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Sample records for reproductive health issues

  1. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    PubMed

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming. PMID:21970255

  2. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  3. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as

  4. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  5. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  6. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay), gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health), and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services). The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women. Sexual harassment in the

  7. Perceptions of men on role of religious leaders in reproductive health issues in rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moazzam; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Religion holds unique importance in people's lives, and has been cited as an important factor in reproductive health. Pakistan has a Muslim majority and the character of the country is strongly marked by Islam. In rural areas, where the majority of the population reside, religious leaders are considered as opinion makers. The perception of adult males regarding the influence of the 'religious factor' in their use of modern contraceptive methods, and their views on the role of religious leaders in community education, were explored through a cross-sectional survey conducted in twelve rural districts of Pakistan in 2000. A sample of 180 married adult males participated in the study through consecutive sampling. The study was qualitative, utilizing tools such as in-depth and key-informant interviews. The majority of men interviewed considered that religious leaders were against fertility control, and 29% cited religion as a reason for their non-use of modern contraceptives. Respondents also suggested that the involvement of religious leaders in reproductive health programmes is essential for the programmes' effectiveness in rural areas. They thought that religious leaders could contribute positively to community education, and suggested ways in which they could educate the community in reproductive health issues. They also suggested various channels through which religious leaders could be approached to convince them to cooperate in reproductive health programmes. The study concludes that involving religious leaders in rural settings could enable reproductive health programmes and services to reach more conservative groups in society, and thus contribute effectively to bringing about positive change in the attitudes of Pakistani society towards reproductive health. PMID:15688575

  8. Wealth Index association with gender issues and the reproductive health of Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health. PMID:19298306

  9. Reproductive health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Mark C; Ross, Lawrence S

    2014-02-01

    Most patients in the United States with reproductive health disorders are not covered by their health insurance for these problems. Health insurance plans consider reproductive care as a lifestyle choice not as a disease. If coverage is provided it is, most often, directed to female factor infertility and advanced reproductive techniques, ignoring male factor reproductive disorders. This article reviews the history of reproductive health care delivery and its present state, and considers its possible future direction. PMID:24286778

  10. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  11. Perspectives of reproductive health.

    PubMed

    van Balen, F; Visser, A P

    1997-05-01

    This issue of Patient Education and Counseling is dedicated to reproductive health. The main focus is infertility as it is experienced in different of our world. In western societies, medical breakthroughs give couples with fertility problems a good chance to have a child. However, in many developing societies adequate medical treatment is only available for the upper classes, and many women keep going to traditional healers. In addition, the social consequences of childlessness are much greater than in western societies. Another focus of this issue is negative experiences regarding pregnancy. A very distressing experience is late pregnancy loss. Late pregnancy loss is different from infertility with respect to the tangibility of an object of grief, though it may also result in permanent childlessness. Other aspects of negative pregnancy experiences are exceptional physical reactions and recurrent induced abortions. Furthermore, two other elements of reproductive health are addressed in this issue: STD among female adolescents and gender aspects of gene technology. Finally, the ramifications of these various aspects of reproductive health on education and counseling are discussed. PMID:9197797

  12. Improving worldwide reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Geary, J

    1993-01-01

    The 14th International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics World Congress will be held in Montreal, Canada, in 1994, under the auspices of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. The World Congress will 1) promote and facilitate international cooperation in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, 2) develop and improve the exchange of information and ideas, and 3) encourage the adoption of an international perspective on issues of concern. The 1994 program will survey recent research advances and introduce new equipment, instruments, and pharmaceuticals. Issues addressed will include maternal mortality, reproductive technologies, continuing education, malignancy, family planning, and contraception. The Conference's symposia, industry-sponsored events, and cultural activities are being designed to increase speaker-audience interaction and to stimulate debate and the exchange of views. The continuing education goals are 1) to encourage appropriate research with valid and applicable results and 2) to extend the patient-counseling abilities of participating physicians. Canada's socialized health care system, which carefully scrutinizes new expensive technologies, will be highlighted for the international delegates. The scientific program will include 1) general topics 2) reproductive endocrinology, 3) maternal/fetal medicine, and 4) gynecological oncology. Poster sessions followed by open discourses and free communications sessions will facilitate the exchange of views and information. The overall goal of the conference is to improve reproductive health care for mothers and babies worldwide. PMID:12318476

  13. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K; Chow, Eva W C; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-10-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21 > age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p < 0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p < 0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, prenatal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  14. Zambia moves towards reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several events in Zambia this year have marked the development of an integrated approach to reproductive health. A team met in March to draw up a national safe motherhood policy, plus strategies and guidelines. These were completed by April and are being distributed for comments. Clinical guidelines for safe motherhood in health centers have also been developed. These aim to reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants by helping health workers to provide quality care to women at every stage of pregnancy and delivery. A reproductive health workshop was held in Ngwerere in May to create awareness of the concept of reproductive health, identify reproductive health problems in the area, propose solutions and outline activities. The 75 participants included community health workers, community leaders, teachers, youth leaders, and community members, as well as health workers and policymakers. The workshop was conducted in the local language so that those present were able to participate fully. June 1997 saw the official launch of Zambia's new policy framework, guidelines and strategy on family planning within reproductive health. The country's Minister of Health, Dr. Katele Kalumba, said the family planning guidelines were a sign of the government's commitment to providing a basic health care package for all Zambians. To promote widespread discussion of the whole concept of reproductive health, local newspapers printed feature articles with the headline "Let's talk reproductive health." The articles raised a variety of sensitive issues that ranged from safe sex and adolescent sexuality to safe motherhood and HIV prevention. Plans are going ahead in Zambia for drawing up a national training curriculum for safe motherhood and family planning. The curriculum for health workers will cover both pre-service and in-service training. PMID:12321356

  15. Managed care and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S S; Williams, D R

    1998-01-01

    Managed care poses special challenges to midwives providing reproductive health care. This is owing to the sensitive nature of issues surrounding reproductive health and aspects of managed care that may impede a woman's ability to obtain continuous, confidential, and comprehensive care from the provider of her choice. Variations across payers (ie, Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial insurers) regarding covered benefits and reimbursement of midwifery services also may create obstacles. Furthermore, some physicians and managed care organizations are embracing policies that threaten the ability of midwives to function as primary health care providers for women. Despite these hurdles, midwives have the potential to remain competitive in the new marketplace. This article underscores the importance of being knowledgeable about legislation and policy issues surrounding the financing of midwifery services, quality performance measurement for HMOs as they pertain to reproductive health, and discussions regarding which clinicians should be defined as primary care providers. PMID:9674347

  16. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8085368

  17. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficient pre- and post-natal nutrition. Postpartum issues including eating disorder symptom relapse, weight loss, breastfeeding, and risk of perinatal depression and anxiety are also discussed. PMID:22003362

  18. Men's reproductive and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Forrest, K A

    2001-05-01

    A broad definition of men's reproductive and sexual health (MRSH) includes medical (pathophysiological) matters such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), developmental anomalies, malignancy, trauma, and infertility. It also includes psychosocial concerns: sexuality, contraception, disease prophylaxis, developmental and lifecycle issues, tobacco and drug use, sexual identity and orientation, and partnership issues. College men, of whom a large majority are sexually active, have a range of MRSH needs, including some that are particular to their age and social environment. To reach men effectively requires approaches that are somewhat different from those used with women. Clinicians in college health services are in an excellent position to help young men recognize the importance of reproductive health and sexual responsibility. College health services therefore should offer men screening; clinical diagnosis and treatment for MRSH conditions; and information, education, and counseling services, in a manner designed to meet their unique needs. PMID:11413943

  19. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  20. Young women's reproductive health survey.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H

    1987-08-12

    A survey of reproductive health issues was conducted on 15 year old Hutt Valley secondary school girls by means of a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in the sample was 29%. Sixteen percent of the sexually active respondents used no method of contraception. Knowledge of reproductive health facts and contraception was poor both amongst sexually experienced and inexperienced respondents. Twenty-six percent relied on peers for this information, with mothers, teachers and books being other important sources cited. Respondents requested more information on sexually transmitted diseases, contraception and sexual relationships. Most would like this information more readily accessible. Preferred sources of information mentioned were: parents, books, films/videos, family planning clinics and friends. PMID:3455514

  1. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  2. New reproductive technologies: Equity and access to reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Henifin, M S

    1993-01-01

    While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238

  3. Gender violence and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Diniz, S G; d'Oliveira, A F

    1998-12-01

    The available literature reflects the growing interest in gender violence and reproductive health. Violence is generally studied by identifying pathologies, measuring their demands on services and evaluating their repercussions on fetal outcome. Institutional violence, however, has received little attention and is mainly concerned with the consequences of inappropriate use of technologies. Data from the Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective shows that among patients, 20.5% stated that they have never talked about their sexual life with their partners; 38.3% stated that they have had sexual intercourse against their will, including situations ranging from sexual harassment to rape which was referred by 12.3% of them. One of the most relevant issues arising from the anamnesis and interviews of these women was the violence to which they were submitted by health services. The high prevalence of violent situations indicates the urgency of incorporating an approach which deals with gender violence and promotes the empowerment of women into the routine of reproductive health services. PMID:10075210

  4. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. PMID:22118142

  5. Reproductive rights of Egyptian women: issues for debate.

    PubMed

    el Dawla, A S

    2000-11-01

    Because the definitions of reproductive health and reproductive rights are so broad, it has been possible in Egypt and elsewhere for one or other issue on the reproductive health agenda to be prioritised to the detriment or exclusion of others, and a comprehensive approach avoided. Reproductive health and rights language was introduced in Egypt around the time of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. From the moment these concepts were translated into Arabic, activists, scholars and women themselves discussed and debated their meanings and questioned whether Egyptian culture permitted a rights approach of this kind and whether reproductive rights were actually perceived as such by Egyptian women. This paper discusses the language of reproductive rights in relation to cultural specificity in the Egyptian context, Egyptian women's perceptions of reproductive rights, the role of tradition and religion, and the ways in which reproductive rights are taken up under Egyptian law. It analyses some of the arguments used against reproductive rights on these grounds. PMID:11424249

  6. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  7. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  8. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  9. Assisted reproduction: Ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Londra, Laura; Wallach, Edward; Zhao, Yulian

    2014-10-01

    Since inception, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been accompanied by ethical, legal, and societal controversies. Guidelines have been developed to address many of these concerns; however, the rapid evolution of ART requires their frequent re-evaluation. We review the literature on ethical and legal aspects of ART, highlighting some of the most visible and challenging topics. Of specific interest are: reporting of ART procedures and outcomes; accessibility to ART procedures; issues related to fertility preservation, preimplantation genetic testing, gamete and embryo donation, and reproductive outcomes after embryo transfer. Improvements in ART reporting are needed nationally and worldwide. Reporting should include outcomes that enable patients to make informed decisions. Improving access to ART and optimizing long-term reproductive outcomes, while taking into account the legal and ethical consequences, are challenges that need to be addressed by the entire community of individuals involved in ART with the assistance of bioethicists, legal counselors, and members of society in general. PMID:25131898

  10. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  11. [Guidelines on medically assisted reproduction: legal issues and professional liability].

    PubMed

    Molinelli, A; Motroni Gherardi, S M; Picchioni, D M; Ventura, F

    2007-08-01

    The authors analyze the legal and medico-legal issues deriving from the recent Law No. 40 of February 19, 2004 concerning the Medically Assisted Reproduction. In particular, they analyze the contrasting points between the dispositions of Law No. 40/2004 and those of Law No. 194/1978 on the voluntary interruption of pregnancy, and they analyze the guidelines about the procedures and the techniques of the Medically Assisted Reproduction, issued by the Ministry of Health with D.M. of July 21, 2004. The Guidelines, as well as some sentences of several courts, lead to some reflections also about the consent and the professional liability, in particular considering the various moments of the medical action, from the first interview to the carrying out of the assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:17923834

  12. Female reproductive issues in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McCombe, Pamela A; Greer, Judith M

    2013-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in females than males and frequently affects women during their reproductive years. Thus, issues surrounding pregnancy and reproduction are of concern to women with MS. This review documents studies that shed light on reproductive issues in women with MS. The available literature was searched for papers relating to pregnancy and MS. Pregnancy is protective in MS in the short term, perhaps due to modulation of the immune system in pregnancy. It also possible that changes in the brain in pregnancy could protect against the effects of inflammation. The long-term effects of pregnancy also seem to be beneficial to MS, perhaps due to long-term epigenetic changes or possibly due to the effects of fetal microchimerism. Obstetric outcomes in women with MS are similar to those in the general population. In addition, there have been no reports of severe fetal abnormalities in babies exposed to first-line MS therapies. There is no good evidence that breast-feeding is protective in MS. There is no evidence that oral contraceptive pill use predisposes to MS, nor influences the clinical course of MS. After menopause, there is possible deterioration of MS, but it's difficult to disentangle this from the effects of aging and the natural progressive history of MS. The strong biological effect of pregnancy on MS deserves further study, so that these mechanisms can possibly be replicated as therapies for MS. PMID:22733837

  13. Mental Health Issues

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peggy A.

    2004-01-01

    The following overview discusses and compares the findings and implications of the articles in this issue of the Health Care Financing Review that deal with mental health topics—particularly children's mental health— in the Medicaid context. It also briefly describes articles concerning prospective payments for psychiatric patients under Medicare. PMID:25372025

  14. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  15. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  16. Reducing stigma in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2014-04-01

    Stigmatization marks individuals for disgrace, shame, and even disgust-spoiling or tarnishing their social identities. It can be imposed accidentally by thoughtlessness or insensitivity; incidentally to another purpose; or deliberately to deter or punish conduct considered harmful to actors themselves, others, society, or moral values. Stigma has permeated attitudes toward recipients of sexual and reproductive health services, and at times to service providers. Resort to contraceptive products, to voluntary sterilization and abortion, and now to medically assisted reproductive care to overcome infertility has attracted stigma. Unmarried motherhood has a long history of shame, projected onto the "illegitimate" (bastard) child. The stigma of contracting sexually transmitted infections has been reinvigorated with HIV infection. Gynecologists and their professional associations, ethically committed to uphold human dignity and equality, especially for vulnerable women for whom they care, should be active to guard against, counteract, and relieve stigmatization of their patients and of related service providers. PMID:24513258

  17. A conceptual framework for the social analysis of reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil L; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-03-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  18. A Conceptual Framework for the Social Analysis of Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Kirstan

    2007-01-01

    The dominant conceptual framework for understanding reproductive behaviour is highly individualistic. In this article, it is demonstrated that such a conceptualization is flawed, as behaviour is shaped by social relations and institutions. Using ethnographic evidence, the value of a social analysis of the local contexts of reproductive health is highlighted. A framework is set out for conducting such a social analysis, which is capable of generating data necessary to allow health programmes to assess the appropriate means of improving the responsiveness of service-delivery structures to the needs of the most vulnerable. Six key issues are identified in the framework for the analysis of social vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes. The key issues are: poverty and livelihood strategies, gender, health-seeking behaviour, reproductive behaviour, and access to services. The article concludes by briefly identifying the key interventions and strategies indicated by such an analysis. PMID:17615901

  19. Post-Disaster Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy M.; Robertson, McKaylee; Horney, Jennifer; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We examined methodological issues in studies of disaster-related effects on reproductive health outcomes and fertility among women of reproductive age and infants in the United States (US). We conducted a systematic literature review of 1,635 articles and reports published in peer-reviewed journals or by the government from January 1981 through December 2010. We classified the studies using three exposure types: (1) physical exposure to toxicants; (2) psychological trauma; and (3) general exposure to disaster. Fifteen articles met our inclusion criteria concerning research focus and design. Overall studies pertained to eight different disasters, with most (n = 6) focused on the World Trade Center attack. Only one study examined pregnancy loss, i.e., occurrence of spontaneous abortions post-disaster. Most studies focused on associations between disaster and adverse birth outcomes, but two studies pertained only to post-disaster fertility while another two examined it in addition to adverse birth outcomes. In most studies disaster-affected populations were assumed to have experienced psychological trauma, but exposure to trauma was measured in only four studies. Furthermore, effects of both physical exposure to toxicants and psychological trauma on disaster-affected populations were examined in only one study. Effects on birth outcomes were not consistently demonstrated, and study methodologies varied widely. Even so, these studies suggest an association between disasters and reproductive health and highlight the need for further studies to clarify associations. We postulate that post-disaster surveillance among pregnant women could improve our understanding of effects of disaster on the reproductive health of US pregnant women. PMID:22752348

  20. The Stigma of Reproductive Health Services Utilization by Unmarried Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fear of the stigma associated with reproductive health services has always been one of the reasons why youth and unmarried individuals avoid making use of such services. This stigma imposes a great deal of mental stress, fear, and depression on patients and causes delays in the diagnosis and treatment of their conditions. Objectives: This paper explores the concept of stigma in the context of the utilization of reproductive health services by unmarried women. Patients and Methods: This study is qualitative in nature. Purposive sampling was employed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 unmarried women, five midwives, and two physicians. The data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results: Four main categories constituted the general concept concerning the stigma suffered by unmarried women for using reproductive health services, i.e., prevalent stereotypical thinking patterns in society, the fear of being judged and labeled by others, discrimination, and feeling ashamed of seeking reproductive health services. Conclusions: The findings indicated that society associates reproductive health issues with sexual relations, which in turn shapes the stigma and places limitations on unmarried women for using reproductive health services. Thus, while reproductive health services are planned and provided to unmarried women, strategies are demanded for overcoming this stigma. PMID:27247794

  1. Women's health: beyond reproductive years.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Ananya Ray

    2011-01-01

    With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care. PMID:22298132

  2. Reproductive health, youth, and the law.

    PubMed

    Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article surveys legal and policy approaches to adolescent health care programs and presents data on the availability of sex education programs, contraception, and abortion for adolescents in selected countries in the developed and developing world. The age at which youth are considered legally able reach independent decisions on matters affecting their health varies from country to country, although there is a trend toward setting the "age of majority" at 18 years. There has also been a trend toward viewing laws that require parental consent to health care and treatment as a barrier to health rather than a form of protection. Alternative legal approaches to the dilemma of consent have included lowering the age of majority for purposes of medical treatment, permitting professionals tojude whether an adolescent has sufficient maturity to give consent, and the use of third-party consent (e.g. child advocate). Cultural diversity mitigates against a universal legal approach to reproductive health education. There is wide variation in the policy response to questions such as whether reproductive health education courses should be permitted within the school curriculum, whether they should be obligatory or elective, if there should be separate courses or integration of fertility-related material into existing courses, and whether the sexes should be separated for instruction. There is awareness that formal sex education programs in a school setting cannot reach the large number of adolescents outside the educational system, but laws regarding public dissemination of reproductive health information are often restrictive. Contraceptive-related law and policy affect who has access to contraception and under what conditions. Abortion law takes 2 different forms: those that establish the retionales on which a given pregnancy may be terminated and those that establish the formal procedural requirements that must be met. It is concluded that, overall, law and policy have

  3. [Sexual and reproductive rights: challenges for health policies].

