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Sample records for reproductive life span

  1. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of resource acquisition and allocation. PMID:25859322

  2. Genetic correlation between resistance to oxidative stress and reproductive life span in a bird species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto; Sorci, Gabriele; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Evolutionary theories propose that aging is the result of a trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction, and oxidative stress may play a crucial role in such a trade-off. Phenotypic manipulations have revealed that a high investment in reproduction leads to a decline in the organism's resistance to oxidative stress, which could in turn accelerate aging. Here, by using quantitative genetic analyses as a tool to disentangle genetic effects from phenotypic variances, the relationship between resistance to oxidative stress at sexual maturity and two key reproductive life-history traits (i.e., number of breeding events during life and age at last reproduction) was analyzed in cross-fostered zebra finches. The age of last reproduction had high narrow-sense heritability, whereas the number of breeding events and oxidative stress resistance showed medium and low heritabilities, respectively. We detected positive genetic correlations between early resistance to oxidative stress and both life-history traits, suggesting that the efficiency of the antioxidant machinery at maturity may be related to individual reproductive investment throughout lifetime, possibly by influencing the pattern of cellular senescence. Genes encoding for resistance to oxidative stress would have pleiotropic effects on reproductive capacity and aging. Further work is required to confirm this assert. PMID:19817851

  3. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, V V; Ferreira, M P; Montagner, J M; Fernandez, C G; Moreira, J C; Oliveira, A K

    2002-11-01

    Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area), and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were analyzed at alternating (20 degrees/6 degrees C and 20 degrees/13 degrees C) and constant (6 degrees C; 25 degrees C) temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins. PMID:12659028

  4. Delusional Disorder over the Reproductive Life Span: The Potential Influence of Menopause on the Clinical Course

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Penadés, Rafael; Garriga, Marina; Pons, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa; Bernardo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Recent evidence supports an association between estrogen levels and severity of psychopathology in schizophrenia women. Our main goal was to investigate whether delusional disorder (DD) women with premenopausal onset and those with postmenopausal onset differ in demographic and clinical features. Methods. Psychopathological symptoms were assessed in 80 DD women (DSM-IV-TR), at baseline and after six and 24 months. Scores in the PANSS, PSP for functionality, HRSD 17 items, C-SSRS for suicide, and the SUMD were considered outcome variables. For comparison purposes, t- and ?2-tests were performed and nonparametric tests when necessary. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for multivariate comparisons. Results. 57 out of 80 DD women completed the study. When unadjusted, DD with premenopausal onset had a longer DUP, higher educational level, and a tendency toward higher rates of gynaecological disorders. Erotomanic type was most frequent in DD women premenopausal onset, and somatic and jealous types were most frequent in those with postmenopausal onset. After 24 months, DD women with premenopausal onset showed higher depressive symptoms and a tendency toward higher rates of psychotic relapses. Conclusions. Our results support that some aspects of psychopathology and insight may differ according to the onset of DD and the reproductive status. PMID:26600949

  5. Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive life span

    PubMed Central

    Morbey, Yolanda E; Jensen, Evelyn L; Russello, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal genetic structure in neutral and circadian-linked loci. We detected no genetic differences in presumably neutral loci among kokanee with different arrival and maturation dates within a spawning season. Similarly, we detected no temporal genetic structure in OtsClock1b, Omy1009uw, or OmyFbxw11, candidate loci associated with circadian function. The genetic evidence from this study and others indicates a lack of support for adaptation-by-time as an important evolutionary mechanism underlying seasonal declines in reproductive life span and a need for greater consideration of other mechanisms such as time-dependent, adaptive adjustment of reproductive effort. PMID:25478160

  6. My Reproductive Life Plan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... to achieve those goals is called a reproductive life plan . There are many kinds of reproductive life ...

  7. Life-Span Learning: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, James E.

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses learning as embedded processes of development and aging, and as social activity over the life course. The concept of life-span learning is proposed and outlined to discuss these processes as aspects of and propositions in life-span development and aging theory. Life-span learning processes arise and continuously develop in a…

  8. Conflict and Cooperation across the Life Span

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yan Bing

    2008-01-01

    Zhang, Y. B. (2008). Conflict and cooperation across the life span. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Communication (pp. 910-915). Blackwell Publishing. Publisher’s official version: http..., Y. B. (2008). Conflict and cooperation across the life span. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The Blackwell International Encyclopedia of Communication (pp. 910-915). Blackwell Publishing. Text of paper: Conflict and Cooperation across the Life Span...

  9. Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales.

