clinical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life has been used in medical research for more than twenty years, being progressively accepted during the last decade as an important patient reported outcome. Considering the multidimensional approach involved in Health Related Quality of Life assessment, instrument applicability and cultural adaptation must be tested for each population. In order to select the most appropriate instrument for Head and Neck cancer patients, two major Health Related Quality of Life specific questionnaires for Head and Neck cancer patients were compared. Conceptual differences, psychometric characteristics, scores, reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to symptomatology, tumour location, tumour size were analyzed. Methods 102 consecutive Head and Neck cancer patients completed two different Health Related Quality of Life questionnaires: EORTC QLQ-C30 and its specific head and neck module QLQ-H&N35 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scales (FACT-H&N). Patients completed the questionnaires, immediately before consultation as a part of the routine evaluation. Results A greater variability was always found in the EORTC QLC-C30 questionnaire's scores for all comparable domains. Both instruments revealed a good internal consistency and demonstrated to be good tools to distinguish symptomatic patients. The EORTC questionnaires still demonstrated sensitivity to distinguish T3 and T4 staging. Conceptual differences and the psychometric characteristics are discussed. Our results suggest that these two instruments assess different aspects of Health Related Quality of Life - the questionnaires should be used separately and chosen according to the study objectives and methodology. Conclusions This study emphases the importance in selecting the appropriate tool as a critical success factor in implementing routine Health Related Quality of Life assessment in clinical practice. This decision assumes particularly importance when utilization

  9. Overcoming barriers to implementing patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record: a case report.

    PubMed

    Harle, Christopher A; Listhaus, Alyson; Covarrubias, Constanza M; Schmidt, Siegfried Of; Mackey, Sean; Carek, Peter J; Fillingim, Roger B; Hurley, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, the authors describe the implementation of a system for collecting patient-reported outcomes and integrating results in an electronic health record. The objective was to identify lessons learned in overcoming barriers to collecting and integrating patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record. The authors analyzed qualitative data in 42 documents collected from system development meetings, written feedback from users, and clinical observations with practice staff, providers, and patients. Guided by the Unified Theory on the Adoption and Use of Information Technology, 5 emergent themes were identified. Two barriers emerged: (i) uncertain clinical benefit and (ii) time, work flow, and effort constraints. Three facilitators emerged: (iii) process automation, (iv) usable system interfaces, and (v) collecting patient-reported outcomes for the right patient at the right time. For electronic health record-integrated patient-reported outcomes to succeed as useful clinical tools, system designers must ensure the clinical relevance of the information being collected while minimizing provider, staff, and patient burden. PMID:26159464

  10. Tinnitus assessment by means of standardized self-report questionnaires: Psychometric properties of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and their short versions in an international and multi-lingual sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tinnitus research in an international context requires standardized and validated questionnaires in different languages. The aim of the present set of analyses was the reassessment of basic psychometric properties according to classical test theory of self-report instruments that are being used within the multicentre Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI) database project. Methods 1318 patients of the TRI Database were eligible for the analyses. The basic psychometric properties reliability, validity, and sensitivity of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and Tinnitus Beeinträchtigungs Fragebogen (i.e., Tinnitus Impairment Questionnaire, TBF-12) were assessed by the use of Cronbach’s alpha, corrected item-total correlations, correlation coefficients and standardized response means. Results Throughout the languages, all questionnaires showed high internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.79) and solid item-total correlations, as well as high correlations among themselves (around 0.8) and in combination with the self-reported tinnitus severity. However, some paradoxical correlations between individual items of the TBF-12, constructed as a shortform of the THI, and the corresponding THI-items were seen. Standardized Response Means (SRM) were low if tinnitus did not change, and between 0.3 and 1.09 for improved or worsened tinnitus complaints, indicating the sensitivity of the measures. Conclusions All investigated instruments have high internal consistency, high convergence and discriminant validity and good change sensitivity in an unselected large multinational clinical sample and thus appear appropriate to evaluate the effects of tinnitus treatments in a cross-cultural context. PMID:23078754

  11. Patient-reported outcomes of brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert; Allibone, Suzanne; Bartlett, Nancy L; Brice, Pauline; Chen, Andy; Pose, Katrina; Rich, Lynn; Bonthapally, Vijay; Garfin, Phillip M; Fanale, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or R/R systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL) treated with brentuximab vedotin (BV) experienced high remission rates in two Phase II trials. With increased response rates and survival times, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are becoming increasingly important and can help inform treatment decisions to enhance care of cancer patients. Objective The objective was to qualitatively assess HRQoL in long-term survivors treated with BV. Methods An eight-question survey assessing PRO-related aspects was developed and fielded to a subset of patients with HL or sALCL who remained in long-term follow-up after completing BV treatment in the two pivotal studies. Results The survey was completed by 25 of 38 patients (12 with HL, 13 with sALCL). The majority of patients reported that their energy level, outlook on life, difficulties with daily activities, ability to participate in physical activities, and overall HRQoL improved compared to those before BV treatment. Limitations Small sample size and lack of a baseline questionnaire or validated assessment instrument limit broad applicability of these findings to large populations of patients with HL or sALCL. Conclusion This is the first report of BV PRO data in R/R HL and sALCL. Given the patients’ poor prognostic outcomes before stem cell transplant, these encouraging results warrant formal evaluation of PRO end points in BV trials. PMID:27103829

  12. Physiotherapists use of and perspectives on the importance of patient-reported outcome measures for shoulder dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) for shoulder dysfunctions have acceptable psychometric properties. The present study examined current PRO usage and perceived importance. Methods Delegates at the 2010 International Congress of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists were invited to participate in this cross-sectional observational study. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) web-based tools were used to design an online questionnaire, which was e-mailed to participants. Results Participants (n = 101) reflected an 84% response rate. PRO use was considered ‘extremely’ or ‘very’ important by the majority of clinicians (76%) and researchers (98%). Most commonly used as a primary outcome by clinicians and researchers, respectively, were the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder Hand Questionnaire (DASH) (40%, 44%) and the Oxford Shoulder Scale (OSS) (36%, 22%) and, as secondary outcomes, the DASH (33%, 28%), OSS (17%, 8%), the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) (8%,18%), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons standardized assessment form (ASES) (8%, 13%). Psychometric properties were rated as ‘extremely’ or ‘very’ important by 86% to 96% of participants. Conclusions The majority of shoulder therapists consider PRO use to be very important and psychometric properties to be critical in PRO selection. The DASH, OSS, SPADI and ASES are most commonly used in clinical practice and research studies.

  13. Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Report. Board of Trustees Report BT95-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This student learning outcomes assessment report from Prince George's Community College (PGCC) in Maryland summarizes findings of several ongoing assessments. Part I provides an executive summary and reviews changes in academic regulations and standards adopted in 1993-94, including: (1) extending minimum standards for academic standing to include…

  14. The relationship between interviewer-respondent race match and reporting of energy intake using food frequency questionnaires in the rural South United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the observational study was to determine whether interviewer race influences food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting accuracy in a Deep South, largely African American cohort. A secondary analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of interviewer race on energy reporting ...

  15. [Development and use of a questionnaire for evaluating teacher continuing education on the sex abuse topic].