    PubMed

    Avila, Maria Betânia

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses sexual and reproductive rights in the sense of a stance that assumes a perspective of transformations in social relations, the struggle against prejudices, the guarantee of well-being, and finally the relationship between sexuality, reproduction, and citizenship. The article then proceeds to reflect on health policy challenges in these fields, emphasizing such issues as: guaranteed resources, quality and quantity of health services in response to demands by the population, and cultural changes that produce a new view of the relationship between health professionals and health system clients, based on the principles of citizenship: recognition others as entitled to freedom and equality. PMID:15029365

  4. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  5. Portrayals of Reproductive and Sexual Health on Primetime Television

    PubMed Central

    Pariera, Katrina L.; Hether, Heather J.; Murphy, Sheila T.; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Primetime broadcast television provides health information and establishes norms for millions of people in the United States (Beck, 2004; Brodie, et al., 2001; Murphy & Cody, 2003; Rideout, 2008). To understand what people may be learning about reproductive and sexual health, a content analysis was conducted of storylines from the 10 most popular primetime television programs in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Variables that were measured included the frequency of reproductive and sexual health issues, the level of health information, the type of information portrayed, the gain and loss frames, the presence of stigma, the tone, and the type of role model portrayed. Eighty-seven of the 589 health storylines dealt with reproductive and sexual health, and the most common issues were pre- and post-term pregnancy complications. The majority of these storylines had a moderate or weak level of information and included specifics about treatment and symptoms but not prevention. Just over half of the issues were framed in terms of losses, meaning non-adoption of a behavior change will result in negative outcomes. Twenty-four percent of reproductive and sexual health storylines involved stigma -- usually those related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Most storylines were portrayed as serious and the majority of issues happened to positive role models. The implications of these portrayals for the viewing public are discussed. PMID:24156468

  6. HIV/AIDS, reproductive and sexual health, and the law.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Gostin, Lawrence O; Hodge, James G

    2008-10-01

    The law is a frequently overlooked tool for addressing the complex practical and ethical issues that arise from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The law intersects with reproductive and sexual health issues and HIV/AIDS in many ways. Well-written and rigorously applied laws could benefit persons living with (or at risk of contracting) HIV/AIDS, particularly concerning their reproductive and sexual health. Access to reproductive health services should be a legal right, and discrimination based on HIV status, which undermines access, should be prohibited. Laws against sexual violence and exploitation, which perpetuate the spread of HIV and its negative effects, should be enforced. Finally, a human rights framework should inform the drafting of laws to more effectively protect health. PMID:18703431

  7. HIV/AIDS, Reproductive and Sexual Health, and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.; Hodge, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The law is a frequently overlooked tool for addressing the complex practical and ethical issues that arise from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The law intersects with reproductive and sexual health issues and HIV/AIDS in many ways. Well-written and rigorously applied laws could benefit persons living with (or at risk of contracting) HIV/AIDS, particularly concerning their reproductive and sexual health. Access to reproductive health services should be a legal right, and discrimination based on HIV status, which undermines access, should be prohibited. Laws against sexual violence and exploitation, which perpetuate the spread of HIV and its negative effects, should be enforced. Finally, a human rights framework should inform the drafting of laws to more effectively protect health. PMID:18703431

  8. Children with health issues.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D

    2011-01-01

    All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for

  9. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  10. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  11. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Catholic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lanzone, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed. PMID:24020861

  12. Reproductive issues for adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vora, Neeta; Perrone, Ronald; Bianchi, Diana W

    2008-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common disorder. However, the consequences of ADPKD on male and female reproductive health are not widely known. Several abnormalities are found in men with ADPKD, including necrospermia, immotile sperm, seminal vesicle cysts, and ejaculatory duct cysts. Female fertility is not affected. Affected women with ADPKD and normal renal function have a high rate of successful uncomplicated pregnancies. Pregnant women with ADPKD with compromised kidney function should be monitored carefully for the development of hypertension and preeclampsia. Their fetuses should be examined sonographically for signs of uteroplacental insufficiency, such as intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. The diagnosis of ADPKD should always be considered when prenatal sonographic findings of hyperechogenic enlarged kidneys are found. In this setting, a family history and renal sonogram of both parents is indicated. Sequencing of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes is available and can be used for both prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. We review in detail these topics to familiarize physicians taking care of patients with ADPKD with the reproductive issues that confront affected individuals. PMID:18215709

  13. Men's health issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2013-09-01

    Men's health has gained prominence over the past few years but it is still not on par with the attention or funding that women and child health is getting. In Asia, this issue is even more conspicuous. With westernization of lifestyle, Asian men's problems emulate their Western counterparts but there are certain issues unique to Asian men due to cultural differences. This review will discuss the health issues affecting Asian men and suggest measures that can be taken to overcome them. PMID:23822757

  14. Reproductive health professionals' adoption of emerging technologies for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peggy B; Buzi, Ruth S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reproductive health professionals' familiarity with and use of various electronic technologies to support health promotion. The study also examined the relationship between demographic characteristics and attitudes and beliefs of the effectiveness of new technologies and perceived barriers for usage. A total of 165 reproductive health professionals at two conferences related to reproductive health in the United States completed the study survey. Personal and organizational factors affected the adoption of electronic technologies for health promotion. This included lack of knowledge, skills, and confidence as well as privacy concerns. The results of the study also suggested that being from an older generation was associated with having lower levels of knowledge, skills, and confidence in using new media. These findings highlight the importance of creating learning opportunities on the use of new technology for health promotion as well as addressing specific perceived barriers among reproductive health professionals in order to promote the adoption of these technologies. PMID:25411221

  15. Impact of the environment on reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The WHO workshop on the impact of the environment on reproductive health is summarized. Topics include the nature of environmental factors affecting reproductive health, environmental factors blamed for declining sperm quantity and quality, the effects of natural and man-made disasters on reproductive health, chemical pollutants, how the environment damages reproductive health, and research needs for better research methodologies and surveillance data. Recommendations are made to: 1) promote international research collaboration with an emphasis on consistency of methodological approaches for assessing developmental and reproductive toxicity, on development of improved surveillance systems and data bases, an strengthening international disaster alert and evaluation systems; 2) promote research capabilities for multidisciplinary studies, for interactive studies of the environment and cellular processes, and for expansion of training and education; and 3) take action on priority problems of exposure to chemical, physical, and biological agents, of exposure to pesticides among specific populations, and of inadequate screening methods for identification of environmental chemicals. The costs of environmental injury to reproduction include subfertility, intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, and various birth defects. Developed country's primary threats are from chemical pollution, radiation, and stress. There is a large gap in knowledge. Caution is urged in understanding the direct relationship between environmental causes and infertility. Sexual health is difficult to assess and research is suggested. Exposure to excessive vitamin A and toxic chemicals are cited as agents probably having serious effects on malformations. Sperm quality has declined over the decades; there is speculation about the potential causes. The effects of radiation such as at Chernobyl are described. Toxic chemical exposure such as in Bhopal, India killed thousands. Neurological

  16. The sexuality connection in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1993-01-01

    Sexuality and power relations based on gender are relevant to researchers, policymakers, and service providers in the reproductive health field, because they underlie virtually all of the behaviors and conditions that their programs address. Yet, a review of conventional treatments in the demographic and family planning literature reveals that, when they consider these topics at all, researchers typically adopt narrow definitions of sexual behavior and focus almost exclusively on risks of pregnancy and disease. This article proposes an analytic framework as a guide to researchers and family planning providers. It relates four dimensions of sexuality to reproductive health outcomes and concludes that family planning policies and programs should address a broader spectrum of sexual behaviors and meanings, consider questions of sexual enjoyment as well as risk, and confront ideologies of male entitlement that threaten women's sexual and reproductive rights and health. PMID:8296329

  17. Reproductive health and blurred professional boundaries.

    PubMed

    Chavkin, W; Breitbart, V

    1996-01-01

    We recognize that many of the issues raised are not simple. Our proposal calls for the same thoughtful deliberation applied in other settings to be brought to bear on reproductive health care. Some have already tried alternative approaches. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, a university hospital neonatologist and the district attorney have collaborated to create an alternative to sentencing program for women who are arrested for drug-related crimes and found to be both pregnant and drug addicted. Rather than proceed with criminal sanctions, these women are offered entry into a drug treatment program that is geared to families with young children and run by the pediatrics department. Here, the physician and the district attorney collaboratively responded in ways congruent with the professional integrity of each. In another example in Portland, Oregon, physicians, drug treatment providers, and child protective social service representatives cooperatively defeated a legislative proposal to mandatorily test and report pregnant women for illicit drug use and, instead, formed a task force to jointly develop state policy regarding the issue. Drug use, HIV infection, child abuse, and poverty are all cause for alarm. Yet it is critical that our frustration about these difficult problems not be translated into blaming individuals for "deviance," or into short-term inadequate responses. In developing policy we should consider the impact on the legal and ethical rights and obligations of both patient and physician. For every course, we should evaluate both immediate and long-term efficacy, the consequences for the doctor-patient relationship, and the consequences for medical integrity. In the midst of the present regulatory and fiscal turmoil affecting health care, we urge physicians to be careful and deliberate in the policies they embrace and the actions they take. PMID:8932462

  18. Integrating reproductive health: myth and ideology.

    PubMed Central

    Lush, L.; Cleland, J.; Walt, G.; Mayhew, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1994, integrating human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) services with primary health care, as part of reproductive health, has been advocated to address two major public health problems: to control the spread of HIV; and to improve women's reproductive health. However, integration is unlikely to succeed because primary health care and the political context within which this approach is taking place are unsuited to the task. In this paper, a historical comparison is made between the health systems of Ghana, Kenya and Zambia and that of South Africa, to examine progress on integration of HIV/STD services since 1994. Our findings indicate that primary health care in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia has been used mainly by women and children and that integration has meant adding new activities to these services. For the vertical programmes which support these services, integration implies enhanced collaboration rather than merged responsibility. This compromise between comprehensive rhetoric and selective reality has resulted in little change to existing structures and processes; problems with integration have been exacerbated by the activities of external donors. By comparison, in South Africa integration has been achieved through political commitment to primary health care rather than expanding vertical programmes (top-down management systems). The rhetoric of integration has been widely used in reproductive health despite lack of evidence for its feasibility, as a result of the convergence of four agendas: improving family planning quality; the need to improve women's health; the rapid spread of HIV; and conceptual shifts in primary health care. International reproductive health actors, however, have taken little account of political, financial and managerial constraints to implementation in low-income countries. PMID:10534902

  19. Youth reproductive health services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Alethea; Robson, Elsbeth

    2002-12-01

    This study examines young people's access to reproductive healthcare services via an urban youth advisory centre in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The aim is to explain why teenagers do not always use existing health services. Data from exit questionnaires with users and focus groups with non-users are analysed to evaluate service accessibility. Analysis suggests that even where clinics are spatially accessible, barriers to access include temporal factors, lack of factual knowledge and stigmatisation. The paper concludes that spatial accessibility is not the only factor necessary to ensure equal access to health services. Recommendations are made towards tackling young people's unmet needs for reproductive healthcare services. PMID:12399216

  20. Turner syndrome: contemporary thoughts and reproductive issues.

    PubMed

    Reindollar, Richard H

    2011-07-01

    prevent any stigmatization to patients unfortunately diagnosed with premature oocyte depletion, and I believe that the use of the diagnosis POI leaves the door open for the occurrence of reproductive function and for the 5 to 10% of 46,XX patients who may spontaneously become pregnant. However, the world literature reports only two women with Turner syndrome, hypergonadotropic amenorrhea, and streak ovaries who have ever become pregnant spontaneously after their diagnosis. It would be unfair to such women with Turner syndrome to give them the same hope for pregnancy as we do for women with 46,XX POI. Amenorrheic women with Turner syndrome truly have ovarian failure. Although I have adopted the term POI in this article for women with Turner syndrome, semantics are no substitute for honest, thorough, and compassionate counseling. PMID:21969268

  1. Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

  2. Migrant Health Issues. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Farmworker Health, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This document contains 10 short monographs on priority issues relevant to the health and well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families. An introduction by Daniel Hawkins discusses the important role of migrant health centers in providing primary and preventive health care services to this disadvantaged and underserved…

  3. Children with Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.

    2011-01-01

    All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…

  4. Indonesian survey looks at adolescent reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Achmad, S I; Westley, S B

    1999-10-01

    The Baseline Survey of Young Adult Reproductive Welfare in Indonesia, conducted from September to December 1998, provides information about young Indonesians on topics concerning work, education, marriage, family life, sexuality, fertility, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The survey interviewed 4106 men and 3978 women aged 15-24 years in three provinces of Java. Survey findings showed that 42% of the women and 8% of the men are currently or have been married. There was a strong inverse relationship between marriage and schooling, which suggests that greater educational attainment and a higher average age at marriage are likely to go together. Although most young couples prefer to delay and space births, only half of currently married young women are using any type of contraception. These results indicate that there is a need for better reproductive health care as well as improved reproductive health education. Moreover, the current economic crisis has lead to a decline in the use of the private sector for health care. Instead, young people are using the less-expensive government services, and young women are turning to pharmacies and midwives rather than to private doctors to obtain contraceptives. These findings have several policy implications including the need for reproductive health programs that provide services needed by young people. PMID:12295693

  5. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  6. "Whistleblowing": a health issue.

    PubMed Central

    Lennane, K J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the response of organizations to "whistleblowing" and the effects on individual whistleblowers. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey of whistleblowers who contacted Whistleblowers Australia after its publicity campaign. SETTING--Australia. SUBJECTS--25 men and 10 women from various occupations who had exposed corruption or danger to the public, or both, from a few months to over 20 years before. RESULTS--All subjects in this non-random sample had suffered adverse consequences. For 29 victimization had started immediately after their first, internal, complaint. Only 17 approached the media. Victimization at work was extensive: dismissal (eight subjects), demotion (10), and resignation or early retirement because of ill health related to victimization (10) were common. Only 10 had a full time job. Long term relationships broke up in seven cases, and 60 of the 77 children of 30 subjects were adversely affected. Twenty nine subjects had a mean of 5.3 stress related symptoms initially, with a mean of 3.6 still present. Fifteen were prescribed long term treatment with drugs which they had not been prescribed before. Seventeen had considered suicide. Income had been reduced by three quarters or more for 14 subjects. Total financial loss was estimated in hundreds of thousands of Australian dollars in 17. Whistleblowers received little or no help from statutory authorities and only a modest amount from workmates. In most cases the corruption and malpractice continued unchanged. CONCLUSION--Although whistleblowing is important in protecting society, the typical organisational response causes severe and longlasting health, financial, and personal problems for whistleblowers and their families. PMID:8401056

  7. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

  8. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Zlatnik, Marya G

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses the evidence linking industrial chemicals to a variety of health and reproductive outcomes. Industrial chemical production has increased over the past 30 to 40 years. Basic science, animal models, and epidemiologic data suggest that certain chemicals may act as endocrine disruptors (substances that interfere with normal hormonal action) and may play an etiologic role in a number of conditions whose incidence has also increased during this same period. These include low birth weight, gestational diabetes, obesity, certain cancers, certain birth defects, and neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder and autism. In addition, some environmental chemicals may have epigenetic effects, resulting in transgenerational health impacts. The epidemiologic and experimental evidence that links chemicals such as plasticizers (eg, phthalates and phenols), flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, and pesticides with adverse reproductive health outcomes is reviewed. Women's health care providers are the liaison between scientific research and their patients; they should educate themselves on the significance of environmental toxins to health. They are ideally positioned, not only to counsel and reassure pregnant women, but also to suggest practicable changes in dietary and lifestyle habits to improve their health. Furthermore, women's health care providers should advocate for regulatory changes that protect women and their families from the health effects of environmental toxins. PMID:27391253

  9. Vitamin D in Reproductive Health and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Aya; Abell, Sally; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D has been primarily known for its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting healthy bone mineralization. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D may have a plethora of other functions including cardiometabolic and immunological effects and a role in modulating human reproductive processes. Despite this, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) remains highly prevalent worldwide due to the limited availability of foods that are naturally high or fortified with vitamin D, increased sun avoidance behaviors and use of sunscreen due to fear of skin cancer, and increased sedentary indoor lifestyles, especially among those of reproductive age. This review examines current and emerging evidence for the role of vitamin D in reproductive health including in fertility, conception, and pregnancy outcomes, and outlines areas for future research. We found that existing evidence is based primarily on animal models and in vitro studies with some recent support from observational studies in humans. While these studies indicate that VDD may be a risk factor for adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to establish causality. Future efforts to clarify the benefits of vitamin D in reproductive health may bring about practical, simple, and cost-effective means of improving fertility and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27228115

  10. Reproductive health in India's primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Rao, M

    1997-01-01

    India's family planning program having reached a dead end, the government of India appointed an expert group to develop a new population policy for the country. While the group's report, submitted in May 1994, proclaimed a new orientation described as pro-poor, pro-nature, and pro-women, the recommendations of the report were criticized as not being serious about gender equity. The government of India, describing a new reproductive health care approach, envisions a paradigm shift in the family planning program strategy. Reproductive health is defined as a state in which people can reproduce and regulate their fertility, women are able to go through pregnancy and childbirth safely, the outcome of pregnancy is successful with regard to maternal and infant survival and well-being, and couples are able to have sexual relations free of the fear of pregnancy and of contracting disease. To further the discussion on the newly initiated reproductive health care approach, the faculty of the Center of Social Medicine and Community Health, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, organized a workshop for November 4-5, 1996, on the place of reproductive health in India's primary health care. The workshop brought together public health persons, clinicians, and health and women's rights activists. The author outlines the content of papers presented at the workshop. PMID:9230606

  11. Gynecological and reproductive issues for women in space: a review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R T; Baker, E S

    2000-02-01

    Women have been an integral part of United States space crews since the initial flight of Dr. Sally Ride in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as U.S. astronauts. This article examines the reproductive and gynecological aspects of selecting, training, medically certifying, and flying women in space. Gynecological data from the astronaut selection cycles in 1991 to 1997 are reviewed. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying childbearing for a career as an astronaut and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of U.S. female astronauts after spaceflight are also presented. Because women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle and Mir, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of zero-gravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions, and surgical intervention for long-duration spaceflights are explored in detail. There currently are no operational gynecological or reproductive constraints for women that would preclude their successful participation in the exploration of our nearby solar system. PMID:10674254

  12. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. Methods The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Results Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health

  13. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in changing health systems

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Gita; Govender, Veloshnee

    2015-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are centrally important to health. However, there have been significant shortcomings in implementing SRHR to date. In the context of health systems reform and universal health coverage/care (UHC), this paper explores the following questions. What do these changes in health systems thinking mean for SRHR and gender equity in health in the context of renewed calls for increased investments in the health of women and girls? Can SRHR be integrated usefully into the call for UHC, and if so how? Can health systems reforms address the continuing sexual and reproductive ill health and violations of sexual and reproductive rights (SRR)? Conversely, can the attention to individual human rights that is intrinsic to the SRHR agenda and its continuing concerns about equality, quality and accountability provide impetus for strengthening the health system? The paper argues that achieving equity on the UHC path will require a combination of system improvements and services that benefit all, together with special attention to those whose needs are great and who are likely to fall behind in the politics of choice and voice (i.e., progressive universalism paying particular attention to gender inequalities). PMID:25536851

  14. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in changing health systems.