    PubMed

    Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P

    2012-09-14

    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals. PMID:22984064

  10. Phycoerythrin extends life span and health span of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Awasthi, Anjali; Prasad, Birendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the antioxidant activity of phycoerythrin (PE, an oligomeric light harvesting protein isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM) to curtail aging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans. Purified PE (100 ?g/ml) dietary supplement was given to C. elegans and investigated for its anti-aging potential. PE treatment improved the mean life span of wild type (N2)-animals from 15?±?0.1 to 19.9?±?0.3 days. PE treatment also moderated the decline in aging-associated physiological functions like pharyngeal pumping and locomotion with increasing age of N2 worms. Moreover, PE treatment also enhanced the stress tolerance in 5-day-aged adults with increase in mean survival rate from 22.2?±?2.5 to 41.6?±?2.5% under thermo stress and from 30.1?±?3.2 to 63.1?±?6.4% under oxidative (hydrogen peroxide)-stress. PE treatment was also noted to moderate the heat-induced expression of human amyloid-beta(A?1-42) peptide and associated paralysis in the muscle tissues of transgenic C. elegans CL4176 (Alzheimer's disease model). Effectiveness of PE in expanding the life span of mutant C. elegans, knockout for some up (daf-2 and age-1)- and down (daf-16)-stream regulators of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), shows the independency of PE effect from DAF-2-AGE-1-DAF-16 signaling pathway. Moreover, the inability of PE in expanding the life span of hsf-1 knockout C. elegans(sy441) suggests the dependency of PE effect on heat shock transcription factor (HSF-1) controlling stress-induced gene expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a novel anti-aging activity of PE which conferred increased resistance to cellular stress resulting in improved life span and health span of C. elegans. PMID:25304463

  11. Families as Life Span Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals dealing with challenging behavior frequently operate detached from the other relationships in the child's life. This narrow approach has been called the unilateral strategy based on the belief that the child's outside world can be ignored and behavior can be changed by administering specific corrective interventions. In contrast,…

  12. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  13. Life history evolution Reproductive effort

    E-print Network

    Etges, William J.

    System. Acad. Press, Sydney. #12;Cost of reproduction · Tradeoffs between survivorshipLife history evolution · Reproductive effort · r- and K- selection and reproduction? · Reznick (1985)- the evidence · Phenotypic correlations · Experimental

  14. Extraordinary long life spans in fruit-feeding butterflies can provide window on evolution of life span and aging

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, F.; Zwaan, B. J.; Brakefield, P.M.; Carey, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Information on the life span of organisms in the field is essential for elucidating the evolution of life span and aging. We present mark-recapture data (>30 000 marked individuals, >4000 recaptured at least once) on forty-seven species of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. The data reveal adult life spans in the field for several species that are significantly longer than previously recorded in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Longevity records for species of which more than 100 individuals were recaptured ranged from 67 (Bicyclus auricruda) to 293 days (Euphaedra medon). In contrast to the majority of Lepidoptera which are short-lived, these all show exceptionally long life spans, and may thus help to better identify factors that affect aging, particularly when combined with information on temporal patterns in reproduction, strategies to avoid predation, and nutritional ecology. These key traits are readily measurable in butterflies and thus studies on fruit-feeding butterflies have much potential for gaining insight into the evolution of life span and aging, especially given the tradition of field-research on butterflies. PMID:17360139

  15. Infant temperament predicts life span in female rats that develop spontaneous tumors

    E-print Network

    Ruvinsky, Ilya

    Infant temperament predicts life span in female rats that develop spontaneous tumors Sonia A mechanisms linking infant temperament with onset of adult neoplastic disease. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Temperament; Personality; Mammary tumors; Pituitary tumors; Reproductive cycles

  16. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  17. What You Should Know about Your Reproductive Time Span

    MedlinePLUS

    WHATYOUSHOULDKNOWABOUT Your Reproductive Time Span S ocial norms have changed over the past few decades as women are delaying marriage, choosing not to marry, ... be able to conceive right up until the time of menopause. The time of menopause for individual ...