    PubMed

    Bretz, E; Richter, N; Petermann, F; Waldmann, H C

    1997-01-01

    The authors constructed a questionnaire to evaluate a ten-day-training curriculum for educators concerning the topic of sexual abuse of children. This questionnaire measures learning outcomes as well as behavioral change at work. It consists of three parts: a knowledge test, an attitude questionnaire and a self-report questionnaire. The contents correspond to the training goals. As part of the evaluation study the questionnaire was completed by a sample of 129 educators. The inspection of item-difficulty and reliability yielded positive results-further amelioration can be achieved by minor changes. First analyses confirm the hypothesis that the self-report questionnaire is also a valid instrument for training evaluation. The questionnaire was highly accepted by the trainees, and the costs of evaluation were relatively low. Thus the questionnaire can be recommended as an evaluation instrument for trainings with similar goals and trainees. PMID:9312771

  16. Assessment of Work Needs of Prospective Teachers-In-Training by an Analysis of the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Douglas D.

    This study was designed to determine and compare the vocational needs of junior and senior male and female teacher education students at Stout State University. It investigated 21 hypotheses as measured by the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire using a sample of 94 students. The variables on the questionnaire were recast in the form of null…

  17. Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty registries

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, Eric; Franklin, Patricia; Lyman, Stephen; Denissen, Geke; Dawson, Jill; Dunn, Jennifer; Eresian Chenok, Kate; Dunbar, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Garellick, Göran; Lübbeke, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract — The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group have evaluated and recommended best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty registries. The 2 generic PROMs in common use are the Short Form health surveys (SF-36 or SF-12) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D). The Working Group recommends that registries should choose specific PROMs that have been appropriately developed with good measurement properties for arthroplasty patients. The Working Group recommend the use of a 1-item pain question (“During the past 4 weeks, how would you describe the pain you usually have in your [right/left] [hip/knee]?”; response: none, very mild, mild, moderate, or severe) and a single-item satisfaction outcome (“How satisfied are you with your [right/left] [hip/knee] replacement?”; response: very unsatisfied, dissatisfied, neutral, satisfied, or very satisfied). Survey logistics include patient instructions, paper- and electronic-based data collection, reminders for follow-up, centralized as opposed to hospital-based follow-up, sample size, patient- or joint-specific evaluation, collection intervals, frequency of response, missing values, and factors in establishing a PROMs registry program. The Working Group recommends including age, sex, diagnosis at joint, general health status preoperatively, and joint pain and function score in case-mix adjustment models. Interpretation and statistical analysis should consider the absolute level of pain, function, and general health status as well as improvement, missing data, approaches to analysis and case-mix adjustment, minimal clinically important difference, and minimal detectable change. The Working Group recommends data collection immediately before and 1 year after surgery, a threshold of 60% for acceptable frequency of response, documentation of non-responders, and documentation of incomplete or

  18. Patient-reported outcomes of parenteral somatostatin analogue injections in 195 patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Strasburger, Christian J; Karavitaki, Niki; Störmann, Sylvère; Trainer, Peter J; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Droste, Michael; Korbonits, Márta; Feldmann, Berit; Zopf, Kathrin; Sanderson, Violet Fazal; Schwicker, David; Gelbaum, Dana; Haviv, Asi; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-acting somatostatin analogues delivered parenterally are the most widely used medical treatment in acromegaly. This patient-reported outcomes survey was designed to assess the impact of chronic injections on subjects with acromegaly. Methods The survey was conducted in nine pituitary centres in Germany, UK and The Netherlands. The questionnaire was developed by endocrinologists and covered aspects of acromegaly symptoms, injection-related manifestations, emotional and daily life impact, treatment satisfaction and unmet medical needs. Results In total, 195 patients participated, of which 112 (57%) were on octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) and 83 (43%) on lanreotide (Somatuline Depot). The majority (>70%) of patients reported acromegaly symptoms despite treatment. A total of 52% of patients reported that their symptoms worsen towards the end of the dosing interval. Administration site pain lasting up to a week following injection was the most frequently reported injection-related symptom (70% of patients). Other injection site reactions included nodules (38%), swelling (28%), bruising (16%), scar tissue (8%) and inflammation (7%). Injection burden was similar between octreotide and lanreotide. Only a minority of patients received injections at home (17%) and 5% were self-injecting. Over a third of patients indicated a feeling of loss of independence due to the injections, and 16% reported repeated work loss days. Despite the physical, emotional and daily life impact of injections, patients were satisfied with their treatment, yet reported that modifications that would offer major improvement over current care would be ‘avoiding injections’ and ‘better symptom control’. Conclusion Lifelong injections of long-acting somatostatin analogues have significant burden on the functioning, well-being and daily lives of patients with acromegaly. PMID:26744896

  19. Factor Structure of the Parent-Report Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) in an Outpatient Mental Health Sample.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Megan; Rozenman, Michelle; Gonzalez, Araceli; Warnick, Erin M; Dauser, Christine; Scahill, Lawrence; Woolston, Joseph; Robin Weersing, V

    2016-08-01

    The current investigation examined the internal structure and discriminant validity of the parent-report Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-P), a commonly used measure of depressive symptoms in youth. A total of 1493 families with youth ages 5 to 18 (61.02 % male) presenting for treatment at an outpatient mental health clinic were randomly allocated to an Exploratory Sample 1 or to a Replication Sample 2. Internal structure of the MFQ-P was examined using exploratory factor analysis in Sample 1 (N = 769) and then replicated using confirmatory factor analysis in Sample 2 (N = 724). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a 5-factor structure comprised of core mood, vegetative, suicidality, cognitive, and agitated distress symptom subscales. The 5-factor solution was replicated in Sample 2 with adequate fit, (CFI = 0.908, TLI = 0.974, RMSEA =0.067). Results lend statistical support for 5 candidate subscales of the MFQ-P. These potential subscales may aid in efficient identification of critical symptoms of depression. PMID:26670323

  20. Motives for sports participation as predictions of self-reported outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee.

    PubMed

    Roessler, K K; Andersen, T E; Lohmander, S; Roos, E M

    2015-06-01

    Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used as variables in the analyses. All 121 subjects completed the 2-year follow-up. The largest improvement was seen in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale sports and recreation function, with an effect size of 2.43. KOOS sports and recreation function was also the subscale score best predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport, can be factors in predicting of patient-reported outcomes 2 years after injury. Evaluating motives for sports participation may help predict the outcome 2 years after ACL injury. PMID:24919411

  1. Composite Pain Index (CPI): Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity of a Patient-Reported Outcome for Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Diana J.; Molokie, Robert E.; Suarez, Marie L.; Ezenwa, Miriam O.; Wang, Zaijie J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A single score that represents the multidimensionality of pain would be an innovation for patient-reported outcomes. Our aim was to determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Composite Pain Index. Design Methodological analysis of data from a randomized controlled, pretest/posttest education-based intervention study. Setting The study was conducted in outpatient oncology clinics. Subjects The 176 subjects had pain, were 52 ± 12.5 years on average, 63% were female, and 46% had stage IV cancers. Methods We generated the Composite Pain Index from pain location, intensity, quality, and pattern scores measured with an electronic version of Melzack’s McGill Pain Questionnaire. Results The internal consistency values for the individual scores comprising the Composite Pain Index were adequate (.71 baseline, .69 posttest). Principal components analysis extracted one factor with an eigenvalue of 2.17 with explained variance of 54% at baseline and replicated the one factor with an eigenvalue of 2.11 at posttest. The factor loadings for location, intensity, quality, and pattern were .65, .71, .85, and .71 respectively (baseline) and .59, .81, .84, and .63 respectively (posttest). The Composite Pain Index was sensitive to an education intervention effect. Conclusions Findings support the Composite Pain Index as a score that integrates the multidimensional pain experience in people with cancer. It could be used as a patient-reported outcome measure to quantify the complexity of pain in clinical research and population studies of cancer pain and studied for relevance in other pain populations. PMID:25712169