    PubMed

    Sen, Gita; Govender, Veloshnee

    2015-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are centrally important to health. However, there have been significant shortcomings in implementing SRHR to date. In the context of health systems reform and universal health coverage/care (UHC), this paper explores the following questions. What do these changes in health systems thinking mean for SRHR and gender equity in health in the context of renewed calls for increased investments in the health of women and girls? Can SRHR be integrated usefully into the call for UHC, and if so how? Can health systems reforms address the continuing sexual and reproductive ill health and violations of sexual and reproductive rights (SRR)? Conversely, can the attention to individual human rights that is intrinsic to the SRHR agenda and its continuing concerns about equality, quality and accountability provide impetus for strengthening the health system? The paper argues that achieving equity on the UHC path will require a combination of system improvements and services that benefit all, together with special attention to those whose needs are great and who are likely to fall behind in the politics of choice and voice (i.e., progressive universalism paying particular attention to gender inequalities). PMID:25536851

  15. Using accountability to improve reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    George, Asha

    2003-05-01

    Accountability is best understood as a referee of the dynamics in two-way relationships, often between unequal partners. The literature on accountability distinguishes between political, fiscal, administrative, legal and constitutional accountability. This paper focuses on accountability mechanisms in health care and how they mediate between service providers and communities and between different kinds of health personnel at the primary health care level. It refers to case studies of participatory processes for improving sexual and reproductive health service delivery. Information, dialogue and negotiation are important elements that enable accountability mechanisms to address problems by supporting change and engagement between participants. In order to succeed, however, efforts towards better accountability that broaden the participation of users must take into account the social contexts and the policy and service delivery systems in which they are applied, address power relations and improve the representation of marginalised groups within communities and service delivery systems. PMID:12800713

  16. Health Occupations Trends and Issues: Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covelli, Nicholas J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify the trends occurring within the health service industry and their impact on the providers of health care; determine shifts or emerging occupational areas within health services; and assess local health service providers' staffing patterns and anticipated needs. The study involved meetings with local hospital…

  17. Epigenetics: A key paradigm in reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Bunkar, Neha; Pathak, Neelam; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that there is a heritable element of susceptibility to chronic human ailments, yet there is compelling evidence that some components of such heritability are transmitted through non-genetic factors. Due to the complexity of reproductive processes, identifying the inheritance patterns of these factors is not easy. But little doubt exists that besides the genomic backbone, a range of epigenetic cues affect our genetic programme. The inter-generational transmission of epigenetic marks is believed to operate via four principal means that dramatically differ in their information content: DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs and nucleosome positioning. These epigenetic signatures influence the cellular machinery through positive and negative feedback mechanisms either alone or interactively. Understanding how these mechanisms work to activate or deactivate parts of our genetic programme not only on a day-to-day basis but also over generations is an important area of reproductive health research. PMID:27358824

  18. [Toxocariasis: spread and impact on reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, T A

    2003-01-01

    To study the prevalence of toxocariasis and its impact on the reproductive health of inhabitants in the Saratov Region, enzyme immunoassay was used to examine 1404 patients, including 210 children, 912 females, and 282 males. Toxocariasis was shown to be a risk factor of male (oligoasthenozoospermia) and female (tuboperitoneal) infertility. The high incidence of toxocariasis in females with reproductive dysfunction (recurrent abortion) and an aggravated obstetric history complicated by chronic renal diseases is indicative of the existence of the urogenital form of toxocariasis. Toxocariasis greatly increases a risk of giving birth to a baby with clinical manifestations of intrauterine infection (IUI), promotes homeostatic disorder and the formation of long-term pathology in babies with IUI. At the same time, there was a significant relationship of abnormal cardiotocograms to toxocariasis and to the presence of Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Cytomegalovirus. PMID:14727482

  19. CRITICAL WINDOWS FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workgroup report addresses the central question: what are the critical windows during development (pre-conception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health. The reproductive system develops in stages...

  20. Implications of Type 2 Diabetes on Adolescent Reproductive Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Julie S.; Arslanian, Silva; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Copeland, Valire Carr; Doswell, Willa; Herman, William; Lain, Kristine; Mansfield, Joan; Murray, Pamela J.; White, Neil; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article was to summarize scientific knowledge from an expert panel on reproductive health among adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Using a mental model approach, a panel of experts—representing perspectives on diabetes, adolescents, preconception counseling, and reproductive health—was convened to discuss reproductive health issues for female adolescents with T2D. Results Several critical issues emerged. Compared with adolescents with type 1 diabetes, (1) adolescents with T2D may perceive their disease as less severe and have less experience managing it, putting them at risk for complications; (2) T2D is more prevalent among African Americans, who may be less trusting of the medical establishment; (3) T2D is associated with obesity, and it is often difficult to change one’s lifestyle within family environments practicing sedentary and dietary behaviors leading to obesity; (4) teens with T2D could be more fertile, because obesity is related to earlier puberty; (5) although obese teens with T2D have a higher risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is associated with infertility, treatment with metformin can increase fertility; and (6) women with type 2 diabetes are routinely transferred to insulin before or during pregnancy to allow more intensive management. Conclusions Findings from the expert panel provide compelling reasons to provide early, developmentally appropriate, culturally sensitive preconception counseling for teens with T2D. PMID:20944055

  1. Speaking out for sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Nowrojee, S

    1993-01-01

    The view was presented that the living conditions of South Asian women do not allow for information, power, or support for controlling their own sexuality and reproductive health. Western biases are frequently incorporated into women's programs. The Asian rules governing women's sexuality are governed by sexism, racism, and class consciousness. Asian reproductive policies and programs need to break the silences, destroy the stereotypes, and give women control of their own sexuality and health. Cultures in South Asia prevent open discussion of sexuality, and the female body is considered "unclean." The perception of the Asian women who emigrated to the US is replete with visions of exotic sex or tightly controlled segregation. Asian males were denied involvement with American women. American servicemen abroad have used Asian women in the sex industry; the stereotyped Asian woman is "exotically beautiful, submissive, and willing." Stereotyped American pornography depicts female images in the Kama Sutra in a distorted way. The Asian community does not provide women with the information, tools, and services needed for Asian women to protect themselves from the consequences of unwanted and unprotected sex. The Asian community uses fear and shame to control women's sexuality outside the reproductive role. It is difficult for Asian women to exercise control over their own bodies or exercise reproductive choice. Decisions are made by husbands and families and may be dependent on the sex of the children born. Sexually transmitted diseases are not adequately diagnosed or treated. Asian women need to continue to speak out and to challenge the external controls on their sexuality. The consequences of the stereotyping and controls on Asian women's expression of sexuality are negative feelings about sexuality, lack of attention to proper gynecological care, and a lower likelihood of protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12290479

  2. Catalyzing a Reproductive Health and Social Justice Movement.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, Sarah; Malin, Christina Kiko; Drummonds, Mario; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2016-04-01

    Objectives The maternal and child health (MCH) community, partnering with women and their families, has the potential to play a critical role in advancing a new multi-sector social movement focused on creating a women's reproductive and economic justice agenda. Since the turn of the twenty-first century, the MCH field has been planting seeds for change. The time has come for this work to bear fruit as many states are facing stagnant or slow progress in reducing infant mortality, increasing maternal death rates, and growing health inequities. Methods This paper synthesizes three current, interrelated approaches to addressing MCH challenges-life course theory, preconception health, and social justice/reproductive equity. Conclusion Based on these core constructs, the authors offer four directions for advancing efforts to improve MCH outcomes. The first is to ensure access to quality health care for all. The second is to facilitate change through critical conversations about challenging issues such as poverty, racism, sexism, and immigration; the relevance of evidence-based practice in disenfranchised communities; and how we might be perpetuating inequities in our institutions. The third is to develop collaborative spaces in which leaders across diverse sectors can see their roles in creating equitable neighborhood conditions that ensure optimal reproductive choices and outcomes for women and their families. Last, the authors suggest that leaders engage the MCH workforce and its consumers in dialogue and action about local and national policies that address the social determinants of health and how these policies influence reproductive and early childhood outcomes. PMID:26740226

  3. Using national and local data to guide reproductive health programs.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This issue of The Family Planning Manager describes the use of national- and local-level data to guide development of reproductive health (RH) programs. The first section explains to family planning (FP) managers the importance of using a broad spectrum of data to guide expansion of FP services to cover a broader range of RH needs. The next section defines the scope of RH services and suggests that a comprehensive RH program may include services in the areas of maternal health, infant health, infant nutrition, adolescent health, and reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted disease/HIV infection prevention and control. The guide continues by describing the creation of a RH indicator panel template and by selecting program areas and indicators for the panel. Sources of national and regional RH data are offered, and information is given on the choice of appropriate local indicators. A sample of local RH indicators is provided, key terms are defined, and a sample RH indicator panel is illustrated. The next sections cover establishment of performance baselines, setting objectives for each indicator, analyzing the indicator panel data, using the indicator panel for decision-making, using the indicator panel to guide the program, and keeping the indicator panel current. After presenting the contributions of reviewers, this issue ends with a list of sources of national RH data and a checklist for using national and local data. PMID:12293134

  4. Mapping of reproductive health financing: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jalandhar; Sidze, Estelle Monique; Khanna, Anoop; Beekink, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Low level of funding for reproductive health (RH) is a cause for concern, given that RH service utilization in the vast majority of the developing world is well below the desired level. Though there is an urgent need to track the domestic and international financial resource flows for RH, the instruments through which financial resources are tracked in developing countries are limited. In this paper we examined the methodological and conceptual challenges of monitoring financial resources for RH services at international and national level. At the international level, there are a number of estimates that highlights the need for financial resources for RH programmes but the estimates vary significantly. At the national level, Reproductive Health Accounts (RHA) in the framework of National Health Accounts (NHA) is considered to be the ideal source to track domestic financial flows for RH activities. However, the weak link between data production by the RHA and its application by the stakeholders as well as lack of political will impedes the institutionalization of RHA at the country level. PMID:25200968

  5. Sexuality and reproductive issues in children with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Joyner, B D; McLorie, G A; Khoury, A E

    1998-02-01

    Recent advancements in surgical and medical therapies have improved the life expectancy of children with myelomeningocele. Yet, there has been a contrasting lack of improvement with regards to sexual function and reproductive issues that continue to infantilize this population. This article identifies five major risk factors that contribute to these delays which invariably lead to irreversible emotional trauma if they are not addressed early in childhood. Adequate psychosexual education of myelomeningocele patients and their families is a tremendous societal challenge. But, only with education will there be trends away from policies of isolation to those that reinforce community integration of the physically disabled. PMID:9550274

  6. Reproductive health patterns: Georgia versus Australia.

    PubMed

    Asatiani, T; Abuladze, N; Ward, H; Angel, P

    2015-03-01

    The review compares a few reproductive indicators - fertility, abortion and contraception in both a developing (Georgia) and a developed (Australia) country. Fertility, abortion and contraception figures in both countries tend to reflect the attitude and the degree of development of each countries sexual health education and their use of effective contraception. Further research is required to accurately evaluate the need and access of Georgian women to modern methods of family planning and their knowledge of the benefits of modern contraception that can assist to reduce pregnancy termination rate. In Australia better insight is needed on how to facilitate a shift to more efficacious long-term contraceptives across all age groups. PMID:25879552

  7. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Good Health Is a Global Issue Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... reasons, many of the research efforts related to global health must now deal with these non-communicable ...

  8. Reproductive health of Gulf War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Patricia; Maconochie, Noreen; Ryan, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    In this review we summarize the scientific literature on reproductive health following deployment to the first Gulf war by armed service personnel. All the studies examined had methodological limitations, making interpretation difficult. Nonetheless we conclude that for male veterans there is no strong or consistent evidence to date for an effect of service in the first Gulf war on the risk of major, clearly defined, birth defects or stillbirth in offspring conceived after deployment. Effects on specific rare defects cannot be excluded at this stage since none of the studies had the statistical power to examine them. For miscarriage and infertility, there is some evidence of small increased risks associated with service, but the role of bias is likely to be strong. For female veterans, there is insufficient information to make robust conclusions, although the weight of evidence to date does not indicate any major problem associated specifically with deployment to the Gulf. None of the studies have been able to examine risk according particular exposures, and so possible associations with specific exposures for smaller groups of exposed veterans cannot be excluded. We suggest that the way forward to address the question of veterans' reproductive health with confidence in the future is prospective surveillance following deployment. Anything less will result in further problems of interpretation and continued anxiety for parents, as well as prospective parents, in the armed forces. PMID:16687262

  9. Reproductive health of Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Patricia; Maconochie, Noreen; Ryan, Margaret

    2006-04-29

    In this review we summarize the scientific literature on reproductive health following deployment to the first Gulf war by armed service personnel. All the studies examined had methodological limitations, making interpretation difficult. Nonetheless we conclude that for male veterans there is no strong or consistent evidence to date for an effect of service in the first Gulf war on the risk of major, clearly defined, birth defects or stillbirth in offspring conceived after deployment. Effects on specific rare defects cannot be excluded at this stage since none of the studies had the statistical power to examine them. For miscarriage and infertility, there is some evidence of small increased risks associated with service, but the role of bias is likely to be strong. For female veterans, there is insufficient information to make robust conclusions, although the weight of evidence to date does not indicate any major problem associated specifically with deployment to the Gulf. None of the studies have been able to examine risk according particular exposures, and so possible associations with specific exposures for smaller groups of exposed veterans cannot be excluded. We suggest that the way forward to address the question of veterans' reproductive health with confidence in the future is prospective surveillance following deployment. Anything less will result in further problems of interpretation and continued anxiety for parents, as well as prospective parents, in the armed forces. PMID:16687262

  10. Linkages among reproductive health, maternal health, and perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lassi, Zohra S; Blanc, Ann; Donnay, France

    2010-12-01

    Some interventions in women before and during pregnancy may reduce perinatal and neonatal deaths, and recent research has established linkages of reproductive health with maternal, perinatal, and early neonatal health outcomes. In this review, we attempted to analyze the impact of biological, clinical, and epidemiologic aspects of reproductive and maternal health interventions on perinatal and neonatal outcomes through an elucidation of a biological framework for linking reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RHMNH); care strategies and interventions for improved perinatal and neonatal health outcomes; public health implications of these linkages and implementation strategies; and evidence gaps for scaling up such strategies. Approximately 1000 studies (up to June 15, 2010) were reviewed that have addressed an impact of reproductive and maternal health interventions on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. These include systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and stand-alone experimental and observational studies. Evidences were also drawn from recent work undertaken by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), the interconnections between maternal and newborn health reviews identified by the Global Alliance for Prevention of Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS), as well as relevant work by the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. Our review amply demonstrates that opportunities for assessing outcomes for both mothers and newborns have been poorly realized and documented. Most of the interventions reviewed will require more greater-quality evidence before solid programmatic recommendations can be made. However, on the basis of our review, birth spacing, prevention of indoor air pollution, prevention of intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy, antenatal care during pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, birth and newborn care preparedness via community-based intervention

  11. Exposure to hazardous substances and male reproductive health: a research framework.

    PubMed Central

    Moline, J M; Golden, A L; Bar-Chama, N; Smith, E; Rauch, M E; Chapin, R E; Perreault, S D; Schrader, S M; Suk, W A; Landrigan, P J

    2000-01-01

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may have declined worldwide, that the incidence of testicular cancer has progressively increased in many countries, and that other disorders of the male reproductive tract such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism may have also increased. There is growing concern that occupational factors and environmental chemical exposures, including in utero and childhood exposures to compounds with estrogenic activity, may be correlated with these observed changes in male reproductive health and fertility. We review the evidence and methodologies that have contributed to our current understanding of environmental effects on male reproductive health and fertility and discuss the methodologic issues which confront investigators in this area. One of the greatest challenges confronting researchers in this area is assessing and comparing results from existing studies. We elaborate recommendations for future research. Researchers in the field of male reproductive health should continue working to prioritize hazardous substances; elucidate the magnitude of male reproductive health effects, particularly in the areas of testicular cancer, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism; develop biomarkers of exposure to reproductive toxins and of reproductive health effects for research and clinical use; foster collaborative interdisciplinary research; and recognize the importance of standardized laboratory methods and sample archiving. PMID:11017884

  12. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  13. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents. PMID:12289887

  14. [World plan for reproductive autonomy and health].

    PubMed

    Ospina, P

    1994-06-01

    The principal objective of the Third International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994 is to achieve consensus on a Plan of Action to reinforce reproductive rights of individuals, who bear ultimate responsibility for slowing population growth. The Plan of Action should be adopted by all the peoples of the world in order to stabilize population growth during the next twenty years by means of programs to provide family planning and reproductive health services. The preliminary conference document incorporated recommendations and proposals of two preparatory committees, five regional conferences, six expert meetings, 109 countries, and over 400 nongovernmental organizations from around the world. At current rates of growth, the world's 5.7 billion inhabitants will increase to 9.1 billion by the year 2025, vastly increasing pressure on already limited resources and ecosystems. The central theme of the first World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974 was the close relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development. The 1974 World Population Plan of Action stressed development of strategies to achieve a better quality of life and rapid socioeconomic development. Recommendations of the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico remained centered on implementation of the Bucharest Plan of Action with a few additions. Although progress has been achieved in meeting the goals of the Bucharest Plan of Action, growth rates of some developing countries have actually increased. Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and discrimination against women are still obstacles to socioeconomic development, and contraceptive usage has not reached optimal levels. Urban migration remains excessive. Progress for many countries over the past decade has been directly related to increasing the access of women to health care and family planning. Themes related to women's status and rights will be incorporated in the 1994 Cairo Conference. The

  15. Women, Reproductive Rights, and HIV/AIDS: Issues on Which Research and Interventions are Still Needed

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    From 2002 to 2005, two literature reviews identified a number of reproductive-health issues that appeared to be relatively neglected in relation to HIV/AIDS: contraceptive information tailored to the needs of HIV-positive people; voluntary HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care, labour, and delivery; parenting options for HIV-positive people besides pregnancy through unprotected intercourse (i.e. assisted conception and legal adoption or foster care); unwanted pregnancy; and abortion-related care. An additional finding was that stigma and discrimination were frequently cited as barriers to enjoyment of reproductive rights by HIV-positive women. Subsequently, a pilot project was initiated in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries used benchmarks to ascertain whether these neglected issues were addressed in local programmes and interventions serving women affected by HIV and AIDS. The benchmarks also assessed whether policies and programmes paid attention to the human and reproductive rights of HIV-positive women. This paper describes the main findings from the two exercises in relation to contraception for women living with HIV or AIDS, abortion-related care, legal adoption by HIV-positive parents, and reproductive rights. It concludes with a number of recommendations on topics to be incorporated into the international research agenda, policies, and programmes in the field of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17591338

  16. Essential medicines for reproductive health: developing evidence based interagency list

    PubMed Central

    Logez, Sophie; Jayasekar, Shalini; Moller, Helene; Ahmed, Kabir; Patel, Margaret Usher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Although poor reproductive health constitutes a significant proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, essential medicines for reproductive health are often not available to the population. The objective was to analyze the guiding principles for developing national Essential Medicines Lists (EML). The second objective was to compare the reproductive health medicines included on these EMLs to the 2002 WHO/UNFPA list of essential drugs and commodities for reproductive health. Another objective was to compare the medicines included in existing international lists of medicines for reproductive health. Methods: The authors calculated the average number of medicines per clinical groups included in 112 national EMLs and compared these average numbers with the number of medicines per clinical group included on the WHO/UNFPA List. Additionally, they compared the content of the lists of medicines for reproductive health developed by various international agencies. Results: In 2003, the review of the 112 EMLs highlighted that medicines for reproductive health were not consistently included. The review of the international lists identified inconsistencies in their recommendations. The reviews’ outcomes became the catalyst for collaboration among international agencies in the development of the first harmonized Interagency List of Essential Medicines for Reproductive Health. Additionally, WHO, UNFPA and PATH published guidelines to support the inclusion of essential medicines for reproductive health in national medicine policies and EMLs. The Interagency List became a key advocacy tool for countries to review their EMLs. In 2009, a UNFPA/WHO assessment on access to reproductive health medicines in six countries demonstrated that the major challenge was that the Interagency List had not been updated recently and was inconsistently used. Conclusion: The addition of cost-effective medicines for reproductive health to EMLs can result in enhanced equity

  17. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices in reproductive and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    To help support and direct the Lions Club's construction of a Community Health Clinic specializing in Reproductive and Sexual Health, this descriptive study began in November of 2004 and was completed in May 2005. The sample consists of 552 high school students in Rumiñahui County, and surveys were used to study four principle themes: reproductive and sexual health education, family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and domestic violence. The results show a widespread lack of accurate and adequate information about reproductive and sexual health. Statistically significant variables studied include sex, age, monthly income, and age of first sexual experience. Female sex, younger age, lower monthly income, and younger age of first sexual experience all contribute to a lower quality of reproductive and sexual health, in terms of having less information about and access to these four aspects of reproductive and sexual health. PMID:18523623

  19. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  20. Norway at ICPD+10: international assistance for reproductive health does not reflect domestic policies.

