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Sample records for repressor protein jdp2

  1. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  2. Host JDP2 expression in the bone marrow contributes to metastatic spread

    PubMed Central

    Barbarov, Yelena; Timaner, Michael; Alishekevitz, Dror; Hai, Tsonwin; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun Dimerization Protein 2, JDP2, is a basic leucine zipper protein member of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors. JDP2 typically suppresses gene transcription through multiple mechanisms and plays a dual role in multiple cellular processes, including cell differentiation and proliferation which is dependent on AP-1 function. Whereas the role of JDP2 expression within cancer cells has been studied, its role in stromal cells at the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. Here we show that mice lacking JDP2 (JDP2−/−) display a reduced rate of metastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT) breast carcinoma mouse models. The replacement of wild-type bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) with JDP2-deficient BMDCs recapitulates the metastatic phenotype of JDP2−/− tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, conditioned medium of wild-type BMDCs significantly potentiates the migration and invasion capacity of LLC cells as compared to that of JDP2−/− BMDCs. Furthermore, wild-type BMDCs secrete CCL5, a chemokine known to contribute to metastasis, to a greater extent than JDP2−/− BMDCs. The supplementation of CCL5 in JDP2−/− BMDC conditioned medium was sufficient to potentiate the invasion capacity of LLC. Overall, this study suggests that JDP2-expressing BMDCs within the tumor microenvironment contribute to metastatic spread. PMID:26497998

  3. The bZIP repressor proteins, c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Weidenfeld-Baranboim, Keren; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Hai, Tsonwin; Aronheim, Ami

    2012-01-01

    JDP2, is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein displaying a high degree of homology with the stress inducible transcription factor, ATF3. Both proteins bind to cAMP and TPA response elements and repress transcription by multiple mechanisms. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in gene inactivation by deacetylating lysine residues on histones. Here we describe the association of JDP2 and ATF3 with HDACs 1, 2-6 and 10. Association of HDAC3 and HDAC6 with JDP2 and ATF3 occurs via direct protein-protein interactions. Only part of the N-terminal bZIP motif of JDP2 and ATF3 basic domain is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with HDACs in a manner that is independent of coiled-coil dimerization. Class I HDACs associate with the bZIP repressors via the DAC conserved domain whereas the Class IIb HDAC6 associates through its C-terminal unique binder of ubiquitin Zn finger domain. Both JDP2 and ATF3 are known to bind and repress the ATF3 promoter. MEF cells treated with histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) display enhanced ATF3 transcription. ATF3 enhanced transcription is significantly reduced in MEF cells lacking both ATF3 and JDP2. Collectively, we propose that the recruitment of multiple HDAC members to JDP2 and ATF3 is part of their transcription repression mechanism. PMID:22989952

  4. Jun Dimerization Protein 2 Controls Senescence and Differentiation via Regulating Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Chang; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Wang, Shin-Wei; Ku, Chia-Chen; Lin, Ying-Chu; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Saito, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factor, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), binds directly to histones and DNAs and then inhibits the p300-mediated acetylation both of core histones and of reconstituted nucleosomes that contain JDP2 recognition DNA sequences. JDP2 plays a key role as a repressor of adipocyte differentiation by regulation of the expression of the gene C/EBPδ via inhibition of histone acetylation. Moreover, JDP2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (JDP2−/− MEFs) are resistant to replicative senescence. JDP2 inhibits the recruitment of polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) to the promoter of the gene encoding p16Ink4a, resulting from the inhibition of methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27). Therefore, it seems that chromatin-remodeling factors, including the PRC complex controlled by JDP2, may be important players in the senescence program. The novel mechanisms that underline the action of JDP2 in inducing cellular senescence and suppressing adipocyte differentiation are reviewed. PMID:21197464

  5. Proteins of the ETS family with transcriptional repressor activity.

    PubMed

    Mavrothalassitis, G; Ghysdael, J

    2000-12-18

    ETS proteins form one of the largest families of signal-dependent transcriptional regulators, mediating cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Most of the known ETS proteins have been shown to activate transcription. However, four ETS proteins (YAN, ERF, NET and TEL) can act as transcriptional repressors. In three cases (ERF, NET and TEL) distinct repression domains have been identified and there are indications that NET and TEL may mediate transcription via Histone Deacetylase recruitment. All four proteins appear to be regulated by MAPKs, though for YAN and ERF this regulation seems to be restricted to ERKs. YAN, ERF and TEL have been implicated in cellular proliferation although there are indications suggesting a possible involvement of YAN and TEL in differentiation as well. Other ETS-domain proteins have been shown to repress transcription in a context specific manner, and there are suggestions that the ETS DNA-binding domain may act as a transcriptional repressor. Transcriptional repression by ETS domain proteins adds an other level in the orchestrated regulation by this diverse family of transcription factors that often recognize similar if not identical binding sites on DNA and are believed to regulate critical genes in a variety of biological processes. Definitive assessment of the importance of this novel regulatory level will require the identification of ETS proteins target genes and the further analysis of transcriptional control and biological function of these proteins in defined pathways. PMID:11175368

  6. Solitons and collapse in the λ-repressor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-08-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding λ-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability, and folding pathways of the λ-repressor protein, which controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the supersecondary helix-loop helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the backbone spectrum in terms of bond and torsion angles. Instead of four, there appears to be seven individual loops. We model the putative loops using an explicit soliton Ansatz. It is based on the standard soliton profile of the continuum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The accuracy of the Ansatz far exceeds the B-factor fluctuation distance accuracy of the experimentally determined protein configuration. We then investigate the folding pathways and dynamics of the λ-repressor protein. We introduce a coarse-grained energy function to model the backbone in terms of the Cα atoms and the side chains in terms of the relative orientation of the Cβ atoms. We describe the folding dynamics in terms of relaxation dynamics and find that the folded configuration can be reached from a very generic initial configuration. We conclude that folding is dominated by the temporal ordering of soliton formation. In particular, the third soliton should appear before the first and second. Otherwise, the DNA binding turn does not acquire its correct structure. We confirm the stability of the folded configuration by repeated heating and cooling simulations.

  7. Solitons and collapse in the λ-repressor protein.

    PubMed

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J

    2012-08-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding λ-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability, and folding pathways of the λ-repressor protein, which controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the supersecondary helix-loop helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the backbone spectrum in terms of bond and torsion angles. Instead of four, there appears to be seven individual loops. We model the putative loops using an explicit soliton Ansatz. It is based on the standard soliton profile of the continuum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The accuracy of the Ansatz far exceeds the B-factor fluctuation distance accuracy of the experimentally determined protein configuration. We then investigate the folding pathways and dynamics of the λ-repressor protein. We introduce a coarse-grained energy function to model the backbone in terms of the C(α) atoms and the side chains in terms of the relative orientation of the C(β) atoms. We describe the folding dynamics in terms of relaxation dynamics and find that the folded configuration can be reached from a very generic initial configuration. We conclude that folding is dominated by the temporal ordering of soliton formation. In particular, the third soliton should appear before the first and second. Otherwise, the DNA binding turn does not acquire its correct structure. We confirm the stability of the folded configuration by repeated heating and cooling simulations. PMID:23005801

  8. Predicting stability of Arc repressor mutants with protein stochastic moments.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Uriarte, Eugenio; Ramos de Armas, Ronal

    2005-01-17

    As more and more protein structures are determined and applied to drug manufacture, there is increasing interest in studying their stability. In this study, the stochastic moments ((SR)pi(k)) of 53 Arc repressor mutants were introduced as molecular descriptors modeling protein stability. The Linear Discriminant Analysis model developed correctly classified 43 out of 53, 81.13% of proteins according to their thermal stability. More specifically, the model classified 20/28 (71.4%) proteins with near wild-type stability and 23/25 (92%) proteins with reduced stability. Moreover, validation of the model was carried out by re-substitution procedures (81.0%). In addition, the stochastic moments based model compared favorably with respect to others based on physicochemical and geometric parameters such as D-Fire potential, surface area, volume, partition coefficient, and molar refractivity, which presented less than 77% of accuracy. This result illustrates the possibilities of the stochastic moments' method for the study of bioorganic and medicinal chemistry relevant proteins. PMID:15598555

  9. Ni2+-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Jones, Alun; Lim, Maria L R

    2008-01-01

    A two-step chromatographic sequence is described for the purification of native lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli cells. The first step involves Ni(2+)-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of the soluble cytoplasmic extract. This method provides superior speed, resolution and yield than the established phosphocellulose cation-exchange chromatographic procedure. Anion-exchange chromatography is used for further purification to >95% purity. The identity and purity of the lactose repressor protein were demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, crystallization, tryptic finger-printing mass spectrometry, and inducer binding assays. The purified lac repressor exhibited inducer sensitivity for operator DNA binding and undergoes a conformational change upon inducer binding. By all these extensive biochemical criteria, the purified protein behaves exactly as that described for the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor. PMID:18800304

  10. Ligand interactions with lactose repressor protein and the repressor-operator complex: the effects of ionization and oligomerization on binding.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Corey J; Zhan, Hongli; Swint-Kruse, Liskin; Matthews, Kathleen S

    2007-03-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and ligands that modify their functions are crucial in biology. Here, we examine sugars that bind the lactose repressor protein (LacI) and modify repressor affinity for operator DNA using isothermal titration calorimetry and equilibrium DNA binding experiments. High affinity binding of the commonly-used inducer isopropyl-beta,D-thiogalactoside is strongly driven by enthalpic forces, whereas inducer 2-phenylethyl-beta,D-galactoside has weaker affinity with low enthalpic contributions. Perturbing the dimer interface with either pH or oligomeric state shows that weak inducer binding is sensitive to changes in this distant region. Effects of the neutral compound o-nitrophenyl-beta,D-galactoside are sensitive to oligomerization, and at elevated pH this compound converts to an anti-inducer ligand with slightly enhanced enthalpic contributions to the binding energy. Anti-inducer o-nitrophenyl-beta,D-fucoside exhibits slightly enhanced affinity and increased enthalpic contributions at elevated pH. Collectively, these results both demonstrate the range of energetic consequences that occur with LacI binding to structurally-similar ligands and expand our insight into the link between effector binding and structural changes at the subunit interface. PMID:16860458

  11. Multiple functions of the histone chaperone Jun dimerization protein 2.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ho; Wuputra, Kenly; Lin, Yin-Chu; Lin, Chang-Shen; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2016-09-30

    The Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) is part of the family of stress-responsible transcription factors such as the activation protein-1, and binds the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetateresponse element and the cAMP response element. It also plays a role as a histone chaperone and participates in diverse processes, such as cell-cycle arrest, cell differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, and metastatic spread, and functions as an oncogene and anti-oncogene, and as a cellular reprogramming factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these multiple functions of JDP2 have not been clarified. This review summarizes the structure and function of JDP2, highlighting the specific role of JDP2 in cellular-stress regulation and prevention. PMID:27041241

  12. Evidence-Based Structural Model of the Staphylococcal Repressor Protein: Separation of Functions into Different Domains

    PubMed Central

    Nyíri, Kinga; Kőhegyi, Bianka; Micsonai, András; Kardos, József; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements within Staphylococci is of high biomedical significance as such elements are frequently responsible for virulence and toxic effects. Staphylococcus-encoded repressor proteins regulate the replication of these mobile genetic elements that are located within the so-called pathogenicity islands. Here, we report structural and functional characterization of one such repressor protein, namely the Stl protein encoded by the pathogenicity island SaPIbov1. We create a 3D structural model and based on this prediction, we investigate the different functionalities of truncated and point mutant constructs. Results suggest that a helix-turn-helix motif governs the interaction of the Stl protein with its cognate DNA site: point mutations within this motif drastically decrease DNA-binding ability, whereas the interaction with the Stl-binding partner protein dUTPase is unperturbed by these point mutations. The 3D model also suggested the potential independent folding of a carboxy-terminal domain. This suggestion was fully verified by independent experiments revealing that the carboxy-terminal domain does not bind to DNA but is still capable of binding to and inhibiting dUTPase. A general model is proposed, which suggests that among the several structurally different repressor superfamilies Stl-like Staphylococcal repressor proteins belong to the helix-turn-helix transcription factor group and the HTH motif is suggested to reside within N-terminal segment. PMID:26414067

  13. The Non-JAZ TIFY Protein TIFY8 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Transcriptional Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar Pérez, Amparo; Nagels Durand, Astrid; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Clercq, Rebecca; Persiau, Geert; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signalling is mediated by the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor proteins, which are degraded upon JA perception to release downstream responses. The ZIM protein domain is characteristic of the larger TIFY protein family. It is currently unknown if the atypical member TIFY8 is involved in JA signalling. Here we show that the TIFY8 ZIM domain is functional and mediated interaction with PEAPOD proteins and NINJA. TIFY8 interacted with TOPLESS through NINJA and accordingly acted as a transcriptional repressor. TIFY8 expression was inversely correlated with JAZ expression during development and after infection with Pseudomonas syringae. Nevertheless, transgenic lines with altered TIFY8 expression did not show changes in JA sensitivity. Despite the functional ZIM domain, no interaction with JAZ proteins could be found. In contrast, TIFY8 was found in protein complexes involved in regulation of dephosphorylation, deubiquitination and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification suggesting an important role in nuclear signal transduction. PMID:24416306

  14. Expression of the vertebrate Gli proteins in Drosophila reveals a distribution of activator and repressor activities.

    PubMed

    Aza-Blanc, P; Lin, H Y; Ruiz i Altaba, A; Kornberg, T B

    2000-10-01

    The Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and Gli proteins are transcription factors that mediate responses to Hedgehog proteins (Hh) in flies and vertebrates, respectively. During development of the Drosophila wing, Ci transduces the Hh signal and regulates transcription of different target genes at different locations. In vertebrates, the three Gli proteins are expressed in overlapping domains and are partially redundant. To assess how the vertebrate Glis correlate with Drosophila Ci, we expressed each in Drosophila and monitored their behaviors and activities. We found that each Gli has distinct activities that are equivalent to portions of the regulatory arsenal of Ci. Gli2 and Gli1 have activator functions that depend on Hh. Gli2 and Gli3 are proteolyzed to produce a repressor form able to inhibit hh expression. However, while Gli3 repressor activity is regulated by Hh, Gli2 repressor activity is not. These observations suggest that the separate activator and repressor functions of Ci are unevenly partitioned among the three Glis, yielding proteins with related yet distinct properties. PMID:10976059

  15. Crystal Structures of the Tryptophan Repressor binding Protein WrbA and complexes with Flavin Mononucleotide

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman,J.; Shapiro, L.

    2005-01-01

    The tryptophan repressor binding protein WrbA binds to the tryptophan repressor protein TrpR. Although the biological role of WrbA remains unclear, it has been proposed to function in enhancing the stability of TrpR-DNA complexes. Sequence database analysis has identified WrbA as a founding member of a flavodoxin-like family of proteins. Here we present crystal structures of WrbA from Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their complexes with flavin mononucleotide. The protomer structure is similar to that of previously determined long-chain flavodoxins; however, each contains a conserved inserted region unique to the WrbA family. Interestingly, each WrbA protein forms a homotetramer with 222 symmetry, unique among flavodoxin-like proteins, in which each protomer binds one flavin mononucleotide cofactor molecule.

  16. Drosophila transcriptional repressor protein that binds specifically to negative control elements in fat body enhancers.

    PubMed Central

    Falb, D; Maniatis, T

    1992-01-01

    Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene in adults requires a fat body-specific enhancer called the Adh adult enhancer (AAE). We have identified a protein in Drosophila nuclear extracts that binds specifically to a site within the AAE (adult enhancer factor 1 [AEF-1]). In addition, we have shown that AEF-1 binds specifically to two other Drosophila fat body enhancers. Base substitutions in the AEF-1 binding site that disrupt AEF-1 binding in vitro result in a significant increase in the level of Adh expression in vivo. Thus, the AEF-1 binding site is a negative regulatory element within the AAE. A cDNA encoding the AEF-1 protein was isolated and shown to act as a repressor of the AAE in cotransfection studies. The AEF-1 protein contains four zinc fingers and an alanine-rich sequence. The latter motif is found in other eukaryotic proteins known to be transcriptional repressors. Images PMID:1508206

  17. Contextual interactions determine whether the Drosophila homeodomain protein, Vnd, acts as a repressor or activator

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongxin; Syu, Li-Jyun; Mellerick, Dervla M.

    2005-01-01

    At the molecular level, members of the NKx2.2 family of transcription factors establish neural compartment boundaries by repressing the expression of homeobox genes specific for adjacent domains [Muhr et al. (2001) Cell, 104, 861–873; Weiss et al. (1998) Genes Dev., 12, 3591–3602]. The Drosophila homologue, vnd, interacts genetically with the high-mobility group protein, Dichaete, in a manner suggesting co-operative activation [Zhao and Skeath (2002) Development, 129, 1165–1174]. However, evidence for direct interactions and transcriptional activation is lacking. Here, we present molecular evidence for the interaction of Vnd and Dichaete that leads to the activation of target gene expression. Two-hybrid interaction assays indicate that Dichaete binds the Vnd homeodomain, and additional Vnd sequences stabilize this interaction. In addition, Vnd has two activation domains that are typically masked in the intact protein. Whether vnd can activate or repress transcription is context-dependent. Full-length Vnd, when expressed as a Gal4 fusion protein, acts as a repressor containing multiple repression domains. A divergent domain in the N-terminus, not found in vertebrate Vnd-like proteins, causes the strongest repression. The co-repressor, Groucho, enhances Vnd repression, and these two proteins physically interact. The data presented indicate that the activation and repression domains of Vnd are complex, and whether Vnd functions as a transcriptional repressor or activator depends on both intra- and inter-molecular interactions. PMID:15640442

  18. The lactose repressor system: paradigms for regulation, allosteric behavior and protein folding.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J; Zhan, H; Swint-Kruse, L; Matthews, K S

    2007-01-01

    In 1961, Jacob and Monod proposed the operon model for gene regulation based on metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli. This proposal was followed by an explication of allosteric behavior by Monod and colleagues. The operon model rationally depicted how genetic mechanisms can control metabolic events in response to environmental stimuli via coordinated transcription of a set of genes with related function (e.g. metabolism of lactose). The allosteric response found in the lactose repressor and many other proteins has been extended to a variety of cellular signaling pathways in all organisms. These two models have shaped our view of modern molecular biology and captivated the attention of a surprisingly broad range of scientists. More recently, the lactose repressor monomer was used as a model system for experimental and theoretical explorations of protein folding mechanisms. Thus, the lac system continues to advance our molecular understanding of genetic control and the relationship between sequence, structure and function. PMID:17103112

  19. CopY-like copper inducible repressors are putative 'winged helix' proteins.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Reto; Poulsen, Kristian R; Wimmer, Reinhard; Solioz, Marc

    2006-02-01

    CopY of Enterococcus hirae is a well characterized copper-responsive repressor involved in copper homeostasis. In the absence of copper, it binds to the promoter. In high copper, the CopZ copper chaperone donates copper to CopY, thereby releasing it from the promoter and allowing transcription of the downstream copper homeostatic genes of the cop operon. We here show that the CopY-like repressors from E. hirae, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus mutans have similar affinities not only for their native promoters, but also for heterologous cop promoters. CopZ of L. lactis accelerated the release of CopY from the promoter, suggesting that CopZ of L. lactis acts as copper chaperone, similar to CopZ in E. hirae. The consensus binding motif of the CopY-like repressors was shown to be TACAxxTGTA. The same binding motif is present in promoters controlled by BlaI of Bacillus licheniformis, MecI of Staphylococcus aureus and related repressors. BlaI and MecI have known structures and belong to the family of 'winged helix' proteins. In the N- terminal domain, they share significant sequence similarity with CopY of E. hirae. Moreover, they bind to the same TACAxxTGTA motif. NMR analysis of the N-terminal DNA binding domain of CopY of L. lactis showed that it contained the same alpha-helical content like the same regions of BlaI and MecI. These findings suggest that the DNA binding domains of CopY-like repressors are also of the 'winged helix' type. PMID:16502332

  20. A Repressor Protein Complex Regulates Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nathalie; Pauwels, Laurens; Baekelandt, Alexandra; De Milde, Liesbeth; Van Leene, Jelle; Besbrugge, Nienke; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Durand, Astrid Nagels; De Clercq, Rebecca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Eeckhout, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cell number is an important determinant of final organ size. In the leaf, a large proportion of cells are derived from the stomatal lineage. Meristemoids, which are stem cell-like precursor cells, undergo asymmetric divisions, generating several pavement cells adjacent to the two guard cells. However, the mechanism controlling the asymmetric divisions of these stem cells prior to differentiation is not well understood. Here, we characterized PEAPOD (PPD) proteins, the only transcriptional regulators known to negatively regulate meristemoid division. PPD proteins interact with KIX8 and KIX9, which act as adaptor proteins for the corepressor TOPLESS. D3-type cyclin encoding genes were identified among direct targets of PPD2, being negatively regulated by PPDs and KIX8/9. Accordingly, kix8 kix9 mutants phenocopied PPD loss-of-function producing larger leaves resulting from increased meristemoid amplifying divisions. The identified conserved complex might be specific for leaf growth in the second dimension, since it is not present in Poaceae (grasses), which also lack the developmental program it controls. PMID:26232487

  1. Functional and Structural Analysis of HrcA Repressor Protein from Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Susin, Michelle F.; Perez, Humberto R.; Baldini, Regina L.; Gomes, Suely L.

    2004-01-01

    A large number of bacteria regulate chaperone gene expression during heat shock by the HrcA-CIRCE system, in which the DNA element called CIRCE serves as binding site for the repressor protein HrcA under nonstress conditions. In Caulobacter crescentus, the groESL operon presents a dual type of control. Heat shock induction is controlled by a σ32-dependent promoter and the HrcA-CIRCE system plays a role in regulation of groESL expression under physiological temperatures. To study the activity of HrcA in vitro, we purified a histidine-tagged version of the protein, and specific binding to the CIRCE element was obtained by gel shift assays. The amount of retarded DNA increased significantly in the presence of GroES/GroEL, suggesting that the GroE chaperonin machine modulates HrcA activity. Further evidence of this modulation was obtained using lacZ transcription fusions with the groESL regulatory region in C. crescentus cells, producing different amounts of GroES/GroEL. In addition, we identified the putative DNA-binding domain of HrcA through extensive protein sequence comparison and constructed various HrcA mutant proteins containing single amino acid substitutions in or near this region. In vitro and in vivo experiments with these mutated proteins indicated several amino acids important for repressor activity. PMID:15466027

  2. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator and repressor proteins use different nuclear localization signals.

    PubMed

    Skiadopoulos, M H; McBride, A A

    1996-02-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least three nuclear phosphoproteins that regulate viral transcription and DNA replication. All three proteins have a common C-terminal domain that has DNA-binding and dimerization activities. A basic region in this domain forms an alpha helix which makes direct contact with the DNA target. In this study, it is shown that in addition to its role in DNA binding, this basic region functions as a nuclear localization signal both in the E2 DNA-binding domain and in a heterologous protein. Deletion of this signal sequence resulted in increased accumulation of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins in the cytoplasm, but nuclear localization was not eliminated. In the full-length transactivator protein, another signal, present in the N-terminal transactivation domain, is used for transport to the nucleus, and the C-terminal nuclear localization signal(s) are masked. The use of different nuclear localization signals could potentially allow differential regulation of the subcellular localization of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins at some stage in the viral life cycle. PMID:8551571

  3. Crosslinking of hemin to a specific site on the 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jihjing; Thach, R.E. ); Patino, M.M.; Gaffield, L.; Walden. W.E. ); Smith, A. )

    1991-07-15

    Incubation of a 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein (FRP) with small amounts of radiolabeled hemin resulted in the formation of a strong interaction between the two that was stable to SDS/PAGE. Of seven other proteins tested individually, only apohemopexin and bovine serum albumin showed similar crosslinking ability, albeit to a much lower extent. ({sup 14}C)Hemin specifically crosslinked to FRP in the presence of a 50-fold excess of total wheat germ proteins. Inclusion of catalase did not prevent the reaction of hemin with FRP, suggesting that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not involved. The subsequent addition of a stoichiometric amount of apohemopexin did not reverse the reaction. Exhaustive digestion of the complex with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease produced a major labeled peptide of 17 kDa. These results show the existence of a highly specific, uniquely reactive hemin binding site on FRP.

  4. Structure of the C-terminal domain of the arginine repressor protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, Leonid T.; Cherney, Maia M.; Garen, Craig R.; Lu, George J.; James, Michael N. G.

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the core domain of the arginine repressor protein from M. tuberculosis has been determined with (1.85 Å resolution) and without (2.15 Å resolution) the arginine corepressor bound. Three additional arginine molecules have been found to bind to the core domain hexamer at high (0.2 M) arginine concentration. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the l-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 Å resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 Å resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11° upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  5. Regulator of G-protein signaling - 5 (RGS5) is a novel repressor of hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, William M; Gunaje, Jagadambika; Daum, Guenter; Dong, Xiu Rong; Majesky, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays fundamental roles in morphogenesis, tissue repair, and human disease. Initiation of Hh signaling is controlled by the interaction of two multipass membrane proteins, patched (Ptc) and smoothened (Smo). Recent studies identify Smo as a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-like protein that signals through large G-protein complexes which contain the Gαi subunit. We hypothesize Regulator of G-Protein Signaling (RGS) proteins, and specifically RGS5, are endogenous repressors of Hh signaling via their ability to act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for GTP-bound Gαi, downstream of Smo. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that RGS5 over-expression inhibits sonic hedgehog (Shh)-mediated signaling and osteogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells. Conversely, signaling is potentiated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of RGS5 expression, but not RGS4 expression. Furthermore, using immuohistochemical analysis and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), we demonstrate that RGS5 is present with Smo in primary cilia. This organelle is required for canonical Hh signaling in mammalian cells, and RGS5 is found in a physical complex with Smo in these cells. We therefore conclude that RGS5 is an endogenous regulator of Hh-mediated signaling and that RGS proteins are potential targets for novel therapeutics in Hh-mediated diseases. PMID:23637832

  6. Restrained expression, a method to overproduce toxic membrane proteins by exploiting operator-repressor interactions.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Anoop; Ridilla, Marc; Yernool, Dinesh A

    2011-01-01

    A major rate-limiting step in determining structures of membrane proteins is heterologous protein production. Toxicity often associated with rapid overexpression results in reduced biomass along with low yields of target protein. Mitigation of toxic effects was achieved using a method we call "restrained expression," a controlled reduction in the frequency of transcription initiation by exploiting the infrequent transitions of Lac repressor to a free state from its complex with the lac-operator site within a T7lac promoter that occur in the absence of the inducer isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. In addition, production of the T7 RNA polymerase that drives transcription of the target is limited using the tightly regulated arabinose promoter in Escherichia coli strain BL21-AI. Using this approach, we can achieve a 200-fold range of green fluorescent protein expression levels. Application to members of a family of ion pumps results in 5- to 25-fold increases in expression over the benchmark BL21(DE3) host strain. A viral ion channel highly toxic to E. coli can also be overexpressed. In comparative analyses, restrained expression outperforms commonly used E. coli expression strategies. The mechanism underlying improved target protein yield arises from minimization of protein aggregation and proteolysis that reduce membrane integrity and cell viability. This study establishes a method to overexpress toxic proteins. PMID:21031485

  7. A testis cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein that has the properties of a translational repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K; Fajardo, M A; Braun, R E

    1996-01-01

    Translation of the mouse protamine 1 (Prm-1) mRNA is repressed for several days during male germ cell differentiation. With the hope of cloning genes that regulate the translational repression of Prm-1, we screened male germ cell cDNA expression libraries with the 3' untranslated region of the Prm-1 RNA. From this screen we obtained two independent clones that encode Prbp, a Prm-1 RNA-binding protein. Prbp contains two copies of a double-stranded-RNA-binding domain. In vitro, the protein binds to a portion of the Prm-1 3' untranslated region previously shown to be sufficient for translational repression in transgenic mice, as well as to poly(I). poly(C). Prbp protein is present in multiple forms in cytoplasmic extracts prepared from wild-type mouse testes and is absent from testes of germ cell-deficient mouse mutants, suggesting that Prbp is restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Immunocytochemical localization confirmed that Prbp is present in the cytoplasmic compartment of late-stage meiotic cells and haploid round spermatids. Recombinant Prbp protein inhibits the translation of multiple mRNAs in a wheat germ lysate, suggesting that Prbp acts to repress translation in round spermatids. While this protein lacks complete specificity for Prm-1-containing RNAs in vitro, the properties of Prbp are consistent with it acting as a general repressor of translation. PMID:8649414

  8. The lac repressor.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mitchell

    2005-06-01

    Few proteins have had such a strong impact on a field as the lac repressor has had in Molecular Biology. Over 40 years ago, Jacob and Monod [Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins, J. Mol. Biol. 3 (1961) 318] proposed a model for gene regulation, which survives essentially unchanged in contemporary textbooks. It is a cogent depiction of how a set of 'structural' genes may be coordinately transcribed in response to environmental conditions and regulates metabolic events in the cell. In bacteria, the genes required for lactose utilization are negatively regulated when a repressor molecule binds to an upstream cis activated operator. The repressor and its operator together form a genetic switch, the lac operon. The switch functions when inducer molecules alter the conformation of the repressor in a specific manner. In the presence of a particular metabolite, the repressor undergoes a conformational change that reduces its affinity for the operator. The structures of the lac repressor and its complexes with operator DNA and effector molecules have provided a physical platform for visualizing at the molecular level the different conformations the repressor and the molecular basis for the switch. The structures of lac repressor, bound to its operator and inducer, have also been invaluable for interpreting a plethora of biochemical and genetic data. PMID:15950160

  9. The Drosophila P-element KP repressor protein dimerizes and interacts with multiple sites on P-element DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C C; Mul, Y M; Rio, D C

    1996-01-01

    Drosophila P elements are mobile DNA elements that encode an 87-kDa transposase enzyme and transpositional repressor proteins. One of these repressor proteins is the 207-amino-acid KP protein which is encoded by a naturally occurring P element with an internal deletion. To study the molecular mechanisms by which KP represses transposition, the protein was expressed, purified, and characterized. We show that the KP protein binds to multiple sites on the ends of P-element DNA, unlike the full-length transposase protein. These sites include the high-affinity transposase binding site, an 11-bp transpositional enhancer, and, at the highest concentrations tested, the terminal 31-hp inverted repeats. The DNA binding domain was localized to the N-terminal 98 amino acids and contains a CCHC sequence, a potential metal binding motif. We also demonstrate that the KP repressor protein can dimerize and contains two protein-protein interaction regions and that this dimerization is essential for high-affinity DNA binding. PMID:8816474

  10. The Drosophila P-element KP repressor protein dimerizes and interacts with multiple sites on P-element DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Mul, Y M; Rio, D C

    1996-10-01

    Drosophila P elements are mobile DNA elements that encode an 87-kDa transposase enzyme and transpositional repressor proteins. One of these repressor proteins is the 207-amino-acid KP protein which is encoded by a naturally occurring P element with an internal deletion. To study the molecular mechanisms by which KP represses transposition, the protein was expressed, purified, and characterized. We show that the KP protein binds to multiple sites on the ends of P-element DNA, unlike the full-length transposase protein. These sites include the high-affinity transposase binding site, an 11-bp transpositional enhancer, and, at the highest concentrations tested, the terminal 31-hp inverted repeats. The DNA binding domain was localized to the N-terminal 98 amino acids and contains a CCHC sequence, a potential metal binding motif. We also demonstrate that the KP repressor protein can dimerize and contains two protein-protein interaction regions and that this dimerization is essential for high-affinity DNA binding. PMID:8816474

  11. CHES1/FOXN3 interacts with Ski-interacting protein and acts as a transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kenneth L; Plon, Sharon E

    2005-10-10

    Checkpoint Suppressor 1 (CHES1; FOXN3) encodes a member of the forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor family. The human CHES1 cDNA was originally identified by its ability to function as a high-copy suppressor of multiple checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accumulating expression profile data suggest that CHES1 plays a role in tumorigenicity and responses to cancer treatments, though nothing is known regarding the transcriptional function of CHES1 or other FOXN proteins in human cells. In this report, we find that the carboxyl terminus of CHES1 fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain consistently represses reporter gene transcription in cell lines derived from tumor tissues. Using a cytoplasmic two-hybrid screening approach, we find that this portion of CHES1 interacts with Ski-interacting protein (SKIP; NCoA-62), which is a transcriptional co-regulator known to associate with repressor complexes. We verify this interaction through co-immunoprecipitation experiments performed in mammalian cells. Further analysis of the CHES1/SKIP interaction indicates that CHES1 binds to a region within the final 66 hydrophobic residues of SKIP thus defining a new protein-protein interaction domain of SKIP. These data suggest that CHES1 recruits SKIP to repress genes important for tumorigenesis and the response to cancer treatments. PMID:16102918

  12. DNA sequence-dependent mechanics and protein-assisted bending in repressor-mediated loop formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedicker, James Q.; Garcia, Hernan G.; Johnson, Stephanie; Phillips, Rob

    2013-12-01

    As the chief informational molecule of life, DNA is subject to extensive physical manipulations. The energy required to deform double-helical DNA depends on sequence, and this mechanical code of DNA influences gene regulation, such as through nucleosome positioning. Here we examine the sequence-dependent flexibility of DNA in bacterial transcription factor-mediated looping, a context for which the role of sequence remains poorly understood. Using a suite of synthetic constructs repressed by the Lac repressor and two well-known sequences that show large flexibility differences in vitro, we make precise statistical mechanical predictions as to how DNA sequence influences loop formation and test these predictions using in vivo transcription and in vitro single-molecule assays. Surprisingly, sequence-dependent flexibility does not affect in vivo gene regulation. By theoretically and experimentally quantifying the relative contributions of sequence and the DNA-bending protein HU to DNA mechanical properties, we reveal that bending by HU dominates DNA mechanics and masks intrinsic sequence-dependent flexibility. Such a quantitative understanding of how mechanical regulatory information is encoded in the genome will be a key step towards a predictive understanding of gene regulation at single-base pair resolution.