  2. Patient-reported outcomes: instrument development and selection issues.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ralph R; Quittner, Alexandra L; Parasuraman, Bhash M; Kallich, Joel D; Cleeland, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    At its most elemental, patient-reported outcomes (PRO) assessment involves asking the patients questions and evaluating their answers. Instrument developers need to be clear about what they want to know, from whom they want to know it and why, whether what they learned is credible, and whether they can interpret what they learned in the context of the research objectives. Because credible instrument development is neither inexpensive nor technically trivial, researchers must first determine that no available measure meets their research objectives. We suggest that the tasks of either reviewing current instruments or developing new ones originate from the same basic premise: PRO assessment requires a well-articulated conceptual framework. Once defined in the context of the research objectives, the conceptual framework needs to be adapted to the population of interest. We discuss how qualitative methods enrich the conceptual framework and facilitate the technical measurement tasks of item development, testing, and reduction. We recognize that PRO assessment stands at a technological crossroads with the increasingly frequent application of "modern" psychometric methods and discuss how innovations such as item banks and computer-adaptive testing will influence PRO instrument development. Although items are the essential building blocks for instruments, scales are the primary unit of analysis for PRO assessment, and we discuss methods for scoring and combining them. Finally, PRO assessment is meaningless if the key figure chooses not to cooperate. We consider how respondent burden influences the quality of PRO assessment. PMID:17995478

  3. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Kember and Leung's Reflection Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge, Kristen; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Laschinger, Heather K. S.; Fernando, Rajulton

    2013-01-01

    Reflective thinking is often stated as a learning outcome of baccalaureate nursing education, and as a characteristic of a competent professional; however, no consistent method exists to assess the extent to which students engage in reflective thinking. To address this need, Kember and Leung developed and tested a self-report questionnaire based…

  4. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Research to Regulation - Scientific Workshop Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) organizes existing knowledge on chemical mode of action, starting with a molecular initiating event such as receptor binding, continuing through key events, and ending with an adverse outcome such as reproductive impairment. AOPs can help identify...

  5. The VVSymQ® instrument: Use of a new patient-reported outcome measure for assessment of varicose vein symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M; Elash, Celeste A; Wright, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No existing patient-reported outcome instrument focuses solely on assessment of varicose veins symptoms that are bothersome to patients. Methods The VVSymQ® instrument is a five-item patient-reported outcome that assesses symptoms most important to patients with varicose veins (heaviness, achiness, swelling, throbbing and itching). This paper describes how the VVSymQ® instrument was incorporated into an electronic daily diary to monitor key outcomes over time and capture treatment benefit in two randomized, controlled, phase 3 clinical trials. Results Patients were highly compliant in completing the electronic daily diary, and the VVSymQ® instrument demonstrated ability to detect overall change and ability to detect change that is meaningful to patients. Conclusion The VVSymQ® instrument is a reliable, valid instrument responsive to measuring change in the patient experience of varicose vein symptoms pre- and post-intervention, and is uniquely focused on patient-reported symptoms compared with other widely used questionnaires completed by clinicians. PMID:26183669

  6. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a Predictor of Parent-Reported Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ford, Tamsin

    2013-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used as an international standardised instrument measuring child behaviour. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether behavioral symptoms measured by SDQ were elevated among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to the rest of the population, and to examine the predictive value of the SDQ for outcome of parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD. A secondary aim was to examine the extent of overlap in symptoms between children diagnosed with these two disorders, as measured by the SDQ subscales. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Birth Cohort (n = 19,519), was conducted. Data were weighted to be representative of the UK population as a whole. ADHD or ASD identified by a medical doctor or health professional were reported by parents in 2008 and this was the case definition of diagnosis; (ADHD n = 173, ASD n = 209, excluding twins and triplets). Study children's ages ranged from 6.3–8.2 years; (mean 7.2 years). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD and teacher and parent-reported SDQ subscales. All SDQ subscales were strongly associated with both ASD and ADHD. There was substantial co-occurrence of behavioral difficulties between children diagnosed with ASD and those diagnosed with ADHD. After adjustment for other subscales, the final model for ADHD, contained hyperactivity/inattention and impact symptoms only and had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%; (AUC) = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90–0.97). The final model for ASD was composed of all subscales except the ‘peer problems’ scales, indicating of the complexity of behavioural difficulties that may accompany ASD. A threshold of 0.03 produced model sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% respectively; AUC = 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95). The

  7. Validating English- and Spanish-language patient-reported outcome measures in underserved patients with rheumatic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic diseases are among the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States. These diseases are chronic, can result in severe decrements of physical and psychosocial functioning and affect patients' overall quality of life. A consensus regarding the best patient outcomes to be measured in randomized, controlled trials and prospective natural history studies is essential to provide best estimates of efficacy and safety of interventions across diverse patient populations. Methods Face-to-face English- and Spanish-language cognitive interviews were conducted among urban Hispanic and African American patients with rheumatic disease to develop a questionnaire booklet. Six measures validating patient-reported outcomes were included: the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, the Short Acculturation Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Inventory of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practices. A sample of patients (n = 15) attending the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Community Health Center participated in the initial interviews. Revised measures were further tested for reliability in a separate sample of patients (n = 109) upon enrollment at the health center. Results Cognitive interviews provided feedback for questionnaire modifications and methods to enhance content validity and data quality, including discarding redundant questions, providing visual aids and concrete examples when appropriate and increasing the use of racially and ethnically concordant interviewers. The cognitive interviews further elucidated that some contextual assumptions and language usage in the original questionnaires may not have taken each respondent's environmental and sociocultural context into consideration. Internal reliability for previously tested measures remained high (Cronbach's α = 0

  8. Swedish Version of Mood Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of Lifetime and Last-week Version

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Michael; Dellepiane, Marzia; Benvenuti, Antonella; Feloukatzis, Konstantinos; Skondra, Nektaria; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Steingrímsson, Steinn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mood Spectrum Self Report (MOODS-SR) is an instrument that assesses mood spectrum symptomatology including subthreshold manifestations and temperamental features. There are different versions of the MOODS-SR for different time frames of symptom assessment: lifetime (MOODS-LT), last-month and last-week (MOODS-LW) versions. Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the MOODS-LT the MOODS-LW. Methods: The reliability of the MOODS-LT and MOODS-LW was evaluated in terms of internal consistency and partial correlations among domains and subdomains. The known-group validity was tested by comparing out-patients with bipolar disorder (n=27), unipolar depression (n=8) healthy controls (n=68). The convergent and divergent validity of MOODS-LW were evaluated using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young-Ziegler Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) in outpatients as well the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in healthy controls. Results: Both MOODS-LT and MOOODS-LW showed high internal consistency with the Kuder-Richardson coefficient ranging from 0.823 to 0.985 as well as consistent correlations for all domains and subdomains. The last-week version correlated significantly with MADRS (r= 0.79) and YMRS (r=0.46) in outpatients and with GHQ-12 (r= 0.50 for depression domain, r= 0.29 for rhythmicity) in healthy controls. Conclusion: The Swedish version of the MOODS-LT showed similar psychometric properties to other translated versions. Regarding MOODS-LW, this first published psychometric evaluation of the scale showed promising psychometric properties including good correlation to established symptom assessment scales. In healthy controls, the depression and rhythmicity domain scores of the last-week version correlated significantly with the occurrence of mild psychological distress. PMID:27346997