    PubMed

    Austveg, Berit; Sundby, Johanne

    2005-05-01

    Norway has a long history of good reproductive health care, with some of the world's best reproductive health indicators. Early reduction of maternal mortality, good services for abortion, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases, a low rate of adolescent pregnancies and a low number people with HIV are examples, achieved through an integrated, publicly provided and funded health care package. Official Norwegian development assistance started in 1952. Emphasis on family planning assistance dates back to 1966, making Norway one of the most consistent donors to family planning and reproductive health programmes. Norway also had a high profile at the International Conference on Population and Development and strongly supported the Programme of Action. Since then, while multilateral support in these areas has stayed high, bilateral support has been downscaled. Overall, international assistance does not reflect the domestic approach to reproductive health services. Norway has given little development support to improvement of maternity services, avoided the issues of abortion and post-coital contraception, and passed up opportunities to support adolescent services. Prevention and treatment of infertility has hardly been an issue. Revitalisation of the reproductive rights discourse in Norway could provide a basis for the protection of reproductive health care domestically, and for policy discussions and decisions in relation to Norway's development assistance. PMID:16035594

  1. Adolescents with Special Needs: Clinical Challenges in Reproductive Health Care.

    PubMed

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents with special needs have unique reproductive health care needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. This review discusses some of the most common concerns that are encountered in clinical practice, as the clinician will partner with the adolescent and her family to guide her through the pubertal transition and to help navigate the risks and rights of reproduction. Families often seek anticipatory guidance before menarche on menstrual hygiene, abuse risk and sexuality and can be reassured that most teens with special needs do very well with menstruation. The clinician needs to evaluate the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well her risk for abuse and coercion and her ability to consent to sexual activity, if she requests contraception. Menstrual management is mostly based on the impact of the menstrual cycles on the teenager's life and activities. The adolescents may have a decreased ability to tolerate menses or pain, or experience changes in seizure pattern or altered mood. Hormonal treatment is often used to assist with menstrual hygiene, cyclical mood changes or dysmenorrhea. The goal of treatment can be complete amenorrhea, alleviate pain or regulate and decrease menstrual flow. The unique risks and benefits of hormonal treatment for this special population are highlighted. PMID:26542013

  2. Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, M T; Bassett, M T

    1996-03-01

    Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths

  3. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century

  4. Contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Reproductive Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Farland, Leslie V.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Zhang, Cuilin; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the Nurses’ Health Study’s (NHS’s) contribution to identifying risk factors and long-term health consequences of reproductive events. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the NHS I, NHS II, NHS3, and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) publications between 1976 and 2016. Results. Collection of detailed reproductive history to identify breast cancer risk factors allowed the NHS to document an association between menstrual irregularities, a proxy for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The NHS II found that infertility associated with ovulation problems and gestational diabetes are largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modification. It also identified developmental and nutritional risk factors for pregnancy loss, endometriosis, and uterine leiomyomata. As women in NHS II age, it has become possible to address questions regarding long-term health consequences of pregnancy complications and benign gynecologic conditions on chronic disease risk. Furthermore, the NHS3 and GUTS are allowing new lines of research into human fertility, PCOS, and transgenerational effects of environmental exposures. Conclusions. The multigenerational resources of the NHSs and GUTS, including linkages of related individuals across cohorts, can improve women’s health from preconception through late adulthood and onto the next generation. PMID:27459445

  5. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain. PMID:20067901

  6. Advocating change in Palestine. Advocacy for reproductive health: Palestine.

    PubMed

    Wolmuth, P

    1996-01-01

    The Palestinian Family Planning and Protection Association (PFPPA) recently implemented a new strategic plan based on the Strategic Plan of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) aimed at the empowerment of women. Advocacy is the central part of the program with preparing the services and dealing with the issue of population. In early 1995 a round of meetings in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip launched the plan with new programs for women, youth, men, information, education, and communication, and service provision to start in January 1996. In Gaza the Youth Program is well under way. Five members were selected from each of 50 groups for a 1-week training course in Gaza City in November 1995. The topics included: mutual respect between husband and wife, discussion of the role of family planning in the context of Islam, the rights and wrongs of polygamy, and the hotly debated issue of sex segregation in education. The PFPPA staff was initially apprehensive about the new youth and women's program plans to broaden family planning to women's empowerment and sexual and reproductive health. An IPPF-sponsored video was also shown in Hebron, West Bank, on the problem of early marriage. It featured Palestinian women: one with 12 children who was married at age 13; a mother whose husband wanted to marry off their 12-year-old daughter; and portrayed pressure from husbands and other family members to produce many children. The new strategy engendered debate in the West Bank and Gaza among village women and young people, while in the meantime the training of government health workers started in sexual and reproductive health counseling. In the village of Tkooi, near Bethlehem, a counselor held sessions on the oppression of women and psycho-physiological problems and stress. A lawyer also summarized women's economic and property rights, which most of them were unaware of. PMID:12291097

  7. "Let Me Keep My Dead Husband's Sperm": Ethical Issues in Posthumous Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Nikoletta; Karavolos, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of posthumous reproduction when the surviving partner is female has brought to light many ethical, moral, social, and legal issues. This review aims to summarize these issues and to assist clinicians who may be faced with such requests. A question list, used for health technologies assessment, was utilized in a question-answer approach as the review methodology. Of the 1,208 publications identified through a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological, and ethical databases, 31 articles included arguments related to one or more questions from the predefined question set. Key stakeholders identified include the deceased, the requesting party, the resultant child, the physician, and society. Key ethical issues relevant to posthumous reproduction include the four traditional pillars of medical ethics--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice--as well as the stakeholders' rights and sociocultural attitudes. The ethical framework formulated by these issues has been incorporated in a clinical ethics decision-making tool that could prove useful to clinicians and decision makers. PMID:26132061

  8. Maternal mortality and morbidity. Women's reproductive health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Alloo, F

    1994-01-01

    Sexuality is a taboo for women in a patriarchal society. Tanzania has inadequate reproductive health care. Aspects of reproductive health are dealt with in safe motherhood or maternal and child health programs. Tanzania's health policy is based on women as mothers; it does not refer to women's right. For women in Tanzania, reproductive health is the right to live. Thousands of Tanzanian women die every year due to maternal complications. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the conditions in health institutions and the advancement of women's status in the country, the Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA) and the Medical Women's Association of Tanzania (MEWATA) joined in the organization of a Reproductive Health Meeting in Dar es Salaam. At the conference, major factors causing maternal mortality and morbidity, such as complications of abortion, anaemia in pregnancy, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and puerperal sepsis, were discussed. A World Health Organization (WHO) report indicated that maternal mortality in Tanzania was 200-400/100,000 live births, while a survey conducted by MEWATA showed that maternal deaths at the Muhimbili Medical Center in the capital were 754/100,000 live births in 1991. Many maternal deaths could be prevented if hospitals were be properly equipped. Tanzanian women's poor health results in large part from their low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, lack of income and employment. TAMWA chairperson Fatma Alloo and Dr. Kimambo (Ministry of Health) endorsed a national women's health movement to demand a government commitment to a holistic reproductive health policy. PMID:12288398

  9. Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

  10. Reproductive health and the environment: Counseling patients about risks.

    PubMed

    Haruty, Bella; Friedman, Julie; Hopp, Stephanie; Daniels, Ryane; Pregler, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are associated with reproductive complications such as infertility, pregnancy complications, poor birth outcomes, and child developmental abnormalities, although not all chemicals of concern are EDCs. Pregnant patients and women of childbearing age need reasonable advice about environmental contaminants and reproductive health. PMID:27168513

  11. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  12. Major Health Issues for States: 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landes, David

    Health care will continue to occupy a prominent place in state legislative deliberations, as indicated by the National Conference of State Legislatures' 1987 State Issues Survey. The survey addressed state actions in these health issue areas: (1) health care for the medically indigent; (2) medical malpractice; (3) certificate of need and health…

  13. How Humanae vitae has advanced reproductive health1

    PubMed Central

    Doroski, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    By encouraging doctors and scientists to improve the regulation of births through the observation of natural fertility rhythms, Humanae vitae promoted the development of natural family planning (NFP). The study of NFP has lead to NFP-based methodologies in reproductive healthcare that are promoting advances in treatment of infertility, miscarriage, and a number of reproductive health disorders. In contrast, the contraceptive mentality has stunted the development of reproductive healthcare. Humanae vitae has provided a great gift to science and reproductive healthcare that all Catholics should be proud of. PMID:25249708

  14. IPPF focuses on advocacy. Advocacy for reproductive health: worldwide.

    PubMed

    Puri, S; Ketting, E

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation has been advocating human rights since its establishment in 1952. Since the adoption of its global strategic plan, Vision 2000, it has dealt with advocacy in a more systematic manner. Advocacy aims to gain broader support for a cause. In family planning and reproductive health, advocacy is important in counteracting conservative opposition movements. Its most effective tool is high-quality information and services for meeting people's needs. Its target groups are women's groups, youth organizations, parliamentarians, media representatives, and religious leaders. Information, education, and communication (IEC) campaigns differ from advocacy, because the latter is deliberately persuasive and campaign-oriented. An Advocacy Working Group was convened by IPPF and an Advocacy Guide was produced in 1995. Advocacy is needed for the promotion of sexual and reproductive health in the face of opposition from traditional and cultural forces represented by small, vocal, well-financed and organized groups. In 1984 they succeeded in halting funding for IPPF by the United States. This made IPPF resolute in strategic planning and setting goals as contained in Vision 2000. The goals include advocacy for family planning, the prevention of unsafe abortion, women's empowerment, the involvement of youth, the responsibility of men for family life, and the improvement of the status of the female child. The IPPF's 1985 Central Council discussed new initiatives and an Issues Manual was published. The 1989 Members' Assembly held a seminar on critical issues in advocating family planning. A further 1993 resolution urged support for advocacy initiatives. A Public Response Guide was published in 1991 and Language Guidelines were also produced for correct family planning terminology. In addition, an Interregional Training Workshop was held in London in 1995 on the use of the Advocacy Guide. Recommendations were also submitted by participants for

  15. Menstrual and reproductive issues in adolescents with physical and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2014-08-01

    Most obstetrician-gynecologists will encounter adolescents with disabilities in their practice, because developmental and physical disabilities are common in young patients (8.4%). Reproductive health issues such as puberty, sexuality, and menstruation can be more complicated for teenagers with disabilities and their families as a result of concerns surrounding menstrual hygiene, abuse risk, vulnerability, changes in seizure pattern, and altered mood. Teenagers with disabilities have gynecologic health care needs similar to those of their peers as well as unique needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. The gynecologic health visit for a teenager with disabilities should include an evaluation of the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well as an assessment of her abuse and coercion risk and her ability to consent to sexual activity. The menstrual history is focused on the effects of menstrual cycles on her daily life. Diagnostic testing is not different from other adolescents. Hormonal treatment is often requested by the patient and her family to alleviate abnormal bleeding, cyclic mood changes, dysmenorrhea, or a combination of these, to assist with menstrual hygiene, and to provide contraception. Menstrual manipulation can be used to induce complete amenorrhea, regulate cycles, or decrease regular menstrual flow. However, treatment risks and side effects may have a different effect on the lives of these adolescents. The comfort level of health care providers to respond to the special concerns of adolescents with disabilities is low, and several barriers exist. This review addresses the complex issues of puberty, menstruation, sexuality, abuse, and safety highlighting the distinctive needs of this population. The options and decisions around menstrual manipulation are highlighted in detail. PMID:25004333

  16. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    at least one physician on 85% of all its flights. Both passenger and cargo aircraft have proven to be vectors of disease in that they transport humans, mosquitoes, and other insects and animals who, in turn, transmit disease. Transmission to other passengers has occurred with tuberculosis and influenza. Vectors for yellow fever, malaria, and dengue have been identified on aircraft. Although there are numerous health issues associated with air travel they pale in comparison to the enormous benefits to the traveler, to commerce, to international affairs, and to the public's health. PMID:12428033

  17. Reproductive health care and minors' rights.

    PubMed

    Paul, E W; Klassel, D

    1984-01-01

    The right of minors under the US Constitution to reproductive health care services has been established and supersedes any state laws that may conflict with federal constitutional priciples. It has been ruled by the US Supreme Court that minors as well as adults possess a constitutional right to privacy, including the right to choose abortion without 3rd party consent. However, the states of Indiana, Lojisiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Dakota, and Rhode Island have enacted judicial bypass schemes that require parental consent for minors' abortions if an alternative procedure is also provided whereby the minor receives a confidential hearing before a neutral 3rd party. Several states further require parental notification for abortion, although legal challenges have been directed against these statutes. In terms of contraception, a New York statute that prohibited the sale of nonprescription contraceptives to those under 16 years of age was ruled to constitute an unconstitutional burden on minors' right to privacy. Moreover, parental consent to contraception cannot be imposed as a requirement in a federally funded family planning program. Attempts are being made to attach a parental consent requirement to family planning services provided under Title X, but this provision is considered to undercut desired adolescent participation in such programs and will be challenged on constitutional grounds. Claims by parents that the provision of contraceptive services to their children on a confidential basis violates parents' right to the care, custody, and nurture of their children have been rejected. Finally, standards promulgated by the American Bar Association provide that a minor of any age consent to medical services or counseling for family planning, contraception, or sexually transmitted diseases, excluding sterilization, and treatment related to pregnancy, including abortion. PMID:12339889

  18. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

  19. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir America's work ... while also balancing the traditional parenting responsibilities. 1 Work-related health challenges facing women Women face different ...

  20. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  1. The role of in-depth reproductive health counseling in addressing reproductive health concerns in female survivors of nongynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Shah, M S; Letourneau, J M; Niemasik, E E; Bleil, M; McCulloch, Charles E; Rosen, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize reproductive concerns among female cancer survivors and determine the role of targeted counseling in improving overall reproductive quality of life (QOL). A survey was administered to women from the California Cancer Registry, ages 18-40, with nongynecologic cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2007, who received fertility-compromising treatments. In total, 356 women completed the survey, which included questions regarding their reproductive health counseling history and the reproductive concerns scale (RCS), a validated reproductive QOL tool. Factors independently associated with higher RCS scores included a desire for children at the time of diagnosis, posttreatment infertility, treatment with chemoradiation or bone marrow transplant, and income less than $100,000 per year at diagnosis. Among the highest reported reproductive concerns were those related to loss of control over one's reproductive future and concerns about the effect of illness on one's future fertility. Across our population and independent of age, in-depth reproductive health counseling prior to cancer treatment was associated with significantly lower RCS scores. Our findings highlight the importance of early counseling and targeting high-risk groups for additional counseling after completion of cancer treatment. This approach may be an effective strategy for optimizing long-term reproductive QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:27144587

  2. Health issues of migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Donohoe, Martin

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes the socioeconomic conditions under which the 3 to 5 million migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States live. Health consequences resulting from occupational hazards and from poverty, substandard living conditions, migrancy, language and cultural barriers, and impaired access to health care are described. Specific problems include infectious diseases, chemical- and pesticide-related illnesses, dermatitis, heat stress, respiratory conditions, musculoskeletal disorders and traumatic injuries, reproductive health problems, dental diseases, cancer, poor child health, inadequate preventive care, and social and mental health problems. By increasing awareness among health care professionals of the plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the authors hope to encourage development of a stronger public health infrastructure and to improve the health status of these individuals. PMID:12739296

  3. Community experiences and perceptions of reproductive health vouchers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on demand-side health care financing approaches such as output-based aid (OBA) programs have focused on evaluating the role of the programs improving such outcomes as utilization of services and quality of services with limited focus on the experiences and perceptions of the target communities. This paper examines community members’ views of the output-based aid voucher program in Kenya. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2010 among 1,336 women aged 15-49 years living in the catchment areas of contracted health facilities in three districts participating in the voucher program (Kisumu, Kiambu and Kitui). Twenty seven focus group discussions were conducted with voucher users, non-users, opinion leaders and voucher distributors in the three districts as well as in Nairobi. Analysis of the quantitative data involved frequency distributions and cross-tabulations. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting framework analysis and further triangulation of themes across respondents. Results Majority (84%) of survey respondents had heard about the safe motherhood voucher compared to 24% and 1% that had heard about the family planning and gender-based violence recovery services (GBVRS) vouchers respectively. Similarly, 20% of the respondents had used the safe motherhood voucher compared to 2% for family planning and none for the GBVRS vouchers. From the community members’ perspectives, the voucher program is associated with improvements in access to health services for poor women, improved quality of care, and empowerment of women to make health care decisions. However, community members cited difficulties in accessing some accredited health facilities, limitations with the system of selling vouchers, lack of male involvement in women’s reproductive health issues, and poor understanding of the benefits associated with purchasing the voucher. Conclusion The findings of this paper showed that the voucher program in Kenya is

  4. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. PMID:26382024

  5. A life course approach to reproductive health: theory and methods.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

