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Sample records for reproductive behaviour aspects

  1. [Reproductive aspects of celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2005-01-01

    In the past, celiac disease (CD), or intolerance to gluten, was considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are other clinic and subclinical forms which appear later in life. Target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and female and male reproductive systems. CD interference on reproduction is related to the multifactorial nature of the disease, whose pathological manifestations can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K, which are essential for organogenesis, and fat-soluble vitamins important for spermatogenesis. Regarding endocrine disorders, the deficiencies of specific trace elements on ovarian function could explain its involvement in the increased risk of female osteoporosis in CD patients. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens; the increases of follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, not associated with infertility, may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health. Since reproductive alterations are reversible, adoption of a gluten-free diet supported by early diagnosis is important. Therefore, the detection of early biomarkers, such as deficiencies of vitamins and/or iron and andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions, should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:16250182

  2. [Behaviour of laying hens in aviaries--review. Part 2: Feeding behaviour, reproductive and dust bathing behaviour of chickens].

    PubMed

    Moesta, A; Briese, A; Knierim, U; Hartung, J

    2008-01-01

    This literature review gives information about important behaviour patterns concerning feeding, reproduction and dust bathing of laying hens kept in aviary systems. The behaviour of hens in aviaries is compared to the behaviour of hens living under "close to natural" conditions. Feeding behaviour can be performed to a great extent in aviaries. The same is true for nesting behaviour, while mating behaviour can only be shown in mixed flocks. Dust bathing behaviour in aviaries should be further investigated. Although a litter area is provided and therefore dust bathing is basically possible, further research is needed, to which amount dust bathing behaviour is performed and how it is influenced by composition and height of the dust bathing substrate. Feather pecking and cannibalism can cause more deaths in housing systems with large groups of birds than in cage systems. Considering these results and the results of a first paper dealing with social and resting behaviour, aviaries provide an environment, where hens can perform a large part of their species typical behaviour repertoire. Therefore, under the aspect of behaviour, for laying hens in aviaries the potential to experience good welfare can be evaluated as fairly high. PMID:18265752

  3. Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H

    2016-05-25

    Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system. PMID:27194703

  4. Researching sexual and reproductive behaviour: a peer ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, ethnographic research has challenged the notion within demography that fertility-related behaviour is the outcome of individualistic calculations of the costs and benefits of having children. Anthropology has further criticised the abstraction in demographic analysis of sexual behaviour and fertility decision-making from the socio-cultural and political context in which the individual or couple is located. Within demography itself, institutional and political-economic analyses have argued strongly that sexual and reproductive behaviour must be understood within locally specific social, cultural, economic and political contexts. Positivist and empiricist research methods, such as the sample survey and focus groups, which continue to dominate demographic inquiry and applied research into sexual and reproductive behaviour, have been shown to be limited in their ability to inform about the process of behaviour change and contexts within which different behaviours occur. The article introduces a new methodology for researching sexual and reproductive behaviour, called the peer ethnographic approach, which the authors have developed in an attempt to address some of the limitations of the methods which currently dominate research into sexual and reproductive behaviour. The peer ethnographic methodology is discussed in detail and the results of recent field-testing are reported, which show that, although the approach has limitations, it also has the potential to make a significant contribution to our understanding of sexual and reproductive behaviour. PMID:12231012

  5. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  6. The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Fikree, F F; Berendes, H W

    2000-01-01

    The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990-91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15-49 years. The results show that pregnancies became increasingly unwanted as the number of surviving sons increased. The sex of surviving children was strongly correlated with subsequent fertility and contraceptive behaviour. However, rather than an exclusive son preference, couples strove for one or more sons and at least one surviving daughter. The policy implications of the link between overt son preference and low status of women are discussed. PMID:10812738

  7. Chronic perchlorate exposure impairs stickleback reproductive behaviour and swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Richard R.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We describe behavioural changes in two generations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of perchlorate. The first generation (G0,2002) was exposed as two-year-old adults to perchlorate in experimental groups ranging in concentration from less than the method detection limit (<1.1 ppb) to 18.6 ppm for up to 22 days during their courtship, spawning, egg guarding, and first five days of fry guarding. No differences were noted in the behaviour or reproductive output of these fish that were exposed as adults. However, perchlorate exposure throughout development caused widespread effects in the second generation (G1,2003), which was spawned and raised through sexual maturity in one of four nominal experimental groups (0, 30 and 100 ppm, and a ‘variable’ treatment that progressively increased from <1.1 ppb to approximately 60 ppm perchlorate). Dose-dependent effects were found during the G1,2003’s swimming and behavioural evaluations, including higher mortality rates among treated fish following stressful events. Perchlorate-exposed fish had higher failure rates during swimming trials and failed at lower flow rates than control fish. A number of treated fish exhibited seizures. Progressively fewer males completed benchmark metrics, such as nest building, spawning, nursery formation, or fry production, in a dose-dependent manner. Fewer males from higher treatments courted females, and those that did initiated courtship later and had a reduced behavioural repertoire compared to fish from lower treatments. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for swimming performance, reproductive behaviour, survivorship and recruitment was 30 ppm perchlorate (our lowest G1,2003 treatment), and near complete inhibition of reproductive activity was noted among males raised in 100 ppm perchlorate. A small number of treated G1,2003 females were isolated in aquaria, and some performed reproductive

  8. [Network of researchers on the health aspects of reproduction].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    A symposium held 3-5 May 1990 commemorated the anniversary of the "Network" by presentations on the health aspects of reproduction in Africa. Prof. Sambra Diarra of the Ivory Coast presented a paper on "Health of Reproduction in Africa, Bi-Dimensional Problems: Biomedical and Social." He stressed the need to emphasize both maternal (MM) and infant mortality (IM) in Africa, where MM rates are 640/100,000 and IMR are 130/1000, because they remain so high. Prof. Fadel Diadhiou of Senegal followed with a paper on "Operations Research on Women's Reproductive Health in Africa." The major themes were that problems in reproductive health have resulted because of the fragmentation between the ecosystem and development and the lack of research is due to the isolation of institutions that lack human and material resources. The 3rd presentation by Prof. Mouhamadou Fall of Senegal on "The Health of Children and the Perspectives for Senegal," focused on the increasing infant and child mortality rates in Senegal (238/1000 in 1981) due to the combination of factors caused by the mother-child syndrome. These are: 1) congenital malformations caused by incest, young or advanced age of mothers; 2) diseases of the mother that cause fetal mortality: diabetes, arterial hypertension, eclampsia; 3) lack of breastfeeding and illiteracy of mothers; 4) public health diseases such as measles, malaria, diarrhea; 5) streptococcic infections and their complications such as anemia and tuberculosis. The last presentation made by Prof. Eusebe Alihonou from Benin on the "Perspectives and Priorities of Reproductive Health in Africa," concluded that the research priorities in Africa should be on health systems that lower utilization rates of services and resources and on epidemiological studies that identify health problems and analyze the risk factors. The Symposium concluded that the research priorities should be: maternal morbidity and mortality; adolescents and reproduction and the morbidity and

  9. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Alhaji; Barley, Kamal; Hurtado, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary) and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local) factors ρ-α behavioural space. Mainly, (1) disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2) behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3) elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance) are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes. PMID:26972513

  10. Reproductive Behaviour Evolves Rapidly When Intralocus Sexual Conflict Is Removed

    PubMed Central

    Bedhomme, Stéphanie; Prasad, Nagaraj G.; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Chippindale, Adam K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intralocus sexual conflict can inhibit the evolution of each sex towards its own fitness optimum. In a previous study, we confirmed this prediction through the experimental removal of female selection pressures in Drosophila melanogaster, achieved by limiting the expression of all major chromosomes to males. Compared to the control populations (C1-4) where the genomes are exposed to selection in both sexes, the populations with male-limited genomes (ML1-4) showed rapid increases in male fitness, whereas the fitness of females expressing ML-evolved chromosomes decreased [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine the behavioural phenotype underlying this sexual antagonism. We show that males expressing the ML genomes have a reduced courtship level but acquire the same number of matings. On the other hand, our data suggest that females expressing the ML genomes had reduced attractiveness, stimulating a lower rate of courtship from males. Moreover, females expressing ML genomes tend to display reduced yeast-feeding behaviour, which is probably linked to the reduction of their fecundity. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that reproductive behaviour is shaped by opposing selection on males and females, and that loci influencing attractiveness and foraging were polymorphic for alleles with sexually antagonistic expression patterns prior to ML selection. Hence, intralocus sexual conflict appears to play a role in the evolution of a wide range of fitness-related traits and may be a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness. PMID:18478127

  11. Ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction practice in Asia.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Shushan, A

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction technology (ART) that have been instituted in Asian countries. The data were collected by a questionnaire circulated to ART units in Asia. These are Taiwan, Singapore, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Iran, India, Jordan, Malaysia, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Persian Gulf countries. According to the survey, there are approximately 260 ART centers in Asia (half of which are in Japan). On a global basis each ART centre in Asia serves an average population of 13 million people. On the other hand, in those Asian countries where the standards of living are relatively high, the availability of ART services, including the more sophisticated and costly ART procedures like micromanipulation, is similar to that in the Western world. In most of the Asian countries practising ART, however, no state registry exists. Taiwan is the only country that has specific legislation, and in six other countries some kind of ministerial regulations are practised. We conclude that ART is now practised in 20 countries in Asia. The prevailing rules and cultural heritage in many of these Asian countries has a major influence on the implementation of ART in Asia. However, in view of the complicated and sensitive issues involved, and as no supervision on ART clinics exists in most of the Asian countries, we advocate that some kind of quality control should be urgently instituted in all centres practising ART. In this way, it is hoped that the highest standards be attained for all parties concerned. PMID:8671351

  12. The legal aspects of parental rights in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, John K; Ciccarelli, Janice C

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different legal approaches that are used in various jurisdictions to determine parental rights and obligations of the parties involved in third party assisted reproduction. Additionally, the paper explores the differing legal models that are used depending on the method of surrogacy being utilized. The data demonstrates that a given method of surrogacy may well result in different procedures and outcomes regarding parental rights in different jurisdictions. This suggests the need for a uniform method to resolve parental rights where assisted reproductive technology is involved. PMID:17073027

  13. Drifting behaviour as an alternative reproductive strategy for social insect workers.

    PubMed

    Blacher, Pierre; Yagound, Boris; Lecoutey, Emmanuel; Devienne, Paul; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2013-11-22

    Restricted reproduction is traditionally posited as the defining feature of eusocial insect workers. The discovery of worker reproduction in foreign colonies challenges this view and suggests that workers' potential to pursue selfish interests may be higher than previously believed. However, whether such reproductive behaviour truly relies on a reproductive decision is still unknown. Workers' reproductive decisions thus need to be investigated to assess the extent of workers' reproductive options. Here, we show in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris that drifting is a distinct strategy by which fertile workers circumvent competition in their nest and reproduce in foreign colonies. By monitoring workers' movements between colonies, we show that drifting is a remarkably dynamic behaviour, widely expressed by both fertile and infertile workers. We demonstrate that a high fertility is, however, central in determining the propensity of workers to enter foreign colonies as well as their subsequent reproduction in host colonies. Moreover, our study shows that the drifting of fertile workers reflects complex decision-making processes associated with in-nest reproductive competition. This novel finding therefore adds to our modern conception of cooperation by showing the previously overlooked importance of alternative strategies which enable workers to assert their reproductive interests. PMID:24068358

  14. Adipose tissue and the reproductive axis: biological aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of leptin clearly demonstrated a relationship between body fat and the neuroendocrine axis since leptin influences appetite and the reproductive axis. Since adipose tissue is a primary source of leptin, adipose tissue is no longer considered as simply a depot to store fat. Recent find...

  15. Prepubertal and pubertal canine reproductive studies: conflicting aspects.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient knowledge has been acquired regarding the prepubertal and pubertal periods of domestic canids. Until further information becomes available, a better standardization of the definitions, a careful and complete description of experimental variables and end points is necessary to diminish experimental bias in published trials. The aim of this report is therefore to discuss the definition of puberty and some of the most conflicting conditions influencing the pubertal transition (e.g. age and body weight and condition score among others) that, in turn, will be useful for the future design of reproductive studies on the domestic dog. Only trials that could be easily processed by a meta-analysis will contribute to an improvement of our general knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this particular species. PMID:25251604

  16. Deficits in reproductive behaviour in septally lesioned female rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C

    1991-12-01

    Estrous cycle and sexual behaviour were studied in septally lesioned female albino Wistar rats. In lesioned rats the vaginal smears showed continuous diestrus and the females failed to exhibit sexual receptivity during the postoperative period. Ovarian and uterine weights in lesioned rats were also significantly decreased. The results suggest that the septal nuclei exert a modulatory influence on female sexual behaviour. PMID:1816101

  17. Influence of behavioural tactics on recruitment and reproductive trajectory in the kittiwake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Cadiou, B.; Hines, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence that, in birds, inexperienced breeders have a lower probability of breeding successfully. This is often explained by lack of skills and knowledge, and sometimes late laying dates in the first breeding attempt. There is growing evidence that in many species with deferred reproduction, some prebreeders attend breeding places, acquire territories and form pairs. Several behavioural tactics assumed to be associated with territory acquisition have been described in different species. These tactics may influence the probability of recruiting in the breeding segment of the population, age of first breeding, and reproductive success in the first breeding attempt. Here we addressed the influence of behaviour ('squatting') during the prebreeding period on demographic parameters (survival and recruitment probability) in a long-lived colonial seabird species: the kittiwake. We also investigated the influence of behaviour on reproductive trajectory. Squatters have a higher survival and recruitment probability, and a higher probability of breeding successfully in the first breeding attempt in all age-classes where this category is represented. The influence of behaviour is mainly expressed in the first reproduction. However, there is a relationship between breeding success in the first occasion and subsequent occasions. The influence of breeding success in the first breeding attempt on the rest of the trajectory may indirectly reflect the influence of behaviour on breeding success in the first occasion. The shape of the reproductive trajectory is influenced by behaviour and age of first breeding. There is substantial individual variation from the mean reproductive trajectory, which is accounted for by heterogeneity in performance among individuals in the first attempt, but there is no evidence of individual heterogeneity in the rate of change over time in performance in subsequent breeding occasions

  18. Reproductive biology knowledge, and behaviour of teenagers in East, Central and Southern Africa: the Zimbabwe case study.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Rusakaniko, S; Gumbo, J; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Sebina-Zziwa; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1995-11-01

    Sexuality in the teenager is often complicated by unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the risks of STDs including AIDS. There is therefore a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, risk awareness and subsequent behavioural outcomes. A multicentre study of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour followed by a health education intervention was undertaken amongst teenagers in selected countries of East, Central and Southern Africa. Reported here are findings at baseline derived from the Zimbabwe component on reproductive biology knowledge and behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used among 1 689 adolescent pupils drawn from rural, urban, co-education, single sex, boarding and day secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Correct knowledge on reproductive biology as measured by the meaning and interpretation of menstruation and wet dreams varied by school from 68 pc to 86 pc, with a significant trend (p < 0,01) based on level of education at baseline. The reported mean age at which menarche took place was 13,5 years +/- 1,3 (mean +/- SD). First coitus was reported to have taken place at the mean age of 12 years for boys and 13,6 years for girls. Seventeen pc of the adolescent pupils reported that they were sexually experienced and 33,2 had relationships. There were misconceptions reported on menstruation with 23 pc reporting that it was an illness. Peers, followed by magazines were the first sources of information on various aspects of reproductive biology, both of which might not provide the correct first information. Among pupils reporting that they were sexually experienced, the largest proportion (56 pc) had unprotected sex. The findings point to the need for targeting the adolescent pupils for information on reproductive biology and increased awareness on the risks of pregnancy, STDs and HIV. PMID:8932577

  19. Sex in troubled waters: Widespread agricultural contaminant disrupts reproductive behaviour in fish.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Michael G; Saaristo, Minna; Baumgartner, John B; Johnstone, Christopher P; Allinson, Mayumi; Allinson, Graeme; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-04-01

    Chemical pollution is a pervasive and insidious agent of environmental change. One class of chemical pollutant threatening ecosystems globally is the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The capacity of EDCs to disrupt development and reproduction is well established, but their effects on behaviour have received far less attention. Here, we investigate the impact of a widespread androgenic EDC on reproductive behaviour in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We found that short-term exposure of male guppies to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone-a common environmental pollutant associated with livestock production-influenced the amount of male courtship and forced copulatory behaviour (sneaking) performed toward females, as well as the receptivity of females toward exposed males. Exposure to 17β-trenbolone was also associated with greater male mass. However, no effect of female exposure to 17β-trenbolone was detected on female reproductive behaviour, indicating sex-specific vulnerability at this dosage. Our study is the first to show altered male reproductive behaviour following exposure to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone, demonstrating the possibility of widespread disruption of mating systems of aquatic organisms by common agricultural contaminants. PMID:25797925

  20. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice ( Glis glis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  1. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Emmerton, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter) medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies. Methods Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here. Results In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy), with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy) participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2%) of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively). Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824); in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785). First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594) were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising. Conclusions This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the dynamics of

  2. Genotype effect on regulation of behaviour by vitellogenin supports reproductive origin of honeybee foraging bias

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, Kate E.; Page, Robert E.; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M. Kim; Amdam, Gro V.

    2010-01-01

    In honeybee colonies, food collection is performed by a group of mostly sterile females called workers. After an initial nest phase, workers begin foraging for nectar and pollen, but tend to bias their collection towards one or the other. The foraging choice of honeybees is influenced by vitellogenin (vg), an egg-yolk precursor protein that is expressed although workers typically do not lay eggs. The forager reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) proposes an evolutionary path in which the behavioural bias toward collecting nectar or pollen on foraging trips is influenced by variation in reproductive physiology, such as hormone levels and vg gene expression. Recently, the connections between vg and foraging behaviour were challenged by Oldroyd and Beekman (2008), who concluded from their study that the ovary, and especially vg, played no role in foraging behaviour of bees. We address their challenge directly by manipulating vg expression by RNA interference- (RNAi) mediated gene knockdown in two honeybee genotypes with different foraging behaviour and reproductive physiology. We show that the effect of vg on the food-loading decisions of the workers occurs only in the genotype where timing of foraging onset (by age) is also sensitive to vg levels. In the second genotype, changing vg levels do not affect foraging onset or bias. The effect of vg on workers' age at foraging onset is explained by the well-supported double repressor hypothesis (DHR), which describes a mutually inhibitory relationship between vg and juvenile hormone (JH) — an endocrine factor that influences development, reproduction, and behaviour in many insects. These results support the RGPH and demonstrate how it intersects with an established mechanism of honeybee behavioural control. PMID:20454635

  3. Feeding and reproductive behaviour in fallow bucks (Dama dama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco; Vittorio, Irene

    2004-12-01

    Observations on individually marked fallow deer (Dama dama) in central Italy were performed over 2 years in order to analyse time budgets of four age and sex classes. The aim was to test whether feeding activity was influenced by mating activity, forage quality or physiological constraints during the rut. Only adult males (bucks) completely ceased feeding during the rutting season, well before the actual start of mating behaviour and concurrently with the phenomenon of scent-urination, and spending most of their daily time completely inactive. All other age and sex classes were unaffected in their feeding behaviour by the rutting season. Indeed, females and young males showed a marked increase in grazing in response to an improvement in forage quality from summer to autumn. These results seem to confirm the hypothesis that hypophagia, displayed only by bucks, may be of no adaptive value in itself. On the other hand, it may be a by-product of other physiological processes occurring during the rut, inducing scent-urination, which plays an important role in intraspecific recognition and sexual attraction.

  4. Sex steroid correlates of female-specific colouration, behaviour and reproductive state in Lake Eyre dragon lizards, Ctenophorus maculosus.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Tim S; Chan, Rita; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2009-07-01

    In some species, females develop bright colouration to signal reproductive status and exhibit behavioural repertoires to incite male courtship and/or reduce male harassment and forced copulation. Sex steroids, including progesterone and testosterone, potentially mediate female reproductive colouration and reproductive behaviour. We measured associations among plasma profiles of testosterone and progesterone with variation in colour expression and reproductive behaviour, including unique courtship rejection behaviours, in female Lake Eyre dragon lizards, (Ctenophorus maculosus). At onset of breeding, progesterone and testosterone increased with vitellogenesis, coincident with colour intensification and sexual receptivity, indicated by acceptance of copulations. As steroid levels peaked around the inferred ovulation time, maximal colour development occurred and sexual receptivity declined. When females were gravid and exhibited maximal mate rejection behaviours, progesterone levels remained consistently high, while testosterone exhibited a discrete second peak. At oviposition, significant declines in plasma steroid levels, fading of colouration and a dramatic decrease in male rejection behaviours co-occurred. Our results indicate a generally concordant association among steroid levels, colouration, behaviour and reproductive events. However, the prolonged elevation in progesterone and a second peak of testosterone was unrelated to reproductive state or further colour change, possibly suggesting selection on females to retain high steroid levels for inducing rejection behaviours. PMID:19363614

  5. Genetic differentiation, behavioural reproductive isolation and mixis cues in three sibling species of monogonont rotifers

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Thomas; Walsh, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Many aquatic species usually considered to be ‘cosmopolitan’ have been identified as cryptic species complexes, based on deep genetic differentiation. However, reproductive isolation among sibling cryptic species has rarely been studied, and interspecific hybridization is common in some taxa.We investigated isolation mechanisms and possible introgression among three cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer species in the Epiphanes senta complex that are found in very different freshwater habitats: temperate floodplains, subtropical desert rock pools and a tropical alpine lake. Whereas Epiphanes ukera is reproductively isolated from E. chihuahuaensis and E. hawaiiensis, the latter hybridize under laboratory conditions.While reproductive isolation is incomplete, RAPD profiles indicated unique genetic signatures and showed no evidence for introgression, indicating that these three species are diverging and have independent evolutionary trajectories.Testing cues for sexual reproduction in these cyclic parthenogens demonstrated that mixis in E. chihuahuaensis and E. ukera is influenced by population density, whereas E. hawaiiensis females rarely produce mictic offspring regardless of density. Different mixis cues are likely to separate sexual periods and effectively cause reproductive isolation between the species. Epiphanes ukera and E. chihuahuaensis males display mate guarding behaviour, and E. ukera males distinguish between conspecific and heterospecific females in mate choice experiments. Geographic isolation, along with different cues for mixis induction and mate recognition, act as reproductive barriers among these sibling species. PMID:21116463

  6. Urocortin 2 modulates aspects of social behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Breu, Johannes; Touma, Chadi; Hölter, Sabine M; Knapman, Alana; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M

    2012-08-01

    Urocortin 2 (UCN2), a member of the corticotropin-releasing hormone family, is involved in the regulation of stress-related behaviours in rodents. To determine its physiological function we generated mice lacking UCN2 by applying a classical knockout strategy. We examined hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity, anxiety- and depression-related behaviours without finding significant differences between mutant and wild-type littermates. Investigating social abilities we observed, that male, but not female, UCN2 knockout animals showed an altered social behaviour. Here we report that male UCN2 null mice showed more passive social interactions and reduced aggressiveness in comparison to wild-type animals. In conclusion, UCN2 seems to modulate aggressive behaviour in male mice. Furthermore, our findings provide additional evidence for previously reported sex-specific effects of UCN2. PMID:22640813

  7. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  8. Economic empowerment and reproductive behaviour of young women in Osun state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odutolu, Oluwole; Adedimeji, Adebola; Odutolu, Omobola; Baruwa, Olatunde; Olatidoye, Funmilayo

    2003-12-01

    Women are increasingly being recognised as equal partners in development. However, there is a growing awareness that negative health, social and economic consequences act as barriers in their efforts to contribute to sustainable development. Consequently, to fully harness the potentials of women in this regard, these barriers have to be addressed. This paper utilises qualitative data collected as part of an intervention programme designed to increase access to reproductive health information/services and economic resources among young women in Osogbo, Nigeria. The aim was to provide reproductive health information and training in basic business skills and micro-credit facilities to enable beneficiaries to establish private businesses. Findings from the study highlight the importance of the relationship between female education, access to economic resources as a means of furthering empowerment of women especially in terms of their reproductive behaviour. The paper argues that increased access to resources is a major factor toward ensuring the much desired empowerment. PMID:15055152

  9. Male behaviour drives assortative reproduction during the initial stage of secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, R J P; While, G M; MacGregor, H E A; Sciberras, J; Leroy, C; D'Ettorre, P; Uller, T

    2016-05-01

    Phenotypic divergence in allopatry can facilitate speciation by reducing the likelihood that individuals of different lineages hybridize during secondary contact. However, few studies have established the causes of reproductive isolation in the crucial early stages of secondary contact. Here, we establish behavioural causes of assortative reproduction between two phenotypically divergent lineages of the European wall lizard (Podarcis muralis), which have recently come into secondary contact. Parentage was highly assortative in experimental contact zones. However, despite pronounced divergence in male phenotypes, including chemical and visual sexual signals, there was no evidence that females discriminated between males of the two lineages in staged interactions or under naturalistic free-ranging conditions. Instead, assortative reproduction was driven by male mate preferences and, to a lesser extent, male-male competition. The effects were more pronounced when the habitat structure promoted high lizard densities. These results emphasize that assortative reproduction can occur in the absence of female choice and that male behaviour may play an important role in limiting hybridization during the initial stages of secondary contact. PMID:26848540

  10. Preservation of ovarian follicles reveals early evolution of avian reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoting; O'Connor, Jingmai; Huchzermeyer, Fritz; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Wang, Min; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2013-03-28

    The two groups of archosaurs, crocodilians and birds, form an extant phylogenetic bracket for understanding the reproductive behaviour of dinosaurs. This behaviour is inferred from preserved nests and eggs, and even gravid individuals. Data indicate that many 'avian' traits were already present in Paraves--the clade that includes birds and their close relatives--and that the early evolution of the modern avian form of reproduction was already well on its way. Like living neornithine birds, non-avian maniraptorans had daily oviposition and asymmetrical eggs with complex shell microstructure, and were known to protect their clutches. However, like crocodilians, non-avian maniraptorans had two active oviducts (one present in living birds), relatively smaller eggs, and may not have turned their eggs in the way that living birds do. Here we report on the first discovery of fossilized mature or nearly mature ovarian follicles, revealing a previously undocumented stage in dinosaur reproduction: reproductively active females near ovulation. Preserved in a specimen of the long bony-tailed Jeholornis and two enantiornithine birds from the Early Cretaceous period lacustrine Jehol Biota in northeastern China, these discoveries indicate that basal birds only had one functional ovary, but retained primitive morphologies as a result of their lower metabolic rate relative to living birds. They also indicate that basal birds reached sexual maturity before skeletal maturity, as in crocodiles and paravian dinosaurs. Differences in follicular morphology between Jeholornis and the enantiornithines are interpreted as forming an evolutionary gradient from the reproductive condition in paravian dinosaurs towards neornithine birds. Furthermore, differences between the two enantiornithines indicate that this lineage might also have evolved advanced reproductive traits in parallel to the neornithine lineage. PMID:23503663

  11. Reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river endemic stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae: Anatomical and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    del Mar Pedreros-Sierra, Tania; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto M; Mejía-Falla, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    We studied anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae using microscopic and macroscopic analysis of each organ. Although the reproductive tract was fully functional on both side, the left organs possibly have a greater contribution to reproductive success, because left ovary and uterus were more developed and had higher number of oocytes and embryos, respectively, than the right ones. This species has histotrophic viviparity given by the presence of uterine trophonemata and by glandular character in pregnant and postpartum females. We suggest that the epigonal organ is involved in the degradation of components of atretic follicles and the embryos begin to develop surrounded by a gelatinous tertiary envelope produced by the oviducal gland. This latter organ is composed by three zones in mature females, club, papillary, and baffle zone, as described for other elasmobranchs. From the anatomical observations, a maturity scale comprising six sexual maturity stages (Immature I, Immature II, early mature, pregnant, post-partum, and regenerating) was established for female P. magdalenae, and it can be useful as basis for reproductive studies of other potamotrygonid species. Finally, we propose a continuous reproductive cycle for P. magdalenae. PMID:26968745

  12. [Medico-social aspects of sexual and reproductive behavior of young people].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, O E

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the negative aftereffects of sexual and reproductive behavior of modern young people. Special attention is paid to medicosocial aspects, such as increased incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, undesired pregnancies, induced abortions and deliveries in adolescents. The effect of natural birth on the health status and development of a child is demonstrated. A conclusion is made on the necessity of more intensive work aimed at preparing young people to marriage and childbirth. PMID:9244582

  13. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-01-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  14. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-09-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  15. Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

  16. Reproductive constraints, direct fitness and indirect fitness benefits explain helping behaviour in the primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes canadensis

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Seirian; Kelstrup, Hans; Fanelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    A key step in the evolution of sociality is the abandonment of independent breeding in favour of helping. In cooperatively breeding vertebrates and primitively eusocial insects, helpers are capable of leaving the group and reproducing independently, and yet many do not. A fundamental question therefore is why do helpers help? Helping behaviour may be explained by constraints on independent reproduction and/or benefits to individuals from helping. Here, we examine simultaneously the reproductive constraints and fitness benefits underlying helping behaviour in a primitively eusocial paper wasp. We gave 31 helpers the opportunity to become egg-layers on their natal nests by removing nestmates. This allowed us to determine whether helpers are reproductively constrained in any way. We found that age strongly influenced whether an ex-helper could become an egg-layer, such that young ex-helpers could become egg-layers while old ex-helpers were less able. These differential reproductive constraints enabled us to make predictions about the behaviours of ex-helpers, depending on the relative importance of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We found little evidence that indirect fitness benefits explain helping behaviour, as 71 per cent of ex-helpers left their nests before the end of the experiment. In the absence of reproductive constraints, however, young helpers value direct fitness opportunities over indirect fitness. We conclude that a combination of reproductive constraints and potential for future direct reproduction explain helping behaviour in this species. Testing several competing explanations for helping behaviour simultaneously promises to advance our understanding of social behaviour in animal groups. PMID:20129991

  17. Reproductive and sexual behaviour development of dam or artificially reared male lambs.

    PubMed

    Damián, Juan Pablo; Beracochea, Florencia; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if artificially reared male lambs differ from those reared by their mothers in their reproductive development and sexual behaviour during the first breeding season and in their serum testosterone to a GnRH challenge at the end of the first breeding season. Lambs were assigned to two experimental groups: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36h after birth (Week 0) and fed sheep milk until 10weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Reproductive parameters and sexual behaviour were recorded from Weeks 9 to 39. The GnRH challenge was performed on Week 40. Body weight, scrotal circumference, gonado-somatic index, testosterone concentration and sperm parameters were unaffected by group, but increased with age (P<0.0001). Lambs reared by their mothers had greater values of gonado-somatic index on Weeks 9, 16 and 19 (P<0.05), and tended to reach puberty earlier than AR (22.9±0.7 vs. 25.1±1.1weeks, respectively, P=0.087). Lambs reared by their mothers presented more lateral approaches and mount attempts than AR (P<0.05), and DR lambs presented more mounts on Weeks 32 and 39 than AR (P<0.05). Blood testosterone concentrations 3.5 and 4h after the GnRH challenge were higher in AR than in DR lambs (P<0.05). In conclusion mother rearing promoted sexual behaviour and reproductive performance of male lambs. PMID:25846838

  18. An Androgenic Agricultural Contaminant Impairs Female Reproductive Behaviour in a Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    Saaristo, Minna; Tomkins, Patrick; Allinson, Mayumi; Allinson, Graeme; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a large group of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrine system function of organisms at very low levels. One compound of great concern is trenbolone, which is widely used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to test how short-term (21-day) exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (measured concentration 6 ng/L) affects reproductive behaviour and fin morphology in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with males inseminating females using their modified anal fin, the gonopodium, as an intromittent organ. Although the species has a coercive mating system, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. We found that females exposed to trenbolone approached males less and spent more time swimming away from males than non-exposed (control) females. By contrast, we found no difference in the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed males. Furthermore, exposure did not affect the anal fin morphology of males or females. This is the first study to demonstrate that exposure to an androgenic EDC can impair female (but not male) behaviour. Our study illustrates how anthropogenic contaminants can have sex-specific effects, and highlights the need to examine the behavioural responses of environmental contaminants in both sexes. PMID:23671634

  19. The model anti-androgen flutamide suppresses the expression of typical male stickleback reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Marion; Allen, Yvonne; Bersuder, Philippe; Katsiadaki, Ioanna

    2008-10-20

    Over the past 15 years considerable attention has been given to the presence in the environment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may have harmful effects on organisms. Specific test guidelines for the detection of EDCs used for short-term fish screening assays have been developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Compared to the core species used in the OECD guidelines, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has an additional and unique endpoint for (anti-)androgenic substances through the androgen-dependent glue protein (spiggin) used in the nest building. Here we describe a specific behavioural assay that was developed in parallel to the OECD protocol, utilising unique behavioural features of sticklebacks. In the assay, a photoperiod of 16L:8D (light:dark) and a temperature of 17+/-1 degrees C was used to induce breeding in quiescent male sticklebacks that were simultaneously exposed for a 21-day period to the mammalian anti-androgen flutamide (FL) at 100, 500 and 1000 microg/l (plus a water control). Spiggin production and the reproductive behaviour (nest building and courtship) of male sticklebacks were the main measured endpoints. The control fish entered an active breeding cycle including nest building and courtship behaviours as expected due to the stimulating temperature and photoperiodic conditions. The FL-exposed males showed significantly lower spiggin levels at 500 and 1000 microg/l. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the number of nests built by the FL-treated males at 100 microg/l with no nest built at 500 and 1000 microg/l. Finally, FL affected the courtship behaviour of the males with a significant reduction of the number of zigzags towards the female. When the breeding status of the stickleback males is controlled, the behavioural assay developed here is a suitable tool for the detection of androgen antagonists. PMID:18809216

  20. Effects of high density on spacing behaviour and reproduction in Akodon azarae: A fencing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Belén; Bonatto, Florencia; Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea R.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the short term spacing behavioural responses of Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) with regard to population density in four 0.25 ha enclosures (two control and two experimental) in the 2011 breeding season. Based on the hypothesis that A. azarae breeding females exhibit spacing behaviour, and breeding males show a fusion spatial response, we tested the following predictions: (1) home range size and intrasexual overlap degree of females are independent of population density values; (2) at high population density, home range size of males decreases and the intrasexual home range overlap degree increases. To determine if female reproductive success decreases at high population density, we analyzed pregnancy rate, size and weight of litters, and period until fecundation in both low and high enclosure population density. We found that both males and females varied their home range size in relation to population density. Although male home ranges were always bigger than those of females in populations with high density, home range sizes of both sexes decreased. Females kept exclusive home ranges independent of density values meanwhile males decreased home range overlap in high breeding density populations. Although females produced litters of similar size in both treatments, weight of litter, pregnant rate and period until fecundation varied in relation to population density. Our results did not support the hypothesis that at high density females of A. azarae exhibit spacing behaviour neither that males exhibit a fusion spatial response.