  9. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Ansa Maer; Scherwath, Angela; Ernst, Gundula; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Bremer, Michael; Steinmann, Diana

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  10. Self-Report Data in Cross-Cultural Research: Issues of Construct Validity in Questionnaires for Quantitative Research in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines issues arising from the use of self-report questionnaires in cross-cultural contexts. The research draws from the extensive literature on cross-cultural leadership in business organizational culture as well as from educational cross-cultural contexts. It examines claims, drawn from business and educational contexts, that many…

  11. The Design and Validation of a Parent-Report Questionnaire for Assessing the Characteristics and Quality of Early Intervention over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alys; Gascon-Ramos, Maria; Campbell, Malcolm; Bamford, John

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns a parent-report repeat questionnaire to evaluate the quality of multiprofessional early intervention following early identification of deafness. It discusses the rationale for the design of the instrument, its theoretical underpinnings, its psychometric properties, and its usability. Results for the validity and reliability…

  12. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Design Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Setting Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. Participants 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). Methods A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. Results 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). Conclusions The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:25416499

  13. Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie C; Daly, Denise A; Le, Tam T; Robinson, James O; Gottlieb, Thomas; Howden, Benjamin P; Johnson, Paul D R; Bennett, Catherine M; Stinear, Timothy P; Turnidge, John D

    2014-12-01

    From 1 January to 31 December 2013, 26 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2013 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecium isolates. Of the 826 unique episodes of bacteraemia investigated, 94.6% were caused by either E. faecalis (56.1%) or E. faecium (38.5%). Ampicillin resistance was not detected in E. faecalis but was detected in over 90% of E. faecium. Vancomycin non-susceptibility was reported in 0.2% and 40.9% of E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively and was predominately due to the acquisition of the vanB operon. Overall, 41.6% of E. faecium harboured vanA or vanB genes. The percentage of E. faecium bacteraemia isolates resistant to vancomycin in Australia is significantly higher than that seen in most European countries. E. faecium isolates consisted of 81 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes of which 72.3% were classified into 14 major pulsotypes containing five or more isolates. Multilocus sequence typing grouped the 14 major pulsotypes into clonal cluster 17, a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. Of the 2 predominant sequence types, ST203 (80 isolates) was identified across Australia and ST555 (40 isolates) was isolated primarily in the western and central regions (Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia) respectively. In conclusion, the AESOP 2013 has shown enterococcal bacteraemias in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin resistant vanB E. faecium, which have limited treatment options. PMID:25631594

  14. Clinical Outcome Assessments: Conceptual Foundation-Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment - Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force.

    PubMed

    Walton, Marc K; Powers, John H; Hobart, Jeremy; Patrick, Donald; Marquis, Patrick; Vamvakas, Spiros; Isaac, Maria; Molsen, Elizabeth; Cano, Stefan; Burke, Laurie B

    2015-09-01

    An outcome assessment, the patient assessment used in an endpoint, is the measuring instrument that provides a rating or score (categorical or continuous) that is intended to represent some aspect of the patient's health status. Outcome assessments are used to define efficacy endpoints when developing a therapy for a disease or condition. Most efficacy endpoints are based on specified clinical assessments of patients. When clinical assessments are used as clinical trial outcomes, they are called clinical outcome assessments (COAs). COAs include any assessment that may be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. COAs must be well-defined and possess adequate measurement properties to demonstrate (directly or indirectly) the benefits of a treatment. In contrast, a biomarker assessment is one that is subject to little, if any, patient motivational or rater judgmental influence. This is the first of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment - Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. This report provides foundational definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement principles. The foundation provided in this report includes what it means to demonstrate a beneficial effect, how assessments of patients relate to the objective of showing a treatment's benefit, and how these assessments are used in clinical trial endpoints. In addition, this report describes intrinsic attributes of patient assessments and clinical trial factors that can affect the properties of the measurements. These factors should be considered when developing or refining assessments. These considerations will aid investigators designing trials in their choice of using an existing assessment or developing a new outcome assessment. Although the focus of this report is on the development of a new COA to define endpoints in a clinical trial, these principles may be applied more generally. A critical element in appraising or developing a COA is to

  15. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    The growing emphasis on patient-centered care has accelerated the demand for high-quality data from patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Traditionally, the development and validation of these measures has been guided by classical test theory. However, item response theory (IRT), an alternate measurement framework, offers promise for addressing practical measurement problems found in health-related research that have been difficult to solve through classical methods. This paper introduces foundational concepts in IRT, as well as commonly used models and their assumptions. Existing data on a combined sample (n = 636) of Korean American and Vietnamese American adults who responded to the High Blood Pressure Health Literacy Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 are used to exemplify typical applications of IRT. These examples illustrate how IRT can be used to improve the development, refinement, and evaluation of PRO measures. Greater use of methods based on this framework can increase the accuracy and efficiency with which PROs are measured. PMID:24403095

  16. An introduction to item response theory for patient-reported outcome measurement.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam H; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T; Chan, Kitty S

    2014-01-01

    The growing emphasis on patient-centered care has accelerated the demand for high-quality data from patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Traditionally, the development and validation of these measures has been guided by classical test theory. However, item response theory (IRT), an alternate measurement framework, offers promise for addressing practical measurement problems found in health-related research that have been difficult to solve through classical methods. This paper introduces foundational concepts in IRT, as well as commonly used models and their assumptions. Existing data on a combined sample (n = 636) of Korean American and Vietnamese American adults who responded to the High Blood Pressure Health Literacy Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 are used to exemplify typical applications of IRT. These examples illustrate how IRT can be used to improve the development, refinement, and evaluation of PRO measures. Greater use of methods based on this framework can increase the accuracy and efficiency with which PROs are measured. PMID:24403095

  17. Systematic Review of Outcome Measures Reported in Clinical Canine Osteoarthritis Research

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Dean, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To record and categorize the outcome measures used in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA) by systematically reviewing the peer reviewed publications on OA in dogs. Study Design Systematic literature review. Study Population Peer reviewed literature on canine OA. Methods A computer‐based bibliographic search was performed on PubMed and CAB Abstracts in August 2013 to find peer reviewed publications relevant to canine OA. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The outcome measures reported within each publication were recorded and categorized for comparison. Adequately described outcome measures were assessed for uniqueness and evidence of prior validation. Results Of 3,697 publications identified and screened, 117 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Within eligible publications, outcome measures were used 618 times (median of 4 outcome measures per publication). Outcomes measured were divided into 5 groups containing 65 categories. The most frequently assessed outcomes were lameness assessment with no stated gait/mixed gaits (66 outcomes), radiography (58), and lameness single gait/lateral motion (55). Of 618 outcome measures reported, 491 were assessed for uniqueness and 348 (71%) were unique to a single publication. Ten outcome measures were reported to have been validated. Conclusion Many outcome measures have been used to assess canine OA. There is no consensus on which are the most useful outcomes or by which method they should be assessed. There is a pressing need for agreement on outcomes reporting in canine OA and for validation of outcome measures used for these assessments. Until consensus is reached, we recommend at least one validated outcome measure be used in every clinical study. PMID:27120270

  18. Donor organ distribution according to urgency of need or outcome maximization in liver transplantation. A questionnaire survey among patients and medical staff.