  13. DNA sequence-dependent mechanics and protein-assisted bending in repressor-mediated loop formation

    PubMed Central

    Boedicker, James Q.; Garcia, Hernan G.; Johnson, Stephanie; Phillips, Rob

    2014-01-01

    As the chief informational molecule of life, DNA is subject to extensive physical manipulations. The energy required to deform double-helical DNA depends on sequence, and this mechanical code of DNA influences gene regulation, such as through nucleosome positioning. Here we examine the sequence-dependent flexibility of DNA in bacterial transcription factor-mediated looping, a context for which the role of sequence remains poorly understood. Using a suite of synthetic constructs repressed by the Lac repressor and two well-known sequences that show large flexibility differences in vitro, we make precise statistical mechanical predictions as to how DNA sequence influences loop formation and test these predictions using in vivo transcription and in vitro single-molecule assays. Surprisingly, sequence-dependent flexibility does not affect in vivo gene regulation. By theoretically and experimentally quantifying the relative contributions of sequence and the DNA-bending protein HU to DNA mechanical properties, we reveal that bending by HU dominates DNA mechanics and masks intrinsic sequence-dependent flexibility. Such a quantitative understanding of how mechanical regulatory information is encoded in the genome will be a key step towards a predictive understanding of gene regulation at single-base pair resolution. PMID:24231252

  14. Regulation of RNA splicing by the methylation-dependent transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG binding protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Young, Juan I.; Hong, Eugene P.; Castle, John C.; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Bowman, Aaron B.; Rose, Matthew F.; Kang, Dongcheul; Richman, Ron; Johnson, Jason M.; Berget, Susan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2005-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the loss of acquired motor and language skills, autistic features, and unusual stereotyped movements. RTT is caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Mutations in MECP2 cause a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including X-linked mental retardation, psychiatric disorders, and some cases of autism. Although MeCP2 was identified as a methylation-dependent transcriptional repressor, transcriptional profiling of RNAs from mice lacking MeCP2 did not reveal significant gene expression changes, suggesting that MeCP2 does not simply function as a global repressor. Changes in expression of a few genes have been observed, but these alterations do not explain the full spectrum of Rett-like phenotypes, raising the possibility that additional MeCP2 functions play a role in pathogenesis. In this study, we show that MeCP2 interacts with the RNA-binding protein Y box-binding protein 1 and regulates splicing of reporter minigenes. Importantly, we found aberrant alternative splicing patterns in a mouse model of RTT. Thus, we uncovered a previously uncharacterized function of MeCP2 that involves regulation of splicing, in addition to its role as a transcriptional repressor. PMID:16251272

  15. A DNA mimic: the structure and mechanism of action for the anti-repressor protein AbbA.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ashley T; Bobay, Benjamin G; Banse, Allison V; Olson, Andrew L; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Thompson, Richele J; Varney, Kristen M; Losick, Richard; Cavanagh, John

    2014-05-01

    Bacteria respond to adverse environmental conditions by switching on the expression of large numbers of genes that enable them to adapt to unfavorable circumstances. In Bacillus subtilis, many adaptive genes are under the negative control of the global transition state regulator, the repressor protein AbrB. Stressful conditions lead to the de-repression of genes under AbrB control. Contributing to this de-repression is AbbA, an anti-repressor that binds to and blocks AbrB from binding to DNA. Here, we have determined the NMR structure of the functional AbbA dimer, confirmed that it binds to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain of AbrB, and have provided an initial description for the interaction using computational docking procedures. Interestingly, we show that AbbA has structural and surface characteristics that closely mimic the DNA phosphate backbone, enabling it to readily carry out its physiological function. PMID:24534728

  16. A DNA Mimic: The Structure and Mechanism of Action for the Anti-Repressor Protein AbbA

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Ashley T.; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Banse, Allison V.; Olson, Andrew L.; Soderblom, Erik J.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Thompson, Richele J.; Varney, Kristen M.; Losick, Richard; Cavanagh, John

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria respond to adverse environmental conditions by switching on the expression of large numbers of genes that enable them to adapt to unfavorable circumstances. In Bacillus subtilis, many adaptive genes are under the negative control of the global transition state regulator, the repressor protein AbrB. Stressful conditions lead to the de-repression of genes under AbrB control. Contributing to this de-repression is AbbA, an anti-repressor that binds to and blocks AbrB from binding to DNA. Here, we have determined the NMR structure of the functional AbbA dimer, confirmed that it binds to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain of AbrB, and have provided an initial description for the interaction using computational docking procedures. Interestingly, we show that AbbA has structural and surface characteristics that closely mimic the DNA phosphate backbone, enabling it to readily carry out its physiological function. PMID:24534728

  17. Interactions between lac repressor protein and site-specific bromodeoxyuridine-substituted operator DNA. Ultraviolet footprinting and protein-DNA cross-link formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, K.L.; Matthews, K.S. )

    1991-04-05

    Specific contacts between the lac repressor and operator have been explored using 5-bromodeoxyuridine-substituted DNA. Substitution of BrdU for single thymidine positions in a synthetic 40-base pair operator provides substrate for ultraviolet irradiation; upon irradiation, strand scission occurs at the BrdU residues. When bound, lac repressor protein provides protection against UV-induced breakage depending on the nature of the sites and type of interaction. We have confirmed 13 unique sites of inducer-sensitive protection along the operator sequence using this method compared to complete substitution with BrdU; differences were observed at two positions for singly substituted versus completely substituted DNAs. The ability of these photosensitive DNAs to form short range cross-links to bound protein has been used to determine the efficiency with which cross-linked protein-DNA complexes are generated at each individual site of BrdU substitution. Five sites of high efficiency cross-linking to the repressor protein have been identified. At one site, cross-linking without protection from strand scission was observed; this result suggests an unusual mechanism of strand scission and/or cross-linking at this site. Comparison of the UV protection results and the cross-linking data show that these processes provide complementary tools for identifying and analyzing individual protein-DNA contacts.

  18. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  19. Crystal Structure of the Arginine Repressor Protein in Complex With the DNA Operator From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, L.T.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.R.; Lu, G.J.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-12

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the L-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 {angstrom} resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11{sup o} upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  20. Modulation of Ultrafast Conformational Dynamics in Allosteric Interaction of Gal Repressor Protein with Different Operator DNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Susobhan; Naiya, Gitashri; Singh, Priya; Lemmens, Peter; Roy, Siddhartha; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Although all forms of dynamical behaviour of a protein under allosteric interaction with effectors are predicted, little evidence of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of a combined approach involving picosecond-resolved FRET and polarisation-gated fluorescence for the exploration of ultrafast dynamics in the allosteric interaction of the Gal repressor (GalR) protein dimer with DNA operator sequences OE and OI . FRET from the single tryptophan residue to a covalently attached probe IAEDANS at a cysteine residue in the C-terminal domain of GalR shows structural perturbation and conformational dynamics during allosteric interaction. Polarisation-gated fluorescence spectroscopy of IAEDANS and another probe (FITC) covalently attached to the operator directly revealed the essential dynamics for cooperativity in the protein-protein interaction. The ultrafast resonance energy transfer from IAEDANS in the protein to FITC also revealed different dynamic flexibility in the allosteric interaction. An attempt was made to correlate the dynamic changes in the protein dimers with OE and OI with the consequent protein-protein interaction (tetramerisation) to form a DNA loop encompassing the promoter segment. PMID:26914958

  1. Regulator of G-Protein Signaling – 5 (RGS5) Is a Novel Repressor of Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, William M.; Gunaje, Jagadambika; Daum, Guenter; Dong, Xiu Rong; Majesky, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays fundamental roles in morphogenesis, tissue repair, and human disease. Initiation of Hh signaling is controlled by the interaction of two multipass membrane proteins, patched (Ptc) and smoothened (Smo). Recent studies identify Smo as a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-like protein that signals through large G-protein complexes which contain the Gαi subunit. We hypothesize Regulator of G-Protein Signaling (RGS) proteins, and specifically RGS5, are endogenous repressors of Hh signaling via their ability to act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for GTP-bound Gαi, downstream of Smo. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that RGS5 over-expression inhibits sonic hedgehog (Shh)-mediated signaling and osteogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells. Conversely, signaling is potentiated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of RGS5 expression, but not RGS4 expression. Furthermore, using immuohistochemical analysis and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), we demonstrate that RGS5 is present with Smo in primary cilia. This organelle is required for canonical Hh signaling in mammalian cells, and RGS5 is found in a physical complex with Smo in these cells. We therefore conclude that RGS5 is an endogenous regulator of Hh-mediated signaling and that RGS proteins are potential targets for novel therapeutics in Hh-mediated diseases. PMID:23637832

  2. Superinduction of metallothionein I by inhibition of protein synthesis: role of a labile repressor in MTF-1 mediated gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yongyi; Lin, Gary X; Millecchia, Lyndell; Ma, Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Induction of metallothioneins (MTs) through the metal-activated transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) provides a model response for analyzing transcriptional gene regulation by heavy metals. Here, we report inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) increases induction of Mt1 by approximately five-fold, a phenomenon designated as "superinduction." Characterization of superinduction revealed it is time- and concentration-dependent of CHX, requires the presence of an MTF-1 activator, and occurs at a transcriptional level, suggesting a labile repressor in the control of Mt1 induction. Genetic analyses using Mtf1 null cells and a metal response element (MRE)-driven reporter construct showed that superinduction of Mt1 is mediated through MTF-1 and MRE-dependent transcription. Analyses of intracellular zinc content by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging demonstrated that treatment with CHX alone or CHX plus an inducer does not increase the total zinc accumulation or the concentration of free zinc in cells under the conditions in which superinduction occurs. Moreover, superinduction was observed in cells cultured in a zinc-depleted medium, suggesting that superinduction does not involve elevation of intracellular zinc concentration. Northern blotting showed that Cd, CHX, or Cd + CHX does not affect the expression of the mRNA of MTF-1. Immunoblotting using antibodies specific for MTF-1 demonstrated that Cd induces a down-regulation of the MTF-1 protein, whereas cotreatment with Cd and CHX blocked the Cd-induced degradation of MTF-1. The findings reveal a new mechanistic aspect of the superinduction of Mt1, in which a labile repressor negatively controls agonist-induced turnover of the MTF-1 protein. PMID:16615093

  3. Mesoscale modeling of multi-protein-DNA assemblies: the role of the catabolic activator protein in Lac-repressor-mediated looping

    PubMed Central

    Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K.

    2009-01-01

    DNA looping plays a key role in the regulation of the lac operon in Escherichia coli. The presence of a tightly bent loop (between sequentially distant sites of Lac repressor protein binding) purportedly hinders the binding of RNA polymerase and subsequent transcription of the genetic message. The unexpectedly favorable binding interaction of this protein-DNA assembly with the catabolic activator protein (CAP), a protein that also bends DNA and paradoxically facilitates the binding of RNA polymerase, stimulated extension of our base-pair level theory of DNA elasticity to the treatment of DNA loops formed in the presence of several proteins. Here we describe in detail a procedure to determine the structures and free energies of multi-protein-DNA assemblies and illustrate the predicted effects of CAP binding on the configurations of the wild-type 92-bp Lac repressor-mediated O3-O1 DNA loop. We show that the DNA loop adopts an antiparallel orientation in the most likely structure and that this loop accounts for the published experimental observation that, when CAP is bound to the loop, one of the arms of LacR binds to an alternative site that is displaced from the original site by 5 bp. PMID:23874000

  4. Hexokinase 2 Is an Intracellular Glucose Sensor of Yeast Cells That Maintains the Structure and Activity of Mig1 Protein Repressor Complex.

    PubMed

    Vega, Montserrat; Riera, Alberto; Fernández-Cid, Alejandra; Herrero, Pilar; Moreno, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Hexokinase 2 (Hxk2) fromSaccharomyces cerevisiaeis a bi-functional enzyme, being both a catalyst in the cytosol and an important regulator of the glucose repression signal in the nucleus. Despite considerable recent progress, little is known about the regulatory mechanism that controls nuclear Hxk2 association with theSUC2promoter chromatin and how this association is necessary forSUC2gene repression. Our data indicate that in theSUC2promoter context, Hxk2 functions through a variety of structurally unrelated factors, mainly the DNA-binding Mig1 and Mig2 repressors and the regulatory Snf1 and Reg1 factors. Hxk2 sustains the repressor complex architecture maintaining transcriptional repression at theSUC2gene. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we discovered that the Hxk2 in its open configuration, at low glucose conditions, leaves the repressor complex that induces its dissociation and promotesSUC2gene expression. In high glucose conditions, Hxk2 adopts a close conformation that promotes Hxk2 binding to the Mig1 protein and the reassembly of theSUC2repressor complex. Additional findings highlight the possibility that Hxk2 constitutes an intracellular glucose sensor that operates by changing its conformation in response to cytoplasmic glucose levels that regulate its interaction with Mig1 and thus its recruitment to the repressor complex of theSUC2promoter. Thus, our data indicate that Hxk2 is more intimately involved in gene regulation than previously thought. PMID:26865637

  5. Enhanced bacterial protein expression during auto-induction obtained by alteration of lac repressor dosage and medium composition.

    PubMed

    Blommel, Paul G; Becker, Katie J; Duvnjak, Petar; Fox, Brian G

    2007-01-01

    The auto-induction method of protein expression in E. coli is based on diauxic growth resulting from dynamic function of lac operon regulatory elements (lacO and LacI) in mixtures of glucose, glycerol, and lactose. The results show that successful execution of auto-induction is strongly dependent on the plasmid promoter and repressor construction, on the oxygenation state of the culture, and on the composition of the auto-induction medium. Thus expression hosts expressing high levels of LacI during aerobic growth exhibit reduced ability to effectively complete the auto-induction process. Manipulation of the promoter to decrease the expression of LacI altered the preference for lactose consumption in a manner that led to increased protein expression and partially relieved the sensitivity of the auto-induction process to the oxygenation state of the culture. Factorial design methods were used to optimize the chemically defined growth medium used for expression of two model proteins, Photinus luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein, including variations for production of both unlabeled and selenomethionine-labeled samples. The optimization included studies of the expression from T7 and T7-lacI promoter plasmids and from T5 phage promoter plasmids expressing two levels of LacI. Upon the basis of the analysis of over 500 independent expression results, combinations of optimized expression media and expression plasmids that gave protein yields of greater than 1000 mug/mL of expression culture were identified. PMID:17506520

  6. Dissociation of SERPINE1 mRNA from the translational repressor proteins Ago2 and TIA-1 upon platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Corduan, Aurélie; Plé, Hélène; Laffont, Benoit; Wallon, Thérèse; Plante, Isabelle; Landry, Patricia; Provost, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Platelets play an important role in haemostasis, as well as in thrombosis and coagulation processes. They harbour a wide variety of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), that can template de novo protein synthesis, and an abundant array of microRNAs, which are known to mediate mRNA translational repression through proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family. The relationship between platelet microRNAs and proteins capable of mediating translational repression, however, remains unclear. Here, we report that half of platelet microRNAs is associated to mRNA-regulatory Ago2 protein complexes, in various proportions. Associated to these Ago2 complexes are platelet mRNAs known to support de novo protein synthesis. Reporter gene activity assays confirmed the capacity of the platelet microRNAs, found to be associated to Ago2 complexes, to regulate translation of these platelet mRNAs through their 3'UTR. Neither the microRNA repertoire nor the microRNA composition of Ago2 complexes of human platelets changed upon activation with thrombin. However, under conditions favoring de novo synthesis of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein, we documented a rapid dissociation of the encoding platelet SERPINE1 mRNA from Ago2 protein complexes as well as from the translational repressor protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). These findings are consistent with a scenario by which lifting of the repressive effects of Ago2 and TIA-1 protein complexes, involving a rearrangement of proteinmRNA complexes rather than disassembly of Ago2microRNA complexes, would allow translation of SERPINE1 mRNA into PAI-1 in response to platelet activation. PMID:25673011

  7. The experimental folding landscape of monomeric lactose repressor, a large two-domain protein, involves two kinetic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Corey J; Das, Payel; Clementi, Cecilia; Matthews, Kathleen S; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2005-10-11

    To probe the experimental folding behavior of a large protein with complex topology, we created a monomeric variant of the lactose repressor protein (MLAc), a well characterized tetrameric protein that regulates transcription of the lac operon. Purified MLAc is folded, fully functional, and binds the inducer isopropyl beta-d-thiogalactoside with the same affinity as wild-type LacI. Equilibrium unfolding of MLAc induced by the chemical denaturant urea is a reversible, apparent two-state process (pH 7.5, 20 degrees C). However, time-resolved experiments demonstrate that unfolding is single-exponential, whereas refolding data indicate two transient intermediates. The data reveal the initial formation of a burst-phase (tau < ms) intermediate that corresponds to approximately 50% of the total secondary-structure content. This step is followed by a rearrangement reaction that is rate-limited by an unfolding process (tau approximately 3 s; pH 7.5, 20 degrees C) and results in a second intermediate. This MLAc intermediate converts to the native structure (tau approximately 30 s; pH 7.5, 20 degrees C). Remarkably, the experimental folding-energy landscape for MLAc is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions using a simple topology-based C(alpha)-model as presented in a companion article in this issue. PMID:16203983

  8. The Nuclear Matrix Protein, NRP/B, Acts as a Transcriptional Repressor of E2F-mediated Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jina; Yang, Eun Sung; Cha, Kiweon; Whang, John; Choi, Woo-Jung; Avraham, Shalom; Kim, Tae-Aug

    2014-01-01

    Background: NRP/B, a family member of the BTB/Kelch repeat proteins, is implicated in neuronal and cancer development, as well as the regulation of oxidative stress responses in breast and brain cancer. Our previous studies indicate that the NRP/B-BTB/POZ domain is involved in the dimerization of NRP/B and in a complex formation with the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein. Although much evidence supports the potential role of NRP/B as a tumor suppressor, the molecular mechanisms of NRP/B action on E2F transcription factors have not been elucidated. Methods: Three-dimensional modeling of NRP/B was used to generate point mutations in the BTB/Kelch domains. Tet-on inducible NRP/B expression was established. The NRP/B deficient breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was generated using lentiviral shNRP/B to evaluate the effect of NRP/B on cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Immunoprecipitation was performed to verify the interaction of NRP/B with E2F and histone deacetylase (HDAC-1), and the expression level of NRP/B protein was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Changes in cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Transcriptional activities of E2F transcription factors were measured by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity. Results: Ectopic overexpression of NRP/B demonstrated that the NRP/B-BTB/POZ domain plays a critical role in E2F-mediated transcriptional activity. Point mutations within the BTB/POZ domain restored E2-promoter activity inhibited by NRP/B. Loss of NRP/B enhanced the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Endogenous NRP/B interacted with E2F and HDAC1. Treatement with an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), abolished the NRP/B-mediated suppression of E2-promoter activity. Gain or loss of NRP/B in HeLa cells confirmed the transcriptional repressive capability of NRP/B on the E2F target genes, Cyclin E and HsORC (Homo sapiens Origin Recognition Complex). Conclusions: The present study shows that NRP/B acts as a

  9. Specific interactions between lactose repressor protein and DNA affected by ligand binding: ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Masato; Nishikawa, Shin; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2011-06-01

    Transcription mechanisms of gene information from DNA to mRNA are essentially controlled by regulatory proteins such as a lactose repressor (LacR) protein and ligand molecules. Biochemical experiments elucidated that a ligand binding to LacR drastically changes the mechanism controlled by LacR, although the effect of ligand binding has not been clarified at atomic and electronic levels. We here investigated the effect of ligand binding on the specific interactions between LacR and operator DNA by the molecular simulations combined with classical molecular mechanics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results indicate that the binding of anti-inducer ligand strengthens the interaction between LacR and DNA, which is consistent with the fact that the binding of anti-inducer enhances the repression of gene transcription by LacR. It was also elucidated that hydrating water molecules existing between LacR and DNA contribute to the specific interactions between LacR and DNA. PMID:21328406

  10. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of >95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. PMID:25173815

  11. Expression, Purification And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of the C-Terminal Domain of An Arginine Repressor Protein From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, G.J.; Garen, C.R.; Cherney, M.M.; Cherney, L.T.; Lee, C.; James, M.N.J.

    2009-06-03

    The gene product of an open reading frame Rv1657 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a putative arginine repressor protein (ArgR), a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of arginine-biosynthetic enzymes. Rv1657 was expressed and purified and a C-terminal domain was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.15 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group P1 and the Matthews coefficient suggests that the crystals contain six C-terminal domain molecules per unit cell. Previous structural and biochemical studies on the arginine repressor proteins from other organisms have likewise shown the presence of six molecules per unit cell.

  12. A repressor activator protein1 homologue from an oleaginous strain of Candida tropicalis increases storage lipid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Atrayee; Dey, Prabuddha; Barik, Amita; Bahadur, Ranjit P; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-06-01

    The repressor activator protein1 (Rap1) has been studied over the years as a multifunctional regulator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, its role in storage lipid accumulation has not been investigated. This report documents the identification and isolation of a putative transcription factor CtRap1 gene from an oleaginous strain of Candida tropicalis, and establishes the direct effect of its expression on the storage lipid accumulation in S. cerevisiae, usually a non-oleaginous yeast. In silico analysis revealed that the CtRap1 polypeptide binds relatively more strongly to the promoter of fatty acid synthase1 (FAS1) gene of S. cerevisiae than ScRap1. The expression level of CtRap1 transcript in vivo was found to correlate directly with the amount of lipid produced in oleaginous native host C. tropicalis. Heterologous expression of the CtRap1 gene resulted in ∼ 4-fold enhancement of storage lipid content (57.3%) in S. cerevisiae. We also showed that the functionally active CtRap1 upregulates the endogenous ScFAS1 and ScDGAT genes of S. cerevisiae, and this, in turn, might be responsible for the increased lipid production in the transformed yeast. Our findings pave the way for the possible utility of the CtRap1 gene in suitable microorganisms to increase their storage lipid content through transcription factor engineering. PMID:25805842

  13. Identification of Glis1, a novel Gli-related, Kruppel-like zinc finger protein containing transactivation and repressor functions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Lewandoski, Mark; Perantoni, Alan O; Kurebayashi, Shogo; Nakanishi, Gen; Jetten, Anton M

    2002-08-23

    In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel Krüppel-like protein named Gli-similar 1 (Glis1). The Glis1 gene encodes an 84.3-kDa proline-rich protein. Its five tandem zinc finger motifs exhibit highest homology with those of members of the Gli and Zic subfamilies of Krüppel-like proteins. Glis1 was mapped to mouse chromosome 4C6. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of the 3.3-kb Glis1 mRNA is most abundant in placenta and adult kidney and expressed at lower levels in testis. Whole mount in situ hybridization on mouse embryos demonstrated that Glis1 is expressed in a temporal and spatial manner during development; expression was most prominent in several defined structures of mesodermal lineage, including craniofacial regions, branchial arches, somites, vibrissal and hair follicles, limb buds, and myotomes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that Glis1 is localized to the nucleus. The zinc finger region plays an important role in the nuclear localization of Glis1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that Glis1 is able to bind oligonucleotides containing the Gli-binding site consensus sequence GACCACCCAC. Although monohybrid analysis showed that in several cell types Glis1 was unable to induce transcription of a reporter, deletion mutant analysis revealed the presence of a strong activation function at the carboxyl terminus of Glis1. The activation through this activation function was totally suppressed by a repressor domain at its amino terminus. Constitutively active Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin kinase IV enhanced Glis1-mediated transcriptional activation about 4-fold and may be mediated by phosphorylation/activation of a co-activator. Our results suggest that Glis1 may play a critical role in the control of gene expression during specific stages of embryonic development. PMID:12042312

  14. The protein Compromised Hydrolysis of Triacylglycerols 7 (CHT7) acts as a repressor of cellular quiescence in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Hong; Warakanont, Jaruswan; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Sears, Barb B; Moellering, Eric R; Benning, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae are prolific photosynthetic organisms that have the potential to sustainably produce high-value chemical feedstocks. However, an industry based on microalgal biomass still is faced with challenges. For example, microalgae tend to accumulate valuable compounds, such as triacylglycerols, only under stress conditions that limit growth. To investigate the fundamental mechanisms at the base of this conundrum--the inverse relationship between biomass production and storage compound accumulation-we applied a combination of cell biological and genetic approaches. Conceptually, nutrient deprivation, which commonly is used to induce the accumulation of triacylglycerol in microalgae, leads to a state of cellular quiescence defined by a halt of cell divisions that is reversible upon nutrient resupply. To identify factors that govern cellular quiescence, we screened for mutants of the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that, in contrast to wild-type cells placed under conditions of nitrogen deprivation, were unable to degrade triacylglycerols following nitrogen resupply. One of the mutants described here in detail, compromised hydrolysis of triacylglycerols 7 (cht7), was severely impaired in regrowth following removal of different conditions inducing cellular quiescence. The mutant carries a deletion affecting four genes, only one of which rescued the quiescence phenotype when reintroduced. It encodes a protein with similarity to mammalian and plant DNA binding proteins. Comparison of transcriptomes indicated a partial derepression of quiescence-related transcriptional programs in the mutant under conditions favorable to growth. Thus, CHT7 likely is a repressor of cellular quiescence and provides a possible target for the engineering of high-biomass/high-triacylglycerol microalgae. PMID:25313078

  15. Retroregulation of the synthesis of ribosomal proteins L14 and L24 by feedback repressor S8 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Mattheakis, L; Vu, L; Sor, F; Nomura, M

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies on regulation of the spc operon containing genes for ribosomal proteins have shown that S8, encoded by the fifth gene of the operon in Escherichia coli, is a translational repressor and regulates the synthesis of the third gene product (L5) and distal gene products by acting at a site near the L5 mRNA translation initiation site. We have now shown that S8 also regulates the synthesis of the first and second gene products (L14 and L24) of the operon by acting at the same mRNA target site--that is, the site located distal to sites coding for L14 and L24--and that mRNA degradation is involved in this retroregulation. It was shown that single base substitutions in the target site, which abolish repression of the synthesis of L5 and L5-distal gene products by S8, also cause derepression of L14-L24 synthesis. Inhibition of L14-L24 synthesis by S8 was also shown by overproducing S8 in trans from a plasmid carrying the S8 gene under lac promoter/operator control. A strain carrying temperature-sensitive mutations in genes for polynucleotide phosphorylase and RNase II was found upon shift to nonpermissive temperature to show higher differential synthesis rates of L14-L24 (and L5) relative to those of several L5-distal spc operon gene products. We suggest that repression of distal ribosomal protein synthesis by S8 triggers nucleolytic cleavage of spc operon mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation by these 3'- to 5'- exonucleases, which is then responsible for inhibition of L14-L24 synthesis. Images PMID:2643112

  16. A tale of two repressors.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mitchell

    2011-05-27

    Few proteins have had such a strong impact on a field, as the lac repressor and λ repressor have had in Molecular Biology in bacteria. The genes required for lactose utilization are negatively regulated; the lac repressor binds to an upstream operator blocking the transcription of the enzymes necessary for lactose utilization. A similar switch regulates the virus life cycle; λ repressor binds to an operator site and blocks transcription of the phage genes necessary for lytic development. It is now 50 years since Jacob and Monod first proposed a model for gene regulation, which survives essentially unchanged in contemporary textbooks. Jacob, F. & Monod, J. (1961). Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3, 318-356. This model provides a cogent depiction of how a set of genes can be coordinately transcribed in response to environmental conditions and regulates metabolic events in the cell. A historical perspective that illustrates the role these two repressor molecules played and their contribution to our understanding of gene regulation is presented. PMID:21392509

  17. Regulation of endothelial-specific transgene expression by the LacI repressor protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan K; Chaston, Daniel J; Baillie, Brett K; Hill, Caryl E; Matthaei, Klaus I

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2) with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacI(R), and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacI(R) protein. PMID:24755679

  18. Biophysical basis of the promiscuous binding of B-cell lymphoma protein 2 apoptotic repressor to BH3 ligands.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vikas; Olenick, Max B; Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-10-01

    B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl2) apoptotic repressor carries out its function by virtue of its ability to bind to BH3 domains of various pro-apoptotic regulators in a highly promiscuous manner. Herein, we investigate the biophysical basis of such promiscuity of Bcl2 toward its cognate BH3 ligands. Our data show that although the BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif bind to Bcl2 with submicromolar affinity, those with the LXXX[G/S]D motif afford weak interactions. This implies that the replacement of alanine at the fourth position (A + 4)-relative to the N-terminal leucine (L0) within the LXXXAD motif-to glycine/serine results in the loss of free energy of binding. Consistent with this notion, the A + 4 residue within the BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif engages in key intermolecular van der Waals contacts with A149 lining the ligand binding groove within Bcl2, whereas A + 4G/S substitution results in the disruption of such favorable binding interactions. Of particular interest is the observation that although increasing ionic strength has little or negligible effect on the binding of high-affinity BH3 ligands harboring the LXXXAD motif, the binding of those with the LXXX[G/S]D motif in general experiences a varying degree of enhancement. This salient observation is indicative of the fact that hydrophobic forces not only play a dominant but also a universal role in driving the Bcl2-BH3 interactions. Taken together, our study sheds light on the molecular basis of the factors governing the promiscuous binding of Bcl2 to pro-apoptotic regulators and thus bears important consequences on the development of rational therapeutic approaches. PMID:23996493

  19. Arabidopsis Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger proteins function as transcription repressors under drought, cold, and high-salinity stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hideki; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Sakuma, Yoh; Meshi, Tetsuo; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2004-09-01

    ZPT2-related proteins that have two canonical Cys-2/His-2-type zinc-finger motifs in their molecules are members of a family of plant transcription factors. To characterize the role of this type of protein, we analyzed the function of Arabidopsis L. Heynh. genes encoding four different ZPT2-related proteins (AZF1, AZF2, AZF3, and STZ). Gel-shift analysis showed that the AZFs and STZ bind to A(G/C)T repeats within an EP2 sequence, known as a target sequence of some petunia (Petunia hybrida) ZPT2 proteins. Transient expression analysis using synthetic green fluorescent protein fusion genes indicated that the AZFs and STZ are preferentially localized to the nucleus. These four ZPT2-related proteins were shown to act as transcriptional repressors that down-regulate the transactivation activity of other transcription factors. RNA gel-blot analysis showed that expression of AZF2 and STZ was strongly induced by dehydration, high-salt and cold stresses, and abscisic acid treatment. Histochemical analysis of beta-glucuronidase activities driven by the AZF2 or STZ promoters revealed that both genes are induced in leaves rather than roots of rosette plants by the stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing STZ showed growth retardation and tolerance to drought stress. These results suggest that AZF2 and STZ function as transcriptional repressors to increase stress tolerance following growth retardation. PMID:15333755

  20. Synthesis of Glycopolymer Containing Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Inducers of Recombinant Protein Expression under the Control of Lactose Operator/Repressor Systems.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Kei; Takasu, Akinori; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    We recently reported on newly synthesized S-galactosyl oligo(Arg) conjugates to overcome the serious problem of the passage through the E. coli cell membrane. Following in vivo expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced by each of the S-galactosyl (Arg)n constructs (n = 5, 6, 8) at the T5 promoter in E. coli for 18 h, we visually observed that the cultures fluoresced green light when excited with UV light. The fluorescence intensities for these cultures were greater than that found for a control culture, indicating that the peptides had induced GFP expression. In order to accomplish higher expression efficiency, we investigated the cluster effect and structural fine-tuning of new poly(2-oxazoline) containing CysArgArg as the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and S-galactosides when acting as inducers of recombinant protein expression under the control of lac operator/repressor systems in this article. Quantitative fluorescence intensities (calculated per molecule) also supported the observations that the cell-penetrating glyco poly(2-oxazoline)s were better inducers of GFP expression than glyco poly(2-oxazoline) containing no CPP or isopropyl β-d-thiogalactoside. Because the level of GFP expression was directly related to the number of sugar residues in each glyco poly(2-oxazoline), we propose that a cluster effect of the S-galactosides attached to the cell-penetrating poly(2-oxazoline) is responsible for how well the galactosides inhibited the lac repressor to activate the protein expression under the control of the lac operator/repressor system. A similar tendency was observed when the T7 promoter was placed upstream of the gene for an artificial extracellular matrix protein and glyco poly(2-oxazoline)s-CPP conjugates were used as inducers. To assess how the glyco poly(2-oxazoline) penetrate the cell membrane, we labeled the glyco poly(2-oxazoline) using 1-amino pyrene and directly observed the penetration process. Furthermore, we could visualize protein

  1. Isotope-detected 1H NMR studies of proteins: a general strategy for editing interproton nuclear Overhauser effects by heteronuclear decoupling, with application to phage lambda repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, M A; Redfield, A G; Griffey, R H

    1986-01-01

    A strategy for editing interproton nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) in proteins is proposed and illustrated. Selective incorporation of 13C- (or 15N)-labeled amino acids into a protein permits NOEs involving the labeled residues to be identified by heteronuclear difference decoupling. Such heteronuclear editing simplifies the NOE difference spectrum and avoids ambiguities due to spin diffusion. Isotope-detected 1H NMR thus opens to study proteins too large for conventional one- and two-dimensional NMR methods (20-75 kDa). We have applied this strategy to the N-terminal domain of phage lambda repressor, a protein of dimer molecular mass 23 kDa. A tertiary NOE from an internal aromatic ring (Phe-51) to a beta-13C-labeled alanine residue (Ala-62) is demonstrated. PMID:3006046

  2. Radiation abolishes inducer binding to lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Nathalie; Spotheim-Maurizot, Mélanie; Charlier, Michel

    2005-04-01

    The lactose operon functions under the control of the repressor-operator system. Binding of the repressor to the operator prevents the expression of the structural genes. This interaction can be destroyed by the binding of an inducer to the repressor. If ionizing radiations damage the partners, a dramatic dysfunction of the regulation system may be expected. We showed previously that gamma irradiation hinders repressor-operator binding through protein damage. Here we show that irradiation of the repressor abolishes the binding of the gratuitous inducer isopropyl-1-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) to the repressor. The observed lack of release of the repressor from the complex results from the loss of the ability of the inducer to bind to the repressor due to the destruction of the IPTG binding site. Fluorescence measurements show that both tryptophan residues located in or near the IPTG binding site are damaged. Since tryptophan damage is strongly correlated with the loss of IPTG binding ability, we conclude that it plays a critical role in the effect. A model was built that takes into account the kinetic analysis of damage production and the observed protection of its binding site by IPTG. This model satisfactorily accounts for the experimental results and allows us to understand the radiation-induced effects. PMID:15799700

  3. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Zhi-Le; Li, Juo-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Gao, Fei Philip; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-07-01

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function.

  4. Hipk is an essential protein that promotes Notch signal transduction in the Drosophila eye by inhibition of the global co-repressor Groucho.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wendy; Andrews, Bryan C; Faust, Michael; Walldorf, Uwe; Verheyen, Esther M

    2009-01-01

    Homeodomain interacting protein kinase (Hipk) is a member of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases. Extensive biochemical studies of vertebrate homologs, particularly Hipk2, have identified a growing list of interactors, including proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling and essential signaling pathways such as Wnt and TGFbeta. To gain insight into the in vivo functions of the single Drosophila Hipk we characterized loss of function alleles, which revealed an essential requirement for hipk. We find that in the developing eye, hipk promotes the Notch pathway. Notch signaling acts at multiple points in eye development to promote growth, proliferation and patterning. Hipk stimulates the early function of Notch in promotion of global growth of the eye disc. It has been shown in the Drosophila eye that Hipk interferes with the repressive activity of the global co-repressor, Groucho (Gro). Here, we propose that Hipk antagonizes Gro to promote the transmission of the Notch signal, indicating that Hipk plays numerous roles in regulating gene expression through interference with the formation of Gro-containing co-repressor complexes. PMID:19013449

  5. The cytocompatability of polyhydroxyalkanoates coated with a fusion protein of PHA repressor protein (PhaR) and Lys-Gln-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val (KQAGDV) polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cui-Ling; Li, Shi-Yan; Wang, Yang; Dong, Ying; Tang, James Zhenggui; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-03-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of polyesters with biodegradability, biocompatibility and adjustable mechanical properties that are under intensive development for bioimplant applications. In this research, a fusion protein of PHA repressor protein (PhaR) and Lys-Gln-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val (KQAGDV) oligopeptide (PhaR-KQAGDV) was utilized to enhance the PHA cytocompatability via a mechanism of PhaR hydrophobically binding to PHA coupled with KQAGDV oligopeptide, a specific ligand to the integrins on the cell surface, for promotion of cell adhesion. The PhaR-KQAGDV fusion protein successfully produced and purified from recombinant E. coli was used to coat the surfaces of several PHA including poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB4HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), respectively. The PhaR was observed to bind efficiently on all PHA surfaces measured by the fluorescence intensity of PhaR-EGFP as compared to the uncoated (PhaR negative) PHA films. The PHA surface hydrophilicity measured by water contact angles was significantly improved after PhaR-KQAGDV coating. Observations under confocal microscope and scanning electron microscopy, together with CCK-8 assays clearly demonstrated that adhesion and proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HvSMCs) inoculated on PHA films were much better on PhaR-KQAGDV coated surfaces than the non-coated control ones. The convenient physical coating approach for enhanced PHA cytocompatibility provides an advantage for PHA based tissue engineering. PMID:22206593

  6. The LIM domain protein nTRIP6 acts as a co-repressor for the transcription factor MEF2C in myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kemler, Denise; Dahley, Oliver; Roßwag, Sven; Litfin, Margarethe; Kassel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays a key role in the late differentiation of skeletal muscle progenitor cells, the so-called myoblasts. During myoblast differentiation, both MEF2C expression and transcriptional activity are regulated. We have reported that nTRIP6, the nuclear isoform of the focal adhesion LIM domain protein TRIP6, acts as an adaptor transcriptional co-activator for several transcription factors. It interacts with the promoter-bound transcription factors and consequently mediates the recruitment of other co-activators. Based on a described interaction between MEF2C and TRIP6 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen, we hypothesised a co-regulatory function of nTRIP6 for MEF2C. In proliferating myoblasts, nTRIP6 interacted with MEF2C and was recruited together with MEF2C to the MEF2-binding regions of the MEF2C target genes Myom2, Mb, Tnni2 and Des. Silencing nTRIP6 or preventing its interaction with MEF2C increased MEF2C transcriptional activity and increased the expression of these MEF2C target genes. Thus, nTRIP6 acts as a co-repressor for MEF2C. Mechanistically, nTRIP6 mediated the recruitment of the class IIa histone deacetylase HDAC5 to the MEF2C-bound promoters. In conclusion, our results unravel a transcriptional co-repressor function for nTRIP6. This adaptor co-regulator can thus exert either co-activator or co-repressor functions, depending on the transcription factor it interacts with. PMID:27292777

  7. Dissection of the DNA binding domain of yeast Zn-finger protein Rme1p, a repressor of meiotic activator IME1.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Hara, M; Murase, A; Shindo, H; Mitchell, A P

    1997-01-01

    A series of deletion mutants of the yeast Zn-finger protein Rme1p (Repressor of Meiosis) fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) were constructed, purified, and characterized to examine the DNA binding domain. It was shown by gel retardation assay that the DNA binding domain of Rme1p was attributed to C-terminal amino acid residues 171 to 300. All three Zn-fingers are involved in the DNA binding domain, but they are not sufficient for DNA binding ability. Notably, the C-terminal region (residues 285-300) is essential for DNA binding. Provided that the region folds into alpha-helix, the basic amino acid residues may form a ridge on one side of the helix, whereas the hydrophobic residues may form it on the other side. Thus, the DNA binding domain of Rme1p would be dissected two regions. The roles of C-terminal region in DNA recognition will be discussed. PMID:9586056

  8. Monitoring and kinetic analysis of the molecular interactions by which a repressor protein, PhaR, binds to target DNAs and poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The repressor protein PhaR, which is a component of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] granules, functions as a repressor of the gene expression of the phasin PhaP and of PhaR itself. We used a quartz crystal microbalance to investigate the binding behavior by which PhaR in Ralstonia eutropha H16 targets DNAs and amorphous poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] thin films. Binding rate constants, dissociation rate constants, and dissociation constants of the binding of PhaR to DNA and to amorphous poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] suggested that PhaR bind to both in a similar manner. On the basis of the binding rate constant values, we proposed that the phaP gene would be derepressed in harmony with the ratio of the concentration of the target DNA to the concentration of amorphous poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] at the start of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] synthesis in R. eutropha H16. PMID:23351303

  9. Evidence for involvement of the C-terminal domain in the dimerization of the CopY repressor protein from Enterococcus hirae

    SciTech Connect

    Pazehoski, Kristina O.; Cobine, Paul A.; Winzor, Donald J.; Dameron, Charles T.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} A metal-binding protein domain is directly involved in protein dimerization. {yields} Fusing the metal-binding domain to a monomeric protein induces dimerization. {yields} Frontal size-exclusion chromatography measures the strength of dimer interaction. {yields} Ultracentrifugation studies confirm the influence of metal binding on dimerization. -- Abstract: Metal binding to the C-terminal region of the copper-responsive repressor protein CopY is responsible for homodimerization and the regulation of the copper homeostasis pathway in Enterococcus hirae. Specific involvement of the 38 C-terminal residues of CopY in dimerization is indicated by zonal and frontal (large zone) size-exclusion chromatography studies. The studies demonstrate that the attachment of these CopY residues to the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) promotes dimerization of the monomeric protein. Although sensitivity of dimerization to removal of metal from the fusion protein is smaller than that found for CopY (as measured by ultracentrifugation studies), the demonstration that an unrelated protein (GB1) can be induced to dimerize by extending its sequence with the C-terminal portion of CopY confirms the involvement of this region in CopY homodimerization.