  1. Short-term exposure to a treated sewage effluent alters reproductive behaviour in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Taylor, Nick G H; Maack, Gerd; Tyler, Charles R

    2011-09-01

    Some UK sewage treatment work (STW) effluents have been found to contain high levels of anti-androgenic activity, but the biological significance of this activity to fish has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a STW effluent with anti-androgenic activity on the reproductive physiology and behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were exposed to a STW effluent (50 and 100%, v/v) with a strong anti-androgenic activity (328.56±36.83 μgl(-1) flutamide equivalent, as quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human androgen receptor) and a low level of oestrogenic activity (3.32±0.66 ngl(-1) oestradiol equivalent, quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human oestrogen receptor) for a period of 21 days in a flow-through system in the laboratory. Levels of spiggin, an androgen-regulated protein, were not affected by the STW effluent exposure, nor were levels of vitellogenin (a biomarker of oestrogen exposure), but the reproductive behaviour of the males was impacted. Males exposed to full strength STW effluent built fewer nests and there was a significant reduction in male courtship behaviour for exposures to both the 50 and 100% STW effluent treatments compared with controls. The effect seen on the reproduction of male sticklebacks may not necessarily have been as a consequence of the endocrine active chemicals present in the STW effluent alone, but could relate to other features of the effluent, such as turbidity that can impair visual signalling important for courtship interactions. Regardless the specific causation, the data presented show that effluents from STW have an impact on reproductive behaviour in male sticklebacks which in turn affects reproductive performance/outcome. The study further highlights the use of fish behaviour as a sensitive endpoint for assessing potential effects of contaminated water bodies on fish reproduction. PMID:21684244

  2. Dropping behaviour of pea aphid nymphs increases their development time and reduces their reproductive capacity as adults

    PubMed Central

    Agabiti, Barbara; Wassenaar, Roxanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many aphid species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, exhibit a behaviour where they drop or fall from their host plant, a commonly used strategy to avoid predation, parasitism or physical disturbance. We hypothesised that there was a physiological non-consumptive cost due to such dropping behaviour because aphids would expend energy re-establishing themselves on a host plant and also lose feeding time. Methods. We evaluated this non-consumptive cost by determining the development time and reproductive potential of pea aphids that whilst developing as nymphs had regularly dropped to the ground following dislodgment from their host plant. Using a microcosm approach, in a replicated and balanced laboratory experiment, we caused aphid dropping behaviour by tapping the plants on which they were feeding. Results. The results demonstrated that disturbance by dropping behaviour increased nymphal development time and reduced their subsequent reproductive capacity as adults. Discussion. We conclude that dropping behaviour had a strong negative effect on the development of nymphs and their subsequent reproductive capacity. This implies that the physiological cost of such a behaviour choice is substantial, and that such avoidance strategies require a trade-off which reduces the capacity of a population to increase. PMID:27547545

  3. Dropping behaviour of pea aphid nymphs increases their development time and reduces their reproductive capacity as adults.

    PubMed

    Agabiti, Barbara; Wassenaar, Roxanne J; Winder, Linton

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many aphid species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, exhibit a behaviour where they drop or fall from their host plant, a commonly used strategy to avoid predation, parasitism or physical disturbance. We hypothesised that there was a physiological non-consumptive cost due to such dropping behaviour because aphids would expend energy re-establishing themselves on a host plant and also lose feeding time. Methods. We evaluated this non-consumptive cost by determining the development time and reproductive potential of pea aphids that whilst developing as nymphs had regularly dropped to the ground following dislodgment from their host plant. Using a microcosm approach, in a replicated and balanced laboratory experiment, we caused aphid dropping behaviour by tapping the plants on which they were feeding. Results. The results demonstrated that disturbance by dropping behaviour increased nymphal development time and reduced their subsequent reproductive capacity as adults. Discussion. We conclude that dropping behaviour had a strong negative effect on the development of nymphs and their subsequent reproductive capacity. This implies that the physiological cost of such a behaviour choice is substantial, and that such avoidance strategies require a trade-off which reduces the capacity of a population to increase. PMID:27547545

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety aspects

    PubMed Central

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the leading cause of economic casualty in swine industry worldwide. The virus can cause reproductive failure, respiratory disease, and growth retardation in the pigs. This review deals with current status of commercial PRRS vaccines presently used to control PRRS. The review focuses on the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and safety aspects of the vaccines. Commercial PRRS modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine elicits delayed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination. The vaccine confers late but effective protection against genetically homologous PRRSV, and partial protection against genetically heterologous virus. The MLV vaccine is of concern for its safety as the vaccine virus can revert to virulence and cause diseases. PRRS killed virus (KV) vaccine, on the other hand, is safe but confers limited protection against either homologous or heterologous virus. The KV vaccine yet helps reduce disease severity when administered to the PRRSV-infected pigs. Although efforts have been made to improve the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of PRRS vaccines, a better vaccine is still needed in order to protect against PRRSV. PMID:24175208

  5. Sexual Behaviours and Reproductive Health Knowledge among In-School Young People with Disabilities in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaleye, Adeniyi O.; Anoemuah, Olayinka A.; Ladipo, Oladapo A.; Delano, Grace E.; Idowu, Grace F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore sexual behaviours and reproductive health knowledge among in-school young people with disabilities (PWD) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper a structured questionnaire was administered to 103 randomly selected PWD, aged ten to 25, from four integrated secondary schools in Ibadan. The…

  6. Effects of Aspect on Clonal Reproduction and Biomass Allocation of Layering Modules of Nitraria tangutorum in Nebkha Dunes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghe; Xu, Jun; Li, Huiqing; Wang, Saixiao; Yan, Xiu; Xin, Zhiming; Jiang, Zeping; Wang, Linlong; Jia, Zhiqing

    2013-01-01

    The formation of many nebkha dunes relies on the layering of clonal plants. The microenvironmental conditions of such phytogenic nebkha are heterogeneous depending on the aspect and slope. Exploring the effects of aspect on clonal reproduction and biomass allocation can be useful in understanding the ecological adaptation of species. We hypothesized that on the windward side layering propagation would be promoted, that biomass allocation to leaves and stems of ramets would increase, and that the effects of aspect would be greater in the layering with larger biomass. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed the depth of germination points of axillary buds, the rate of ramet sprouting, the density of adventitious root formation points, and the biomass of modules sprouting from layering located on the NE, SE, SW and NW, aspects of Nitraria tangutorum nebkhas. The windward side was located on the NW and SW aspects. The results indicated that conditions of the NW aspect were more conducive to clonal reproduction and had the highest rate of ramet sprouting and the highest density of adventitious formation points. For the modules sprouting from layering on the SW aspect, biomass allocation to leaves and stems was greatest with biomass allocation to adventitious roots being lowest. This result supported our hypothesis. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of aspect were greater in layering of smaller biomass. These results support the hypothesis that aspect does affect layering propagation capacity and biomass allocation in this species. Additionally, clonal reproduction and biomass allocation of modules sprouting from layering with smaller biomass was more affected by aspect. These results suggest that the clonal growth of N. tangutorum responses to the microenvironmental heterogeneity that results from aspect of the nebkha. PMID:24205391

  7. Environmental variability drives shifts in the foraging behaviour and reproductive success of an inshore seabird.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Reina, Richard D; Preston, Tiana J; Chiaradia, André

    2015-08-01

    Marine animals forage in areas that aggregate prey to maximize their energy intake. However, these foraging 'hot spots' experience environmental variability, which can substantially alter prey availability. To survive and reproduce animals need to modify their foraging in response to these prey shifts. By monitoring their inter-annual foraging behaviours, we can understand which environmental variables affect their foraging efficiency, and can assess how they respond to environmental variability. Here, we monitored the foraging behaviour and isotopic niche of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), over 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2012) of climatic and prey variability within Port Phillip Bay, Australia. During drought (2008), penguins foraged in close proximity to the Yarra River outlet on a predominantly anchovy-based diet. In periods of heavy rainfall, when water depth in the largest tributary into the bay (Yarra River) was high, the total distance travelled, maximum distance travelled, distance to core-range, and size of core- and home-ranges of penguins increased significantly. This larger foraging range was associated with broad dietary diversity and high reproductive success. These results suggest the increased foraging range and dietary diversity of penguins were a means to maximize resource acquisition rather than a strategy to overcome local depletions in prey. Our results demonstrate the significance of the Yarra River in structuring predator-prey interactions in this enclosed bay, as well as the flexible foraging strategies of penguins in response to environmental variability. This plasticity is central to the survival of this small-ranging, resident seabird species. PMID:25894092

  8. Psychological aspects of individualized choice and reproductive autonomy in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Probably the main purpose of reproductive technologies is to enable people who choose to do so to avoid the birth of a baby with a disabling condition. However the conditions women want information about and the 'price' they are willing to pay for obtaining that information vary enormously. Individual women have to arrive at their own prenatal testing choices by 'trading off' means and ends in order to resolve the dilemmas facing them. We know very little about how individuals make these trade-offs, so it is difficult to predict how new technologies will affect their choices and preferences. Uptake decisions can be expected to change, especially in the group of women who now are put off by some aspect of the current screening approach, where the avoidance of miscarriage risk may have provided a kind of 'psychological shelter', protecting a lot of people from having to make other decisions. Technologies such as Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis may remove a second 'psychological shelter' because they offer the means of avoiding the birth of an affected child without terminating a pregnancy. Even if new technologies will make some decisions easier in terms of their cognitive demands, they will also create new dilemmas and decision making will not necessarily become less stressful in emotional terms. Key challenges concern information and decision-making. PMID:25521969

  9. Carbaryl-induced behavioural and reproductive abnormalities in the earthworm Metaphire posthuma: a sensitive model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shrawan K; Saxena, Prem N

    2003-12-01

    Carbaryl, an N-methyl carbamate insecticide, is used in India to control foliar insects, but, due to soil contamination, it also adversely affects non-target organisms such as earthworms. This paper deals with the toxic effects of carbaryl on the behavioural and reproductive profiles of the earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Locomotion and geotaxis were significantly affected, even after a 20-minute exposure to 0.125ppm carbaryl. The hatching of cocoons was altered at 0.5ppm, whereas cocoon production was retarded even at 0.125ppm carbaryl. No cocoon production was observed at 2.0ppm carbaryl. Sperm head abnormalities were reported even at the lowest test concentration of 0.125ppm. Wavy head abnormalities were observed at 0.125ppm carbaryl, whereas at 0.25ppm and 0.5ppm, the sperm heads became amorphous and the head nucleus was turned into granules deposited within the wavy head. It is concluded that the earthworm could be used as an ecosystem model for the initial toxicity testing of environmental pollutants. PMID:15560748

  10. Consanguinity as a determinant of reproductive behaviour and mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bittles, A H; Grant, J C; Shami, S A

    1993-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriages and estimate the effects of consanguinity on reproductive behaviour and mortality, household and hospital-based surveys were conducted in 11 cities in the Pakistan province of Punjab between 1979 and 1985. The 9520 women interviewed reported 44,474 pregnancies, with data collected on maternal and paternal ages at marriage, abortions/miscarriages, stillbirths and deaths in the first month, at 2-12 months and 2-8/10 years. Six categories of consanguineous marriage were included: double first cousin, first cousin, first cousin once removed/double second cousin, second cousin, bradari (brotherhood) and non-consanguineous. Marriages contracted between spouses related as second cousins or closer accounted for 50.3% of the total, equivalent to an average coefficient of kinship (alpha = sigma piFi) of 0.0280. Unions between close biological relatives were characterized by younger maternal and paternal ages at marriage and reduced spousal age difference, but a longer time to first delivery. Overall, they exhibited greater fertility than non-consanguineous couples. Antenatal and postnatal mortality were assessed by consanguinity and age interval. Consanguinity-associated deaths were consistently higher in the neonatal, infant and childhood periods. The consequences of these outcomes on the health of the present and future generations is assessed. PMID:8359962

  11. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  12. The motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of the human behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-02-01

    According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour. PMID:19006651

  13. Long-term reproductive behaviour of woody plants across seven Bornean forest types in the Gunung Palung National Park (Indonesia): suprannual synchrony, temporal productivity and fruiting diversity.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Charles H; Curran, Lisa M; Marshall, Andrew J; Leighton, Mark

    2007-10-01

    For 68 months, we observed the reproductive behaviour of 7288 woody plants (172 figs, 1457 climbers and 5659 trees) spanning major soil and elevational gradients. Two 2-3 month community-wide supra-annual fruiting events were synchronized across five forest types, coinciding with ENSO events. At least 27 genera in 24 families restricted their reproduction to these events, which involved a substantial proportion of tree diversity (> 80% of phylogenetic diversity). During these events, mean reproductive levels (8.5%) represented an almost four-fold increase compared with other months. These patterns indicate a strong behavioural advantage to this unusual reproductive behaviour. Montane forest experienced a single, separate fruiting peak while the peat swamp forest did not participate. Excluding these events, no temporal reproductive pattern was detectable, at either the landscape or forest type. These phenological patterns have major implications for the conservation of frugivore communities, with montane and swamp forests acting as 'keystone' forests. PMID:17845296

  14. ASPECTS OF BASIC REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fathead minnow has been proposed as a model species for assessing the adverse effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproduction and development. The purpose of these studies was to develop baseline reproductive biology and endocrinology data for this species to...

  15. Medical and psychological aspects of infertility and assisted reproductive technology for the primary care provider.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, A S; Reed, S A

    2001-11-01

    Couples attempting to conceive are requiring more assisted reproductive technology. Infertility may be associated with delayed onset of marriage and childbearing, smoking and alcohol excess, physiological factors such as endometriosis and varicocele, or a cause that is not identified. The psychological needs of couples, however, are often overlooked. Primary care providers can serve as the initial information source and guide for the couple struggling with infertility. In a managed care environment, a primary care provider can provide a considerable amount of education, referral for stress management and counseling, and a small portion of the medical evaluation before referring to a reproductive specialist. This overview is intended to help primary care providers and couples achieve an educated and less stressful assisted reproductive technology experience. It is not meant to circumvent the need for immediate referral to a reproductive specialist for evaluation and treatment of this very complex intervention. PMID:11725314

  16. Cold-seeking behaviour mitigates reproductive losses from fungal infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Vicky L; Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D; Mlynski, David T; Duxbury, Elizabeth M L; Keith Charnley, A; Priest, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    Animals must tailor their life-history strategies to suit the prevailing conditions and respond to hazards in the environment. Animals with lethal infections are faced with a difficult choice: to allocate more resources to reproduction and suffer higher mortality or to reduce reproduction with the expectation of enhanced immunity and late-age reproduction. However, the strategies employed to mediate shifts in life-history traits are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the temperature preference of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, during infection with the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium robertsii, and the consequence of temperature preference on life-history traits. We have measured the temperature preference of fruit flies under different pathogen conditions. We conducted multiple fitness assays of the host and the pathogen under different thermal conditions. From these data, we estimated standard measures of fitness and used age-specific methodologies to test for the fitness trade-offs that are thought to underlie differences in life-history strategy. We found that fungus-infected fruit flies seek out cooler temperatures, which facilitates an adaptive shift in their life-history strategy. The colder temperatures preferred by infected animals were detrimental to the pathogen because it increased resistance to infection. But, it did not provide net benefits that were specific to infected animals, as cooler temperatures increased lifetime reproductive success and survival whether or not the animals were infected. Instead, we find that cold-seeking benefits infected animals by increasing their late-age reproductive output, at a cost to their early-age reproductive output. In contrast, naive control flies prefer warmer temperatures that optimize early-age reproductive, at a cost to reproductive output at late ages. These findings show that infected animals exhibit fundamentally different reproductive strategies than their healthy counterparts. Temperature

  17. Behaviour in captivity predicts some aspects of natural behaviour, but not others, in a wild cricket population.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David N; James, Adèle; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2015-06-22

    Examining the relevance of 'animal personality' involves linking consistent among- and within-individual behavioural variation to fitness in the wild. Studies aiming to do this typically assay personality in captivity and rely on the assumption that measures of traits in the laboratory reflect their expression in nature. We examined this rarely tested assumption by comparing laboratory and field measurements of the behaviour of wild field crickets (Gryllus campestris) by continuously monitoring individual behaviour in nature, and repeatedly capturing the same individuals and measuring their behaviour in captivity. We focused on three traits that are frequently examined in personality studies: shyness, activity and exploration. All of them showed repeatability in the laboratory. Laboratory activity and exploration predicted the expression of their equivalent behaviours in the wild, but shyness did not. Traits in the wild were predictably influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and sunlight, but only activity showed appreciable within-individual repeatability. This suggests that some behaviours typically studied as personality traits can be accurately assayed in captivity, but the expression of others may be highly context-specific. Our results highlight the importance of validating the relevance of laboratory behavioural assays to analogous traits measured in the wild. PMID:26019161

  18. Behaviour in captivity predicts some aspects of natural behaviour, but not others, in a wild cricket population

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, David N.; James, Adèle; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Examining the relevance of ‘animal personality’ involves linking consistent among- and within-individual behavioural variation to fitness in the wild. Studies aiming to do this typically assay personality in captivity and rely on the assumption that measures of traits in the laboratory reflect their expression in nature. We examined this rarely tested assumption by comparing laboratory and field measurements of the behaviour of wild field crickets (Gryllus campestris) by continuously monitoring individual behaviour in nature, and repeatedly capturing the same individuals and measuring their behaviour in captivity. We focused on three traits that are frequently examined in personality studies: shyness, activity and exploration. All of them showed repeatability in the laboratory. Laboratory activity and exploration predicted the expression of their equivalent behaviours in the wild, but shyness did not. Traits in the wild were predictably influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and sunlight, but only activity showed appreciable within-individual repeatability. This suggests that some behaviours typically studied as personality traits can be accurately assayed in captivity, but the expression of others may be highly context-specific. Our results highlight the importance of validating the relevance of laboratory behavioural assays to analogous traits measured in the wild. PMID:26019161

  19. Evaluation of a Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Programme: Students' Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    van der Geugten, Jolien; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H G; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation research concerning the impact of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. This study obtained more insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of students concerning SRH in Bolgatanga municipality in northern Ghana, and studied the effects of an SRH programme for this group. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-post-intervention design, with an SRH programme as intervention. A questionnaire was filled in by 312 students before, and by 272 students after the SRH programme. The results showed that before the programme, students answered half of the knowledge questions correctly, they thought positively about deciding for themselves whether to have a relationship and whether to have sex, and their intentions towards SRH behaviour, such as condom use were positive. The SRH intervention led to a small but significant increase in the students' knowledge. It was also found that the attitude of the students aged 18-20 significantly improved. Finally, it was found that female students aged 18-20 were more positive towards changing their behaviour after following the SRH programme. It can be concluded that the impact of the SRH programme in general was positive. Significant effects were found for gender and age. PMID:26897921

  20. [Sexuality, reproductive health and violence against the African Brazilian women: aspects of interest for nursing care].

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Isabel Cristina Fonseca

    2004-12-01

    Based on the referential of the critical racial theory, a review of the literature was made with the objective of searching for information that leads to an affirmative professional action against racism and sexism, based on scientific evidences and culturally competent. It was evidenced that the sexuality, reproductive health and violence against African Brazilian women are themes with scarce literature, suggesting that racism and sexism occur by the omission and negligence of State to weigh on African Brazilian women's mobilization. The study concluded that institutional discrimination in health needs to be neutralized by affirmative actions regarding to African Brazilian women that must be implemented or strengthen to promote equity in health. PMID:15689003

  1. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Peter A.; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  2. Reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of secondary school students in akure, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, M M; Brieger, W R

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents are subject to many life changes as their secondary sexual characteristics emerge. Contrary to parents' and society's wishes, these young people are more sexually active then previous generations and thus at greater risk of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and related problems. Adolescents enrolled in school have the potential opportunity to learn ways to prevent these reproductive and sexual health problems, but there is concern whether schools are living up to this challenge. Therefore, this study was designed to learn whether adolescents in secondary school in the Ondo State capital of Akure have reproductive health education and are practicing healthy sexual behaviors. The study was based on a sample of six of the twenty-eight secondary schools in Akure that fell under the jurisdiction of the Ondo State Post-Primary Schools' Management Board. Focus was placed on pupils in the final years of both Junior Secondary School (JSS 3) and Senior Secondary School (SSS 3). Overall, 30 percent of the young people reported having sexual intercourse: 21 percent of females and 38 percent of males. Also 39 percent in SSS 3 reported having had sex compared to 21 percent in JSS 3. Forty percent of students in coeducational school compared to 19 percent in boy's school and 8 percent in girl's school had sex. Respondents averaged only 11 points on a 33-point scale of reproductive health knowledge. Students in the senior classes and those in single sex schools scored higher. The mass media was stated to be the major source of reproductive health knowledge; only one-third reported that they had actually talked with someone about their reproductive health concerns. Attitudes toward pre-marital sex were more favorable among male students, pupils in mixed sex schools and those whose parents had lower levels of education. These findings suggest not only that the schools must take a more active role in providing reproductive health education, but that

  3. Divergent evolution of male aggressive behaviour: another reproductive isolation barrier in extremophile poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695

  4. Psychosocial and psychophysiologic aspects of reproduction: the need for improved study design.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, L R; Shain, R N

    1985-10-01

    This essay delineates several of the more ctirical design issues involved in psychosocial research in the reproductive field: prospective design; control groups, blinded designs, placebos; crossover design; multivariate statistical analysis; sample size and significance; low attrition rates/refusal rates; and long periods of follow-up. Examples are drawn primarily from the areas of infertility and sterilization. The dual goal in infertility research in general is to understand the mechanisms involved in reproduction and to determine which treatment modalities are most effective in alleviating impaired reproduction. It is important to determine the contribution and interplay of psychological factors in this regard. A major purpose of psychosocial research in the field of sterilization is to identify any physical or psychosocial sequelae of procedures that terminate fertility. This type of information is useful in providing future sterilization candidates with complete information to facilitate informed decisions and helping to identify women who may be at high risk of regret so that appropriate counseling may be provided preoperatively. In most instances, studies of infertility employ prospective designs, but studies of psychologic factors in this area tend to describe experience retrospectively. Usually, without benefit of a trial, they advocate counseling services, group therapy, or psychiatric intervention. As for sterilization studies, a common practice is to ask subjects at varying postsurgical intervals to compare their preoperative and postoperative status on various outcome variables. This retrospective approach is problematic because there may be a tendency for respondents to reevaluate prior experience in the light of recent events. Without the use of appropriate control or comparison groups, it is impossible to determine if changes resulted from a given procedure or were due to other factors, including chance. Use of a placebo group helps determine

  5. Pesticide application to agricultural fields: effects on the reproduction and avoidance behaviour of Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Santos, M J G; Ferreira, M F L; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C; Sousa, J P

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the impact of pesticide application to non-target soil organisms simulating what happens following pesticide application in agricultural fields and thus obtaining higher realism on results obtained. For that purpose, three commercial formulations containing the insecticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan and the herbicide glyphosate were applied to a Mediterranean agricultural field. The soil was collected after spraying and dilution series were prepared with untreated soil to determine the impact of the pesticides on the avoidance behaviour and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida. A significant avoidance was observed at the recommended field dose in case of endosulfan by earthworms (60 %) and in case of chlorpyrifos by collembolans (64 %). In addition, both insecticides affected the number of juveniles produced by the earthworms (EC(50) were below the recommended field dose). Glyphosate did not seem to affect either earthworms or collembolans in the recommended field dose. Folsomia candida was more sensitive to pesticide application than Eisenia andrei, what was corroborated by the EC(50) and LC(50) values. In conclusion, insecticides may affect the structure of the soil community by reducing the survival of collembolans and the reproductive capacity of collembolans and earthworms. PMID:22711551

  6. Modifications of a conserved regulatory network involving INDEHISCENT controls multiple aspects of reproductive tissue development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kay, P; Groszmann, M; Ross, J J; Parish, R W; Swain, S M

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting pollen tube growth and fertilization in Arabidopsis plants leads to reduced seed set and silique size, providing a powerful genetic system with which to identify genes with important roles in plant fertility. A transgenic Arabidopsis line with reduced pollen tube growth, seed set and silique growth was used as the progenitor in a genetic screen to isolate suppressors with increased seed set and silique size. This screen generated a new allele of INDEHISCENT (IND), a gene originally identified by its role in valve margin development and silique dehiscence (pod shatter). IND forms part of a regulatory network that involves several other transcriptional regulators and involves the plant hormones GA and auxin. Using GA and auxin mutants that alter various aspects of reproductive development, we have identified novel roles for IND, its paralogue HECATE3, and the MADS box proteins SHATTERPROOF1/2 in flower and fruit development. These results suggest that modified forms of the regulatory network originally described for the Arabidopsis valve margin, which include these genes and/or their recently evolved paralogs, function in multiple components of GA/auxin-regulated reproductive development. PMID:23126654

  7. [Food effects on some reproductive aspects of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in a Venezuelan fish farm].

    PubMed

    Bastardo, H

    1999-12-01

    Samples of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed with three different dried diets, labeled D1, D2 and D3, the first ones were expanded and the last one pelleted type food. Their protein content ranged from 36% to 42%, and only D1 diet presented a pigment in its composition. The gonodasomatic index (GSI) as well as the gonadial development showed a different behavior in males and females for all the samples tested. A continuous sperm production was observed in males fish, while in female fish the GSI showed a tendency to increase through the whole study, and they showed a reproductive rest period on july 92. Fish relative fecundity and egg diameter were similar in all cases. The gonodial maduration age was shorter for the female that were fed with D1 and D2, while the 50% of the trout population that got D3 had a gonodial maduration period two months longer. For all trouts tested the fertility was low with a maximum value of 49%. The hatchery from the tested trouts with D2 intakes had a mortality value of 62%. Meanwhile, those with D1 and D3 intakes showed mortality values of 36% and 43% respectively. PMID:10883303

  8. Aspects of the reproductive ecology and behavior of the tepui toads, genus Oreophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Gorzula, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report direct development for toads of the bufonid genus Oreophrynella, endemic to the tepuis of the Guayanan Highlands. Tepui toads place few (9-13), large (-3 mm diameter) eggs in a single or communal terrestrial nest. One communal nest found on Kukenan-tepui contained 102 toads (70 males, 30 females, 2 hatchlings) and 321 eggs in clumps of 8-35. All viable clutches from Kukenan were attended by an adult. One clutch of 13 eggs from Ilu-tepui was without an attendant adult. Calls of Kukenan males consist of 9-16 partially pulsed notes given at a rate of 5-7 notes per second. Calls and notes were modulated and increased or decreased in frequency; dominant frequencies of the calls ranged between 2650-3650 Hz. Tepui toads are diurnal, rock dwellers with a slow, deliberate walking gait. An unusual balling and tumbling behavior and bright colored venter may be associated with predator avoidance in some populations. Remarkable parallels in reproductive ecology and behavior between Oreophynella and montane populations of the African bufonid Nectophrynoides are noted.

  9. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives. PMID:16713890

  10. Effects of experimentally sustained elevated testosterone on incubation behaviour and reproductive success in female great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    de Jong, Berber; Lens, Luc; Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; van Oers, Kees; Darras, Veerle M; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne; Komdeur, Jan; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-05-01

    In many seasonally breeding birds, female and male testosterone (T) levels peak at the start of the breeding season, coinciding with pair bonding and nesting activities. Shortly after the onset of egg laying, T levels slowly decline to baseline levels in both sexes, but more rapidly so in females. During this period, T in males may still function to facilitate territorial behaviour, mate guarding and extra pair copulations, either via short lasting peaks or elevated basal levels of the hormone. In some species, however, males become insensitive to increased T after the onset of egg laying. It has been postulated that in these species bi-parental care is essential for offspring survival, as T is known to inhibit paternal care. However, only very few studies have analysed this for females. As females are heavily involved in parental care, they too might become insensitive to T after egg laying. Alternatively, because territorial defence, mate guarding and extra pair copulations are expected to be less important for females than for males, they may not have had the need to evolve a mechanism to become insensitive to T during the period of maternal care, because their natural T levels are never elevated during this part of the breeding season anyway. We tested these alternative hypotheses in female great tits (Parus major). Male great tits have previously been shown to be insensitive to T after egg laying with regard to nestling feeding behaviour (but not song rate). When females had started nest building, we experimentally elevated their T levels up to the nestling feeding phase, and measured incubation behaviour (only females incubate) and reproductive success. T did not significantly affect nest building or egg laying behaviour, although egg laying tended to be delayed in T females. Females with experimentally enhanced T maintained lower temperature during incubation but did not spend less time incubating. This might explain the reduced hatching success of their

  11. Determination of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviour in rodents: methodological aspects and role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Sestakova, Natalia; Puzserova, Angelika; Kluknavsky, Michal

    2013-01-01

    In various areas of the bio-medical, pharmacological and psychological research a multitude of behavioural tests have been used to investigate the effects of environmental, genetic and epi-genetic factors as well as pharmacological substances or diseased states on behaviour and thus on the physiological and psycho-social status of experimental subjects. This article is reviewing the most frequently used behavioural tests in animal research (open field, elevated plus maze, zero maze, and black and white box). It provides a summary of common characteristics as well as differences in the methods used in various studies to determine motor activity, anxiety and emotionality. Additionally to methodological aspects, strain, sex and stress-related differences as well as the involvement of nitric oxide in modulation of motor activity and anxiety of rodents were briefly reviewed. PMID:24678249

  12. Genome structure and reproductive behaviour influence the evolutionary potential of a fungal phytopathogen.

    PubMed

    Daverdin, Guillaume; Rouxel, Thierry; Gout, Lilian; Aubertot, Jean-Noël; Fudal, Isabelle; Meyer, Michel; Parlange, Francis; Carpezat, Julien; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Modern agriculture favours the selection and spread of novel plant diseases. Furthermore, crop genetic resistance against pathogens is often rendered ineffective within a few years of its commercial deployment. Leptosphaeria maculans, the cause of phoma stem canker of oilseed rape, develops gene-for-gene interactions with its host plant, and has a high evolutionary potential to render ineffective novel sources of resistance in crops. Here, we established a four-year field experiment to monitor the evolution of populations confronted with the newly released Rlm7 resistance and to investigate the nature of the mutations responsible for virulence against Rlm7. A total of 2551 fungal isolates were collected from experimental crops of a Rlm7 cultivar or a cultivar without Rlm7. All isolates were phenotyped for virulence and a subset was genotyped with neutral genetic markers. Virulent isolates were investigated for molecular events at the AvrLm4-7 locus. Whilst virulent isolates were not found in neighbouring crops, their frequency had reached 36% in the experimental field after four years. An extreme diversity of independent molecular events leading to virulence was identified in populations, with large-scale Repeat Induced Point mutations or complete deletion of AvrLm4-7 being the most frequent. Our data suggest that increased mutability of fungal genes involved in the interactions with plants is directly related to their genomic environment and reproductive system. Thus, rapid allelic diversification of avirulence genes can be generated in L. maculans populations in a single field provided that large population sizes and sexual reproduction are favoured by agricultural practices. PMID:23144620

  13. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues. PMID:23057505

  14. Intraguild predation leads to cascading effects on habitat choice, behaviour and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Chakarov, Nayden; Heseker, Hanna; Krüger, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is a commonly recognized mechanism influencing the community structure of predators, but the complex interactions are notoriously difficult to disentangle. The mesopredator suppression hypothesis predicts that a superpredator may either simultaneously repress two mesopredators, restrain the dominant one and thereby release the subdominant mesopredator, or elicit different responses by both mesopredators. We show the outcome arising from such conditions in a three-level predator assemblage (Eurasian eagle owl Bubo bubo L., northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis L. and common buzzard Buteo buteo L.) studied over 25 years. In the second half of the study period, the eagle owl re-colonized the study area, thereby providing a natural experiment of superpredator introduction. We combined this set-up with detailed GIS analysis of habitat use and a field experiment simulating intrusion by the superpredator into territories of the subdominant mesopredator, the buzzard. Although population trends were positive for all three species in the assemblage, the proportion of failed breeding attempts increased significantly in both mesopredators after the superpredator re-colonized the area. We predicted that superpredator-induced niche shifts in the dominant mesopredator may facilitate mesopredator coexistence in superpredator-free refugia. We found significant changes in nesting habitat choice in goshawk, but not in buzzard. Since competition for enemy-free refugia and the rapid increase in population density may have constrained niche shifts of the subdominant mesopredator, we further predicted behavioural changes in response to the superpredator. The field experiment indeed showed a significant increase in aggressive response of buzzards towards eagle owl territory intrusion over the course of 10 years, probably due to phenotypic plasticity in the response towards superpredation risk. Overall, our results show that intraguild predation can be a powerful

  15. Effects of cooling on certain blood constituents in relation to reproductive behaviour in buffaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S. N.; Gangwar, P. C.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dhingra, D. P.