    2010-02-01

    Taking a life course approach to the study of reproductive health involves the investigation of factors across life and, also across generations, that influence the timing of menarche, fertility, pregnancy outcomes, gynaecological disorders, and age at menopause. It also recognises the important influence of reproductive health on chronic disease risk in later life. Published literature supports the use of an integrated life course approach to study reproductive health, which examines the whole life course, considers the continuity of reproductive health and the interrelationship between the different markers of this. This is in contrast to more traditional approaches that tend to focus only on contemporary risk factors and which consider each marker of reproductive health separately. For instance, we found evidence linking early life factors such as growth, socioeconomic conditions, and parental divorce with ages at menarche and menopause, although the nature of the relationship differs. We discuss the different theoretical models that are used within life course epidemiology and which postulate pathways linking exposures across the life course to health outcomes, using examples of relevance to the study of reproductive health. These highlight the importance of examining timing of exposures, such as during critical periods in early life, and the temporal order of exposures. How life course frameworks of reproductive health can be developed to help identify hypotheses to be tested is also demonstrated. This approach has implications for the development of effective health policy that moves beyond identifying not only the type of intervention but also the most appropriate time across life to intervene. PMID:20079587

  6. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for (1) well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; (2) chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs. PMID:24926476

  7. Inequity in India: the case of maternal and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Sanneving, Linda; Trygg, Nadja; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health. PMID:23561028

  8. Quality of reproductive health services at commune health stations in Viet Nam: implications for national reproductive health care strategy.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study conducted in 2009 of provider and patient perceptions of primary level reproductive health services provided by commune health stations (CHSs), and the implications for Viet Nam's 2011-2020 National Strategy for Reproductive Health Care. In the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Thua Thien Hue, and Vinh Long, we interviewed the heads of CHSs, held focus group discussions with midwives and women patients, and observed facilities. Half the 30 CHSs visited were in poor physical condition; the rest were newly renovated. However, the model of service delivery was largely unchanged from ten years before. Many appeared to fall short in meeting patient expectations in terms of modern medical equipment and technology, range of drug supplies, and levels of staff expertise. As a result, many women were turning to private doctors and public hospitals, at least in urban areas, or seeking medication from pharmacies. To make CHS clinics sustainable, promotion of access to reproductive health services should be undertaken concurrently with quality improvement. A responsive payment scheme must also be developed to generate revenues. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary use of more costly services from private clinics and higher level public facilities. PMID:21555086

  9. Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake on Women's Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Julia Andrea; Weitzman, Abigail

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on women's reproductive health, using geocoded data from the 2005 and 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Surveys. We use geographic variation in the destructiveness of the earthquake to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. Results indicate that heightened earthquake intensity reduced use of injectables-the most widely used modern contraceptive method in Haiti-and increased current pregnancy and current unwanted pregnancy. Analysis of impact pathways suggests that severe earthquake intensity significantly increased women's unmet need for family planning and reduced their access to condoms. The earthquake also affected other factors that influence reproductive health, including women's ability to negotiate condom use in their partnerships. Our findings highlight how disruptions to health care services following a natural disaster can have negative consequences for women's reproductive health. PMID:27027990

  10. Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M

    2006-05-01

    Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886

  11. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  12. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  13. Inflammatory bowel diseases and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Kokoszko-Bilska, Agnieszka; Sobkiewicz, Slawomir; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) constitute a group of chronic intestinal diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which typically involve patients of reproductive age and may influence several features of human reproduction. There are many concerns regarding the interactions between the course of IBD, applied treatment (pharmacological or surgical), and fertility, reproductive outcomes, and also neonatal outcomes. To review the literature describing fertility in IBD patients (separately for female and male), and possible infertility treatment in this group of patients, a PubMed search for English only publications (articles and/or abstracts) was conducted. Initially, the titles of publications and their abstracts were screened, and the most appropriate articles were selected and reviewed. Overall, in patients with quiescent IBD, fertility is almost identical to the general population, but particular subgroups of patients (with active disease, on pharmacological treatment, and after pelvic or abdominal surgery) may be affected by reduced fertility. Additionally, patients with IBD have fewer children than the general population, mainly as a result of voluntary childlessness. The main objectives for successful reproductive outcomes in IBD patients are proper guidance and also optimal treatment for achieving and maintaining disease remission. Recently, the European Evidence-Based Consensus on Reproduction and Pregnancy in IBD (the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization Guidelines) has been established to optimize preconceptional counseling and to promote an appropriate clinical management for patients planning to conceive. However, further studies are needed regarding the preservation of fertility in IBD patients and introduction of optimal infertility treatment in this group of patients. PMID:27117378

  14. [Network of researchers on the health aspects of reproduction].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    A symposium held 3-5 May 1990 commemorated the anniversary of the "Network" by presentations on the health aspects of reproduction in Africa. Prof. Sambra Diarra of the Ivory Coast presented a paper on "Health of Reproduction in Africa, Bi-Dimensional Problems: Biomedical and Social." He stressed the need to emphasize both maternal (MM) and infant mortality (IM) in Africa, where MM rates are 640/100,000 and IMR are 130/1000, because they remain so high. Prof. Fadel Diadhiou of Senegal followed with a paper on "Operations Research on Women's Reproductive Health in Africa." The major themes were that problems in reproductive health have resulted because of the fragmentation between the ecosystem and development and the lack of research is due to the isolation of institutions that lack human and material resources. The 3rd presentation by Prof. Mouhamadou Fall of Senegal on "The Health of Children and the Perspectives for Senegal," focused on the increasing infant and child mortality rates in Senegal (238/1000 in 1981) due to the combination of factors caused by the mother-child syndrome. These are: 1) congenital malformations caused by incest, young or advanced age of mothers; 2) diseases of the mother that cause fetal mortality: diabetes, arterial hypertension, eclampsia; 3) lack of breastfeeding and illiteracy of mothers; 4) public health diseases such as measles, malaria, diarrhea; 5) streptococcic infections and their complications such as anemia and tuberculosis. The last presentation made by Prof. Eusebe Alihonou from Benin on the "Perspectives and Priorities of Reproductive Health in Africa," concluded that the research priorities in Africa should be on health systems that lower utilization rates of services and resources and on epidemiological studies that identify health problems and analyze the risk factors. The Symposium concluded that the research priorities should be: maternal morbidity and mortality; adolescents and reproduction and the morbidity and

  15. Gonadal function and reproductive health in women with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Dobs, Adrian; Greenblatt, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Most HIV infections among women occur early in reproductive life, which highlights the importance of understanding the impact of HIV on reproductive functions, and also the potential implications of reproductive function and aging on the course of HIV disease. HIV infection may influence reproductive biology via multiple mechanisms including: potential directs effects on HIV on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, implications of HIV-related immune dysfunction on reproductive biology, effects of antiretroviral treatments on reproductive functions and the impact of treatment related immune reconstitution on reproductive health. Ovarian function is a crucial component of reproductive biology in women, but standard assessment methods are of limited applicability to women with some chronic diseases, such as HIV. New antiretroviral treatments have the potential to increase the ease of conception planning, and to improve fertility. Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral medications and hormonal contraceptives are potentially significant and merit careful provider attention. While HIV infection is not a major cause of infertility, high level viremia and low CD4 lymphocyte counts are associated with reduced fertility rates. Conception and pregnancy can now be achieved without transmission of HIV to sexual partner or new born, but complications of pregnancy may be more common in HIV infected women than uninfected women. PMID:25169564

  16. Exploring Somali women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences: results from focus group discussions in Mogadishu.

    PubMed

    Gure, Faduma; Yusuf, Marian; Foster, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    With a total fertility ratio of 6.7 children per woman, a maternal mortality ratio over 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births, high rates of sexual and gender-based violence, and the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate in the world, women's reproductive health indices in Somalia prove alarming. The voices of women living in Somalia have long been neglected and we undertook this qualitative study to explore women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences. In 2014, we conducted four focus group discussions with 21 married and unmarried women of reproductive age living in Mogadishu, Somalia. Discussions took place in Somali and we used a constant comparative approach to analyse the discussions for content and themes. Our findings reveal that misinformation, restrictive policies, mistrust of clinicians, and prohibitively expensive services shape women's experiences and health-seeking behaviours. Women identified the need for culturally resonant reproductive health information and services as a significant priority. As Somalia begins to emerge from over two decades of civil war, it is imperative that comprehensive reproductive health issues are included on the national agenda and that women's perspectives are incorporated into future policies and interventions. PMID:26719005

  17. An emerging field in religion and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Laura M; Smith, Alexandria; Hogue, Carol J R; Blevins, John

    2010-12-01

    Separate from scholarship in religion and medicine, a burgeoning field in religion and population health, includes religion and reproductive health. In a survey of existing literature, we analyzed data by religious affiliation, discipline, geography and date. We found 377 peer-reviewed articles; most were categorized as family planning (129), sexual behavior (81), domestic violence (39), pregnancy (46), HIV/AIDS (71), and STDs (61). Most research occurred in North America (188 articles), Africa (52), and Europe (47). Article frequency increased over time, from 3 articles in 1980 to 38 articles in 2008. While field growth is evident, there is still no cohesive "scholarship" in religion and reproductive health. PMID:20094795

  18. Knowledge of adolescent girls regarding reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Dash, Bijayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    The period of adolescence (usually 15-19 years) is marked by physiological changes in the body, more so with females. Unfortunately sex and sex education continue to be taboo. A study was therefore conducted among adolescent girls of urban slum area of Niladribihar, Khurda district of Odisha. The sample consisted of 84 adolescent girls. The analysis showed that adolescent girls had average reproductive health care that can lead to numerous health problems and there is dire need of evolving measures to improve their knowledge on reproductive health care. Nursing professionals in hospital setting can significantly contribute in this area. PMID:23534171

  19. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  20. Knowledge and Perceptions of Reproductive Health among Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Price, Kimberly L. J.; Young, Kathleen; King, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess potential relationships among reproductive health knowledge, preventive health behaviors, perceived severity and risk of breast cancer, cervical cancer, and sexually transmitted infections and selected demographical variables and characteristics related to acculturation among Latina immigrants.…

  1. Women and Reproductive Health: A Challenge for the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassoff, Betty Z.; Ortiz, Elizabeth T.

    Although the military health care system is the second largest in the nation serving approximately 6,000,000 people, little research has examined military reproductive health care services or their quality. Medical services can be provided by regional military medical centers and by base infirmaries and dispensaries. Often base infirmaries and…

  2. Improving maternal, newborn and women's reproductive health in crisis settings

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Primus Che; Urdal, Henrik; Umeora, Odidika Uj; Sundby, Johanne; Spiegel, Paul; Devane, Declan

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To identify, synthesise and evaluate the effects of health system and other interventions aimed at improving maternal, newborn and women's reproductive health in crisis settings.

  3. Health Issues and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, N.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility that solar activity and variations in the Earth's magnetic field may affect human health has been debated for many decades but is still a "scientific topic" in its infancy. By learning whether and, if so, how much the Earth's space weather can influence the daily health of people will be of practical importance. Knowing whether human genetics, include regulating factors that take into account fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field and solar disturbances, indeed exist will also benefit future interplanetary space travelers. Because the atmospheres on other planets are different from ours, as well as their interaction with the space environment, one may ask whether we are equipped with the genetics necessary to take this variability into account. The goal of this presentation is to define what is meant by space weather as a health risk and identify the long-term socio-economic effects on society that such health risks would have. Identifying the physical links between space weather sources and different effects on human health, as well as the parameters (direct and indirect) to be monitored, the potential for such a cross-disciplinary study will be invaluable, for scientists and medical doctors, as well as for engineers.

  4. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  5. [Gender inequality and reproductive health: a perspective for the program].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1993-01-01

    Research on the influence of the social, economic, and cultural context on reproductive health is just beginning in Mexico. Because health risks and damage appear to be associated with living conditions of the population, the mechanisms through which social inequality affects reproductive health should be analyzed. Gender inequality is of particular importance to the study of reproductive health. The construction of feminine identity, centered on motherhood and the ability to relate to others, has decisive consequences for self-esteem, social valuation, and the capacity of women to make decisions and act in their own self interest. The obstacles that women face in making decisions about sexuality and reproduction have psychological, affective, and health costs. Women living in contexts of limited female autonomy are often pressured into early pregnancy and union and to having large families. The need to satisfy expectations for their gender and social position, fear of being devalued or abandoned, and the desire to cement affective relationships may restrict their capacity to exercise their sexuality with autonomy and to separate it from procreation. The low rates of use of contraceptives by men and the almost exclusive focus on women of contraceptive technologies and programs also reflect the inequality of the sexes. The lesser access to resources and exercise of power by women in the household may lead to nutritional disadvantages, and societal standards that tolerate extramarital sexual activity for men but not for women leave women vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases. The health effects of gender inequalities are magnified by poverty and other forms of social disadvantage. The Program of Reproductive Health and Society aims to contribute to improved reproductive health in the Mexican population through study of the consequences of social and gender inequality. PMID:12289046

  6. Sex uncovered special issue: The ecology of sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    LIVELY, C. M.; MORRAN, L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is widely regarded as one of the major unexplained phenomena in biology. Nonetheless, while a general answer may remain elusive, considerable progress has been made in the last few decades. Here we fist review the genesis of, and support for, the major ecological hypotheses for biparental sexual reproduction. We then focus on the idea that host-parasite coevolution can favor cross fertilization over uniparental forms of reproduction, as this hypothesis currently has the most support from natural populations. We also review the results from experimental evolution studies, which tend to show that exposure to novel environments can select for higher levels of sexual reproduction, but that sex decreases in frequency after populations become adapted to the previously novel conditions. In contrast, experimental coevolution studies suggest that host-parasite interactions can lead to the long-term persistence of sex. Taken together, the evidence from natural populations and from laboratory experiments point to antagonistic coevolution as a potent and possibly ubiquitous force of selection favoring cross-fertilization and recombination. PMID:24617324

  7. Reproductive Rights: A Political, Professional, and Personal Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Reproductive rights are essential to a woman's full participation in the workplace. Procreative decisions are private ones, and once the door is open to government restrictions it will be hard to close. Prior to 1850, abortion was legal in most states. Not until the professionalization of the medical field did physicians and others seek to…

  8. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  9. Sexual and reproductive health needs of vulnerable youth in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Hla-Soe-Tint; Phyo-Maung-Thaw; Yin-Thet-Nu-Oo; Ko-Ko-Zaw; Than-Tun-Sein; Thein-Tun

    2008-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 56 youth, using participatory research methods, was conducted with the objective to identify the sexual and reproductive health needs among vulnerable youth in Pyin Oo Lwin town in terms of their livelihoods, perceptions about health and health risks, sex practices, perceived health information needs and preferred channels for health information, and visions for their future generation. The results indicated that a majority of young people of both sexes were deficient in knowledge of the locations and functions of reproductive organs. The majority of respondents of both sexes said that their main health concern was AIDS. Pre-marital sex among youth, 16-20 years of age, was identified in our study. Malaria and AIDS were mentioned as information needed by young people. TV and magazines/journals were prioritized as preferred channels of disseminating health messages. Almost all reported that education was the one thing that they wanted for their own children. PMID:19062705

  10. Marijuana. Health and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T

    1984-12-01

    Intermittent use of low-potency cannabis is not generally associated with obvious toxicity. In recent years, some cannabis users have been using high doses more frequently and seeking treatment. A large but incomplete literature indicates that cannabis can be harmful to health, and that virtually every system in the body is affected by cannabis. Cannabis pharmacology is complex; all recent scientific groups reviewing cannabis conclude it is clearly capable of causing adverse effects to health. Specific treatment procedures have not been developed for managing cannabis related problems. Strategies useful in treating other drug dependence problems are useful in treating dependence. PMID:6097886

  11. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  12. Reproductive Health Management for the Care of Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Zephyrin, Laurie C

    2016-02-01

    There are more than 2 million women veterans living in the United States. Many women do not identify themselves as veterans. As women's health care providers, it is important to understand and recognize the potentially complex health and social needs of women veterans and the role of military service on their lives. The reproductive health needs of women veterans may be shaped by their military experiences and coexisting medical or mental health conditions. Military sexual trauma and combat exposure are common causes of posttraumatic stress disorder and can affect overall health and well-being. Screening for military service is important in all women, and inclusion of this as a key demographic variable in research and clinical encounters can further inform health care considerations. The following key topics are addressed: who are women veterans, health and social risk factors associated with a history of military service, reproductive health across the life course, military sexual trauma and reproductive health of women veterans, how to take a military history, and the essential role of women's health providers, including obstetrician-gynecologists, in enhancing health systems and providing high-quality care to veterans. PMID:26942369

  13. Improving musculoskeletal health: global issues.

    PubMed

    Mody, Girish M; Brooks, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders are among the leading reasons why patients consult a family or primary health practitioner, take time off work and become disabled. Many of the MSK disorders are more common in the elderly. Thus, as the proportion of the elderly increases all over the world, MSK disorders will make a greater contribution to the global burden of disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that the spectrum of MSK disorders in developing countries is similar to that seen in industrialised countries, but the burden of disease tends to be higher due to a delay in diagnosis or lack of access to adequate health-care facilities for effective treatment. Musculoskeletal pain is very common in the community while fibromyalgia is being recognised as part of a continuum of chronic widespread pain rather than a narrowly defined entity. This will allow research to improve our understanding of pain in a variety of diffuse pain syndromes. The availability of newer more effective therapies has resulted in efforts to initiate therapy at an earlier stage of diseases. The new criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and the diagnosis of axial and peripheral involvement in spondyloarthritis, permit an earlier diagnosis without having to wait for radiological changes. One of the major health challenges is the global shortage of health workers, and based on current training of health workers and traditional models of care for service delivery, the global situation is unlikely to change in the near future. Thus, new models of care and strategies to train community health-care workers and primary health-care practitioners to detect and initiate the management of patients with MSK disorders at an earlier stage are required. There is also a need for prevention strategies with campaigns to educate and raise awareness among the entire population. Lifestyle interventions such as maintaining an ideal body weight to prevent obesity, regular exercises, avoidance of smoking and alcohol

  14. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness. PMID:22323237

  15. Chhaupadi Culture and Reproductive Health of Women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Choi, Eun Hee; Aryal, Anu; Park, Myung Bae; Doh, Young Ah

    2015-10-01

    Different sociocultural barriers concerning women's health are still prevalent. Chhaupadi culture in Nepal is that threat wherein menstruating women have to live outside of the home in a shed-like dwelling. Our study aims to determine the factors of reproductive health problems related to Chhaupadi. A cross-sectional study was performed with women of menstrual age (N = 672) in Kailali and Bardiya districts of Nepal. Data were collected with stratified sampling and analyzed using SPSS. Reproductive health problems were observed according to the World Health Organization reproductive health protocol. Regression analysis was performed to show the association between relevant variables. Results reveal that one fifth (21%) of households used Chhaupadi. Condition of livelihood, water facility, and access during menstruation and precisely the Chhaupadi stay was associated (P < .001) with the reproductive health problems of women. The study concludes that Chhaupadi is a major threat for women's health. Further research on appropriate strategies against Chhaupadi and menstrual hygiene should be undertaken. PMID:26316503