    PubMed

    Umgelter, Katrin S; Tobiasch, Moritz; Anetsberger, Aida; Blobner, Manfred; Thorban, Stefan; Umgelter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Low donor rates in Germany cause a trade-off between equity in the distribution of chances for survival and efficiency in dead-donor liver transplantation. Public attitudes concerning the principles that should govern organ allocation are of interest. We performed a questionnaire-based study among patients and medical staff. 1826 of 2200 questionnaires were returned. 79.2%, 67.1%, and 24.4% patients wanted to accept liver transplantation for themselves if expected 1-year survival was 80%, 50%, and 20%, respectively. 57.7% affirmed 'averting immediate risk of death (urgency) is a more important criterion for organ allocation than expected long-term success' (P = 0.002 against indifference). The majority of medical staff took the opposite decision. 20.7%, 8.8%, and 21.2% of patients chose 50%, 33%, and 10% as lowest acceptable 5-year survival, respectively. 49.3% accepted a survival of <10%. Variables associated with preferring urgency over efficiency as criterion for allocation were age (OR 1.009; 95% CI: 1.000-1.017; female gender (OR 1.331; 95%CI 0.992-1.784); higher education (OR 0.881; 95%CI 0.801-0.969); and refusal of transplantation for oneself (OR 1.719; 95%CI 1.272-2.324). Most patients supported urgency-based liver allocation. Patients and medical staff would accept lower survival rates than the transplant community. PMID:25557453

  19. A review of the most common patient-reported outcomes in COPD--revisiting current knowledge and estimating future challenges.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Hanania, Nicola Alexander; MacNee, William; Rüdell, Katja; Hackford, Claire; Tamimi, Nihad

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures that quantify disease impact have become important measures of outcome in COPD research and treatment. The objective of this literature review was to comprehensively evaluate psychometric properties of available PRO instruments and the ability of each of them to characterize pharmaceutical treatment effects from published clinical trial evidence. Identified in this study were several PRO measures, both those that have been used extensively in COPD clinical trials (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire) and new instruments whose full value is still to be determined. This suggests a great need for more information about the patient experience of treatment benefit, but this also may pose challenges to researchers, clinicians, and other important stakeholders (eg, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies) who develop new treatment entities and payers (including but not limited to health technology assessment agencies such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health). The purpose of this review is to enable researchers and clinicians to gain a broad overview of PRO measures in COPD by summarizing the value and purpose of these measures and by providing sufficient detail for interested audiences to determine which instrument may be the most suitable for evaluating a particular research purpose. PMID:25897216

  20. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abma, Inger L; van der Wees, Philip J; Veer, Vik; Westert, Gert P; Rovers, Maroeska

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review summarizes the evidence regarding the quality of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) validated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We performed a systematic literature search of all PROMs validated in patients with OSA, and found 22 measures meeting our inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. The results showed that most of the measurement properties of the PROMs were not, or not adequately, assessed. For many identified PROMs there was no involvement of patients with OSA during their development or before the PROM was tested in patients with OSA. Positive exceptions and the best current candidates for assessing health status in patients with OSA are the sleep apnea quality of life index (SAQLI), Maugeri obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (MOSAS) questionnaire, Quebec sleep questionnaire (QSQ) and the obstructive sleep apnea patient-oriented severity index (OSAPOSI). Even though there is not enough evidence to fully judge the quality of these PROMs as outcome measure, when interpreted with caution, they have the potential to add value to clinical research and clinical practice in evaluating aspects of health status that are important to patients. PMID:26433776

  1. Quality Assurance and Learning Outcomes. ENQA Workshop Report 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lena; Becerro, Maria; Cullen, Peter; Gonzalez-Vega, Laureano; Sobrino, Juan Jose; Ryan, Norma

    2010-01-01

    Learning outcomes are described as written statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to do at the end of a period of learning. At the beginning of the 90s, a EU pilot project on ECTS showed that study programmes were much easier to compare if they were described in terms of outcomes, instead of inputs. The…

  2. Measuring health-related quality of life in high-grade glioma patients at the end of life using a proxy-reported retrospective questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Eefje M; Dirven, Linda; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Postma, Tjeerd J; Heimans, Jan J; Deliens, Luc; Pasman, H Roeline W; Taphoorn, Martin J B

    2014-01-01

    To develop, validate, and report on the use of a retrospective proxy-reported questionnaire measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the end-of-life (EOL) phase of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Items relevant for the defined construct were selected using existing questionnaires, topics identified as important in literature, and expert opinion (experienced neuro-oncologists and EOL experts). Psychometric properties, content validity and internal consistency, were determined and the questionnaire was subsequently adapted. Proxy-reported HRQoL data of HGG patients in the EOL, including changes over time, were analyzed. Twenty-nine items were selected covering seven domains; physical comfort, physical and cognitive functioning, psychological, social and spiritual well-being, and overall quality of life. Relatives of 83 deceased HGG patients completed the questionnaire. Content validity was assessed to be adequate. Internal consistency in the domains varied from reasonable to good. Two items were excluded due to poor psychometric properties. Symptom burden increased (p < 0.01), except for nausea (p = 0.058), as death approached. Cognitive, physical and psychological functioning deteriorated over time (all p < 0.01). Acceptance of disease seemed to increase slightly towards death, but this was not significant (p = 0.058). Participating in social activities and family life was rated as poor (≤ 50), whereas received support from their social environment and dying with dignity were rated as good (>50). Overall quality of life was rated as poor, mean (SD) of 29 (26). Measuring HRQoL at the EOL of HGG patients with a retrospective, proxy-reported questionnaire was feasible, yielding a validated instrument. HRQoL was reported as poor and deteriorated as death approached. PMID:24162875

  3. Patient-reported outcomes and the evolution of adverse event reporting in oncology.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Andy; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Setser, Ann; Basch, Ethan

    2007-11-10

    Adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology has evolved from informal descriptions to a highly systematized process. The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) is the predominant system for describing the severity of AEs commonly encountered in oncology clinical trials. CTCAE clinical descriptors have been developed empirically during more than 30 years of use. The method of data collection is clinician based. Limitations of the CTC system include potential for incomplete reporting and limited guidance on data analysis and presentation methods. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) is a comprehensive medical terminology system used for regulatory reporting and drug labeling. MedDRA does not provide for severity ranking of AEs. CTC-based data presentations are the primary method of AE data reporting used in scientific journals and oncology meetings. Patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) cover the subjective domain of AEs. Exploratory work suggests PROs can be used with a high degree of patient engagement and compliance. Additional studies are needed to determine how PROs can be used to complement current AE reporting systems. Potential models for integrating PROs into AE reporting are described in this review. AE reporting methods will continue to evolve in response to changing therapies and growing interest in measuring the impact of cancer treatment on health status. Although integration of PROs into AE reporting may ultimately improve the comprehensiveness and quality of collected data, it may also increase the administrative burden and cost of conducting trials. Therefore, care must be used when developing health outcomes and safety data collection plans. PMID:17991931

  4. Improving energy audit process and report outcomes through planning initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprau Coulter, Tabitha L.