    1981-09-01

    Forty-five healthy lactating buffaloes were taken for this study in three groups: group 1 served as control. At 11:00 and 15:00 h daily the animals in group 2 were given showers and of group 3 were sent for wallowing for half an hour each time. Blood samples were taken at 14-day intervals. The overall mean values of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, total plasma ascorbic acid and plasma proteins were 2.61, 2.87, 2.89 (KA U/100ml plasma); 4.81, 4.71, 4.51 (KA U/100 ml plasma), 1.04, 1.29, 1.41 (mg/100ml plasma) and 7.05, 6.17, 6.05 (g/100 ml plasma) in control, shower and wallow groups respectively. The different parameters of reproductive efficiency-percentage of animals coming in oestrus, days-open, duration of oestrus, percent conception rate and services per conception were 40, 60, 19.09, 20, 7 in the controlgroup; 53.33, 42, 19.46, 28.50, 4.25 in the shower group and 73.33, 38.75, 23.00, 50 and 2.00 in the wallow group respectively.

  16. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227

  17. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. Methods In 2011–2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18–74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18–24 (16.99) than for those aged 60–74 (p < 0.001). More than 60% were not married or partnered with their FI partner, and 17.8% engaged in FI less than a month after meeting their partner. Less than one-fourth practiced safe sex at FI, with higher proportions for the urban sample, those with an average level of education and those aged 18–35 (p < 0.001). Higher average numbers of sexual partners were found among men (6.56, compared with 2.37 among women), in urban areas (5.07, compared with 3.75 in rural areas) and among those with higher levels of education (p < 0.005). On average, subjects first received information on SRH at 15.39 years of age, with only 10% listing the school, doctors or medics as a source. Conclusions Unsafe sex, early initiation of

  18. Students' Achievements in a Statistics Course in Relation to Motivational Aspects and Study Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bude, Luc; Van De Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; Imbos, Tjaart; Candel, Math J. J. M.; Broers, Nick J.; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on motivational constructs and their effect on students' academic achievement within an existing statistics course. First-year Health Sciences students completed a questionnaire that measures several motivational constructs: dimensions of causal attributions, outcome expectancy, affect, and study behaviour, all with…

  19. An Evaluation of the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Programme: Promoting Positive Behaviour, Effective Learning and Well-Being in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning programme (SEAL), designed to develop children's social, emotional and behavioural skills in the primary school, was part of the Primary Behaviour and Attendance Pilot funded by the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and piloted in 25 Local Authorities in the UK. The data collected in the…

  20. Dose-dependent effects of ethanol extract of Salvia haematodes Wall roots on reproductive function and copulatory behaviour in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansode, F W; Rajendran, S M; Singh, R K

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effects of Salvia haematodes Wall roots (SHW) extract on male reproductive function and copulatory behaviour in rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control and treated (5, 50 and 300 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) for 30 days). At the end of treatment regimes, the reproductive activity viz. body/organ weights, testicular spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP) and epididymal sperm counts, and sexual behaviour including mounting latency (ML), mounting frequency (MF), intromission latency (IL), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) and penile reflexes (PE) were assessed. Results showed significant increase in body weight (at 300 mg kg(-1) ), testis/epididymis weights (at 50 and 300 mg kg(-1) ), testicular spermatids, DSP, tubular diameter and epididymal sperm counts (at 50 and 300 mg kg(-1) doses) in treated compared with control rats. It also produced dose-dependant changes in sexual behaviour. The 5 mg kg(-1) dose of extract increased MF and PE, whereas 50 and 300 kg(-1) doses caused significant increase in MF, IF, PE, EL (but less than sildenafil citrate treatment), hit rate and seminal plug weight. It is concluded that SHW extract enhances anabolic activity, testicular function and sexual behavioural performance in a dose-dependant manner. PMID:24621398

  1. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Araneae, Ctenidae). II: Life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Folly-Ramos, E; Almeida, C E; Carmo-Silva, M; Costa, J

    2002-11-01

    Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22 degrees 32'S and 44 degrees 10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th) when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species. PMID:12659029

  2. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these

  3. Psychological aspects of risk appraisal in asphyxiation accidents: a review of the factors influencing children’s perception and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Zigon, G; Corradetti, R; Morra, B; Snidero, S; Gregori, D; Passali, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Psychological aspects determining children’s behaviour in response to asphyxiation risk due to ingestion of foreign matter have been rarely and non-systematically examined in the literature. Aim of this report is to highlight – through a review of the most significant psychological research in the literature – which factors influence the behaviour, perception and assessments of children 0 to 14 years of age, in a risk situation. In particular, attention is focused on the direct experience of a child at risk, assuming that this experience can play a significant role in future dangerous situations. Outcomes of studies taken into consideration have highlighted the influence of age, sex, socio-economic status, parents’ role, peer group, personal traits, television and personal experience. The latter refutes the initial hypotheses, showing an unexpected and clearly negative effect on future evaluation and behaviour in response to similar contexts of asphyxiation risk. The implications for research on asphyxiation due to ingestion of foreign matter are examined. PMID:16116832

  4. Massive Nest-Box Supplementation Boosts Fecundity, Survival and Even Immigration without Altering Mating and Reproductive Behaviour in a Rapidly Recovered Bird Population

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Karine; Leippert, Fabio; Fumagalli, Luca; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Habitat restoration measures may result in artificially high breeding density, for instance when nest-boxes saturate the environment, which can negatively impact species' demography. Potential risks include changes in mating and reproductive behaviour such as increased extra-pair paternity, conspecific brood parasitism, and polygyny. Under particular cicumstances, these mechanisms may disrupt reproduction, with populations dragged into an extinction vortex. With the use of nuclear microsatellite markers, we investigated the occurrence of these potentially negative effects in a recovered population of a rare secondary cavity-nesting farmland bird of Central Europe, the hoopoe (Upupa epops). High intensity farming in the study area has resulted in a total eradication of cavity trees, depriving hoopoes from breeding sites. An intensive nest-box campaign rectified this problem, resulting in a spectacular population recovery within a few years only. There was some concern, however, that the new, high artificially-induced breeding density might alter hoopoe mating and reproductive behaviour. As the species underwent a serious demographic bottleneck in the 1970–1990s, we also used the microsatellite markers to reconstitute the demo-genetic history of the population, looking in particular for signs of genetic erosion. We found i) a low occurrence of extra-pair paternity, polygyny and conspecific brood parasitism, ii) a high level of neutral genetic diversity (mean number of alleles and expected heterozygosity per locus: 13.8 and 83%, respectively) and, iii) evidence for genetic connectivity through recent immigration of individuals from well differentiated populations. The recent increase in breeding density did thus not induce so far any noticeable detrimental changes in mating and reproductive behaviour. The demographic bottleneck undergone by the population in the 1970s-1990s was furthermore not accompanied by any significant drop in neutral genetic diversity. Finally

  5. Behavioural aspects of a modified crosstalk between basal ganglia and limbic system in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gyorfi, Orsolya; Nagy, Helga; Bokor, Magdolna; Keri, Szabolcs

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunctions in dopaminergic neurotransmission lead to motor symptoms and cognitive impairments associated with behavioural disturbances. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which is primarily characterized by an abnormal basal ganglia activity. Recently, increased attention has been directed towards the hippocampus in the development of non-motor symptoms. Given the temporal progression of the disease, dopaminergic depletion firstly affects the dorsal striatum leaving the ventral striatum relatively intact. However, it is possible that the structure and function of the hippocampus shows alterations even in early stages of Parkinson's disease. Subtle cognitive impairments occur in the earliest stages, and therefore Parkinson's disease could provide a unique model to investigate the effect of replacement therapies on a neural network with different baseline dopaminergic levels. Strong evidence suggests that dopaminergic medications improve the motor symptoms, but these medications might have disadvantageous effects on cognitive functions. In this review, we examine the role of dopaminergic changes across several cognitive and behavioural impairments observed in Parkinson's disease, with a special reference to hippocampal dysfunctions. PMID:27390205

  6. What role does transactional sex play in the HIV/STI and reproductive health risk behaviour among high-tier entertainment centre workers in China?

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; LeVasseur, Michael T; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jiangfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui; Zhou, Feng; DiCarlo, Abby L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth over the last three decades has led to increased population wealth and the proliferation of entertainment centres where people can conduct business, relax and meet new people. Little is known about the sexual risk behaviours of employees at high-tier entertainment centres. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by comparing HIV risk perception and sexual and reproductive health behaviours among female and male employees at three high-tier entertainment centres in two cities in China, comparing those who report a history of transactional sex to those who do not. In both cities, participants who reported a history of transactional sex were more likely than those without a history of transactional sex to report multiple sexual partnerships, more lifetime sexual partners, a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), having anal sex and/or recent abortions, and were more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk for STIs/HIV. However, risk behaviour was also high among those with no history of transactional sex. These findings highlight the need for targeted sexual and reproductive health initiatives for employees in these work settings. PMID:26274897

  7. What role does transactional sex play in the HIV/STI and reproductive health risk behaviour among high-tier entertainment centre workers in China?

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; LeVasseur, Michael T.; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jiangfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui; Zhou, Feng; DiCarlo, Abby L.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    China’s rapid economic growth over the last three decades has led to increased population wealth and the proliferation of entertainment centres where people can conduct business, relax and meet new people. Little is known about the sexual risk behaviours of employees at high-tier entertainment centres. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by comparing HIV risk perception and sexual and reproductive health behaviours among female and male employees at three high-tier entertainment centres in two cities in China, comparing those who report a history of transactional sex to those who do not. In both cities, participants who reported a history of transactional sex were more likely than those without a history of transactional sex to report multiple sexual partnerships, more lifetime sexual partners, a history of STIs, having anal sex and/or recent abortions, and were more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk for STIs/HIV. However, risk behaviour was also high among those with no history of transactional sex. These findings highlight the need for targeted sexual and reproductive health initiatives for employees in these work settings. PMID:26274897

  8. Corticosterone shifts reproductive behaviour towards self-maintenance in the barn owl and is linked to melanin-based coloration in females.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2013-06-01

    Trade-offs between the benefits of current reproduction and the costs to future reproduction and survival are widely recognized. However, such trade-offs might only be detected when resources become limited to the point where investment in one activity jeopardizes investment in others. The resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance is mediated by hormones such as glucocorticoids which direct behaviour and physiology towards self-maintenance under stressful situations. We investigated this trade-off in male and female barn owls in relation to the degree of heritable melanin-based coloration, a trait that reflects the ability to cope with various sources of stress in nestlings. We increased circulating corticosterone in breeding adults by implanting a corticosterone-releasing-pellet, using birds implanted with a placebo-pellet as controls. In males, elevated corticosterone reduced the activity (i.e. reduced home-range size and distance covered within the home-range) independently of coloration, while we could not detect any effect on hunting efficiency. The effect of experimentally elevated corticosterone on female behaviour was correlated with their melanin-based coloration. Corticosterone (cort-) induced an increase in brooding behaviour in small-spotted females, while this hormone had no detectable effect in large-spotted females. Cort-females with small eumelanic spots showed the normal body-mass loss during the early nestling period, while large spotted cort-females did not lose body mass. This indicates that corticosterone induced a shift towards self-maintenance in males independently on their plumage, whereas in females this shift was observed only in large-spotted females. PMID:23583559

  9. Biochemical, histological and behavioural aspects of visual function during early development of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvalho, P.S.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Retinal structure and concentration of retinoids involved in phototransduction changed during early development of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, correlating with improvements in visual function. A test chamber was used to evaluate the presence of optokinetic or optomotor responses and to assess the functionality of the integrated cellular, physiological and biochemical components of the visual system. The results indicated that in rainbow trout optomotor responses start at 10 days post-hatch, and demonstrated for the first time that increases in acuity, sensitivity to low light as well as in motion detection abilities occur from this stage until exogenous feeding starts. The structure of retinal cells such as cone ellipsoids increased in length as photopic visual acuity improved, and rod densities increased concurrently with improvements in scotopic thresholds (2.2 log10 units). An increase in the concentrations of the chromophore all-trans-retinal correlated with improvements of all behavioural measures of visual function during the same developmental phase. ?? 2004 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  11. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  12. Behavioural differences between male and female carpenter bees in nectar robbing and its effect on reproductive success in Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, J-M; Yang, C-F; Gituru, W R

    2011-01-01

    Male and female nectar robbers may show significantly different behaviour on host plants and thus have different impacts on reproductive fitness of the plants. A 4-year study in natural populations of Glechoma longituba has shown that male carpenter bees (Xylocopa sinensis) are responsible for most of the nectar robbing from these flowers, while female bees account for little nectar robbing, demonstrating distinct behavioural differentiation between male and female bees in visiting flowers. The smaller male bee spends less time visiting a single flower than the larger female bee, consequently, the male bee is capable of visiting more flowers per unit time and has a higher foraging efficiency. Moreover, the robbing behaviour of female carpenter bees is more destructive and affects flower structures (ovules and nectaries) and floral life-span more than that of the male bee. According to the energy trade-off hypothesis, the net energy gain for male bees during nectar robbing greatly surpasses energy payout (17.72 versus 2.43 J), while the female bee net energy gain is barely adequate to meet energy payout per unit time (3.78 versus 2.39 J). The differences in net energy gain for male and female bees per unit time in nectar robbing are the likely cause of observed behavioural differences between the sexes. The differences in food resource preference between male and female bees constitute an optimal resource allocation pattern that enables the visitors to utilise floral resources more efficiently. PMID:21134084

  13. Patterns of Behaviour, Group Structure and Reproductive Status Predict Levels of Glucocorticoid Metabolites in Zoo-Housed Ring-Tailed Lemurs, Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tessa E; McCusker, Cara M; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Elwood, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, the factors modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity differ between wild and semi-free-ranging populations. Here we assess factors modulating HPA activity in ring-tailed lemurs housed in a third environment: the zoo. First we validate an enzyme immunoassay to quantify levels of glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites in the faeces of L. catta. We determine the nature of the female-female dominance hierarchies within each group by computing David's scores and examining these in relation to faecal GC (fGC). Relationships between female age and fGC are assessed to evaluate potential age-related confounds. The associations between fGC, numbers of males in a group and reproductive status are explored. Finally, we investigate the value of 7 behaviours in predicting levels of fGC. The study revealed stable linear dominance hierarchies in females within each group. The number of males in a social group together with reproductive status, but not age, influenced fGC. The 7 behavioural variables accounted for 68% of the variance in fGC. The amounts of time an animal spent locomoting and in the inside enclosure were both negative predictors of fGC. The study highlights the flexibility and adaptability of the HPA system in ring-tailed lemurs. PMID:26824528

  14. Effect of short term administration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on reproductive behaviour of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kantak, N M; Gogate, M G

    1992-04-01

    Effect of feeding Tulsi leaves along with the normal diet, on the reproductory behaviour of adult male Wistar rats, was studied. Experimental animals were given Tulsi extract in graded doses of 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg along with the normal diet while control group only had similar normal diet. Each dose was given for 15 days and reproductory behaviour monitored in terms of score, on every alternative day. There was significant decrease in sexual behavioural score, when Tulsi leaves extract dose was increased to 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. PMID:1506071

  15. Three-Dimensions vs. Two-Dimensions Intervention Programs: The Effect on the Mediation Level and Behavioural Aspects of Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, S.; Bezer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the effect of an intervention program employing 3D immersive virtual reality (IVR), which focused on the perception of sequential time, on the mediation level and behavioural aspects of children with intellectual disability (ID). The intervention is based on the mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which refers the…

  16. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions. PMID:22687331

  17. The presence of co-flowering species facilitates reproductive success of Pedicularis monbeigiana (Orobanchaceae) through variation in bumble-bee foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuo; Gituru, Robert W.; Guo, You-Hao; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The presence of co-flowering species can alter pollinator foraging behaviour and, in turn, positively or negatively affect the reproductive success of the focal species. Such interactions were investigated between a focal species, Pedicularis monbeigiana, and a co-flowering species, Vicia dichroantha, which was mediated by behaviour alteration of the shared bumble-bee pollinator. Methods Floral display size and floral colour change of P. monbeigiana were compared between pure (P. monbeigiana only) and mixed (P. monbeigiana and V. dichroantha) plots in two populations. Pollinator visitation rates, interspecific floral switching and successive within-plant pollinator visits were recorded. In addition, supplemental pollination at plant level was performed, and the fruit set and seed set were analysed in pure and mixed plots with different densities of P. monbeigiana. Key Results Pollinator visitation rates were dramatically higher in mixed plots than in pure plots. The higher pollinator visitation rates were recorded in both low- and high-density plots. In particular, successive flower visits within an individual plant were significantly lower in mixed plots. Supplemental pollination significantly increased fruit set and seed set of individuals in pure plots, while it only marginally increased seed set per fruit of plants in mixed plots. Conclusions The presence of V. dichroantha can facilitate pollination and increase female reproductive success of P. monbeigiana via both quantity (mitigating pollinator limitation) and quality (reducing geitonogamy) effects. This study suggests that successive pollinator movements among flowers within a plant, as well as pollinator visitation rates and interspecific flower switching, may be important determinants of the direction and mechanisms of interaction between species. PMID:21831855

  18. Sexuality and Human Reproduction: A Study of Scientific Knowledge, Behaviours and Beliefs of Portuguese Future Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…

  19. Influence of platelet aspect ratio on the mechanical behaviour of bio-inspired nanocomposites using molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mathiazhagan, S; Anup, S

    2016-06-01

    Superior mechanical properties of biocomposites such as nacre and bone are attributed to their basic building blocks. These basic building blocks have nanoscale features and play a major role in achieving combined stiffening, strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Bioinspired nanocomposites based on these basic building blocks, regularly and stairwise staggered arrangements of hard platelets in soft matrix, have huge potential for developing advanced materials. The study of applicability of mechanical principles of biological materials to engineered materials will guide designing advanced materials. To probe the generic mechanical characteristics of these bioinspired nanocomposites, the model material concept in molecular dynamics (MD) is used. In this paper, the effect of platelets aspect ratio (AR) on the mechanical behaviour of bioinspired nanocomposites is investigated. The obtained Young׳s moduli of both the models and the strengths of the regularly staggered models agree with the available theories. However, the strengths of the stairwise staggered models show significant difference. For the stairwise staggered model, we demonstrate the existence of two critical ARs, a smaller critical AR above which platelet fracture occurs and a higher critical AR above which composite strength remains constant. Our MD study also shows the existence of mechanisms of platelet pull-out and breakage for lower and higher ARs. Pullout mechanism acts as a major source of plasticity. Further, we find that the regularly staggered model can achieve an optimal combination of high Young׳s modulus, flow strength and toughness, and the stairwise staggered model is efficient in obtaining high Young׳s modulus and tensile strength. PMID:26741376

  20. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  1. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  2. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  3. Aspects of the distribution, population structure and reproduction of the gastropod Tibia delicatula (Nevill, 1881) inhabiting the oxygen minimum zone of the Oman and Pakistan continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Olabarria, Celia

    2005-11-01

    The present study describes some aspects of the distribution and biology of Tibia delicatula (Nevill), a gastropod belonging to the family Strombidae. This species has been found in large numbers in the upper oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Oman margin, and has also been collected from the OMZ of the Pakistan margin. The highest abundance of adult specimens in the Oman OMZ was found between 300 and 450 m. Numbers dropped rapidly below 450 m, to zero below 500 m depth. Similarly dense populations were not observed in the Pakistan OMZ. Multiple regression with oxygen concentration and depth indicates that depth (and its related variables) is the main factor explaining the variation in abundance of T. delicatula. The populations from the Oman and Pakistan OMZs were dominated by juveniles. This suggests a unimodal size structure with evidence of a marked recruitment event. Basic reproductive aspects were analysed. All specimens had a penis and sperm groove. The gonad wall consisted of reticular tissue that might be used for nutrient storage or as an irrigation system. Only vitellogenic oocytes were present. The large oocyte sizes observed (200-300 μm) suggest a lecithotrophic larval development.

  4. Parasitism of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines by Binodoxys communis: the role of aphid defensive behaviour and parasitoid reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Wyckhuys, K.A.G.; Stone, L.; Desneux, N.; Hoelmer, K.A.; Hopper, K.R.; Heimpel, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Asian parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a candidate for release against the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. In this study, we examined preferences by B. communis for the different developmental stages of A. glycines and investigated consequences of these preferences for parasitoid fitness. We also determined to what extent aphid defensive behaviours mediate such preferences. We found that B. communis readily attacks and successfully develops in the different A. glycines developmental stages. Binodoxys communis development time gradually increased with aphid developmental stage, and wasps took longest to develop in alates. An average (±SE) of 54.01±0.08% of parasitized A. glycines alatoid nymphs transformed into winged adult aphids prior to mummification. No-choice assays showed a higher proportion of successful attacks for immature apterous A. glycines nymphs compared to adults and alatoid nymphs. Also, choice trials indicated avoidance and lower attack and oviposition of adults and alatoid nymphs. The different aphid stages exhibited a range of defensive behaviours, including body raising, kicking and body rotation. These defenses were employed most effectively by larger aphids. We discuss implications for the potential establishment, spread and biological control efficacy of A. glycines by B. communis in the event that it is released in North America. PMID:18294416

  5. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children) which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building that might enable parents

  6. Effects of stimuli emanating from the nest on the reproductive cycle in the ring dove. I: pre-laying behaviour.

    PubMed

    White, S J

    1975-11-01

    The course of several behavioural patterns could be influenced by controlling the state of the nest available to a pair of ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). These patterns were: wing-flipping, handling of nesting material, nest bowl occupancy, and nervous activities. In groups having to build nests, the onset of wing-flipping by the female occurred at a predictable time before egg-laying. It is argued that during nest-building a female influences the male to carry material to her by sitting in the nest bowl and wing-flipping. In pairs provided with a completed nest, the course of the pre-laying cycle was changed and the 'typical' sex roles did not emerge. The relationships between the male and female are discussed. PMID:1106261

  7. Strengthening human rights, in particular the freedom of choice for women in matters relating to sexual behaviour and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Eleonora; Plakwicz, Jolanta

    1992-12-01

    The collapse of the Socialist States in Eastern and Central Europe started a series of transformations which could result in the global rejection of everything which is associated with the previous system, including the idea of equality between men and women. Initally, the political changes were perceived by women as an opportunity to improve their situation. However, after three years, it can be said that the transformation of the system constitutes a serious threat to women's status. For instance, in Poland, women's unemployment is already higher than men's but the direct threat to women's rights is the most visible in the domain of reproductive choices. In 1990, the first non-communist government issued regulations restricting access to abortion and, while an anti-abortion bill is now in Parliament, the new medical code of ethics forbids any physician to practice abortion except in case of danger for the mother's life or in case of rape. The authors propose finally a strategy for the future based on promoting the rights of women both at national and international levels. PMID:11651416

  8. Genetic aspects regarding piglet losses and the maternal behaviour of sows. Part 2. Genetic relationship between maternal behaviour in sows and piglet mortality.

    PubMed

    Hellbrügge, B; Tölle, K-H; Bennewitz, J; Henze, C; Presuhn, U; Krieter, J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the genetic background of different traits to characterise the maternal behaviour of sows and to evaluate the relationship to different causes of piglet losses - increasing piglet survival due to higher maternal abilities of the sow. A total of 1538 purebred litters from 943 German Landrace sows in the year 2004 were available for data analysis. Around 13 971 individually earmarked piglets were included in the analyses. Maternal abilities were characterised through the sow's reaction to the separation from her litter during the first 24 h after farrowing, and on day 21 of lactation, the reaction towards the playback of a piglet's distress call and the reaction towards an unknown noise (music). In 1220 of these litters, the sows were also scored for aggressiveness in the group when regrouped before entering the farrowing crates. To describe fertility, the number of piglets born alive, stillborn piglets, number of piglets born in total and the individual birth weight were utilised. Different causes of piglet losses were evaluated as binary traits of the dam with survival rate, different definitions for crushing by the sow, being underweight and runts. The heritability for being aggressive in the group was h2 = 0.32 and for the behaviour traits during lactation, the heritabilities ranged from h2 = 0.06 to 0.14. The genetic correlations showed that more-reactive sows had fewer piglet losses. PMID:22443816

  9. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Binns, Colin W.; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations. PMID:26247963

  10. Some related aspects of platypus electroreception: temporal integration behaviour, electroreceptive thresholds and directionality of the bill acting as an antenna.

    PubMed

    Fjällbrant, T T; Manger, P R; Pettigrew, J D

    1998-07-29

    This paper focuses on how the electric field from the prey of the platypus is detected with respect to the questions of threshold determination and how the platypus might localize its prey. A new behaviour in response to electrical stimuli below the thresholds previously reported is presented. The platypus shows a voluntary exploratory behaviour that results from a temporal integration of a number of consecutive stimulus pulses. A theoretical analysis is given, which includes the threshold dependence on the number of receptors and temporal integration of consecutive stimuli pulses, the close relationships between electrical field decay across the bill, electroreceptive thresholds and directionality of the platypus bill acting as an antenna. It is shown that a lobe shape, similar to that which has been measured, can be obtained by combining responses in a specific way from receptors sensing the electric field decay across the bill. Two possible methods for such combinations are discussed and analysed with respect to measurements and observed behaviour of the platypus. A number of factors are described which need to be considered when electroreceptive thresholds are to be determined. It is shown that some information about the distance to the source is theoretically available from the pattern of field decay across the platypus's bill. The paper includes a comparative analysis of radar target tracking and platypus prey localization. PMID:9720116

  11. [AIDS and reproduction -- some aspects].

    PubMed

    Andrade, A T

    1990-01-01

    At present probably about 1/2 million people have AIDS in the world. About 10 million may be infected with HIV without showing symptoms. By 2000 at least 5 million new cases of AIDS are expected. In Latin America AIDS was first concentrated among urban male homosexuals. Lately AIDS has increased rapidly among heterosexuals especially among bisexuals. In Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro 28% of bisexuals were infected with HIV in 1987. In Rio about 1/2 of male or female prostitutes were infected. The number of partners, the frequency of coitus, simultaneous infection with genital ulcers, and anal sex increases the chances of heterosexual transmission. 25-50% of the children of infected pregnant women are born infected with HIV. By the end of 1992 at least 1 million babies will be born to infected mothers of whom 250,000 will be HIV positive. Vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus by decidual leukocytes (especially trophoblasts) via transplacental passage was verified by identifying HIV in aborted fetuses in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. HIV infection can also occur during delivery. The virus can also be transmitted via mother's milk: there have been reports of HIV in milk since 1985. The US Centers for Disease Control advised against breast feeding by HIV infected mothers. Up to 15 months of age it is difficult to assess whether HIV antibodies are derived from the mother's infection or from the infant itself. A polymerase chain reaction test could resolve this problem by amplifying the genetic chain in the blood and detecting HIV in the DNA of the child. Recent studies have indicated that there is no additional risk posed by breast feeding for those infants who have been exposed to HIV during pregnancy or delivery. Mothers infected with HIV in developing countries may breast feed their infants because it is crucial in reducing infant mortality. PMID:12285181

  12. Emotional Aspects of Extra-Role Behaviours in Prevention Education: Insights from Interviews with Exceptional Teachers and School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at obtaining a greater understanding of the emotional aspects for teachers' of extra-role activities in drug and alcohol prevention education that are subjectively perceived by principals and teachers as discretionary and non-formally prescribed. The study also exposes the determinants affecting these activities. Based on…

  13. Irradiation creep of SA 304L and CW 316 stainless steels: Mechanical behaviour and microstructural aspects. Part I: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, J.; Bréchet, Y.; Delnondedieu, M.; Pokor, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Renault, A.; Averty, X.; Massoud, J. P.

    2011-06-01

    Solution annealed 304L (SA 304L) and cold work 316 (CW 316) austenitic stainless steel irradiation creep behaviour have been studied thoroughly. Irradiations were carried out in fast breeder reactors BOR-60 (at 330 °C, up to 120 dpa) and EBR-II (at 375 °C, up to 10.5 dpa), and in the OSIRIS mixed spectrum reactor (at 330 °C, up to 9.8 dpa). After an incubation threshold, the irradiation creep of the austenitic stainless steels is linear in stress and in dose. Creep appears to be athermal in this temperature range. A significant difference in the behaviour is measured between the creep of SA 304L and CW 316. In order to study the anisotropy of loop population, which would be the signature of a possible stress induced preferential absorption (SIPA) mechanism for irradiation creep, special attention was given to the measurement of anisotropy of loop distribution between the four families. The anisotropy induced by an applied stress has been shown to be in the range of the statistical scatter in the situation where no stress is applied. TEM microstructural analyses performed on this sample show slight difference between the microstructure of specimens deformed under irradiation and the microstructure of specimens irradiated without stress under the same irradiation conditions.

  14. Some aspects of the relationship between body weight and sexual behaviour with particular reference to massive obesity and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1978-01-01

    There is some evidence for the existence of a precise weight/fat threshold for puberty. Following puberty, body weight and shape take on important new psycho-social significances for both males and females. Adolescent females usually strive to reduce their 'fatness' even it is not excessive from a biological standpoint. Super-obesity and anorexia nervosa are two human disorders of weight and fatness, more common in women, and importantly related to disturbances of sexual behavior, metabolic, social and experiential. These latter aspects sometimes at least reflect the presence of several factors which have contributed to the development of the disorders. Anorexia nervosa in particular reflects the adaptive psychosocial needs of the person concerned. Attention to this aspect during treatment will often allow the patient to tolerate the major weight gain required for recovery, thereby at the same time providing a paradigm for aspects of the pubertal process which can then be studied. The results of some such investigations together with related studies of the super-obese are reported here. PMID:711353

  15. Histological and morphological aspects of reproduction in the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Piercy, A N; Murie, D J; Gelsleichter, J J

    2016-05-01

    The reproduction of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico was examined using a combination of histological and morphological characteristics of C. plumbeus collected through fishery-dependent and -independent sampling programmes (n = 1,567). Indices of maturity were constructed using measurements of gonads, reproductive tracts and claspers, and sandbar sharks exhibited 50% maturity sizes of 140 and 148 cm fork length for males and females respectively. Gonado-somatic indices and variation in reproductive tract condition were used to determine seasonal trends in reproduction of mature C. plumbeus. Sandbar sharks have discrete seasonal reproductive cycles in which males produce sperm from January to May with a peak in May and females develop eggs from January to May with ovulation occurring in June. Females were shown to exhibit a >2 year reproductive cycle. Embryonic development was assessed through measurements of masses and lengths of uterine contents. Gestation was 12 months, from July to the following June, with parturition in late June. This research highlights a difference from previously reported data on the periodicity of female reproduction in C. plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, which may have major effects on future C. plumbeus stock management. PMID:27021112

  16. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  17. Community participation for malaria elimination in tafea province, vanuatu: part ii. social and cultural aspects of treatment-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD), 12 key informant interviews (KII) and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP). An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in diagnosis and prompt

  18. Medicolegal aspects of complex behaviours arising from the sleep period: a review and guide for the practising sleep physician.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Ian; Rumbold, John M M; Riha, Renata L

    2014-06-01

    This review is aimed at summarizing the current state of knowledge regarding parasomnias, which have been implicated in medicolegal cases as well as providing guidance to those working within common-law jurisdictions regarding the technical aspects of the law. Sleepwalking and sexsomnia as a defence are being raised more frequently in criminal cases and there has been public debate on their validity. Unfortunately, expert evidence on forensic sleep disorders continues to be heavily opinion-based with the potential for miscarriages of justice seen in recent highly publicized cases. There is an apparent inertia in research into violent sleep disorders. We review the current state of forensic sleep science in the United Kingdom (UK) and abroad and discuss the need to formulate guidelines based on available evidence. We also highlight the pressing necessity for more research in this area as well as the need to reform the law, which is the subject of a recent Criminal Law Commission report in the United Kingdom. In time, this will facilitate the efficient, proportionate, and just disposal of violence arising from sleep, thus benefitting both society and the individual sufferer. PMID:24095310

  19. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  20. Comparative aspects of the endotoxin- and cytokine-induced endocrine cascade influencing neuroendocrine control of growth and reproduction in farm mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease in animals is a well-known inhibitor of growth and reproduction. Earlier studies were initiated to determine the effects of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion. These studies found that in sheep, growth hormone (GH) concentration was elevated, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I...