  16. Issues in national health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Donabedian, A

    1976-01-01

    Health insurance, by reducing net price to the consumer and increasing the opportunities for revenue to the provider, has profound effects, among other things, on the volume, content and distribution of services, their prices, and the capacity of providers to produce them. The magnitude and nature of these effects depend, partly, on the design of insurance benefits and, partly, on the nature of the health care system, particularly its current and potential capacity and the methods it uses to pay providers. Those who believe that the unique aim of insurance is to protect against unpredictable expenses attempt to suppress these effects, mainly by imposing financial disincentives to utilization which, in turn, reduce protection for those who need it most. Those who wish to reform the system have a broader range of objectives which include protective efficacy, cost control, quantitative adequacy, qualitative adequacy, efficiency of production, efficiency of allocation, equity, and redistribution of capacity. An analysis of the effects of insurance in the light of these objectives reveals favorable as well as unfavorable consequences. The provision of comprehensive benefits generates the necessity for a fundamental change in the organization of health services, if the advantages are to be fully realized and the disadvantages minimized. PMID:817614

  17. Reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices of Iranian college students.

    PubMed

    Simbar, M; Tehrani, F R; Hashemi, Z

    2005-01-01

    To study reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices of youth in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1111 university students completed a questionnaire with 43 closed questions. The overall mean knowledge score was 54%. Knowledge of males and females, and of married and single students, was similar. Of 664 students answering questions about reproductive health behaviour, 54 (8%) reported having sexual intercourse before marriage; 16% of males and 0.6% of females; 48% of them had used condoms. The majority of students believed that the risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections was moderate but that youth had a low ability to practise healthy behaviour. The majority believed in the benefits of reproductive health knowledge for youth but felt that services were inadequate. PMID:16761658

  18. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  19. 'Halfway people': refugee views of reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Whelan, A; Blogg, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder access to, use of, and satisfaction with reproductive health services in refugee settings, from the perspective of beneficiaries. Rapid appraisal methods included 46 focus group discussions and interviews with over 800 refugees, audits of 14 health facilities, referral hospital reviews, exit interviews with clients, and interviews with health workers. The study was conducted between February and April 2004 in 11 sites in Uganda, Republic of Congo, and Yemen. Reproductive health was clearly on the policy agenda in all countries with stable refugee sites, but problems with implementation and resources were identified. The quality of services was variable, with high staff turnover in some areas affecting relationships with refugee clients. Referral hospitals in host countries were not all equipped to deal with obstetric and other emergencies of either local or refugee populations, including deficiencies in safe blood supplies and antibiotics. Diagnosis and treatment of STIs and HIV/AIDS was frequently inadequate. Gender based violence was the least well addressed aspect of reproductive health. Interest and knowledge about family planning was high, but acceptance was low. It was concluded that progress has been made in reproductive health services for refugees since 1994, however, urgent advocacy and action is required to sustain and improve the situation. Local implementing partners need more support and supervision to develop appropriate service models and to maintain an acceptable standard of care. PMID:19283634

  20. Conflict and development: challenges in responding to sexual and reproductive health needs in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Wayte, Kayli; Zwi, Anthony B; Belton, Suzanne; Martins, Joao; Martins, Nelson; Whelan, Anna; Kelly, Paul M

    2008-05-01

    In April and May 2006, internal conflict in Timor-Leste led to the displacement of approximately 150,000 people, around 15% of the population. The violence was most intense in Dili, the capital, where many residents were displaced into camps in the city or to the districts. Research utilising in-depth qualitative interviews, service statistics and document review was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 to assess the health sector's response to reproductive health needs during the crisis. The study revealed an emphasis on antenatal care and a maternity waiting camp for pregnant women, but the relative neglect of other areas of reproductive health. There remains a need for improved coordination, increased dialogue and advocacy around sensitive reproductive health issues as well as greater participation of the health sector in response to gender-based violence. Strengthening neglected areas and including all components of sexual and reproductive health in coordination structures will provide a stronger foundation through which to respond to any future crises in Timor-Leste. PMID:18513610

  1. Ethical Issues Currently Being Discussed in Relation to Reproductive Medicine and the Laws Governing Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schleissing, S.; Kersten, J.; Thaler, C. J.; von Schönfeldt, V.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive medicine laws in Germany currently mean that the relationship status of prospective parents is taken into consideration in decisions on whether their application for assisted reproduction is approved or rejected. In the light of new forms of shared parenthood, we should ask ourselves whether the current regulations are still an appropriate way of guaranteeing the best for the child. Current medical practices and their legal basis will be illustrated using the examples of sperm, egg and embryo donation. From an ethical perspective, the question at stake is to what extent an “Ethics of Parenthood” can make it possible to act responsibly with regard to the changes occurring in forms of shared parenthood. Such an ethics is aimed at supporting parents in realising the reproductive autonomy guaranteed in the German Constitution through social and ethical aspects of the child–parent relationship. PMID:25089055

  2. STATISTICAL ISSUES IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE OUTCOMES WITH CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time ...

  3. Adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia: contested values and policy inaction.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; McDonald, Peter

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the changing social and political context of adolescent sexual and reproductive health policy in Indonesia. We describe how, in 2001, Indonesia was on the brink of implementing an adolescent reproductive health policy that was consistent with international agreements to which the Indonesian government was a party. Although the health of young Indonesians was known to be at risk, the opportunity for reform passed quickly with the emergence of a new competing force, Middle Eastern fundamentalist Islam. Faced with the risk of regional separatism and competing politico-religious influences, the Indonesian government retreated to the safety of inaction in this area of policy. In the absence of a supportive and committed political environment that reinforces policy specifically targeted to young people's reproductive health, extremist approaches that involve considerable health risk prevailed. The sexual and reproductive values and behaviors that are emerging among single young people in contemporary Indonesia are conditioned by a political context that allows the conflicting forces of traditional Indonesian values, Westernization, and the strong emerging force of fundamentalist Islam to compete for the allegiance of young people. PMID:19662805

  4. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  5. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  6. Health Issues for Adults with Developmental Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Georgina; Couch, Murray A.; Iacono, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on health issues for adults with developmental disabilities, reflecting on how it informs service provision, future research, and social and health policy. Results suggest future research should focus on interactions among biology, pathology, and behavioral and environmental determinants. More use of…

  7. Four perspectives of women's health. Workshop participants talk about women's health issues in four countries. [Malaysia].

    PubMed

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    The program officer of the SIEC Project of the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPA,M) granted an interview to JOICFP News during JOICFP's IEC Workshop for the Production of Video Script for Women's Health in Tokyo, Japan. FFPA,M provides comprehensive reproductive health services, including family planning services, pap smear screenings, breast examination, annual medical checkups, and premarital and marital counseling for women. Around 50% of married women use family planning. More than 90% of contraceptive users are familiar with at least one family planning method. FFPA,M is focusing on marginalized women. As Malaysia industrializes, rural-urban migration occurs. Young women comprise many of the new factory workers. FFPA,M provides family life education for these women and strives to help them achieve reproductive health and rights. The enthusiasm for women's issues exhibited at the workshop by both male and female participants pleased FFPA,M's program officer. PMID:12318571

  8. Reproductive health and health sector reform in developing countries: establishing a framework for dialogue.

    PubMed Central

    Lubben, Marianne; Mayhew, Susannah H.; Collins, Charles; Green, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    It is not clear how policy-making in the field of reproductive health relates to changes associated with programmes for the reform of the health sector in developing countries. There has been little communication between these two areas, yet policy on reproductive health has to be implemented in the context of structural change. This paper examines factors that limit dialogue between the two areas and proposes the following framework for encouraging it: the identification of policy groups and the development of bases for collaborative links between them; the introduction of a common understanding around relevant policy contexts; reaching agreement on compatible aims relating to reproductive health and health sector change; developing causal links between policy content in reproductive health and health sector change as a basis for evidence-based policy-making; and strengthening policy-making structures, systems, skills, and values. PMID:12219159

  9. How Obamacare will impact reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Brezina, Paul R; Shah, Anish A; Myers, Evan R; Huang, Andy; DeCherney, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    For many years, health care delivery in the United States was accomplished through a complicated and evolving series of publicly and privately available insurance programs. In recent years, the increasing cost of health care as well as the relatively large number of individuals without any health care insurance coverage has prompted repeated attempts to modify or overhaul the current health care delivery paradigm. The largest legislative change to this system occurred on March 23, 2010, when President Barack Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).The PPACA is a multifaceted and sweeping piece of legislation. The law introduces a myriad number of changes into both public and private health insurance. Understanding the law, its implications, and how to navigate through these changes is essential to provide high-quality health care to patients. Although the law or parts of it are still at risk of being modified either through judicial or political action, it is important to recognize the current aspects of the law to understand any future modifications. Providing health care coverage in the United States is sure to be as it has always been: a constantly changing and evolving set of private and public policies that carry with them significant complexities and challenges. Health care providers must constantly strive to maximize access to and quality of medical care in whatever paradigm evolves in the future. PMID:23609149

  10. Community reactions to reproductive health care at three school-based clinics in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, P D; Morse, E V; Simon, P M; Stock, M; Pratt, J L; Sterne, S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the growing success of school-based health care during the past two decades, the issue of providing reproductive health care at school-based health centers remains controversial. In this article, focus group data from three school-based centers in Louisiana, each in different stages of development, demonstrates how the controversies about reproductive health may frame more general concerns about school-based care. In addition, community readiness to address directly problematic sexual behavior relates not only to the specific needs and priorities of the community but to recognition of the negative effect of the consequences of sexual behavior such as pregnancy, high drop out, and absenteeism rates on a community's educational, rather than social, goals and values. PMID:8884662

  11. Ethical Issues in Pediatric Global Health.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lisa; Suresh, Gautham K; Lahey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to the priorities and decision-making of adults. Usually, parents/caregivers make the difficult healthcare decisions for their children based on the recommendations from the child's healthcare providers. In global health work, healthcare team members from different countries and cultures may guide healthcare decisions by parents and children, and as a result ethical assumptions may not be shared. As a result, ethical issues in pediatric global health are numerous and complex. Here we discuss critical ethical issues in global health at an individual and organizational level in hopes this supports optimized decision-making on behalf of children worldwide. PMID:26613697

  12. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

  13. Predictors of Caregiver Supportive Behaviors towards Reproductive Health Care for Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Although many previous studies have begun to address the reproductive health needs of women with intellectual disabilities; however, the supportive behaviors of caregivers to assist their reproductive health is not well understood. Data from a cross-sectional survey of ""2009 National Survey on Reproductive Health Care Needs and Health Education…

  14. Reproductive health: a right for refugees and internally displaced persons.

    PubMed

    Austin, Judy; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; McGinn, Therese; Schlecht, Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Continued political and civil unrest in low-resource countries underscores the ongoing need for specialised reproductive health services for displaced people. Displaced women particularly face high maternal mortality, unmet need for family planning, complications following unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence, as well as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Relief and development agencies and UN bodies have developed technical materials, made positive policy changes specific to crisis settings and are working to provide better reproductive health care. Substantial gaps remain, however. The collaboration within the field of reproductive health in crises is notable, with many agencies working in one or more networks. The five-year RAISE Initiative brings together major UN and NGO agencies from the fields of relief and development, and builds on their experience to support reproductive health service delivery, advocacy, clinical training and research. The readiness to use common guidance documents, develop priorities jointly and share resources has led to smoother operations and less overlap than if each agency worked independently. Trends in the field, including greater focus on internally displaced persons and those living in non-camp settings, as well as refugees in camps, the protracted nature of emergencies, and an increasing need for empirical evidence, will influence future progress. PMID:18513603

  15. Promotion of adolescent reproductive health and healthy living. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    This article discusses a 3-year project, "Promotion of Adolescent Reproductive Health and Healthy Living," which was implemented by the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia. The project seeks to achieve the following: 1) development of a reproductive health of adolescent module (RHAM) for trainers and educators; 2) training of trainers; 3) sharing of adolescent reproductive health experiences in Asian countries; and 4) setting up three service models in Sabah, Selangor, and Terengganu to provide reproductive health (RH) care to adolescents and youth. The first part of the RHAM with the trainer's manual has been finalized and will be tested in a workshop. The second part, a teacher's guide, is under preparation. A series of training on the use of the RHAM will be conducted including a 5-day national workshop, which will be followed by several state level workshops. The three service models being set up have specific orientations. The Sabah model is putting up a youth clinic for adolescents within its clinic network. The Selangor model is developing a Youth Resource Center for training and youth involvement in RH activities. Lastly, the Terengganu family planning association (FPA) has developed a Youth Center web site, which features the history, mission, and activities of the Terengganu FPA. PMID:12158246

  16. Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

  17. Cultural Clashes in Reproductive Health Information in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbananga, Nolwazi

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study that investigated the content of and perceptions about reproductive health information among school teachers and learners in a rural area of South Africa. Qualitative methods were used to assess the dissemination and acceptability of and perceptions about information related to HIV/AIDS, sexuality, family…

  18. A resolution supporting women's reproductive health.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2013-02-27

    02/27/2013 Referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S947) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Psychological Outcomes and Reproductive Issues Among Gender Dysphoric Individuals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lauren; Levine, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Gender dysphoria is a condition in which a person experiences discrepancy between the natal anatomic sex and the gender he or she identifies with, resulting in internal distress and a desire to live as the preferred gender. There is increasing demand for treatment, which includes suppression of puberty, cross-sex hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. This article reviews longitudinal outcome data evaluating psychological well-being and quality of life among transgender individuals who have undergone cross-sex hormone treatment or sex reassignment surgery. Proposed methodologies for diagnosis and initiation of treatment are discussed, and the effects of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on future reproductive potential. PMID:26568492

  20. Ethical issues and the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Layman, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues related to electronic health records (EHRs) confront health personnel. Electronic health records create conflict among several ethical principals. Electronic health records may represent beneficence because they are alleged to increase access to health care, improve the quality of care and health, and decrease costs. Research, however, has not consistently demonstrated access for disadvantaged persons, the accuracy of EHRs, their positive effects on productivity, nor decreased costs. Should beneficence be universally acknowledged, conflicts exist with other ethical principles. Autonomy is jeopardized when patients' health data are shared or linked without the patients' knowledge. Fidelity is breached by the exposure of thousands of patients' health data through mistakes or theft. Lack of confidence in the security of health data may induce patients to conceal sensitive information. As a consequence, their treatment may be compromised. Justice is breached when persons, because of their socioeconomic class or age, do not have equal access to health information resources and public health services. Health personnel, leaders, and policy makers should discuss the ethical implications of EHRs before the occurrence of conflicts among the ethical principles. Recommendations to guide health personnel, leaders, and policy makers are provided. PMID:18475119

  1. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings. PMID:24099822

  2. Sexual and Reproductive Health Problems of Female University Students in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Fatemeh; Moghadam, Zahra B.; Parvizi, Soror; Nayeri, Nahid D.; Rezaei, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Youth is defined as the time of transition into adulthood and an important period in a person’s life. During this period new behavior is learned easier than adulthood. Therefore, special attention has to be necessarily paid to this period in order to promote the health. Addressing adolescent reproductive health issues is also a critical factor Methods: This research was a qualitative study conducted from January 2014 to July 2014. Data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with 25 female students and 10 key members of the university (including university authorities, consultants, reproductive health professionals and university officials) was collected and all interviews were recorded, formulated and classified. Results: The mean age of participants was 22.43 years. A total of 8 students majored in geology, 5 majored in chemistry, 3 in statistics, 3 in mathematics, and 6 in biology. 17 had a bachelor’s degree, 3 master’s degree and 5 doctorate degree. Majority of students (82.4%) were never married and 23 of them lived in dormitories. The following three main themes were extracted from the interviews: Reproduction thought as pregnancy; the taboo of sex; and inappropriate relation between parents and children. Conclusion: Most participants stressed the need to provide reproductive health services for young girls. PMID:25946946

  3. Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are

  4. Disparities in access to reproductive health options for female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ely, Gretchen E; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2010-05-01

    Fifty percent of female adolescents in the United States have intercourse by age 17, yet they do not have the autonomy under the law to access reproductive healthcare services that can address and prevent the negative consequences often associated with adolescent involvement in sexual activity. This article discusses disparities in access to reproductive health services for adolescents in three areas: abortion, over-the-counter emergency contraception, and the provision of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Suggestions for advocacy efforts necessary to eliminate such health disparities are also presented in an effort to elevate female adolescents to a status where they have the same access to health services that are available to adult women. PMID:20446180

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies: medical safety issues in the older woman.

    PubMed

    Segev, Yakir; Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit; Lavie, Ofer; Auslender, Ron

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Previous study has shown that in the United States, most maternal deaths and severe obstetric complications due to chronic disease are potentially preventable through improved medical care before conception. Many women who need assisted reproductive technology (ART) because of infertility are older than the average pregnant woman. Risks for such chronic diseases as obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and malignancy greatly increase with maternal age. Chronic illness increases the risk of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure and is also associated with increased obstetric risk and even death. The objective of this review is to outline the potential risks for older women who undergo ART procedures and pregnancy and to characterize guidelines for evaluation before enrollment in ART programs. A PubMed search revealed that very few studies have related to pre-ART medical evaluation. Therefore, we suggest a pre-ART medical assessment, comparable to the recommendations of the American Heart Association before noncompetitive physical activity and the American Society of Anesthesiologists before elective surgery. This assessment should include a thorough medical questionnaire and medical examination. Further evaluation and treatment should follow to ensure the safety of ART procedures and of ensuing pregnancies. PMID:21510806

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  7. Sexual and reproductive health for all: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Fathalla, Mahmoud F; Sinding, Steven W; Rosenfield, Allan; Fathalla, Mohammed M F

    2006-12-01

    At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, the international community agreed to make reproductive health care universally available no later than 2015. After a 5-year review of progress towards implementation of the Cairo programme of action, that commitment was extended to include sexual, as well as reproductive, health and rights. Although progress has been made towards this commitment, it has fallen a long way short of the original goal. We argue that sexual and reproductive health for all is an achievable goal--if cost-effective interventions are properly scaled up; political commitment is revitalised; and financial resources are mobilised, rationally allocated, and more effectively used. National action will need to be backed up by international action. Sustained effort is needed by governments in developing countries and in the donor community, by inter-governmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, civil society groups, the women's health movement, philanthropic foundations, the private for-profit sector, the health profession, and the research community. PMID:17161731

  8. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620

  9. Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

  10. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care. PMID:26054052

  11. Equity of access to and utilization of reproductive health services in Thailand: national Reproductive Health Survey data, 2006 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Kongsri, Suratchada; Limwattananon, Supon; Sirilak, Supakit; Prakongsai, Phusit; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed trends in equity of access to reproductive health services and service utilization in terms of coverage of family planning, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in Thailand. Two health indicators were measured: the prevalence of low birthweight and exclusive breastfeeding. Equity was measured against the combined urban-rural areas and geographic regions, women's education level and quintiles of household assets index. The study used data from two nationally representative household surveys, the 2006 and 2009 Reproductive Health Surveys. Very high coverage of family planning (79.6%), universal antenatal care (98.9%) and skilled birth attendance (99.7%), with very small socioeconomic and geographic disparities, were observed. The public sector played a dominant role in maternity care (90.9% of all deliveries in 2009). The private sector also had a role among the higher educated, wealthier women living in urban areas. Public sector facilities, followed by drug stores, were a major supplier of contraception, which had a high use rate. High coverage and low inequity were the result of extensive investment in the health system by successive governments, in particular primary health care at district and sub-district levels, reaching universality by 2002. While maintaining these achievements, methodological improvements in measuring low birthweight and exclusive breastfeeding for future reproductive health surveys are recommended. PMID:21555089

  12. Sexual and reproductive health and rights of older men and women: addressing a policy blind spot.

    PubMed

    Aboderin, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Global debate on required policy responses to issues of older persons has intensified over the past 15 years, fuelled by a growing awareness of the rapid ageing of populations. Health has been a central focus, but scrutiny of global policies, human rights instruments and reports reveals that just as older people are excluded from sexual and reproductive health and rights agendas, so are issues of sexual and reproductive health and rights wholly marginal to current agendas focused on older people. A critical question is whether the policy lacuna reflects a dearth of research evidence or a faulty translation of existing knowledge. A reading of the current research landscape and literature, summarised in this paper, strongly suggests it is the former. To be sure, sexuality in old age is a burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. What the existing knowledge and discourse fail to provide is an engagement with, and elucidation of, the broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda as it relates to older persons. A concerted research effort is needed to provide a basis for developing policy guidance and for pinpointing essential indicators and establishing necessary data systems to enable a routine tracking of progress. PMID:25555775

  13. Ethical issues and controversies in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J C

    1992-10-01

    The current ethical issues and controversies concerning in vitro fertilization revolve around micromanipulation of the gametes, cryopreservation of the fertilized ova, selective termination in multiple pregnancies, surrogacy, and gamete donation. At the basis of these ethical issues is the philosophic question of personhood, or the term "human person," and the consideration given to the normal weight that is ascribed to the various forms of living matter that are found in the process of development after human spermatozoa have been placed together with harvested oocytes in the petri dish. The papers of very special importance and special importance written during the past year on these ethical problems are listed and classified. The summaries of their arguments and positions on these problems are enumerated. PMID:1391649

  14. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  15. Rights of HIV positive people to sexual and reproductive health: parenthood.