    Energy audits and energy models are an important aspect of the retrofit design process, as they provide project teams with an opportunity to evaluate a facilities current building systems' and energy performance. The information collected during an energy audit is typically used to develop an energy model and an energy audit report that are both used to assist in making decisions about the design and implementation of energy conservation measures in a facility. The current lack of energy auditing standards results in a high degree of variability in energy audit outcomes depending on the individual performing the audit. The research presented is based on the conviction that performing an energy audit and producing a value adding energy model for retrofit buildings can benefit from a revised approach. The research was divided into four phases, with the initial three phases consisting of: 1.) process mapping activity - aimed at reducing variability in the energy auditing and energy modeling process. 2.) survey analysis -- To examine the misalignment between how industry members use the top energy modeling tools compared to their intended use as defined by software representatives. 3.) sensitivity analysis -- analysis of the affect key energy modeling inputs are having on energy modeling analysis results. The initial three phases helped define the need for an improved energy audit approach that better aligns data collection with facility owners' needs and priorities. The initial three phases also assisted in the development of a multi-criteria decision support tool that incorporates a House of Quality approach to guide a pre-audit planning activity. For the fourth and final research phase explored the impacts and evaluation methods of a pre-audit planning activity using two comparative energy audits as case studies. In each case, an energy audit professionals was asked to complete an audit using their traditional methods along with an audit which involved them first

  5. Guillain-Barré Syndrome with Fatal Outcome during HIV-1-Seroconversion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pontali, Emanuele; Feasi, Marcello; Crisalli, Maria Paola; Cassola, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute or subacute peripheral polyneuropathy characterized by symmetrical muscle weakness. Its occurrence has been reported during acute HIV seroconversion since 1985. Among HIV-infected subjects, GBS has generally a favourable outcome. We report a case of GBS with fatal outcome during HIV seroconversion. PMID:22567484

  6. [The Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ): a new self-report instrument for the assessment of psychological characteristics of patients with somatoform disorder].

    PubMed

    Herzog, Annabel; Voigt, Katharina; Meyer, Björn; Rief, Winfried; Henningsen, Peter; Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Psychological symptoms of somatoform disorders will be part of their new definition in DSM-5. We developed the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ) as a self-report questionnaire to assess important psychological characteristics of patients with somatoform disorders. Item selection and identification of factor structure, as well as reliability and validity have been checked in a sample of N=453 psychsomatic outpatients. Results of a principal components analysis with Promax-rotation suggested 4 factors (health worries, illness experience, difficulties in interaction with doctors, impact of illness). Validity analyses confirmed associations between the SSEQ-Scores and the physical disability of patients. Although further assessments of psychometric qualities are needed, the questionnaire appears to be well-suited for future assessment of relevant psychological features of somatoform disorders. PMID:23864304

  7. Measuring and Predicting Patient Dissatisfaction after Anterior Urethroplasty Using Patient Reported Outcomes Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Laura A.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Elliott, Sean P.; Myers, Jeremy B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Vanni, Alex J.; McClung, Christopher D.; Tam, Christopher A.; Warren, Gareth J.; Erickson, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subjective measures of success after urethroplasty have become increasingly valuable in postoperative monitoring. We examined patient reported satisfaction following anterior urethroplasty using objective measures as a proxy for success. Materials and Methods Men 18 years old or older with urethral strictures undergoing urethroplasty were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal, multi-institutional urethroplasty outcomes database. Preoperative and postoperative assessment included questionnaires to assess lower urinary tract symptoms, pain, satisfaction and sexual health. Analyses controlling for stricture recurrence (defined as the inability to traverse the reconstructed urethra with a flexible cystoscope) were performed to determine independent predictors of dissatisfaction. Results At a mean followup of 14 months we found a high 89.4% rate of overall postoperative satisfaction in 433 patients and a high 82.8% rate in those who would have chosen the operation again. Men with cystoscopic recurrence were more likely to report dissatisfaction (OR 4.96, 95% CI 2.07–11.90) and men reporting dissatisfaction had significantly worse uroflowmetry measures (each p <0.02). When controlling for recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that urethra and bladder pain (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05–2.77 and OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.12–6.69, respectively), a postoperative decrease in sexual activity (OR 4.36, 95% CI 2.07–11.90) and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms (eg straining to urinate OR 3.23, 1.74-6.01) were independent predictors of dissatisfaction. Conclusions Overall satisfaction after anterior urethroplasty is high and traditional measures of surgical success strongly correlate with satisfaction. However, independently of the anatomical appearance of the reconstructed urethra, postoperative pain, sexual dysfunction and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms were predictors of patient dissatisfaction. PMID:26907509

  8. Patient Reported Outcomes for Rotator Cuff Disease - Which PRO Should You Use?

    PubMed Central

    Makhni, Eric Chugh; Hamamoto, Jason Taizo; Higgins, John; Patterson, Taylor; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patient reported outcomes (PRO) are important clinical and research tools that are utilized by orthopedic surgeons in order to assess health outcomes following treatment. This is particularly so in the setting of rotator cuff pathology, in which several different validated patient reported outcomes exist. However, multiple recent studies have demonstrated a lack of standardization in the utilization of these scores. Moreover, many of these scores contain numerous components, thereby making them difficult to administer in a busy ambulatory setting. The goal of this study was to quantitatively assess the commonly used PRO for rotator cuff disease in order to identify the most efficient and comprehensive ones available for clinicians. Methods: Fifteen different PROs commonly used for rotator cuff pathology were selected for review. These outcome tools were assessed by the study team and reviewed for comprehensiveness with regards to assessment of pain, strength, activity, motion, and quality of life. The comprehensiveness and efficiency of each tool was evaluated by inclusion of questions addressing each domain. PROs were also evaluated with a focus of pain criteria (night pain, baseline/general pain, pain during activities of daily living, pain during sport, and pain during work). Finally, all PROs were assessed with regards to comprehensiveness in assessing activity scores (motion/stiffness, activities of daily living, sport, and work). Comprehensiveness scores were calculated by dividing the number of domains or subdomains present by the total domains or subdomains possible. Efficiency was calculated by dividing the number of domains present by the number of questions contained in each PRO. Results: The UCLA, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), PENN, Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ), and Korean Shoulder Score (KSS) had an overall comprehensiveness score of 1.00 indicating all domains were

  9. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  10. The Job Dimensions Underlying the Job Elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) (Form B). Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    This study was concerned with the identification of the job dimension underlying the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), Form B. The PAQ is a structured job analysis instrument consisting of 187 worker-oriented job elements which are divided into six a priori major divisions. The statistical procedure of principal components…

  11. The Cluster Analysis of Jobs Based on Data from the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNisi, Angelo S.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a structured job analysis procedure that provides for the analysis of jobs in terms of each of 187 job elements, these job elements being grouped into six divisions: information input, mental processes, work output, relationships with other persons, job context, and other job characteristics. Two…

  12. Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form in Preschool Children Using Parent and Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Wilson, Shauna B.