  1. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Guz, Nurper; Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia; Aksoy, Serap

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae that pupariate shortly after birth. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of two reproduction-associated genes and their products synthesized during the first and second gonotrophic cycles. The proteins studied include a putative yolk protein, Glossina morsitans morsitans yolk protein 1 (GmmYP1) and the major protein found in tsetse “milk” secretions (Glossina morsitans morsitans milk gland protein, GmmMGP). Developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of GmmYP1 show its presence exclusively in the reproductive tract of the fly during oogenesis, suggesting that GmmYP1 acts as a vitellogenic protein. Transcripts for GmmMGP are present only in the milk gland tissue and increase in coordination with the process of larvigenesis. Similarly, GmmMGP can be detected at the onset of larvigenesis in the milk gland, and is present during the full duration of pregnancy. Expression of GmmMGP is restricted to the adult stage and is not detected in the immature developmental stages. These phenomena indicate that the protein is transferred from mother to larvae as nourishment during its development. These results demonstrate that both GmmYP1 and GmmMGP are involved in tsetse reproductive biology, the former associated with the process of oogenesis and the latter with larvigenesis. PMID:17046784

  2. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  3. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  4. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  5. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  6. Impact of psychosocial stress on gonadotrophins and sexual behaviour in females: role for cortisol?

    PubMed

    Ralph, C R; Lehman, M N; Goodman, R L; Tilbrook, A J

    2016-07-01

    This review focuses on the importance of cortisol in mediating the inhibitory effects of psychosocial stress on reproduction in females. In particular, we have summarized our research in sheep where we have systematically established whether cortisol is both sufficient and necessary to suppress reproductive hormone secretion and inhibit sexual behaviour. Our findings are put into context with previous work and are used to develop important concepts as well as to identify productive further lines of investigation. It is clear that cortisol is necessary to inhibit some, but not all, aspects of reproduction in female sheep. These actions vary with reproductive state, and there are important interactions with gonadal steroids. The impact of cortisol on the tonic secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone has been investigated extensively, but less is known about the surge secretion of these hormones and their effects on sexual behaviour. Furthermore, there are separate effects of cortisol in the brain (hypothalamus) and at the anterior pituitary, illustrating that there are different mechanisms of action. Thus, although cortisol is important in mediating some of the effects of stress on reproduction, we need to look beyond cortisol and investigate some of the other mechanisms and mediators that relay the effects of stress on reproduction. In this regard, we propose that a group of neurons in the hypothalamus that co-synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin, termed KNDy cells, play important roles in mediating the effects of cortisol on reproduction. This hypothesis needs to be rigorously tested. PMID:27069009

  7. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

  8. Physiology of reproductive worker honey bees (Apis mellifera): insights for the development of the worker caste.

    PubMed

    Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists. PMID:26715114

  9. The Timing and role of Initiation Rites in Preparing Young People for Adolescence and Responsible Sexual and Reproductive Behaviour in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Munthali, Alister C.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys’ greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex. PMID:18458746

  10. New aspects in the phase behaviour of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: systematic temperature dependent shrinking of PNiPAM assemblies well beyond the LCST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischofberger, Irmgard; Trappe, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the phase behaviour of aqueous dispersions of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM) microgels above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and find that beyond a well-defined concentration the systems exhibit a peculiar behaviour: the microgels assemble into space-spanning gels that shrink in time while maintaining the shape of the container in which they have been formed. Over a wide range of concentrations this shrinking behaviour is independent of PNiPAM concentration, but systematically depends on temperature in a temperature range significantly exceeding the LCST. The overall shrinking characteristics are consistent with those expected for scaffolds made of materials that exhibit thermal contraction. However, for the PNiPAM assemblies contraction is irreversible and can be as large as 90%. Such characteristics disclose complex interactions between fully collapsed PNiPAM and water well beyond the LCST, the origin of which has yet to be elucidated.

  11. New aspects in the phase behaviour of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: systematic temperature dependent shrinking of PNiPAM assemblies well beyond the LCST.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, Irmgard; Trappe, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phase behaviour of aqueous dispersions of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM) microgels above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and find that beyond a well-defined concentration the systems exhibit a peculiar behaviour: the microgels assemble into space-spanning gels that shrink in time while maintaining the shape of the container in which they have been formed. Over a wide range of concentrations this shrinking behaviour is independent of PNiPAM concentration, but systematically depends on temperature in a temperature range significantly exceeding the LCST. The overall shrinking characteristics are consistent with those expected for scaffolds made of materials that exhibit thermal contraction. However, for the PNiPAM assemblies contraction is irreversible and can be as large as 90%. Such characteristics disclose complex interactions between fully collapsed PNiPAM and water well beyond the LCST, the origin of which has yet to be elucidated. PMID:26493499

  12. New aspects in the phase behaviour of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: systematic temperature dependent shrinking of PNiPAM assemblies well beyond the LCST

    PubMed Central

    Bischofberger, Irmgard; Trappe, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phase behaviour of aqueous dispersions of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM) microgels above their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and find that beyond a well-defined concentration the systems exhibit a peculiar behaviour: the microgels assemble into space-spanning gels that shrink in time while maintaining the shape of the container in which they have been formed. Over a wide range of concentrations this shrinking behaviour is independent of PNiPAM concentration, but systematically depends on temperature in a temperature range significantly exceeding the LCST. The overall shrinking characteristics are consistent with those expected for scaffolds made of materials that exhibit thermal contraction. However, for the PNiPAM assemblies contraction is irreversible and can be as large as 90%. Such characteristics disclose complex interactions between fully collapsed PNiPAM and water well beyond the LCST, the origin of which has yet to be elucidated. PMID:26493499

  13. Biofluidmechanics of Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Lisa J.; Dillon, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.

  14. Making Sense of Their World: Sensory Reactivity and Novelty Awareness as Aspects of Temperament and Correlates of Social Behaviours in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the early emergence of sensory reactivity and novelty awareness and their relations to children's behaviours with peers. A total of 260 parents (242 mothers, 18 fathers) and 10 teachers of 260 children (131 male, 129 female; M?=?63?months; SD?=?8.80; range?=?39-81) participated. Structural equation models indicate that…

  15. Foundations of Character: Methodological Aspects of a Study of Character Development in Three- to Six-Year-Old Children with a Focus on Sharing Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Powell, Sacha; Lin, Hsing-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on methodological issues arising in a study of character development, using illustrations of "sharing behaviours." Based primarily in six early years settings in southeast England the research records naturalistic observations of peer interactions for 55 children aged three to six years. Applying grounded theory to…

  16. Perspectives of reproductive health.

    PubMed

    van Balen, F; Visser, A P

    1997-05-01

    This issue of Patient Education and Counseling is dedicated to reproductive health. The main focus is infertility as it is experienced in different of our world. In western societies, medical breakthroughs give couples with fertility problems a good chance to have a child. However, in many developing societies adequate medical treatment is only available for the upper classes, and many women keep going to traditional healers. In addition, the social consequences of childlessness are much greater than in western societies. Another focus of this issue is negative experiences regarding pregnancy. A very distressing experience is late pregnancy loss. Late pregnancy loss is different from infertility with respect to the tangibility of an object of grief, though it may also result in permanent childlessness. Other aspects of negative pregnancy experiences are exceptional physical reactions and recurrent induced abortions. Furthermore, two other elements of reproductive health are addressed in this issue: STD among female adolescents and gender aspects of gene technology. Finally, the ramifications of these various aspects of reproductive health on education and counseling are discussed. PMID:9197797

  17. Effects of high somatic cell counts in milk on reproductive hormones and oestrus behaviour in dairy cows with special reference to those with concurrent lameness.

    PubMed

    Morris, M J; Kaneko, K; Uppal, S K; S L Walker; Jones, D N; Routly, J E; Smith, R F; Dobson, H

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation aims to establish the reason(s) why dairy cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs; >100,000 cells/ml) are less fertile than cows with low SCCs alone. The objective of Study One was to determine whether differences in steroid hormone profiles could explain the low incidence of ovulation in cows with combined High SCC and lameness. Between 30 and 80 days post-partum, animals were scored for SCC and lameness and three groups were formed: Healthy (n=22), High SCC alone (n=12) or High SCC + Lame (n=9). The ovarian follicular phases of all cows were synchronised by administering gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed seven days later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PG). Milk samples were collected daily throughout the entire study period; twice daily during the follicular phase, blood samples were taken and the ovaries were monitored using ultrasonography. Progesterone concentrations were similar in all three groups during each of five specific time periods, i.e. throughout the five days before PG injection, the peri-ovulatory period, on Day 5 and on Day 7, and during the mid luteal phase 12-17 days after ovulation (P>0.13). Mean plasma oestradiol concentrations monitored every 12h during the 36h period before ovulation were similar in all groups (Healthy, 2.80±0.30pg/ml; High SCC alone, 3.82±0.48pg/ml; High SCC+Lame 2.94±0.51pg/ml; P=0.175). The objective of Study Two was to establish whether cows with High SCC (scored and synchronised as above) display different behaviours, especially the intensity and timing of oestrus. Intervals from PG to the onset of oestrus or to the first stand-to-be-mounted (STBM) were longer for the High SCC cows than the Low SCC animals (n=8 and 20; P=0.011 and 0.002, respectively). Also, cows with High SCC tended to have a less intense oestrus and a lower maximum oestrus score per 30-min period than Low SCC cows (P=0.063 and 0.066, respectively). In conclusion, High SCC±lameness did not affect progesterone or

  18. Molecular and cellular aspects of reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Dhindsa, D.S.; Bahl, O.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: mechanisms and regulation of TSH glycosylation; internalization of hormone receptor complexes; chromatin structure and gene expression in germ line and somatic cells; structure and regulated expression of bovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone genes; the use of specific cDNA probes to assay sertoli cell functions; and reversible dissociation of chick oviduct progesterone receptor subunits.

  19. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  20. Should Reproductive Medicine Be Harmonized within Europe?

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Thöni, Magdalena; Voithofer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The medical as well as societal developments in reproductive medicine and respectively artificial reproductive technologies have challenged lawmakers, courts, politicians, medical experts and society itself over the last decades. Challenges can be seen in cross-border reproductive care, equal access to reproductive care, social freezing, disposal of embryos, multiple implantation, homosexual parenthood or surrogacy. Since different regulatory regimes have been enacted throughout Europe (e.g. liberal system in Spain, restrictive system in Austria) to accommodate, limit and regulate reproductive issues, we are analysing the question, if reproductive medicine should be harmonized within Europe. Therefore we are not only discussing already existing approaches e.g. self-regulation, or minimal standards of safety and quality, but we are also scrutinizing the role of high courts, such as the European Court of Human Rights (EC HR) and international declarations and conventions. Concluding we are briefly sketching aspects of a proposal for a potential harmonisation of reproductive medicine in Europe. PMID:26387260

  1. Translating between social worlds of policy and everyday life: The development of a group-based method to support policymaking by exploring behavioural aspects of sustainable consumption.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana

    2015-10-01

    A large international literature on how lay citizens make sense of various aspects of science and technology has been generated by investigations which utilise small group methods. Within that literature, focus group and other group-based methods have come to co-exist, and to some extent, hybridise, with the use of small groups in citizen engagement initiatives. In this article, we report on how we drew upon these methodological developments in the design and operationalisation of a policymaking support tool (STAVE). This tool has been developed to gain insight, in a relatively speedy and cost-effective way, into practical details of the everyday lived experience of people's lives, as relating to the sustainability of corresponding practices. An important challenge we faced was how, in Kuhn's terms, to 'translate' between the forms of life corresponding to the world of policymaking and the world of everyday domestic life. We examine conceptual and methodological aspects of how the tool was designed and assembled, and then trialled in the context of active real-world collaborations with policymaking organisations. These trials were implemented in six European countries, where they were used to support work on live policy issues concerned with sustainable consumption. PMID:24732936

  2. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout history, humans have celebrated the beauty and fertility of flowering plants. In addition to their aesthetic appeal, flowers contain the reproductive organs of the plant and are therefore essential for sexual propagation of plant life. Our dependence on flowering is illustrated by the die...

  3. Reproductive hacking

    PubMed Central

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  4. Spatio-temporal behaviour and mass balance of fluorine in forest soils near an aluminium smelting plant: short- and long-term aspects.

    PubMed

    Egli, M; Dürrenberger, S; Fitze, P

    2004-05-01

    With the help of a large number of monitoring sites, the behaviour of F in forested ecosystems of a formerly polluted area (Möhlin and Rheinfelden, Switzerland) could be studied over 30 years. An aluminium smelting plant originated the pollution of this area in the past: however, after the installation of a filtration plant in 1958 the F emissions were reduced and since 1991 almost absent the primary production of aluminium was stopped. The present-day area with elevated F contents (water-soluble F with >20 mg/kg) is restricted to a radius of about 1000 m from the plant. In 1969 this area had a radius of about 3 and 5 km. Between 1969 and 2000 a significant decrease in the soluble F content in the soil was observed together with a substantial decrease of F in the vegetation. The net losses of water-soluble F in the soil were in the range of 35 up to more than 70% of the original concentration and the F losses in the vegetation between 60 up to more than 80%. After the reduction of high F deposition rates the accumulated SOM was decomposed within the observation period 1969-1993. The combined decrease in F and humus led to chain reactions with losses of major elements and a dealumination of clay minerals, i.e. removal of interlayered Al of 2:1 minerals and consequent formation of smectites. PMID:14987806

  5. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  6. Morphological and physiological changes during reproduction and their relationships to reproductive performance in a capital breeder.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Lourdais, Olivier; Lorioux, Sophie; Butler, Michael W; Davis, Jon R; Salin, Karine; Voituron, Yann; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-01-01

    Current reproductive effort typically comes at a cost to future reproductive value by altering somatic function (e.g., growth or self-maintenance). Furthermore, effects of reproduction often depend on both fecundity and stage of reproduction, wherein allocation of resources into additional offspring and/or stages of reproduction results in increased costs. Despite these widely accepted generalities, interindividual variation in the effects of reproduction is common-yet the proximate basis that allows some individuals to mitigate these detrimental effects is unclear. We serially measured several variables of morphology (e.g., musculature) and physiology (e.g., antioxidant defenses) in female Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni) throughout reproduction to examine how these traits change over the course of reproduction and whether certain physiological traits are associated with reduced effects of reproduction in some individuals. Reproduction in this capital breeder was associated with changes in both morphology and physiology, but only morphological changes varied with fecundity and among specific reproductive stages. During reproduction, we detected negative relationships between morphology and self-maintenance (e.g., increased muscle allocation to reproduction was related to reduced immune function). Additionally, females that allocated resources more heavily into current reproduction also did so during future reproduction, and these females assimilated resources more efficiently, experienced reduced detriments to self-maintenance (e.g., lower levels of oxidative damage and glucocorticoids) during reproduction, and produced clutches with greater hatching success. Our results suggest that interindividual variation in specific aspects of physiology (assimilation efficiency and oxidative status) may drive variation in reproductive performance. PMID:23799834

  7. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms. PMID:19249025

  8. Genetics of impulsive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity, defined as the tendency to act without foresight, comprises a multitude of constructs and is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dissecting different aspects of impulsive behaviour and relating these to specific neurobiological circuits would improve our understanding of the etiology of complex behaviours for which impulsivity is key, and advance genetic studies in this behavioural domain. In this review, we will discuss the heritability of some impulsivity constructs and their possible use as endophenotypes (heritable, disease-associated intermediate phenotypes). Several functional genetic variants associated with impulsive behaviour have been identified by the candidate gene approach and re-sequencing, and whole genome strategies can be implemented for discovery of novel rare and common alleles influencing impulsivity. Via deep sequencing an uncommon HTR2B stop codon, common in one population, was discovered, with implications for understanding impulsive behaviour in both humans and rodents and for future gene discovery. PMID:23440466

  9. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  10. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  11. A conceptual framework for the social analysis of reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil L; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-03-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Social Analysis of Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-01-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  13. Managed care and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S S; Williams, D R

    1998-01-01

    Managed care poses special challenges to midwives providing reproductive health care. This is owing to the sensitive nature of issues surrounding reproductive health and aspects of managed care that may impede a woman's ability to obtain continuous, confidential, and comprehensive care from the provider of her choice. Variations across payers (ie, Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial insurers) regarding covered benefits and reimbursement of midwifery services also may create obstacles. Furthermore, some physicians and managed care organizations are embracing policies that threaten the ability of midwives to function as primary health care providers for women. Despite these hurdles, midwives have the potential to remain competitive in the new marketplace. This article underscores the importance of being knowledgeable about legislation and policy issues surrounding the financing of midwifery services, quality performance measurement for HMOs as they pertain to reproductive health, and discussions regarding which clinicians should be defined as primary care providers. PMID:9674347

  14. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  15. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  16. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  17. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  18. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  19. Growth and reproduction aspects of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) of the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir, state of Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabinson, L M; Rodrigues Filho, J L; Peret, A C; Verani, J R

    2014-05-01

    Growth and reproduction parameters of the yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), were determined for the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (GO/MG). The field work occurred throughout February 2007 to January 2008 (with the exception of December 2007). Gill nets with mesh sizes from 1.5 to 10 centimeters were placed in three different areas in the reservoir and were collected 24 hours later. A total of 538 specimens were captured, amongst which 242 were females, 219 were males and 77 could not have their sex determined. Sex ratio differed from 1:1 only during July 2007 and January 2008, with males and females predominating in each of those months. Males occupied the medium length classes (18.9 to 24.3 cm) while females were most abundant in the superior classes (from 27 to 37.8 cm).The growth constant K was statistically equal for males (K=0.1851) and females (K=0.1708), however, females P. maculatus may have a greater investment in reproductive tissue, a fact indicated by the elevated values of Kn and GSI during the summer. Bearing in mind that P. maculatus reproduces in the rainy season, a greater gain in weight is expected during the months before the reproduction season, and that after it occurs the fish loses fat and weight as a consequence of metabolic effort. Still, the absence of juveniles may be an indication that the species did not find in the reservoir the proper conditions for reproduction and growth of its fry. PMID:25166330

  20. Influence of individual body size on reproductive traits in Melanopline grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is a fundamental trait of an organism, affecting most aspects of its performance, including reproduction. Numerous biotic and environmental factors can influence individual body size and reproduction in grasshoppers. Using data from four experiments, I examined intraspecific relationships ...

  1. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.L.; Goldman, J.M.; Rehnberg, G.L.

    1986-12-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, the authors evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. They also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants.

  2. Reproductive health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Mark C; Ross, Lawrence S

    2014-02-01

    Most patients in the United States with reproductive health disorders are not covered by their health insurance for these problems. Health insurance plans consider reproductive care as a lifestyle choice not as a disease. If coverage is provided it is, most often, directed to female factor infertility and advanced reproductive techniques, ignoring male factor reproductive disorders. This article reviews the history of reproductive health care delivery and its present state, and considers its possible future direction. PMID:24286778

  3. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  4. Reproductive biology of Pleurodema guayapae (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Grenat, Pablo Raúl; Baraquet, Mariana; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2014-03-01

    Pleurodema guayapae is a species that inhabits saline environments and semidesert zones from central Argentina. To date, the knowledge about the reproductive biology of this species is very poor, and our aim is to contribute to its knowledge with the description of some important reproductive aspects. For this, field work was undertaken in an area near to Patquia, La Rioja province. Sampling was undertaken during three summer periods (2006-2007; 2007-2008; 2008-2009) in Chamical-Patquia area, where we could find reproductively active populations. We observed and described breeding sites, type of clutch, process of foam nest construction, clutch and egg number and sizes, and hatching time and stage. Behaviour observations were performed from the time that males began to call until the pairs ended up the foam nests building, and layed the eggs. Additionally, one amplected pair was observed and filmed in the process of foam nest construction, and four amplectant pairs were collected and separatelly placed in plastic containers, for nests observations in the laboratory. Hatching time was based on three different foam nests of known age. We found that P. guayapae populations were acoustically active only after a rainfall. Its breeding sites were represented by ephemeral ponds of fresh water, product of rains. The males emitted their calls inside or outside these ponds. A detailed description of the foam nest construction process by both females and males was made. The clutches were in dome-shaped foam nest type of 6-9cm in diameter and 1-3cm in height, some of which were in communal nests. The nests had an average of 1 137 pigmented eggs. This species showed a short hatching time. Our results allow us to conclude that this species should be considered an extreme explosive breeder. Our results are discussed with others obtained for related species. PMID:24912352

  5. Symbiont infection affects aphid defensive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dion, Emilie; Polin, Sarah Erika; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Outreman, Yannick

    2011-10-23

    Aphids harbour both an obligate bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and a wide range of facultative ones. Facultative symbionts can modify morphological, developmental and physiological host traits that favour their spread within aphid populations. We experimentally investigated the idea that symbionts may also modify aphid behavioural traits to enhance their transmission. Aphids exhibit many behavioural defences against enemies. Despite their benefits, these behaviours have some associated costs leading to reduction in aphid reproduction. Some aphid individuals harbour a facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa that provides protection against parasitoids. By analysing aphid behaviours in the presence of parasitoids, we showed that aphids infected with H. defensa exhibited reduced aggressiveness and escape reactions compared with uninfected aphids. The aphid and the symbiont have both benefited from these behavioural changes: both partners reduced the fitness decrements associated with the behavioural defences. Such symbiont-induced changes of behavioural defences may have consequences for coevolutionary processes between host organisms and their enemies. PMID:21490007

  6. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  7. Reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality: A sibling comparison analysis using Swedish register data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kolk, Martin; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reproductive history influences post-reproductive mortality. A potential explanation for this association is confounding by socioeconomic status in the family of origin, as socioeconomic status is related to both fertility behaviours and to long-term health. We examine the relationship between age at first birth, completed parity, and post-reproductive mortality and address the potential confounding role of family of origin. We use Swedish population register data for men and women born 1932-1960, and examine both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The contributions of our study are the use of a sibling comparison design that minimizes residual confounding from shared family background characteristics and assessment of cause-specific mortality that can shed light on the mechanisms linking reproductive history to mortality. Our results were entirely consistent with previous research on this topic, with teenage first time parents having higher mortality, and the relationship between parity and mortality following a U-shaped pattern where childless men and women and those with five or more children had the highest mortality. These results indicate that selection into specific fertility behaviours based upon socioeconomic status and experiences within the family of origin does not explain the relationship between reproductive history and post-reproductive mortality. Additional analyses where we adjust for other lifecourse factors such as educational attainment, attained socioeconomic status, and post-reproductive marital history do not change the results. Our results add an important new level of robustness to the findings on reproductive history and mortality by showing that the association is robust to confounding by factors shared by siblings. However it is still uncertain whether reproductive history causally influences health, or whether other confounding factors such as childhood health or risk-taking propensity could

  8. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  9. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  10. Excess of Nerve Growth Factor in the Ovary Causes a Polycystic Ovary-Like Syndrome in Mice, which Closely Resembles Both Reproductive and Metabolic Aspects of the Human Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jenny L.; Chen, Weiyi; Dissen, Gregory A.; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Cowley, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized by reproductive abnormalities and associated metabolic conditions comprising insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. We previously reported that transgenic overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF), a marker of sympathetic hyperactivity, directed to the ovary by the mouse 17α-hydroxylase/C17–20 lyase promoter (17NF mice), results in ovarian abnormalities similar to those seen in PCOS women. To investigate whether ovarian overproduction of NGF also induces common metabolic alterations of PCOS, we assessed glucose homeostasis by glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin levels, and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan in young female 17NF mice and wild-type mice. 17NF mice exhibited increased body weight and alterations in body fat distribution with a greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with sc fat (P < .01). 17NF mice also displayed glucose intolerance (P < .01), decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (P < .01), and hyperinsulinemia (P < .05), which, similar to PCOS patients, occurred independently of body weight. Additionally, 17NF mice exhibited increased sympathetic outflow observed as increased interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature. This change was evident during the dark period (7 pm to 7 am) and occurred concomitant with increased interscapular brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 expression. These findings suggest that overexpression of NGF in the ovary may suffice to cause both reproductive and metabolic alterations characteristic of PCOS and support the hypothesis that sympathetic hyperactivity may contribute to the development and/or progression of PCOS. PMID:25211588

  11. Nitrogen Metabolism in Cotton Stems and Roots during Reproductive Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a perennial plant grown as an annual row crop in much of the world. Cotton stems and roots store starch prior to reproduction that is subsequently available to support reproduction. Aspects of nitrogen metabolism in cotton stems and roots were investigated to determine...

  12. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable. PMID:26242944

  13. Microbes Central to Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe–host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions. PMID:25250861

  14. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions. PMID:25250861

  15. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  16. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  17. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  18. Pulsatile control of reproduction.

    PubMed

    1984-08-18

    An aspect of the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction to emerge in the past decade is the pulsatile nature of hormone secretion. The pulse generator is in the central nervous system -- in the medial basal region of the hypothalamus. It works by a synchronous firing of entire populations of endocrine neurons, which discharge a quantum of the decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the portal blood capillaries which then carry it to the anterior pituitary gland. In man, episodic secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, especially luteinizing hormone (LH) is considered to imply a preceding pulsatile GnRH stimulus also, though this cannot be observed directly. This LH pattern is characterized by discrete bursts (pulses) separated by periods of little or no secretion. It is observalbe at all stages and states of reproductive life, being most evident at high secretion rates (e.g., at midcycle and after menopause). The pulse frequency is important and leads to the possibility of physiological and pharmacological control of pituitary-gonadal function by frequency modulation. Physiologically, pulses of LH secretion occur every 1-2 hours. The need for pulsatility in therapeutic GnRH stimulation of the pituitary also has been established following the early days of GnRH therapy when both constant and infrequent administration were found to be ineffective. Pulsatile GnRH therapy through portable pumps delivering small doses subcutaneously or intravenously every 1-2 hours has now been successfully applied to the treatment of anovulatory infertility, male hypogonadism, and the initiation of puberty. Supraphysiological GnRH stimulation, whether through increased frequency or amplitude or use of the "superactive" agonist analogues, produces a seemingly paradoxical inhibition of gonadotropin secretion. Although a postreceptor effect has been proposed, the mechanism appears to be a "down-regulation" of the GnRH receptors. Normally, the gaps between the physiological

  19. Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People Concerning Fertility Risks – Results of a Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fügener, J.; Matthes, A.; Strauß, B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients “Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten” PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children “Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven” and the short version of the “Big Five Inventory” BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the

  20. Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People Concerning Fertility Risks - Results of a Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Fügener, J; Matthes, A; Strauß, B

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients "Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten" PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children "Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven" and the short version of the "Big Five Inventory" BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the risk factors

  1. Stress and the reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Toufexis, D; Rivarola, M A; Lara, H; Viau, V

    2014-09-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For example, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, whereas activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology, as well as behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors such as oestrogen receptor (ER)α that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilised by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine into the ovary, which produces a noncyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increases 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain the heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioural phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hyporesponsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects

  2. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  3. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  4. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  5. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paul A; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X(*)Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  6. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  7. What is Normal? A Characterization of the Values and Variabilty in Reproductive Endpoints of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Jensen et al. investigated aspects of the normal reproductive biology of the fathead minnow (FHM, P. promelas), and subsequent studies have generated a large amount of additional reproductive data for endpoints such as plasma steroid hormone and vitellogenin concentrations, spa...

  8. Are reproductive skew models evolutionarily stable?

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    Reproductive skew theory has become a popular way to phrase problems and test hypotheses of social evolution. The diversity of reproductive skew models probably stems from the ease of generating new variations. However, I show that the logical basis of skew models, that is, the way in which group formation is modelled, makes use of hidden assumptions that may be problematical as they are unlikely to be fulfilled in all social systems. I illustrate these problems by re-analysing the basic concessive skew model with staying incentives. First, the model assumes that dispersal is an all-or-nothing response: all subordinates disperse as soon as concessions drop below a certain value. This leads to a discontinuous 'cliff-edge' shape of dominant fitness, and it is not clear that selection will balance a population at such an edge. Second, it is assumed that subordinates have perfect knowledge of their benefits if they stay in the group. I examine the effects of relaxing these two assumptions. Relaxing the first one strengthens reproductive skew theory, but relaxing the latter makes evolutionary stability disappear. In cases where subordinates cannot accurately measure benefits provided by the individual dominant with which they live, so that their behaviour instead evolves as a response to population-wide average benefits, the logic of reproductive skew models does not apply. This warns against too indiscriminate an application of reproductive skew theory to problems in social evolution: for example, transactional models of extra-pair paternity assume perfect knowledge of paternity, which is unlikely to hold true in nature. It is recommended that models specify the mechanisms by which individuals can adjust their behaviour to that of others, and pay attention to changes that occur in evolutionary versus behavioural time. PMID:12614575

  9. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; González-Pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagrán, Matías; Olazabal, Daniel; Pérez, William

    2008-01-01

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed. PMID:18534014

  10. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  11. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  12. Stress and the Reproductive Axis

    PubMed Central

    Toufexis, Donna; Rivarola, Maria Angelica; Lara, Hernan; Viau, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For instance, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, while activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology and behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors like ERα that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilized by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine (NE) into the ovary, which produces a non-cyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increase 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioral phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hypo-responsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects of oestrogen, and changes in 5-HT

  13. Imagining Reproduction in Science and History

    PubMed Central

    Stephanson, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Reproduction is at the core of many aspects of human existence. It is intrinsic in our biology and in the broad social constructs in which we all reside. The introduction to this special issue is designed to reflect on some of the differences between the humanities/arts and the sciences on the subject of Reproduction now and in the past. The intellectual/cultural distance between humanists and reproductive biologists is vast, yet communication between the Two Cultures has much to offer in guiding future research, pedagogy, and social policy. The challenges to communication include differences in methodology, professional protocols, specialization, and the increasing speed with which reproductive technology advances. The solutions require a new kind of student who can learn and adapt the approaches from both sides of the disciplinary divide to create new ways of understanding how our current and future concepts of reproduction may be informed by the past. This co-authored introduction reviews the range of interests represented in the essays and represents first steps of a dialogue between a humanist and a reproductive biologist who chart some of the possibilities on what the future of the subject might hold. PMID:19937463

  14. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  15. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  16. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  17. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  18. Reproductive functions in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D E

    1992-08-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about the effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes on ovulation, menstruation, sexuality, fertility, pregnancy and fetal-infant health. Eating disorders may result in failure to ovulate, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, reduced sex drive, infertility, hyperemesis gravidarum, low maternal weight gain in pregnancy, small babies for gestational date, low birth weight infants, increased neonatal morbidity and problems in infant feeding. The available information suggests that clinicians should inquire about nutritional intake, a history of eating disorders and weight reducing behaviours as part of the routine assessment of patients with the disorders of reproductive function listed above. If an eating disorder is discovered before conception, the woman should be encouraged to delay pregnancy until the eating disorder is treated and effectively under control. If the woman is pregnant, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce maternal and fetal complications. The infants of eating-disordered women should be carefully followed to ensure adequate nutritional intake. Problems in reproductive function related to eating disorders offer rich opportunities for multispecialty collaboration in primary and secondary prevention programmes directed toward both mother and infant. PMID:1389091

  19. Information Searching Behaviour of Young Slovenian Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilar, Polona; Zumer, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an empirical study of information behaviour of young Slovenian researchers. Design/methodology/approach: Built on some well-known models of scholarly information behaviour the study complements a previously conducted study of the same population, which focused on the aspects of user…

  20. [Behaviour of laying hens in aviaries--review. Part 1: Social and resting behaviour of hens].