  18. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  19. How The Genome Got a Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Lappé, Martine; Landecker, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    In the space of little more than a decade, ideas of the human genome have shifted significantly, with the emergence of the notion that the genome an individual changes with development, age, disease, environmental inputs, and time. This paper examines the emergence of the genome with a life span, one that experiences drift, instability and mutability, and a host of other temporal changes. We argue that developments in chromatin biology have provided the basis for this genomic embodiment of experience and exposure. We analyze how time has come to matter for the genome through chromatin, providing analysis of examples in which the human life course is being explored as a set of material changes to chromatin. A genome with a lifespan aligns the molecular and the experiential in new ways, shifting ideas of life stages, their interrelation, and the temporality of health and disease. PMID:26213491

  20. Extending life span by increasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ristow, Michael; Schmeisser, Sebastian

    2011-07-15

    Various nutritional, behavioral, and pharmacological interventions have been previously shown to extend life span in diverse model organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mice, and rats, as well as possibly monkeys and humans. This review aims to summarize published evidence that several longevity-promoting interventions may converge by causing an activation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption to promote increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These serve as molecular signals to exert downstream effects to ultimately induce endogenous defense mechanisms culminating in increased stress resistance and longevity, an adaptive response more specifically named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis. Consistently, we here summarize findings that antioxidant supplements that prevent these ROS signals interfere with the health-promoting and life-span-extending capabilities of calorie restriction and physical exercise. Taken together and consistent with ample published evidence, the findings summarized here question Harman's Free Radical Theory of Aging and rather suggest that ROS act as essential signaling molecules to promote metabolic health and longevity. PMID:21619928

  1. 78. VIEW SHOWING PLACEMENT OF LIFE SPAN SHOE ON PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW SHOWING PLACEMENT OF LIFE SPAN SHOE ON PIER 6, LOOKING NORTH, March 5, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the “neutron discrepancy problem” – the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima – was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  3. Cell resilience in species life spans: a link to inflammation?

    E-print Network

    de Magalhães, João Pedro

    across all ages in historical European populations (Preston, 1976) and in hunter- gatherers with limitedCell resilience in species life spans: a link to inflammation? Caleb E. Finch,1 Todd E. Morgan,1 of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK Summary Species differences in life span have been attributed to cellular

  4. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  5. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  6. Prosper and Live Long: Productive Life Span Tracks Increasing Overall Life Span Over Historical Time among Privileged Worker Groups.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Tomas; Solari, Catherine; Bains, William

    2015-06-01

    Life expectancy has increased continuously for at least 150 years, due at least in part to improving life conditions for the majority of the population. A substantial part of this historical increase is due to decreases in early life mortality. In this article, we analyze the longevity of four privileged sets of adults who have avoided childhood mortality and lived a life more similar to the modern middle class. Our analysis is focused on writers and musicians from the 17th through the 21st centuries. We show that their average age at death increased only slightly between 1600 and 1900, but in the 20th century increased at around 2 years/decade. We suggest that this confirms that modern life span extension is driven by delay of death in older life rather than avoidance of premature death. We also show that productive life span, as measured by writing and composition outputs, has increased in parallel with overall life span in these groups. Increase in age of death is confirmed in a group of the minor British aristocracy and in members of the US Congress from 1800 to 2010. We conclude that both life span and productive life span are increasing in the 20th and early 21st century, and that the modern prolongation of life is the extension of productive life and is not the addition of years of disabling illness to the end of life. PMID:25625915

  7. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    PubMed Central

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development. Third, they reviewed the relevant empirical literature testing key propositions of the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Finally, because the conceptual reach of their theory goes far beyond the current empirical base, they pointed out areas that deserve further and more focused empirical inquiry. PMID:20063963

  8. How Genes Influence Life Span: The Biodemography of Human Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Deqing; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Stallard, Eric; Land, Kenneth C.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of human life span, none of the genetic variants has reached the level of genome-wide statistical significance. The roles of such variants in life span regulation remain unclear. Data and Method A biodemographic analyses was done of genetic regulation of life span using data on low-significance longevity alleles selected in the earlier GWAS of the original Framingham cohort. Results Age-specific survival curves considered as functions of the number of longevity alleles exhibit regularities known in demography as “rectangularization” of survival curves. The presence of such pattern confirms observations from experimental studies that regulation of life span involves genes responsible for stress resistance. Conclusion Biodemographic analyses could provide important information about the properties of genes affecting phenotypic traits. PMID:22607627

  9. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  10. Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in regulation of yeast aging, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis. PMID:20934449

  11. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span

    PubMed Central

    Strough, JoNell; Karns, Tara E.; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2013-01-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases—the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people’s everyday lives. PMID:22023568

  12. Adaptive Prolonged Postreproductive Life Span in Killer Whales

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Adaptive Prolonged Postreproductive Life Span in Killer Whales Emma A. Foster,1,2 Daniel W. Franks resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in coastal waters off Washington state, USA, and British identifiable animals, of which 297 died dur- ing the study period (6). Resident killer whales have the longest