    2013-01-01

    Temperament is a developmentally important construct, hierarchically comprised of several lower-order dimensions subsumed under effortful control, negative affectivity, and surgency. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF) was developed as a brief measure of the higher-order factors of temperament to aid researchers in…

  14. Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Nimmo, Graeme R; Daly, Denise A; Le, Tam T; Pearson, Julie C; Tan, Hui-Leen; Robinson, James O; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Turnidge, John D

    2014-12-01

    From 1 January to 31 December 2013, around Australia 26 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2013 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, (with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin) and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall 19.1% of the 2,010 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which is significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. Although the SAB 30-day all cause mortality appears to be decreasing in Australia, methicillin-resistant SAB associated mortality remains high (20.1%) and was significantly higher than methicillin-sensitive SAB associated mortality (13%) (P< 0.0001). With the exception of the ß-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin sensitive S. aureus remains rare. However, in addition to the ß-lactams, approximately 50% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 20% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. Linezolid, daptomycin and teicoplanin resistance was detected in a small number of S. aureus isolates. Resistance to vancomycin was not detected. Resistance was largely attributable to 2 healthcare associated MRSA clones; ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) has now become the predominant healthcare associated clone in Australia. Approximately 60% of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community associated clones. Although polyclonal, almost 50% of community associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA) and ST1-IV [2B] (WA1). CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-V [5C2&5] (WA84) clone, has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and

  15. Brief Report: Mediation Analysis with an Ordinal Outcome.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Zhang, Yun; Lim, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    The article presents concepts and methods for mediation analysis for an ordinal outcome. We give definitions of natural direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals for ordinal outcomes; in this context, there are potentially different effects for any two levels of the outcome, and we consider difference and ratio scales. The confounding assumptions required for identification are similar to that in the existing mediation analysis literature. We discuss different modeling strategies for estimation. Under a proportional odds model with a reference category that is common, the direct and indirect effects on a ratio scale can each be summarized by a single estimate and are available in closed form; otherwise the effects may differ across categories compared and can be obtained by numeric simulation methods. PMID:27258323

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF IRANIAN NURSES ACCORDING TO THEIR MENTAL HEALTH OUTCOMES USING GHQ-12 QUESTIONNAIRE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS AND K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH TRADITIONAL SCORING METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses constitute the most providers of health care systems. Their mental health can affect the quality of services and patients’ satisfaction. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a general screening tool used to detect mental disorders. Scoring method and determining thresholds for this questionnaire are debatable and the cut-off points can vary from sample to sample. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among Iranian nurses using GHQ-12 and also compare Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and K-means clustering with traditional scoring method. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran in 2014. Participants were 771 Iranian nurses, who filled out the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Traditional scoring method, LCA and K-means were used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder among Iranian nurses. Cohen’s kappa statistic was applied to assess the agreement between the LCA and K-means with traditional scoring method of GHQ-12. Results: The nurses with mental disorder by scoring method, LCA and K-mean were 36.3% (n=280), 32.2% (n=248), and 26.5% (n=204), respectively. LCA and logistic regression revealed that the prevalence of mental disorder in females was significantly higher than males. Conclusion: Mental disorder in nurses was in a medium level compared to other people living in Iran. There was a little difference between prevalence of mental disorder estimated by scoring method, K-means and LCA. According to the advantages of LCA than K-means and different results in scoring method, we suggest LCA for classification of Iranian nurses according to their mental health outcomes using GHQ-12 questionnaire PMID:26622202

  17. NYU Institute for Education & Social Policy Progress Report Outcomes Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Education and Social Policy.

    New York Networks for School Renewal (NYNSR) is a 5-year collaborative project begun in 1995 as part of an effort to revitalize U.S. schools through public-private partnerships. Four New York organizations with years of experience in public education reform have joined in the NYNSR collaboration. An outcomes evaluation collected and analyzed both…

  18. Oregon Pre-Engineering Learning Outcomes Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Langan, Holly; Veach, Darya; Farkas, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Pre-engineering Learning Outcomes Project was conducted by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) with grant funding from the Engineering and Technology Industry Council (ETIC). The study sought to improve student preparation and success in pre-engineering programs through the development of the Oregon Pre-engineering Learning…

  19. Career Academy Programs in California: Outcomes and Implementation. CPRC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.; Rubin, Victor

    The outcomes and implementation of career academy programs in California were examined in a study of one school district's efforts to implement a uniform career academy model in 1990-1996. A cohort of approximately 10,000 students who were sophomores in the district's comprehensive high schools between 1990 and 1993 were followed through high…

  20. Moral Development and Life Outcomes. [Main Report and Executive Summary].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candee, Daniel; And Others

    Individuals who differ in moral reasoning have been found not only to achieve different stations in life but also to have considerably different values and strategies by which they conduct their lives. The nature of individuals' life outcomes was measured in this study using the status of the person's job as well as both structured and open-ended…

  1. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Safety Event Reporting: PROSPER Consortium guidance.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anjan K; Okun, Sally; Edwards, I Ralph; Wicks, Paul; Smith, Meredith Y; Mayall, Stephen J; Flamion, Bruno; Cleeland, Charles; Basch, Ethan

    2013-12-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Safety Event Reporting (PROSPER) Consortium was convened to improve safety reporting by better incorporating the perspective of the patient. PROSPER comprises industry, regulatory authority, academic, private sector and patient representatives who are interested in the area of patient-reported outcomes of adverse events (PRO-AEs). It has developed guidance on PRO-AE data, including the benefits of wider use and approaches for data capture and analysis. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) encompass the full range of self-reporting, rather than only patient reports collected by clinicians using validated instruments. In recent years, PROs have become increasingly important across the spectrum of healthcare and life sciences. Patient-centred models of care are integrating shared decision making and PROs at the point of care; comparative effectiveness research seeks to include patients as participatory stakeholders; and industry is expanding its involvement with patients and patient groups as part of the drug development process and safety monitoring. Additionally, recent pharmacovigilance legislation from regulatory authorities in the EU and the USA calls for the inclusion of patient-reported information in benefit-risk assessment of pharmaceutical products. For patients, technological advancements have made it easier to be an active participant in one's healthcare. Simplified internet search capabilities, electronic and personal health records, digital mobile devices, and PRO-enabled patient online communities are just a few examples of tools that allow patients to gain increased knowledge about conditions, symptoms, treatment options and side effects. Despite these changes and increased attention on the perceived value of PROs, their full potential has yet to be realised in pharmacovigilance. Current safety reporting and risk assessment processes remain heavily dependent on healthcare professionals, though there are known limitations such

  2. Measuring mental health and wellbeing outcomes for children and adolescents to inform practice and policy: a review of child self-report measures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures’ psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against

  3. Measuring mental health and wellbeing outcomes for children and adolescents to inform practice and policy: a review of child self-report measures.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against

  4. Post-Inpatient Brain Injury Rehabilitation Outcomes: Report from the National OutcomeInfo Database.

    PubMed

    Malec, James F; Kean, Jacob

    2016-07-15

    This study examined outcomes for intensive residential and outpatient/community-based post-inpatient brain injury rehabilitation (PBIR) programs compared with supported living programs. The goal of supported living programs was stable functioning (no change). Data were obtained for a large cohort of adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) from the OutcomeInfo national database, a web-based database system developed through National Institutes of Health (NIH) Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) funding for monitoring progress and outcomes in PBIR programs primarily with the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4). Rasch-derived MPAI-4 measures for cases from 2008 to 2014 from 9 provider organizations offering programs in 23 facilities throughout the United States were examined. Controlling for age at injury, time in program, and time since injury on admission (chronicity), both intensive residential (n = 205) and outpatient/community-based (n = 2781) programs resulted in significant (approximately 1 standard deviation [SD]) functional improvement on the MPAI-4 Total Score compared with supported living (n = 101) programs (F = 18.184, p < 0.001). Intensive outpatient/community-based programs showed greater improvements on MPAI-4 Ability (F = 14.135, p < 0.001), Adjustment (F = 12.939, p < 0.001), and Participation (F = 16.679, p < 0.001) indices than supported living programs; whereas, intensive residential programs showed improvement primarily in Adjustment and Participation. Age at injury and time in program had small effects on outcome; the effect of chronicity was small to moderate. Examination of more chronic cases (>1 year post-injury) showed significant, but smaller (approximately 0.5 SD) change on the MPAI-4 relative to supported living programs (F = 17.562, p < 0.001). Results indicate that intensive residential and outpatient/community-based PIBR programs result in substantial positive