    PubMed

    Moesta, A; Knierim, U; Briese, A; Hartung, J

    2007-12-01

    This literature review gives information about important behaviour categories of laying hens kept in aviary systems. Based on current knowledge, the differences in behaviour of hens in aviaries compared to the behaviour of hens living under "close to natural" conditions are assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. The focus of this first review is put on resting and particularly on social behaviour. So far "optimal" group size for laying hens and consequences of oversized groups for the well-being of laying hens are unknown, thus, rendering further research necessary. Referring to the resting and social behaviour of laying hens, proposals for the design of the housing system aviary are given. A second part will deal with feeding, reproductive and dustbathing behaviour. PMID:18181358

  1. Assisted reproduction: Ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Londra, Laura; Wallach, Edward; Zhao, Yulian

    2014-10-01

    Since inception, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been accompanied by ethical, legal, and societal controversies. Guidelines have been developed to address many of these concerns; however, the rapid evolution of ART requires their frequent re-evaluation. We review the literature on ethical and legal aspects of ART, highlighting some of the most visible and challenging topics. Of specific interest are: reporting of ART procedures and outcomes; accessibility to ART procedures; issues related to fertility preservation, preimplantation genetic testing, gamete and embryo donation, and reproductive outcomes after embryo transfer. Improvements in ART reporting are needed nationally and worldwide. Reporting should include outcomes that enable patients to make informed decisions. Improving access to ART and optimizing long-term reproductive outcomes, while taking into account the legal and ethical consequences, are challenges that need to be addressed by the entire community of individuals involved in ART with the assistance of bioethicists, legal counselors, and members of society in general. PMID:25131898

  2. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Rehnberg, G L

    1986-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, we evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. We also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:3830104

  3. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  4. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  5. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  6. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  7. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  8. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  9. Aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within five typologies.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-03-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the individual and those around them. Hence, greater consideration regarding intervention, management, person-centred strategies and prevalence and frequency rates are required in service provision for individuals with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour. This review presents the context of aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within the five typologies of aggressive behaviour: verbal aggression, aggression against others, sexually inappropriate behaviour, self-injurious behaviour and aggression against property, as identified by Crocker et al. (2007). The focus of this review is to report on the prevalence of aggressive behaviour reported for individuals with intellectual disability and consider the ambiguity in defining aggressive behaviour. PMID:24189373

  10. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  11. Expanding the ecotoxicological toolbox: the inclusion of polychaete reproductive endpoints.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Watson, Gordon J

    2012-04-01

    In the last 15 years the diversity of pollutants and routes of impact have increased. However, the polychaete families, species and endpoints investigated have remained fairly constant. Reproductive outputs are more ecologically relevant than adult physiological or biochemical changes. Nevertheless, there remains a paucity of data on the reproductive responses of the popular species to pollutants which limits our ability to understand the true ecological impacts of such contaminants on natural populations. We highlight the current knowledge gaps in our understanding of the impacts of pollutants on the 'model' species' reproductive biology and therefore the potential ecological impacts of such contaminants on their natural populations, and the potential benefits of a wider use of polychaete reproductive endpoints for ecotoxicological assessments. The following priority areas are suggested for inclusion in the polychaete ecotoxicology toolbox: 1. Include reproductive endpoints as assessments of ecotoxicology for the traditional 'model' species and those that have different reproductive traits to ensure broad ecological relevance. 2. Nereids and Arenicola marina should be used to investigate the interaction of pollutants with the endocrine/environmental control of reproduction. 3. Polychaetes are ideal for addressing the under representation of male eco-toxicity effects. 4. Emerging pollutants should be assessed with reproductive endpoints together with the traditional biomarkers. 5. Effects of pollutants on larval behaviour need to be explored considering the limited but equivocal results so far. PMID:21872922

  12. Impact of Marine Drugs on Animal Reproductive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Francesco; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and description of bioactive substances from natural sources has been a research topic for the last 50 years. In this respect, marine animals have been used to extract many new compounds exerting different actions. Reproduction is a complex process whose main steps are the production and maturation of gametes, their activation, the fertilisation and the beginning of development. In the literature it has been shown that many substances extracted from marine organisms may have profound influence on the reproductive behaviour, function and reproductive strategies and survival of species. However, despite the central importance of reproduction and thus the maintenance of species, there are still few studies on how reproductive mechanisms are impacted by marine bioactive drugs. At present, studies in either marine and terrestrial animals have been particularly important in identifying what specific fine reproductive mechanisms are affected by marine-derived substances. In this review we describe the main steps of the biology of reproduction and the impact of substances from marine environment and organisms on the reproductive processes. PMID:20098597

  13. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  14. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Signaling in Vertebrate Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Chun, Jerold

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a cell membrane phospholipid metabolite that can act as an extracellular signal. Its effects are mediated through at least five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1-5, and likely others as well. Studies in multiple species including LPA receptor-deficient mice and humans have identified or implicated important roles for receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of vertebrate reproduction. These include ovarian function, spermatogenesis, fertilization, early embryo development, embryo implantation, embryo spacing, decidualization, pregnancy maintenance, and parturition. LPA signaling may also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and ovarian cancer. Here we review recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to female and male reproduction. PMID:19836970

  15. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  16. Reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices of Iranian college students.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M; Tehrani, F R; Hashemi, Z

    2005-01-01

    To study reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices of youth in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1111 university students completed a questionnaire with 43 closed questions. The overall mean knowledge score was 54%. Knowledge of males and females, and of married and single students, was similar. Of 664 students answering questions about reproductive health behaviour, 54 (8%) reported having sexual intercourse before marriage; 16% of males and 0.6% of females; 48% of them had used condoms. The majority of students believed that the risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections was moderate but that youth had a low ability to practise healthy behaviour. The majority believed in the benefits of reproductive health knowledge for youth but felt that services were inadequate. PMID:16761658

  17. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  18. Developments in reproductive risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Stijkel, A; van Dijk, F J

    1995-01-01

    Internationally, the debate on aims for occupational health policy is expanding its horizons. Included among the issues are not only concerns about safety for workers, but also for their progeny. Equality among the sexes is also assuming a prominent position. In several countries, existing and proposed legislation already considers these matters. In the course of this article it is argued that this legislation and its implementation are inadequate. There are several reasons for this. Firstly, what constitutes health risks for workers exposed to chemical substances is subject to different interpretations. This is further complicated when one includes risks to reproductive function and to the progeny: the reproductive risks of toxicity. The different interpretations of the concepts of safety and equality are also discussed. There are differences in regulations and in standards about whether or not safety factors should be used when knowledge is uncertain. The operation of reasonable measures with a generic or sex specific policy also differs. Secondly, the current occupational exposure limits are set too high. These aspects are considered and it is probable that the policy aims should be made more specific. An elaborated approach that includes the "precautionary principle" in safety standards is proposed. To advise employers in their role as managers of reproductive risks of toxicity, a recently developed system for occupational health and safety services is described. This system is based on two criteria: effectiveness and reasonableness of proposed measures. The effectiveness criterion includes the precautionary principle; the reasonableness criterion includes equal rights and opportunities for men and women. Finally, a supportive governmental policy that is consistent with the most recent international development is recommended. PMID:7795750

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices in reproductive and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    To help support and direct the Lions Club's construction of a Community Health Clinic specializing in Reproductive and Sexual Health, this descriptive study began in November of 2004 and was completed in May 2005. The sample consists of 552 high school students in Rumiñahui County, and surveys were used to study four principle themes: reproductive and sexual health education, family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and domestic violence. The results show a widespread lack of accurate and adequate information about reproductive and sexual health. Statistically significant variables studied include sex, age, monthly income, and age of first sexual experience. Female sex, younger age, lower monthly income, and younger age of first sexual experience all contribute to a lower quality of reproductive and sexual health, in terms of having less information about and access to these four aspects of reproductive and sexual health. PMID:18523623

  20. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. PMID:23452943

  1. Autopoiesis and natural drift: genetic information, reproduction, and evolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Arantza

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of the theory of autopoiesis to the definition of life and biological theory affirms biological autonomy as a central notion of scientific and philosophical inquiry, and opposes other biological approaches, based on the notion of genetic information, that consider reproduction and evolution to be the central aspects of life and living phenomenology. This article reviews the autopoietic criticisms of genetic information, reproduction, and evolution in the light of a biology that can solve the problem of living organization. PMID:15245632

  2. Dominance, reproduction and survival in banded mongooses: towards an egalitarian social system?

    PubMed

    de Luca, D. W.; Ginsberg, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The banded mongoose, Mungos mungo, is a social species that forms multimale and multifemale family groups. Earlier studies suggest these family groups are relatively egalitarian with small differences in reproductive opportunities among individuals of different rank. In contrast, previous studies of other social mongooses have focused on species with more despotic control of reproduction (meerkats, Suricata suricatta, dwarf mongooses, Helogale parvula). In these species, the distribution of reproductive opportunities amongst individuals of different rank has met the predictions of reproductive skew theory: dominant individuals accrue greater reproductive benefits than subordinates, with subordinates breeding less often than dominants. In this paper we test how well two predictions of reproductive skew theory explain variance in measures of reproductive effort, and its correlates, in a wild population of banded mongooses in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. We measure dominance rank in males and females, and we investigate whether individuals of higher social rank accrue greater benefits than subordinates in terms of survival and reproduction. Banded mongoose dominance hierarchies showed linearity, but low reproductive skew. Rank was not significantly correlated with age. Furthermore, there were only small effects of dominance rank on nutritional levels, and no effects on reproduction and survival, suggesting that banded mongoose societies are indeed relatively egalitarian. No evidence of reproductive suppression was found and other forms of reproductive control were not observed. However, we do not exclude the possibility of increased reproductive competition in circumstances of higher ecological constraints. These findings show that reproductive skew theory is equally useful in explaining variation in reproduction in societies with low reproductive skew, as it is in explaining the allocation of reproductive effort in despotic social systems. Copyright 2001

  3. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  4. Potential roles of the prokineticins in reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Pérez, David; Evans, Jemma; Denison, Fiona; Millar, Robert P.; Jabbour, Henry N.

    2007-01-01

    Prokineticins are multifunctional secreted proteins that were originally identified as regulators of intestinal contraction but subsequently shown to affect vascular function, hyperalgesia, spermatogenesis, neuronal survival, circadian rhythm, nociception, feeding behaviour, immune responses, haematopoiesis and the development of the olfactory and gonadotropin-releasing hormone systems. Their role in the reproductive tract is still not fully elucidated, although they are reputed to increase microvascular permeability. Expression of prokineticins and their receptors has been reported in the ovary, uterus, placenta, testis and prostate. Their expression has also been reported in various pathologies of the reproductive tract, and future studies will highlight whether inhibition of prokineticin function in these pathologies would be a useful therapeutic target. PMID:17208447

  5. My Reproductive Life Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... use with their patients. How to Make a Plan First, think about your goals for school, for ...

  6. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. It includes fertility treatments that handle both a woman's egg and a man's sperm. ... is the most common and effective type of ART. ART procedures sometimes use donor eggs, donor sperm, ...

  8. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  9. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  10. Perseveration by NK1R-/- ('knockout') mice is blunted by doses of methylphenidate that affect neither other aspects of their cognitive performance nor the behaviour of wild-type mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Young, Jared W; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The underlying cause(s) of abnormalities expressed by patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have yet to be delineated. One factor that has been associated with increased vulnerability to ADHD is polymorphism(s) of TACR1, which is the human equivalent of the rodent NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptor gene (Nk1r). We have reported previously that genetically altered mice, lacking functional NK1R (NK1R-/-), express locomotor hyperactivity, which was blunted by the first-line treatment for ADHD, methylphenidate. Here, we compared the effects of this psychostimulant (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on the behaviour of NK1R-/- mice and their wild types in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test, which emulates procedures used to study attention and response control in ADHD patients. Methylphenidate increased total trials (a measure of 'productivity') completed by wild types, but not by NK1R-/- mice. Conversely, this drug reduced perseveration by NK1R-/- mice, but not by wild types. Other drug-induced changes in key behaviours were not genotype dependent, especially at the highest dose: for example, % omissions (an index of inattentiveness) was increased, whereas % false alarms and % premature responses (measures of impulsivity) declined in both genotypes, indicating reduced overall response. These findings are discussed in the context of the efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD. Moreover, they lead to several testable proposals. First, methylphenidate does not improve attention in a subgroup of ADHD patients with a functional deficit of TACR1. Second, these patients do not express excessive false alarms when compared with other groups of subjects, but they do express excessive perseveration, which would be ameliorated by methylphenidate. PMID:27097734

  11. Organizational Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joe

    Designed as an introduction to industrial psychology, this work ties the findings and theories of individual and social psychology, human relations, and group dynamics to the behavior of executives and other members of large organizations. Such aspects and concerns as personality, leadership roles and styles, conformity, productivity, differing…

  12. Psychosocial aspects of ejaculatory dysfunction and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wincze, John P

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the biopsychosocial model and the assessment and treatment of male sexual dysfunction as manifested in cases of infertility. In couples trying to get pregnant, a unique set of psychosocial and behavioral changes may evolve that directly interferes with a couple's usual pattern of sexual behavior, resulting in sexual dysfunction. The unique set of changes is discussed and how these changes impact on erectile and ejaculatory function. Strategies for assessing and managing male sexual dysfunction that compromise fertility are reviewed. PMID:26297900

  13. Socioecological aspects of human reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Neubert, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fertility outcome of two populations of northern Namibia, following different ways of subsistence. The total number of offspring, but also the number of dead and surviving offspring was compared between 236 !Kung San (91 females, 145 males) hunter gatherers and 248 Kavango (87 females, 161 males) horticultural pastoralists and a small number of Kavango people living in the urban center of Rundu. While no typical differences in fertility outcome between the study populations could be observed in males, marked differences were found for the female sample. As to be expected traditional Kavango women had given birth to a higher number of children and these children had a higher chance to survive in comparison to those of !Kung San women. On the other hand Kavango females living in urban centers reported a significantly lower number of offspring. It can be concluded that even in recent populations fertility differences according to subsistence patterns are observable. PMID:15571091

  14. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  15. Subordinate male cichlids retain reproductive competence during social suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kustan, Jacqueline M.; Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Subordinate males, which are excluded from reproduction often save energy by reducing their investment in sperm production. However, if their position in a dominance hierarchy changes suddenly they should also rapidly attain fertilization capability. Here, we asked how social suppression and ascension to dominance influences sperm quality, spermatogenesis and reproductive competence in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, where reproduction is tightly coupled to social status. Dominant territorial (T) males are reproductively active while subordinate non-territorial (NT) males are suppressed, but given the opportunity, NT males will perform dominance behaviours within minutes and attain T male testes size within days. Using the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label germ cell proliferation, we found that the spermatogenic cycle takes approximately 11–12 days, and social status had no effect on proliferation, suggesting that spermatogenesis continues during reproductive suppression. Although sperm velocity did not differ among social states, NT males had reduced sperm motility. Remarkably, males ascending in status showed sperm motility equivalent to T males within 24 h. Males also successfully reproduced within hours of social opportunity, despite four to five weeks of suppression and reduced testis size. Our data suggest that NT males maintain reproductive potential during suppression possibly as a strategy to rapidly improve reproductive fitness upon social opportunity. PMID:21733892

  16. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

  17. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  18. Mild mutations in the pan neural gene prospero affect male-specific behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yaël; Savy, Mathilde; Soichot, Julien; Everaerts, Claude; Cézilly, Frank; Ferveur, Jean François

    2004-01-30

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most appropriate model organisms to study the genetics of behaviour. Here, we focus on prospero (pros), a key gene for the development of the nervous system which specifies multiple aspects from the early formation of the embryonic central nervous system to the formation of larval and adult sensory organs. We studied the effects on locomotion, courtship and mating behaviour of three mild pros mutations. These newly isolated pros mutations were induced after the incomplete excision of a transposable genomic element that, before excision, caused a lethal phenotype during larval development. Strikingly, these mutant strains, but not the strains with a clean excision, produced a high frequency of heterozygous flies, after more than 50 generations in the lab. We investigated the factors that could decrease the fitness of homozygotes relatively to heterozygous pros mutant flies. Flies of both genotypes had slightly different levels of fertility. More strikingly, homozygous mutant males had a lower sexual activity than heterozygous males and failed to mate in a competitive situation. No similar effect was detected in mutant females. These findings suggest that mild mutations in pros did not alter vital functions during development but drastically changed adult male behaviour and reproductive fitness. PMID:14744542

  19. Leptin and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Richard; Lents, Clay A

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays a dynamic role in whole-body energy homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ. Collective evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of leptin. Developmental changes in these relationships are considered important for pubertal transition in reproductive function. Leptin augments secretion of gonadotropin hormones, which are essential for initiation and maintenance of normal reproductive function, by acting centrally at the hypothalamus to regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal activity and secretion. The effects of leptin on GnRH are mediated through interneuronal pathways involving neuropeptide-Y, proopiomelanocortin and kisspeptin. Increased infertility associated with diet induced obesity or central leptin resistance are likely mediated through the kisspeptin-GnRH pathway. Furthermore, Leptin regulates reproductive function by altering the sensitivity of the pituitary gland to GnRH and acting at the ovary to regulate follicular and luteal steroidogenesis. Thus leptin serves as a putative signal that links metabolic status with the reproductive axis. The intent of this review is to examine the biological role of leptin with energy metabolism, and reproduction. PMID:22980196

  20. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age. PMID:26574894

  1. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony. PMID:26909189

  2. Alternative reproductive tactics in male Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Waterman, J M; Bennett, N C

    2008-06-01

    In some animal societies, males vary in the strategies and tactics that they use for reproduction. Explanations for the evolution of alternative tactics have usually focussed on extrinsic factors such as social status, the environment or population density and have rarely examined proximate differences between individuals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that two alternative reproductive tactics occur in cooperatively breeding male Cape ground squirrels. Here we show that there is strong empirical support for physiological and behavioural differences to uphold this claim. 'Dispersed' males have higher resting metabolic rates and a heightened pituitary activity, compared with philopatric 'natal' males that have higher circulating cortisol levels. Dispersed males also spend more time moving and less time feeding than natal males. Additionally, lone males spend a greater proportion of their time vigilant and less of their time foraging than those that were in groups. The choice of whether to stay natal or become a disperser may depend on a number of factors such as age, natal group kin structure and reproductive suppression, and the likelihood of successful reproduction whilst remaining natal. Measuring proximate factors, such as behavioural and endocrine function, may provide valuable insights into mechanisms that underlie the evolution of alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:18325548

  3. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony. PMID:26909189

  4. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process. PMID:11021511

  5. Reproductive senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Stuart P; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2010-01-01

    1. Senescence (or 'ageing') is a widespread and important process in wild animal populations, but variation in ageing patterns within and between species is poorly understood. 2. In cooperatively breeding species, the costs of reproduction are shared between breeders and one or more helpers. The effects of ageing in breeders may therefore be moderated by the presence of helpers, but there have been very few studies of senescence patterns in natural populations of cooperative breeders. 3. Here, we use 13 years of data from a long-term study population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to investigate age-related changes in several traits known to be key components of reproductive success in females of this species. 4. Four of the six traits studied exhibited significant declines with age, indicating senescence. Litter size, the number of litters produced per year and the number of pups that survived to emergence from the natal burrow per year all increased with female age up to a peak at c. 4 years, and declined steeply thereafter; the mean pup weight at emergence in a given litter declined steadily from age zero. 5. These results provide the first evidence of reproductive senescence in a wild population of a cooperatively breeding vertebrate. Breeding success declined with age despite the sharing of reproductive costs in this species, but further study is needed to investigate whether helping affects other aspects of senescence, including survival. PMID:19758306

  6. Regulatory approaches to reproductive genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario M

    2004-12-01

    This report analyses the ethical and legal aspects of reproductive genetic testing in 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, India, Israel, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK). The legal status of reproductive genetic testing in the countries under analysis is difficult to generalize due to the different regulatory systems adopted. These approaches are a reflection of the legal traditions and cultural and socio-religious beliefs which inform and shape public policy on assisted reproductive technologies and genetic testing. We divide approaches into two groups: public ordering (legislative, top-down approach) and private ordering (non-legislative, bottom-up approach). Even limiting our analysis to a number of countries that span the range from restrictive to pragmatic approaches, there is remarkable symmetry in both the (i) substantive requirements (i.e. gravity, health indications generally) and (ii) procedural safeguards (i.e. informed consent, counselling, confidentiality, civil status, oversight and accreditation) surrounding reproductive genetic testing. Indeed, irrespective of whether a country adopts a prohibitive or a permissive approach through legislation or self-regulation or a mix of both, the ultimate decision is--and should continue to be--a medical one. Nowhere is this more evident than in the substantive requirements. PMID:15388677

  7. A theory of Fisher's reproductive value.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-07-01

    The formal Darwinism project aims to provide a mathematically rigorous basis for optimisation thinking in relation to natural selection. This paper deals with the situation in which individuals in a population belong to classes, such as sexes, or size and/or age classes. Fisher introduced the concept of reproductive value into biology to help analyse evolutionary processes of populations divided into classes. Here a rigorously defined and very general structure justifies, and shows the unity of concept behind, Fisher's uses of reproductive value as measuring the significance for evolutionary processes of (i) an individual and (ii) a class; (iii) recursively, as calculable for a parent as a sum of its shares in the reproductive values of its offspring; and (iv) as an evolutionary maximand under natural selection. The maximand is the same for all parental classes, and is a weighted sum of offspring numbers, which implies that a tradeoff in one aspect of the phenotype can legitimately be studied separately from other aspects. The Price equation, measure theory, Markov theory and positive operators contribute to the framework, which is then applied to a number of examples, including a new and fully rigorous version of Fisher's sex ratio argument. Classes may be discrete (e.g. sex), continuous (e.g. weight at fledging) or multidimensional with discrete and continuous components (e.g. sex and weight at fledging and adult tarsus length). PMID:16791649

  8. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  9. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning. PMID:24000935

  10. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  11. Metals and female reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P; Banerjee, R; Nath, S; Das, S; Banerjee, S

    2015-07-01

    Research into occupational exposure of metals and consequences of reproductive systems has made imperative scientific offerings in the preceding few decades. Early research works focused on possible effects on the reproductive functions rather than the complete reproductive health of the woman. Later, it was realized that metals, as reproductive toxins, may also induce hormonal changes affecting other facets of reproductive health such as the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and fertility. Concern is now shifting from considerations for the pregnant woman to the entire spectrum of occupational health threats and thus reproductive health among women. PMID:25425549

  12. Reproductive rights under attack.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  13. Reproductive Disorders in Horses.

    PubMed

    Snider, Timothy A

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive disease is relatively common in the horse, resulting in a variable, yet significant, economic impact on individual horsemen as well as the entire industry. Diverse expertise from the veterinary community ensures and improves individual and population health of the horse. From a pathology and diagnostics perspective, this review provides a comprehensive overview of pathology of the male and female equine reproductive tract. Recognition by clinical and gross features is emphasized, although some essential histologic parameters are included, as appropriate. Where relevant, discussion of ancillary diagnostic tests and approaches are included for some diseases and lesions. PMID:26210954

  14. Feminism and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Joan C

    1994-01-01

    ... Rowland is a social scientist and a radical feminist, and she has undertaken the task of making readers think twice about reproductive technologies. If a reader isn't thinking twice, it will not do to blame it on Rowland and the shortcomings of her book. She has a good deal to say that is extremely important and that needs to be considered by anyone who is interested in the moral issues, in general, and the issues for women and children, in particular, that are raised by the new and emerging reproductive technologies. Her book should be widely read. And it should generate the worries it is written to generate. PMID:11644539

  15. The More the Merrier?. Entropy and Statistics of Asexual Reproduction in Freshwater Planarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinodoz, Sofia; Thomas, Michael A.; Dunkel, Jörn; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-04-01

    The trade-off between traits in life-history strategies has been widely studied for sexual and parthenogenetic organisms, but relatively little is known about the reproduction strategies of asexual animals. Here, we investigate clonal reproduction in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. We find that these flatworms adopt a randomized reproduction strategy that comprises both asymmetric binary fission and fragmentation (generation of multiple offspring during a reproduction cycle). Fragmentation in planarians has primarily been regarded as an abnormal behavior in the past; using a large-scale experimental approach, we now show that about one third of the reproduction events in S. mediterranea are fragmentations, implying that fragmentation is part of their normal reproductive behavior. Our analysis further suggests that certain characteristic aspects of the reproduction statistics can be explained in terms of a maximum relative entropy principle.

  16. Behavioural development, fat reserves and their association with productivity in Lasius flavus founding queens.

    PubMed

    Norman, V C; Pamminger, T; Hughes, W O H

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction-related behaviours are key components determining individual fitness. Many behavioural traits are linked, and such trait associations often affect fitness. Here, we combine behavioural and physiological data during two critical time points of founding queens (early and late nest-founding stage) in the claustral ant Lasius flavus to assess how these factors affect their initial productivity. We show that most behavioural traits, except brood care behaviour, are plastic during queen development and demonstrate that there are alternative behavioural pathways to achieve high productivity under standardised conditions. These results indicate that queens can utilise multiple behavioural trait combinations to maximise reproductive output at the earliest, and arguably most critical, time of colony foundation. PMID:26922779

  17. Behavioural development, fat reserves and their association with productivity in Lasius flavus founding queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, V. C.; Pamminger, T.; Hughes, W. O. H.

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction-related behaviours are key components determining individual fitness. Many behavioural traits are linked, and such trait associations often affect fitness. Here, we combine behavioural and physiological data during two critical time points of founding queens (early and late nest-founding stage) in the claustral ant Lasius flavus to assess how these factors affect their initial productivity. We show that most behavioural traits, except brood care behaviour, are plastic during queen development and demonstrate that there are alternative behavioural pathways to achieve high productivity under standardised conditions. These results indicate that queens can utilise multiple behavioural trait combinations to maximise reproductive output at the earliest, and arguably most critical, time of colony foundation.

  18. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process. PMID:26427638

  19. Literacy as Social Reproduction and Social Transformation: The Challenge of Diasporic Communities in the Contemporary Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews literature on social reproduction in education, discusses the decline of the paradigm, and argues for its continuing relevance. It examines reproductive and transformative aspects of cross-linguistic literacy practices involving young people from three diasporic communities in the United States, presenting multi-leveled…

  20. Behavioural medicine in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kopp, M

    1999-01-01

    Behavioural medicine is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field that integrates the physiological and psychosocial aspects of human behaviour and applies them to prevention. In the early stage of chronic non-infectious illnesses of great epidemiological significance the most important risk factors are the reversible psychophysiological regulation disturbances. According to the behavioural medicine model depressive symptomatology, hopelessness, anxiety, non-adaptive ways of coping, dysfunctional attitudes are common risk factors in the background of self-destructive behavioural disturbances, such as smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and suicidal behaviour. The basic link between physiological and psychological phenomena is the decision making process, the cognitive appraisal, evaluation of the given situation, which is very subjective and depends on the socialization process. The modern civilised way of life continuously creates situations in which we experience loss of control, and therefore the psychological and physiological balance can only be obtained with great difficulty. Especially under conditions of sudden cultural and socioeconomic transition strengthening adaptive ways of coping and preventing emotional disturbances are fundamental in health promotion. PMID:10943647

  1. Reproductive Market Values Explain Post-reproductive Lifespans in Men.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-03-01

    Post-reproductive lifespans (PRLSs) of men vary across traditional societies. We argue that if sexual selection operates on male age-dependent resource availability (or 'reproductive market values') the result is variation in male late-life reproduction across subsistence systems. This perspective highlights the uniqueness of PRLS in both women and men. PMID:26774275

  2. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  3. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

  4. Reproductive technology and the law in Canada.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, B

    1986-06-01

    Even leaving aside the question of the impact of reproductive technology on property law, successions, commercial law and the legal qualification to be given to some of the relationships it entails (e.g. 'deposit' of genetic material, 'lease and hire' of wombs, 'gifts' of embryos), there is no doubt that, like the discovery of the atom, no other scientific advance portends such an enormous potential for human benefits or harm. No other scientific advance will so affect the personal, intimate life of the individual person in its public or private aspects. Beginning then with the positive law (Part I), we will attempt to trace, albeit summarily, possible legal approaches to reproductive technology in Canada and to conclude with an overview of proposed reforms (Part II). PMID:3558768

  5. Agonistic reciprocity is associated with reduced male reproductive success within haremic social networks

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    While individual variation in social behaviour is ubiquitous and causes social groups to differ in structure, how these structural differences affect fitness remains largely unknown. We used social network analysis of replicate bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) harems to identify the reproductive correlates of social network structure. In stable groups, we quantified agonistic behaviour, reproduction and steroid hormones, which can both affect and respond to social/reproductive cues. We identified distinct, optimal social structures associated with different reproductive measures. Male hatching success (HS) was negatively associated with agonistic reciprocity, a network structure that describes whether subordinates ‘reciprocated’ agonism received from dominants. Egg laying was associated with the individual network positions of the male and dominant female. Thus, males face a trade-off between promoting structures that facilitate egg laying versus HS. Whether this reproductive conflict is avoidable remains to be determined. We also identified different social and/or reproductive roles for 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-oestradiol and cortisol, suggesting that specific neuroendocrine mechanisms may underlie connections between network structure and fitness. This is one of the first investigations of the reproductive and neuroendocrine correlates of social behaviour and network structure in replicate, naturalistic social groups and supports network structure as an important target for natural selection. PMID:26156769

  6. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  7. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  8. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  9. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. PMID:20884138

  10. Male Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  11. Assisted reproductive technology in the USA: Is more regulation needed?

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of assisted reproductive technologies is a contested area. Some jurisdictions, such as the UK and a number of Australian states, have comprehensive regulation of most aspects of assisted reproductive technologies; others, such as the USA, have taken a more piecemeal approach and rely on professional guidelines and the general regulation of medical practice to govern this area. It will be argued that such a laissez-faire approach is inadequate for regulating the complex area of assisted reproductive technologies. Two key examples, reducing multiple births and registers of donors and offspring, will be considered to illustrate the effects of the regulatory structure of assisted reproductive technologies in the USA on practice. It will be concluded that the regulatory structure in the USA fails to provide an adequate mechanism for ensuring the ethical and safe conduct of ART services, and that more comprehensive regulation is required. PMID:25171854

  12. Vasotocin and reproductive functions of the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Jurkevich, A; Grossmann, R

    2003-07-01

    The neurohypophyseal hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) combines both antidiuretic and reproductive activities. In the domestic chicken AVT produces assimetric effects on the reproductive functions of males and females. AVT synthesized in magnocellular diencephalic neurons is released into circulation in a highly coordinated manner contributing to the peripheral control of oviposition in hens. Conversely, parvocellular AVT cells located in the limbic system (bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST)) are quite different in their properties and, possible, functions. In domestic chickens these cells express AVT in a sexually dimorphic manner and are found solely in males. This sexually dimorphic part of the AVT system is sensitive to gonadal steroids. Experimental data demonstrated that AVT modulates different aspects of reproductive behavior including courtship vocalization and copulation. Sexual differentiation of these limbic vasotocinergic cells show striking correlation with sexual differentiation of masculine behavior. Evidences coming from physiological, anatomical and ethological studies suggest strong implication of the vasotocinergic system in the control of reproductive functions. PMID:12963102

  13. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  14. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. PMID:22118142

  15. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  16. Reproductive failure and the major histocompatibility complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, K.; Gill, T.J. III; Ho, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    The association between HLA sharing and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was tested in 123 couples and the association between HLA sharing, and the outcome of treatment for unexplained infertility by in vitro fertilization (IVF) was tested in 76 couples, by using a new shared-allele test in order to identify more precisely the region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influencing these reproductive defects. The shared-allele test circumvents the problem of rare alleles at HLA loci and at the same time provides a substantial gain in power over the simple {chi}{sup 2} test. Two statistical methods, a corrected homogeneity test and a bootstrap approach, were developed to compare the allele frequencies at each of the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ loci; they were not statistically different amount the three patient groups and the control group. There was a significant excess of HLA-DR sharing in couples with RSA and a significant excess of HLA-DQ sharing in couples with unexplained infertility who failed treatment by IVF. These findings indicate that genes located in different parts of the class II region of the MHC affect different aspects of reproduction and strongly suggest that the sharing of HLA antigens per se is not the mechanism involved in the reproductive defects. The segment of the MHC that has genes affecting reproduction also has genes associated with different autoimmune diseases, and this juxtaposition may explain the association between reproductive defects and autoimmune diseases. 58 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  18. Reproductive conflict and the separation of reproductive generations in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2008-01-01

    An enduring puzzle of human life history is why women cease reproduction midway through life. Selection can favor postreproductive survival because older females can help their offspring to reproduce. But the kin-selected fitness gains of helping appear insufficient to outweigh the potential benefits of continued reproduction. Why then do women cease reproduction in the first place? Here, we suggest that early reproductive cessation in humans is the outcome of reproductive competition between generations, and we present a simple candidate model of how this competition will be resolved. We show that among primates exhibiting a postreproductive life span, humans exhibit an extraordinarily low degree of reproductive overlap between generations. The rapid senescence of the human female reproductive system coincides with the age at which, in natural fertility populations, women are expected to encounter reproductive competition from breeding females of the next generation. Several lines of evidence suggest that in ancestral hominids, this younger generation typically comprised immigrant females. In these circumstances, relatedness asymmetries within families are predicted to give younger females a decisive advantage in reproductive conflict with older females. A model incorporating both the costs of reproductive competition and the benefits of grandmothering can account for the timing of reproductive cessation in humans and so offers an improved understanding of the evolution of menopause. PMID:18378891

  19. The impact of reproduction on the stress axis of free-living male northern red backed voles (Myodes rutilus).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Dantzer, Ben; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis culminates in the release of glucocorticoids (henceforth CORT), which have wide-reaching physiological effects. Three hypotheses potentially explain seasonal variation in CORT. The enabling hypothesis predicts that reproductive season CORT exceeds post-reproductive season CORT because CORT enables reproductive investment. The inhibitory hypothesis predicts the opposite because CORT can negatively affect reproductive function. The costs of reproduction hypothesis predicts that HPA axis condition declines over and following the reproductive season. We tested these hypotheses in wild male red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) during the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons. We quantified CORT levels in response to restraint stress tests consisting of three blood samples (initial, stress-induced, and recovery). Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor mRNA levels in the brain were also quantified over the reproductive season. Total CORT (tCORT) in the initial and stress-induced samples were greater in the post-reproductive than in the reproductive season, which supported the inhibitory hypothesis. Conversely, free CORT (fCORT) did not differ between the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons, which was counter to both the enabling and inhibitory hypotheses. Evidence for HPA axis condition decline in CORT as well as GR and MR mRNA over the reproductive season (i.e. costs of reproduction hypothesis) was mixed. Moreover, all of the parameters that showed signs of declining condition over the reproductive season did not also show signs of declining condition over the post-reproductive season suggesting that the costs resulting from reproductive investment had subsided. In conclusion, our results suggest that different aspects of the HPA axis respond differently to seasonal changes and reproductive investment. PMID:26188715