  10. An E1M--E2C fusion protein encoded by human papillomavirus type 11 is asequence-specific transcription repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, C M; Broker, T R; Chow, L T

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a putative, spliced E5 cDNA of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) by polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNAs from an experimental condyloma. Using retrovirus-mediated gene transfer, we isolated two novel HPV-11 cDNAs, one of which had a splice linking nucleotides 1272 and 3377. This transcript also existed in experimental condylomata and in cervical carcinoma cells transfected with cloned genomic HPV-11 DNAs. The 5' end of the transcript in transfected cells originated upstream of the initiation codon of the E1 open reading frame (ORF). It could conceptually encode a fusion protein consisting of the amino-terminal 23% of the E1 ORF and the carboxy-terminal 40% of the E2 ORF. This E1M--E2C fusion protein contained both the DNA replication modulator domain E1M, as defined in the bovine papillomavirus system, and the DNA binding domain of the E2 protein, which regulates viral transcriptional activities. Indirect immunofluorescence with polyclonal antibodies raised against the bacterially expressed TrpE-HPV-11 E2 protein demonstrated nuclear localization of the E1M--E2C protein in cells transiently transfected with an expression plasmid. Immunoprecipitation revealed a specific protein with an apparent molecular weight of 42,000 in transfected cells. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay established that the putative E1M--E2C protein was a potent transcriptional repressor of both E2-dependent and E2-independent HPV-11 enhancer/promoter activities. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization indicated the repression was on the transcriptional level. Mutational analysis suggested that the E1M--E2C protein is an E2-binding site-specific repressor. The fusion protein also repressed bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 protein-dependent BPV-1 enhancer activity. When constitutively expressed in mouse C127 cells, the E1M--E2C protein inhibited BPV-1 transformation and episomal DNA replication, consistent with a role in the modulation of replication

  11. Identification and transcriptional analysis of a Treponema pallidum operon encoding a putative ABC transport system, an iron-activated repressor protein homolog, and a glycolytic pathway enzyme homolog.

    PubMed

    Hardham, J M; Stamm, L V; Porcella, S F; Frye, J G; Barnes, N Y; Howell, J K; Mueller, S L; Radolf, J D; Weinstock, G M; Norris, S J

    1997-09-15

    We have characterized a 5.2-kilobase (kb) putative transport related operon (tro) locus of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain) (Tp) encoding six proteins: TroA, TroB, TroC, TroD, TroR and Phosphoglycerate mutase (Pgm). Four of these gene products (TroA-TroD) are homologous to members of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of bacterial transport proteins. TroA (previously identified as Tromp1) has significant sequence similarity to a family of Gram-negative periplasmic substrate-binding proteins and to a family of streptococcal proteins that may have dual roles as substrate binding proteins and adhesins. TroB is homologous to the ATP-binding protein component, whereas TroC and TroD are related to the hydrophobic membrane protein components of ABC transport systems. TroR is similar to Gram-positive iron-activated repressor proteins (DesR, DtxR, IdeR, and SirR). The last open reading frame (ORF) of the tro operon encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the glycolytic pathway enzyme, Pgm. Primer extension results demonstrated that the tro operon is transcribed from a sigma 70-type promoter element. Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions provided evidence for the presence of a primary 1-kb troA transcript and a secondary, less abundant, troA-pgm transcript. The tro operon is flanked by a Holliday structure DNA helicase homolog (upstream) and two ORFs representing a purine nucleoside phosphorylase homolog and tpp15, a previously characterized gene encoding a membrane lipoprotein (downstream). The presence of a complex operon containing a putative ABC transport system and a DtxR homolog indicates a possible linkage between transport and gene regulation in Tp. PMID:9332349

  12. The NDR Kinase Cbk1 Downregulates the Transcriptional Repressor Nrg1 through the mRNA-Binding Protein Ssd1 in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Kang, Woo Kyu; Yang, Heebum

    2015-01-01

    NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) kinases are essential components for polarized morphogenesis, cytokinesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The NDR kinase Cbk1 is required for the hyphal growth of Candida albicans; however, the molecular functions of Cbk1 in hyphal morphogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we report that Cbk1 downregulates the transcriptional repressor Nrg1 through the mRNA-binding protein Ssd1, which has nine Cbk1 phosphorylation consensus motifs. We found that deletion of SSD1 partially suppressed the defective hyphal growth of the C. albicans cbk1Δ/Δ mutant and that Ssd1 physically interacts with Cbk1. Cbk1 was required for Ssd1 localization to polarized growth sites. The phosphomimetic SSD1 allele (ssd1-9E) allowed the cbk1Δ/Δ mutant to form short hyphae, and the phosphodeficient SSD1 allele (ssd1-9A) resulted in shorter hyphae than did the wild-type SSD1 allele, indicating that Ssd1 phosphorylation by Cbk1 is important for hyphal morphogenesis. Furthermore, we show that the transcriptional repressor Nrg1 does not disappear during hyphal initiation in the cbk1Δ/Δ mutant but is completely absent in the cbk1Δ/Δ ssd1Δ/Δ double mutant. Deletion of SSD1 also increased Als3 expression and internalization of the cbk1Δ/Δ mutant in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T. Collectively, our results suggest that one of the functions of Cbk1 in the hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans is to downregulate Nrg1 through Ssd1. PMID:26002720

  13. Mechanism of Iron-Dependent Repressor (IdeR) Activation and DNA Binding: A Molecular Dynamics and Protein Structure Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soma; Chandra, Nagasuma; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2015-01-01

    Metalloproteins form a major class of enzymes in the living system that are involved in crucial biological functions such as catalysis, redox reactions and as ‘switches’ in signal transductions. Iron dependent repressor (IdeR) is a metal-sensing transcription factor that regulates free iron concentration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. IdeR is also known to promote bacterial virulence, making it an important target in the field of therapeutics. Mechanistic details of how iron ions modulate IdeR such that it dimerizes and binds to DNA is not understood clearly. In this study, we have performed molecular dynamic simulations and integrated it with protein structure networks to study the influence of iron on IdeR structure and function. A significant structural variation between the metallated and the non-metallated system is observed. Our simulations clearly indicate the importance of iron in stabilizing its monomeric subunit, which in turn promotes dimerization. However, the most striking results are obtained from the simulations of IdeR-DNA complex in the absence of metals, where at the end of 100ns simulations, the protein subunits are seen to rapidly dissociate away from the DNA, thereby forming an excellent resource to investigate the mechanism of DNA binding. We have also investigated the role of iron as an allosteric regulator of IdeR that positively induces IdeR-DNA complex formation. Based on this study, a mechanistic model of IdeR activation and DNA binding has been proposed. PMID:26699663

  14. Mechanism of Iron-Dependent Repressor (IdeR) Activation and DNA Binding: A Molecular Dynamics and Protein Structure Network Study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soma; Chandra, Nagasuma; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2015-12-01

    Metalloproteins form a major class of enzymes in the living system that are involved in crucial biological functions such as catalysis, redox reactions and as 'switches' in signal transductions. Iron dependent repressor (IdeR) is a metal-sensing transcription factor that regulates free iron concentration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. IdeR is also known to promote bacterial virulence, making it an important target in the field of therapeutics. Mechanistic details of how iron ions modulate IdeR such that it dimerizes and binds to DNA is not understood clearly. In this study, we have performed molecular dynamic simulations and integrated it with protein structure networks to study the influence of iron on IdeR structure and function. A significant structural variation between the metallated and the non-metallated system is observed. Our simulations clearly indicate the importance of iron in stabilizing its monomeric subunit, which in turn promotes dimerization. However, the most striking results are obtained from the simulations of IdeR-DNA complex in the absence of metals, where at the end of 100ns simulations, the protein subunits are seen to rapidly dissociate away from the DNA, thereby forming an excellent resource to investigate the mechanism of DNA binding. We have also investigated the role of iron as an allosteric regulator of IdeR that positively induces IdeR-DNA complex formation. Based on this study, a mechanistic model of IdeR activation and DNA binding has been proposed. PMID:26699663

  15. Knockout of REST/NRSF shows that the protein is a potent repressor of neuronally expressed genes in non-neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Jones, F S; Meech, R

    1999-05-01

    The protein repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a negative regulator of neuronal genes that contain a particular DNA sequence, the neuron restrictive silencer element (NRSE). REST is expressed ubiquitously in non-neural tissues but is down-regulated in neural precursors and turned off in postmitotic neurons, suggesting that it can act both to prevent extraneural expression of certain genes and to delay the differentiation of neuronal subtypes. In a recent paper, Chen et al.(1) describe the production of a null mutant for REST in mice and the mosaic inactivation of REST function in chicken embryos. Knockout of REST led to malformations in several non-neural tissues, as well as apoptosis and embryonic lethality in mice. In addition, the expression of several REST target genes was derepressed in non-neural tissues and in neural progenitors in both mouse and chicken embryos. These studies clearly demonstrate that active repression of tissue-specific genes is required for proper tissue differentiation during embryonic development. PMID:10376008

  16. Gene Therapy of c-myc Suppressor FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor by Sendai Virus Delivery Prevents Tracheal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizokami, Daisuke; Araki, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Yamashita, Taku; Ueda, Yasuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Acquired tracheal stenosis remains a challenging problem for otolaryngologists. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated c-myc suppressor, a far upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR), modulates wound healing of the airway mucosa, and whether it prevents tracheal stenosis in an animal model of induced mucosal injury. A fusion gene-deleted, non-transmissible SeV vector encoding FIR (FIR-SeV/ΔF) was prepared. Rats with scraped airway mucosae were administered FIR-SeV/ΔF through the tracheostoma. The pathological changes in the airway mucosa and in the tracheal lumen were assessed five days after scraping. Untreated animals showed hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and a thickened submucosal layer with extensive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition causing lumen stenosis. By contrast, the administration of FIR-SeV/ΔF decreased the degree of tracheal stenosis (P < 0.05) and improved the survival rate (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that c-Myc expression was downregulated in the tracheal basal cells of the FIR-SeV/ΔF-treated animals, suggesting that c-myc was suppressed by FIR-SeV/ΔF in the regenerating airway epithelium of the injured tracheal mucosa. The airway-targeted gene therapy of the c-myc suppressor FIR, using a recombinant SeV vector, prevented tracheal stenosis in a rat model of airway mucosal injury. PMID:25569246

  17. Transcriptional repressor E4-binding protein 4 (E4BP4) regulates metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) during circadian cycles and feeding.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Muchnik, Marina; Chen, Zheng; Patel, Manish; Wu, Nan; Joshi, Shree; Rui, Liangyou; Lazar, Mitchell A; Yin, Lei

    2010-11-19

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent antidiabetic and triglyceride-lowering hormone whose hepatic expression is highly responsive to food intake. FGF21 induction in the adaptive response to fasting has been well studied, but the molecular mechanism responsible for feeding-induced repression remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a novel link between FGF21 and a key circadian output protein, E4BP4. Expression of Fgf21 displays a circadian rhythm, which peaks during the fasting phase and is anti-phase to E4bp4, which is elevated during feeding periods. E4BP4 strongly suppresses Fgf21 transcription by binding to a D-box element in the distal promoter region. Depletion of E4BP4 in synchronized Hepa1c1c-7 liver cells augments the amplitude of Fgf21 expression, and overexpression of E4BP4 represses FGF21 secretion from primary mouse hepatocytes. Mimicking feeding effects, insulin significantly increases E4BP4 expression and binding to the Fgf21 promoter through AKT activation. Thus, E4BP4 is a novel insulin-responsive repressor of FGF21 expression during circadian cycles and feeding. PMID:20851878

  18. Down-regulation of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2 releases GLI1 from the nuclear repressor complex to restore its transcriptional activity during mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riku, Miho; Inaguma, Shingo; Ito, Hideaki; Tsunoda, Takumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Although breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies, the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression are not fully understood. To identify key molecules involved, we screened publicly available microarray datasets for genes differentially expressed between breast cancers and normal mammary glands. We found that three of the genes predicted in this analysis were differentially expressed among human mammary tissues and cell lines. Of these genes, we focused on the role of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2, which is down-regulated in breast cancer cells. We found that TSHZ2 is a nuclear protein harboring a bipartite nuclear localization signal, and we confirmed its function as a C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-dependent transcriptional repressor. Through comprehensive screening, we identified TSHZ2-suppressing genes such as AEBP1 and CXCR4, which are conversely up-regulated by GLI1, the downstream transcription factor of Hedgehog signaling. We found that GLI1 forms a ternary complex with CtBP2 in the presence of TSHZ2 and that the transcriptional activity of GLI1 is suppressed by TSHZ2 in a CtBP-dependent manner. Indeed, knockdown of TSHZ2 increases the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 in TSHZ2-expressing immortalized mammary duct epithelium. Concordantly, immunohistochemical staining of mammary glands revealed that normal duct cells expresses GLI1 in the nucleus along with TSHZ2 and CtBP2, whereas invasive ductal carcinoma cells, which does not express TSHZ2, show the increase in the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 and in the cytoplasmic localization of GLI1. Thus, we propose that down-regulation of TSHZ2 is crucial for mammary tumorigenesis via the activation of GLI1. PMID:26744317

  19. IscR of Rhodobacter sphaeroides functions as repressor of genes for iron-sulfur metabolism and represents a new type of iron-sulfur-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Remes, Bernhard; Eisenhardt, Benjamin D; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Klug, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    IscR proteins are known as transcriptional regulators for Fe–S biogenesis. In the facultatively phototrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides IscR is the product of the first gene in the isc-suf operon. A major role of IscR in R. sphaeroides iron-dependent regulation was suggested in a bioinformatic study (Rodionov et al., PLoS Comput Biol 2:e163, 2006), which predicted a binding site in the upstream regions of several iron uptake genes, named Iron-Rhodo-box. Most known IscR proteins have Fe–S clusters featuring (Cys)3(His)1 ligation. However, IscR proteins from Rhodobacteraceae harbor only a single-Cys residue and it was considered unlikely that they can ligate an Fe–S cluster. In this study, the role of R. sphaeroides IscR as transcriptional regulator and sensor of the Fe–S cluster status of the cell was analyzed. A mutant lacking IscR is more impaired in growth under iron limitation than the wild-type and exhibits significantly increased ROS levels in iron-replete and iron-deplete conditions. Expression studies reveal that R. sphaeroides IscR in its cluster-bound form functions as transcriptional repressor of genes involved in iron metabolism by direct binding to the promoter region of genes preceded by the motif. A total of 110 genes are directly or indirectly affected by IscR. Furthermore, IscR possesses a unique Fe–S cluster ligation scheme with only a single cysteine involved. PMID:26235649

  20. IscR of Rhodobacter sphaeroides functions as repressor of genes for iron-sulfur metabolism and represents a new type of iron-sulfur-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Remes, Bernhard; Eisenhardt, Benjamin D; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Klug, Gabriele

    2015-10-01

    IscR proteins are known as transcriptional regulators for Fe-S biogenesis. In the facultatively phototrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides IscR is the product of the first gene in the isc-suf operon. A major role of IscR in R. sphaeroides iron-dependent regulation was suggested in a bioinformatic study (Rodionov et al., PLoS Comput Biol 2:e163, 2006), which predicted a binding site in the upstream regions of several iron uptake genes, named Iron-Rhodo-box. Most known IscR proteins have Fe-S clusters featuring (Cys)3 (His)1 ligation. However, IscR proteins from Rhodobacteraceae harbor only a single-Cys residue and it was considered unlikely that they can ligate an Fe-S cluster. In this study, the role of R. sphaeroides IscR as transcriptional regulator and sensor of the Fe-S cluster status of the cell was analyzed. A mutant lacking IscR is more impaired in growth under iron limitation than the wild-type and exhibits significantly increased ROS levels in iron-replete and iron-deplete conditions. Expression studies reveal that R. sphaeroides IscR in its cluster-bound form functions as transcriptional repressor of genes involved in iron metabolism by direct binding to the promoter region of genes preceded by the motif. A total of 110 genes are directly or indirectly affected by IscR. Furthermore, IscR possesses a unique Fe-S cluster ligation scheme with only a single cysteine involved. PMID:26235649

  1. Down-regulation of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2 releases GLI1 from the nuclear repressor complex to restore its transcriptional activity during mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Riku, Miho; Inaguma, Shingo; Ito, Hideaki; Tsunoda, Takumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Although breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies, the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression are not fully understood. To identify key molecules involved, we screened publicly available microarray datasets for genes differentially expressed between breast cancers and normal mammary glands. We found that three of the genes predicted in this analysis were differentially expressed among human mammary tissues and cell lines. Of these genes, we focused on the role of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2, which is down-regulated in breast cancer cells. We found that TSHZ2 is a nuclear protein harboring a bipartite nuclear localization signal, and we confirmed its function as a C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-dependent transcriptional repressor. Through comprehensive screening, we identified TSHZ2-suppressing genes such as AEBP1 and CXCR4, which are conversely up-regulated by GLI1, the downstream transcription factor of Hedgehog signaling. We found that GLI1 forms a ternary complex with CtBP2 in the presence of TSHZ2 and that the transcriptional activity of GLI1 is suppressed by TSHZ2 in a CtBP-dependent manner. Indeed, knockdown of TSHZ2 increases the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 in TSHZ2-expressing immortalized mammary duct epithelium. Concordantly, immunohistochemical staining of mammary glands revealed that normal duct cells expresses GLI1 in the nucleus along with TSHZ2 and CtBP2, whereas invasive ductal carcinoma cells, which does not express TSHZ2, show the increase in the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 and in the cytoplasmic localization of GLI1. Thus, we propose that down-regulation of TSHZ2 is crucial for mammary tumorigenesis via the activation of GLI1. PMID:26744317

  2. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type-dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player. PMID:27313212

  3. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  4. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  5. Interaction of yeast repressor-activator protein Ume6p with glycogen synthase kinase 3 homolog Rim11p.

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, K; Xiao, Y; Mitchell, A P

    1997-01-01

    Meiosis and expression of early meiotic genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depend upon Rim11p, Ume6p, and Ime1p. Rim11p (also called Mds1p and ScGSK3) is a protein kinase related to glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3); Ume6p is an architectural transcription factor; and Imelp is a Ume6p-binding protein that provides a transcriptional activation domain. Rim11p is required for Ime1p-Ume6p interaction, and prior studies have shown that Rim11p binds to and phosphorylates Ime1p. We show here that Rim11p binds to and phosphorylates Ume6p, as well. Amino acid substitutions in Ume6p that alter a consensus GSK3 site reduce or abolish Rim11p-Ume6p interaction and Rim11p-dependent phosphorylation, and they cause defects in interaction between Ume6p and Ime1p and in meiotic gene expression. Therefore, interaction between Rim11p and Ume6p, resulting in phosphorylation of Ume6p, is required for Ime1p-Ume6p complex formation. Rim11p, like metazoan GSK3beta, phosphorylates both interacting subunits of a target protein complex. PMID:9372955

  6. Rocaglates convert DEAD-box protein eIF4A into a sequence-selective translational repressor.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Floor, Stephen N; Ingolia, Nicholas T

    2016-06-23

    Rocaglamide A (RocA) typifies a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that selectively kill aneuploid tumour cells and repress translation of specific messenger RNAs. RocA targets eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), an ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicase; its messenger RNA selectivity is proposed to reflect highly structured 5' untranslated regions that depend strongly on eIF4A-mediated unwinding. However, rocaglate treatment may not phenocopy the loss of eIF4A activity, as these drugs actually increase the affinity between eIF4A and RNA. Here we show that secondary structure in 5' untranslated regions is only a minor determinant for RocA selectivity and that RocA does not repress translation by reducing eIF4A availability. Rather, in vitro and in cells, RocA specifically clamps eIF4A onto polypurine sequences in an ATP-independent manner. This artificially clamped eIF4A blocks 43S scanning, leading to premature, upstream translation initiation and reducing protein expression from transcripts bearing the RocA-eIF4A target sequence. In elucidating the mechanism of selective translation repression by this lead anti-cancer compound, we provide an example of a drug stabilizing sequence-selective RNA-protein interactions. PMID:27309803

  7. A tale of two repressors – a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Few proteins have had such a strong impact on a field as the lac repressor and λ repressor have had in Molecular Biology In bacteria, the genes required for lactose utilization are negatively regulated; the lac repressor binds to an upstream operator blocking transcription of the enzymes necessary for lactose utilization. A similar switch regulates the virus life cycle; λ repressor binds to an operator site and blocks transcription of the phage genes necessary for lytic development. It is now 50 years since Jacob and Monod first proposed a model for gene regulation, which survives essentially unchanged in contemporary textbooks1. This model provides a cogent depiction of how a set of genes can be coordinately transcribed in response to environmental conditions and regulates metabolic events in the cell. A historical perspective is presented that illustrates the role these two repressor molecules played and their contribution to our understanding of gene regulation. PMID:21392509

  8. Carbon storage regulator A (CsrABb) is a repressor of Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin protein FlaB

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Ching Wooen; Morado, Dustin R.; Jun, Liu; Charon, Nyles W.; Hongbin, Xu; Chunhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi lacks the transcriptional cascade control of flagellar protein synthesis common to other bacteria. Instead, it relies on a post-transcriptional mechanism to control its flagellar synthesis. The underlying mechanism of this control remains elusive. A recent study reported that the increased level of BB0184 (CsrABb; a homolog of carbon storage regulator A) substantially inhibited the accumulation of FlaB, the major flagellin protein of B. burgdorferi. In this report, we deciphered the regulatory role of CsrABb on FlaB synthesis and the mechanism involved by analyzing two mutants, csrABb− (a deletion mutant of csrABb) and csrABb+ (a mutant conditionally over-expressing csrABb). We found that FlaB accumulation was significantly inhibited in csrABb+ but was substantially increased in csrABb−. In contrast, the levels of other flagellar proteins remained unchanged. Cryo-electron tomography and immuno-fluorescence microscopic analyses revealed that the altered synthesis of CsrABb in these two mutants specifically affected flagellar filament length. The leader sequence of flaB transcript contains two conserved CsrA-binding sites, with one of these sites overlapping the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. We found that CsrABb bound to the flaB transcripts via these two binding sites, and this binding inhibited the synthesis of FlaB at the translational level. Taken together, our results indicate that CsrABb specifically regulates the periplasmic flagellar synthesis by inhibiting translation initiation of the flaB transcript. PMID:21999436

  9. The AT-hook/PPC domain protein TEK negatively regulates floral repressors including MAF4 and MAF5

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifeng; Gan, Eng-Seng; Ito, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic regulations of transposable elements (TEs) and TE-like repeat sequences help to protect genomic integrity and control various developmental processes, including flowering time. This complex action of gene silencing requires the coordination of many key players including DNA methylases, histone deacetylases and histone methyltranferases. We have recently reported that an AT-hook DNA binding protein, TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT SILENCING VIA AT-HOOK (TEK), participates in silencing TEs and TE-like sequence containing genes, such as LerFLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and FWA. TEK knockdown in amiTEK plants causes increased histone acetylation, reduced H3K9me2 and DNA hypomethylation in the target loci, which ultimately leads to the upregulation of FLC and FWA as well as TE reactivation. In this report, we show that, besides FLC, other FLC-like genes MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 4 (MAF4) and MAF5 are also upregulated in amiTEK. Here we discuss the role of the nuclear matrix protein TEK in the maintenance of genome integrity and in the control of flowering. PMID:23733063

  10. Transcriptional repression by RING finger protein TIF1 beta that interacts with the KRAB repressor domain of KOX1.

    PubMed Central

    Moosmann, P; Georgiev, O; Le Douarin, B; Bourquin, J P; Schaffner, W

    1996-01-01

    Many of the vertebrate zinc finger factors of the Kruppel type (C2H2 zinc fingers) contain in their N-terminus a conserved sequence referred to as the KRAB (Kruppel-associated box) domain that, when tethered to DNA, efficiently represses transcription. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have isolated an 835 amino acid RING finger (C3HC4 zinc finger) protein, TIF1 beta (also named KAP-1), that specifically interacts with the KRAB domain of the human zinc finger factor KOX1/ZNF10. TIF1 beta, TIF1 alpha, PML and efp belong to a characteristic subgroup of RING finger proteins that contain one or two other Cys/His-rich clusters (B boxes) and a putative coiled-coil in addition to the classical C3HC4 RING finger motif (RBCC configuration). Like TIF1 alpha, TIF1 beta also contains an additional Cys/His cluster (PHD finger) and a bromo-related domain. When tethered to DNA, TIF1 beta can repress transcription in transiently transfected mammalian cells both from promoter-proximal and remote (enhancer) positions, similarly to the KRAB domain itself. We propose that TIF1 beta is a mediator of the transcriptional repression exerted by the KRAB domain. PMID:9016654

  11. Acetylation of Human TCF4 (TCF7L2) Proteins Attenuates Inhibition by the HBP1 Repressor and Induces a Conformational Change in the TCF4::DNA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Elfert, Susanne; Weise, Andreas; Bruser, Katja; Biniossek, Martin L.; Jägle, Sabine; Senghaas, Niklas; Hecht, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The members of the TCF/LEF family of DNA-binding proteins are components of diverse gene regulatory networks. As nuclear effectors of Wnt/β-catenin signaling they act as assembly platforms for multimeric transcription complexes that either repress or activate gene expression. Previously, it was shown that several aspects of TCF/LEF protein function are regulated by post-translational modification. The association of TCF/LEF family members with acetyltransferases and deacetylases prompted us to investigate whether vertebrate TCF/LEF proteins are subject to acetylation. Through co-expression with p300 and CBP and subsequent analyses using mass spectrometry and immunodetection with anti-acetyl-lysine antibodies we show that TCF4 can be acetylated at lysine K150 by CBP. K150 acetylation is restricted to TCF4E splice variants and requires the simultaneous presence of β-catenin and the unique TCF4E C-terminus. To examine the functional consequences of K150 acetylation we substituted K150 with amino acids representing the non-acetylated and acetylated states. Reporter gene assays based on Wnt/β-catenin-responsive promoter regions did not indicate a general role of K150 acetylation in transactivation by TCF4E. However, in the presence of CBP, non-acetylatable TCF4E with a K150R substitution was more susceptible to inhibition by the HBP-1 repressor protein compared to wild-type TCF4E. Acetylation of K150 using a bacterial expression system or amino acid substitutions at K150 alter the electrophoretic properties of TCF4E::DNA complexes. This result suggests that K150 acetylation leads to a conformational change that may also represent the mechanism whereby acetylated TCF4E acquires resistance against HBP1. In summary, TCF4 not only recruits acetyltransferases but is also a substrate for these enzymes. The fact that acetylation affects only a subset of TCF4 splice variants and is mediated preferentially by CBP suggests that the conditional acetylation of TCF4E is a novel

  12. Iron-dependent transcription of the frpB gene of Helicobacter pylori is controlled by the Fur repressor protein.

    PubMed

    Delany, I; Pacheco, A B; Spohn, G; Rappuoli, R; Scarlato, V

    2001-08-01

    We have overexpressed and purified the Helicobacter pylori Fur protein and analyzed its interaction with the intergenic regions of divergent genes involved in iron uptake (frpB and ceuE) and oxygen radical detoxification (katA and tsaA). DNase I footprint analysis showed that Fur binds specifically to a high-affinity site overlapping the P(frpB) promoter and to low-affinity sites located upstream from promoters within both the frpB-katA and ceuE-tsaA intergenic regions. Construction of an isogenic fur mutant indicated that Fur regulates transcription from the P(frpB) promoter in response to iron. In contrast, no effect by either Fur or iron was observed for the other promoters. PMID:11466300

  13. Methyl jasmonate induction of tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots is mediated by JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN repressor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jianlin; Huang, Shengxiong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important plant hormone involved in regulation of many aspects of plant growth and development including secondary metabolism and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are key components in JA signal processes. In this study, two new JAZ genes named SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 were cloned from S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots and characterized. Expression profiles under methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment revealed that SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 were both MJ-responsive. Subcellular localization assay showed that SmJAZ3 was located in nucleus while SmJAZ9 was preferentially in nucleus. Expression of SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots differently affected the production of tanshinone. Over-expression of SmJAZ3 or SmJAZ9 in hairy roots produced lower level of tanshinone compared with the control, tanshinone production was as low as 0.077 mg/g DW in line SmJAZ3-3 and 0.266 mg/g DW in line SmJAZ9-22. Whereas, down-regulation of SmJAZs enhanced tanshione production, the content of tanshinone increased to 2.48 fold in anti-SmJAZ3-3 line, and 1.35-fold in anti-SmJAZ9-23 line. Our work indicated that SmJAZ3 and SmJAZ9 are involved in regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis and act as repressive transcriptional regulators in the JA signaling pathway, which paves the way to further dissect molecular mechanism in details in the future. PMID:26875847

  14. Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger-Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an Oncogenic Transcriptional Repressor of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and Tumor Protein p53 (TP53) Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D.; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase. PMID:24821728

  15. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 'CL' REPRESSOR OF 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' BACTERIOPHAGE D3: A FUNCTIONAL ANALOG OF PHAGE LAMBDA 'C'I PROTEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors cloned the gene (c1) which encodes the repressor of vegetative function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3. The cloned gene was shown to inhibit plating of D3 and the induction of D3 lysogens by UV irradiation. The efficiency of plating and prophage induction ...

  16. Crystal Structure of the Lactose Operon Repressor and Its Complexes with DNA and Inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mitchell; Chang, Geoffrey; Horton, Nancy C.; Kercher, Michele A.; Pace, Helen C.; Schumacher, Maria A.; Brennan, Richard G.; Lu, Ponzy

    1996-03-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli is the paradigm for gene regulation. Its key component is the lac repressor, a product of the lacI gene. The three-dimensional structures of the intact lac repressor, the lac repressor bound to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the lac repressor complexed with a 21-base pair symmetric operator DNA have been determined. These three structures show the conformation of the molecule in both the induced and repressed states and provide a framework for understanding a wealth of biochemical and genetic information. The DNA sequence of the lac operon has three lac repressor recognition sites in a stretch of 500 base pairs. The crystallographic structure of the complex with DNA suggests that the tetrameric repressor functions synergistically with catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and participates in the quaternary formation of repression loops in which one tetrameric repressor interacts simultaneously with two sites on the genomic DNA.

  17. Determinants of Bacteriophage 933W Repressor DNA Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J.; Samorodnitsky, Daniel; Rosati, Rayna C.; Koudelka, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that 933W repressor apparently does not cooperatively bind to adjacent sites on DNA and that the relative affinities of 933W repressor for its operators differ significantly from that of any other lambdoid bacteriophage. These findings indicate that the operational details of the lysis-lysogeny switch of bacteriophage 933W are unique among lambdoid bacteriophages. Since the functioning of the lysis-lysogeny switch in 933W bacteriophage uniquely and solely depends on the order of preference of 933W repressor for its operators, we examined the details of how 933W repressor recognizes its DNA sites. To identify the specificity determinants, we first created a molecular model of the 933W repressor-DNA complex and tested the predicted protein-DNA interactions. These results of these studies provide a picture of how 933W repressor recognizes its DNA sites. We also show that, opposite of what is normally observed for lambdoid phages, 933W operator sequences have evolved in such a way that the presence of the most commonly found base sequences at particular operator positions serves to decrease, rather than increase, the affinity of the protein for the site. This finding cautions against assuming that a consensus sequence derived from sequence analysis defines the optimal, highest affinity DNA binding site for a protein. PMID:22509323

  18. Functional analysis of basic transcription element (BTE)-binding protein (BTEB) 3 and BTEB4, a novel Sp1-like protein, reveals a subfamily of transcriptional repressors for the BTE site of the cytochrome P4501A1 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Joanna A; Conley, Abigail A; Fernandez Zapico, Martin; Delgado, Sharon M; Zhang, Jin-San; Urrutia, Raul

    2002-01-01

    The Sp1-like family of transcription factors is emerging as an integral part of the cellular machinery involved in the control of gene expression. Members of this family of proteins contain three highly homologous C-terminal zinc-finger motifs that bind GC-rich sequences found in the promoters of a diverse number of genes, such as the basic transcription element (BTE) in the promoter of the carcinogen-metabolizing cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) gene. In the present study, we report the molecular and functional characterization of BTE-binding protein (BTEB) 4, a novel ubiquitously expressed member of the Sp1-like proteins family. This protein represents a new homologue of BTEB1, originally described as a regulator of the BTE site in the CYP1A1 gene promoter. Similarly to the recently described BTEB3, we demonstrate that the N-terminal region of BTEB4 directly represses transcription and binds the co-repressor mSin3A. In addition, we show that the C-terminal zinc-finger domain of BTEB4 binds specifically the BTE site of the CYP1A1 promoter, similar to BTEB1 and BTEB3. Also, we show that both BTEB3 and BTEB4 repress the CYP1A1 gene promoter via the BTE site in HepG2 and BxPC3 cells. Thus the identification of this protein expands the repertoire of BTEB-like members of the Sp1-like protein family involved in transcriptional repression. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the BTEB subfamily can repress the CYP1A1 gene promoter via the BTE site. PMID:12036432

  19. Structural requirements of tetracycline-Tet repressor interaction: determination of equilibrium binding constants for tetracycline analogs with the Tet repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Degenkolb, J; Takahashi, M; Ellestad, G A; Hillen, W

    1991-01-01

    We used the Tn10-encoded Tet repressor, which has a highly specific binding capacity for tetracycline, to probe contacts between the drug and protein by chemical interference studies of the antibiotic. For that purpose, the equilibrium association constants of modified tetracyclines with the Tet repressor and Mg2+ cations were determined quantitatively. The results confirm the previous notion that Mg2+ probably binds with the oxygens at positions 11 and 12 and is absolutely required for protein-drug recognition. Modifications were introduced at positions seven, six, five, and four of the drug, and anhydrotetracycline was also studied. Substitutions or eliminations of functions at these positions influenced binding to the Tet repressor up to 35-fold. The introduction of an azido function at position seven in 7-azidotetracycline and epimerization of the substituents at position four in 4-epitetracycline lead to a 2- or 25-fold reduction, respectively, of Tet repressor affinity in those compounds. Anhydrotetracycline bound about 35-fold more strongly than tetracycline did, indicating that the oxygen at position 11 may be involved in Tet repressor recognition. This increased binding is in contrast to the lower antibiotic activity of anhydrotetracycline and indicates that the Tet repressor and ribosomes recognize the drug differently. PMID:1929330

  20. MalI, a novel protein involved in regulation of the maltose system of Escherichia coli, is highly homologous to the repressor proteins GalR, CytR, and LacI.