    PubMed

    Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim; Paiva, Vera

    2007-05-01

    In many areas of the globe most HIV infection is transmitted sexually or in association with pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, raising the need for sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS initiatives to be mutually reinforcing. Many people with HIV, who are in good health, will want to have children, and highly active antiretroviral therapy provides women and men living with AIDS the possibility of envisaging new life projects such as parenthood, because of a return to health. However, there are still difficult choices to face concerning sexuality, parenthood desires and family life. Structural, social and cultural issues, as well as the lack of programmatic support, hinder the fulfilment of the right to quality sexual and reproductive health care and support for having a family. This paper addresses the continuum of care involved in parenthood for people living with HIV, from pregnancy to infant and child care, and provides evidence-based examples of policies and programmes that integrate sexual and reproductive health interventions with HIV/AIDS care in order to support parenthood. Focusing on parenthood for people living with and affected by HIV, that is, focusing on the couple rather than the woman as the unit of care, the individual or the set of adults who are responsible for raising children, would be an innovative programmatic advance. Going beyond maternal and child health care to providing care and support for parents and others who are responsible for raising children is especially relevant for those living with HIV infection. PMID:17531747

  16. Biological control of vaginosis to improve reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Mastromarino, P.; Hemalatha, R.; Barbonetti, A.; Cinque, B.; Cifone, M.G.; Tammaro, F.; Francavilla, F.

    2014-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of a woman's health, as well as of her partner's and newborns’. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with ascending infections and obstetrical complications, such as chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery, as well as with urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. In BV the overgrowth of anaerobes produces noxious substances like polyamines and other compounds that trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-8. BV can profoundly affect, with different mechanisms, all the phases of a woman's life in relation to reproduction, before pregnancy, during fertilization, through and at the end of pregnancy. BV can directly affect fertility, since an ascending dissemination of the involved species may lead to tubal factor infertility. Moreover, the increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases contributes to damage to reproductive health. Exogenous strains of lactobacilli have been suggested as a means of re-establishing a normal healthy vaginal flora. Carefully selected probiotic strains can eliminate BV and also exert an antiviral effect, thus reducing viral load and preventing foetal and neonatal infection. The administration of beneficial microorganisms (probiotics) can aid recovery from infection and restore and maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem, thus improving female health also in relation to reproductive health. PMID:25673551

  17. Mental Health Issues and Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, David B

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness is a major health issue in the world today, yet often remains misunderstood, unrecognized, and undertreated. Patients suffering from severe psychiatric disorders generally display poor oral health, often as a consequence of both lifestyle and avoidant-type behaviors that become exacerbated by their illness. Individuals with severe mental illness display a greater incidence of oral disease compared with a similar demographic not dealing with these particular disorders. Efforts to enhance the oral health of these vulnerable patients will play a significant role in the overall rebuilding of their self-esteem and contribute positively to their journey toward stability and recovery. PMID:27264850

  18. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  19. Tough New Issues Refocus Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    From dating violence to sexting and social networking, districts are struggling to address a number of sensitive and relatively new health education issues that are aggravated by students' increasing access to computers, cell phones and other digital devices. Through new or revised curricula, administrators are attempting to deal with these and…

  20. The global reproductive health market: U.S. media framings and public discourses about transnational surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Markens, Susan

    2012-06-01

    During the first decade of the 21st century a new "dramatic story" about the growing global surrogacy industry brought renewed attention to surrogacy as a social problem and a health policy issue. This paper asks: What cultural assumptions about gender, family and the global reproductive health market are revealed in current U.S. media coverage of and public discourses about surrogacy? From a qualitative analysis of prominent news accounts of surrogacy that were published in 2008, New York Times articles and blogs published on the topic between 2006 and 2010, and over 1000 online reader comments to these articles, I identify key frames used to discursively construct and debate the international surrogacy market. This study reveals the distinct contrast between the occasions when reproductive labor is rhetorically distanced from commodification processes and when it is linked to those processes. The findings contribute to intersectional analyses of assisted reproductive practices and women's health/bodies/gametes. In particular, this study's analysis of recent media framings of and public discourses about surrogacy across the globe serves as another illustration that national/classed/racialized bodies continue to be reproductively stratified via differently gendered discourses about women, motherhood and family. PMID:22014871

  1. The Holy See on sexual and reproductive health rights: conservative in position, dynamic in response.

    PubMed

    Coates, Amy L; Hill, Peter S; Rushton, Simon; Balen, Julie

    2014-11-01

    The Holy See has engaged extensively in United Nations negotiations on issues concerning sexual and reproductive health rights as they have emerged and evolved in a dynamic global agenda over the past two decades. A meta-narrative review of the mission's official statements was conducted to examine the positions, discourses and tensions across the broad range of agendas. The Holy See represents a fundamentally conservative and stable position on a range of sexual and reproductive health rights concerns. However, the mission has been dynamic in the ways in which it has forwarded its arguments, increasingly relying upon secularised technical claims and empirical evidence; strategically interpreting human rights norms in ways consistent with its own position; and framing sexuality and reproduction in the context of "the family". Seen in the broader context of a "religious resurgence" in international relations, and in light of the fact that the Holy See has frequently sought to form alliances with conservative State and non-State actors, these findings make an important contribution to understanding the slow progress as well as the potential obstacles that lie ahead in the battle to realise sexual and reproductive health rights in a changing global political environment. PMID:25555769

  2. Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

    2000-01-01

    Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

  3. Five major NASA health and safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2000-01-01

    The goal has been set to establish NASA as number one in safety in the nation. This includes Systems and Mission Safety as well as Occupational Safety for all NASA employees and contractors on and off the job. There are five major health and safety issues important in the pursuit of being number one and they are: (1) Radiation (2) Hearing (3) Habitability/Toxicology (4) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (5) Stress. The issues have features of accumulated injury since NASA's future missions involve long time human presence in space i.e., International Space Station operations and Mars missions. The objective of this paper is to discuss these five issues in terms of controlling risks and enhancing health and safety. Safety metrics are discussed in terms of the overall goal of NASA to be number one in safety. .

  4. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  5. Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women--history, current issues and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko

    2002-04-01

    According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion. PMID:12064551

  6. Reproductive health care situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Dizdarevic-Stojkanovic, J

    1999-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion and implementing family planning, passed in former Yugoslavia in 1952, is still in effect in the newly created state of Bosnia-Herzegovina. This law has helped eliminate illegal, i.e. criminal, abortions, but existing arrangements providing family planning and promoting reproductive and sexual health are not effective enough, because too few people know enough about the rights to individual choice in family planning. The primary objective for the next twenty years is to educate the people--women, men and the young--about their rights to reproductive choice and sexual health, and about how to exercise those rights as fully and effectively as possible. Legal and financial assistance from WHO will be welcome, because the post-war Bosnian society and state lack funds for such initiatives. PMID:10536386

  7. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  8. Reproductive health in Iran: pragmatic achievements, unmet needs, and ethical challenges in a theocratic system.

    PubMed

    Mehryar, Amir H; Ahmad-Nia, Shirin; Kazemipour, Shahla

    2007-12-01

    Since its revival in 1989, the reproductive health and family planning program of Iran has made great strides in raising the contraceptive prevalence rate and reducing fertility. The majority of couples are using modern methods promoted and provided by the national program, although a sizable proportion of couples continue to depend on the traditional method of withdrawal. The longstanding urban-rural gap in contraceptive prevalence rates has been reduced to about 10 percent, which is mainly the result of better-educated urban couples' continued practice of withdrawal. Despite its enormous success in meeting the needs of married couples, in narrowing the urban-rural gap in access to and use of modern contraceptives, and in reducing fertility, the Iranian family planning program is open to criticism for confining its target audience to married couples and failing to address the issue of abortion. The restrictive aspects of the program are often justified on the grounds of religious values and fear of encouraging sexual promiscuity. Because of the theocratic nature of the political system and the immense power enjoyed by Shiite ulama (religious leaders), no step can be taken to address these restrictions without their implicit support and approval. This study describes some of the ethical issues facing the reproductive health program of Iran and indicates how pragmatic approaches adopted by the ruling Shiite ulama to solve some of the social and medical challenges of a rapidly modernizing society may be extended to overcome ethical hurdles faced by the reproductive health program. PMID:18284048

  9. Emerging issues in public health genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) are described, with a focus on practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics are detailed, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information; the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public; and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) from genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. Needs for future genomics research that integrates across basic and social sciences are also noted. PMID:25184533

  10. Women and migration: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Carballo, M; Grocutt, M; Hadzihasanovic, A

    1996-01-01

    The need to migrate is usually a function of the complex interaction of economic, social, familial and political factors. Among the most important, however, are the denial of access to education, employment, goods and services and the lack of respect for basic human rights. Because in many societies women are marginalized from these rights, migration to more economically and educationally open societies can often help improve their personal situation and their professional opportunities. On the other hand, because the status of women is usually linked to their role and status within the family and is defined in relationship to their male partners, migration can place women in situations where they experience stress and anxiety due to the loss of their traditional social entourage and environment. Their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and occupational experience. The higher vulnerability of women to sexual abuse and violence also places them at risk of STDs, including HIV, and a range of post-traumatic stress disorders associated with sexual violence. Their reproductive health needs often go unnoticed and unprotected even in well organized refugee and migrant situations, and the insensitivity of health staff to the needs of women is often more pronounced in refugee and migrant contexts than it is in general. Health monitoring of women in all migration-related situations has to be given greater priority. Similarly, much more attention at a health policy level is called for if the rights of women refugees and migrants are to be protected, and their contribution to health and social development is to be acknowledged and promoted. PMID:9050196

  11. Reflections on Future Research in Adolescent Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Catherine M.; Loriaux, D. Lynn; Grumbach, Melvin M.; Rogol, Alan D.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    A group of basic scientists, clinicians, clinical investigators, psychologists, patient advocacy groups, and representatives from professional societies and governmental agencies met at the National Institutes of Health in October, 2007 with the long-term goal of having the menstrual cycle accepted and understood as a marker of general health in adolescent girls. An equally important goal was to develop a research agenda for this area of investigation. This chapter comprises the highlights of discussions throughout that meeting, with an emphasis on ideas generated during a final session led by an internationally renowned physician-scientist, in which reports from four breakout groups were presented. The specific goal assigned to each group was to develop an agenda that would set the stage for how research should be conducted over the next 100 years, and to identify the pressing research questions that should be addressed related to the menstrual cycle and adolescent health. The four areas represented in discussion groups included: genetic research; metabolic and reproductive research; emotional health; and the promotion of conduct of clinical research. Insights are also provided by five clinical investigators, including two outside experts, on both topics of priority for a research agenda in the area of adolescent reproductive health, as well as how the research itself should be conducted. PMID:18574236

  12. Knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health in adults in Shiraz: a need for further education.

    PubMed

    Khajehei, M; Ziyadlou, S; Ghanizadeh, A

    2013-12-01

    Sexual health influences general well-being and the overall quality of life of all men and women. This study in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran, aimed to assess the level of knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health among adults. In a cross-sectional study in 2010, 276 men and 281 women were recruited at pre-marital counselling courses and completed a 33-item anonymous questionnaire in private. The overall level of knowledge of men and women was low. Both men and women had low scores on knowledge of genital anatomy, sexually transmitted infections and contraceptive use. The majority of participants had positive attitudes towards implementing educational programmes on sexual and reproductive health issues for young adults and prior to marriage. Efficient educational programmes providing up-to-date information about sexual and reproductive health are needed in the Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:24684095

  13. Migrant Beer Promoters’ Experiences Accessing Reproductive Health Care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: Lessons for Planners and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Gail C.; Spitzer, Denise L.; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2014-01-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  14. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  15. Outage management and health physics issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful refurbishment outage, by Sudesh K. Gambhir, Omaha Public Power District. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Containment radiation monitoring spiking, by Michael W. Lantz and Robert Routolo, Arizona Public Service Company; Improved outage performance, by Michael Powell and Troy Wilfong, Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Stop repacking valves and achieve leak-free performance, by Kenneth Hart, PPL Susquehanna LLC; and Head assembly upgrade package, by Timothy Petit, Dominion Nuclear.

  16. Conservative litigation against sexual and reproductive health policies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peñas Defago, María Angélica; Morán Faúndes, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    In Argentina, campaigns for the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights have sparked opposition through litigation in which the dynamics of legal action have come from self-proclaimed "pro-life" NGOs, particularly since 1998, when the conservative NGO Portal de Belén successfully achieved the banning of emergency contraception through the courts. The activities of these groups, acting as a "civil arm" of religion, are focused primarily on obstructing access to legally permissible abortions and bringing about the withdrawal of a number of recognized public policies on sexual and reproductive health, particularly the 2002 National Programme for Sexual Health and Responsible Procreation. This paper analyzes the litigation strategies of these conservative NGOs and how their use of the courts in Argentina has changed over the years. It gives examples of efforts in local courts to block individual young women from accessing legal abortion following rape, despite a ruling by the National Supreme Court of Justice in 2012 that no judicial permission is required. In spite of major advances, the renewed influence of the Catholic hierarchy in the Argentine political scene with the accession of the new Pope poses challenges to the work by feminists and women's movements to extend and consolidate sexual and reproductive rights. PMID:25555765

  17. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  18. Reproductive health care for asylum-seeking women - a challenge for health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and the care of newborn babies is a challenge for female asylum seekers and their health care providers. The aim of our study was to identify reproductive health issues in a population of women seeking asylum in Switzerland, and to examine the care they received. The women were insured through a special Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO) and were attending the Women's Clinic of the University Hospital in Basel. We also investigated how the health professionals involved perceived the experience of providing health care for these patients. Methods A mixed methods approach combined the analysis of quantitative descriptive data and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with health care providers and from patients' files. We analysed the records of 80 asylum-seeking patients attending the Women's Clinic insured through an HMO. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 care providers from different professional groups. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Results The principal health problems among the asylum seekers were a high rate of induced abortions (2.5 times higher than in the local population), due to inadequate contraception, and psychosocial stress due to the experience of forced migration and their current difficult life situation. The language barriers were identified as a major difficulty for health professionals in providing care. Health care providers also faced major emotional challenges when taking care of asylum seekers. Additional problems for physicians were that they were often required to act in an official capacity on behalf of the authorities in charge of the asylum process, and they also had to make decisions about controlling expenditure to fulfil the requirements of the HMO. They felt that these decisions sometimes conflicted with their duty towards the patient. Conclusion Health policies for asylum

  19. Trends in reproductive health in Israel: implications for environmental health policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, researchers first reported that endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment were affecting reproductive health in the general population. The purpose of this article is to examine the evidence of adverse reproductive health trends in Israel and to explore implications for environmental health policy in Israel. We reviewed studies and data in Israel regarding trends in reproductive health indices, specifically: breast and testis cancer, hypospadias, sperm quality, male factor infertility, and age at menarche. The data provide some evidence of adverse reproductive trends in the Israeli population: an increase in testicular cancer from 1990 to 2007, a decrease in age at menarche from 1986 to 2000, an increase in the prevalence of male factor infertility, and some evidence of decreasing sperm counts. However, we note that much of the evidence is limited. The policy implications of reported adverse reproductive health trends possibly related to environmental exposure have been radically different in Europe and the United States. In Europe, such reports led the Parliament of the European Community to adopt a resolution on endocrine disruptors, which emphasizes the application of the Precautionary Principle. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy is focused on screening chemicals for endocrine disrupting properties and does not specifically refer to the Precautionary Principle. To date, there has been no formal governmental policy or strategy in Israel regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals. Environmental health policy on endocrine disruptors requires integrating evidence on human reproductive health trends, evidence on adverse reproductive outcomes in wildlife and experimental systems, and data from biomonitoring studies. Despite gaps in evidence and current data, we support a precautionary approach to regulating potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and reducing public exposures, especially in sensitive groups such as children and

  20. Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D

    2006-12-01

    The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the

  1. New Resources on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention, 2002-2004. YouthLens on Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS. Number 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, William, Comp.; Tipton, Margaret, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    As a sequel to YouthLens No. 1, New Resources Available on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention (July 2002), this YouthLens summarizes major reports and resources that have appeared since July 2002. The resources are organized by overview reports, reproductive health resources, and HIV/AIDS resources. [YouthLens is an activity of YouthNet,…

  2. Pacific issues of biodiversity, health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Englberger, Lois; Lorens, Adelino; Guarino, Luigi; Taylor, Mary; Snowdon, Wendy; Maddison, Marie; Mieger, Judy; Thomson, Lex; Lippwe, Kipier; Rimon, Betarim; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Tibon, Jorelik; Sohhrab, Sepehr; Ehmes, Okean; Rally, Jim; Shed, Patterson

    2007-09-01

    Neglect of traditional food systems has led to serious nutrition and health problems throughout the Pacific Islands. At the same time, there is concern about the loss of traditional knowledge, customs and culture related to local foods, and of biodiversity. However, there is still a great diversity of nutrient-rich local food crops in the Pacific, along with considerable knowledge about these foods, their methods of production, harvesting, storage, and preparation. An integrated approach is needed in order to make a meaningful impact on increased production, marketing/processing and use of local food crops and foods for better health and nutrition, requiring greater collaboration between the health sector and agencies in other sectors. Priorities for action include: documentation and assessment of traditional food systems, including analysis of local foods and crop varieties for their nutrient content; innovative means of increasing awareness of the values of local foods among the general public and policy makers; conservation of rare varieties of crops and food trees and protection of the environment; and an increased focus on small-scale processing and marketing of local foods. Overriding all of this is the urgent need to mainstream consideration of these important issues into relevant national and regional policies. The rubric "Biodiversity for Health and Nutrition" incorporates all of these issues and provides a framework within which all partner agencies can be involved. PMID:19588616

  3. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  4. Reproductive Health in the Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patient: An Innovative Training Program for Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Hutchins, Nicole M.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 AYAs were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare (ENRICH). The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  5. Women's health is a community issue.