  20. From individual control to majority rule: extending transactional models of reproductive skew in animal societies.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Hudson Kern; Jeanne, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Transactional concession models of social evolution explain the reproductive skew within groups by assuming that a dominant individual completely controls the allocation of reproduction to other group members. The models predict when the dominant will benefit from donating parcels of reproduction to other members in return for peaceful cooperation. Using linear programming methods, we present a 'majority-rules' model in which the summed actions of all society members, each with equal power, completely determine the reproductive share of any single member. The majority-rules model predicts that, despite the diffusion of power, a 'virtual dominant' (a dominant lacking special behavioural power) will emerge and that the reproductive skew will be exactly that predicted if the virtual dominant were to control completely the group's reproductive partitioning. The virtual dominant is the individual to which group members have the maximum average genetic relatedness. This result greatly broadens the applicability of transactional models of reproductive skew to social groups of any size, such as large-colony eusocial insects, and explains why queens in such colonies can achieve reproductive domination without any behavioural enforcement. Moreover, the majority-rules model unifies transactional-skew theory with models of worker policing and even generates a new theory for the cooperation among somatic cells in a multicellular organism. PMID:12803893

  1. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  2. Reproduction alters oxidative status when it is traded-off against longevity.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Geiger, Rina E; Reim, Elisabeth; Zielke, Luisa; Fischer, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to mediate one of the most important aspects of life-history evolution: the trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance. However, empirical studies have cast doubt on the generality of this intriguing notion. Here, we hypothesize that reproduction alters oxidative status only when a trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance occurs. Accordingly, in female Bicyclus anynana butterflies, we found that reproduction affected oxidative markers only under challenging thermal conditions that made the trade-off between reproduction and longevity emerge. Interestingly, under such conditions, butterflies favored longevity over reproduction, suggesting that self-maintenance mechanisms were activated. Accordingly, butterflies reproducing under challenging thermal conditions exhibited enhanced antioxidant defenses and stable oxidative damage. Altogether, our results indicate that a trade-off between reproduction and self-maintenance is indeed a necessary condition for reproduction to alter oxidative status, and that the effects of such a trade-off on oxidative status depend on whether priority is given to self-maintenance or reproduction. Assessing the existence of the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction, and whether self-maintenance is prioritized relative to reproduction is therefore crucial for understanding variation in oxidative status in reproducing animals, which may clarify the general implication of oxidative stress in the resolution of life-history trade-offs. PMID:26095834

  3. Unisexual reproduction drives meiotic recombination and phenotypic and karyotypic plasticity in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, R Blake; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    In fungi, unisexual reproduction, where sexual development is initiated without the presence of two compatible mating type alleles, has been observed in several species that can also undergo traditional bisexual reproduction, including the important human fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. While unisexual reproduction has been well characterized qualitatively, detailed quantifications are still lacking for aspects of this process, such as the frequency of recombination during unisexual reproduction, and how this compares with bisexual reproduction. Here, we analyzed meiotic recombination during α-α unisexual and a-α bisexual reproduction of C. neoformans. We found that meiotic recombination operates in a similar fashion during both modes of sexual reproduction. Specifically, we observed that in α-α unisexual reproduction, the numbers of crossovers along the chromosomes during meiosis, recombination frequencies at specific chromosomal regions, as well as meiotic recombination hot and cold spots, are all similar to those observed during a-α bisexual reproduction. The similarity in meiosis is also reflected by the fact that phenotypic segregation among progeny collected from the two modes of sexual reproduction is also similar, with transgressive segregation being observed in both. Additionally, we found diploid meiotic progeny were also produced at similar frequencies in the two modes of sexual reproduction, and transient chromosomal loss and duplication likely occurs frequently and results in aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity that can span entire chromosomes. Furthermore, in both α-α unisexual and a-α bisexual reproduction, we observed biased allele inheritance in regions on chromosome 4, suggesting the presence of fragile chromosomal regions that might be vulnerable to mitotic recombination. Interestingly, we also observed a crossover event that occurred within the MAT locus during α-α unisexual reproduction. Our results

  4. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  5. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts. PMID:2288546

  6. Ghrelin and reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Repaci, Andrea; Gambineri, Alessandra; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2011-06-20

    Ghrelin is an important factor involved in most of the metabolic and hormonal signals which adapt the reproductive functions in conditions of altered energy balance. Moreover, the coordinated role of leptin and ghrelin appears in fact to have a specific role in the regulation of puberty. Systemic action of ghrelin on the reproductive axis involves the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gondal axis. In addition, it has been shown that ghrelin may directly act at a gonadal level in both females and males. Available data also demonstrate that sex steroid hormones and gonadotropins may in turn regulate the gonadal effect of ghrelin, as documented by studies performed in females with the polycystic ovary syndrome and in hypogonadal men. Notably, recent studies also confirm a potentially important role for ghrelin in fetal and neonatal energy balance, and specifically in allowing fetal adaptation to an adverse intrauterine environment. PMID:21453749

  7. Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, M T; Bassett, M T

    1996-03-01

    Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths

  8. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management. PMID:27117374

  9. Interventions in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D S; Sheriff, S Omer

    2006-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has helped many childless couples. It has also raised questions about how appropriate the technology might be in different situations. How we understand parenthood is crucial in taking a stand on such scientific intervention. It is suggested that physicians should decide on offering artificial insemination, surrogacy and in-vitro fertilisation only after considering if the child will have good parents and if there will be legal complications from the use of the technology. PMID:17223683

  10. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  11. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26284618

  12. Reproductive tract infections: prevalence and risk factors in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Sarah; Morison, Linda; Chakraborty, Jyotsnamoy; Gausia, Kaniz; Ahmed, Farid; Islam, Shamim Sufia; Alam, Nazmul; Brown, David; Mabey, David

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for reproductive tract infections among men and women in a rural community in Bangladesh. METHODS: In the Matlab area a systematic sample of married non-pregnant women aged 15-50 years was drawn from a comprehensive household registration system for married women. A systematic sample of married and unmarried men in the same age group was drawn from a census-derived demographic surveillance list. Private interviews were conducted with 804 women in a clinic, and cervical, vaginal, urinary and serological samples were collected. Urine and blood specimens were obtained from 969 men who were interviewed at home. FINDINGS: The prevalence of bacterial and viral reproductive tract infections was low to moderate. For example, fewer than 1% of the women had a cervical infection. No cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were found. However, among men there was a high level of reported risk behaviour and a low level of protection against infection. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of reproductive tract infections, coupled with a high level of reported risk behaviour, indicated a need for primary programmes that would prevent an increase in the incidence of reproductive tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection. PMID:11984603

  13. Clonal reproduction in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John W.; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305–E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest. PMID:26195774

  14. [Reproductive or domestic work].

    PubMed

    Larranaga, I; Arregui, B; Arpal, J

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the evolution of reproductive work and to analyse those factors related to its distribution. The analysis has been based on data from various Time-use Surveys (Women Institute 1993, 1996, 2001) as well as on data from different regional surveys: Andalusia, the Basque Country, Madrid and the metropolitan area of Barcelona. In the period 1993-2001, the amount of time devoted by men to housekeeping in Spain increased by 35% while women's time declined by 5%. Yet, in 2001 women's dedication to housekeeping was twice that of men's (7.2 vs 3.1 h daily). However, the imbalance in sharing of housework declined among younger people. Union formation and growing family size increase women's housework intensifying the uneven distribution of household chores. When women are employed and have higher educational and income levels, dedication to household tasks decreases and gender inequalities are reduced. In spite of growing male participation in housework, reproductive work is still mainly women's responsibility. The recent legal, social and cultural changes have not been able to eradicate the traditional model of assigning reproductive work in the home. PMID:15171855

  15. Inflammation in Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gerson; Goldsmith, Laura T.; Taylor, Robert N.; Bellet, Dominique; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders account for a significant percentage of gynecologic disease, particularly in reproductive age women. Inflammation is a basic method by which we respond to infection, irritation, or injury. Inflammation is now recognized as a type of nonspecific immune response, either acute or chronic. In gynecology, inflammation leads to anatomic disorders primarily as a result of infectious disease; however inflammation can affect ovulation and hormone production as well as be associated with endometriosis. Similarly, immune cell trafficking is an important component of cyclic endometrial development in each menstrual cycle. These immune cells are required for endometrial function, producing a vast array of inflammatory cytokines. Inflammation alters endometrial receptivity, however it may also play a role in tissue repair and remodeling. Finally, inflammation affects the trophoblast and trophoblast—endometrial interaction. Some components of the immune response are required for optimal fertility and normal tissue remodeling. A better understanding of the necessary role of inflammation in reproduction will allow more rational and targeted treatment of inflammatory disorders in reproductive medicine. PMID:19208790

  16. Improving worldwide reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Geary, J

    1993-01-01

    The 14th International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics World Congress will be held in Montreal, Canada, in 1994, under the auspices of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. The World Congress will 1) promote and facilitate international cooperation in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, 2) develop and improve the exchange of information and ideas, and 3) encourage the adoption of an international perspective on issues of concern. The 1994 program will survey recent research advances and introduce new equipment, instruments, and pharmaceuticals. Issues addressed will include maternal mortality, reproductive technologies, continuing education, malignancy, family planning, and contraception. The Conference's symposia, industry-sponsored events, and cultural activities are being designed to increase speaker-audience interaction and to stimulate debate and the exchange of views. The continuing education goals are 1) to encourage appropriate research with valid and applicable results and 2) to extend the patient-counseling abilities of participating physicians. Canada's socialized health care system, which carefully scrutinizes new expensive technologies, will be highlighted for the international delegates. The scientific program will include 1) general topics 2) reproductive endocrinology, 3) maternal/fetal medicine, and 4) gynecological oncology. Poster sessions followed by open discourses and free communications sessions will facilitate the exchange of views and information. The overall goal of the conference is to improve reproductive health care for mothers and babies worldwide. PMID:12318476

  17. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  18. Fractal analysis of behaviour in a wild primate: behavioural complexity in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Alados, Concepción L.; Huffman, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism and other stressors are ubiquitous in nature but their effects on animal behaviour can be difficult to identify. We investigated the effects of nematode parasitism and other indicators of physiological impairment on the sequential complexity of foraging and locomotion behaviour among wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We observed all sexually mature individuals (n = 28) in one macaque study group between October 2007 and August 2008, and collected two faecal samples/month/individual (n = 362) for parasitological examination. We used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate long-range autocorrelation in separate, binary sequences of foraging (n = 459) and locomotion (n = 446) behaviour collected via focal sampling. All behavioural sequences exhibited long-range autocorrelation, and linear mixed-effects models suggest that increasing infection with the nodular worm Oesophagostomum aculeatum, clinically impaired health, reproductive activity, ageing and low dominance status were associated with reductions in the complexity of locomotion, and to a lesser extent foraging, behaviour. Furthermore, the sequential complexity of behaviour increased with environmental complexity. We argue that a reduction in complexity in animal behaviour characterizes individuals in impaired or ‘stressed’ states, and may have consequences if animals cannot cope with heterogeneity in their natural habitats. PMID:21429908

  19. Attitudes towards reproduction in Latin America. Teachings from the use of modern reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, F

    1999-01-01

    The use of modern reproductive technology, such as in-vitro fertilization and its related procedures, has opened new areas of legal, religious and public concern. Thirty years ago, the development of effective methods to control procreation generated a debate on whether couples had the right to enjoy sex in the absence of its procreative effect. Today, assisted reproductive technology (ART) allows couples to have their own children in the absence of a direct intermediation of sex. The Catholic Church has reacted against both contraception and ART, and specific instructions have been directed to the public, the medical profession and legislators. In a recent survey, 88.4% of the population in Latin America claims to be Catholic; therefore, bioethical considerations and legal implications concerning intervention in reproduction are strongly permeated by the moral teachings of Catholicism. In 1996, 83 medical doctors and scientists, participating in the Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction, produced a consensus document on ethical aspects and legal implications of ART. The document contains minimal ethical guidelines that Latin American professionals have decided to adhere to, even in the absence of legal regulations. This article examines how the medical profession, legislators and the public react to religious influence when confronted by difficult bioethical decisions such as the right to procreate. PMID:10333366

  20. Just another reproductive technology? The ethics of human reproductive cloning as an experimental medical procedure.

    PubMed

    Elsner, D

    2006-10-01

    Human reproductive cloning (HRC) has not yet resulted in any live births. There has been widespread condemnation of the practice in both the scientific world and the public sphere, and many countries explicitly outlaw the practice. Concerns about the procedure range from uncertainties about its physical safety to questions about the psychological well-being of clones. Yet, key aspects such as the philosophical implications of harm to future entities and a comparison with established reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are often overlooked in discussions about HRC. Furthermore, there are people who are willing to use the technology. Several scientists have been outspoken in their intent to pursue HRC. The importance of concerns about the physical safety of children created by HRC and comparisons with concerns about the safety of IVF are discussed. A model to be used to determine when it is acceptable to use HRC and other new assisted reproductive technologies, balancing reproductive freedom and safety concerns, is proposed. Justifications underpinning potential applications of HRC are discussed, and it is determined that these are highly analogous to rationalisations used to justify IVF treatment. It is concluded that people wishing to conceive using HRC should have a prima facie negative right to do so. PMID:17012502

  1. What Do You Know about Reproductive Medicine? – Results of a German Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stoebel-Richter, Yve; Geue, Kristina; Borkenhagen, Ada; Braehler, Elmar; Weidner, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of reproductive medical treatments has become increasingly routine in recent years. This paper reports on a study of how different aspects of modern reproductive medicine are perceived by the German population. Design Findings from a nationally representative sample of 2110 men and women aged 18 to 50 are presented. Participants responded to a questionnaire seeking self-report information about attitudes and knowledge regarding different aspects of reproductive medicine. Results The majority of respondents had already heard or read something about reproductive medicine; knowledge gaps were prevalent in men and individuals with lower levels of education. The decrease in female fertility usually was underestimated, whereas both the number of involuntarily childless couples and the success rate of reproductive medical treatment were overestimated. One-third of participants would make use of reproductive medicine to have their own child. Conclusion This study revealed inadequacies in the knowledge of the German general population regarding reproductive medicine. Despite the low interest and poor knowledge of the topic, a broad acceptance of reproductive medical methods was reported. The results illustrate the need for adequate information transfer regarding female fertility as well as success rate and risks of reproductive medical interventions. PMID:23226509

  2. A mechanism for rapid neurosteroidal regulation of parenting behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    While systemic steroid hormones are known to regulate reproductive behaviour, the actual mechanisms of steroidal regulation remain largely unknown. Steroidogenic enzyme activity can rapidly modulate social behaviour by influencing neurosteroid production. In fish, the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) synthesizes 11-ketotestosterone (KT, a potent teleost androgen) and deactivates cortisol (the primary teleost glucocorticoid), and both of these steroid hormones can regulate behaviour. Here, we investigated the role of neurosteroidogenesis in regulating parenting in a haremic bidirectionally hermaphroditic fish, Lythrypnus dalli, where males provide all requisite parental care. Using an in vitro assay, we found that an 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX), reduced brain and testicular KT synthesis by 90% or more. We modulated neurosteroid levels in parenting males via intracerebroventricular injection of CBX. Within only 20 min, CBX transiently eliminated parenting behaviour, but not other social behaviour, suggesting an enzymatic mechanism for rapid neurosteroidal regulation of parenting. Consistent with our proposed mechanism, elevating KT levels rescued parenting when paired with CBX, while cortisol alone did not affect parenting. Females paired with the experimental males opportunistically consumed unattended eggs, which reduced male reproductive success by 15%, but some females also exhibited parenting behaviour and these females had elevated brain KT. Brain KT levels appear to regulate the expression of parenting behaviour as a result of changes in neural 11β-HSD activity. PMID:24827441

  3. Behaviour - The keystone in optimizing free-ranging ungulate production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging animal behaviour is a keystone to optimizing free-ranging domestic animal production. This chapter focuses on several aspects that emanate from foraging including defining terms, concepts and the complexity that underlie managing animals and landscapes. Behaviour is investigated in li...

  4. Bateman revisited: the reproductive tactics of female primates.

    PubMed

    Drea, Christine M

    2005-11-01

    The breeding system of an animal population is thought to depend on the ability of one sex (usually the male) to acquire mates, either directly through association with females or indirectly through defense of the resources desired by females. The sex that contributes most to infant care (usually the female) is constrained by parental involvement and thereby limits reproduction of the opposite sex. Accordingly, males, but not females, enhance their reproductive success by acquiring additional mates. This classical view has emphasized the role of male-male competition in sexual selection, at the expense of fully exploring the potential for female choice. A more recent shift in focus has revealed substantial variation in female reproductive success and increasingly accentuates the importance of female intrasexual competition and male mate choice. A comparative review of primate reproduction, therefore, challenges expectations of male control and female compliance, and calls for a comprehensive treatment of costs and benefits that extends beyond conventional mention of heavy female investment versus male negligence or absenteeism. For individuals that manipulate their social environment or reproductive output, consideration of more subtle, even cryptic, aspects of female behavior and physiology (e.g., social strategizing, sexual solicitation or rejection, sexual advertisement or concealed ovulation, multiple mating, and reproductive failure) raises the question of whether females can be effectively 'monopolized.' Widespread patterns that counter Bateman's paradigm call for a reexamination of the predictions generated by dichotomizing gametes into 'expensive eggs' and 'cheap sperm,' and encourage continued mechanistic research focused on conception quality rather than quantity. PMID:21676842

  5. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  6. Bullying Behaviour, Intentions and Classroom Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryce, Sarah; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    Anti-bullying commitment across school communities is seen as crucial to the effectiveness of interventions. This exploratory study used a mixed-methods design to investigate bullying behaviour, intentions and aspects of the classroom ecology within the context of an anti-bullying initiative that was launched with a declaration of commitment.…

  7. Reproductive failure and endocrine disruption by organohalogens in fish-eating birds.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Albertus T C; van den Berg, Martin

    2002-12-27

    Effects of organohalogens in fish-eating birds in the field have been monitored largely by studying reproductive outcome in contaminated populations or, at the individual level, by studying the sexual behaviour, egg production, or embryonal and postnatal development and survival. Endocrine disruption has been suggested as a mechanism, but proven cause-effect relationships between specific compounds and endocrine disruption with subsequent reduced reproductive outcome in fish-eating birds are scarce. The effects of organochlorines on hormone metabolism and circulating steroid levels are reviewed and discussed in relation to observed reproductive failures in the field. PMID:12505302

  8. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. PMID:20888156

  9. Reproduction in Strongyloides (Nematoda): a life between sex and parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Streit, A

    2008-03-01

    Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides parasitize the small intestines of vertebrates. In addition to a parasitic life-cycle, which is generally considered to be parthenogenetic, Strongyloides can also have a facultative, free-living generation involving male and female worms. The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on the modes of reproduction, the routes of development in the two generations of Strongyloides, discuss the controversial opinions in the literature regarding these aspects and point to new opportunities for addressing key questions in relation to the biology of reproduction of members of the genus employing genetic and genomic tools. PMID:18076772

  10. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  11. Spatial distribution and life-history aspects of blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Osteichthyes: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Mytilineou, Ch; Tsagarakis, K; Bekas, P; Anastasopoulou, A; Kavadas, S; Machias, A; Haralabous, J; Smith, C J; Petrakis, G; Dokos, J; Kapandagakis, A

    2013-12-01

    Spatial distribution and life history aspects of Pagellus bogaraveo in the eastern Ionian Sea were investigated using the data from 13 different studies carried out in the area from 1983 to 2010. The spatial patterns of the abundance, biomass and mean size showed that the species inhabits the shallow waters of the shelf (<170 m depth) as juveniles up to a certain size (<180 mm total length, LT ), moving to deeper waters of the slope (mainly 400-500 m depth) as adults. The spatial pattern of abundance indicated a continuous distribution of the species in deep waters, with hot-spot areas of high values, whereas in shallow waters distribution was more discontinuous, with higher concentrations of juveniles in estuaries and brackish waters. The study of biological aspects of the species revealed (1) a difference in the increase in mass between males and females, (2) protandrous hermaphroditism, accompanied by the presence of primary females and males that do not change sex, (3) a sex ratio in favour of females >250 mm LT , (4) the presence of hermaphrodites between 200 and 370 mm, (5) a long reproduction period from June to March, (6) a size at first maturity around 300 mm and (7) a diet composition of adults based mainly on fishes, and also on opportunistic behaviour in the food scarce environment of deep waters. The results suggest that the species' distribution and feeding strategies are the most appropriate for the oligotrophic eastern Ionian waters and that these conditions result in smaller sizes of the species in the east Mediterranean Sea compared to the west basin and the east Atlantic Ocean, with implications for the growth and reproductive biology of the species. PMID:24298951

  12. Metabolic fuel and clinical implications for female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mircea, Carmen N; Lujan, Marla E; Pierson, Roger A

    2007-11-01

    Reproduction is a physiologically costly process that consumes significant amounts of energy. The physiological mechanisms controlling energy balance are closely linked to fertility. This close relationship ensures that pregnancy and lactation occur only in favourable conditions with respect to energy. The primary metabolic cue that modulates reproduction is the availability of oxidizable fuel. An organism's metabolic status is transmitted to the brain through metabolic fuel detectors. There are many of these detectors at both the peripheral (e.g., leptin, insulin, ghrelin) and central (e.g., neuropeptide Y, melanocortin, orexins) levels. When oxidizable fuel is scarce, the detectors function to inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone, thereby altering steroidogenesis, reproductive cyclicity, and sexual behaviour. Infertility can also result when resources are abundant but food intake fails to compensate for increased energy demands. Examples of these conditions in women include anorexia nervosa and exercise-induced amenorrhea. Infertility associated with obesity appears to be less related to an effect of oxidizable fuel on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Impaired insulin sensitivity may play a role in the etiology of these conditions, but their specific etiology remains unresolved. Research into the metabolic regulation of reproductive function has implications for elucidating mechanisms of impaired pubertal development, nutritional amenorrhea, and obesity-related infertility. A better understanding of these etiologies has far-reaching implications for the prevention and management of reproductive dysfunction and its associated comorbidities. PMID:17977492

  13. Impact of stress on oocyte quality and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-01-01

    Stress is an important factor that affects physical and mental status of a healthy person disturbing homeostasis of the body. Changes in the lifestyle are one of the major causes that lead to psychological stress. Psychological stress could impact the biology of female reproduction by targeting at the level of ovary, follicle and oocyte. The increased level of stress hormone such as cortisol reduces estradiol production possibly by affecting the granulosa cell functions within the follicle, which results deterioration in oocyte quality. Adaptation of lifestyle behaviours may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ovary, which further affects female reproduction. Balance between level of ROS and antioxidants within the ovary are important for maintenance of female reproductive health. Physiological level of ROS modulates oocyte functions, while its accumulation leads to oxidative stress (OS). OS triggers apoptosis in majority of germ cells within the ovary and even in ovulated oocytes. Although both mitochondria- as well as death-receptor pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis, OS-induced mitochondria-mediated pathway plays a major role in the elimination of majority of germ cells from ovary. OS in the follicular fluid deteriorates oocyte quality and reduces reproductive outcome. On the other hand, antioxidants reduce ROS levels and protect against OS-mediated germ cell apoptosis and thereby depletion of germ cells from the ovary. Indeed, OS is one of the major factors that has a direct negative impact on oocyte quality and limits female reproductive outcome in several mammalian species including human. PMID:27026099

  14. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    PubMed

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  15. Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders of purebred dogs. Thyroid dysfunction does not always result in clinical signs of reproductive disorders or in subfertility. It seems that animals with overt thyroid dysfunction are those most likely to manifest reproduction problems. PMID:8053110

  16. Reproductive skew in female common marmosets: what can proximate mechanisms tell us about ultimate causes?

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Digby, Leslie J.; Abbott, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free-living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of reproductive skew. Non-breeding adult females undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour; however, they receive little or no aggression or mating interference by dominants and do not exhibit behavioural or physiological signs of stress. Breeding subordinate females receive comparable amounts of aggression to non-breeding females but are able to conceive, gestate and lactate normally. In groups containing two breeding females, however, both dominant and subordinate breeders kill one another's infants. These findings suggest that preconception reproductive suppression is not imposed on subordinate females by dominants, at a proximate level, but is instead self-imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint models, however, this self-suppression probably evolved not in response to the threat of eviction by dominant females but in response to the threat of infanticide. Thus, reproductive skew in this species appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately by dominant control over subordinates' reproductive attempts. PMID:18945663

  17. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  18. Perspectives on the basic reproductive ratio

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, J.M; Smith, R.J; Wahl, L.M

    2005-01-01

    The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether an infection will spread. Related parameters which share this threshold behaviour, however, may or may not give the true value of R0. In this paper we give a brief overview of common methods of formulating R0 and surrogate threshold parameters from deterministic, non-structured models. We also review common means of estimating R0 from epidemiological data. Finally, we survey the recent use of R0 in assessing emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza, a number of recent livestock diseases, and vector-borne diseases malaria, dengue and West Nile virus. PMID:16849186

  19. Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Kate L.; Rosten, Carolyn M.; Christensen, Guttorm; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal differences in habitat use and foraging specialisms between ecomorphs represent aspects of behavioural phenotype that are poorly understood with regard to the origin and maintenance of ecological diversity. We tested the role of behaviour in resource use divergence of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) phenotypes, a slim, putatively pelagic-dwelling morph and a robust, putatively littoral-dwelling generalist morph, over an annual cycle, using biotelemetry and stable isotopes. Pelagic morph charr exhibited significantly greater δC13 depletion, concordant with increased zooplanktivory, than for the Littoral morph. Although three-dimensional space-use of the morphs strongly overlapped, on average, the Littoral morph used that habitat 19.3% more than the Pelagic morph. Pelagic morph fish were significantly more active, further from the lake bed and at greater depth than Littoral fish (annual means respectively, Pelagic, 0.069BLs−1, 8.21 m and 14.11 m; Littoral, 0.047BLs−1, 5.87 m and 10.47 m). Patterns of habitat use differed between ecomorphs at key times, such as during autumn and at ice break, likely related to spawning and resumption of intensive foraging respectively. Extensive space-use overlap, but fine-scale differences in habitat use between charr ecomorphs, suggests the importance of competition for generating and maintaining polymorphism, and its potential for promoting reproductive isolation and evolution in sympatry. PMID:27098197

  20. Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Kate L; Rosten, Carolyn M; Christensen, Guttorm; Lucas, Martyn C

    2016-01-01

    Temporal differences in habitat use and foraging specialisms between ecomorphs represent aspects of behavioural phenotype that are poorly understood with regard to the origin and maintenance of ecological diversity. We tested the role of behaviour in resource use divergence of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) phenotypes, a slim, putatively pelagic-dwelling morph and a robust, putatively littoral-dwelling generalist morph, over an annual cycle, using biotelemetry and stable isotopes. Pelagic morph charr exhibited significantly greater δC(13) depletion, concordant with increased zooplanktivory, than for the Littoral morph. Although three-dimensional space-use of the morphs strongly overlapped, on average, the Littoral morph used that habitat 19.3% more than the Pelagic morph. Pelagic morph fish were significantly more active, further from the lake bed and at greater depth than Littoral fish (annual means respectively, Pelagic, 0.069 BL s(-1), 8.21 m and 14.11 m; Littoral, 0.047 BL s(-1), 5.87 m and 10.47 m). Patterns of habitat use differed between ecomorphs at key times, such as during autumn and at ice break, likely related to spawning and resumption of intensive foraging respectively. Extensive space-use overlap, but fine-scale differences in habitat use between charr ecomorphs, suggests the importance of competition for generating and maintaining polymorphism, and its potential for promoting reproductive isolation and evolution in sympatry. PMID:27098197

  1. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  2. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  3. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction. PMID:25449183

  4. Reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. Due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. To date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. Artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation have already been successfully used to manage ex situ populations in some carnivore species, such as the black-footed ferret, cheetah and giant panda. However, technologies aiming at preserving genetics of valuable females have not been fully developed in carnivores, due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about reproductive anatomy and physiology, gamete development, embryogenesis and cryopreservation. The present chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on current knowledge about carnivore reproduction, with emphasis on species diversity in reproductive mechanisms. The second part highlights the progress in reproductive science and related technologies made during the last decade. In addition, we provide examples of how reproductive technologies can contribute to carnivore management and conservation. Although carnivores are comprised of 19 families, we will only focus our attention on four taxonomic groups, including felids, canids, ursids and mustelids. PMID:25091912

  5. Smoking and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace. PMID:3539634

  6. Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits

  7. Somatic symptom disorders and illness behaviour: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Prior, Kirsty N; Bond, Malcolm J

    2013-02-01

    The behavioural aspects of somatic symptom disorders have received minimal research attention to date. The first section of this paper identifies key theoretical perspectives relevant to behavioural responses to illness. Specifically, the sociological concept of illness behaviour is offered as a general framework in which to consider the range of psychosocial factors associated with responses to perceived illness. Further, the potential relevance of the construct of abnormal illness behaviour and the cognitive behavioural conceptualization of health anxiety is explored. The second part of the paper describes various approaches to the operationalization of illness behaviour, with particular emphasis on the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire, an instrument with a rich history of application. Additional insight is provided into two contemporary instruments which aim to measure overt behavioural aspects of illness more specifically. The third and final section of the paper makes recommendations for how future research may advance the understanding of state- versus trait-based characteristics of illness behaviour. Suggestions are made for how adaptive forms of behaviour (e.g. self-management, appropriate coping) may reduce the risk of developing a somatic symptom disorder or alternatively, minimizing the potentially negative psychosocial implications of such a presentation. PMID:23383663

  8. [Coeliac disease and reproduction: possible in vivo models].

    PubMed

    Stazi, Anna Velia

    2005-01-01

    Presently there are no in vivo models to study the different effects of coeliac disease (CD) including the increase of reproductive risks. CD is a multifactorial condition which requires both an exogenous element (gluten) and complex genetic factors; moreover, CD is associated to several endocrine, immune and reproductive diseases. There are no adequate in vivo models for the systemic complications of CD; in particular, there are no genetic knock-out models. However, models are available for gluten enteropathy such as Irish Setter and Balb/c and BDF1 mouse strains, and also for endocrine-immune diseases associated to CD such as BB rats and NOD mice. These models could be used to study reproductive aspects. This is desirable because a new model for dermatitis herpetiformis tightly associated with CD, that uses HLA-DQ8 transgenic NOD mice, has already been identified. PMID:16569922

  9. Reproductive technology: in Britain, the debate after the Warnock Report.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Raanan

    1987-06-01

    Gillon contributes an article on Great Britain to the Hastings Center Report series on reproductive technologies outside the United States. In 1984 the Warnock Committee's report represented the first attempt by a national government to formulate a policy on reproductive issues such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and research on human embryos. Reaction to the Warnock report has focused on its recommendations to ban commercial surrogacy and to allow experimentation on embryos up to 14 days after fertilization. Legislation on surrogacy was passed in 1985, while bills banning embryo research failed in 1986. A 1986 government consultation paper called for discussion of other aspects of the Warnock report, including its recommendation that a statutory licensing authority to regulate reproductive technologies be established. Gillon predicts that no new legislation will be enacted under the present government. PMID:11644023

  10. Quantitative genomics of female reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits in domestic livestock have been described in the literature. In this chapter, the components needed for detection of reproductive trait QTL are described, including collection of phenotypes, genotypes, and the appropriate statistical ana...

  11. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  12. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  13. Molecular biology and reproduction.

    PubMed

    McDonough, P G

    1999-03-01

    Modern molecular biology has provided unique insights into the fundamental understanding of reproductive disorders and the detection of microorganisms. The remarkable advances in DNA diagnostics have been expedited by the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the ability to isolate DNA and RNA from many different sources such as blood, saliva, hair roots, microscopic slides, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, clinical swabs, and even cancellous bone. These technical advances have been bolstered by the development of an increasing number of effective screening techniques to scan genomic DNA for unknown point mutations. The continued development of technology will ultimately result in automated DNA (desoxyribonucleic acid) diagnosis for the practicing clinician. The continuing expansion of information concerning the human genome will place an increasing emphasis on bioinformatics and the use of computer software for analyzing DNA sequences. With the automation of DNA diagnosis and the use of small samples (500 nanograms), the direct examination of the DNA of a patient, fetus, or microorganism will emerge as a definitive means of establishing the presence of the specific genetic change that causes disease. A knowledge of the precise pathology at the molecular level has and will provide important insights into the biochemical basis for many human diseases. A firm knowledge of the DNA alterations in disease and expression patterns of specific genes will provide for more directed therapeutic strategies. The refinement of vector technology and nuclear transplantion techniques will provide the opportunity for directed gene therapy to the early human embryo. This presentation is designed to acquaint the reader with current techniques of testing at the DNA level, prototype mutations in the reproductive sciences, new concepts in the molecular mechanisms of disease that affect reproduction, and therapeutic opportunities for the future. It is hoped that future

  14. Mechanical Signaling in Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Soledad; Chang, Sydney; Barzilai, Joshua J.; Leppert, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    The organs of the female reproductive system are among the most dynamic tissues in the human body, undergoing repeated cycles of growth and involution from puberty through menopause. To achieve such impressive plasticity, reproductive tissues must respond not only to soluble signals (hormones, growth factors, and cytokines) but also to physical cues (mechanical forces and osmotic stress) as well. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the process of mechanotransduction—how signals are conveyed from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells of reproductive tissues to the downstream molecules and signaling pathways that coordinate the cellular adaptive response to external forces. Our objective was to examine how mechanical forces contribute significantly to physiological functions and pathogenesis in reproductive tissues. We highlight how widespread diseases of the reproductive tract, from preterm labor to tumors of the uterus and breast, result from an impairment in mechanical signaling. PMID:25001021

  15. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  16. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8085368

  17. [Reproductive toxicity of lindane].