    PubMed

    Reidl, J; Römisch, K; Ehrmann, M; Boos, W

    1989-09-01

    The maltose regulon of Escherichia coli comprises several operons that are under common regulatory control of the MalT activator protein. Five mal genes, organized in two divergent operons, code for a binding-protein-dependent transport system specific for maltose and maltodextrins. MalK, one of the subunits of this transport system, not only is essential for transport but also plays a role in regulation. Mutations abolishing MalK function not only result in inability to transport maltose but also cause constitutive expression of the maltose regulon. For this constitutivity to be exerted, the function of an additional gene product, MalI, is necessary. Using the constitutive expression of a malK-lacZ fusion as a signal, we cloned the malI gene, expressed it in minicells, and determined its DNA sequence. The sequence predicted a protein of 34,729 molecular weight, in agreement with the apparent molecular weight of the protein (35,000) when expressed in minicells and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. MalI exhibited high homology to the repressor proteins GalR, CytR, and LacI. When the amino acid sequences were appropriately aligned, MalI showed 28% identity to GalR, 21% to CytR, and 24% to LacI. Including conservative amino acid exchanges, these numbers increased to 69, 56, and 58%, respectively. The regions of high homology were clustered in particular at the N-terminal portion of the protein that includes the helix-turn-helix motif thought to be involved in DNA binding. The protein contained a short stretch of 30 amino acids that was surprisingly homologous to a sequence in MalT. The amino-terminal half of the protein exhibited significant homology with MalK. The transcriptional start of malI was determined by reverse transcriptase and by S1 nuclease mapping. We found a possible binding site for cyclic AMP receptor protein in the promoter region of malI as well as two perfect direct repeats of 14 base pairs with twofold symmetry

  1. Activated RecA protein may induce expression of a gene that is not controlled by the LexA repressor and whose function is required for mutagenesis and repair of UV-irradiated bacteriophage lambda

    SciTech Connect

    Calsou, P.; Villaverde, A.; Defais, M.

    1987-10-01

    The activated form of the RecA protein (RecA) is known to be involved in the reactivation and mutagenesis of UV-irradiated bacteriophage lambda and in the expression of the SOS response in Escherichia coli K-12. The expression of the SOS response requires cleavage of the LexA repressor by RecA and the subsequent expression of LexA-controlled genes. The evidence presented here suggests that RecA induces the expression of a gene(s) that is not under LexA control and that is also necessary for maximal repair and mutagenesis of damaged phage. This conclusion is based on the chloramphenicol sensitivity of RecA -dependent repair and mutagenesis of damaged bacteriophage lambda in lexA(Def) hosts.

  2. Binding Specificities of the Telomere Phage ϕKO2 Prophage Repressor CB and Lytic Repressor Cro.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Jäckel, Claudia; Lanka, Erich; Roschanski, Nicole; Hertwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54, and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor (cI or cB), the lytic repressor (cro) and a putative antiterminator (q). The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI (CI prophage repressor), Cro (Cro repressor), and Q (antiterminator Q), respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ϕKO2 are reminiscent of lambda-like phages. We determined binding sites of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor CB and lytic repressor Cro on the ϕKO2 genome in detail by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies. Unexpectedly, ϕKO2 CB and Cro revealed different binding specificities. CB was bound to three OR operators in the intergenic region between cB and cro, two OL operators between cB and the replication gene repA and even to operators of N15. Cro bound exclusively to the 16 bp operator site OR3 upstream of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor gene. The ϕKO2 genes cB and cro are regulated by several strong promoters overlapping with the OR operators. The data suggest that Cro represses cB transcription but not its own synthesis, as already reported for PY54 Cro. Thus, not only PY54, but also phage ϕKO2 possesses a genetic switch that diverges significantly from the switch of lambda-like phages. PMID:27527206

  3. Binding Specificities of the Telomere Phage ϕKO2 Prophage Repressor CB and Lytic Repressor Cro

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Jäckel, Claudia; Lanka, Erich; Roschanski, Nicole; Hertwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54, and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor (cI or cB), the lytic repressor (cro) and a putative antiterminator (q). The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI (CI prophage repressor), Cro (Cro repressor), and Q (antiterminator Q), respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ϕKO2 are reminiscent of lambda-like phages. We determined binding sites of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor CB and lytic repressor Cro on the ϕKO2 genome in detail by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies. Unexpectedly, ϕKO2 CB and Cro revealed different binding specificities. CB was bound to three OR operators in the intergenic region between cB and cro, two OL operators between cB and the replication gene repA and even to operators of N15. Cro bound exclusively to the 16 bp operator site OR3 upstream of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor gene. The ϕKO2 genes cB and cro are regulated by several strong promoters overlapping with the OR operators. The data suggest that Cro represses cB transcription but not its own synthesis, as already reported for PY54 Cro. Thus, not only PY54, but also phage ϕKO2 possesses a genetic switch that diverges significantly from the switch of lambda-like phages. PMID:27527206

  4. A high-resolution structure of the DNA-binding domain of AhrC, the arginine repressor/activator protein from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.; Phillips, Simon E. V.

    2007-11-01

    The structure of the winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding domain of AhrC has been determined at 1.0 Å resolution. The largely hydrophobic β-wing shows high B factors and may mediate the dimer interface in operator complexes. In Bacillus subtilis the concentration of l-arginine is controlled by the transcriptional regulator AhrC, which interacts with 18 bp DNA operator sites called ARG boxes in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons. AhrC is a 100 kDa homohexamer, with each subunit having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core, mediating intersubunit interactions and binding of the co-repressor l-arginine, whilst the N-terminal domains contain a winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif and are arranged around the periphery. The N-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized and it has been shown that the fragment still binds DNA operators as a recombinant monomer. The DNA-binding domain has also been crystallized and the crystal structure refined to 1.0 Å resolution is presented.

  5. Effects on protein structure and function of replacing tryptophan with 5-hydroxytryptophan: single-tryptophan mutants of the N-terminal domain of the bacteriophage lambda repressor.

    PubMed

    Kombo, D C; Némethy, G; Gibson, K D; Ross, J B; Rackovsky, S; Scheraga, H A

    1996-01-01

    Conformational energy computations have been carried out on the N-acetyl-N'-methylamide of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5OH-Trp) using ECEPP/3. As observed with tryptophan (Trp), the most preferred conformation about the C alpha-C beta bond of the side chain is g+ or t. This preference is reduced to only the t conformational state when 5-hydroxyTrp is in the middle of a right-handed poly(L-alanine) alpha-helix. A similar result has been obtained with Trp [Piela et al. (1987), Biopolymers 1987, 1273-1286]. These results suggest that replacement of Trp by its analog 5-hydroxyTrp may be tolerated in an alpha-helix. To test this hypothesis, we have replaced Trp by 5OH-Trp in the fifth helices of two functionally active mutants of the N-terminal domain of the bacteriophage lambda repressor. Computations on the packing of these helices have shown that no significant structural changes results from the replacement of Trp by 5OH-Trp. The DNA-binding activity of these mutants, as assessed indirectly through geometrical parameters, is also unaltered. PMID:8838592

  6. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Balish, Rebecca S.; Tehryung, Kim; McKinney, Elizabeth C.

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  7. TCF12 protein functions as transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin, and its overexpression is correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Chung; Chen, Wei-Shone; Chen, Chia-Chi; Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Yi-Shing; Fan, Chi-Shuan; Huang, Tze-Sing

    2012-01-20

    A correlation of TCF12 mRNA overexpression with colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis was suggested by microarray data and validated by the survey of 120 patients. Thirty-three (27.5%) of the 120 patients showed tumor TCF12 mRNA overexpression and had a higher rate of metastatic occurrence (p = 0.020) and a poorer survival outcome (p = 0.014). Abundant TCF12 levels were also observed in human CRC cell lines such as SW620 and LoVo, but a relatively low level was detected in SW480 cells. Knockdown of TCF12 expression in SW620 and LoVo cells drastically reduced their activities of migration, invasion, and metastasis. Tight cell-cell contact and an increase in E-cadherin but a concomitant decrease in fibronectin were observed in TCF12-knockdown cells. Connexin 26, connexin 43, and gap-junction activity were also increased upon TCF12-knockdown. In contrast, ectopic TCF12 overexpression in SW480 cells facilitated fibronectin expression and cell migration and invasion activities but diminished cellular levels of E-cadherin, connexin 26, connexin 43, and gap junction. A physical association of TCF12 with the E-cadherin promoter was evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. TCF12 was tightly correlated with cellular expression of Bmi1 and EZH2 and was co-immunoprecipitable with Bmi1 and EZH2, suggesting that TCF12 transcriptionally suppressed E-cadherin expression via polycomb group-repressive complexes. Clinically, TCF12 mRNA overexpression was also correlated with E-cadherin mRNA down-regulation in the tumor tissues of our 120 patients (p = 0.013). These studies suggested that TCF12 functioned as a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and its overexpression was significantly correlated with the occurrence of CRC metastasis. PMID:22130667

  8. The Vibrio harveyi master quorum-sensing regulator, LuxR, a TetR-type protein is both an activator and a repressor: DNA recognition and binding specificity at target promoters

    PubMed Central

    Pompeani, Audra J; Irgon, Joseph J; Berger, Michael F; Bulyk, Martha L; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2008-01-01

    Quorum sensing is the process of cell-to-cell communication by which bacteria communicate via secreted signal molecules called autoinducers. As cell population density increases, the accumulation of autoinducers leads to co-ordinated changes in gene expression across the bacterial community. The marine bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, uses three autoinducers to achieve intra-species, intra-genera and inter-species cell–cell communication. The detection of these autoinducers ultimately leads to the production of LuxR, the quorum-sensing master regulator that controls expression of the genes in the quorum-sensing regulon. LuxR is a member of the TetR protein superfamily; however, unlike other TetR repressors that typically repress their own gene expression and that of an adjacent operon, LuxR is capable of activating and repressing a large number of genes. Here, we used protein binding microarrays and a two-layered bioinformatics approach to show that LuxR binds a 21 bp consensus operator with dyad symmetry. In vitro and in vivo analyses of two promoters directly regulated by LuxR allowed us to identify those bases that are critical for LuxR binding. Together, the in silico and biochemical results enabled us to scan the genome and identify novel targets of LuxR in V. harveyi and thus expand the understanding of the quorum-sensing regulon. PMID:18681939

  9. An Unusual Phage Repressor Encoded by Mycobacteriophage BPs.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Valerie M; Oldfield, Lauren M; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages express transcription repressors that maintain lysogeny by down-regulating lytic promoters and confer superinfection immunity. Repressor regulation is critical to the outcome of infection-lysogenic or lytic growth-as well as prophage induction into lytic replication. Mycobacteriophage BPs and its relatives use an unusual integration-dependent immunity system in which the phage attachment site (attP) is located within the repressor gene (33) such that site-specific integration leads to synthesis of a prophage-encoded product (gp33103) that is 33 residues shorter at its C-terminus than the virally-encoded protein (gp33136). However, the shorter form of the repressor (gp33103) is stable and active in repression of the early lytic promoter PR, whereas the longer virally-encoded form (gp33136) is inactive due to targeted degradation via a C-terminal ssrA-like tag. We show here that both forms of the repressor bind similarly to the 33-34 intergenic regulatory region, and that BPs gp33103 is a tetramer in solution. The BPs gp33103 repressor binds to five regulatory regions spanning the BPs genome, and regulates four promoters including the early lytic promoter, PR. BPs gp33103 has a complex pattern of DNA recognition in which a full operator binding site contains two half sites separated by a variable spacer, and BPs gp33103 induces a DNA bend at the full operator site but not a half site. The operator site structure is unusual in that one half site corresponds to a 12 bp palindrome identified previously, but the other half site is a highly variable variant of the palindrome. PMID:26332854

  10. An Unusual Phage Repressor Encoded by Mycobacteriophage BPs

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Valerie M.; Oldfield, Lauren M.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages express transcription repressors that maintain lysogeny by down-regulating lytic promoters and confer superinfection immunity. Repressor regulation is critical to the outcome of infection—lysogenic or lytic growth—as well as prophage induction into lytic replication. Mycobacteriophage BPs and its relatives use an unusual integration-dependent immunity system in which the phage attachment site (attP) is located within the repressor gene (33) such that site-specific integration leads to synthesis of a prophage-encoded product (gp33103) that is 33 residues shorter at its C-terminus than the virally-encoded protein (gp33136). However, the shorter form of the repressor (gp33103) is stable and active in repression of the early lytic promoter PR, whereas the longer virally-encoded form (gp33136) is inactive due to targeted degradation via a C-terminal ssrA-like tag. We show here that both forms of the repressor bind similarly to the 33–34 intergenic regulatory region, and that BPs gp33103 is a tetramer in solution. The BPs gp33103 repressor binds to five regulatory regions spanning the BPs genome, and regulates four promoters including the early lytic promoter, PR. BPs gp33103 has a complex pattern of DNA recognition in which a full operator binding site contains two half sites separated by a variable spacer, and BPs gp33103 induces a DNA bend at the full operator site but not a half site. The operator site structure is unusual in that one half site corresponds to a 12 bp palindrome identified previously, but the other half site is a highly variable variant of the palindrome. PMID:26332854

  11. Thermodynamic stoichiometries of participation of water, cations and anions in specific and non-specific binding of lac repressor to DNA. Possible thermodynamic origins of the "glutamate effect" on protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Ha, J H; Capp, M W; Hohenwalter, M D; Baskerville, M; Record, M T

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the contributions of cations, anions and water to stability and specificity of the interaction of lac repressor (lac R) protein with the strong-binding symmetric lac operator (Osym) DNA site. To this end, binding constants Kobs and their power dependences on univalent salt (MX) concentration (SKobs = d log Kobs/d log[MX]) have been determined for the interactions of lac R with Osym operator and with non-operator DNA using filter binding and DNA cellulose chromatography, respectively. For both specific and non-specific binding of lac R, Kobs at fixed salt concentration [KX] increases when chloride (Cl-) is replaced by the physiological anion glutamate (Glu-). At 0.25 M-KX, the increase in Kobs for Osym is observed to be approximately 40-fold, whereas for non-operator DNA the increase in Kobs is estimated by extrapolation to be approximately 300-fold. For non-operator DNA, SKobsRD is independent of salt concentration within experimental uncertainty, and is similar in KCl (SKobs,RDKCl = -9.8(+/- 1.0) between 0.13 M and 0.18 M-KCl) and KGlu (SKobs,RDKGlu = -9.3(+/- 0.7) between 0.23 M and 0.36 M-KGlu). For Osym DNA, SKobsRO varies significantly with the nature of the anion, and, at least in KGlu appears to decrease in magnitude with increasing [KGlu]. Average magnitudes of SKobsRO are less than SKobsRD, and, for specific binding decrease in the order [SKobsRO,KCl[>[SKobsRO,KAc[>[SKobsRO,KGlu[ . Neither KobsRO nor SKobsRO is affected by the choice of univalent cation M+ (Na+, K+, NH4+, or mixtures thereof, all as the chloride salt), and SKobsRO is independent of [MCl] in the range examined (0.125 to 0.3 M). This behavior of SKobsRO is consistent with that expected for a binding process with a large contribution from the polyelectrolyte effect. However, the lack of an effect of the nature of the cation on the magnitude of KobsRO at a fixed [MX] is somewhat unexpected, in view of the order of preference of cations for the

  12. Surface expression of GABAA receptors is transcriptionally controlled by the interplay of cAMP-response element-binding protein and its binding partner inducible cAMP early repressor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinghui; Lund, Ingrid V; Gravielle, Maria C; Farb, David H; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Russek, Shelley J

    2008-04-01

    The regulated expression of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA(A)R) subunit genes plays a critical role in neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis. It is also associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Changes in GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit gene (GABRA1) expression have been reported in animal models of epilepsy, alcohol abuse, withdrawal, and stress. Understanding the genetic mechanism behind such changes in alpha subunit expression will lead to a better understanding of the role that signal transduction plays in control over GABA(A)R function and brings with it the promise of providing new therapeutic tools for the prevention or cure of a variety of neurological disorders. Here we show that activation of protein kinase C increases alpha1 subunit levels via phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB) that is bound to the GABRA1 promoter (GABRA1p). In contrast, activation of protein kinase A decreases levels of alpha1 even in the presence of pCREB. Decrease of alpha1 is dependent upon the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) as directly demonstrated by ICER-induced down-regulation of endogenous alpha1-containing GABA(A)Rs at the cell surface of cortical neurons. Taken together with the fact that there are less alpha1gamma2-containing GABA(A)Rs in neurons after protein kinase A stimulation and that activation of endogenous dopamine receptors down-regulates alpha1 subunit mRNA levels subsequent to induction of ICER, our studies identify a transcriptional mechanism for regulating the cell surface expression of alpha1-containing GABA(A)Rs that is dependent upon the formation of CREB heterodimers. PMID:18180303

  13. Mutations in the araC regulatory gene of Escherichia coli B/r that affect repressor and activator functions of AraC protein.

    PubMed Central

    Cass, L G; Wilcox, G

    1986-01-01

    Mutations in the araC gene of Escherichia coli B/r were isolated which alter both activation of the araBAD operon expression and autoregulation. The mutations were isolated on an araC-containing plasmid by hydroxylamine mutagenesis of plasmid DNA. The mutant phenotype selected was the inability to autoregulate. The DNA sequence of 16 mutants was determined and found to consist of seven different missense mutations located within the distal third of the araC gene. Enzyme activities revealed that each araC mutation had altered both autoregulatory and activator functions of AraC protein. The mutational analysis presented in this paper suggests that both autoregulatory and activator functions are localized to the same determinants of the AraC protein and that the amino acid sequence within the carboxy-terminal region of AraC protein is important for site-specific DNA binding. Images PMID:3011750

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an Enterococcus faecalis repressor protein, CylR2, involved in regulating cytolysin production through quorum-sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Shuisong; McAteer, Kathleen; Bussiere, Dirksen E.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2004-06-01

    CylR2 is one of the two regulatory proteins associated with the quorum-sensing-dependent synthesis of cytolysin for the common pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The protein was expressed with a C-terminal 6-histidine tag and purified to homogeneity with a cobalt affinity column followed by another size exclusion column. Both native and SeMet proteins were crystallized. A complete X-ray diffraction data set from the native crystal was collected to 2.3 resolution. The crystal was tetragonal, belonging to space group P41/43, with unit-cell dimensions a=b=66.2 , c=40.9 and a=b=g=90. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of CylR2.

  15. Expression of p27Kip1, a cell cycle repressor protein, is inversely associated with potential carcinogenic risk in the genetic rodent models of obesity and long-lived Ames dwarf mice

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association of genetic rodent models of obesity and cancer still remains a controversial issue. Although this controversy has largely been resolved in recent years for homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats and homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice, it is still unresolved for homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice. Objective The objective of the present study described below was to investigate whether the expression of the cell cycle repressor protein p27(Kip1) is (a) down-regulated in the tumor-free homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats as well as tumor-free homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice and (b) up-regulated in the tumor-free homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice. Methods To achieve this objective, we first performed western immunoblot analysis of the hepatic expression of p27. We then performed western immunoblot analysis and proteomic analysis of the hepatic expression of the proteins involved in the upstream molecular signaling pathways for the expression of p27. Lastly, we analyzed the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and branched-chain amino acids, all of which have been shown to regulate, causally and inversely, the expression of p27. Results/Conclusions The results indicated that the hepatic expression of p27 was down-regulated in the homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats and up-regulated in the homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice as expected. We also found that the hepatic expression of p27 was down-regulated in the homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice. This last observation was not completely consistent with all of the results of the published studies where homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice were used. PMID:23357529

  16. Loss of the repressor REST in uterine fibroids promotes aberrant G protein-coupled receptor 10 expression and activates mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Binny V.; Koohestani, Faezeh; McWilliams, Michelle; Colvin, Arlene; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Kinsey, William H.; Nowak, Romana A.; Nothnick, Warren B.; Chennathukuzhi, Vargheese M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract, occurring in up to 77% of reproductive-aged women, yet molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A role for atypically activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids has been suggested in several studies. We identified that G protein-coupled receptor 10 [GPR10, a putative signaling protein upstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–protein kinase B/AKT–mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT–mTOR) pathway] is aberrantly expressed in uterine fibroids. The activation of GPR10 by its cognate ligand, prolactin releasing peptide, promotes PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathways and cell proliferation specifically in cultured primary leiomyoma cells. Additionally, we report that RE1 suppressing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF), a known tumor suppressor, transcriptionally represses GPR10 in the normal myometrium, and that the loss of REST in fibroids permits GPR10 expression. Importantly, mice overexpressing human GPR10 in the myometrium develop myometrial hyperplasia with excessive extracellular matrix deposition, a hallmark of uterine fibroids. We demonstrate previously unrecognized roles for GPR10 and its upstream regulator REST in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. Importantly, we report a unique genetically modified mouse model for a gene that is misexpressed in uterine fibroids. PMID:23284171

  17. Structural Insight on the Mechanism of Regulation of the MarR Family of Proteins: High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Transcriptional Repressor from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    SciTech Connect

    Saridakis, Vivian; Shahinas, Dea; Xu, Xiaohui; Christendat, Dinesh

    2008-03-31

    Transcriptional regulators belonging to the MarR family are characterized by a winged-helix DNA binding domain. These transcriptional regulators regulate the efflux and influx of phenolic agents in bacteria and archaea. In Escherichia coli, MarR regulates the multiple antibiotic resistance operon and its inactivation produces a multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype. In some organisms, active efflux of drug compounds will produce a drug resistance phenotype, whereas in other organisms, active influx of chlorinated hydrocarbons results in their rapid degradation. Although proteins in the MarR family are regulators of important biological processes, their mechanism of action is not well understood and structural information about how phenolic agents regulate the activity of these proteins is lacking. This article presents the three-dimensional structure of a protein of the MarR family, MTH313, in its apo form and in complex with salicylate, a known inactivator. A comparison of these two structures indicates that the mechanism of regulation involves a large conformational change in the DNA binding lobe. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and biophysical analyses further suggest that salicylate inactivates MTH313 and prevents it from binding to its promoter region.

  18. lac repressor blocks in vivo transcription of lac control region DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sellitti, M A; Pavco, P A; Steege, D A

    1987-01-01

    Transcription of the Escherichia coli lac repressor gene (lacI) in vivo produces monocistronic mRNAs with discrete 3' ends in the lac control region, although the DNA sequence of this region does not specify a strong termination signal of the traditional form. Direct analysis of lac transcripts was used to show that the DNA sequence alone does not provide the signal to end the repressor mRNA and to establish that of the proteins with specific binding sites on control region DNA only the lac repressor has a striking effect on the continuity of lacI gene transcription. RNAs with 3' ends in the control region sequence are major mRNA species produced from a repressor-bound template, reflecting as much as a 50-fold increase over their levels in the repressor's absence. Repressor binding to the operator thus has a dual function. In addition to blocking initiation of transcription from the lacZ promoter, repressor serves as a termination factor by setting the length of its own transcript and separating lacI and lacZYA into two distinct transcription units. Images PMID:3554233

  19. Crystal structure of the lactose operon repressor and its complexes with DNA and inducer

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.; Chang, G.; Horton, N.C.

    1996-03-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli is the paradigm for gene regulation. Its key component is the lac repressor a product of the lacl gene. The three-dimensional structures of the intact lac repressor, the lac repressor bound to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl-B-D-1thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the lac repressor complexed with a 21 base pair symmetric operator DNA have been determined. These three structures show the conformation of the molecule in both the induced and the repressed states and provide a framework for understanding a wealth of biochemical and genetic information. The DNA sequence of the lac operon has three lac repressor recognition sites in stretch of 500 base pairs. The crystallographic structure of the complex with DNA suggests that the tetrameric repressor functions synergistically with catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and participates in the quarternary formation of repression loops in which one tetrameric repressor interacts simultaneously with two sites in the genomic DNA. 76 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Strigolactone Signaling in Arabidopsis Regulates Shoot Development by Targeting D53-Like SMXL Repressor Proteins for Ubiquitination and Degradation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xue; Li, Xilong; Lu, Zefu; Meng, Xiangbing; Wang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived phytohormones that control many aspects of plant development, including shoot branching, leaf shape, stem secondary thickening, and lateral root growth. In rice (Oryza sativa), SL signaling requires the degradation of DWARF53 (D53), mediated by a complex including D14 and D3, but in Arabidopsis thaliana, the components and mechanism of SL signaling involving the D3 ortholog MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) are unknown. Here, we show that SL-dependent regulation of shoot branching in Arabidopsis requires three D53-like proteins, SUPPRESSOR OF MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2-LIKE6 (SMXL6), SMXL7, and SMXL8. The smxl6 smxl7 smxl8 triple mutant suppresses the highly branched phenotypes of max2 and the SL-deficient mutant max3. Overexpression of a mutant form of SMXL6 that is resistant to SL-induced ubiquitination and degradation enhances shoot branching. Exogenous application of the SL analog rac-GR24 causes ubiquitination and degradation of SMXL6, 7, and 8; this requires D14 and MAX2. D53-like SMXLs form complexes with MAX2 and TOPLESS-RELATED PROTEIN2 (TPR2) and interact with D14 in a GR24-responsive manner. Furthermore, D53-like SMXLs exhibit TPR2-dependent transcriptional repression activity and repress the expression of BRANCHED1. Our findings reveal that in Arabidopsis, D53-like SMXLs act with TPR2 to repress transcription and so allow lateral bud outgrowth but that SL-induced degradation of D53-like proteins activates transcription to inhibit outgrowth. PMID:26546446

  1. The cold-inducible RNA-binding protein migrates from the nucleus to cytoplasmic stress granules by a methylation-dependent mechanism and acts as a translational repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Leeuw, Frederic de; Zhang Tong; Wauquier, Corinne; Huez, Georges; Kruys, Veronique; Gueydan, Cyril

    2007-12-10

    The cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a nuclear 18-kDa protein consisting of an amino-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and a carboxyl-terminal domain containing several RGG motifs. First characterized for its overexpression upon cold shock, CIRP is also induced by stresses such as UV irradiation and hypoxia. Here, we investigated the expression as well as the subcellular localization of CIRP in response to other stress conditions. We demonstrate that oxidative stress leads to the migration of CIRP to stress granules (SGs) without alteration of expression. Stress granules are dynamic cytoplasmic foci at which stalled translation initiation complexes accumulate in cells subjected to environmental stress. Relocalization of CIRP into SGs also occurs upon other cytoplasmic stresses (osmotic pressure or heat shock) as well as in response to stresses of the endoplasmic reticulum. CIRP migration into SGs is independent from TIA-1 which has been previously reported to be a general mediator of SG formation, thereby suggesting the existence of multiple pathways leading to SG formation. Moreover, deletion mutants revealed that both RGG and RRM domains can independently promote CIRP migration into SGs. However, the methylation of arginine residues in the RGG domain is necessary for CIRP to exit the nucleus to be further recruited into SGs. By RNA-tethering experiments, we also show that CIRP down-regulates mRNA translation and that this activity is carried by the carboxyl-terminal RG-enriched domain. Altogether, our findings further reveal the diversity of mechanisms by which CIRP is regulated by environmental stresses and provide new insights into CIRP cytoplasmic function.

  2. Radiation-induced tetramer-to-dimer transition of Escherichia coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Goffinont, S; Davidkova, M; Spotheim-Maurizot, M

    2009-08-21

    The wild type lactose repressor of Escherichia coli is a tetrameric protein formed by two identical dimers. They are associated via a C-terminal 4-helix bundle (called tetramerization domain) whose stability is ensured by the interaction of leucine zipper motifs. Upon in vitro gamma-irradiation the repressor losses its ability to bind the operator DNA sequence due to damage of its DNA-binding domains. Using an engineered dimeric repressor for comparison, we show here that irradiation induces also the change of repressor oligomerisation state from tetramer to dimer. The splitting of the tetramer into dimers can result from the oxidation of the leucine residues of the tetramerization domain. PMID:19520056

  3. GLI3 repressor controls functional development of the mouse ureter.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jason E; Islam, Epshita; Haxho, Fiona; Blake, Joshua; Rosenblum, Norman D

    2011-03-01

    Obstructive and nonobstructive forms of hydronephrosis (increased diameter of the renal pelvis and calyces) and hydroureter (dilatation of the ureter) are the most frequently detected antenatal abnormalities, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely undefined. Hedgehog (Hh) proteins control tissue patterning and cell differentiation by promoting GLI-dependent transcriptional activation and by inhibiting the processing of GLI3 to a transcriptional repressor. Genetic mutations that generate a truncated GLI3 protein similar in size to the repressor in humans with Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS; a disorder whose characteristics include renal abnormalities) and hydroureter implicate Hh-dependent signaling in ureter morphogenesis and function. Here, we determined that Hh signaling controls 2 cell populations required for the initiation and transmission of coordinated ureter contractions. Tissue-specific inactivation of the Hh cell surface effector Smoothened (Smo) in the renal pelvic and upper ureteric mesenchyme resulted in nonobstructive hydronephrosis and hydroureter characterized by ureter dyskinesia. Mutant mice had reduced expression of markers of cell populations implicated in the coordination of unidirectional ureter peristalsis (specifically, Kit and hyperpolarization-activation cation-3 channel [Hcn3]), but exhibited normal epithelial and smooth muscle cell differentiation. Kit deficiency in a mouse model of PHS suggested a pathogenic role for GLI3 repressor in Smo-deficient embryos; indeed, genetic inactivation of Gli3 in Smo-deficient mice rescued their hydronephrosis, hydroureter, Kit and Hcn3 expression, and ureter peristalsis. Together, these data demonstrate that Hh signaling controls Kit and Hcn3 expression and ureter peristalsis. PMID:21339645

  4. GLI3 repressor controls functional development of the mouse ureter

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jason E.; Islam, Epshita; Haxho, Fiona; Blake, Joshua; Rosenblum, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive and nonobstructive forms of hydronephrosis (increased diameter of the renal pelvis and calyces) and hydroureter (dilatation of the ureter) are the most frequently detected antenatal abnormalities, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely undefined. Hedgehog (Hh) proteins control tissue patterning and cell differentiation by promoting GLI-dependent transcriptional activation and by inhibiting the processing of GLI3 to a transcriptional repressor. Genetic mutations that generate a truncated GLI3 protein similar in size to the repressor in humans with Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS; a disorder whose characteristics include renal abnormalities) and hydroureter implicate Hh-dependent signaling in ureter morphogenesis and function. Here, we determined that Hh signaling controls 2 cell populations required for the initiation and transmission of coordinated ureter contractions. Tissue-specific inactivation of the Hh cell surface effector Smoothened (Smo) in the renal pelvic and upper ureteric mesenchyme resulted in nonobstructive hydronephrosis and hydroureter characterized by ureter dyskinesia. Mutant mice had reduced expression of markers of cell populations implicated in the coordination of unidirectional ureter peristalsis (specifically, Kit and hyperpolarization-activation cation–3 channel [Hcn3]), but exhibited normal epithelial and smooth muscle cell differentiation. Kit deficiency in a mouse model of PHS suggested a pathogenic role for GLI3 repressor in Smo-deficient embryos; indeed, genetic inactivation of Gli3 in Smo-deficient mice rescued their hydronephrosis, hydroureter, Kit and Hcn3 expression, and ureter peristalsis. Together, these data demonstrate that Hh signaling controls Kit and Hcn3 expression and ureter peristalsis. PMID:21339645

  5. How Trp repressor binds to its operator.

    PubMed Central

    Staacke, D; Walter, B; Kisters-Woike, B; von Wilcken-Bergmann, B; Müller-Hill, B

    1990-01-01

    We propose that the generally accepted model of a single Trp repressor dimer binding to a center of symmetry in the natural trp operator (Otwinowski et al., 1988) is wrong. We show here that the Trp repressor binds to a sequence whose center is located four base pairs either to the right or to the left of the central axis of symmetry that was previously identified. We show that: (i) the oligonucleotide used by Otwinowski et al. is not retarded by the Trp repressor in a mobility shift assay under conditions wherein a shorter oligonucleotide carrying our consensus sequence is retarded, (ii) that methylation protection experiments on the full natural operator sequence and the short oligonucleotide protect similar patterns and (iii) that by varying every base in the shorter oligonucleotide, we can demonstrate an optimal sequence for Trp repressor binding. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2189726

  6. A novel GDNF-inducible gene, BMZF3, encodes a transcriptional repressor associated with KAP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Chikage; Murakumo, Yoshiki Kawase, Yukari; Sato, Tomoko; Morinaga, Takatoshi; Fukuda, Naoyuki; Enomoto, Atsushi; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2008-02-01

    The Krueppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise the largest family of zinc finger transcription factors that function as transcriptional repressors. In the study of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-RET signaling, we have identified bone marrow zinc finger 3 (BMZF3), encoding a KRAB-ZFP, as a GDNF-inducible gene by differential display analysis. The expression of BMZF3 transcripts in the human neuroblastoma cell line TGW increased 1 h after GDNF stimulation, as determined by Northern blotting and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The BMZF3 possesses transcriptional repressor activity in the KRAB domain. BMZF3 interacts with a co-repressor protein, KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP-1), through the KRAB domain and siRNA-mediated knockdown of KAP-1 abolished the transcriptional repressor activity of BMZF3, indicating that KAP-1 is necessary for BMZF3 function. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated silencing of BMZF3 inhibited cell proliferation. These findings suggest that BMZF3 is a transcriptional repressor induced by GDNF that plays a role in cell proliferation.