  13. Families and Drugs: A Life-Span Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    The study of human development and behavior from a life-span perspective is an area of growing interest, and the family is a natural laboratory for this study. Research in the area of drug abuse demonstrates that drug use is not limited to any one population segment or age group, but is pervasive across population subgroups. More and more evidence…

  14. Women's Spirituality across the Life Span: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…

  15. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  16. Telomere length correlates with life span of dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Fick, Laura J; Fick, Gordon H; Li, Zichen; Cao, Eric; Bao, Bo; Heffelfinger, Doug; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Riabowol, Karl

    2012-12-27

    Telomeric DNA repeats are lost as normal somatic cells replicate. When telomeres reach a critically short length, a DNA damage signal is initiated, inducing cell senescence. Some studies have indicated that telomere length correlates with mortality, suggesting that telomere length contributes to human life span; however, other studies report no correlation, and thus the issue remains controversial. Domestic dogs show parallels in telomere biology to humans, with similar telomere length, telomere attrition, and absence of somatic cell telomerase activity. Using this model, we find that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) telomere length is a strong predictor of average life span among 15 different breeds (p < 0.0001), consistent with telomeres playing a role in life span determination. Dogs lose telomeric DNA ~10-fold faster than humans, which is similar to the ratio of average life spans between these species. Breeds with shorter mean telomere lengths show an increased probability of death from cardiovascular disease, which was previously correlated with short telomere length in humans. PMID:23260664

  17. NOTE / NOTE Prolonged life span among endemic Gasterosteus

    E-print Network

    Reimchen, Thomas E.

    (Gasterosteus aculeatus L., 1758) typically reproduce at 1 or 2 years of age (second or third summer) and die leur répartition côtière circumboréale, les épinoches à trois épines (Gasterosteus aculeatus L., 1758NOTE / NOTE Prolonged life span among endemic Gasterosteus populations S.J. Gambling and T

  18. Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that cognitive activity across the life span is related to late-life cognitive decline not linked to common neuropathologic disorders. Methods: On enrollment, older participants in a longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study rated late-life (i.e., current) and early-life participation in cognitively stimulating activities. After a mean of 5.8 years of annual cognitive function testing, 294 individuals had died and undergone neuropathologic examination. Chronic gross infarcts, chronic microscopic infarcts, and neocortical Lewy bodies were identified, and measures of ?-amyloid burden and tau-positive tangle density in multiple brain regions were derived. Results: In a mixed-effects model adjusted for age at death, sex, education, gross and microscopic infarction, neocortical Lewy bodies, amyloid burden, and tangle density, more frequent late-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.028, standard error [SE] = 0.008, p < 0.001) and early-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.034, SE = 0.013, p = 0.008) were each associated with slower cognitive decline. The 2 measures together accounted for 14% of the residual variability in cognitive decline not related to neuropathologic burden. The early-life–activity association was attributable to cognitive activity in childhood (estimate = 0.027, SE = 0.012, p = 0.026) and middle age (estimate = 0.029, SE = 0.013, p = 0.025) but not young adulthood (estimate = ?0.020, SE = 0.014, p = 0.163). Conclusions: More frequent cognitive activity across the life span has an association with slower late-life cognitive decline that is independent of common neuropathologic conditions, consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis. PMID:23825173

  19. Offspring Provisioning Explains Clone-Specific Maternal Age Effects on Life History and Life Span in the Water Flea, Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Plaistow, Stewart J; Shirley, Christopher; Collin, Helene; Cornell, Stephen J; Harney, Ewan D

    2015-09-01

    Genetic inheritance underpins evolutionary theories of aging, but the role that nongenetic inheritance plays is unclear. Parental age reduces the life span of offspring in a diverse array of taxa but has not been explained from an evolutionary perspective. We quantified the effect that maternal age had on the growth and maturation decisions, life history, rates of senescence, and life span of offspring from three Daphnia pulex clones collected from different populations. We then used those data to test general hypotheses proposed to explain maternal age effects on offspring life span. Three generations of breeding from young or old mothers produced dramatic differences in the life histories of fourth-generation offspring, including significant reductions in life span. The magnitude of the effect differed between clones, which suggests that genetic and nongenetic factors ultimately underpin trait inheritance and shape patterns of aging. Older parents did not transmit a senescent state to their offspring. Instead, offspring from older ancestors had increased early-life reproductive effort, which resulted in an earlier onset of reproductive senescence, and an increased rate of actuarial senescence, which shortened their life span. Our results provide a clear example of the need to consider multiple inheritance mechanisms when studying trait evolution. PMID:26655355