    PubMed

    Pagès, Nicole; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Bouvet, Suzanne; Goudey-Perrière, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    The present paper bears on the main effects of lindane (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) on endocrine and reproductive functions in mammals. This pesticide, once widely used to kill lice and a variety of pests that attack agricultural products, livestock and trees, has been progressively eliminated from many applications since the mid-1970s in Europe or USA, but is still used in the rest of the world. Lindane is absorbed through respiratory, digestive or cutaneous routes and accumulates in fat tissues. It damages human liver, kidney, neural and immune systems and induces birth defects, cancer and death. Chronic administration results in endocrine disruption in birds as well as in mammals. Treatment with 1-40 mg of lindane/kg b.w. disrupts testicular morphology, decreases spermatogenesis, inhibits testicular steroidogenesis, reduces plasma androgen concentrations and may adversely affect reproductive performances in males. In females, lindane disrupts the estrous cycle, reduces serum estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases sexual receptivity whereas in pregnant dams it decreases whelping rate and litter size. These effects were also observed in some rats exposed to residual environmental doses. In addition, there is concern that irreversible effects may be induced when animals are exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critically susceptible phases of sexual differentiation or development. These effects would results from (i) alterations of gonade or gamete cell membranes (ii) cell metabolism changes including alterations of ionic exchanges (mainly calcium or potassium), direct or free radical-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis (iii) or neuroendocrine changes leading to a decrease in sexual performance of either parents or their offsprings exposed in utero or through lactation. PMID:12645304

  18. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. PMID:26204578

  19. Male reproductive success increases with alliance size in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Wiszniewski, Joanna; Corrigan, Shannon; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Möller, Luciana M

    2012-03-01

    1. Determining the extent of variation in male mating strategies and reproductive success is necessary to understand the fitness benefits of social and cooperative behaviour. 2. This study assesses the reproductive success of male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in a small embayment population where different behavioural strategies of males have previously been identified. Parentage for 44 sampled calves was examined using 23 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial DNA marker. Our candidate parent pool of 70 males and 64 females contained individuals sampled from both the embayment and adjacent coastal populations. 3. A moderate level of polygyny was detected in our sample. We assigned paternity of 23 calves to 12 males at the strict 95% confidence level and an additional nine calves to two males at the 80% confidence level. The majority (92%) of successful males were identified as residents to the embayment, and 46% of offspring were located within the same social group or community as their father. 4. Our results suggest that the size of alliances was the best predictor of reproductive success for males in this population, while the strength of association among allied males, alliance stability and male ranging patterns had little influence. In line with predictions for male alliances formed between unrelated individuals, we found that reproductive skew within alliances was not large. 5. Together, our genetic and behavioural analyses demonstrate that alliance formation between male dolphins is a successful strategy to enhance reproductive output. PMID:21981240

  20. The importance of social science research in protecting adolescents' sexual and reproductive choice.

    PubMed

    Jejeebhoy, S J

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the ways in which social science research findings can influence action in the areas of reproductive health and rights. Essentially, social science research: (a) establishes the levels and patterns of behaviours, attitudes or perceptions; (b) explores factors underlying these behaviours, attitudes and perceptions; (c) explains programme and organisational impediments constraining, in practice, the exercise of informed choices or the acquisition of preventive and curative services; (d) monitors the extent to which interventions have been successful in modifying behaviours, attitudes or perceptions, and (e) facilitates an understanding of the policy, social and legal arenas that impinge on the determinants and consequences of reproductive choice. Findings highlight possible courses for legal, policy or programmatic interventions. Such research has enormous relevance for our understanding of reproductive and sexual health, and the health-seeking choices that women and men--from adolescent to adult--make in various settings, the constraints they face in making these choices, and the kinds of interventions that might enhance choices given the prevailing sociocultural context. Focusing on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and choice, the paper concludes that social science research findings are fundamental for informing efforts to protect reproductive rights. PMID:10536390

  1. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  2. Temporal dynamics of reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  3. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  4. New reproductive technologies: Equity and access to reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Henifin, M S

    1993-01-01

    While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238

  5. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology

  6. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  7. Maternal mortality and morbidity. Women's reproductive health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F

    1994-01-01

    Sexuality is a taboo for women in a patriarchal society. Tanzania has inadequate reproductive health care. Aspects of reproductive health are dealt with in safe motherhood or maternal and child health programs. Tanzania's health policy is based on women as mothers; it does not refer to women's right. For women in Tanzania, reproductive health is the right to live. Thousands of Tanzanian women die every year due to maternal complications. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the conditions in health institutions and the advancement of women's status in the country, the Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA) and the Medical Women's Association of Tanzania (MEWATA) joined in the organization of a Reproductive Health Meeting in Dar es Salaam. At the conference, major factors causing maternal mortality and morbidity, such as complications of abortion, anaemia in pregnancy, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and puerperal sepsis, were discussed. A World Health Organization (WHO) report indicated that maternal mortality in Tanzania was 200-400/100,000 live births, while a survey conducted by MEWATA showed that maternal deaths at the Muhimbili Medical Center in the capital were 754/100,000 live births in 1991. Many maternal deaths could be prevented if hospitals were be properly equipped. Tanzanian women's poor health results in large part from their low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, lack of income and employment. TAMWA chairperson Fatma Alloo and Dr. Kimambo (Ministry of Health) endorsed a national women's health movement to demand a government commitment to a holistic reproductive health policy. PMID:12288398

  8. Gynecological and reproductive issues for women in space: a review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R T; Baker, E S

    2000-02-01

    Women have been an integral part of United States space crews since the initial flight of Dr. Sally Ride in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as U.S. astronauts. This article examines the reproductive and gynecological aspects of selecting, training, medically certifying, and flying women in space. Gynecological data from the astronaut selection cycles in 1991 to 1997 are reviewed. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying childbearing for a career as an astronaut and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of U.S. female astronauts after spaceflight are also presented. Because women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle and Mir, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of zero-gravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions, and surgical intervention for long-duration spaceflights are explored in detail. There currently are no operational gynecological or reproductive constraints for women that would preclude their successful participation in the exploration of our nearby solar system. PMID:10674254

  9. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  10. Reproductive and developmental toxicity testing: Examination of the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study guideline.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Dorato, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    An important aspect of safety assessment of chemicals (industrial and agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals) is determining their potential reproductive and developmental toxicity. A number of guidelines have outlined a series of separate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies from fertilization through adulthood and in some cases to second generation. The Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS) is the most recent and comprehensive guideline in this series. EOGRTS design makes toxicity testing progressive, comprehensive, and efficient by assessing key endpoints across multiple life-stages at relevant doses using a minimum number of animals, combining studies/evaluations and proposing tiered-testing approaches based on outcomes. EOGRTS determines toxicity during preconception, development of embryo/fetus and newborn, adolescence, and adults, with specific emphasis on the nervous, immunological, and endocrine systems, EOGRTS also assesses maternal and paternal toxicity. However, EOGRTS guideline is complex, criteria for selecting doses is unclear, and monitoring systemic dose during the course of the study for better interpretation and human relevance is not clear. This paper discusses potential simplification of EOGRTS, suggests procedures for relevant dose selection and monitors systemic dose at multiple life-stages for better interpretation of data and human relevance. PMID:27074386

  11. Genome-wide analysis of alternative reproductive phenotypes in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Cardoen, Dries; Wenseleers, Tom; Ernst, Ulrich R; Danneels, Ellen L; Laget, Dries; DE Graaf, Dirk C; Schoofs, Liliane; Verleyen, Peter

    2011-10-01

    A defining feature of social insects is the reproductive division of labour, in which workers usually forego all reproduction to help their mother queen to reproduce. However, little is known about the molecular basis of this spectacular form of altruism. Here, we compared gene expression patterns between nonreproductive, altruistic workers and reproductive, non-altruistic workers in queenless honeybee colonies using a whole-genome microarray analysis. Our results demonstrate massive differences in gene expression patterns between these two sets of workers, with a total of 1292 genes being differentially expressed. In nonreproductive workers, genes associated with energy metabolism and respiration, flight and foraging behaviour, detection of visible light, flight and heart muscle contraction and synaptic transmission were overexpressed relative to reproductive workers. This implies they probably had a higher whole-body energy metabolism and activity rate and were most likely actively foraging, whereas same-aged reproductive workers were not. This pattern is predicted from evolutionary theory, given that reproductive workers should be less willing to compromise their reproductive futures by carrying out high-risk tasks such as foraging or other energetically expensive tasks. By contrast, reproductive workers mainly overexpressed oogenesis-related genes compared to nonreproductive ones. With respect to key switches for ovary activation, several genes involved in steroid biosynthesis were upregulated in reproductive workers, as well as genes known to respond to queen and brood pheromones, genes involved in TOR and insulin signalling pathways and genes located within quantitative trait loci associated with reproductive capacity in honeybees. Overall, our results provide unique insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying alternative reproductive phenotypes in honeybee workers. PMID:21902748

  12. The role of pheromones and biostimulation in animal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Rekwot, P I; Ogwu, D; Oyedipe, E O; Sekoni, V O

    2001-03-30

    It is now known that pheromonal communication plays an important role in mammalian behaviour and reproductive processes. Chemical communication with pheromones is one means of transmitting such information. In mammals, signalling and priming pheromones are thought to act either singly or in combination through olfaction, auditory, visual (sight) or tactile stimuli. Pheromones are air-borne chemical substances ("signals") released in the urine or feces of animals or secreted from cutaneous glands that are perceived by the olfactory system and that elicit both behavioural and endocrine responses in conspecifics. Extensive studies in insects, rodents, swine, sheep, goats and cattle have established the importance of pheromones in the strong influence exerted by the male on reproductive activity in the female. There is a pheromone produced by the queen honey bee, which has two functions: inhibition of queen rearing and suppression of oogenesis in workers and in addition attracts drones during nuptial flight. It has also been demonstrated that the urine of male mice, rats, feral species and other wild rodents contains a priming pheromone that is responsible for hastening puberty in the females. Pheromones in the wool, wax and urine of a ram are sufficient to stimulate ewes to ovulate, while the buck has a strong characteristic seasonal odor and a buck jar containing the odor of the buck can be used as an aid in the detection of oestrus in does. The mere presence of the boar at the time of insemination of the sow improves sperm transport and ovulation, while the presence of the vasectomised bull has been reported to hasten the onset of puberty in heifers and also early resumption of ovarian activity in cattle following parturition. The role of pheromones in bovine reproduction is not as clearly defined as in sheep, goats and swine. Pheromones and other allelomimetic cues can exert profound effects on reproductive activity via the hypothalamic system that generates pulses

  13. Optimal reproductive-skew models fail to predict aggression in wasps.

    PubMed

    Nonacs, Peter; Reeve, H Kern; Starks, Philip T

    2004-04-22

    Optimal-skew models (OSMs) predict that cooperative breeding occurs as a result of dominants conceding reproductive benefits to subordinates, and that division of reproduction within groups reflects each cooperator's willingness and ability to contest aggressively for dominance. Polistine paper wasps are a leading model system for testing OSMs, and data on reproduction and aggression appear to support OSMs. These studies, however, measure aggression as a single rate rather than by the activity patterns of individuals. This leads to a potential error: if individuals are more likely to receive aggression when active than when inactive, differences in aggression across samples can reflect changes in activity rather than hostility. This study replicates a field manipulation cited as strongly supporting OSMs. We show that fundamentally different conclusions arise when controlling for individual activity states. Our analyses strongly suggest that behaviours classified as 'aggression' in paper wasps are unlikely to function in establishing, maintaining or responding to changes in reproductive skew. This illustrates that OSM tests using aggression or other non-reproductive behaviour as a metric for reproductive partitioning must demonstrate those links rather than assume them. PMID:15255099

  14. Optimal reproductive-skew models fail to predict aggression in wasps.

    PubMed Central

    Nonacs, Peter; Reeve, H. Kern; Starks, Philip T.

    2004-01-01

    Optimal-skew models (OSMs) predict that cooperative breeding occurs as a result of dominants conceding reproductive benefits to subordinates, and that division of reproduction within groups reflects each cooperator's willingness and ability to contest aggressively for dominance. Polistine paper wasps are a leading model system for testing OSMs, and data on reproduction and aggression appear to support OSMs. These studies, however, measure aggression as a single rate rather than by the activity patterns of individuals. This leads to a potential error: if individuals are more likely to receive aggression when active than when inactive, differences in aggression across samples can reflect changes in activity rather than hostility. This study replicates a field manipulation cited as strongly supporting OSMs. We show that fundamentally different conclusions arise when controlling for individual activity states. Our analyses strongly suggest that behaviours classified as 'aggression' in paper wasps are unlikely to function in establishing, maintaining or responding to changes in reproductive skew. This illustrates that OSM tests using aggression or other non-reproductive behaviour as a metric for reproductive partitioning must demonstrate those links rather than assume them. PMID:15255099

  15. [Metabolic and Reproductive Consequences of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Michael; Stopp, Tina; Göbl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome represents the most common endocrine disease of women of reproductive age. Symptoms include metabolic, gynecologic and cosmetic features. Genetic factors seem to contribute to the disease, affecting not only women but also male relatives of patients with similar symptoms. Besides, lifestyle factors play a central role impacting clinical PCOS appearance. Following we present an overview of the syndrome, its epidemiology, metabolic and gynecological aspects, gender and genetic factors and its therapy. PMID:26819214

  16. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  17. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty. PMID:27186562

  18. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary "forensic endocrine" analysis of events relevant to our specialty. PMID:27186562

  19. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success. PMID:21078656

  20. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. PMID:22763047

  1. Reproduction and the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganong, W. F.

    1995-01-01

    A unique aspect of the circulating renin-angiotensin system and the many independent tissue renin-angiotensin systems is their interactions at multiple levels with reproduction. These interactions, which have received relatively little attention, include effects of estrogens and possibly androgens on hepatic and renal angiotensinogen mRNA; effects of androgens on the Ren-2 gene and salivary renin in mice; the prorenin surge that occurs with but outlasts the LH surge during the menstrual cycle; the inhibitory effects of estrogens on thirst and water intake; the tissue renin-angiotensin systems in the brain, the anterior pituitary, and the ovaries and testes, that is, in all the components of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis; the presence of some components of the renin-angiotensin system in the uterus and the fetoplacental unit; and the possible relation of renin and angiotensin to ovulation and fetal well-being. These interactions are described and their significance considered in this short review.

  2. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Laugier, Guillaume J M; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Tayeh, Ashraf; Loiseau, Anne; Osawa, Naoya; Estoup, Arnaud; Facon, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions. PMID:24204741

  3. Posthumous Reproduction and Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn; Bower, Bethanne; Zoloth, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Posthumous reproduction is an issue fraught with legal, ethical, religious, and moral debate. The involvement of the hospice and palliative care community in this debate may be peripheral due to the fact that other health care professionals would be actually delivering the services. However, the hospice and palliative care community are more likely to treat patients considering posthumous reproduction as they near the end of their lives. This article provides the hospice and palliative care community with a review of the medical, ethical, and legal considerations associated with posthumous reproduction. Having knowledge of these issues, and a list of available resources, will be useful if hospice and palliative care staff find themselves facing a patient or family that is considering posthumous reproduction. PMID:21711126

  4. Reproductive ecology of predaceous Heteroptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive ecology entails relating the physiology and behavior of an organism to its environment and the community in which it lives. Terrestrial predatory Heteroptera (including Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Miridae, Nabidae, Pentatomidae, Phymatidae, and Reduviidae) display a wide range of reproduc...

  5. Suppressing subordinate reproduction provides benefits to dominants in cooperative societies of meerkats.

    PubMed

    Bell, M B V; Cant, M A; Borgeaud, C; Thavarajah, N; Samson, J; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2014-01-01

    In many animal societies, a small proportion of dominant females monopolize reproduction by actively suppressing subordinates. Theory assumes that this is because subordinate reproduction depresses the fitness of dominants, yet the effect of subordinate reproduction on dominant behaviour and reproductive success has never been directly assessed. Here, we describe the consequences of experimentally preventing subordinate breeding in 12 groups of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) for three breeding attempts, using contraceptive injections. When subordinates are prevented from breeding, dominants are less aggressive towards subordinates and evict them less often, leading to a higher ratio of helpers to dependent pups, and increased provisioning of the dominant's pups by subordinate females. When subordinate breeding is suppressed, dominants also show improved foraging efficiency, gain more weight during pregnancy and produce heavier pups, which grow faster. These results confirm the benefits of suppression to dominants, and help explain the evolution of singular breeding in vertebrate societies. PMID:25047446

  6. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise. PMID:23079364

  7. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  8. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support. PMID:25589438

  9. [HIV and reproductive choices].

    PubMed

    Boer, K; de Vries, J W; de Beaufort, I E

    1995-05-13

    It is estimated that there are about 120-150 hemophilic men infected with HIV in the Netherlands as well as 1000 men infected via intravenous drug use. The majority of them are in reproductive age with relationships with seronegative women. In the event they want to have a child, artificial insemination with donor sperm (KID) is an option. In 1994 there were 147 instances of insemination of 66 women with the processed semen of HIV-positive men and no infection resulted. The annual risk of HIV infection was 7.2% of a woman engaging in unprotected intercourse, according to a prospective Italian study. The risk of HIV infection per contact was estimated at 0.1-5.6%. However, it is not yet proven that processed sperm of an HIV-seropositive man can produce a pregnancy without the risk of infecting the woman. The risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus is higher in artificial insemination of a seropositive woman with the sperm of her partner. In vitro fertilization is not a sure method either for the prevention of HIV infection of the mother because of the possibility of an egg cell being infected before fertilization. HIV-infected pregnant women face the problems of caring for HIV-infected offspring. For HIV discordant couples the advice is to use both condoms for the prevention of infection and oral contraceptives for the prevention of pregnancy. In the case of a lesbian relationship, if the partners want to have a child, HIV infection is still a factor because of previous heterosexual contacts. PMID:7753239

  10. Spectacular reproduction: Ron's Angels and mechanical reproduction in the age of ART (assisted reproductive technology).

    PubMed

    Hafstein, Valdimar Tr

    2007-03-01

    Ron Harris captured the popular imagination in October 1999 with a website where he auctioned off the ova of fashion models to the highest bidder. This article treats the controversy surrounding Harris' site within a dual frame of critical theory's approach to reproduction and a folkloristic approach to discourse. The website fuses traditional narrative motifs and structures with the logic of advertising, seventies television, family-values rhetoric, and the fertility industry. I argue that the great attraction of ronsangels.com is that it put into relief the intervention of mechanical reproduction in human fertility together with the state of genetics at the turn of the 21st century. The result is not only a disconcerting aestheticization and commodification of biological reproduction, but also the biological reproduction of a particular aesthetic and moral code--a generation of reality by model. PMID:17136463

  11. Testing the fracture behaviour of chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical data for some of these experiments are given, along with reflection on the activity.

  12. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Goodacre, Sara L.; Martin, Oliver Y.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur. PMID:26467958

  13. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology. PMID:24473801

  14. Mammalian reproduction: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1985-02-01

    The objectives of this paper are to organize our concepts about the environmental regulation of reproduction in mammals and to delineate important gaps in our knowledge of this subject. The environmental factors of major importance for mammalian reproduction are food availability, ambient temperature, rainfall, the day/night cycle and a variety of social cues. The synthesis offered here uses as its core the bioenergetic control of reproduction. Thus, for example, annual patterns of breeding are viewed as reflecting primarily the caloric costs of the female's reproductive effort as they relate to the energetic costs and gains associated with her foraging effort. Body size of the female is an important consideration since it is correlated with both potential fat reserves and life span. Variation in nutrient availability may or may not be an important consideration. The evolutionary forces that have shaped the breeding success of males usually are fundamentally different from those acting on females and, by implication, the environmental controls governing reproduction probably also often differ either qualitatively or quantitatively in the two sexes. Mammals often live in habitats where energetic and nutrient challenges vary seasonally, even in the tropics. When seasonal breeding is required, a mammal may use a predictor such as photoperiod or a secondary plant compound to prepare metabolically for reproduction. A reasonable argument can be made, however, that opportunistic breeding, unenforced by a predictor, may be the most prevalent strategy extant among today's mammals. Social cues can have potent modulating actions. They can act either via discrete neural and endocrine pathways to alter specific processes such as ovulation, or they can induce nonspecific emotional states that secondarily affect reproduction. Many major gaps remain in our knowledge about the environmental regulation of mammalian reproduction. For one, we have a paucity of information about the

  15. Density-dependent reproductive and vegetative allocation in the aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Freitas; Deboni, Liene; Lopes, Frederico Santos

    2005-01-01

    Pistia stratiotes is an aquatic macrophyte that grows in temporary-ponds in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. It reproduces both sexually and asexually and is usually observed forming dense mats on the water surface, a condition favored by the plant's vegetative reproduction coupled with an ability for rapid growth. In this study we examined the effect of densely crowded conditions on the production of reproductive and vegetative structures. In addition, we verified whether there is a trade-off between clonal growth and investment in sexual reproductive structures, and whether there is an allocation pattern with plant size. Individual plant biomass and the number of the rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures both increased with density. Increase in plant size resulted in increased proportional allocation to sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Allocation of biomass to reproduction did not occur at the expense of clonal growth. Thus, the density response appears as a increase of rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Therefore, long leaves and stolons may be adaptive under densely crowded conditions where competition for light is intense. An important aspect in the study of trade-offs is the size-dependency of the allocation patterns .Usually, larger plants produce more biomass. Therefore, larger plants can allocate more biomass to both vegetative and sexual reproduction than smaller plants and thus show a positive correlation between both traits rather than the expected negative one. PMID:17354448

  16. High juvenile hormone titre and abdominal activation of JH signalling may induce reproduction of termite neotenics.

    PubMed

    Saiki, R; Gotoh, H; Toga, K; Miura, T; Maekawa, K

    2015-08-01

    Termite castes are a key example of polyphenism, in which reproductive division of labour is clearly seen in colonies. The reproductive castes in termites include primary and neotenic reproductives; primary reproductives found a new colony whereas neotenics succeed them in the reproductive role when the primary reproductives die or become senescent. Neotenics usually differentiate from nymphs or workers by developing functional gonads while retaining juvenile characteristics; however, the developmental mechanism during neotenic differentiation remains poorly understood. Juvenile hormone (JH) mediates a number of aspects of developmental regulation in caste differentiation in termites. In the present study we quantified JH titres in neotenic reproductives of Reticulitermes speratus, and compared these with other developmental stages. In addition, expression changes in JH signalling gene homologues (Methoprene-tolerant [Met], Krüppel-homolog1, Broad-Complex) in the head, thorax and abdomen were investigated during neotenic differentiation. Finally, we examined the function of Met in reproduction of neotenics by RNA interference (RNAi). Our results showed that the JH titres of neotenics were significantly higher than those of nymphs and workers. JH signalling genes were highly expressed in neotenic abdomens, compared with those in workers and nymphs. Met RNAi resulted in the inhibition of vitellogenin gene expression in newly moulted neotenics. These results suggest that the fertility of neotenics might be controlled by a large increase of JH titres and body-part-specific activation of JH signalling pathways. PMID:25847681

  17. Behaviours Associated with Acoustic Communication in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Longrie, Nicolas; Poncin, Pascal; Denoël, Mathieu; Gennotte, Vincent; Delcourt, Johann; Parmentier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background Sound production is widespread among fishes and accompanies many social interactions. The literature reports twenty-nine cichlid species known to produce sounds during aggressive and courtship displays, but the precise range in behavioural contexts is unclear. This study aims to describe the various Oreochromis niloticus behaviours that are associated with sound production in order to delimit the role of sound during different activities, including agonistic behaviours, pit activities, and reproduction and parental care by males and females of the species. Methodology/Principal Findings Sounds mostly occur during the day. The sounds recorded during this study accompany previously known behaviours, and no particular behaviour is systematically associated with sound production. Males and females make sounds during territorial defence but not during courtship and mating. Sounds support visual behaviours but are not used alone. During agonistic interactions, a calling Oreochromis niloticus does not bite after producing sounds, and more sounds are produced in defence of territory than for dominating individuals. Females produce sounds to defend eggs but not larvae. Conclusion/Significance Sounds are produced to reinforce visual behaviours. Moreover, comparisons with O. mossambicus indicate two sister species can differ in their use of sound, their acoustic characteristics, and the function of sound production. These findings support the role of sounds in differentiating species and promoting speciation. They also make clear that the association of sounds with specific life-cycle roles cannot be generalized to the entire taxa. PMID:23620756

  18. Brain transcriptomic analysis in paper wasps identifies genes associated with behaviour across social insect lineages

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Amy L.; Varala, Kranthi; Henshaw, Michael T.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Hudson, Matthew E.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative sociogenomics has the potential to provide important insights into how social behaviour evolved. We examined brain gene expression profiles of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus and compared the results with a growing base of brain gene expression information for the advanced eusocial honeybee, Apis mellifera. We studied four female wasp groups that show variation in foraging/provisioning behaviour and reproductive status, using our newly developed microarray representing approximately 3248 P. metricus genes based on sequences generated from high-throughput pyrosequencing. We found differences in the expression of approximately 389 genes across the four groups. Pathways known from Drosophila melanogaster to be related to lipid metabolism, heat and stress response, and various forms of solitary behaviour were associated with behavioural differences among wasps. Forty-five per cent of differentially expressed transcripts showed significant associations with foraging/provisioning status, and 14 per cent with reproductive status. By comparing these two gene lists with lists of genes previously shown to be differentially expressed in association with honeybee division of labour, we found a significant overlap of genes associated with foraging/provisioning, but not reproduction, across the two species. These results suggest common molecular roots for foraging division of labour in two independently evolved social insect species and the possibility of more lineage-specific roots of reproductive behaviour. We explore the implications of these findings for the idea that there is a conserved ‘genetic toolkit’ for division of labour across multiple lineages. PMID:20236980

  19. Zambia moves towards reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several events in Zambia this year have marked the development of an integrated approach to reproductive health. A team met in March to draw up a national safe motherhood policy, plus strategies and guidelines. These were completed by April and are being distributed for comments. Clinical guidelines for safe motherhood in health centers have also been developed. These aim to reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants by helping health workers to provide quality care to women at every stage of pregnancy and delivery. A reproductive health workshop was held in Ngwerere in May to create awareness of the concept of reproductive health, identify reproductive health problems in the area, propose solutions and outline activities. The 75 participants included community health workers, community leaders, teachers, youth leaders, and community members, as well as health workers and policymakers. The workshop was conducted in the local language so that those present were able to participate fully. June 1997 saw the official launch of Zambia's new policy framework, guidelines and strategy on family planning within reproductive health. The country's Minister of Health, Dr. Katele Kalumba, said the family planning guidelines were a sign of the government's commitment to providing a basic health care package for all Zambians. To promote widespread discussion of the whole concept of reproductive health, local newspapers printed feature articles with the headline "Let's talk reproductive health." The articles raised a variety of sensitive issues that ranged from safe sex and adolescent sexuality to safe motherhood and HIV prevention. Plans are going ahead in Zambia for drawing up a national training curriculum for safe motherhood and family planning. The curriculum for health workers will cover both pre-service and in-service training. PMID:12321356

  20. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  1. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Nagy, Máté

    2015-01-01

    We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns. PMID:26485662

  2. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Nagy, Máté

    2015-01-01

    We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns. PMID:26485662

  3. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  4. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  5. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. PMID:24945995

  6. Neurological control of human sexual behaviour: insights from lesion studies

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Amee D; Wilson, Sarah J; Bladin, Peter F; Saling, Michael M; Reutens, David C

    2007-01-01

    We review the human literature examining the effects of neurological insult on human sexual behaviour. We provide a synthesis of the findings to date, and identify key brain regions associated with specific aspects of human sexual behaviour. These include subcortical and cortical regions, with the mesial temporal lobe and the amygdala in particular being a crucial structure in the mediation of human sexual drive. PMID:17189299

  7. Applying One Health to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bower, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    The British Veterinary Behaviour Association and the Association of Pet Behaviour Counsellors held a meeting last month to highlight the One Health principle with regard to the behaviour of people and animals, particularly pets. Caroline Bower reports. PMID:25377201

  8. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  9. 'Halfway people': refugee views of reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Whelan, A; Blogg, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder access to, use of, and satisfaction with reproductive health services in refugee settings, from the perspective of beneficiaries. Rapid appraisal methods included 46 focus group discussions and interviews with over 800 refugees, audits of 14 health facilities, referral hospital reviews, exit interviews with clients, and interviews with health workers. The study was conducted between February and April 2004 in 11 sites in Uganda, Republic of Congo, and Yemen. Reproductive health was clearly on the policy agenda in all countries with stable refugee sites, but problems with implementation and resources were identified. The quality of services was variable, with high staff turnover in some areas affecting relationships with refugee clients. Referral hospitals in host countries were not all equipped to deal with obstetric and other emergencies of either local or refugee populations, including deficiencies in safe blood supplies and antibiotics. Diagnosis and treatment of STIs and HIV/AIDS was frequently inadequate. Gender based violence was the least well addressed aspect of reproductive health. Interest and knowledge about family planning was high, but acceptance was low. It was concluded that progress has been made in reproductive health services for refugees since 1994, however, urgent advocacy and action is required to sustain and improve the situation. Local implementing partners need more support and supervision to develop appropriate service models and to maintain an acceptable standard of care. PMID:19283634

  10. Proteomics in reproductive biology: beacon for unraveling the molecular complexities.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rahul D; Balasinor, N H; Kumar, Anita V; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Parte, Priyanka; Dumasia, Kushaan

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics, an interface of rapidly evolving advances in physics and biology, is rapidly developing and expanding its potential applications to molecular and cellular biology. Application of proteomics tools has contributed towards identification of relevant protein biomarkers that can potentially change the strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. The emergence of powerful mass spectrometry-based proteomics technique has added a new dimension to the field of medical research in liver, heart diseases and certain forms of cancer. Most proteomics tools are also being used to study physiological and pathological events related to reproductive biology. There have been attempts to generate the proteomes of testes, sperm, seminal fluid, epididymis, oocyte, and endometrium from reproductive disease patients. Here, we have reviewed proteomics based investigations in humans over the last decade, which focus on delineating the mechanism underlying various reproductive events such as spermatogenesis, oogenesis, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, embryo development. The challenge is to harness new technologies like 2-DE, DIGE, MALDI-MS, SELDI-MS, MUDPIT, LC-MS etc., to a greater extent to develop widely applicable clinical tools in understanding molecular aspects of reproduction both in health and disease. PMID:23072795

  11. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  12. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  13. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance. PMID:26388884

  14. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance. PMID:26388884

  15. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive liberty.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Concern for "reproductive liberty" suggests that decisions about embryos should normally be made by the persons who would be the genetic parents of the child that would be brought into existence if the embryo were brought to term. Therapeutic cloning would involve creating and destroying an embryo, which, if brought to term, would be the offspring of the genetic parents of the person undergoing therapy. I argue that central arguments in debates about parenthood and genetics therefore suggest that therapeutic cloning would be prima facie unethical unless it occurred with the consent of the parents of the person being cloned. Alternatively, if therapeutic cloning is thought to be legitimate, this undermines the case for some uses of reproductive cloning by implying that the genetic relation it establishes between clones and DNA donors does not carry the same moral weight as it does in cases of normal reproduction. PMID:19240247

  16. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  17. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  18. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  19. The accumulation of reproductive isolation in early stages of divergence supports a role for sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Martin, M D; Mendelson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Models of speciation by sexual selection propose that male-female coevolution leads to the rapid evolution of behavioural reproductive isolation. Here, we compare the strength of behavioural isolation to ecological isolation, gametic incompatibility and hybrid inviability in a group of dichromatic stream fishes. In addition, we examine whether any of these individual barriers, or a combined measure of total isolation, is predicted by body shape differences, male colour differences, environmental differences or genetic distance. Behavioural isolation reaches the highest values of any barrier and is significantly greater than ecological isolation. No individual reproductive barrier is associated with any of the predictor variables. However, marginally significant relationships between male colour and body shape differences with ecological and behavioural isolation are discussed. Differences in male colour and body shape predict total reproductive isolation between species; hierarchical partitioning of these two variables' effects suggests a stronger role for male colour differences. Together, these results suggest an important role for divergent sexual selection in darter speciation but raise new questions about the mechanisms of sexual selection at play and the role of male nuptial ornaments. PMID:26717252

  20. Behavioural biology: an effective and relevant conservation tool.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Richard

    2007-08-01

    'Conservation behaviour' is a young discipline that investigates how proximate and ultimate aspects of the behaviour of an animal can be of value in preventing the loss of biodiversity. Rumours of its demise are unfounded. Conservation behaviour is quickly building a capacity to positively influence environmental decision making. The theoretical framework used by animal behaviourists is uniquely valuable to elucidating integrative solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, efforts to reintroduce endangered species and reducing the deleterious effects of ecotourism. Conservation behaviourists must join with other scientists under the multidisciplinary umbrella of conservation biology without giving up on their focus: the mechanisms, development, function and evolutionary history of individual differences in behaviour. Conservation behaviour is an increasingly relevant tool in the preservation of nature. PMID:17590477

  1. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  2. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  3. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

  4. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  5. Reproductive Technology in the Context of Reproductive Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Neil J.; Hampton, Simon Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that in the ordinary course of events, most parents routinely practice "reproductive teleology" in that they attempt to manipulate the physical and psychological characteristics of children, and they do so as part of the process of good parenting. Furthermore, such attempts are socially approved of and encouraged. With these…

  6. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  7. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  8. Ethics and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, M

    1990-04-01

    In Western culture, the ethical principles of respect for persons can be further divided into 2 categories - a) autonomy and b) protection of the vulnerable; beneficence; and justice. The principles of ethics can be directed towards 2 levels: microethics - concerned with the individual and macroethics - concerned with the greater community. In the case of obstetrical procedures such as in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, and fetal sex selection, the principles of microethics and macroethics conflict. The exact number and/or kind of babies may benefit the parents by they may not benefit a society that is expected to accommodate these new members. This aspect can also be addressed when dealing with abortion. Support for and against has led to a questioning and reexamining of present abortion laws; the aim is to either restrict abortion or reduce the abortion time limit from 28 to 24 weeks. Policies of the United States have an effect on other policies, worldwide. Abortions are needed as a form of birth control in developing countries; 500,000 women/year die from birthing complications and 100,000 die from complications of illegal abortions. There has also been some questioning of in vitro fertilization. Why fertilize a certain number of eggs which may never be allowed to grow and mature? There has also been some questioning of whether or not an embryo in vitro fertilization is a person or not. Deciding the status of the embryo has opened up research possibilities in the United State and the United Kingdom. Discussion on in vitro fertilization has opened up discussion on surrogacy. There seems to be more support for surrogacy in the United States than in the United Kingdom - where there is a restrictive ban on commercial surrogacy. PMID:2327460

  9. Mate Selection and Mating Behaviour in Spider Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. R.; Hartnoll, R. G.