  7. Comparing native and irradiated E. coli lactose repressor-operator complex by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Aci-Sèche, Samia; Garnier, Norbert; Goffinont, Stéphane; Genest, Daniel; Spotheim-Maurizot, Mélanie; Genest, Monique

    2010-09-01

    The function of the E. coli lactose operon requires the binding of the tetrameric repressor protein to the operator DNA. We have previously shown that gamma-irradiation destabilises the repressor-operator complex because the repressor gradually loses its DNA-binding ability (Radiat Res 170:604-612, 2008). It was suggested that the observed oxidation of tyrosine residues and the concomitant structural changes of irradiated headpieces (DNA-binding domains of repressor monomers) could be responsible for the inactivation. To unravel the mechanisms that lead to repressor-operator complex destabilisation when tyrosine oxidation occurs, we have compared by molecular dynamic simulations two complexes: (1) the native complex formed by two headpieces and the operator DNA, and (2) the damaged complex, in which all tyrosines are replaced by their oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). On a 20 ns time scale, MD results show effects consistent with complex destabilisation: increased flexibility, increased DNA bending, modification of the hydrogen bond network, and decrease of the positive electrostatic potential at the protein surface and of the global energy of DNA-protein interactions. PMID:20349312

  8. Transcriptional regulation of repressor synthesis in mycobacteriophage L5.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, C E; Levin, M E; Donnelly-Wu, M K; Hatfull, G F

    1995-09-01

    Mycobacteriophage L5 is a temperate phage of the mycobacteria that forms stable lysogens in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Lysogeny is maintained by the putative repressor, the gene 71 product, which also mediates immunity to superinfection. We show here that there are three promoters located upstream of gene 71 which are active in an L5 lysogen but which do not require any phage-encoded proteins. In early lytic growth, gene 71 is also transcribed from a promoter, Pleft, located at the right end of the genome and which appears to be a target of gp71 regulation. A model is given for the regulation of L5 life cycles. PMID:8594325

  9. Interconvertible lac repressor-DNA loops revealed by single-molecule experiments.

    PubMed

    Wong, Oi Kwan; Guthold, Martin; Erie, Dorothy A; Gelles, Jeff

    2008-09-30

    At many promoters, transcription is regulated by simultaneous binding of a protein to multiple sites on DNA, but the structures and dynamics of such transcription factor-mediated DNA loops are poorly understood. We directly examined in vitro loop formation mediated by Escherichia coli lactose repressor using single-molecule structural and kinetics methods. Small ( approximately 150 bp) loops form quickly and stably, even with out-of-phase operator spacings. Unexpectedly, repeated spontaneous transitions between two distinct loop structures were observed in individual protein-DNA complexes. The results imply a dynamic equilibrium between a novel loop structure with the repressor in its crystallographic "V" conformation and a second structure with a more extended linear repressor conformation that substantially lessens the DNA bending strain. The ability to switch between different loop structures may help to explain how robust transcription regulation is maintained even though the mechanical work required to form a loop may change substantially with metabolic conditions. PMID:18828671

  10. Interconvertible Lac Repressor--DNA Loops Revealed by Single-Molecule Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthold, Martin

    2009-03-01

    At many promoters, transcription is regulated by simultaneous binding of a protein to multiple sites on DNA, but the structures and dynamics of such transcription factor-mediated DNA loops are poorly understood. We directly examined in vitro loop formation mediated by E. coli lactose repressor using single-molecule structural and kinetics methods. Small (150 bp) loops form quickly and stably, even with out-of-phase operator spacings. Unexpectedly, repeated spontaneous transitions between two distinct loop structures were observed in individual protein--DNA complexes. The results imply a dynamic equilibrium between a novel loop structure with the repressor in its crystallographic ``V'' conformation and a second structure with a more extended linear repressor conformation that substantially lessens the DNA bending strain. The ability to switch between different loop structures may help to explain how robust transcription regulation is maintained even though the mechanical work required to form a loop may change substantially with metabolic conditions.

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the repressor for the histidine utilization genes of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, S L; Phillips, A T

    1990-01-01

    The hutC gene of Pseudomonas putida encodes a repressor which, in combination with the inducer urocanate, regulates expression of the five structural genes necessary for conversion of histidine to glutamate, ammonia, and formate. The nucleotide sequence of the hutC region was determined and found to contain two open reading frames which overlapped by one nucleotide. The first open reading frame (ORF1) appeared to encode a 27,648-dalton protein of 248 amino acids whose sequence strongly resembled that of the hut repressor of Klebsiella aerogenes (A. Schwacha and R. A. Bender, J. Bacteriol. 172:5477-5481, 1990) and contained a helix-turn-helix motif that could be involved in operator binding. The gene was preceded by a sequence which was nearly identical to that of the operator site located upstream of hutU which controls transcription of the hutUHIG genes. The operator near hutC would presumably allow the hut repressor to regulate its own synthesis as well as the expression of the divergent hutF gene. A second open reading frame (ORF2) would encode a 21,155-dalton protein, but because this region could be deleted with only a slight effect on repressor activity, it is not likely to be involved in repressor function or structure. PMID:2203753

  12. Lac repressor: a genetic and nuclear magnetic resonance study of structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Jarema, M.A.C.; Lu, P.; Miller, J.H.

    1980-10-01

    The prototype gene control system, the lac operon of E. coli, has recently also become the best chemically characterized system to date. The complete primary sequence of both the gene and the protein reponsible for the regulation of this operon, the repressor, is known, along with the DNA sequence of its site of action, the operator. The lac repressor is a tetrametic protein with four identical subunits of 360 amino acids each, giving a total molecular weight of 154,000. The lac operator sequence is about 25 to 30 base pairs long. With the wealth of information about the primary structure the next question is one of geometry. This leads to the application of either x-ray diffraction or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, since these are the only approaches that yield information about the geometry and environment of specific groups and atoms in these molecules. Since we are interested in the interaction of repressor with a variety of small molecular weight inducers and anti-inducers, as well as the operator sequence in aqueous solution, we chose the NMR approach. As of this writing, no useful crystals of the lac repressor or the repressor and any of its ligands have been reported. Because of our extensive genetic work with this system, we have a unique advantage in taking this approach as well.

  13. Novel repressor regulates insulin sensitivity through interaction with Foxo1

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Jun; Cao, Yongheng; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takemori, Hiroshi; Kawano, Yoshinaga; Sekioka, Risa; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Sakai, Juro; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Forkhead box-containing protein o (Foxo) 1 is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We identified a Foxo1-CoRepressor (FCoR) protein in mouse adipose tissue that inhibits Foxo1's activity by enhancing acetylation via impairment of the interaction between Foxo1 and the deacetylase Sirt1 and via direct acetylation. FCoR is phosphorylated at Threonine 93 by catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and is translocated into nucleus, making it possible to bind to Foxo1 in both cytosol and nucleus. Knockdown of FCoR in 3T3-F442A cells enhanced expression of Foxo target and inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of FCoR in white adipose tissue decreased expression of Foxo-target genes and adipocyte size and increased insulin sensitivity in Leprdb/db mice and in mice fed a high-fat diet. In contrast, Fcor knockout mice were lean, glucose intolerant, and had decreased insulin sensitivity that was accompanied by increased expression levels of Foxo-target genes and enlarged adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that FCoR is a novel repressor that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism in adipose tissue by acting to fine-tune Foxo1 activity. PMID:22510882

  14. Weak operator binding enhances simulated Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping.

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Andrew V; Grosner, Michael A; Perez, Pamela J; Clauvelin, Nicolas; Lu, Xiang-Jun; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-12-01

    The 50th anniversary of Biopolymers coincides closely with the like celebration of the discovery of the Escherichia coli (lac) lactose operon, a classic genetic system long used to illustrate the influence of biomolecular structure on function. The looping of DNA induced by the binding of the Lac repressor protein to sequentially distant operator sites on DNA continues to serve as a paradigm for understanding long-range genomic communication. Advances in analyses of DNA structures and in incorporation of proteins in computer simulations of DNA looping allow us to address long-standing questions about the role of protein-mediated DNA loop formation in transcriptional control. Here we report insights gained from studies of the sequence-dependent contributions of the natural lac operators to Lac repressor-mediated DNA looping. Novel superposition of the ensembles of protein-bound operator structures derived from NMR measurements reveals variations in DNA folding missed in conventional structural alignments. The changes in folding affect the predicted ease with which the repressor induces loop formation and the ways that DNA closes between the protein headpieces. The peeling of the auxiliary operators away from the repressor enhances the formation of loops with the 92-bp wildtype spacing and hints of a structural reason behind their weak binding. PMID:23818216

  15. The N-terminal domain of the repressor of Staphylococcus aureus phage Φ11 possesses an unusual dimerization ability and DNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Anindya; Mandal, Sukhendu; Sau, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage Φ11 uses Staphylococcus aureus as its host and, like lambdoid phages, harbors three homologous operators in between its two divergently oriented repressor genes. None of the repressors of Φ11, however, showed binding to all three operators, even at high concentrations. To understand why the DNA binding mechanism of Φ11 repressors does not match that of lambdoid phage repressors, we studied the N-terminal domain of the Φ11 lysogenic repressor, as it harbors a putative helix-turn-helix motif. Our data revealed that the secondary and tertiary structures of the N-terminal domain were different from those of the full-length repressor. Nonetheless, the N-terminal domain was able to dimerize and bind to the operators similar to the intact repressor. In addition, the operator base specificity, binding stoichiometry, and binding mechanism of this domain were nearly identical to those of the whole repressor. The binding affinities of the repressor and its N-terminal domain were reduced to a similar extent when the temperature was increased to 42°C. Both proteins also adequately dislodged a RNA polymerase from a Φ11 DNA fragment carrying two operators and a promoter. Unlike the intact repressor, the binding of the N-terminal domain to two adjacent operator sites was not cooperative in nature. Taken together, we suggest that the dimerization and DNA binding abilities of the N-terminal domain of the Φ11 repressor are distinct from those of the DNA binding domains of other phage repressors. PMID:24747758

  16. Resolution of the fluorescence decay of the two tryptophan residues of lac repressor using single tryptophan mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Royer, C A; Gardner, J A; Beechem, J M; Brochon, J C; Matthews, K S

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the time-resolved intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the lac repressor (a symmetric tetramer containing two tryptophan residues per monomer) and two single-tryptophan mutant repressors obtained by site-directed mutagenesis, lac W201Y and lac W220Y. These mutant repressor proteins have tyrosine substituted for tryptophan at positions 201 and 220, respectively, leaving a single tryptophan residue per monomeric subunit at position 220 for the W201Y mutant and at position 201 in the W220Y mutant. It was found that the two decay rates recovered from the analysis of the wild type data do not correspond to the rates recovered from the analysis of the decays of the mutant proteins. Each of these residues in the mutant repressors displays at least two decay rates. Global analysis of the multiwavelength data from all three proteins, however, yielded results consistent with the fluorescence decay of the wild type lac repressor corresponding simply to the weighted linear combination of the decays from the mutant proteins. The effect of ligation by the antagonistic ligands, inducer and operator DNA, was similar for all three proteins. The binding of the inducer sugar resulted in a quenching of the long-lived species, while binding by the operator decreased the lifetime of the short components. Investigation of the time-resolved anisotropy of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence in these three proteins revealed that the depolarization of fluorescence resulted from a fast motion and the global tumbling of the macromolecule. Results from the simultaneous global analysis of the frequency domain data sets from the three proteins revealed anisotropic rotations for the macromolecule, consistent with the known elongated shape of the repressor tetramer. In addition, it appears that the excited-state dipole of tryptophan 220 is alighed with the long axis of the repressor. PMID:2207244

  17. Optimized expression and purification of biophysical quantities of Lac repressor and Lac repressor regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Stetz, Matthew A; Carter, Marie V; Wand, A Joshua

    2016-07-01

    The recombinant production of Lac repressor (LacI) in Escherichia coli is complicated by its ubiquitous use as a regulatory element in commercially-available expression vectors and host strains. While LacI-regulated expression systems are often used to produce recombinant LacI, the product can be heterogeneous and unsuitable for some studies. Alternative approaches include using unregulated vectors which typically suffer from low yield or vectors with promoters induced by metabolically active sugars which can dilute isotope labels necessary for certain biophysical studies. Here, an optimized expression system and isolation protocol for producing various constructs of LacI is introduced which eliminates these complications. The expression vector is an adaptation of the pASK backbone wherein expression of the lacI gene is regulated by an anhydrotetracyline inducible tetA promoter and the host strain lacks the lacI gene. Typical yields in highly deuterated minimal medium are nearly 2-fold greater than those previously reported. Notably, the new expression system is also able to produce the isolated regulatory domain of LacI without co-expression of the full-length protein and without any defects in cell viability, eliminating the inconvenient requirement for strict monitoring of cell densities during pre-culturing. Typical yields in highly deuterated minimal medium are significantly greater than those previously reported. Characterization by solution NMR shows that LacI constructs produced using this expression system are highly homogenous and functionally active. PMID:27064119

  18. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to the DNA-binding domain of the lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Nathalie; Goffinont, Stephane; Buré, Corinne; Davidkova, Marie; Maurizot, Jean-Claude; Cadene, Martine; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the cellular effects of radiation-induced oxidation requires the unravelling of key molecular events, particularly damage to proteins with important cellular functions. The Escherichia coli lactose operon is a classical model of gene regulation systems. Its functional mechanism involves the specific binding of a protein, the repressor, to a specific DNA sequence, the operator. We have shown previously that upon irradiation with gamma-rays in solution, the repressor loses its ability to bind the operator. Water radiolysis generates hydroxyl radicals (OH* radicals) which attack the protein. Damage of the repressor DNA-binding domain, called the headpiece, is most likely to be responsible of this loss of function. Using CD, fluorescence spectroscopy and a combination of proteolytic cleavage with MS, we have examined the state of the irradiated headpiece. CD measurements revealed a dose-dependent conformational change involving metastable intermediate states. Fluorescence measurements showed a gradual degradation of tyrosine residues. MS was used to count the number of oxidations in different regions of the headpiece and to narrow down the parts of the sequence bearing oxidized residues. By calculating the relative probabilities of reaction of each amino acid with OH. radicals, we can predict the most probable oxidation targets. By comparing the experimental results with the predictions we conclude that Tyr7, Tyr12, Tyr17, Met42 and Tyr47 are the most likely hotspots of oxidation. The loss of repressor function is thus correlated with chemical modifications and conformational changes of the headpiece. PMID:17263689

  19. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to the DNA-binding domain of the lactose repressor

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Nathalie; Goffinont, Stephane; Buré, Corinne; Davidkova, Marie; Maurizot, Jean-Claude; Cadene, Martine; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the cellular effects of radiation-induced oxidation requires the unravelling of key molecular events, particularly damage to proteins with important cellular functions. The Escherichia coli lactose operon is a classical model of gene regulation systems. Its functional mechanism involves the specific binding of a protein, the repressor, to a specific DNA sequence, the operator. We have shown previously that upon irradiation with γ-rays in solution, the repressor loses its ability to bind the operator. Water radiolysis generates hydroxyl radicals (OH· radicals) which attack the protein. Damage of the repressor DNA-binding domain, called the headpiece, is most likely to be responsible of this loss of function. Using CD, fluorescence spectroscopy and a combination of proteolytic cleavage with MS, we have examined the state of the irradiated headpiece. CD measurements revealed a dose-dependent conformational change involving metastable intermediate states. Fluorescence measurements showed a gradual degradation of tyrosine residues. MS was used to count the number of oxidations in different regions of the headpiece and to narrow down the parts of the sequence bearing oxidized residues. By calculating the relative probabilities of reaction of each amino acid with OH· radicals, we can predict the most probable oxidation targets. By comparing the experimental results with the predictions we conclude that Tyr7, Tyr12, Tyr17, Met42 and Tyr47 are the most likely hotspots of oxidation. The loss of repressor function is thus correlated with chemical modifications and conformational changes of the headpiece. PMID:17263689

  20. Smoothened regulates activator and repressor functions of Hedgehog signaling via two distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Stacey K; Casso, David J; Ascano, Manuel; Yore, Mark M; Kornberg, Thomas B; Robbins, David J

    2006-03-17

    The secreted protein Hedgehog (Hh) plays an important role in metazoan development and as a survival factor for many human tumors. In both cases, Hh signaling proceeds through the activation of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), which is thought to convert the Gli family of transcription factors from transcriptional repressors to transcriptional activators. Here, we provide evidence that Smo signals to the Hh signaling complex, which consists of the kinesin-related protein Costal2 (Cos2), the protein kinase Fused (Fu), and the Drosophila Gli homolog cubitus interruptus (Ci), in two distinct manners. We show that many of the commonly observed molecular events following Hh signaling are not transmitted in a linear fashion but instead are activated through two signals that bifurcate at Smo to independently affect activator and repressor pools of Ci. PMID:16423832

  1. The Corynebacterium glutamicum aconitase repressor: scratching around for crystals

    PubMed Central

    García-Nafría, Javier; Baumgart, Meike; Bott, Michael; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Wilson, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    Imperfections on the surfaces of crystallization containers are known to influence crystal formation and are thought to do so by helping to overcome the nucleation barrier. The intentional creation of imperfections has been widely applied to induce crystallization of small molecules, but has not been reported for protein crystallization. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the TetR-type aconitase repressor are reported. This regulator was the first transcription factor to be identified in the regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Corynebacterium glutamicum, an organism that is of special industrial interest and is an emerging model organism for Corynebacterineae. Successful crystallization involved introducing manual scratches on the surface of standard commercial plates, which led to a substantial improvement in crystal nucleation and quality. PMID:20823530

  2. A System of Repressor Gradients Spatially Organizes the Boundaries of “Morphogen-dependent” Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongtao; Xu, Zhe; Mei, Constance; Yu, Danyang; Small, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The homeodomain (HD) protein Bicoid (Bcd) is thought to function as a gradient morphogen that positions boundaries of target genes via threshold-dependent activation mechanisms. Here we analyze 66 Bcd-dependent regulatory elements, and show that their boundaries are positioned primarily by repressive gradients that antagonize Bcd-mediated activation. A major repressor is the pair-rule protein Runt, which is expressed in an opposing gradient, and is necessary and sufficient for limiting Bcd-dependent activation. Evidence is presented that Runt functions with the maternal repressor Capicua and the gap protein Kruppel as the principal components of a repression system that correctly orders boundaries throughout the anterior half of the embryo. These results put conceptual limits on the Bcd morphogen hypothesis, and demonstrate how the Bcd gradient functions within the gene network that patterns the embryo. PMID:22541432

  3. The role of repressor kinetics in relief of transcriptional interference between convergent promoters.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nan; Palmer, Adam C; Ahlgren-Berg, Alexandra; Shearwin, Keith E; Dodd, Ian B

    2016-08-19

    Transcriptional interference (TI), where transcription from a promoter is inhibited by the activity of other promoters in its vicinity on the same DNA, enables transcription factors to regulate a target promoter indirectly, inducing or relieving TI by controlling the interfering promoter. For convergent promoters, stochastic simulations indicate that relief of TI can be inhibited if the repressor at the interfering promoter has slow binding kinetics, making it either sensitive to frequent dislodgement by elongating RNA polymerases (RNAPs) from the target promoter, or able to be a strong roadblock to these RNAPs. In vivo measurements of relief of TI by CI or Cro repressors in the bacteriophage λ PR-PRE system show strong relief of TI and a lack of dislodgement and roadblocking effects, indicative of rapid CI and Cro binding kinetics. However, repression of the same λ promoter by a catalytically dead CRISPR Cas9 protein gave either compromised or no relief of TI depending on the orientation at which it binds DNA, consistent with dCas9 being a slow kinetics repressor. This analysis shows how the intrinsic properties of a repressor can be evolutionarily tuned to set the magnitude of relief of TI. PMID:27378773

  4. Loss of floral repressor function adapts rice to higher latitudes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Galbiati, Francesca; Goretti, Daniela; Brambilla, Vittoria; Shrestha, Roshi; Pappolla, Andrea; Courtois, Brigitte; Fornara, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to discriminate variations in day length allows plants to align flowering with the most favourable season of the year. This capacity has been altered by artificial selection when cultivated varieties became adapted to environments different from those of initial domestication. Rice flowering is promoted by short days when HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) and EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1) induce the expression of florigenic proteins encoded by HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1). Repressors of flowering antagonize such induction under long days, maintaining vegetative growth and delaying flowering. To what extent artificial selection of long day repressor loci has contributed to expand rice cultivation to Europe is currently unclear. This study demonstrates that European varieties activate both Hd3a and RFT1 expression regardless of day length and their induction is caused by loss-of-function mutations at major long day floral repressors. However, their contribution to flowering time control varies between locations. Pyramiding of mutations is frequently observed in European germplasm, but single mutations are sufficient to adapt rice to flower at higher latitudes. Expression of Ehd1 is increased in varieties showing reduced or null Hd1 expression under natural long days, as well as in single hd1 mutants in isogenic backgrounds. These data indicate that loss of repressor genes has been a key strategy to expand rice cultivation to Europe, and that Ehd1 is a central node integrating floral repressive signals. PMID:25732533

  5. The homeobox gene Mohawk represses transcription by recruiting the sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas M; Beres, Brian J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Rawls, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Mohawk is an atypical homeobox gene expressed in embryonic progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, tendon, and cartilage. We demonstrate that Mohawk functions as a transcriptional repressor capable of blocking the myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts. The repressor activity is located in three small, evolutionarily conserved domains (MRD1-3) in the carboxy-terminal half of the protein. Point mutation analysis revealed six residues in MRD1 are sufficient for repressor function. The carboxy-terminal half of Mohawk is able to recruit components of the Sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex (Sin3A, Hdac1, and Sap18) and a subset of Polymerase II general transcription factors (Tbp, TFIIA1 and TFIIB). Furthermore, Sap18, a protein that bridges the Sin3A/HDAC complex to DNA-bound transcription factors, is co-immunoprecipitated by MRD1. These data predict that Mohawk can repress transcription through recruitment of the Sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex, and as a result, repress target genes required for the differentiation of cells to the myogenic lineage. PMID:19235719

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the arginine repressor of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga neapolitana

    SciTech Connect

    Massant, Jan Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniel; Maes, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    The arginine repressor of the hyperthermophile T. neapolitana was crystallized with and without its corepressor arginine. Both crystals diffracted to high resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with similar unit-cell parameters. The arginine repressor of Thermotoga neapolitana (ArgRTnp) is a member of the family of multifunctional bacterial arginine repressors involved in the regulation of arginine metabolism. This hyperthermophilic repressor shows unique DNA-binding features that distinguish it from its homologues. ArgRTnp exists as a homotrimeric protein that assembles into hexamers at higher protein concentrations and/or in the presence of arginine. ArgRTnp was crystallized with and without its corepressor arginine using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the aporepressor diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å and belong to the orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.73, b = 134.15, c = 139.31 Å. Crystals of the repressor in the presence of its corepressor arginine diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å and belong to the same space group, with similar unit-cell parameters.

  7. The tryptophan repressor sequence is highly conserved among the Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, D N; Arvidson, C G; Lawson, C L; Miner, J; Adams, C; Youderian, P

    1994-01-01

    Tryptophan biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is regulated by the product of the trpR gene, the tryptophan (Trp) repressor. Trp aporepressor binds the corepressor, L-tryptophan, to form a holorepressor complex, which binds trp operator DNA tightly, and inhibits transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon. The conservation of trp operator sequences among enteric Gram-negative bacteria suggests that trpR genes from other bacterial species can be cloned by complementation in E. coli. To clone trpR homologues, a deletion of the E. coli trpR gene, delta trpR504, was made on a plasmid by site-directed mutagenesis, then crossed onto the E. coli genome. Plasmid clones of the trpR genes of Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated by complementation of the delta trpR504 allele, scored as the ability to repress beta-galactosidase synthesis from a prophage-borne trpE-lacZ gene fusion. The predicted amino acid sequences of four enteric TrpR proteins show differences, clustered on the backside of the folded repressor, opposite the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix substructures. These differences are predicted to have little effect on the interactions of the aporepressor with tryptophan, holorepressor with operator DNA, or tandemly bound holorepressor dimers with one another. Although there is some variation observed at the dimer interface, interactions predicted to stabilize the interface are conserved. The phylogenetic relationships revealed by the TrpR amino acid sequence alignment agree with the results of others. PMID:8208606

  8. Identification of the Repressor-Encoding Gene of the Lactobacillus Bacteriophage A2

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; García, Pilar; Bascarán, Victoria; Herrero, Mónica; Alvarez, Miguel A.; Suárez, Juan E.

    1998-01-01

    The repressor gene of the Lactobacillus phage A2 has the following properties: it (i) encodes a 224-residue polypeptide with DNA binding and RecA cleavage motifs, (ii) is expressed in lysogenic cultures, and (iii) confers superinfection immunity on the host. Adjacent, but divergently transcribed, lies another open reading frame whose product resembles the λ Cro protein. In the 161-bp intergenic segment, putative promoters and operators have been detected. PMID:9642205

  9. A cell cycle-dependent co-repressor mediates photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Okada, Maiko; Fujiki, Ryoji; Iriyama, Aya; Yanagi, Yasuo; Ito, Hiroaki; Takada, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Masahiko; Miyajima, Atsushi; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Umesono, Kazuhiko; Kitagawa, Hirochika; Kato, Shigeaki

    2007-01-01

    Photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor (PNR) (NR2E3) acts as a sequence-specific repressor that controls neuronal differentiation in the developing retina. We identified a novel PNR co-repressor, Ret-CoR, that is expressed in the developing retina and brain. Biochemical purification of Ret-CoR identified a multiprotein complex that included E2F/Myb-associated proteins, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and NCoR/HDAC complex-related components. Ret-CoR appeared to function as a platform protein for the complex, and interacted with PNR via two CoRNR motifs. Purified Ret-CoR complex exhibited HDAC activity, co-repressed PNR transrepression function in vitro, and co-repressed PNR function in PNR target gene promoters, presumably in the retinal progenitor cells. Notably, the appearance of Ret-CoR protein was cell-cycle-stage-dependent (from G1 to S). Therefore, Ret-CoR appears to act as a component of an HDAC co-repressor complex that supports PNR repression function in the developing retina, and may represent a co-regulator class that supports transcriptional regulator function via cell-cycle-dependent expression. PMID:17255935

  10. Control of developmentally primed erythroid genes by combinatorial co-repressor actions

    PubMed Central

    Stadhouders, Ralph; Cico, Alba; Stephen, Tharshana; Thongjuea, Supat; Kolovos, Petros; Baymaz, H. Irem; Yu, Xiao; Demmers, Jeroen; Bezstarosti, Karel; Maas, Alex; Barroca, Vilma; Kockx, Christel; Ozgur, Zeliha; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Andrieu-Soler, Charlotte; Lenhard, Boris; Grosveld, Frank; Soler, Eric

    2015-01-01

    How transcription factors (TFs) cooperate within large protein complexes to allow rapid modulation of gene expression during development is still largely unknown. Here we show that the key haematopoietic LIM-domain-binding protein-1 (LDB1) TF complex contains several activator and repressor components that together maintain an erythroid-specific gene expression programme primed for rapid activation until differentiation is induced. A combination of proteomics, functional genomics and in vivo studies presented here identifies known and novel co-repressors, most notably the ETO2 and IRF2BP2 proteins, involved in maintaining this primed state. The ETO2–IRF2BP2 axis, interacting with the NCOR1/SMRT co-repressor complex, suppresses the expression of the vast majority of archetypical erythroid genes and pathways until its decommissioning at the onset of terminal erythroid differentiation. Our experiments demonstrate that multimeric regulatory complexes feature a dynamic interplay between activating and repressing components that determines lineage-specific gene expression and cellular differentiation. PMID:26593974

  11. High-resolution specificity from DNA sequencing highlights alternative modes of Lac repressor binding.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zheng; Stormo, Gary D

    2014-11-01

    Knowing the specificity of transcription factors is critical to understanding regulatory networks in cells. The lac repressor-operator system has been studied for many years, but not with high-throughput methods capable of determining specificity comprehensively. Details of its binding interaction and its selection of an asymmetric binding site have been controversial. We employed a new method to accurately determine relative binding affinities to thousands of sequences simultaneously, requiring only sequencing of bound and unbound fractions. An analysis of 2560 different DNA sequence variants, including both base changes and variations in operator length, provides a detailed view of lac repressor sequence specificity. We find that the protein can bind with nearly equal affinities to operators of three different lengths, but the sequence preference changes depending on the length, demonstrating alternative modes of interaction between the protein and DNA. The wild-type operator has an odd length, causing the two monomers to bind in alternative modes, making the asymmetric operator the preferred binding site. We tested two other members of the LacI/GalR protein family and find that neither can bind with high affinity to sites with alternative lengths or shows evidence of alternative binding modes. A further comparison with known and predicted motifs suggests that the lac repressor may be unique in this ability and that this may contribute to its selection. PMID:25209146

  12. Structure of the MecI repressor from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the cognate DNA operator of mec

    SciTech Connect

    Safo, Martin K.; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Musayev, Faik N.; Zhao, Qixun; Archer, Gordon L.

    2006-04-01

    The up-and-down binding of dimeric MecI to mecA dyad DNA may account for the cooperative effect of the repressor. The dimeric repressor MecI regulates the mecA gene that encodes the penicillin-binding protein PBP-2a in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MecI is similar to BlaI, the repressor for the blaZ gene of β-lactamase. MecI and BlaI can bind to both operator DNA sequences. The crystal structure of MecI in complex with the 32 base-pair cognate DNA of mec was determined to 3.8 Å resolution. MecI is a homodimer and each monomer consists of a compact N-terminal winged-helix domain, which binds to DNA, and a loosely packed C-terminal helical domain, which intertwines with its counter-monomer. The crystal contains horizontal layers of virtual DNA double helices extending in three directions, which are separated by perpendicular DNA segments. Each DNA segment is bound to two MecI dimers. Similar to the BlaI–mec complex, but unlike the MecI–bla complex, the MecI repressors bind to both sides of the mec DNA dyad that contains four conserved sequences of TACA/TGTA. The results confirm the up-and-down binding to the mec operator, which may account for cooperative effect of the repressor.

  13. Crystal structure of the lambda repressor C-terminal domain provides a model for cooperative operator binding.

    PubMed

    Bell, C E; Frescura, P; Hochschild, A; Lewis, M

    2000-06-23

    Interactions between transcription factors bound to separate operator sites commonly play an important role in gene regulation by mediating cooperative binding to the DNA. However, few detailed structural models for understanding the molecular basis of such cooperativity are available. The c1 repressor of bacteriophage lambda is a classic example of a protein that binds to its operator sites cooperatively. The C-terminal domain of the repressor mediates dimerization as well as a dimer-dimer interaction that results in the cooperative binding of two repressor dimers to adjacent operator sites. Here, we present the x-ray crystal structure of the lambda repressor C-terminal domain determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction. Remarkably, the interactions that mediate cooperativity are captured in the crystal, where two dimers associate about a 2-fold axis of symmetry. Based on the structure and previous genetic and biochemical data, we present a model for the cooperative binding of two lambda repressor dimers at adjacent operator sites. PMID:10892750

  14. The qa repressor gene of Neurospora crassa: wild-type and mutant nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Huiet, L; Giles, N H

    1986-01-01

    The qa-1S gene, one of two regulatory genes in the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa, encodes the qa repressor. The qa-1S gene together with the qa-1F gene, which encodes the qa activator protein, control the expression of all seven qa genes, including those encoding the inducible enzymes responsible for the utilization of quinic acid as a carbon source. The nucleotide sequence of the qa-1S gene and its flanking regions has been determined. The deduced coding sequence for the qa-1S protein encodes 918 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 100,650 and is interrupted by a single 66-base-pair intervening sequence. Both constitutive and noninducible mutants occur in the qa-1S gene and two different mutations of each type have been cloned and sequenced. All four mutations occur within the predicted coding region of the qa-1S gene. This result strongly supports the hypothesis that the qa-1S gene encodes a repressor. All four mutations are located within codons for the last 300 amino acids of the qa-1S protein. The mutations in three of the mutants involve amino acid substitutions, while the fourth mutant, which has a constitutive phenotype, contains a frameshift mutation. The two constitutive mutations occur in the most distal region of the gene, possibly implicating the COOH-terminal region of the qa repressor in binding to its target. The two noninducible mutations occur in a region proximal to the constitutive mutations, possibly implicating this region of the qa repressor in binding the inducer. Images PMID:3010294

  15. Direct Fe2+ Sensing by Iron-responsive Messenger RNA·Repressor Complexes Weakens Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mateen A.; Walden, William E.; Goss, Dixie J.; Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    Fe2+ is now shown to weaken binding between ferritin and mitochondrial aconitase messenger RNA noncoding regulatory structures ((iron-responsive element) (IRE)-RNAs) and the regulatory proteins (IRPs), which adds a direct role of iron to regulation that can complement the well known regulatory protein modification and degradative pathways related to iron-induced mRNA translation. We observe that the Kd value increases 17-fold in 5′-untranslated region IRE-RNA·repressor complexes; Fe2+, is studied in the absence of O2. Other metal ions, Mn2+ and Mg2+ have similar effects to Fe2+ but the required Mg2+ concentration is 100 times greater than for Fe2+ or Mn2+. Metal ions also weaken ethidium bromide binding to IRE-RNA with no effect on IRP fluorescence, using Mn2+ as an O2-resistant surrogate for Fe2+, indicating that metal ions bound IRE-RNA but not IRP. Fe2+ decreases IRP repressor complex stability of ferritin IRE-RNA 5–10 times compared with 2–5 times for mitochondrial aconitase IRE-RNA, over the same concentration range, suggesting that differences among IRE-RNA structures contribute to the differences in the iron responses observed in vivo. The results show the IRE-RNA·repressor complex literally responds to Fe2+, selectively for each IRE-mRNA. PMID:19720833

  16. Arabidopsis transcriptional repressor VAL1 triggers Polycomb silencing at FLC during vernalization.

    PubMed

    Qüesta, Julia I; Song, Jie; Geraldo, Nuno; An, Hailong; Dean, Caroline

    2016-07-29

    The determinants that specify the genomic targets of Polycomb silencing complexes are still unclear. Polycomb silencing of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) accelerates flowering and involves a cold-dependent epigenetic switch. Here we identify a single point mutation at an intragenic nucleation site within FLC that prevents this epigenetic switch from taking place. The mutation blocks nucleation of plant homeodomain-Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PHD-PRC2) and indicates a role for the transcriptional repressor VAL1 in the silencing mechanism. VAL1 localizes to the nucleation region in vivo, promoting histone deacetylation and FLC transcriptional silencing, and interacts with components of the conserved apoptosis- and splicing-associated protein (ASAP) complex. Sequence-specific targeting of transcriptional repressors thus recruits the machinery for PHD-PRC2 nucleation and epigenetic silencing. PMID:27471304

  17. Lac repressor: Crystallization of intact tetramer and its complexes with inducer and operator DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, H.C.; Lu, P. ); Lewis, M. Smith Kline and French Labs., King of Prussia, PA )

    1990-03-01

    The intact lac repressor tetramer, which regulates expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli, has been crystallized in the native form, with an inducer, and in a ternary complex with operator DNA and an anti-inducer. The crystals without DNA diffract to better than 3.5 {angstrom}. They belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have cell dimensions a = 164.7 {angstrom}, b = 75.6 {angstrom}, and c = 161.2 {angstrom}, with {alpha} = {gamma} = 90{degree} and {beta} = 125.5{degree}. Cocrystals have been obtained with a number of different lac operator-related DNA fragments. The complex with a blunt-ended 16-base-pair strand yielded tetragonal bipyramids that diffract to 6.5 {angstrom}. These protein-DNA cocrystals crack upon exposure to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl {beta}-D-thiogalactoside, suggesting a conformational change in the repressor-operator complex.

  18. Structural Analysis of Iac Repressor Bound to Allosteric Effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Daber,R.; Stayrook, S.; Rosenberg, A.; Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lac operon is a model system for understanding how effector molecules regulate transcription and are necessary for allosteric transitions. The crystal structures of the lac repressor bound to inducer and anti-inducer molecules provide a model for how these small molecules can modulate repressor function. The structures of the apo repressor and the repressor bound to effector molecules are compared in atomic detail. All effectors examined here bind to the repressor in the same location and are anchored to the repressor through hydrogen bonds to several hydroxyl groups of the sugar ring. Inducer molecules form a more extensive hydrogen-bonding network compared to anti-inducers and neutral effector molecules. The structures of these effector molecules suggest that the O6 hydroxyl on the galactoside is essential for establishing a water-mediated hydrogen bonding network that bridges the N-terminal and C-terminal sub-domains. The altered hydrogen bonding can account in part for the different structural conformations of the repressor, and is vital for the allosteric transition.

  19. Electrostatic forces contribute to interactions between trp repressor dimers.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, K S; Royer, C A; Howard, K P; Carey, J; Liu, Y C; Matthews, K; Heyduk, E; Lee, J C

    1994-01-01

    The trp repressor of Escherichia coli (TR), although generally considered to be dimeric, has been shown by fluorescence anisotropy of extrinsically labeled protein to undergo oligomerization in solution at protein concentrations in the micromolar range (Fernando, T., and C. A. Royer 1992. Biochemistry. 31:3429-3441). Providing evidence that oligomerization is an intrinsic property of TR, the present studies using chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and molecular sieve chromatography demonstrate that unmodified TR dimers form higher order aggregates. Tetramers and higher order species were observed in chemical cross-linking experiments at concentrations between 1 and 40 microM. Results from analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration chromatography were consistent with average molecular weight values between tetramer and dimer, although no plateaus in the association were evident over the concentration ranges studied, indicating that higher order species are populated. Analytical ultracentrifugation data in presence of corepressor imply that corepressor binding destabilizes the higher order aggregates, an observation that is consistent with the earlier fluorescence work. Through the investigation of the salt and pH dependence of oligomerization, the present studies have revealed an electrostatic component to the interactions between TR dimers. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8038388

  20. Co-repressor activity of scaffold attachment factor B1 requires sumoylation

    SciTech Connect

    Garee, Jason P.; Meyer, Rene; Systems Biology of Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center , INF 280, 69120 Heidelberg ; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} SAFB1 is sumoylated to two lysine residues K231 and K294. {yields} SAFB1 sumoylation is regulated by PIAS1 and SENP1. {yields} Sumoylation of SAFB1 regulates its transcriptional repressor activity. {yields} Mutation of sumoylation sites leads to decreased SAFB1 binding to HDAC3. -- Abstract: Sumoylation is an emerging modification associated with a variety of cellular processes including the regulation of transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors and their coregulators. As SUMO modifications are often associated with transcriptional repression, we examined if sumoylation was involved in modulation of the transcriptional repressive activity of scaffold attachment factor B1. Here we show that SAFB1 is modified by both the SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 family of proteins, on lysine's K231 and K294. Further, we demonstrate that SAFB1 can interact with PIAS1, a SUMO E3 ligase which mediates SAFB1 sumoylation. Additionally, SENP1 was identified as the enzyme desumoylating SAFB1. Mutation of the SAFB1 sumoylation sites lead to a loss of transcriptional repression, at least in part due to decreased interaction with HDAC3, a known transcriptional repressor and SAFB1 binding partner. In summary, the transcriptional repressor SAFB1 is modified by both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3, and this modification is necessary for its full repressive activity.