    PubMed

    Irvin, A

    1997-01-01

    When a member of the Community Life Project in Nigeria led a group of women in a discussion about HIV/AIDS, the women reported that they understood that condom use is the best means of protection but that they were unable to negotiate condom use with their husbands. Even if the women were economically independent, they would rather face the risk of HIV/AIDS than divorce. Thus, efforts to improve women's health have not generated much change on the local level. This can also be seen by the facts that current programs have failed to reduce the numbers of women dying from pregnancy-related causes each year, nearly 3000 women die from tuberculosis each day, women suffer occupational health risks, and domestic violence is an important determinant of health problems for women. Because women lack power in many societies, efforts to effect individual change may be blocked by a woman's particular circumstances. Thus, the involvement of entire communities is necessary to improve the conditions affecting women's health. Community-level discussions may open the door for couples to discuss sexuality and gender-based issues as well as safer sex behavior. Despite the important role they can play, women's community health groups face stiff challenges because of a lack of knowledge or training and because of the difficulty in overcoming gender-based discrimination. The Hesperian Foundation's publication, "Where Women Have No Doctor," is an excellent resource for understanding how poverty and gender issues affect women's health. The book contains practical information, promotes a model of community-based responses to problems with social origins, and shares experiences of grassroots groups world-wide. PMID:12292725

  6. Latino community health workers and the promotion of sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Julia; Garcia, Dina; Owczarzak, Jill; Barker, Maria; Benson, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programs have existed for over 50 years across the world. However, only recently has research evidence documented their effectiveness. Research is still needed to identify issues related to implementation and sustainability of CHW programs. This article explores the role and challenges of U.S. Latino CHWs trained to deliver a comprehensive sexual and reproductive health educational intervention to Latino families. We conducted a semistructured interview with a purposive convenience sample of 19 CHWs. Findings suggest that CHWs occupy roles that go beyond those they were trained for. CHWs serve not only as educators but also as providers of social support, facilitators of access to resources, patient navigators, and civil rights advocates. Lack of clarity of the role of a CHW influenced perceptions of adequacy of compensation, training, and integration into the agency that trained them. Policy facilitating the standardization of the CHW occupational category and role expectations is imperative to ensure successful implementation and sustainability of U.S. CHW programs. PMID:25663055

  7. Cardiovascular Health Issues in Inner City Populations.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Dhruv; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Inner city populations in high-income countries carry a disproportionately high burden of cardiovascular disease. Although low individual socioeconomic status has long been associated with higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence that area-level socioeconomic status may also have a major effect on cardiovascular outcomes. A lack of supermarkets, limited green space, and high rates of violent crime in inner city neighbourhoods result in poor dietary intake and low rates of physical activity among residents. The physical and social environments of inner city neighbourhoods may also contribute to high rates of comorbid mental illness in disadvantaged urban populations. Mental illness may lead to the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors through its impact on health behaviours, effects of psychiatric medications, and sequelae of substance abuse. Individuals residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience reduced access to both primary preventive and acute in-hospital cardiovascular care. This may be driven by financial disincentives for caring for patients with low socioeconomic status, as well as system capacity issues in the inner city, and patient-level differences in health-seeking behaviours. Small-scale studies of interventions to improve individual-level health behaviours and access to care in the inner city have demonstrated some success in improving cardiovascular outcomes through the use of mobile clinics, health coaching, and case management approaches. There is a need for further research into community-wide interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of inner city populations. PMID:26321435

  8. Biomarkers for assessing reproductive development and health: Part 1--Pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, John C; Lynch, Courtney D; Buck, Germaine M

    2004-01-01

    The proposed National Children's Study has helped raise awareness of the issues related to children's health and the importance of monitoring the growth and development of children from preconception through adulthood. Many genetic predispositions can adversely impact the normal development process, and various environmental exposures have been linked to adverse reproductive health in rodent models and a small number of accidental human exposures. To monitor reproductive health and identify adverse effects at the earliest possible juncture, investigators must develop a network of biomarkers covering all stages and aspects of reproductive development and function. Biomarkers are biological indicators that can be measured repeatedly and are informative on one or more aspects of biological development or function. They can range from the anatomical level down to the molecular level and may provide information on the nature of an exposure, the effect of an exposure, or the susceptibility of individuals or populations to the toxic effects of an exposure. In theory, biomarkers can be used to monitor a wide variety of conditions and responses ranging from abnormal development to early indicators of late-onset disease. The main stumbling block with this theory has been finding appropriate biomarkers for particular conditions and exposures. Such biomarkers must be easily accessible, robust, and sensitive. Ideally, they will be expressed across a large section of the population, and can be monitored quickly, easily, conveniently, and with minimal cost. In this review, we discuss some of the current and emerging biomarkers of human pubertal development. PMID:14698938

  9. Breastfeeding and feminism: a focus on reproductive health, rights and justice.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H; Smith, Paige Hall; Taylor, Emily C

    2008-01-01

    The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (re)productive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007) sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern. PMID:18680575

  10. Attitudes of cystic fibrosis patients and parents toward carrier screening and related reproductive issues.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sandra; Chokoshvilli, Davit; Binst, Carmen; Mahieu, Inge; Henneman, Lidewij; De Paepe, Anne; Borry, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting autosomal recessive disorder affecting ~1 in 2500-4000 Caucasians. As most CF patients have no family history of the disorder, carrier screening for CF has the potential to prospectively identify couples at risk of conceiving an affected child. At-risk couples may consequently choose to act on the provided information and take steps to avoid the birth of a child with CF. Although carrier screening is widely believed to enhance reproductive autonomy of prospective parents, the practice also raises important ethical questions. A written questionnaire was administered to adult patients and parents of children with CF with the aim to explore participants' attitudes toward CF carrier screening and related reproductive issues. The study population was recruited from a CF patient registry in Belgium and comprised 111 participants (64 parents, 47 patients aged 16 or older). We found that more than 80% of all participants were in favor of preconception carrier screening for CF. However, some were concerned over potential negative consequences of population-wide CF carrier screening. Regarding future reproductive intentions, 43% of the participants indicated a desire to have children. Among these, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was found to be the most preferred reproductive option, closely followed by spontaneous pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis. Although the findings of our study suggest that patients and parents of children with CF support a population-based carrier screening program for CF, they also highlight some issues deserving particular attention when implementing such a program. PMID:26220700

  11. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  12. Issues of accountability in mental health administration.

    PubMed

    Sneed, R J; Lee, J R

    1984-01-01

    The issue of accountability in state hospitals and state schools-hospitals can be expected to remain paramount in the future. Almost all areas of mental health services are being scrutinized by consumers who are demanding more for their money. From the Perspective of the mental administrator consumers will have to become a more meaningful part of the decision making process to produce productive changes in these human service fields. Thus, to this end, human service institutions must have the ability to function as open systems and must develop a sense of responsiveness to their consumers' needs. PMID:10269100

  13. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  14. Loss in childbearing among Gambia's kanyalengs: using a stratified reproduction framework to expand the scope of sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Hough, Carolyn A

    2010-11-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork with Gambian women who have experienced infertility and/or child mortality and who have consequently become kanyalengs. Kanyaleng kafoos are groups of women united by their reproductive difficulties whose bold public performances are designed to "beg God" for fertility and for children who will survive. I situate 'kanyalengs' disrupted childbearing within a framework of stratified reproduction, which reveals the tensions between ongoing demands to meet norms of high fertility, women's heavy burden of reproductive disease and the limits of a reproductive public health agenda narrowly focused on family planning and HIV prevention. To ameliorate these tensions, I call for an expansion of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) agenda in Gambia to include RTI/STI prevention, diagnosis and management. This expansion reflects the goals set out by the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development for a broader approach to reproductive health, the productive potential of linkages between SRH and HIV prevention efforts, as well as the reproductive objectives of Gambian women and men. PMID:20965107

  15. Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-03-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability. PMID:16449594

  16. The potential of exposure biomarkers in epidemiologic studies of reproductive health.

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, C J; Brewster, M A

    1991-01-01

    To further the development and application of exposure markers in field investigations in reproductive epidemiology, we have synthesized recent examinations of the issues surrounding exposure measurements in reproductive epidemiology. The specific goals of this paper are to define exposure biomarkers and explore their potential uses, particularly as screening tools. The tests for glucaric acid, thioethers, mutagenicity, and porphyrin patterns meet the general criteria for useful exposure screens. For certain xenobiotic agents, these tests accurately differentiate exposure levels, as demonstrated in occupational and environmental epidemiologic studies. As urinary screens, they are noninvasive and applicable on a large scale with current laboratory techniques. For short-term exposure, glucaric acid, thioethers, and mutagenicity tests are useful. Porphyrin patterns may measure cumulative effects as well as current exposure levels. The usefulness of these tests in epidemiologic studies of environmental effects on reproductive health has yet to be studied. To do so, the battery must be standardized for pregnant women, and test results must be correlated with measured adverse reproductive outcomes, such as gestational length and birthweight. This correlation is particularly important because maternal exposure rather than fetal exposure is being measured. The extent to which xenobiotic chemicals cross the placental barrier may vary greatly depending on the type of exposures, timing in pregnancy, and maternal detoxification capability. Without better exposure measures, epidemiologic studies of reproductive health probably will not successfully identify xenobiotic fetotoxic agents in the environment. However, with an adequate battery of nonspecific exposure biomarkers, prospective studies of environmental effects on pregnancy outcomes might be possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050070

  17. Women still bearing the blows in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Only women can experience the health threats of pregnancy and childbirth. Responsibility for the survival, growth, and development of children falls mainly on their shoulders. Sexually transmitted diseases cause more severe effects in women than men. Women are 3 times more likely to use contraceptives than men Yet female contraceptive methods are more of a threat to health an are male methods. Even though infertility occurs in both men and women, in most countries, women face its negative social and psychological effects more often than do men. Besides, almost everywhere, social and economic indicators show women to be of lower status than men. For example, female literacy rates in developing countries are 33% lower than those of male, even though leaders have known for a long time that female education improves use of health care and family planning services. Furthermore, females are at a disadvantage from birth in terms of education, nutrition, and society which places them at high risk of adverse health. Some societies even endorse method to prevent women from enjoying sexual intercourse. Premarital sex and adolescent pregnancy are increasing worldwide, which adds to women's already high burden. In Argentina, women less than 18 years of age, especially those in rural areas and little education, have higher fertility rates than those older than 18 years. They tend to be ignorant of reproductive processes, but familiar with contraceptives; yet, only 40% of sexually active adolescents had ever used them. Besides, teenage males think that concern about becoming pregnant is the female's responsibility. Indeed, women's status and reproductive health are interrelated. Ability to regulate their own fertility strengthens women's status, but if they cannot do so, they cannot go to school, be employable, or make their own decisions. PMID:12344677

  18. Ethical Issues in Perinatal Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Anna R.; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J.; Sadler, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mental health research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Recent Findings Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Summary Psychiatric research in perinatal mental health is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mental health research in addition to providing evidence-based mental health care for this subpopulation. PMID:19734786

  19. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  20. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Sills, Eric Scott; Healy, Clifford M

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person/s (commissioning person/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced. PMID:18983640

  1. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Eric Scott; Healy, Clifford M

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person/s (commissioning person/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced. PMID:18983640

  2. An overview of multicentric training workshops for public health professionals on reproductive and child health programme in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, R; Ray, S K; Dobe, M; Dasgupta, S; Mandal, A

    2002-01-01

    The major emphasis of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) programme in India is delivery of client-oriented, demand driven and broader ranges of high quality, safe and effective services for children, adolescents, mothers and reproductive age group population at large. Increased client satisfaction is considered as main determinant for improved acceptance of the services. Thus, well trained and motivated health personnel are necessary to deal with highly sensitive, personal health issues of the clients, like contraception, abortion, infertility services etc. The Indian Public Health Association organized total 10 workshops in several places of India (A total 322 members, composed of Medical Administrators (54.7%), Faculty members of Medical Colleges (24.5%), Sociologist and Nutritionists (13.9%) and also public health personnel (6.9%) participated in the workshop). Learning objectives and lesson plans etc. were formulated. Accordingly the contents were incorporated in a module, validated and pretested. The training sessions were conducted by briefing, discussion, group exercise and VIPP method and were evaluated by semi structured. The pre/post assessment schedule and scored scale of feedback from participantsAE were used for evaluation. The pre-post assessment scores revealed wide variations of mean score among the participants of several places. Significant post workshop improvement of knowledge was quite evident, with few exceptions. The group variants of pre and post score of results was considered to be due to heterogeneous groups of participants. Review of objectivity and quality of the questionnaire were felt as necessary. PMID:12653007

  3. Adolescent girls' life aspirations and reproductive health in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Malhotra, A; Mehta, M

    2001-05-01

    The study described in this paper takes a participatory and positive approach to improving adolescent reproductive health in a rural and urban community in Nepal. It shows that adolescent girls in these communities have dreams and aspirations for a better future and that adults acknowledge and support these ideals. However, social norms and institutions are restrictive, especially for girls, who are often unable to realise their hopes for continuing education, finding better-paid work or delaying marriage and childbearing, and this directly impacts reproductive outcomes. Insight into the broader context of adolescent girls' lives provides a valuable framework for designing positive programmatic actions which take as their entry point the disjuncture between girls' aspirations and realities. Interventions begun in these communities include youth clubs for safe social interaction and literacy classes; training of peer educators to teach life-skills, including for married adolescents; forums for parents, teachers and health service providers to discuss their own concerns and those of adolescents; and work with the community to design programmes that will contribute to greater financial independence and employment opportunities for adolescents. PMID:11468851

  4. 75 FR 22146 - Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs. General...

  5. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  6. Provision of Reproductive Health Services for Adolescents--Report of a Study in Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olukoya, Adepeju A.

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent reproductive health services in two Nigerian states. Found that adolescents use health facilities mostly for general health problems. Only 6.1% (south) and 31.8% (north) of cases involved reproductive health, the gap attributable to maternity cases of northern married women. Reproductive health problems such as abortion and…

  7. Coerced first sexual intercourse and selected reproductive health outcomes among young women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Pranitha; Munthree, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Coercion may play an important role in compelling young women to engage in sexual intercourse at an early age. With a decline in age at first intercourse and increased reporting of coercive first sex, concerns of adverse reproductive health outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, have become important issues, particularly in the context of a high HIV prevalence. This paper uses data collected in 2001 from the second round of a longitudinal study of 1130 sexually experienced young women in KwaZulu-Natal to investigate the relationship between coerced first intercourse and selected reproductive health outcomes and behaviours. Nearly 46% of all sexually experienced young women had reported that their first sexual encounter had been coerced. Young women who reported being coerced at first sex were significantly more likely to be Black and living in an urban area. Those who had been coerced at first sex were also more likely to report having had an STI and having experienced unintended pregnancy, than those who had not been coerced at first sex. Coercion at first sex is an important social and public health problem that has a serious impact on the reproductive health and behaviours of young women. Interventions should directly address the issue of sexual coercion by ensuring young women are aware of their reproductive rights. PMID:16566848

  8. [Young people have the floor. Sexual and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Colombia's population 10-19 years old numbers 7,500,000 and faces numerous problems related to drug addiction, delinquency, violence, alcoholism, smoking, and sexual abuse, as well as ignorance about sexuality and health. The Profamilia center for youth in Bogota carried out a study of sexual and reproductive health with the participation of young people, 13-19 years old, from different social classes. With regard to sexual matters most turned to their mothers and friends, while a substantial proportion did not consult anybody. Only 8% of the young men and 3% of female adolescents who were sexually active used contraceptives, thus the majority risked an unwanted pregnancy. 13.4 years was the age for sexual debut for boys and 14.8 years for girls. It was estimated that each year 78/1000 adolescents had a child in the country. The opinions of young people in the 7th to 10th grade about the prevention of pregnancy were varied. Among 1317 boys 441 cited the condom first followed by oral contraceptives with the condom (322), and abstinence (243). Among 818 girls 252 cited abstinence followed by oral contraceptives (227), and the condom (153). The mentioning of the condom by boys in the first place was probably influenced by publicity, while abstinence considered by girls in the first place was attributable to traditional values. Only 5.1% of the respondents considered sex education as an important matter, indicating a need to promote sex education as fundamental. Profamilia services to young people include sex education, counseling, and advice about reproductive health. For adolescents injectables, the IUD, coitus interruptus, and the rhythm method are not recommended. PMID:12347407

  9. Sexual issues of the disabled: implications for public health education.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zubir, T N

    2000-01-01

    Sexuality of persons with spinal cord injury has received increased attention especially in the Western countries. However, in the local context, studies pertaining to the sexuality of the disabled are almost nil. This paper utilized a qualitative approach in assessing sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with spinal cord injury. Eight focus group discussions consisting of 28 adult spinal cord injured persons were carried out. The results showed that the frequency of sexual activity decreased following injury. The disabled themselves have a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem and this affects their attitudes towards sexuality and their sexual behaviour. Health care professionals tend to neglect this issue perhaps due to their insensitivity to the sexual needs for the disabled or a lack of understanding and expertise in this area. A need for sexual information related to their disability is warranted in the areas of reproduction, contraception and their ability/disability in achieving an erection or ejaculation. This study indicated a need for more comprehensive research in this neglected area of sexual issues of persons with disabilities. Public health education and counseling is deemed necessary for the disabled themselves so as to accommodate their sexual lives to their physical capabilities and desires. Attitudes and misconceptions of the public need to be corrected. Above all, there is a need for education and training for health care professionals in the area of sexual rehabilitation, which is currently non-existent in the country. Perhaps, it is timely to incorporate sexual rehabilitation as part of a holistic medical rehabilitation of the disabled. PMID:11338746

  10. Outage management and health physics issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include the following: Planning and scheduling to minimize refueling outage, by Pat McKenna, AmerenUE; Prioritizing safety, quality and schedule, by Tom Sharkey, Dominion; Benchmarking to high standards, by Margie Jepson, Energy Nuclear; Benchmarking against U.S. standards, by Magnox North, United Kingdom; Enabling suppliers for new build activity, by Marcus Harrington, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Identifying, cultivating and qualifying suppliers, by Thomas E. Silva, AREVA NP; Creating new U.S. jobs, by Francois Martineau, Areva NP. Industry innovation articles include: MSL Acoustic source load reduction, by Amir Shahkarami, Exelon Nuclear; Dual Methodology NDE of CRDM nozzles, by Michael Stark, Dominion Nuclear; and Electronic circuit board testing, by James Amundsen, FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. The plant profile article is titled The future is now, by Julia Milstead, Progress Energy Service Company, LLC.