    1997-02-01

    Female spider crabs can only mate after the terminal moult, which means that they must either mate whilst soft-shelled after moulting, or subsequently when hard-shelled. There is evidence that some, at least, do both, whereas the majority of crabs mate in only one or other of these states. The mating behaviour, and the means of detecting receptive females, have been studied in a spider crab, Inachus dorsettensis. In this species, mating is predominantly hard-shelled, and receptive females are recognized by their emission of chemical pheromones. The implications of the behaviour patterns for male mating efficiency, sperm competition and female reproductive success are discussed. Mate selection and mating behaviour in other spider crabs are compared with I. dorsettensis. Reasons for similarities and differences are reviewed.

  10. Reproductive Rights Activism in the Post-Roe Era

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion (Roe v Wade), there has been a constant and broad attack on all aspects of women’s reproductive and parenting rights. The consequences have been devastating, especially for women whose race, age, legal, or economic status makes them targets of discrimination. At the same time, these threats have galvanized activism. There has been tremendous growth in the number of organizations and coalitions working to protect abortion rights, as well as advocating a broader reproductive rights, health, and justice agenda. This article describes the major activist trends in this period, focusing primarily on those that have been less visible. Documenting activist history allows us to draw inspiration and important lessons for the future. PMID:23153156

  11. Reproductive rights activism in the post-Roe era.

    PubMed

    Fried, Marlene Gerber

    2013-01-01

    Since the US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion (Roe v Wade), there has been a constant and broad attack on all aspects of women's reproductive and parenting rights. The consequences have been devastating, especially for women whose race, age, legal, or economic status makes them targets of discrimination. At the same time, these threats have galvanized activism. There has been tremendous growth in the number of organizations and coalitions working to protect abortion rights, as well as advocating a broader reproductive rights, health, and justice agenda. This article describes the major activist trends in this period, focusing primarily on those that have been less visible. Documenting activist history allows us to draw inspiration and important lessons for the future. PMID:23153156

  12. Reproductive biology of Abolboda pulchella and A. poarchon (Xyridaceae: Poales)

    PubMed Central

    Oriani, Aline; Scatena, Vera Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Abolboda (Xyridaceae) belongs to the Poales, a predominantly wind-pollinated order whose phylogeny has been widely studied in recent years. The reproductive biology of Abolboda pulchella and A. poarchon was studied to determine the main pollination system of these species, providing the first experimental data on reproduction in the Xyridaceae. Methods A field study was conducted, including observations on the morphology and biology of the flowers, insect visits and pollinator behaviour. Experimental pollination treatments were performed to assess agamospermy, spontaneous self-pollination and self-compatibility. Pollination success was determined by pollen tube growth, and reproductive success was assessed by fruit- and seed-set. Key Results Abolboda pulchella and A. poarchon were pollinated by Apidae, Megachilidae and Halictidae bees. The floral resources were pollen and nectar that was produced by stylar appendages, an uncommom nectary type for monocotyledons. The species were self-compatible, and pollen tube growth from self-pollen was similar to that of cross-pollen. However, herkogamy prevented spontaneous selfing, rendering the plants dependent on the pollinator's activity. There was no production of seeds by agamospermy. Conclusions Melittophily is the main pollination system of these two Abolboda species. Nectar production was first recorded here for Xyridaceae, and along with self-compatibility, herkogamy and bee pollination, is an informative characteristic that can be used in future phylogenetic analyses of the family as well as Poales. PMID:21292675

  13. Reproductive competition triggers mass eviction in cooperative banded mongooses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Faye J; Marshall, Harry H; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Nichols, Hazel J; Gilchrist, Jason S; Young, Andrew J; Hodge, Sarah J; Cant, Michael A

    2016-03-16

    In many vertebrate societies, forced eviction of group members is an important determinant of population structure, but little is known about what triggers eviction. Three main explanations are: (i) the reproductive competition hypothesis, (ii) the coercion of cooperation hypothesis, and (iii) the adaptive forced dispersal hypothesis. The last hypothesis proposes that dominant individuals use eviction as an adaptive strategy to propagate copies of their alleles through a highly structured population. We tested these hypotheses as explanations for eviction in cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), using a 16-year dataset on life history, behaviour and relatedness. In this species, groups of females, or mixed-sex groups, are periodically evicted en masse. Our evidence suggests that reproductive competition is the main ultimate trigger for eviction for both sexes. We find little evidence that mass eviction is used to coerce helping, or as a mechanism to force dispersal of relatives into the population. Eviction of females changes the landscape of reproductive competition for remaining males, which may explain why males are evicted alongside females. Our results show that the consequences of resolving within-group conflict resonate through groups and populations to affect population structure, with important implications for social evolution. PMID:26936245

  14. Reproductive competition triggers mass eviction in cooperative banded mongooses

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Vitikainen, Emma I. K.; Gilchrist, Jason S.; Young, Andrew J.; Hodge, Sarah J.; Cant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate societies, forced eviction of group members is an important determinant of population structure, but little is known about what triggers eviction. Three main explanations are: (i) the reproductive competition hypothesis, (ii) the coercion of cooperation hypothesis, and (iii) the adaptive forced dispersal hypothesis. The last hypothesis proposes that dominant individuals use eviction as an adaptive strategy to propagate copies of their alleles through a highly structured population. We tested these hypotheses as explanations for eviction in cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), using a 16-year dataset on life history, behaviour and relatedness. In this species, groups of females, or mixed-sex groups, are periodically evicted en masse. Our evidence suggests that reproductive competition is the main ultimate trigger for eviction for both sexes. We find little evidence that mass eviction is used to coerce helping, or as a mechanism to force dispersal of relatives into the population. Eviction of females changes the landscape of reproductive competition for remaining males, which may explain why males are evicted alongside females. Our results show that the consequences of resolving within-group conflict resonate through groups and populations to affect population structure, with important implications for social evolution. PMID:26936245

  15. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  16. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY DATABASE (DART)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (DART) is a bibliographic database that contains references and abstracts to literature published from 1989 to the present on agents that may cause birth defects and other reproductive and developmental disorders. In addition to refer...

  18. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  19. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  20. ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORTS (ART REPORTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), an organization of ART providers affiliated with the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), has been collecting data and publishing annual reports of pregnancy success rates for fertility clinics in the United S...

  1. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0–1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  2. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0-1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  3. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  4. Reproductive genetic testing and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Suzanne

    1993-04-01

    The situation concerning reproductive genetic testing in Switzerland is briefly described. Growing awareness of eugenic implications especially by women is reported. This is also true for all the other German-speaking countries in Europe to a higher extent than in the other European countries. Better professional education and public information are required. PMID:11653020

  5. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  6. Reproductive Toxicology Testing with EDCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An introduction to reproductive toxicology: the basic approaches to testing chemicals for adverse effects using multigenerational studies with rats and how the regulatory agencies used the data in risk assessments. Case studies were presented of how endocrine or genomic data were...

  7. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike. PMID:24602147

  8. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  9. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  10. Reproductive hormones in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low detections of reproductive hormones, at the part per trillion concentrations, are frequently measured in surface and subsurface waters. These exogenous hormones are a concern because they can bind strongly to hormone receptors in animals and induce an endocrine response or disruption. Human heal...

  11. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

  12. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) first appeared in the late 1980s, though serologic evidence indicates that it had been circulating in swine for some time prior to being recognized. PRRS has since become a highly significant infectious disease affecting swine production worldwid...

  13. Honeymoon, medical treatment or big business? An analysis of the meanings of the term “reproductive tourism” in German and Israeli public media discourses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background/Introduction Infertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction are different. Results Our research shows that the use of the metaphor “reproductive treatment” and its hidden messages depends on the writers’ intention and the target population. Although the phenomenon of patients travelling for reproductive treatment can fit into the definitions of tourism, the term emphasizes aspects that do not reflect patients’ reality. In both the German and the Israeli public media debate the term “reproductive tourism” is either used to criticize the economic aspects of the phenomenon or to attract patients as potential clients. Conclusions Ethicists should be cautious when borrowing metaphors like “reproductive tourism” from the public debate. Our findings support Penning’s suggestion to use instead an unloaded term like cross-border reproductive care to describe the phenomenon in a more neutral way and to make it explicit whenever criticism is necessary. PMID:23962355

  14. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  15. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  16. Some aspects of the palaeoecology of commensals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Elizabeth M.

    1999-10-01

    As well as the economically important mammals, many other vertebrate species live in and around human settlements. Some of these commensals (e.g. Mus domesticus, Passer domesticus) have a long history of association with people. The zooarchaeological record is sparse because systematic sieving is required to retrieve the bones of such small species. However, it is also possible to investigate this aspect of the palaeoecology of human settlement by using studies of the behavioural ecology of modern species. The relationship between people and their commensals, both indigenous and invading, is places in the overall context of landscape change in Britain.

  17. The behaviour of giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae).

    PubMed

    Soo, Pamela; Todd, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Giant clams, the largest living bivalves, live in close association with coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. These iconic invertebrates perform numerous important ecological roles as well as serve as flagship species-drawing attention to the ongoing destruction of coral reefs and their associated biodiversity. To date, no review of giant clams has focussed on their behaviour, yet this component of their autecology is critical to their life history and hence conservation. Almost 100 articles published between 1865 and 2014 include behavioural observations, and these have been collated and synthesised into five sections: spawning, locomotion, feeding, anti-predation, and stress responses. Even though the exact cues for spawning in the wild have yet to be elucidated, giant clams appear to display diel and lunar periodicities in reproduction, and for some species, peak breeding seasons have been established. Perhaps surprisingly, giant clams have considerable mobility, ranging from swimming and gliding as larvae to crawling in juveniles and adults. Chemotaxis and geotaxis have been established, but giant clams are not phototactic. At least one species exhibits clumping behaviour, which may enhance physical stabilisation, facilitate reproduction, or provide protection from predators. Giant clams undergo several shifts in their mode of acquiring nutrition; starting with a lecithotrophic and planktotrophic diet as larvae, switching to pedal feeding after metamorphosis followed by the transition to a dual mode of filter feeding and phototrophy once symbiosis with zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) is established. Because of their shell weight and/or byssal attachment, adult giant clams are unable to escape rapidly from threats using locomotion. Instead, they exhibit a suite of visually mediated anti-predation behaviours that include sudden contraction of the mantle, valve adduction, and squirting of water. Knowledge on the behaviour of giant clams will benefit

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, D.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; dos Santos, R. M. Zorzenon

    1996-02-01

    Modifying the Redfield model of sexual reproduction and the Penna model of biological aging, we compare reproduction with and without recombination in age-structured populations. In constrast to Redfield and in agreement with Bernardes we find sexual reproduction to be preferred to asexual one. In particular, the presence of old but still reproducing males helps the survival of younger females beyond their reproductive age.

  19. Caring for Women Experiencing Reproductive Coercion.

    PubMed

    Grace, Karen Trister

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive coercion is behavior that interferes with a woman's decision making regarding reproductive health. It may consist of contraception sabotage and/or pressure to either carry a pregnancy to term or to have an abortion. Reproductive coercion may coexist with intimate partner violence and be associated with higher rates of unintended pregnancy. Midwives and other women's health care providers can play an integral role in identifying reproductive coercion and implementing harm-reduction strategies. PMID:26762543

  20. Ethical aspects of surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Walters, W A

    1989-08-01

    Ethical issues related to surrogacy are explored and an argument made for its ethical approval in circumstances where the particularities of the case warrant this approach to reproduction. Despite recent and impending legislation to prohibit commercial surrogacy in some States of Australia, although data are difficult to obtain, unofficial and anecdotal reports from medical practitioners specializing in the management of infertility throughout the country indicate an increasing number of requests for surrogacy and increasing referral of infertile couples to the USA for commercial surrogacy arrangements. PMID:2619681

  1. Reproductive delays in mammals: an unexplored avenue for post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Teri J; Zuk, Marlene

    2014-11-01

    Numerous mammalian taxa exhibit reproductive delays, pauses in reproduction that occur between mating and fertilization, between fertilization and implantation of the embryo, or after an embryo has implanted. Of the 27 mammalian orders, 9 are known to exhibit reproductive delays, including Diptrotodontia, Dasyuromorphia, Eulipotyphyta, Cingulata, Carnivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha and Cetartiodactyla. Most researchers interested in delays have focused on their evolutionary origins. However, the consequences of these delays have not been considered fully. Given the lengthening of the period over which reproduction occurs, it is possible that this unique aspect of reproduction facilitates post-copulatory sexual selection. When considered in the context of sexual selection, delays may allow sperm competition and female manipulation of fertilization (cryptic female choice) as well as other post-copulatory processes. We investigate the potential for reproductive delays to facilitate post-copulatory sexual selection and suggest avenues for research that may further our knowledge of sexual selection. We also provide a general review of reproductive delays in mammals. PMID:24517909

  2. Viability Costs of Reproduction and Behavioral Compensation in Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Clinton T.; Condon, Jacob M.; Belk, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that current reproduction has inherent tradeoffs with future reproduction. These tradeoffs can be both in the form of energy allocated to current offspring as opposed to somatic maintenance and future reproduction (allocation costs), or as an increase in mortality as a result of morphological or physiological changes related to reproduction (viability costs). Individuals may be able to decrease viability costs by altering behavior. Female western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis experience a reduction in swimming ability as a consequence of pregnancy. We test for a viability cost of reproduction, and for behavioral compensation in pregnant female G. affinis by measuring survival of females in early and later stages of pregnancy when exposed to predation. Late-stage pregnant females experience a 70% greater probability of mortality compared to early-stage pregnant females. The presence of a refuge roughly doubled the odds of survival of both early and late-stage pregnant females. However, there was no interaction between refuge availability and stage of pregnancy. These data do not provide evidence for behavioral compensation by female G. affinis for elevated viability costs incurred during later stages of pregnancy. Behavioral compensation may be constrained by other aspects of the cost of reproduction. PMID:25365426

  3. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a case study in the development of reproductive technology in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V

    2014-01-01

    The successful development and application of an assisted breeding program in any animal relies primarily on a thorough understanding of the fundamental reproductive biology (anatomy, physiology and behaviour) of the species in question. Surely, the ultimate goal and greatest hallmark of such a program is the efficacious establishment of a series of reliable techniques that facilitate the reproductive and genetic management of fragmented populations, both in captivity and in the wild. Such an achievement is all the more challenging when the reproductive biology of that species is essentially rudimentary and without adequate reproductive models to compare to. Using the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, this chapter provides some personal insights into the evolution of a concept that began as a small undergraduate student project but that subsequently evolved into the first-ever successful artificial insemination of a marsupial. Apart from this historical perspective, we also provide a brief review of the current reproductive biology of the koala, discuss technical elements of current assisted breeding technology of this species, its potential application to the wombat, and the future role it might play in helping to conserve wild koala populations. There is little doubt that the unique reproductive biology and tractability of the koala has in this case been a benefit rather than a hindrance to the success of artificial breeding in this species. PMID:25091911

  4. Individualized medicine and the microbiome in reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Braundmeier, Andrea G; Lenz, Katherine M; Inman, Kristin S; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Walther-António, Marina R S; Berg Miller, Margret E; Yang, Fang; Creedon, Douglas J; Nelson, Heidi; White, Bryan A

    2015-01-01

    Humans have evolved along with the millions of microorganisms that populate their bodies. These microbes (10(14)) outnumber human cells by 10 to 1 and account for 3 × 10(6) genes, more than ten times the 25,000 human genes. This microbial metagenome acts as our "other genome" and like our own genes, is unique to the individual. Recent international efforts such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT Project have helped catalog these microbial genomes using culture-independent, high-throughput, next-generation sequencing. This manuscript will describe recent efforts to define microbial diversity in the female reproductive tract because of the impact that microbial function has on reproductive efficiency. In this review, we will discuss current evidence that microbial communities are critical for maintaining reproductive health and how perturbations of microbial community structures can impact reproductive health from the aspect of infection, reproductive cyclicity, pregnancy, and disease states. Investigations of the human microbiome are propelling interventional strategies from treating medical populations to treating individual patients. In particular, we highlight how understanding and defining microbial community structures in different disease and physiological states have lead to the discovery of biomarkers and, more importantly, the development and implementation of microbial intervention strategies (probiotics) into modern day medicine. Finally this review will conclude with a literature summary of the effectiveness of microbial intervention strategies that have been implemented in animal and human models of disease and the potential for integrating these microbial intervention strategies into standard clinical practice. PMID:25883569

  5. Individualized medicine and the microbiome in reproductive tract

    PubMed Central

    Braundmeier, Andrea G.; Lenz, Katherine M.; Inman, Kristin S.; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Walther-António, Marina R. S.; Berg Miller, Margret E.; Yang, Fang; Creedon, Douglas J.; Nelson, Heidi; White, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans have evolved along with the millions of microorganisms that populate their bodies. These microbes (1014) outnumber human cells by 10 to 1 and account for 3 × 106 genes, more than ten times the 25,000 human genes. This microbial metagenome acts as our “other genome” and like our own genes, is unique to the individual. Recent international efforts such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT Project have helped catalog these microbial genomes using culture-independent, high-throughput, next-generation sequencing. This manuscript will describe recent efforts to define microbial diversity in the female reproductive tract because of the impact that microbial function has on reproductive efficiency. In this review, we will discuss current evidence that microbial communities are critical for maintaining reproductive health and how perturbations of microbial community structures can impact reproductive health from the aspect of infection, reproductive cyclicity, pregnancy, and disease states. Investigations of the human microbiome are propelling interventional strategies from treating medical populations to treating individual patients. In particular, we highlight how understanding and defining microbial community structures in different disease and physiological states have lead to the discovery of biomarkers and, more importantly, the development and implementation of microbial intervention strategies (probiotics) into modern day medicine. Finally this review will conclude with a literature summary of the effectiveness of microbial intervention strategies that have been implemented in animal and human models of disease and the potential for integrating these microbial intervention strategies into standard clinical practice. PMID:25883569

  6. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated. PMID:26651869

  7. Thyroid diseases and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, G; Anagnostis, P; Toulis, K A; Goulis, D G

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are very common in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women with thyroid disorders that are currently seeking fertility, undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) or being pregnant. Normal thyroid function is essential for normal function of the gonadal axis, thus important in maintaining normal reproductive capacity. On the contrary, any type of thyroid dysfunction may reduce the likelihood of pregnancy; the latter can be restored to normal after appropriate treatment. Over eight million children have been born as a result of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) since 1978. As these procedures are becoming more common in clinical practice, the exact impact of thyroid status on reproductive outcomes as well as that of drugs used in ART on thyroid function has to be fully elucidated. Maternal thyroid function is crucial, especially during the first weeks of gestation, for offspring's wellness and brain development. On the other hand, normal physiological mechanisms during gestation can have a major impact on maternal thyroid function. As human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-like effect, high hCG concentrations are associated with thyroid stimulation, both functionally (lower serum TSH concentrations) and anatomically (increased thyroid volume). Although the association between maternal hypothyroidism and increased perinatal morbidity has been described for over a century, more recently, even the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as recurrent abortions and placental abruption. This is of major clinical significance, as anti-thyroid antibodies are surprisingly prevalent in pregnancy, especially during the first two trimesters. PMID:22278068

  8. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  9. Asexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…

  10. 76 FR 43960 - NARA Records Reproduction Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1258 RIN 3095-AB71 NARA Records Reproduction Fees AGENCY: National... its regulations to add the methodology for creating and changing records reproduction fees, to remove records reproduction fees found in its regulations, and to provide a notification process for the...

  11. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by...

  12. 31 CFR 402.1 - Reproductions authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reproductions authorized. 402.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REPRODUCTION OF CANCELED UNITED STATES INTERNAL REVENUE STAMPS § 402.1 Reproductions authorized. Authority is hereby given to make, hold, and dispose of black and white...

  13. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  14. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction...

  15. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction...

  16. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian...

  17. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  18. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  19. 31 CFR 402.1 - Reproductions authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reproductions authorized. 402.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REPRODUCTION OF CANCELED UNITED STATES INTERNAL REVENUE STAMPS § 402.1 Reproductions authorized. Authority is hereby given to make, hold, and dispose of black and white...

  20. 31 CFR 402.1 - Reproductions authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reproductions authorized. 402.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REPRODUCTION OF CANCELED UNITED STATES INTERNAL REVENUE STAMPS § 402.1 Reproductions authorized. Authority is hereby given to make, hold, and dispose of black and white...

  1. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by...

  2. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction...

  3. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian...

  4. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations....

  5. 76 FR 62632 - NARA Records Reproduction Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 43960) for a 60-day public comment period. This... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1258 RIN 3095-AB71 NARA Records Reproduction Fees AGENCY: National... reproduction fees, to remove records reproduction fees found in its regulations, and to provide a...

  6. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  7. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... 81/2×14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine...

  8. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian...

  9. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... 81/2×14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine...

  10. 31 CFR 402.1 - Reproductions authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproductions authorized. 402.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REPRODUCTION OF CANCELED UNITED STATES INTERNAL REVENUE STAMPS § 402.1 Reproductions authorized. Authority is hereby given to make, hold, and dispose of black and white...

  11. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by...

  12. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian...

  13. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations....

  14. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction...

  15. 36 CFR 705.4 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reproduction. 705.4 Section 705.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS REPRODUCTION, COMPILATION, AND....4 Reproduction. (a) Library of Congress staff acting under the general authority of the Librarian...

  16. 42 CFR 9.7 - Reproduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reproduction. 9.7 Section 9.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.7 Reproduction. Chimpanzee reproduction...

  17. 31 CFR 402.1 - Reproductions authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reproductions authorized. 402.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REPRODUCTION OF CANCELED UNITED STATES INTERNAL REVENUE STAMPS § 402.1 Reproductions authorized. Authority is hereby given to make, hold, and dispose of black and white...

  18. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations....

  19. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations....

  20. 32 CFR 2700.43 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2700.43 Section 2700.43... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Safeguarding § 2700.43 Reproduction controls. OMSN and SLNO shall maintain records to show the number and distribution of all OMSN originated classified documents. Reproduction...

  1. 32 CFR 2103.41 - Reproduction controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reproduction controls. 2103.41 Section 2103.41... Safeguarding § 2103.41 Reproduction controls. The Staff Secretary shall maintain records to show the number and... dissemination or reproduction limitations....

  2. Approved Practices in Dairy Reproduction. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Roger D.; Barr, Harry L.

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with approved practices in dairy reproduction. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 200 slides dealing with the following topics: the importance of good reproduction, the male and female roles in reproduction, selection of…

  3. Question 7: new aspects of interactions among vesicles.

    PubMed

    Stano, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    In this short article I discuss the relevance of two aspects of vesicle reactivity that are germane to understand the role of compartments in the origin of early cells. Studies of vesicle self-reproduction indicate that simple vesicles can grow and divide, maintaining inside most of their content and giving rise to a simple autopoietic system. New aspects of vesicle reactivity are also introduced, such as selection and competition processes within vesicle populations, emphasizing the concepts of vesicle diversity, inter-vesicles and vesicles-environment interactions, intended as synthetic analogs of primitive 'ecological' processes. PMID:17610045

  4. [Fundamental aspects of extreme aging].

    PubMed

    Tréton, J

    2002-07-01

    Major developments in molecular biology in invertebrates have recently shown the determining effect of genetics on aging. The first finding was that artificial selection can highlight the genetic aspect of the aging process, demonstrating the polygenetic property of longevity. Another finding showed that certain gene transfers can modulate the lifespan of an organism. Recent progress has been made in three fields: genetic markers of aging, biological basis of cell maintenance, and hereditary factors contributing to late onset genetic disease. These new developments open new avenues of research in clinical biology. In regard to genetic markers of aging, it has been demonstrated that the ends of the chromosomes, telomeres, play a role in cell senescence. Telomeres can be viewed as markers of aging. Shortened telomeres are associated with replicative senescence and antitumor action. DNA anomalies are also more frequent: simple or double breaks, additions and base substitutions. Data on the biological basis of cell maintenance obtained in invertebrates show the polygenetic property of aging involving four significant mechanisms, control of metabolism, resistance to stress, chromatin-dependent gene regulation of genetic homeostasis. Finally, recent studies have shown that late onset hereditary diseases would be linked with particular genes, some of which have been identified. Two non-exclusive mechanisms could be involved: an adaptive mechanism involving gene selection during the evolutionary process, for example in obesity; and non-adaptive accumulation of gene expression during the post-reproductive phase, for example in Alzheimer's disease. These findings open a new era for the biology of aging. PMID:12596689

  5. [Nutritional health aspects of mycotoxins].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Melinda

    2004-08-22

    Mycotoxins produced by mould fungi can enter into the human food chain directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains), consumer goods (coffee and bear) and indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk and eggs). Mycotoxins occur in small amount in the foods; however their continuous intake even in microdoses can result in accumulation in the organism. Synergic effects of the mycotoxins as well as their possible additive multi-toxic effects seem to be especially dangerous. Mycotoxin problems are very important in Hungary because these natural toxins occur mainly in those cereals (e.g. wheat, maize) that amount to high proportion of the sowing area in Hungary and provide the main foods to the inhabitants. Public health risks of the toxins accumulating in the human and animal bodies during the long term consumption of the mycotoxins containing foods--even in small doses--have not been evaluated yet as thoroughly as their importance would require. However, there are more and more direct and indirect expressions of the danger resulting from the toxins. The most frequently observed human health effects are carcinogen effects (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, patulin); effects causing developmental abnormalities (zearalenon, ochratoxin); effects harmful to the reproduction (zearalenon, and trichotecenes), effects decreasing the resistance; immunosuppressive effects (trichotecenes), and effects causing injury of the nervous system (ochratoxin A, fumonisins). Prevention of the injury of the health caused by mycotoxins can be completed by joint and integrated activity of the various disciplines only and requires a comprehensive interdisciplinary cooperation. This paper gives a discussion on health injuring effects of the most frequently occurring mycotoxins that are very important from human health aspects in Hungary; on their occurrence in the foods and on their human risk. PMID:15493122

  6. REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF CONTAMINANTS IN OVIPAROUS VERTEBRATES: WORKSHOP INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern has arisen in recent years about the potential for effects on reproduction and development in both human and wildlife populations. As a consequence, considerable attention has been given to various aspects of this broad issue by research scientists, environmental managers...

  7. Model of Prey-Predator Dynamics with Reflexive Spatial Behaviour of Species Based on Optimal Migration.

    PubMed

    Sadovsky, Michael; Senashova, Mariya

    2016-04-01

    We consider the model of spatially distributed community consisting of two species with "predator-prey" interaction; each of the species occupies two stations. Transfer of individuals between the stations (migration) is not random, and migration stipulates the maximization of net reproduction of each species. The spatial distribution pattern is provided by discrete stations, and the dynamics runs in discrete time. For each time moment, firstly a redistribution of individuals between the stations is carried out to maximize the net reproduction, and then the reproduction takes place, with the upgraded abundances. Besides, three versions of the basic model are implemented where each species implements reflexive behaviour strategy to determine the optimal migration flow. It was found that reflexivity gives an advantage to the species realizing such strategy, for some specific sets of parameters. Nevertheless, the regular scanning of the parameters area shows that non-reflexive behaviour yields an advantage in the great majority of parameters combinations. PMID:27125654

  8. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  9. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed

    Kane, J E

    1978-12-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  10. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:24170352

  11. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as

  12. Behavioural syndromes in Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami): a test of competing hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dochtermann, Ned A; Jenkins, Stephen H

    2007-09-22

    Behavioural syndromes, correlations of behaviours conceptually analogous to personalities, have been a topic of recent attention due to their potential to explain trade-offs in behavioural responses, apparently maladaptive behaviour and limits to plasticity. Using Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami), we assessed the explanatory power and generality of hypothesized syndrome structures derived from the literature and the natural history of the species. Several aspects of functionally distinct behavioural responses of D. merriami were quantified. Syndrome structures were compared using structural equation modelling and model selection procedures. A domain-general behavioural syndrome incorporating cross-functional relationships between measures of boldness, agonistic behaviour, flexibility and food hoarding best explained the data. This pattern suggests that D. merriami behaviours should not be viewed as discrete elements but as components of a multivariate landscape. Our results support arguments that a lack of independence between behaviours may be a general aspect of behavioural phenotypes and suggest that the ability of D. merriami's behaviour to respond to selection may be constrained by underlying connections. PMID:17623643

  13. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665

  14. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  15. Incentives, reproductive behavior, and integrated community development in Asia.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1982-05-01

    Surveying experience with incentives, disincentives, and integrated community development approaches in selected Asian countries, this overview defines concepts, notes policy trends, and discusses ethical and legal constraints, psychosocial and socioeconomic aspects, and cultural-environmental influences on reproductive behavior. Major emphasis is on experience reported from China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Findings to date suggest that, to be successful, programs using incentives, disincentives, and integrated community development approaches will have to be formulated as consistent, clearly defined, and well-communicated policies, responsive to development needs and sensitive to local autonomy and values, with dynamic leadership to obtain and nurture continued policy backing. PMID:7101362

  16. Gender-specific reproductive tissue in ratites and Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Wittmeyer, Jennifer L; Horner, John R

    2005-06-01

    Unambiguous indicators of gender in dinosaurs are usually lost during fossilization, along with other aspects of soft tissue anatomy. We report the presence of endosteally derived bone tissues lining the interior marrow cavities of portions of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen number 1125) hindlimb elements, and we hypothesize that these tissues are homologous to specialized avian tissues known as medullary bone. Because medullary bone is unique to female birds, its discovery in extinct dinosaurs solidifies the link between dinosaurs and birds, suggests similar reproductive strategies, and provides an objective means of gender differentiation in dinosaurs. PMID:15933198

  17. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  18. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  19. The look of royalty: visual and odour signals of reproductive status in a paper wasp.

    PubMed

    Tannure-Nascimento, Ivelize C; Nascimento, Fabio S; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2008-11-22

    Reproductive conflicts within animal societies occur when all females can potentially reproduce. In social insects, these conflicts are regulated largely by behaviour and chemical signalling. There is evidence that presence of signals, which provide direct information about the quality of the reproductive females would increase the fitness of all parties. In this study, we present an association between visual and chemical signals in the paper wasp Polistes satan. Our results showed that in nest-founding phase colonies, variation of visual signals is linked to relative fertility, while chemical signals are related to dominance status. In addition, experiments revealed that higher hierarchical positions were occupied by subordinates with distinct proportions of cuticular hydrocarbons and distinct visual marks. Therefore, these wasps present cues that convey reliable information of their reproductive status. PMID:18682372

  20. The look of royalty: visual and odour signals of reproductive status in a paper wasp

    PubMed Central

    Tannure-Nascimento, Ivelize C; Nascimento, Fabio S; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive conflicts within animal societies occur when all females can potentially reproduce. In social insects, these conflicts are regulated largely by behaviour and chemical signalling. There is evidence that presence of signals, which provide direct information about the quality of the reproductive females would increase the fitness of all parties. In this study, we present an association between visual and chemical signals in the paper wasp Polistes satan. Our results showed that in nest-founding phase colonies, variation of visual signals is linked to relative fertility, while chemical signals are related to dominance status. In addition, experiments revealed that higher hierarchical positions were occupied by subordinates with distinct proportions of cuticular hydrocarbons and distinct visual marks. Therefore, these wasps present cues that convey reliable information of their reproductive status. PMID:18682372