  1. Lambda repressor recognizes the approximately 2-fold symmetric half-operator sequences asymmetrically.

    PubMed Central

    Sarai, A; Takeda, Y

    1989-01-01

    Results of systematic base-substitution experiments suggest that the lambda repressor dimer, made of identical subunits, recognizes the "pseudo(2-fold)symmetric" operator sequence asymmetrically. Base substitutions within the consensus half of the operator affect binding more than base substitutions within the nonconsensus half of the operator. Furthermore, changing the nonconsensus base pairs to the consensus base pairs does not increase, but decreases, binding. Evidently, the two subunits of the lambda repressor dimer bind to the two halves of the operator differently. This is consistent with the recently determined crystal structure of the complex, which shows that the relative positioning of the amino acids to the DNA bases are slightly different in the two halves of the operator. The sequence-specific interactions indicated by the systematic base-substitution experiments correlate well with the locations of the specific contacts found in the complex. Thus, the amino acids of lambda repressor, mainly of alpha 3-helix and the N-terminus arm, seem to directly read-out the DNA sequence by forming specific hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts to the DNA bases. The observed asymmetric recognition suggests that no recognition code governs amino acids and DNA bases in protein-DNA interactions. PMID:2771938

  2. Phosphorylation of Trihelix Transcriptional Repressor ASR3 by MAP KINASE4 Negatively Regulates Arabidopsis Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Xiao; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Sixue; Cheng, Yanbing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Jiang, Daohong; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Proper control of immune-related gene expression is crucial for the host to launch an effective defense response. Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) induces rapid and profound transcriptional reprogramming via unclear mechanisms. Here, we show that ASR3 (ARABIDOPSIS SH4-RELATED3) functions as a transcriptional repressor and plays a negative role in regulating pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ASR3 belongs to a plant-specific trihelix transcription factor family for which functional studies are lacking. MAMP treatments induce rapid phosphorylation of ASR3 at threonine 189 via MPK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase that negatively regulates PTI responses downstream of multiple MAMP receptors. ASR3 possesses transcriptional repressor activity via its ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motifs and negatively regulates a large subset of flg22-induced genes. Phosphorylation of ASR3 by MPK4 enhances its DNA binding activity to suppress gene expression. Importantly, the asr3 mutant shows enhanced disease resistance to virulent bacterial pathogen infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing the wild-type or phospho-mimetic form of ASR3 exhibit compromised PTI responses. Our studies reveal a function of the trihelix transcription factors in plant innate immunity and provide evidence that ASR3 functions as a transcriptional repressor regulated by MAMP-activated MPK4 to fine-tune plant immune gene expression. PMID:25770109

  3. DWARF 53 acts as a repressor of strigolactone signalling in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xue; Xiong, Guosheng; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Fulu; Wang, Lei; Meng, Xiangbing; Liu, Guifu; Yu, Hong; Yuan, Yundong; Yi, Wei; Zhao, Lihua; Ma, Honglei; He, Yuanzheng; Wu, Zhongshan; Melcher, Karsten; Qian, Qian; Xu, H. Eric; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang

    2013-12-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of newly identified plant hormones that control plant shoot branching. SL signalling requires the hormone-dependent interaction of DWARF 14 (D14), a probable candidate SL receptor, with DWARF 3 (D3), an F-box component of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we report the characterization of a dominant SL-insensitive rice (Oryza sativa) mutant dwarf 53 (d53) and the cloning of D53, which encodes a substrate of the SCFD3 ubiquitination complex and functions as a repressor of SL signalling. Treatments with GR24, a synthetic SL analogue, cause D53 degradation via the proteasome in a manner that requires D14 and the SCFD3 ubiquitin ligase, whereas the dominant form of D53 is resistant to SL-mediated degradation. Moreover, D53 can interact with transcriptional co-repressors known as TOPLESS-RELATED PROTEINS. Our results suggest a model of SL signalling that involves SL-dependent degradation of the D53 repressor mediated by the D14-D3 complex.

  4. Mechanism of promoter repression by Lac repressor-DNA loops.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nicole A; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James; Lionberger, Troy A

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon encodes the first genetic switch to be discovered, and lac remains a paradigm for studying negative and positive control of gene expression. Negative control is believed to involve competition of RNA polymerase and Lac repressor for overlapping binding sites. Contributions to the local Lac repressor concentration come from free repressor and repressor delivered to the operator from remote auxiliary operators by DNA looping. Long-standing questions persist concerning the actual role of DNA looping in the mechanism of promoter repression. Here, we use experiments in living bacteria to resolve four of these questions. We show that the distance dependence of repression enhancement is comparable for upstream and downstream auxiliary operators, confirming the hypothesis that repressor concentration increase is the principal mechanism of repression loops. We find that as few as four turns of DNA can be constrained in a stable loop by Lac repressor. We show that RNA polymerase is not trapped at repressed promoters. Finally, we show that constraining a promoter in a tight DNA loop is sufficient for repression even when promoter and operator do not overlap. PMID:23143103

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A enhances myogenesis by coordinating muscle regulatory factors and myogenic repressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Hiroki; Saito, Fumiaki; Masaki, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Miki; Nakamura-Ohkuma, Ayami; Shimizu, Teruo; Matsumura, Kiichiro

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of TSA, one of most potent HDACIs, on myogenesis using the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, and suppresses the late MRF, myogenin, after 24 h treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the myogenic repressors, Ids, which inhibit myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA promotes myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors. -- Abstract: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote skeletal muscle formation. However, their mechanisms that include effects on the expression of major muscle components such as the dystrophin-associated proteins complex (DAPC) or myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HDACIs on skeletal muscle formation using the C2C12 cell culture system. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to trichostatin A (TSA), one of the most potent HDACIs, and differentiation was subsequently induced. We found that TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. In addition, TSA increases the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, whereas it suppresses the expression of the late MRF, myogenin. Interestingly, TSA also enhances the expression of Id1, Id2, and Id3 (Ids). Ids are myogenic repressors that inhibit myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest that TSA promotes gene expression in proliferation and suppresses it in the differentiation stage of muscle formation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TSA enhances myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors.

  6. Transcriptional regulator Leu3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: separation of activator and repressor functions.

    PubMed Central

    Sze, J Y; Remboutsika, E; Kohlhaw, G B

    1993-01-01

    The Leu3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to specific DNA sequences present in the 5' noncoding region of at least five RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Leu3 functions as a transcriptional activator only when the metabolic intermediate alpha-isopropylmalate is also present. In the absence of alpha-isopropylmalate, Leu3 causes transcription to be repressed below basal levels. We show here that different portions of the Leu3 protein are responsible for activation and repression. Fusion of the 30 C-terminal residues of Leu3 to the DNA-binding domain of the Gal4 protein created a strong cross-species activator, demonstrating that the short C-terminal region is not only required but also sufficient for transcriptional activation. Using a recently developed Leu3-responsive in vitro transcription assay as a test system for repression (J. Sze, M. Woontner, J. Jaehning, and G. B. Kohlhaw, Science 258:1143-1145, 1992), we show that mutant forms of the Leu3 protein that lack the activation domain still function as repressors. The shortest repressor thus identified had only about 15% of the mass of the full-length Leu3 protein and was centered on the DNA-binding region of Leu3. Implications of this finding for the mechanism of repression are discussed. Images PMID:8355711

  7. Transcriptional regulator Leu3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: separation of activator and repressor functions.

    PubMed

    Sze, J Y; Remboutsika, E; Kohlhaw, G B

    1993-09-01

    The Leu3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to specific DNA sequences present in the 5' noncoding region of at least five RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Leu3 functions as a transcriptional activator only when the metabolic intermediate alpha-isopropylmalate is also present. In the absence of alpha-isopropylmalate, Leu3 causes transcription to be repressed below basal levels. We show here that different portions of the Leu3 protein are responsible for activation and repression. Fusion of the 30 C-terminal residues of Leu3 to the DNA-binding domain of the Gal4 protein created a strong cross-species activator, demonstrating that the short C-terminal region is not only required but also sufficient for transcriptional activation. Using a recently developed Leu3-responsive in vitro transcription assay as a test system for repression (J. Sze, M. Woontner, J. Jaehning, and G. B. Kohlhaw, Science 258:1143-1145, 1992), we show that mutant forms of the Leu3 protein that lack the activation domain still function as repressors. The shortest repressor thus identified had only about 15% of the mass of the full-length Leu3 protein and was centered on the DNA-binding region of Leu3. Implications of this finding for the mechanism of repression are discussed. PMID:8355711

  8. Structural basis for recognition of diverse transcriptional repressors by the TOPLESS family of corepressors

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jiyuan; Ma, Honglei; Gu, Xin; Thelen, Adam; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Li, Jiayang; Xu, H. Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    TOPLESS (TPL) and TOPLESS-related (TPR) proteins comprise a conserved family of plant transcriptional corepressors that are related to Tup1, Groucho, and TLE (transducin-like enhancer of split) corepressors in yeast, insects, and mammals. In plants, TPL/TPR corepressors regulate development, stress responses, and hormone signaling through interaction with small ethylene response factor–associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs found in diverse transcriptional repressors. How EAR motifs can interact with TPL/TPR proteins is unknown. We confirm the amino-terminal domain of the TPL family of corepressors, which we term TOPLESS domain (TPD), as the EAR motif–binding domain. To understand the structural basis of this interaction, we determined the crystal structures of the TPD of rice (Os) TPR2 in apo (apo protein) state and in complexes with the EAR motifs from Arabidopsis NINJA (novel interactor of JAZ), IAA1 (auxin-responsive protein 1), and IAA10, key transcriptional repressors involved in jasmonate and auxin signaling. The OsTPR2 TPD adopts a new fold of nine helices, followed by a zinc finger, which are arranged into a disc-like tetramer. The EAR motifs in the three different complexes adopt a similar extended conformation with the hydrophobic residues fitting into the same surface groove of each OsTPR2 monomer. Sequence alignments and structure-based mutagenesis indicate that this mode of corepressor binding is highly conserved in a large set of transcriptional repressors, thus providing a general mechanism for gene repression mediated by the TPL family of corepressors. PMID:26601214

  9. Allosteric inhibition of a zinc-sensing transcriptional repressor: Insights into the arsenic repressor (ArsR) family

    PubMed Central

    Campanello, Gregory C.; Ma, Zhen; Grossoehme, Nicholas E.; Guerra, Alfredo J.; Ward, Brian P.; DiMarchi, Richard D.; Ye, Yuzhen; Dann, Charles E.; Giedroc, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis of allosteric regulation remains a subject of intense interest. Staphylococcus aureus CzrA is a member of the ubiquitous arsenic repressor (ArsR) family of bacterial homodimeric metal sensing proteins, and has emerged as a model system for understanding allosteric regulation of operator DNA binding by transition metal ions. Using unnatural amino acid substitution and a standard linkage analysis, we show that a His97’ NHε2•••O=C-His67 quaternary structural hydrogen bond is an energetically significant contributor to the magnitude of the allosteric coupling free energy, ΔGc. A “cavity” introduced just beneath this hydrogen bond in V66A/L68V CzrA results in a dramatic loss of regulation by Zn(II) despite adopting a wild-type global structure and Zn(II) binding and DNA binding affinities only minimally affected from wild-type. The energetics of Zn(II) binding and heterotropic coupling free energies (ΔHc, −TΔSc) of the double mutant are also radically altered and suggest that increased internal dynamics leads to poorer allosteric negative regulation in V66A/L68V CzrA. A statistical coupling analysis of 3000 ArsR proteins reveals a sector that links the DNA-binding determinants and the α5 Zn(II) sensing sites through V66/L68 in CzrA. We propose that distinct regulatory sites uniquely characteristic of individual ArsR proteins results from evolution of distinct connectivities to this sector, each capable of driving the same biological outcome, transcriptional derepression. PMID:23353829

  10. A G-protein alpha subunit from asexual Candida albicans functions in the mating signal transduction pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is regulated by the a1-alpha 2 repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Sadhu, C; Hoekstra, D; McEachern, M J; Reed, S I; Hicks, J B

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated a gene, designated CAG1, from Candida albicans by using the G-protein alpha-subunit clone SCG1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a probe. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed that CAG1 is more homologous to SCG1 than to any other G protein reported so far. Homology between CAG1 and SCG1 not only includes the conserved guanine nucleotide binding domains but also spans the normally variable regions which are thought to be involved in interaction with the components of the specific signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, CAG1 contains a central domain, previously found only in SCG1. cag1 null mutants of C. albicans created by gene disruption produced no readily detectable phenotype. The C. albicans CAG1 gene complemented both the growth and mating defects of S. cerevisiae scg1 null mutants when carried on either a low- or high-copy-number plasmid. In diploid C. albicans, the CAG1 transcript was readily detectable in mycelial and yeast cells of both the white and opaque forms. However, the CAG1-specific transcript in S. cerevisiae transformants containing the C. albicans CAG1 gene was observed only in haploid cells. This transcription pattern matches that of SCG1 in S. cerevisiae and is caused by a1-alpha 2 mediated repression in diploid cells. That is, CAG1 behaves as a haploid-specific gene in S. cerevisiae, subject to control by the a1-alpha 2 mating-type regulation pathway. We infer from these results that C. albicans may have a signal transduction system analogous to that controlling mating type in S. cerevisiae or possibly even a sexual pathway that has so far remained undetected. Images PMID:1569935

  11. Structure of the Mecl Repressor from Staphylococcus aureus in Complex with the Cognate DNA Operator of mec

    SciTech Connect

    Safo,M.; Ko, T.; Musayev, F.; Zhao, Q.; Wang, A.; Archer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The dimeric repressor MecI regulates the mecA gene that encodes the penicillin-binding protein PBP-2a in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MecI is similar to BlaI, the repressor for the blaZ gene of {beta}-lactamase. MecI and BlaI can bind to both operator DNA sequences. The crystal structure of MecI in complex with the 32 base-pair cognate DNA of mec was determined to 3.8 Angstroms resolution. MecI is a homodimer and each monomer consists of a compact N-terminal winged-helix domain, which binds to DNA, and a loosely packed C-terminal helical domain, which intertwines with its counter-monomer. The crystal contains horizontal layers of virtual DNA double helices extending in three directions, which are separated by perpendicular DNA segments. Each DNA segment is bound to two MecI dimers. Similar to the BlaI-mec complex, but unlike the MecI-bla complex, the MecI repressors bind to both sides of the mec DNA dyad that contains four conserved sequences of TACA/TGTA. The results confirm the up-and-down binding to the mec operator, which may account for cooperative effect of the repressor.

  12. Restricted Heterochromatin Formation Links NFATc2 Repressor Activity With Growth Promotion in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    BAUMGART, SANDRA; GLESEL, ELISABETH; SINGH, GARIMA; CHEN, NAI-MING; REUTLINGER, KRISTINA; ZHANG, JINSAN; BILLADEAU, DANIEL D.; FERNANDEZ-ZAPICO, MARTIN E.; GRESS, THOMAS M.; SINGH, SHIV K.; ELLENRIEDER, VOLKER

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Transcriptional silencing of the p15INK4b tumor suppressor pathway overcomes cellular protection against unrestrained proliferation in cancer. Here we show a novel pathway involving the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c2 targeting a p15INK4b-mediated failsafe mechanism to promote pancreatic cancer tumor growth. METHODS Immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy were used for expression studies. Cancer growth was assessed in vitro by [3H]thymidine incorporation, colony formation assays, and in vivo using xenograft tumor models. Protein-protein interactions, promoter regulation, and local histone modifications were analyzed by immunoprecipitation, DNA pull-down, reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS Our study uncovered induction of NFATc2 in late-stage pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions with increased expression in tumor cell nuclei of advanced cancers. In the nucleus, NFATc2 targets the p15INK4b promoter for inducible heterochromatin formation and silencing. NFATc2 binding to its cognate promoter site induces stepwise recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Suv39H1, causes local H3K9 trimethylation, and allows docking of heterochromatin protein HP1γ to the repressor complex. Conversely, inactivation of NFATc2 disrupts this repressor complex assembly and local heterochromatin formation, resulting in restoration of p15INK4b expression and inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Here we describe a novel mechanism for NFATc2-mediated gene regulation and identify a functional link among its repressor activity, the silencing of the suppressor pathway p15INK4b, and its pancreatic cancer growth regulatory functions. Thus, we provide evidence that inactivation of oncogenic NFATc2 might be an attractive strategy in treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22079596

  13. Structural Basis for the Differential Regulation of DNA by the Methionine Repressor MetJ

    SciTech Connect

    Augustus, Anne; Reardon, Patrick; Heller, William T; Spicer, Leonard D.

    2006-01-01

    The Met regulon in Escherichia coli encodes several proteins responsible for the biosynthesis of methionine. Regulation of the expression of most of these proteins is governed by the methionine repressor protein MetJ and its co-repressor, the methionine derivative S-adenosylmethionine. Genes controlled by MetJ contain from two to five sequential copies of a homologous 8-bp sequence called the metbox. A crystal structure for one of the complexes, the repressor tetramer bound to two metboxes, has been reported (Somers, W. S., and S. E. Phillips (1992) Nature 359, 387-393), but little structural work on the larger assemblies has been done presumably because of the difficulties in crystallization and the variability in the number and sequences of metboxes for the various genes. Small angle neutron scattering was used to study complexes of MetJ and S-adenosylmethionine with double-stranded DNA containing two, three, and five metboxes. Our results demonstrate that the crystal structure of the two-metbox complex is not the native solution conformation of the complex. Instead, the system adopts a less compact conformation in which there is decreased interaction between the adjacent MetJ dimers. Models built of the higher order complexes from the scattering data show that the three-metbox complex is organized much like the two-metbox complex. However, the five-metbox complex differs significantly from the smaller complexes, providing much closer packing of the adjacent MetJ dimers and allowing additional contacts not available in the crystal structure. The results suggest that there is a structural basis for the differences observed in the regulatory effectiveness of MetJ for the various genes of the Met regulon.

  14. The TetR Family of Transcriptional Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Juan L.; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Molina-Henares, Antonio J.; Terán, Wilson; Watanabe, Kazuya; Zhang, Xiaodong; Gallegos, María Trinidad; Brennan, Richard; Tobes, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a general profile for the proteins of the TetR family of repressors. The stretch that best defines the profile of this family is made up of 47 amino acid residues that correspond to the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif and adjacent regions in the three-dimensional structures of TetR, QacR, CprB, and EthR, four family members for which the function and three-dimensional structure are known. We have detected a set of 2,353 nonredundant proteins belonging to this family by screening genome and protein databases with the TetR profile. Proteins of the TetR family have been found in 115 genera of gram-positive, α-, β-, and γ-proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, and archaea. The set of genes they regulate is known for 85 out of the 2,353 members of the family. These proteins are involved in the transcriptional control of multidrug efflux pumps, pathways for the biosynthesis of antibiotics, response to osmotic stress and toxic chemicals, control of catabolic pathways, differentiation processes, and pathogenicity. The regulatory network in which the family member is involved can be simple, as in TetR (i.e., TetR bound to the target operator represses tetA transcription and is released in the presence of tetracycline), or more complex, involving a series of regulatory cascades in which either the expression of the TetR family member is modulated by another regulator or the TetR family member triggers a cell response to react to environmental insults. Based on what has been learned from the cocrystals of TetR and QacR with their target operators and from their three-dimensional structures in the absence and in the presence of ligands, and based on multialignment analyses of the conserved stretch of 47 amino acids in the 2,353 TetR family members, two groups of residues have been identified. One group includes highly conserved positions involved in the proper orientation of the helix-turn-helix motif and hence seems to play a structural role. The other set of

  15. Mapping DNA-Lac repressor interaction with ultra-fast optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Tempestini, Alessia; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.; Capitanio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The lac operon is a well-known example of gene expression regulation, based on the specific interaction of Lac repressor protein (LacI) with its target DNA sequence (operator). We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap technique capable of probing molecular interactions with sub-ms temporal resolution, under controlled pN-range forces. With this technique, we tested the interaction of LacI with different DNA constructs. Based on position along the DNA sequence, the observed interactions can be interpreted as specific binding to operator sequences and transient interactions with nonspecific sequences.

  16. Probing the molecular mechanism of action of co-repressor in the E. coli methionine repressor-operator complex using surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, I D; Persson, B; Mekhalfia, A; Blackburn, G M; Stockley, P G

    1995-01-01

    We have studied quantitatively the effect of the corepressor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), on the interaction between the E. coli methionine repressor, MetJ, and an idealised operator fragment, by recording measurements of surface plasmon resonance using a BIAcore instrument. We have recorded kinetic binding data in the presence of SAM, which carries a net positive charge, and two corepressor analogues, adenosylornithine (AO) and aza-SAM, which differ in the location of the atom carrying the positive charge. Our data support the hypothesis that the effect of the corepressor is electrostatic in origin. The difference in electrostatic interaction energy between the SAM- and AO-repressor-operator complexes of approximately 3.5 kJ/mol calculated from the known three-dimensional structure is within the range of our experimentally determined values of 2.8-4.3 kJ/mol. These results illustrate the potential of SPR measurements for studying protein-nucleic acid interactions. Images PMID:7862523

  17. Use of the tumor repressor DEDD as a prognostic marker of cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Hua, Fang; Hu, Zhuo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    DEDD, a member of a family of death effector domain-containing proteins, plays crucial roles in mediating apoptosis, regulating cell cycle, and inhibiting cell mitosis. Our recent work demonstrates that DEDD is a novel tumor repressor, which impedes metastasis by reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in breast and colon cancers. DEDD expression therefore may represent a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of cancer metastasis. To reveal the anti-metastatic roles of DEDD in these cancer cells, a number of experiments, including immunohistochemistry, the establishment of stably overexpressing or silencing cancer cells, chemoinvasion assay, soft agar assay, protein degradation, and protein-protein interaction were used in our in vitro and in vivo studies. This chapter focuses on the details of these experiments to provide references for the researchers to investigate the function of a gene in the regulation of tumor metastasis. PMID:24839027

  18. High-Resolution Specificity from DNA Sequencing Highlights Alternative Modes of Lac Repressor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zheng; Stormo, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the specificity of transcription factors is critical to understanding regulatory networks in cells. The lac repressor–operator system has been studied for many years, but not with high-throughput methods capable of determining specificity comprehensively. Details of its binding interaction and its selection of an asymmetric binding site have been controversial. We employed a new method to accurately determine relative binding affinities to thousands of sequences simultaneously, requiring only sequencing of bound and unbound fractions. An analysis of 2560 different DNA sequence variants, including both base changes and variations in operator length, provides a detailed view of lac repressor sequence specificity. We find that the protein can bind with nearly equal affinities to operators of three different lengths, but the sequence preference changes depending on the length, demonstrating alternative modes of interaction between the protein and DNA. The wild-type operator has an odd length, causing the two monomers to bind in alternative modes, making the asymmetric operator the preferred binding site. We tested two other members of the LacI/GalR protein family and find that neither can bind with high affinity to sites with alternative lengths or shows evidence of alternative binding modes. A further comparison with known and predicted motifs suggests that the lac repressor may be unique in this ability and that this may contribute to its selection. PMID:25209146

  19. The repressor function of snail is required for Drosophila gastrulation and is not replaceable by Escargot or Worniu.

    PubMed

    Hemavathy, Kirugaval; Hu, Xiaodi; Ashraf, Shovon I; Small, Stephen J; Ip, Y Tony

    2004-05-15

    Mesoderm formation in the Drosophila embryo depends on the maternal Toll signaling pathway. The Toll pathway establishes the Dorsal nuclear gradient, which regulates many zygotic genes to establish the mesodermal fate and promote the invagination of ventral cells. An important target gene of Dorsal is snail, which is required for proper mesoderm invagination. The Snail protein contains five zinc fingers and is a transcriptional repressor. However, it is not clear whether repressing target genes is a requirement for Snail to control ventral invagination. To examine such requirement, we conducted a series of genetic rescue experiments in snail mutant embryos. Snail, Worniu, and Escargot are closely related zinc-finger proteins and have equal functions during neuroblast development. However, among these three proteins, only Snail can rescue the mesoderm invagination phenotype. Moreover, the ability of various Snail mutant constructs to repress gene expression correlates with their ability to control invagination. This unique property of Snail in mesoderm formation can be attributed mostly to the CtBP co-repressor interaction motifs in the N-terminus, not to the C-terminal DNA-binding zinc fingers. Ectopic expression of Snail outside the ventral domain is not sufficient to induce cell movement even though repression of target genes still occurs. Together, the results show that the repressor function of Snail is essential for gastrulation. The repression of target genes by Snail may permit other factors in the ventral cells to positively promote mesoderm invagination. PMID:15110709

  20. Altered Cro repressors from engineered mutagenesis of a synthetic cro gene.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeis, S J; Nasoff, M S; Noble, S A; Bracco, L P; Dodds, D R; Caruthers, M H

    1985-02-01

    A portion of the gene coding for the Cro repressor protein of bacteriophage lambda has been chemically synthesized, incorporating base pair changes that generate restriction endonuclease sites without altering the amino acid coding sequence. These restriction endonuclease sites were used to remove small segments of the synthetic cro gene and the segments were replaced with duplexes carrying desired mutations. Altered Cro proteins produced by mutants constructed in this manner were then assayed for binding to lambda operator OR3 in vivo. Mutations directed into the region of the cro gene encoding the alpha-3 helix produced altered Cro proteins with a range of affinities for operator DNA. These changes suggest which amino acids play an important role in Cro-OR3 complex formation. PMID:3156377

  1. Cell cycle-related transformation of the E2F4-p130 repressor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Boris . E-mail: popov_478@hotmail.com; Chang, L.-S.; Serikov, Vladimir

    2005-10-28

    During G0 phase the p130, member of the pRb tumor suppressor protein family, forms a repressor complex with E2F4 which is inactivated in G1/S by hyperphosphorylation of the p130. The role of p130 after G1/S remains poorly investigated. We found that in nuclear extracts of T98G cells, the p130-E2F4-DNA (pp-E2F4) complex does not dissociate at G1/S transition, but instead reverts to the p130-E2F4-cyclin E/A-cdk2 (cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4) complex, which is detected in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Hyperphosphorylation of the p130 at G1/S transition is associated with a decrease of its total amount; however, this protein is still detected during the rest of the cell cycle, and it is increasingly hyperphosphorylated in the cytosol, but continuously dephosphorylated in the nucleus. Both nuclear and cytosol cell fractions in T98G cells contain a hyperphosphorylated form of p130 in complex with E2F4 at S and G2/M cell cycle phases. In contrast to T98G cells, transformation of the p130 containing cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4 complex into the p130-pp-E2F4 repressor does not occur in HeLa cells under growth restriction conditions.

  2. The Escherichia coli LexA repressor-operator system works in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G M; Mileham, K A; Cooke, S E; Woolston, S J; George, H K; Charles, A D; Brammar, W J

    1988-01-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Escherichia coli LexA repressor-operator system to down-regulate gene expression in mouse cells. The LexA gene was placed downstream of the RSVLTR promoter with polyadenylation and splice signals from SV40. This expression unit was introduced into mouse Ltk- cells by calcium phosphate transfection and stable transfectants selected which express LexA protein. We have used the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (CAT) as our reporter gene. Transcription of this gene was driven by the HSV tk promoter, into which we have introduced one or two synthetic LexA operator sequences in various positions throughout the promoter. Necessary 3' signals were from the HSV tk gene. Repression by LexA was assessed by comparing the transient expression of tkCAT target constructs, containing LexA operator sequences in the promoter, in cells expressing LexA protein with that in control cells not expressing the repressor. We have observed up to 10-fold repression of CAT expression in LexA+ cells from promoters containing LexA operator sequences. Images PMID:3208758

  3. Single-Molecule Spectroscopic Determination of Lac Repressor-DNA Loop Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Michael A.; Okamoto, Kenji; Kahn, Jason D.; English, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose repressor protein (LacI) provides a classic model for understanding protein-induced DNA looping. LacI has a C-terminal four-helix bundle tetramerization domain that may act as a flexible hinge. In previous work, several DNA constructs, each containing two lac operators bracketing a sequence-induced bend, were designed to stabilize different possible looping geometries. The resulting hyperstable LacI-DNA loops exist as both a compact “closed” form with a V-shaped repressor and also a more “open” form with an extended hinge. The “9C14” construct was of particular interest because footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and ring closure experiments suggested that it forms both geometries. Previous fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements gave an efficiency of energy transfer (ET) of 70%, confirming the existence of a closed form. These measurements could not determine whether open form or intermediate geometries are populated or the timescale of interconversion. We have now applied single-molecule FRET to Cy3, Cy5 double-labeled LacI-DNA loops diffusing freely in solution. By using multiple excitation wavelengths and by carefully examining the behavior of the zero-ET peak during titration with LacI, we show that the LacI-9C14 loop exists exclusively in a single closed form exhibiting essentially 100% ET. PMID:16085773

  4. Cif is negatively regulated by the TetR family repressor CifR.

    PubMed

    MacEachran, Daniel P; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2008-07-01

    We previously reported that the novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Cif is capable of decreasing apical membrane expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). We further demonstrated that Cif is capable of degrading the synthetic epoxide hydrolase (EH) substrate S-NEPC [(2S,3S)-trans-3-phenyl-2-oxiranylmethyl 4-nitrophenol carbonate], suggesting that Cif may be reducing apical membrane expression of CFTR via its EH activity. Here we report that Cif is capable of degrading the xenobiotic epoxide epibromohydrin (EBH) to its vicinal diol 3-bromo-1,2-propanediol. We also demonstrate that this epoxide is a potent inducer of cif gene expression. We show that the predicted TetR family transcriptional repressor encoded by the PA2931 gene, which is immediately adjacent to and divergently transcribed from the cif-containing, three-gene operon, negatively regulates cif gene expression by binding to the promoter region immediately upstream of the cif-containing operon. Furthermore, this protein-DNA interaction is disrupted by the epoxide EBH in vitro, suggesting that the binding of EBH by the PA2931 protein product drives the disassociation from its DNA-binding site. Given its role as a repressor of cif gene expression, we have renamed PA2931 as CifR. Finally, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patient sputum with increased cif gene expression are impaired for the expression of the cifR gene. PMID:18458065

  5. Control of transcription of gal repressor and isorepressor genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Weickert, M J; Adhya, S

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory proteins, Gal repressor and isorepressor, control the expression of the gal and mgl operons in Escherichia coli. The transcription start sites for galR and galS, the genes for the repressor and isorepressor, were determined by primer extension of in vivo transcripts. Study of the promoter-lacZ gene fusions introduced into the chromosome indicated that galS expression was elevated in cells in which the normal galS gene was interrupted, but not in cells in which the galR gene was deleted. When both genes were disrupted, galS expression was further elevated. Expression from the galS promoter was stimulated by the addition of D-fucose, repressed by glucose, and dependent on cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). Expression of a similar gene fusion of the galR promoter to lacZ was unregulated. Both galR and galS genes contain two potential operator sites (OE and OI) and a CRP-binding site. The arrangement of OE, OI, and the CRP-binding site in the galS gene is analogous to the arrangement in the gal and mgl promoters, but the arrangement in galR is atypical. The increased concentration of the isorepressor when inducer is present may facilitate early shutoff of the isorepressor-regulated genes of the gal regulon when inducer (substrate) concentration falls. PMID:8416900

  6. Does the repressor coping style predict lower posttraumatic stress symptoms?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Hatch, John P; Cedillos, Elizabeth M; Luethcke, Cynthia A; Baker, Monty T; Peterson, Alan L; Litz, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    We tested whether a continuous measure of repressor coping style predicted lower posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 122 health care professionals serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Zero-order correlational analyses indicated that predeployment repressor coping scores negatively predicted postdeployment PTSD symptoms, r(s) = -0.29, p = 0.001, whereas predeployment Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores did not predict postdeployment PTSD symptoms, r(s) = -0.13, p = 0.14. However, predeployment trait anxiety was chiefly responsible for the association between repressor coping and PTSD symptom severity, r(s) = 0.38, p = 0.001. Four percent of the subjects qualified for a probable PTSD diagnosis. Although service members with relatively higher PTSD scores had lower repressor coping scores than did the other subjects, their level of predeployment anxiety was chiefly responsible for this relationship. Knowing someone's predeployment level of trait anxiety permits better prediction of PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed service members than does knowing his or her level of repressive coping. PMID:22128715

  7. Change of function of the wheat stress-responsive transcriptional repressor TaRAP2.1L by repressor motif modification.