  5. The multidimensional mortality awareness measure and model: development and validation of a new self-report questionnaire and psychological framework.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Oona; McDermott, Mark R; Lafreniere, Kathryn D

    2015-01-01

    For each of eight literature-identified conceptual dimensions of mortality awareness, questionnaire items were generated, producing 89 in all. A total of 359 participants responded to these items and to questionnaires measuring health attitudes, risk taking, rebelliousness, and demographic variables. Multivariate correlational analyses investigated the underlying structure of the item pool and the construct validity as well as the reliability of the emergent empirically derived subscales. Five components, rather than eight, were identified. Given the item content of each, the associated mortality awareness subscales were labeled as legacy, fearfulness, acceptance, disempowerment, and disengagement. Each attained an acceptable level of internal reliability. Relationships with other variables supported the construct validity of these empirically derived subscales and more generally of this five-factor model. In conclusion, this new multidimensional measure and model of mortality awareness extends our understanding of this important aspect of human existence and supports a more integrative and optimistic approach to mortality awareness than previously available. PMID:26036058

  6. The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58): Can a Rasch developed patient reported outcome measure satisfy traditional psychometric criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Stefan J; Warner, Thomas T; Thompson, Alan J; Bhatia, Kailash P; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Hobart, Jeremy C

    2008-01-01

    Background The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are currently producing guidelines for the scientific adequacy of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical trials, which will have implications for the selection of scales used in future clinical trials. In this study, we examine how the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58), a rigorous Rasch measurement developed neurologic PROM, stands up to traditional psychometric criteria for three reasons: 1) provide traditional psychometric evidence for the CDIP-58 in line with proposed FDA guidelines; 2) enable researchers and clinicians to compare it with existing dystonia PROMs; and 3) help researchers and clinicians bridge the knowledge gap between old and new methods of reliability and validity testing. Methods We evaluated traditional psychometric properties of data quality, scaling assumptions, targeting, reliability and validity in a group of 391 people with CD. The main outcome measures used were the CDIP-58, Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36, the 28-item General Health Questionnaire, and Hospital and Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results A total of 391 people returned completed questionnaires (corrected response rate 87%). Analyses showed: 1) data quality was high (low missing data ≤ 4%, subscale scores could be computed for > 96% of the sample); 2) item groupings passed tests for scaling assumptions; 3) good targeting (except for the Sleep subscale, ceiling effect = 27%); 4) good reliability (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.92, test-retest intraclass correlations ≥ 0.83); and 5) validity was supported. Conclusion This study has shown that new psychometric methods can produce a PROM that stands up to traditional criteria and supports the clinical advantages of Rasch analysis. PMID:18684327

  7. Patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis among Swedish caries active adults in a long-term perspective.

    PubMed

    Flink, Håkan; Tegelberg, Åke; Arnetz, Judy; Birkhed, Dowen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis and to compare them with previously documented efforts in dental offices. A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. The overall response rate was 69%. The questionnaire included items regarding patient perceived caries prophylaxis in relation to: 1) treatment and recommendations given by the dental personnel, 2) performed self-care and 3) perceived and expected effects.The responses were studied for their association to clinical data, extracted retrospectively from the patients' dental records.The mean follow up time was > 16 years. Information about caries prophylaxis (p = 0.01) and recommendations for self-care (p = 0.04) were given more often to the CA group than to the CI group. Supplementary examinations and recommendations of self-care risk treatments were more frequent in the CA group (p < 0.001). CA patients also made more frequent extra efforts at home to avoid caries by changing their eating habits (p < 0.001), improving their oral hygiene (p = 0.04) and using extra fluoride (p = 0.001). In the CA group, 60% did not considerthat the extra prophylaxis efforts had made them caries inactive, and 40% were not satisfied with the outcome. Most patients (> 90%) hoped that the outcome of caries prophylactics would be a reduced number of cavities.The patient-perceived experiences of caries prophylaxis-were in concordance with dental records. Both the dentists and the caries active middle-aged Swedish adults were aware of the need for extra prophylaxis.The caries active patients perceived having made extra home care efforts, but had not experienced that they had become free from caries. PMID:27464386

  8. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence. PMID:24215954

  9. Adverse outcome pathways: From research to regulation scientific workshop report.

    PubMed

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Sullivan, Kristie; Allen, David; Edwards, Stephen; Mendrick, Donna L; Embry, Michelle; Matheson, Joanna; Rowlands, J Craig; Munn, Sharon; Maull, Elizabeth; Casey, Warren

    2016-04-01

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) helps to organize existing knowledge on chemical mode of action, starting with a molecular initiating event such as receptor binding, continuing through key events, and ending with an adverse outcome such as reproductive impairment. AOPs can help identify knowledge gaps where more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms, aid in chemical hazard characterization, and guide the development of new testing approaches that use fewer or no animals. A September 2014 workshop in Bethesda, Maryland considered how the AOP concept could improve regulatory assessments of chemical toxicity. Scientists from 21 countries, representing industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and special interest groups, attended the workshop, titled Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Research to Regulation. Workshop plenary presentations were followed by breakout sessions that considered regulatory acceptance of AOPs and AOP-based tools, criteria for building confidence in an AOP for regulatory use, and requirements to build quantitative AOPs and AOP networks. Discussions during the closing session emphasized a need to increase transparent and inclusive collaboration, especially with disciplines outside of toxicology. Additionally, to increase impact, working groups should be established to systematically prioritize and develop AOPs. Multiple collaborative projects and follow-up activities resulted from the workshop. PMID:26774756

  10. Clinical and Patient-reported Outcomes of a Zirconia Oral Implant: Three-year Results of a Prospective Cohort Investigation.

    PubMed

    Spies, B C; Balmer, M; Patzelt, S B M; Vach, K; Kohal, R J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical, radiographic, and patient-reported outcomes of a 1-piece alumina-toughened zirconia implant restored with single crowns (SCs) or 3-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) after 3 y of observation. Forty patients received 53 implants, placed in a 1-stage operation with immediate temporization. Finally, 50 implants were restored with 24 SCs and 13 FDPs. To evaluate peri-implant bone loss, standardized radiographs were taken at implant insertion, at final restoration delivery, and after 1 and 3 y. Additionally, several soft tissue parameters and patient-reported outcome measures were evaluated. Linear mixed models with random intercept for each patient and patients as clusters were used to compare subgroups. Three patients did not receive a SC due to early implant loss, and 1 patient died. As a result, 36 patients with 49 implants were followed-up for 3 y, giving a cumulative survival rate of 94.2%. The average marginal bone loss amounted to 0.79 mm (SCs, 0.47 mm; FDPs, 1.07 mm; P < 0.001). After the delivery of the final prosthetic restoration, further bone loss was not statistically significant (0.09 mm; P = 0.700). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, and modified bleeding index increased significantly at the implant sites, whereas gingival recession decreased significantly. Compared with the pretreatment questionnaires, the patient-reported outcome measures showed a permanently improved perception of function, aesthetics, sense, speech and self-esteem. The survival rate of the investigated ceramic implant system seems to be comparable to reported survival rates of titanium implants when immediately restored. The recorded parameters suggest its potential for clinical utilization. PMID:26232388