    PubMed

    Amalraj, Amritha; Luang, Sukanya; Kumar, Manoj Yadav; Sornaraj, Pradeep; Eini, Omid; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Bazanova, Natalia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Nannan; Eliby, Serik; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-02-01

    Plants respond to abiotic stresses by changes in gene regulation, including stress-inducible expression of transcriptional activators and repressors. One of the best characterized families of drought-related transcription factors are dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins, known as C-repeat binding factors (CBF). The wheat DREB/CBF gene TaRAP2.1L was isolated from drought-affected tissues using a dehydration-responsive element (DRE) as bait in a yeast one-hybrid screen. TaRAP2.1L is induced by elevated abscisic acid, drought and cold. A C-terminal ethylene responsive factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, known to be responsible for active repression of target genes, was identified in the TaRAP2.1L protein. It was found that TaRAP2.1L has a unique selectivity of DNA-binding, which differs from that of DREB activators. This binding selectivity remains unchanged in a TaRAP2.1L variant with an inactivated EAR motif (TaRAP2.1Lmut). To study the role of the TaRAP2.1L repressor activity associated with the EAR motif in planta, transgenic wheat overexpressing native or mutated TaRAP2.1L was generated. Overexpression of TaRAP2.1L under constitutive and stress-inducible promoters in transgenic wheat and barley led to dwarfism and decreased frost tolerance. By contrast, constitutive overexpression of the TaRAP2.1Lmut gene had little or no negative influence on wheat development or grain yield. Transgenic lines with the TaRAP2.1Lmut transgene had an enhanced ability to survive frost and drought. The improved stress tolerance is attributed to up-regulation of several stress-related genes known to be downstream genes of DREB/CBF activators. PMID:26150199

  8. The Krüppel-associated box repressor domain can induce reversible heterochromatization of a mouse locus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Groner, Anna C; Tschopp, Patrick; Challet, Ludivine; Dietrich, Jens-Erik; Verp, Sonia; Offner, Sandra; Barde, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Ivan; Hiiragi, Takashi; Trono, Didier

    2012-07-20

    The study of chromatin and its regulators is key to understanding and manipulating transcription. We previously exploited the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) transcriptional repressor domain, present in hundreds of vertebrate-specific zinc finger proteins, to assess the effect of its binding to gene bodies. These experiments revealed that the ectopic and doxycycline (dox)-controlled tet repressor KRAB fusion protein (tTRKRAB) can induce reversible and long-range silencing of cellular promoters. Here, we extend this system to in vivo applications and use tTRKRAB to achieve externally controllable repression of an endogenous mouse locus. We employed lentiviral-mediated transgenesis with promoterless TetO-containing gene traps to engineer a mouse line where the endogenous kinesin family member 2A (Kif2A) promoter drives a YFP reporter gene. When these mice were crossed to animals expressing the TetO-binding tTRKRAB repressor, this regulator was recruited to the Kif2A locus, and YFP expression was reduced. This effect was reversed when dox was given to embryos or adult mice, demonstrating that the cellular Kif2A promoter was only silenced upon repressor binding. Molecular analyses confirmed that tTRKRAB induced transcriptional repression through the spread of H3K9me3-containing heterochromatin, without DNA methylation of the trapped Kif2A promoter. Therefore, we demonstrate that targeting of tTRKRAB to a gene body in vivo results in reversible transcriptional repression through the spreading of facultative heterochromatin. This finding not only sheds light on KRAB-mediated transcriptional processes, but also suggests approaches for the externally controllable and reversible modulation of chromatin and transcription in vivo. PMID:22605343

  9. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis. PMID:26779194

  10. ZIP: a novel transcription repressor, represses EGFR oncogene and suppresses breast carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruifang; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Wenhua; Chen, Yupeng; Gui, Bin; Liang, Jing; Wang, Yan; Sun, Luyang; Yang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Lei; Li, Yanyan; Shang, Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in animal development and malignant transformation, surprisingly little is known about the regulation of its expression. Here, we report a novel zinc finger and G-patch domain-containing protein, ZIP. We demonstrated that ZIP acts as a transcription repressor through the recruitment of the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase complex. Transcriptional target analysis revealed that ZIP regulates several cellular signalling pathways including EGFR pathways that are critically involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. We showed that ZIP inhibits cell proliferation and suppresses breast carcinogenesis, and that ZIP depletion leads to a drastic tumour growth in vivo. We found that ZIP is downregulated in breast carcinomas and that its level of expression is negatively correlated with that of EGFR. Our data indicate that ZIP is a novel transcription repressor and a potential tumour suppressor. These findings may shed new light on the EGFR-related breast carcinogenesis and might offer a potential new target for breast cancer therapy. PMID:19644445

  11. The LAMMER Kinase Homolog, Lkh1, Regulates Tup Transcriptional Repressors through Phosphorylation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Won-Hwa; Park, Yun-Hee; Park, Hee-Moon

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of the fission yeast LAMMER kinase, Lkh1, gene resulted in diverse phenotypes, including adhesive filamentous growth and oxidative stress sensitivity, but an exact cellular function had not been assigned to Lkh1. Through an in vitro pull-down approach, a transcriptional repressor, Tup12, was identified as an Lkh1 binding partner. Interactions between Lkh1 and Tup11 or Tup12 were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo binding assays. Tup proteins were phosphorylated by Lkh1 in a LAMMER motif-dependent manner. The LAMMER motif was also necessary for substrate recognition in vitro and cellular function in vivo. Transcriptional activity assays using promoters negatively regulated by Tup11 and Tup12 showed 6 or 2 times higher activity in the Δlkh1 mutant than the wild type, respectively. Northern analysis revealed derepressed expression of the fbp1+ mRNA in Δlkh1 and in Δtup11Δtup12 mutant cells under repressed conditions. Δlkh1 and Δtup11Δtup12 mutant cells showed flocculation, which was reversed by co-expression of Tup11 and -12 with Ssn6. Here, we presented a new aspect of the LAMMER kinase by demonstrating that the activities of global transcriptional repressors, Tup11 and Tup12, were positively regulated by Lkh1-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:20200159

  12. The Escherichia coli glucose transporter enzyme IICBGlc recruits the global repressor Mlc

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Tae-Wook; Cho, Seung-Hyon; Shin, Dongwoo; Kim, Ja-Hee; Jeong, Jin-Young; Lee, Joon-Hee; Roe, Jung-Hye; Peterkofsky, Alan; Kang, Sa-Ouk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Seok, Yeong-Jae

    2001-01-01

    In addition to effecting the catalysis of sugar uptake, the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system regulates a variety of physiological processes. Exposure of cells to glucose can result in repression or induction of gene expression. While the mechanism for carbon catabolite repression by glucose was well documented, that for glucose induction was not clearly understood in Escherichia coli. Recently, glucose induction of several E.coli genes has been shown to be mediated by the global repressor Mlc. Here, we elucidate a general mechanism for glucose induction of gene expression in E.coli, revealing a novel type of regulatory circuit for gene expression mediated by the phosphorylation state-dependent interaction of a membrane-bound protein with a repressor. The dephospho-form of enzyme IICBGlc, but not its phospho-form, interacts directly with Mlc and induces transcription of Mlc-regulated genes by displacing Mlc from its target sequences. Therefore, the glucose induction of Mlc-regulated genes is caused by dephosphorylation of the membrane-bound transporter enzyme IICBGlc, which directly recruits Mlc to derepress its regulon. PMID:11157755

  13. A Transcriptional Repressor ZBTB1 Promotes Chromatin Remodeling and Translesion DNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungjin; Dejsuphong, Donniphat; Adelmant, Guillaume; Ceccaldi, Raphael; Yang, Kailin; Marto, Jarrod A.; D’Andrea, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Timely DNA replication across damaged DNA is critical for maintaining genomic integrity. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) allows bypass of DNA lesions using error-prone TLS polymerases. The E3 ligase RAD18 is necessary for PCNA monoubiquitination and TLS polymerase recruitment; however, the regulatory steps upstream of RAD18 activation are less understood. Here, we show that the UBZ4 domain-containing transcriptional repressor ZBTB1 is a critical upstream regulator of TLS. The UBZ4 motif is required for PCNA monoubiquitination and survival after UV damage. ZBTB1 associates with KAP-1, a transcriptional repressor whose phosphorylation relaxes chromatin after DNA damage. ZBTB1 depletion impairs formation of phospho-KAP-1 at UV damage sites and reduces RAD18 recruitment. Furthermore, phosphorylation of KAP-1 is necessary for efficient PCNA modification. We propose that ZBTB1 is required for PCNA monoubiquitination, by localizing phospho-KAP-1 to chromatin and enhancing RAD18 accessibility. Collectively, our study implicates a new ubiquitin-binding protein in orchestrating chromatin remodeling during DNA repair. PMID:24657165

  14. Treponema denticola TroR is a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; Fenno, J Christopher; Gherardini, Frank C

    2008-01-01

    Treponema denticola harbours a genetic locus with significant homology to most of the previously characterized Treponema pallidum tro operon. Within this locus are five genes (troABCDR) encoding for the components of an ATP-binding cassette cation-transport system (troABCD) and a DtxR-like transcriptional regulator (troR). In addition, a σ70-like promoter and an 18 bp region of dyad symmetry were identified upstream of the troA start codon. This putative operator sequence demonstrated similarity to the T. pallidum TroR (TroRTp) binding sequence; however, the position of this motif with respect to the predicted tro promoters differed. Interestingly, unlike the T. pallidum orthologue, T. denticola TroR (TroRTd) possesses a C-terminal Src homology 3-like domain commonly associated with DtxR family members. In the present study, we show that TroRTd is a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor using Escherichia coli reporter constructs and in T. denticola. In addition, we demonstrate that although TroRTd possessing various C-terminal deletions maintain metal-sensing capacities, these truncated proteins exhibit reduced repressor activities in comparison with full-length TroRTd. Based upon these findings, we propose that TroRTd represents a novel member of the DtxR family of transcriptional regulators and is likely to play an important role in regulating both manganese and iron homeostases in this spirochaete. PMID:18761626

  15. Co-repressor CBFA2T2 regulates pluripotency and germline development.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shengjiang; Narendra, Varun; Yamaji, Masashi; Vidal, Simon E; Rojas, Luis Alejandro; Wang, Xiaoshi; Kim, Sang Yong; Garcia, Benjamin A; Tuschl, Thomas; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Reinberg, Danny

    2016-06-16

    Developmental specification of germ cells lies at the heart of inheritance, as germ cells contain all of the genetic and epigenetic information transmitted between generations. The critical developmental event distinguishing germline from somatic lineages is the differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of sex-specific gametes that produce an entire organism upon fertilization. Germ cells toggle between uni- and pluripotent states as they exhibit their own 'latent' form of pluripotency. For example, PGCs express a number of transcription factors in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells, including OCT4 (encoded by Pou5f1), SOX2, NANOG and PRDM14 (refs 2, 3, 4). A biochemical mechanism by which these transcription factors converge on chromatin to produce the dramatic rearrangements underlying ES-cell- and PGC-specific transcriptional programs remains poorly understood. Here we identify a novel co-repressor protein, CBFA2T2, that regulates pluripotency and germline specification in mice. Cbfa2t2(-/-) mice display severe defects in PGC maturation and epigenetic reprogramming. CBFA2T2 forms a biochemical complex with PRDM14, a germline-specific transcription factor. Mechanistically, CBFA2T2 oligomerizes to form a scaffold upon which PRDM14 and OCT4 are stabilized on chromatin. Thus, in contrast to the traditional 'passenger' role of a co-repressor, CBFA2T2 functions synergistically with transcription factors at the crossroads of the fundamental developmental plasticity between uni- and pluripotency. PMID:27281218

  16. TGF-{beta} signals the formation of a unique NF1/Smad4-dependent transcription repressor-complex in human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Luciakova, Katarina; Kollarovic, Gabriel; Kretova, Miroslava; Sabova, Ludmila; Nelson, B. Dean

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} TGF-{beta} induces the formation of unique nuclear NF1/Smad4 complexes that repress expression of the ANT-2 gene. {yields} Repression is mediated through an NF1-dependent repressor element in the promoter. {yields} The formation of NF1/Smad4 complexes and the repression of ANT2 are prevented by inhibitors of p38 kinase and TGF-{beta} RI. {yields} NF1/Smad complexes implicate novel role for NF1 and Smad proteins in the regulation of growth. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the formation of a unique nuclear NF1/Smad complex in serum-restricted fibroblasts that acts as an NF1-dependent repressor of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (ANT2) [K. Luciakova, G. Kollarovic, P. Barath, B.D. Nelson, Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex, Biochem. J. 412 (2008) 123-130]. In the present study, we show that TGF-{beta}, like serum-restriction: (a) induces the formation of NF1/Smad repressor complexes, (b) increases binding of the complexes to the repressor elements (Go elements) in the ANT2 promoter, and (c) inhibits ANT2 expression. Repression of ANT2 by TGF-{beta} is eliminated by mutating the NF1 binding sites in the Go repressor elements. All of the above responses to TGF-{beta} are prevented by inhibitors of TGF-{beta} RI and MAPK p38. These inhibitors also prevent NF1/Smad4 repressor complex formation and repression of ANT2 expression in serum-restricted cells, suggesting that similar signaling pathways are initiated by TGF-{beta} and serum-restriction. The present finding that NF1/Smad4 repressor complexes are formed through TGF-{beta} signaling pathways suggests a new, but much broader, role for these complexes in the initiation or maintenance of the growth-inhibited state.

  17. STENOFOLIA acts as a repressor in regulating leaf blade outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hao; Niu, Lifang; Tadege, Million

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that the Medicago WOX gene, STENOFOLIA (STF), acts as a transcriptional repressor in regulating leaf blade outgrowth. By using the Nicotiana sylvestris bladeless lam1 mutant as a genetic tool, we showed that the WUS-box, which is conserved among WUS clade WOX genes, is partly responsible for the repressive activity of STF. All members of the modern/WUS clade genes (WUS, WOX1-WOX7) in Arabidopsis that contain intact WUS-box can substitute for STF/LAM1 function while the intermediate and ancient clade members including WOX9,WOX11 and WOX13 cannot, due to lack of the intact WUS-box. Taken together, our results reveal a conserved repression mechanism playing a central role in cell proliferation conferred to the evolutionarily dynamic WOX gene family with acquisition of a repressor domain. PMID:23603965

  18. Structural and dynamics studies of a truncated variant of CI repressor from bacteriophage TP901-1.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar; Frandsen, Kristian E H; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Pedersen, Margit; Varming, Anders K; Hammer, Karin; Kilstrup, Mogens; Thulstrup, Peter W; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2016-01-01

    The CI repressor from the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 consists of two folded domains, an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain (NTD) and a C-terminal oligomerization domain (CTD), which we here suggest to be further divided into CTD1 and CTD2. Full-length CI is a hexameric protein, whereas a truncated version, CI∆58, forms dimers. We identify the dimerization region of CI∆58 as CTD1 and determine its secondary structure to be helical both within the context of CI∆58 and in isolation. To our knowledge this is the first time that a helical dimerization domain has been found in a phage repressor. We also precisely determine the length of the flexible linker connecting the NTD to the CTD. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and native mass spectrometry, we show that CI∆58 interacts with the OL operator site as one dimer bound to both half-sites, and with much higher affinity than the isolated NTD domain thus demonstrating cooperativity between the two DNA binding domains. Finally, using small angle X-ray scattering data and state-of-the-art ensemble selection techniques, we delineate the conformational space sampled by CI∆58 in solution, and we discuss the possible role that the dynamics play in CI-repressor function. PMID:27403839

  19. Structural and dynamics studies of a truncated variant of CI repressor from bacteriophage TP901-1

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar; Frandsen, Kristian E. H.; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Pedersen, Margit; Varming, Anders K.; Hammer, Karin; Kilstrup, Mogens; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2016-01-01

    The CI repressor from the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 consists of two folded domains, an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain (NTD) and a C-terminal oligomerization domain (CTD), which we here suggest to be further divided into CTD1 and CTD2. Full-length CI is a hexameric protein, whereas a truncated version, CI∆58, forms dimers. We identify the dimerization region of CI∆58 as CTD1 and determine its secondary structure to be helical both within the context of CI∆58 and in isolation. To our knowledge this is the first time that a helical dimerization domain has been found in a phage repressor. We also precisely determine the length of the flexible linker connecting the NTD to the CTD. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and native mass spectrometry, we show that CI∆58 interacts with the OL operator site as one dimer bound to both half-sites, and with much higher affinity than the isolated NTD domain thus demonstrating cooperativity between the two DNA binding domains. Finally, using small angle X-ray scattering data and state-of-the-art ensemble selection techniques, we delineate the conformational space sampled by CI∆58 in solution, and we discuss the possible role that the dynamics play in CI-repressor function. PMID:27403839

  20. A Conserved Network of Transcriptional Activators and Repressors Regulates Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Eudicots[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.; Davies, Kevin M.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Montefiori, Mirco; Brendolise, Cyril; Boase, Murray R.; Ngo, Hanh; Jameson, Paula E.; Schwinn, Kathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Plants require sophisticated regulatory mechanisms to ensure the degree of anthocyanin pigmentation is appropriate to myriad developmental and environmental signals. Central to this process are the activity of MYB-bHLH-WD repeat (MBW) complexes that regulate the transcription of anthocyanin genes. In this study, the gene regulatory network that regulates anthocyanin synthesis in petunia (Petunia hybrida) has been characterized. Genetic and molecular evidence show that the R2R3-MYB, MYB27, is an anthocyanin repressor that functions as part of the MBW complex and represses transcription through its C-terminal EAR motif. MYB27 targets both the anthocyanin pathway genes and basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1), itself an essential component of the MBW activation complex for pigmentation. Other features of the regulatory network identified include inhibition of AN1 activity by the competitive R3-MYB repressor MYBx and the activation of AN1, MYB27, and MYBx by the MBW activation complex, providing for both reinforcement and feedback regulation. We also demonstrate the intercellular movement of the WDR protein (AN11) and R3-repressor (MYBx), which may facilitate anthocyanin pigment pattern formation. The fundamental features of this regulatory network in the Asterid model of petunia are similar to those in the Rosid model of Arabidopsis thaliana and are thus likely to be widespread in the Eudicots. PMID:24642943

  1. The Molecular Switch of Telomere Phages: High Binding Specificity of the PY54 Cro Lytic Repressor to a Single Operator Site

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Roschanski, Nicole; Lurz, Rudi; Johne, Reimar; Lanka, Erich; Hertwig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a molecular switch, which regulates the lytic and lysogenic growth. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54 and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator. The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI, Cro and Q, respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ϕKO2 are also reminiscent of lambda-like phages. By contrast, in silico analyses revealed the presence of only one operator (OR3) in PY54. The purified PY54 Cro protein was used for EMSA studies demonstrating that it exclusively binds to a 16-bp palindromic site (OR3) upstream of the prophage repressor gene. The OR3 operator sequences of PY54 and ϕKO2/N15 only differ by their peripheral base pairs, which are responsible for Cro specificity. PY54 cI and cro transcription is regulated by highly active promoters initiating the synthesis of a homogenious species of leaderless mRNA. The location of the PY54 Cro binding site and of the identified promoters suggests that the lytic repressor suppresses cI transcription but not its own synthesis. The results indicate an unexpected diversity of the growth regulation mechanisms in lambda-related phages. PMID:26043380

  2. Genomic Mining of Prokaryotic Repressors for Orthogonal Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Brynne C.; Nielsen, Alec A.K.; Tamsir, Alvin; Clancy, Kevin; Peterson, Todd; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic circuits perform computational operations based on interactions between freely diffusing molecules within a cell. When transcription factors are combined to build a circuit, unintended interactions can disrupt its function. Here, we apply “part mining” to build a library of 73 TetR-family repressors gleaned from prokaryotic genomes. The operators of a subset were determined using an in vitro method and this information was used to build synthetic promoters. The promoters and repressors were screened for cross-reactions. Of these, 16 were identified that both strongly repress their cognate promoter (5- to 207-fold) and do not interact with other promoters. Each repressor:promoter pair was converted to a NOT gate and characterized. Used as a set of 16 NOR gates, there are >1054 circuits that could be built by changing the pattern of input and output promoters. This represents a large set of compatible gates that can be used to construct user-defined circuits. PMID:24316737

  3. SirR, a novel iron-dependent repressor in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Hill, P J; Cockayne, A; Landers, P; Morrissey, J A; Sims, C M; Williams, P

    1998-09-01

    In Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, a number of cell wall- and cytoplasmic membrane-associated lipoproteins are induced in response to iron starvation. To gain insights into the molecular basis of iron-dependent gene regulation in the staphylococci, we sequenced the DNA upstream of the 3-kb S. epidermidis sitABC operon, which Northern blot analysis indicates is transcriptionally regulated by the growth medium iron content. We identified two DNA sequences which are homologous to elements of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR regulon, which controls, in response to iron stress, for example, production of diphtheria toxin, siderophore, and a heme oxygenase. Upstream of the sitABC operon and divergently transcribed lies a 645-bp open reading frame (ORF), which codes for a polypeptide of approximately 25 kDa with homology to the DtxR family of metal-dependent repressor proteins. This ORF has been designated SirR (staphylococcal iron regulator repressor). Within the sitABC promoter/operator region, we also located a region of dyad symmetry overlapping the transcriptional start of sitABC which shows high homology to the DtxR operator consensus sequence, suggesting that this region, termed the Sir box, is the SirR-binding site. The SirR protein was overexpressed, purified, and used in DNA mobility shift assays; SirR retarded the migration of a synthetic oligonucleotide based on the Sir box in a metal (Fe2+ or Mn2+)-dependent manner, providing confirmatory evidence that this motif is the SirR-binding site. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis of staphylococcal chromosomal DNA with the synthetic Sir box as a probe confirmed that there are at least five Sir boxes in the S. epidermidis genome and at least three in the genome of S. aureus, suggesting that SirR controls the expression of multiple target genes. Using a monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against SirR to probe Western blots of whole-cell lysates of S. aureus, S. carnosus, S. epidermidis

  4. A genetic biosensor for identification of transcriptional repressors of target promoters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Li, Yue; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Keqiang; Yang, Keqian

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional repressors provide widespread biological significance in the regulation of gene expression. However, in prokaryotes, it is particularly difficult to find transcriptional repressors that recognize specific target promoters on genome-scale. To address this need, a genetic biosensor for identifying repressors of target promoters was developed in Escherichia coli from a de novo designed genetic circuit. This circuit can convert the negative input of repressors into positive output of reporters, thereby facilitating the selection and identification of repressors. After evaluating the sensitivity and bias, the biosensor was used to identify the repressors of scbA and aco promoters (PscbA and Paco), which control the transcription of signalling molecule synthase genes in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces avermitilis, respectively. Two previously unknown repressors of PscbA were identified from a library of TetR family regulators in S. coelicolor, and three novel repressors of Paco were identified from a genomic library of S. avermitilis. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed that these newly identified repressors attenuated the transcription of their target promoters by direct binding. Overall, the genetic biosensor developed here presents an innovative and powerful strategy that could be applied for identifying genome-wide unknown repressors of promoters in bacteria. PMID:26510468

  5. Conservation of Histone Binding and Transcriptional Repressor Functions in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe Tup1p Homolog

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Yukio; Matsuo, Eri; Roth, Sharon Y.; Harashima, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    The Ssn6p-Tup1p corepressor complex is important to the regulation of several diverse genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and serves as a model for corepressor functions. To investigate the evolutionary conservation of these functions, sequences homologous to the S. cerevisiae TUP1 gene were cloned from Kluyveromyces lactis (TUP1) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (tup11+). Interestingly, while the K. lactis TUP1 gene complemented an S. cerevisiae tup1 null mutation, the S. pombe tup11+ gene did not, even when expressed under the control of the S. cerevisiae TUP1 promoter. However, an S. pombe Tup11p-LexA fusion protein repressed transcription of a corresponding reporter gene, indicating that this Tup1p homolog has intrinsic repressor activity. Moreover, a chimeric protein containing the amino-terminal Ssn6p-binding domain of S. cerevisiae Tup1p and 544 amino acids from the C-terminal region of S. pombe Tup11p complemented the S. cerevisiae tup1 mutation. The failure of native S. pombe Tup11p to complement loss of Tup1p functions in S. cerevisiae corresponds to an inability to bind to S. cerevisiae Ssn6p in vitro. Disruption of tup11+ in combination with a disruption of tup12+, another TUP1 homolog gene in S. pombe, causes a defect in glucose repression of fbp1+, suggesting that S. pombe Tup1p homologs function as repressors in S. pombe. Furthermore, Tup11p binds specifically to histones H3 and H4 in vitro, indicating that both the repression and histone binding functions of Tup1p-related proteins are conserved across species. PMID:10567571

  6. Water-mediated contacts in the trp-repressor operator complex recognition process.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Fajar R; Rauch, Christine; Trieb, Michael; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Liedl, Klaus R

    2004-04-15

    Water-mediated contacts are known as an important recognition tool in trp-repressor operator systems. One of these contacts involves two conserved base pairs (G(6).C(-6) and A(5). T(-5)) and three amino acids (Lys 72, Ile 79, and Ala 80). To investigate the nature of these contacts, we analyzed the X-ray structure (PDB code: 1TRO) of the trp-repressor operator complex by means of molecular dynamics simulations. This X-ray structure contains two dimers that exhibit structural differences. From these two different starting structures, two 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations have been performed. Both of our simulations show an increase of water molecules in the major groove at one side of the dimer, while the other side remains unchanged compared to the X-ray structure. Though the maximum residence time of the concerned water molecules decreases with an increase of solvent at the interface, these water molecules continue to play an important role in mediating DNA-protein contacts. This is shown by new stable amino acids-DNA distances and a long water residence time compared to free DNA simulation. To maintain stability of the new contacts, the preferential water binding site on O6(G6) is extended. This extension agrees with mutation experiment data on A5 and G6, which shows different relative affinity due to mutation on these bases [A. Joachimiak, T. E. Haran, P. B. Sigler, EMBO Journal 1994, Vol. 13, No. (2) pp. 367-372]. Due to the rearrangements in the system, the phosphate of the base G6 is able to interconvert to the B(II) substate, which is not observed on the other half side of the complex. The decrease of the number of hydrogen bonds between protein and DNA backbone could be the initial step of the dissociation process of the complex, or in other words an intermediate complex conformation of the association process. Thus, we surmise that these features show the importance of water-mediated contacts in the trp-repressor operator recognition process. PMID

  7. Plastic downregulation of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 during maturation of human dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pantano, Serafino . E-mail: serafino.pantano@unil.ch; Jarrossay, David; Saccani, Simona; Bosisio, Daniela; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2006-05-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation links peripheral events initiated by the encounter with pathogens to the activation and expansion of antigen-specific T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we describe an as yet unrecognized modulator of human DC maturation, the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that both myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs constitutively express BCL6, which is rapidly downregulated following maturation triggered by selected stimuli. Both in unstimulated and maturing DCs, control of BCL6 protein levels reflects the convergence of several mechanisms regulating BCL6 stability, mRNA transcription and nuclear export. By regulating the induction of several genes implicated in the immune response, including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and survival genes, BCL6 may represent a pivotal modulator of the afferent branch of the immune response.

  8. Inappropriate gene activation in FSHD: a repressor complex binds a chromosomal repeat deleted in dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    Gabellini, Davide; Green, Michael R; Tupler, Rossella

    2002-08-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a common myopathy, is an autosomal dominant disease of unknown molecular mechanism. Almost all FSHD patients carry deletions of an integral number of tandem 3.3 kilobase repeats, termed D4Z4, located on chromosome 4q35. Here, we find that in FSHD muscle, 4q35 genes located upstream of D4Z4 are inappropriately overexpressed. We show that an element within D4Z4 specifically binds a multiprotein complex consisting of YY1, a known transcriptional repressor, HMGB2, an architectural protein, and nucleolin. We demonstrate that this multiprotein complex binds D4Z4 in vitro and in vivo and mediates transcriptional repression of 4q35 genes. Based upon these results, we propose that deletion of D4Z4 leads to the inappropriate transcriptional derepression of 4q35 genes resulting in disease. PMID:12176321

  9. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes two forms of a transcriptional repressor: structural and functional analysis of new viral cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Choe, J; Vaillancourt, P; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M

    1989-04-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence has established that the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least two different site-specific DNA-binding proteins, one which activates and the other which represses expression from a viral promoter (P. F. Lambert, B. A. Spalholz, and P. M. Howley, Cell 50:69-78, 1987). We have obtained data which show that a second form of the repressor gene is expressed in transformed cells harboring stable viral plasmids. The structural details of this gene have been discerned by cDNA cloning, by RNase protection, and by primer extension analysis of in vivo RNA. Moreover, data from in vitro transcription experiments support the notion that this form of the E2 repressor is expressed from a novel viral promoter and that a small exon from another ORF is linked to an active repressor domain in E2. Thus, two different forms of the repressor are expressed from different promoters and might be independently regulated either in the cell cycle or in different tissue types. We show by functional in vivo assays utilizing a cDNA vector encoding this gene that the trans-acting factor has in vivo activities similar to those of the known repressor. Our screen of a cDNA library for cDNA clones representing bovine papillomavirus transcripts has also revealed a number of other novel structures defining new donor and acceptor RNA-processing sites. Notably, clones which conceptually can be translated to yield an E7 protein, the viral M gene, and the entire E2 ORF have been characterized. Finally, truncated versions of putative E8 cDNAs were also obtained. PMID:2538655

  10. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes two forms of a transcriptional repressor: structural and functional analysis of new viral cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Choe, J; Vaillancourt, P; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M

    1989-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence has established that the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least two different site-specific DNA-binding proteins, one which activates and the other which represses expression from a viral promoter (P. F. Lambert, B. A. Spalholz, and P. M. Howley, Cell 50:69-78, 1987). We have obtained data which show that a second form of the repressor gene is expressed in transformed cells harboring stable viral plasmids. The structural details of this gene have been discerned by cDNA cloning, by RNase protection, and by primer extension analysis of in vivo RNA. Moreover, data from in vitro transcription experiments support the notion that this form of the E2 repressor is expressed from a novel viral promoter and that a small exon from another ORF is linked to an active repressor domain in E2. Thus, two different forms of the repressor are expressed from different promoters and might be independently regulated either in the cell cycle or in different tissue types. We show by functional in vivo assays utilizing a cDNA vector encoding this gene that the trans-acting factor has in vivo activities similar to those of the known repressor. Our screen of a cDNA library for cDNA clones representing bovine papillomavirus transcripts has also revealed a number of other novel structures defining new donor and acceptor RNA-processing sites. Notably, clones which conceptually can be translated to yield an E7 protein, the viral M gene, and the entire E2 ORF have been characterized. Finally, truncated versions of putative E8 cDNAs were also obtained. Images PMID:2538655

  11. FHL2 interacts with and acts as a functional repressor of Id2 in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weidong; Wu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yali; Meng, Yuanguang; Si, Yiling; Yang, Jie; Fu, Xiaobing; Yu, Li

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) is a natural inhibitor of the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors. Although Id2 is well known to prevent differentiation and promote cell-cycle progression and tumorigenesis, the molecular events that regulate Id2 activity remain to be investigated. Here, we identified that Four-and-a-half LIM-only protein 2 (FHL2) is a novel functional repressor of Id2. Moreover, we demonstrated that FHL2 can directly interact with all members of the Id family (Id1–4) via an N-terminal loop–helix structure conserved in Id proteins. FHL2 antagonizes the inhibitory effect of Id proteins on basic helix–loop–helix protein E47-mediated transcription, which was abrogated by the deletion mutation of Ids that disrupted their interaction with FHL2. We also showed a competitive nature between FHL2 and E47 for binding Id2, whereby FHL2 prevents the formation of the Id2–E47 heterodimer, thus releasing E47 to DNA and restoring its transcriptional activity. FHL2 expression was remarkably up-regulated during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, during which the expression of Id2 was opposite to that. Ectopic FHL2 expression in neuroblastoma cells markedly reduces the transcriptional and cell-cycle promoting functions of Id2. Altogether, these results indicate that FHL2 is an important repressor of the oncogenic activity of Id2 in neuroblastoma cells. PMID:19417068

  12. Transcriptional repressors, corepressors and chromatin modifying enzymes in T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Michael J.; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by the combined action of transcriptional activators and transcriptional repressors. Transcriptional repressors function by recruiting corepressor complexes containing histone-modifying enzymes to specific sites within DNA. Chromatin modifying complexes are subsequently recruited, either directly by transcriptional repressors, or indirectly via corepressor complexes and/or histone modifications, to remodel chromatin into either a transcription-friendly ‘open’ form or an inhibitory ‘closed’ form. Transcriptional repressors, corepressors and chromatin modifying complexes play critical roles throughout T cell development. Here, we highlight those genes that function to repress transcription and that have been shown to be required for T cell development. PMID:21163671

  13. A novel repressor, par-4, modulates transcription and growth suppression functions of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, R W; See, R H; Sells, S F; Wang, J; Muthukkumar, S; Englert, C; Haber, D A; Licht, J D; Sugrue, S P; Roberts, T; Rangnekar, V M; Shi, Y

    1996-01-01

    The tumor suppressor WT1 represses and activates transcription. The loss and/or imbalance of the dual transcriptional activity of WT1 may contribute to Wilms' tumor. In this study, we identified par-4 (for prostate apoptosis response) as a WT1-interacting protein that itself functions as a transcriptional repressor. par-4 contains a putative leucine zipper domain and is specifically upregulated during apoptosis of prostate cells (S. F. Sells, D. P. Wood, Jr., S. S. Joshi-Barve, S. Muthukkumar, R. J. Jacob, S. A. Crist, S. Humphreys, and V. M. Rangnekar, Cell Growth Differ. 5:457-466, 1994). The leucine repeat domain of par-4 was shown to interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of WT1. Immunoprecipitation-Western blot (immunoblot) analyses demonstrated in vivo WT1-par-4 interactions. par-4 was ubiquitously expressed, and the protein was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Functionally, par-4 inhibited transcription activated by WT1, but not by the related protein EGR1. Inhibition of WT1-mediated transcription was dependent on the domain of par-4 that mediates its physical association with WT1. In addition, par-4 augmented WT1-mediated repression, possibly by contributing an additional repression domain. Consistent with these results, par-4 functioned as a transcriptional repressor when brought to a promoter via a heterologous DNA binding domain. Significantly, par-4, but not a mutant unable to interact with WT1, rescued growth suppression caused by WT1. Thus, we identified a novel repressor that modulates transcription as well as growth suppression functions of WT1. PMID:8943350

  14. Differential regulation of RNA polymerases I, II, and III by the TBP-binding repressor Dr1.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Khoo, B C; Inostroza, J A; Reinberg, D; Jackson, S P

    1994-10-21

    RNA polymerases I, II, and III each use the TATA-binding protein (TBP). Regulators that target this shared factor may therefore provide a means to coordinate the activities of the three nuclear RNA polymerases. The repressor Dr1 binds to TBP and blocks the interaction of TBP with polymerase II- and polymerase III-specific factors. This enables Dr1 to coordinately regulate transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. Under the same conditions, Dr1 does not inhibit polymerase I transcription. By selectively repressing polymerases II and III, Dr1 may shift the physiological balance of transcriptional output in favor of polymerase I. PMID:7939686

  15. Rex (encoded by DVU_0916) in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a repressor of sulfate adenylyl transferase and is regulated by NADH.

    PubMed

    Christensen, G A; Zane, G M; Kazakov, A E; Li, X; Rodionov, D A; Novichkov, P S; Dubchak, I; Arkin, A P; Wall, J D

    2015-01-01

    Although the enzymes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction by microbes have been studied, the mechanisms for transcriptional regulation of the encoding genes remain unknown. In a number of bacteria the transcriptional regulator Rex has been shown to play a key role as a repressor of genes producing proteins involved in energy conversion. In the model sulfate-reducing microbe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, the gene DVU_0916 was observed to resemble other known Rex proteins. Therefore, the DVU_0916 protein has been predicted to be a transcriptional repressor of genes encoding proteins that function in the process of sulfate reduction in D. vulgaris Hildenborough. Examination of the deduced DVU_0916 protein identified two domains, one a winged helix DNA-binding domain common for transcription factors, and the other a Rossman fold that could potentially interact with pyridine nucleotides. A deletion of the putative rex gene was made in D. vulgaris Hildenborough, and transcript expression studies of sat, encoding sulfate adenylyl transferase, showed increased levels in the D. vulgaris Hildenborough Rex (RexDvH) mutant relative to the parental strain. The RexDvH-binding site upstream of sat was identified, confirming RexDvH to be a repressor of sat. We established in vitro that the presence of elevated NADH disrupted the interaction between RexDvH and DNA. Examination of the 5' transcriptional start site for the sat mRNA revealed two unique start sites, one for respiring cells that correlated with the RexDvH-binding site and a second for fermenting cells. Collectively, these data support the role of RexDvH as a transcription repressor for sat that senses the redox status of the cell. PMID:25313388

  16. Ultrafast force-clamp spectroscopy to probe lac repressor-DNA interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monico, Carina; Capitanio, Marco; Belcastro, Gionata; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2013-06-01

    We recently developed an ultrafast force-clamp laser trap capable to probe, under controlled force, bimolecular interactions with unprecedented temporal resolution. Here we present the technique in the framework of protein-DNA interactions, specifically on Lactose repressor protein (LacI). The high temporal resolution of the method reveals the kinetics of both short- and long-lived interactions of LacI along the DNA template (from ˜100 μs to tens of seconds), as well the dependence on force of such interaction kinetics. The two kinetically well-distinct populations of interactions observed clearly represent specific interactions with the operator sequences and a fast scanning of LacI along non-cognate DNA. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method to study the sequence-dependent affinity of DNA-binding proteins along the DNA and the effects of force on a wide range of interaction durations, including μs time scales not accessible to other single-molecule methods. This improvement in time resolution provides also important means of investigation on the long-puzzled mechanism of target search on DNA and possible protein conformational changes occurring upon target recognition.

  17. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  18. Identification of kinetin riboside as a repressor of CCND1 and CCND2 with preclinical antimyeloma activity

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, Rodger E.; Mao, Xinliang; Shi, Chang-Xin; Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Palmer, Stephen E.; Sebag, Michael; Marler, Ron; Chesi, Marta; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Stewart, A. Keith

    2008-01-01

    Knockout and transgenic studies in mice demonstrate that normal somatic tissues redundantly express 3 cyclin D proteins, whereas tumor cells seem dependent on a single overexpressed cyclin D. Thus, selective suppression of the individual cyclin D deregulated in a tumor represents a biologically valid approach to targeted cancer therapy. In multiple myeloma, overexpression of 1 of the cyclin D proteins is a ubiquitous feature, unifying at least 7 different initiating genetic events. We demonstrate here that RNAi of genes encoding cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 (CCND1 and CCND2, respectively) inhibits proliferation and is progressively cytotoxic in human myeloma cells. By screening a chemical library using a cell-based assay for inhibition of CCND2 trans-activation, we identified the plant cytokinin kinetin riboside as an inhibitor of CCND2 trans-activation. Kinetin riboside induced marked suppression of CCND2 transcription and rapidly suppressed cyclin D1 and D2 protein expression in primary myeloma cells and tumor lines, causing cell-cycle arrest, tumor cell–selective apoptosis, and inhibition of myeloma growth in xenografted mice. Mechanistically, kinetin riboside upregulated expression of transcription repressor isoforms of cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) and blocked both trans-activation of CCND2 by various myeloma oncogenes and cis-activation of translocated CCND1, suggesting induction of an overriding repressor activity that blocks multiple oncogenic pathways targeting cyclin D genes. These data support targeted repression of cyclin D genes as a therapeutic strategy for human malignancies. PMID:18431519

  19. Modular construction of mammalian gene circuits using TALE transcriptional repressors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinqing; Jiang, Yun; Chen, He; Liao, Weixi; Li, Zhihua; Weiss, Ron; Xie, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches using feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:25643171

  20. Cell Signaling Switches HOX-PBX Complexes from Repressors to Activators of Transcription Mediated by Histone Deacetylases and Histone Acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Maya; Rambaldi, Isabel; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Featherstone, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    The Hoxb1 autoregulatory element comprises three HOX-PBX binding sites. Despite the presence of HOXB1 and PBX1, this enhancer fails to activate reporter gene expression in retinoic acid-treated P19 cell monolayers. Activation requires cell aggregation in addition to RA. This suggests that HOX-PBX complexes may repress transcription under some conditions. Consistent with this, multimerized HOX-PBX binding sites repress reporter gene expression in HEK293 cells. We provide a mechanistic basis for repressor function by demonstrating that a corepressor complex, including histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 3, mSIN3B, and N-CoR/SMRT, interacts with PBX1A. We map a site of interaction with HDAC1 to the PBX1 N terminus and show that the PBX partner is required for repression by the HOX-PBX complex. Treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A not only relieves repression but also converts the HOX-PBX complex to a net activator of transcription. We show that this activation function is mediated by the recruitment of the coactivator CREB-binding protein by the HOX partner. Interestingly, HOX-PBX complexes are switched from transcriptional repressors to activators in response to protein kinase A signaling or cell aggregation. Together, our results suggest a model whereby the HOX-PBX complex can act as a repressor or activator of transcription via association with corepressors and coactivators. The model implies that cell signaling is a direct determinant of HOX-PBX function in the patterning of the animal embryo. PMID:11046157

  1. Binding of the N-terminal domain of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 CI repressor to its target DNA: a crystallography, small angle scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Kristian H; Rasmussen, Kim K; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Hammer, Karin; Pedersen, Margit; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Arleth, Lise; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2013-10-01

    In most temperate bacteriophages, regulation of the choice of lysogenic or lytic life cycle is controlled by a CI repressor protein. Inhibition of transcription is dependent on a helix-turn-helix motif, often located in the N-terminal domain (NTD), which binds to specific DNA sequences (operator sites). Here the crystal structure of the NTD of the CI repressor from phage TP901-1 has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution, and at 2.6 Å resolution in complex with a 9 bp double-stranded DNA fragment that constitutes a half-site of the OL operator. This N-terminal construct, comprising residues 2-74 of the CI repressor, is monomeric in solution as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), small angle X-ray scattering, and gel filtration and is monomeric in the crystal structures. The binding interface between the NTD and the half-site in the crystal is very similar to the interface that can be mapped by NMR in solution with a full palindromic site. The interactions seen in the complexes (in the crystal and in solution) explain the observed affinity for the OR site that is lower than that for the OL site and the specificity for the recognized DNA sequence in comparison to that for other repressors. Compared with many well-studied phage repressor systems, the NTD from TP901-1 CI has a longer extended scaffolding helix that, interestingly, is strongly conserved in putative repressors of Gram-positive pathogens. On the basis of sequence comparisons, we suggest that these bacteria also possess repressor/antirepressor systems similar to that found in phage TP901-1. PMID:24047404

  2. A knockdown with smoke model reveals FHIT as a repressor of Heme oxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Boylston, Jennifer A; Brenner, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene deletions are among the earliest and most frequent events in carcinogenesis, particularly in carcinogen-exposed tissues. Though FHIT has been established as an authentic tumor suppressor, the mechanism underlying tumor suppression remains opaque. Most experiments designed to clarify FHIT function have analyzed the consequence of re-expressing FHIT in FHIT-negative cells. However, carcinogenesis occurs in cells that transition from FHIT-positive to FHIT-negative. To better understand cancer development, we induced FHIT loss in human bronchial epithelial cells with RNA interference. Because FHIT is a demonstrated target of carcinogens in cigarette smoke, we combined FHIT silencing with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure and measured gene expression consequences by RNA microarray. The data indicate that FHIT loss enhances the expression of a set of oxidative stress response genes after exposure to CSE, including the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) at the RNA and protein levels. Data are consistent with a mechanism in which Fhit protein is required for accumulation of the transcriptional repressor of HMOX1, Bach1 protein. We posit that by allowing superinduction of oxidative stress response genes, loss of FHIT creates a survival advantage that promotes carcinogenesis. PMID:25486479

  3. Engineering Folding Dynamics from Two-State to Downhill: Application to λ-Repressor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One strategy for reaching the downhill folding regime, primarily exploited for the λ6–85 protein fragment, consists of cumulatively introducing mutations that speed up folding. This is an experimentally demanding process where chemical intuition usually serves as a guide for the choice of amino acid residues to mutate. Such an approach can be aided by computational methods that screen for protein engineering hot spots. Here we present one such method that involves sampling the energy landscape of the pseudo-wild-type protein and investigating the effect of point mutations on this landscape. Using a novel metric for the cooperativity, we identify those residues leading to the least cooperative folding. The folding dynamics of the selected mutants are then directly characterized and the differences in the kinetics are analyzed within a Markov-state model framework. Although the method is general, here we present results for a coarse-grained topology-based simulation model of λ-repressor, whose barrier is reduced from an initial value of ∼4kBT at the midpoint to ∼1kBT, thereby reaching the downhill folding regime. PMID:24079652

  4. Inducing a Site Specific Replication Blockage in E. coli Using a Fluorescent Repressor Operator System.

    PubMed

    Mettrick, Karla A; Lawrence, Nikki; Mason, Claire; Weaver, Georgia M; Corocher, Tayla-Ann; Grainge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles present on DNA, including tightly-bound proteins and various lesions, can severely inhibit the progression of the cell's replication machinery. The stalling of a replisome can lead to its dissociation from the chromosome, either in part or its entirety, leading to the collapse of the replication fork. The recovery from this collapse is a necessity for the cell to accurately complete chromosomal duplication and subsequently divide. Therefore, when the collapse occurs, the cell has evolved diverse mechanisms that take place to restore the DNA fork and allow replication to be completed with high fidelity. Previously, these replication repair pathways in bacteria have been studied using UV damage, which has the disadvantage of not being localized to a known site. This manuscript describes a system utilizing a Fluorescence Repressor Operator System (FROS) to create a site-specific protein block that can induce the stalling and collapse of replication forks in Escherichia coli. Protocols detail how the status of replication can be visualized in single living cells using fluorescence microscopy and DNA replication intermediates can be analyzed by 2-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis. Temperature sensitive mutants of replisome components (e.g. DnaBts) can be incorporated into the system to induce a synchronous collapse of the replication forks. Furthermore, the roles of the recombination proteins and helicases that are involved in these processes can be studied using genetic knockouts within this system. PMID:27583408

  5. The Effect of Nonspecific Binding of Lambda Repressor on DNA Looping Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Carlo; Zurla, Chiara; Dunlap, David D.; Finzi, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The λ repressor (CI) protein-induced DNA loop maintains stable lysogeny, yet allows efficient switching to lysis. Herein, the kinetics of loop formation and breakdown has been characterized at various concentrations of protein using tethered particle microscopy and a novel, to our knowledge, method of analysis. Our results show that a broad distribution of rate constants and complex kinetics underlie loop formation and breakdown. In addition, comparison of the kinetics of looping in wild-type DNA and DNA with mutated o3 operators showed that these sites may trigger nucleation of nonspecific binding at the closure of the loop. The average activation energy calculated from the rate constant distribution is consistent with a model in which nonspecific binding of CI between the operators shortens their effective separation, thereby lowering the energy barrier for loop formation and broadening the rate constant distribution for looping. Similarly, nonspecific binding affects the kinetics of loop breakdown by increasing the number of loop-securing protein interactions, and broadens the rate constant distribution for this reaction. Therefore, simultaneous increase of the rate constant for loop formation and reduction of that for loop breakdown stabilizes lysogeny. Given these simultaneous changes, the frequency of transitions between the looped and the unlooped state remains nearly constant. Although the loop becomes more stable thermodynamically with increasing CI concentration, it still opens periodically, conferring sensitivity to environmental changes, which may require switching to lytic conditions. PMID:23083719

  6. A novel strategy to analyze L-tryptophan through allosteric Trp repressor based on rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Hu, Tianyu; Li, Jun; Wei, Hua; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2015-09-15

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been considered as a powerful tool for nucleic acids detection. Here, a novel repressor-RCA-based method for L-tryptophan (L-Trp) detection was developed. This method utilizes the specific interaction between the RCA circular template and the Trp repressor protein (TrpR) involved in trp operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the absence of L-Trp, the TrpR protein could not bind to the RCA template, and the RCA process can be continued. When L-Trp is present, the activated TrpR will bind to the operon sequence on the RCA template and inhibit the RCA reaction. Thus, the concentration of L-Trp is correlated directly with the fluorescent RCA signals. We succeeded in detecting L-Trp in a single step in simple homogeneous reaction system. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.77 μM (S/N=3) with good linearity. The method can unambiguously distinguish L-Trp from other 19 standard amino acids and L-Trp analogs. This strategy is also promising for detecting many small molecules such as other amino acids and carbohydrates. PMID:25889351

  7. Transcriptional Repressor Domain of MBD1 is Intrinsically Disordered and Interacts with its Binding Partners in a Selective Manner

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Umar Farook Shahul; Lim, Jackwee; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Yang, Daiwen; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA CpG sites is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and plays important roles in cell division, development and carcinogenesis. One of its regulators is the 64-residue C-terminal Transcriptional Repressor Domain (the TRD) of MBD1, which recruits several repressor proteins such as MCAF1, HDAC3 and MPG that are essential for the gene silencing. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have characterized the solution structure of the C-terminus of MBD1 (MBD1-c, residues D507 to Q605), which included the TRD (A529 to P592). Surprisingly, the MBD1-c is intrinsically disordered. Despite its lack of a tertiary folding, MBD1-c could still bind to different partner proteins in a selective manner. MPG and MCAF1Δ8 showed binding to both the N-terminal and C-terminal residues of MBD1-c but HDAC3 preferably bound to the C-terminal region. This study reveals how MBD1-c discriminates different binding partners, and thus, expands our understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation by MBD1. PMID:24810720

  8. Structure of the effector-binding domain of the arabinose repressor AraR from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Procházková, Kateřina; Čermáková, Kateřina; Pachl, Petr; Sieglová, Irena; Fábry, Milan; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2012-02-01

    The crystal structure of the effector-binding domain of the transcriptional repressor AraR from B. subtilis in complex with the effector molecule (l-arabinose) was determined at 2.2 Å resolution. A detailed analysis of the crystal identified a dimer organization that is distinctive from that of other members of the GalR/LacI family. In Bacillus subtilis, the arabinose repressor AraR negatively controls the expression of genes in the metabolic pathway of arabinose-containing polysaccharides. The protein is composed of two domains of different phylogenetic origin and function: an N-terminal DNA-binding domain belonging to the GntR family and a C-terminal effector-binding domain that shows similarity to members of the GalR/LacI family. The crystal structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AraR in complex with the effector l-arabinose has been determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The l-arabinose binding affinity was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning fluorimetry; the K{sub d} value was 8.4 ± 0.4 µM. The effect of l-arabinose on the protein oligomeric state was investigated in solution and detailed analysis of the crystal identified a dimer organization which is distinctive from that of other members of the GalR/LacI family.

  9. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  10. Lac Repressor Mediated DNA Looping: Monte Carlo Simulation of Constrained DNA Molecules Complemented with Current Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Biton, Yoav Y.; Kumar, Sandip; Dunlap, David; Swigon, David

    2014-01-01

    Tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments can be used to detect time-resolved loop formation in a single DNA molecule by measuring changes in the length of a DNA tether. Interpretation of such experiments is greatly aided by computer simulations of DNA looping which allow one to analyze the structure of the looped DNA and estimate DNA-protein binding constants specific for the loop formation process. We here present a new Monte Carlo scheme for accurate simulation of DNA configurations subject to geometric constraints and apply this method to Lac repressor mediated DNA looping, comparing the simulation results with new experimental data obtained by the TPM technique. Our simulations, taking into account the details of attachment of DNA ends and fluctuations of the looped subsegment of the DNA, reveal the origin of the double-peaked distribution of RMS values observed by TPM experiments by showing that the average RMS value for anti-parallel loop types is smaller than that of parallel loop types. The simulations also reveal that the looping probabilities for the anti-parallel loop types are significantly higher than those of the parallel loop types, even for loops of length 600 and 900 base pairs, and that the correct proportion between the heights of the peaks in the distribution can only be attained when loops with flexible Lac repressor conformation are taken into account. Comparison of the in silico and in vitro results yields estimates for the dissociation constants characterizing the binding affinity between O1 and Oid DNA operators and the dimeric arms of the Lac repressor. PMID:24800809

  11. Molecular characterization of Mybbp1a as a co-repressor on the Period2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Yoshiaki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Miyazaki, Koyomi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Ishida, Norio

    2009-01-01

    The circadian clock comprises transcriptional feedback loops of clock genes. Cryptochromes are essential components of the negative feedback loop in mammals as they inhibit CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated transcription. We purified mouse CRY1 (mCRY1) protein complexes from Sarcoma 180 cells to determine their roles in circadian gene expression and discovered that Myb-binding protein 1a (Mybbp1a) interacts with mCRY1. Mybbp1a regulates various transcription factors, but its role in circadian gene expression is unknown. We found that Mybbp1a functions as a co-repressor of Per2 expression and repressed Per2 promoter activity in reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed endogenous Mybbp1a binding to the Per2 promoter that temporally matched that of mCRY1. Furthermore, Mybbp1a binding to the Per2 promoter correlated with the start of the down-regulation of Per2 expression and with the dimethylation of histone H3 Lys9, to which it could also bind. These findings suggest that Mybbp1a and mCRY1 can form complexes on the Per2 promoter that function as negative regulators of Per2 expression. PMID:19129230

  12. SPBP Is a Phosphoserine-Specific Repressor of Estrogen Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Gburcik, Valentina; Bot, Nathalie; Maggiolini, Marcello; Picard, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Multiple signaling pathways stimulate the activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα) by direct phosphorylation within its N-terminal activation function 1 (AF1). How phosphorylation affects AF1 activity remains poorly understood. We performed a phage display screen for human proteins that are exclusively recruited to the phosphorylated form of AF1 and found the stromelysin-1 platelet-derived growth factor-responsive element-binding protein (SPBP). In a purified system, SPBP bound only the in vitro-phosphorylated form of the ERα AF1 or the phosphoserine mimic S118E, and the interaction domain could be mapped to a 42-amino-acid fragment of SPBP. In cells, SPBP preferentially interacted with liganded and phosphorylated ERα. Functionally, SPBP behaved as a repressor of activated ERα, which extends its previously demonstrated roles as a DNA binding transactivation factor and coactivator of other transcription factors. By targeting the phosphorylated form of AF1, SPBP may contribute to attenuating and fine-tuning ERα activity. A functional consequence is that SPBP inhibits the proliferation of ERα-dependent but not ERα-independent breast cancer cell lines, mirroring a reported negative correlation with the ERα status of breast tumors. PMID:15831449

  13. SPBP is a phosphoserine-specific repressor of estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Gburcik, Valentina; Bot, Nathalie; Maggiolini, Marcello; Picard, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Multiple signaling pathways stimulate the activity of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) by direct phosphorylation within its N-terminal activation function 1 (AF1). How phosphorylation affects AF1 activity remains poorly understood. We performed a phage display screen for human proteins that are exclusively recruited to the phosphorylated form of AF1 and found the stromelysin-1 platelet-derived growth factor-responsive element-binding protein (SPBP). In a purified system, SPBP bound only the in vitro-phosphorylated form of the ERalpha AF1 or the phosphoserine mimic S118E, and the interaction domain could be mapped to a 42-amino-acid fragment of SPBP. In cells, SPBP preferentially interacted with liganded and phosphorylated ERalpha. Functionally, SPBP behaved as a repressor of activated ERalpha, which extends its previously demonstrated roles as a DNA binding transactivation factor and coactivator of other transcription factors. By targeting the phosphorylated form of AF1, SPBP may contribute to attenuating and fine-tuning ERalpha activity. A functional consequence is that SPBP inhibits the proliferation of ERalpha-dependent but not ERalpha-independent breast cancer cell lines, mirroring a reported negative correlation with the ERalpha status of breast tumors. PMID:15831449

  14. The net repressor is regulated by nuclear export in response to anisomycin, UV, and heat shock.

    PubMed

    Ducret, C; Maira, S M; Dierich, A; Wasylyk, B

    1999-10-01

    The ternary complex factors (TCFs) are targets for Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. They integrate the transcriptional response at the level of serum response elements in early-response genes, such as the c-fos proto-oncogene. An important aim is to understand the individual roles played by the three TCFs, Net, Elk1, and Sap1a. Net, in contrast to Elk1 and Sap1a, is a strong repressor of transcription. We now show that Net is regulated by nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling in response to specific signalling pathways. Net is mainly nuclear under both normal and basal serum conditions. Net contains two nuclear localization signals (NLSs); one is located in the Ets domain, and the other corresponds to the D box. Net also has a nuclear export signal (NES) in the conserved Ets DNA binding domain. Net is apparently unique among Ets proteins in that a particular leucine in helix 1, a structural element, generates a NES. Anisomycin, UV, and heat shock induce active nuclear exclusion of Net through a pathway that involves c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinase and is inhibited by leptomycin B. Nuclear exclusion relieves transcriptional repression by Net. The specific induction of nuclear exclusion of Net by particular signalling pathways shows that nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of transcription factors can add to the specificity of the response to signalling cascades. PMID:10490644

  15. Snail1 transcriptional repressor binds to its own promoter and controls its expression

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Sandra; Escrivà, Maria; Puig, Isabel; Barberà, Maria José; Dave, Natàlia; Herranz, Nicolás; Larriba, Maria Jesús; Takkunen, Minna; Francí, Clara; Muñoz, Alberto; Virtanen, Ismo; Baulida, Josep; de Herreros, Antonio García

    2006-01-01

    The product of Snail1 gene is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression and an inductor of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition in several epithelial tumour cell lines. Transcription of Snail1 is induced when epithelial cells are forced to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. In this work we demonstrate that Snail1 protein limits its own expression: Snail1 binds to an E-box present in its promoter (at −146 with respect to the transcription start) and represses its activity. Therefore, mutation of the E-box increases Snail1 transcription in epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Evidence of binding of ectopic or endogenous Snail1 to its own promoter was obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments. Studies performed expressing different forms of Snail1 under the control of its own promoter demonstrate that disruption of the regulatory loop increases the cellular levels of Snail protein. These results indicate that expression of Snail1 gene can be regulated by its product and evidence the existence of a fine-tuning feed-back mechanism of regulation of Snail1 transcription. PMID:16617148

  16. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  17. Transcriptional repressor NIR interacts with the p53-inhibiting ubiquitin ligase MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Kristina; Förster, Juliane; Schüle, Roland; Roemer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    NIR (novel INHAT repressor) can bind to p53 at promoters and inhibit p53-mediated gene transactivation by blocking histone acetylation carried out by p300/CBP. Like NIR, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 can also bind and inhibit p53 at promoters. Here, we present data indicating that NIR, which shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, not only binds to p53 but also directly to MDM2, in part via the central acidic and zinc finger domain of MDM2 that is also contacted by several other nucleolus-based MDM2/p53-regulating proteins. Like some of these, NIR was able to inhibit the ubiquitination of MDM2 and stabilize MDM2; however, unlike these nucleolus-based MDM2 regulators, NIR did not inhibit MDM2 to activate p53. Rather, NIR cooperated with MDM2 to repress p53-induced transactivation. This cooperative repression may at least in part involve p300/CBP. We show that NIR can block the acetylation of p53 and MDM2. Non-acetylated p53 has been documented previously to more readily associate with inhibitory MDM2. NIR may thus help to sustain the inhibitory p53:MDM2 complex, and we present evidence suggesting that all three proteins can indeed form a ternary complex. In sum, our findings suggest that NIR can support MDM2 to suppress p53 as a transcriptional activator. PMID:24413661

  18. Calcitonin Induces Expression of the Inducible cAMP Early Repressor in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Maobin; Kream, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP response element modulator gene (Crem) encodes a variety of transcriptional regulators including the inducible cAMP early repressor, ICER. We previously showed that Crem knockout mice, which are deficient in CREM and ICER factors, display slightly increased long bone mass and decreased osteoclast number. These data are consistent with the notion that Crem regulates bone mass in part through an effect on osteoclast formation and/or function. Since ICER is strongly induced by cAMP, we asked whether the calcium-regulating hormone calcitonin, which stimulates cAMP production and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption, could induce ICER in osteoclasts. The monocytic cell line RAW264.7 was treated with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclast formation. Calcitonin caused a time- and dose-dependent induction of ICER mRNA and an increase in ICER protein abundance in RANKL-treated RAW264.7 cells. Calcitonin also induced ICER mRNA and protein in osteoclasts derived from primary mouse bone marrow cell cultures. Calcitonin-treated osteoclasts showed immunoreactivity with an anti-CREM antibody. Calcitonin decreased the activity of wild type and Crem knockout osteoclasts in vitro, and this inhibitory effect was greater in Crem knockout osteoclasts. Furthermore, calcitonin decreased calcitonin receptor mRNA expression in wild type osteoclasts but not in Crem knockout osteoclasts. These data suggest that calcitonin induction of ICER in osteoclasts might regulate osteoclast activity. PMID:19016003

  19. Course 1: Physics of Protein-DNA Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, R. F.

    1 Introduction 1.1 The central dogma and bacterial gene expression 1.2 Molecular structure 2 Thermodynamics and kinetics of repressor-DNA interaction 2.1 Thermodynamics and the lac repressor 2.2 Kinetics of repressor-DNA interaction 3 DNA deformability and protein-DNA interaction 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The worm-like chain 3.3 The RST model 4 Electrostatics in water and protein-DNA interaction 4.1 Macro-ions and aqueous electrostatics 4.2 The primitive model 4.3 Manning condensation 4.4 Counter-ion release and non-specific protein-DNA interaction

  20. The Molecular Switch of Telomere Phages: High Binding Specificity of the PY54 Cro Lytic Repressor to a Single Operator Site.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Roschanski, Nicole; Lurz, Rudi; Johne, Reimar; Lanka, Erich; Hertwig, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a molecular switch, which regulates the lytic and lysogenic growth. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54 and ɸKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator. The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI, Cro and Q, respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ɸKO2 are also reminiscent of lambda-like phages. By contrast, in silico analyses revealed the presence of only one operator (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\)3) in PY54. The purified PY54 Cro protein was used for EMSA studies demonstrating that it exclusively binds to a 16-bp palindromic site (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\)3) upstream of the prophage repressor gene. The O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\)3 operator sequences of PY54 and ɸKO2/N15 only differ by their peripheral base pairs, which are responsible for Cro specificity. PY54 cI and cro transcription is regulated by highly active promoters initiating the synthesis of a homogenious species of leaderless mRNA. The location of the PY54 Cro binding site and of the identified promoters suggests that the lytic repressor suppresses cI transcription but not its own synthesis. The results indicate an unexpected diversity of the growth regulation mechanisms in lambda-related phages. PMID:26043380

  1. The variant Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 component PCGF1 interacts with a pluripotency sub-network that includes DPPA4, a regulator of embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Giorgio; Munawar, Nayla; Watson, Ariane; Streubel, Gundula; Manning, Gwendolyn; Bardwell, Vivian; Bracken, Adrian P; Cagney, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    PCGF1 encodes one of six human Polycomb RING finger homologs that are linked to transcriptional repression and developmental gene regulation. Individual PCGF proteins define discrete Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 (PRC1) multi-protein complexes with diverse subunit composition whose functions are incompletely understood. PCGF1 is a component of a variant PRC1 complex that also contains the BCL6 co-repressor BCOR and the histone demethylase KDM2B. To further investigate the role of PCGF1, we mapped the physical interactions of the protein under endogenous conditions in a cell model of neuronal differentiation. Using stringent statistical cut-offs, 83 highly enriched interacting proteins were identified, including all previously reported members of the variant PRC1 complex containing PCGF1, as well as proteins linked to diverse cellular pathways such as chromatin and cell cycle regulation. Notably, a sub-network of proteins associated with the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency (NANOG, OCT4, PATZ1, and the developmental regulator DPPA4) were found to independently interact with PCGF1 in a subsequent round of physical interaction mapping experiments. Furthermore, knockdown of PCGF1 results in reduced expression of DPPA4 and other subunits of the variant PRC1 complex at both mRNA and protein levels. Thus, PCGF1 represents a physical and functional link between Polycomb function and pluripotency. PMID:26687479

  2. The variant Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 component PCGF1 interacts with a pluripotency sub-network that includes DPPA4, a regulator of embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Oliviero, Giorgio; Munawar, Nayla; Watson, Ariane; Streubel, Gundula; Manning, Gwendolyn; Bardwell, Vivian; Bracken, Adrian P.; Cagney, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    PCGF1 encodes one of six human Polycomb RING finger homologs that are linked to transcriptional repression and developmental gene regulation. Individual PCGF proteins define discrete Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 (PRC1) multi-protein complexes with diverse subunit composition whose functions are incompletely understood. PCGF1 is a component of a variant PRC1 complex that also contains the BCL6 co-repressor BCOR and the histone demethylase KDM2B. To further investigate the role of PCGF1, we mapped the physical interactions of the protein under endogenous conditions in a cell model of neuronal differentiation. Using stringent statistical cut-offs, 83 highly enriched interacting proteins were identified, including all previously reported members of the variant PRC1 complex containing PCGF1, as well as proteins linked to diverse cellular pathways such as chromatin and cell cycle regulation. Notably, a sub-network of proteins associated with the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency (NANOG, OCT4, PATZ1, and the developmental regulator DPPA4) were found to independently interact with PCGF1 in a subsequent round of physical interaction mapping experiments. Furthermore, knockdown of PCGF1 results in reduced expression of DPPA4 and other subunits of the variant PRC1 complex at both mRNA and protein levels. Thus, PCGF1 represents a physical and functional link between Polycomb function and pluripotency. PMID:26687479

  3. Single molecule analysis of DNA wrapping and looping by a circular 14mer wheel of the bacteriophage 186 CI repressor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haowei; Dodd, Ian B; Dunlap, David D; Shearwin, Keith E; Finzi, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The lytic-lysogenic decision in bacteriophage 186 is governed by the 186 CI repressor protein in a unique way. The 186 CI is proposed to form a wheel-like oligomer that can mediate either wrapped or looped nucleoprotein complexes to provide the cooperative and competitive interactions needed for regulation. Although consistent with structural, biochemical and gene expression data, many aspects of this model are based on inference. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to reveal the various predicted wrapped and looped species, and new ones, for CI regulation of lytic and lysogenic transcription. Automated AFM analysis showed CI particles of the predicted dimensions on the DNA, with CI multimerization favoured by DNA binding. Measurement of the length of the wrapped DNA segments indicated that CI may move on the DNA, wrapping or releasing DNA on either side of the wheel. Tethered particle motion experiments were consistent with wrapping and looping of DNA by CI in solution, where in contrast to λ repressor, the looped species were exceptionally stable. The CI regulatory system provides an intriguing comparison with that of nucleosomes, which share the ability to wrap and release similar sized segments of DNA. PMID:23620280

  4. Molecular Binding Mechanism of TtgR Repressor to Antibiotics and Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Escamilla, Ana Maria; Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Morel, Bertrand; Casares-Atienza, Salvador; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    A disturbing phenomenon in contemporary medicine is the prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Efflux pumps contribute strongly to this antimicrobial drug resistance, which leads to the subsequent failure of clinical treatments. The TtgR protein of Pseudomonas putida is a HTH-type transcriptional repressor that controls expression of the TtgABC efflux pump, which is the main contributor to resistance against several antimicrobials and toxic compounds in this microbe. One of the main strategies to modulate the bacterial resistance is the rational modification of the ligand binding target site. We report the design and characterization of four mutants-TtgRS77A, TtgRE78A, TtgRN110A and TtgRH114A - at the active ligand binding site. The biophysical characterization of the mutants, in the presence and in the absence of different antimicrobials, revealed that TtgRN110A is the variant with highest thermal stability, under any of the experimental conditions tested. EMSA experiments also showed a different dissociation pattern from the operator for TtgRN110A, in the presence of several antimicrobials, making it a key residue in the TtgR protein repression mechanism of the TtgABC efflux pump. We found that TtgRE78A stability is the most affected upon effector binding. We also probe that one mutation at the C-terminal half of helix-α4, TtgRS77A, provokes a severe protein structure distortion, demonstrating the important role of this residue in the overall protein structure and on the ligand binding site. The data provide new information and deepen the understanding of the TtgR-effector binding mechanism and consequently the TtgABC efflux pump regulation mechanism in Pseudomonas putida. PMID:26422008

  5. Loss of the co-repressor GPS2 sensitizes macrophage activation upon metabolic stress induced by obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rongrong; Toubal, Amine; Goñi, Saioa; Drareni, Karima; Huang, Zhiqiang; Alzaid, Fawaz; Ballaire, Raphaelle; Ancel, Patricia; Liang, Ning; Damdimopoulos, Anastasios; Hainault, Isabelle; Soprani, Antoine; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Foufelle, Fabienne; Lawrence, Toby; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Venteclef, Nicolas; Treuter, Eckardt

    2016-07-01

    Humans with obesity differ in their susceptibility to developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This variation may relate to the extent of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation that develops as their obesity progresses. The state of macrophage activation has a central role in determining the degree of AT inflammation and thus its dysfunction, and these states are driven by epigenomic alterations linked to gene expression. The underlying mechanisms that regulate these alterations, however, are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that a co-repressor complex containing G protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2) crucially controls the macrophage epigenome during activation by metabolic stress. The study of AT from humans with and without obesity revealed correlations between reduced GPS2 expression in macrophages, elevated systemic and AT inflammation, and diabetic status. The causality of this relationship was confirmed by using macrophage-specific Gps2-knockout (KO) mice, in which inappropriate co-repressor complex function caused enhancer activation, pro-inflammatory gene expression and hypersensitivity toward metabolic-stress signals. By contrast, transplantation of GPS2-overexpressing bone marrow into two mouse models of obesity (ob/ob and diet-induced obesity) reduced inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, our data reveal a potentially reversible disease mechanism that links co-repressor-dependent epigenomic alterations in macrophages to AT inflammation and the development of T2D. PMID:27270589

  6. Investigation of the structural determinants of the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the trp repressor using single tryptophan mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Royer, C A

    1992-01-01

    The fluorescence decay properties of wild-type trp repressor (TR) have been characterized by carrying out a multi-emission wavelength study of the frequency response profiles. The decay is best analyzed in terms of a single exponential decay near 0.5 ns and a distribution of lifetimes centered near 3-4 ns. By comparing the recovered decay associated spectra and lifetime values with the structure of the repressor, tentative assignments of the two decay components recovered from the analysis to the two tryptophan residues, W19 and W99, of the protein have been made. These assignments consist of linking the short, red emitting component to emission from W99 and most of the longer bluer emitting lifetime distribution to emission from W19. Next, single tryptophan mutants of the repressor in which one of each of the tryptophan residues was substituted by phenylalanine were used to confirm the preliminary assignments, inasmuch as the 0.5-ns component is clearly due to emission from tryptophan 99, and much of the decay responsible for the recovered distribution emanates from tryptophan 19. The data demonstrate, however, that the decay of the wild-type protein is not completely resolvable due both to the large number of components in the wild-type emission (at least five) as well as to the fact that three of the five lifetime components are very close in value. The fluorescence decay of the wild-type decay is well described as a combination of the components found in each of the mutants. However, whereas the linear combination analysis of the 15 data sets (5 from the wild-type and each mutant) yields a good fit for the components recovered previously for the two mutants, the amplitudes of these components in the wild-type are not recovered in the expected ratios. Because of the dominance of the blue shifted emission in the wild-type protein, it is most likely that subtle structural differences in the wild-type as compared with the mutants, rather than energy transfer from

  7. REST is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional repressor

    PubMed Central

    Cavadas, Miguel A. S.; Mesnieres, Marion; Crifo, Bianca; Manresa, Mario C.; Selfridge, Andrew C.; Keogh, Ciara E.; Fabian, Zsolt; Scholz, Carsten C.; Nolan, Karen A.; Rocha, Liliane M. A.; Tambuwala, Murtaza M.; Brown, Stuart; Wdowicz, Anita; Corbett, Danielle; Murphy, Keith J.; Godson, Catherine; Cummins, Eoin P.; Taylor, Cormac T.; Cheong, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to hypoxia results in altered gene expression in a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Discrete cohorts of genes can be either up- or down-regulated in response to hypoxia. While the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) is the primary driver of hypoxia-induced adaptive gene expression, less is known about the signalling mechanisms regulating hypoxia-dependent gene repression. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that equivalent numbers of genes are induced and repressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that nuclear localization of the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is induced in hypoxia and that REST is responsible for regulating approximately 20% of the hypoxia-repressed genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that REST-dependent gene repression is at least in part mediated by direct binding to the promoters of target genes. Based on these data, we propose that REST is a key mediator of gene repression in hypoxia. PMID:27531581

  8. REST is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Miguel A S; Mesnieres, Marion; Crifo, Bianca; Manresa, Mario C; Selfridge, Andrew C; Keogh, Ciara E; Fabian, Zsolt; Scholz, Carsten C; Nolan, Karen A; Rocha, Liliane M A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Brown, Stuart; Wdowicz, Anita; Corbett, Danielle; Murphy, Keith J; Godson, Catherine; Cummins, Eoin P; Taylor, Cormac T; Cheong, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to hypoxia results in altered gene expression in a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Discrete cohorts of genes can be either up- or down-regulated in response to hypoxia. While the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) is the primary driver of hypoxia-induced adaptive gene expression, less is known about the signalling mechanisms regulating hypoxia-dependent gene repression. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that equivalent numbers of genes are induced and repressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that nuclear localization of the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is induced in hypoxia and that REST is responsible for regulating approximately 20% of the hypoxia-repressed genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that REST-dependent gene repression is at least in part mediated by direct binding to the promoters of target genes. Based on these data, we propose that REST is a key mediator of gene repression in hypoxia. PMID:27531581

  9. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-02-18

    The RpoS/σ(S) sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σ(S)-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σ(S) has been proposed to result largely from competition between σ(S) and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σ(S) binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σ(S) protein proficient for Eσ(S) complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σ(S) requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σ(S) are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by Eσ(S). PMID:25578965

  10. Repressor activity of the RpoS/σS-dependent RNA polymerase requires DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lévi-Meyrueis, Corinne; Monteil, Véronique; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Kolb, Annie; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Duarte, Sara Serradas; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Beraud, Mélanie; Norel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The RpoS/σS sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) activates transcription of stationary phase genes in many Gram-negative bacteria and controls adaptive functions, including stress resistance, biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, we address an important but poorly understood aspect of σS-dependent control, that of a repressor. Negative regulation by σS has been proposed to result largely from competition between σS and other σ factors for binding to a limited amount of core RNAP (E). To assess whether σS binding to E alone results in significant downregulation of gene expression by other σ factors, we characterized an rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium producing a σS protein proficient for EσS complex formation but deficient in promoter DNA binding. Genome expression profiling and physiological assays revealed that this mutant was defective for negative regulation, indicating that gene repression by σS requires its binding to DNA. Although the mechanisms of repression by σS are likely specific to individual genes and environmental conditions, the study of transcription downregulation of the succinate dehydrogenase operon suggests that σ competition at the promoter DNA level plays an important role in gene repression by EσS. PMID:25578965