  20. Increased respiration in the sch9Delta mutant is required for increasing chronological life span but not replicative life span.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Hugo; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2008-07-01

    Loss of the protein kinase Sch9p increases both the chronological life span (CLS) and the replicative life span (RLS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mimicking calorie restriction, but the physiological consequences of SCH9 deletion are poorly understood. By transcriptional profiling of an sch9Delta mutant, we show that mitochondrial electron transport chain genes are upregulated. Accordingly, protein levels of electron transport chain subunits are increased and the oxygen consumption rate is enhanced in the sch9Delta mutant. Deletion of HAP4 and CYT1, both of which are essential for respiration, revert the sch9Delta mutant respiratory rate back to a lower-than-wild-type level. These alterations of the electron transport chain almost completely blocked CLS extension by the sch9Delta mutation but had a minor impact on the RLS. SCH9 thus negatively regulates the CLS and RLS through inhibition of respiratory genes, but a large part of its action on life span seems to be respiration independent and might involve increased resistance to stress. Considering that TOR1 deletion also increases respiration and that Sch9p is a direct target of TOR signaling, we propose that SCH9 is one of the major effectors of TOR repression of respiratory activity in glucose grown cells. PMID:18469137

  1. C. elegans VANG-1 Modulates Life Span via Insulin/IGF-1-Like Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Honnen, Sebastian J.; Büchter, Christian; Schröder, Verena; Hoffmann, Michael; Kohara, Yuji; Kampkötter, Andreas; Bossinger, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and a PCP-like pathway has recently been described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The developmental function of this pathway is to coordinate the orientation of cells or structures within the plane of an epithelium or to organize cell-cell intercalation required for correct morphogenesis. Here, we describe a novel role of VANG-1, the only C. elegans ortholog of the conserved PCP component Strabismus/Van Gogh. We show that two alleles of vang-1 and depletion of the protein by RNAi cause an increase of mean life span up to 40%. Consistent with the longevity phenotype vang-1 animals also show enhanced resistance to thermal- and oxidative stress and decreased lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, vang-1 mutants show defects like reduced brood size, decreased ovulation rate and prolonged reproductive span, which are also related to gerontogenes. The germline, but not the intestine or neurons, seems to be the primary site of vang-1 function. Life span extension in vang-1 mutants depends on the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor DAF-2 and DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor. RNAi against the phase II detoxification transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 also reduced vang-1 life span that might be explained by gradual inhibition of insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in vang-1. This is the first time that a key player of the PCP pathway is shown to be involved in the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling dependent modulation of life span in C. elegans. PMID:22359667

  2. The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2012-01-01

    In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

  3. Gametogenesis Eliminates Age-Induced Cellular Damage and Resets Life Span in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Kinde, B.

    Eukaryotic organisms age, yet detrimental age-associated traits are not passed on to progeny. How life span is reset from one generation to the next is not known. We show that in budding yeast resetting of life span occurs ...

  4. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes . E-mail: j.grillari@iam.boku.ac.at

    2006-04-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells.

  5. AMPK?1 Deletion Shortens Erythrocyte Life Span in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobin; Dale, George L.; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-hui

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPK?1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPK?1 (AMPK?1?/?), but not in those lacking AMPK?2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPK?1?/? mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPK?1?/? mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPK?1?/? erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPK?1?/? mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPK?1?/? mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPK?1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes. PMID:20392689

  6. Increased Life Span due to Calorie Restriction in Respiratory-Deficient Yeast

    E-print Network

    Fields, Stan

    Increased Life Span due to Calorie Restriction in Respiratory-Deficient Yeast Matt Kaeberlein1, Washington, United States of America A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR, et al. (2005) Increased life span due to calorie restriction in respiratory-deficient yeast. PLo

  7. Integrating the Life Course and Life-Span: Formulating Research Questions with Dual Points of Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Porfelli, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Life-span research typically begins with personal characteristics, life-course research with social context and roles. Using both points of entry will encourage interdisciplinary work as well as the study of person-context interactions. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  8. Explanations of a magic trick across the life span

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jay A.; Demacheva, Irina; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Studying how children and adults explain magic tricks can reveal developmental differences in cognition. We showed 167 children (aged 4–13 years) a video of a magician making a pen vanish and asked them to explain the trick. Although most tried to explain the secret, none of them correctly identified it. The younger children provided more supernatural interpretations and more often took the magician's actions at face value. Combined with a similar study of adults (N = 1008), we found that both young children and older adults were particularly overconfident in their explanations of the trick. Our methodology demonstrates the feasibility of using magic to study cognitive development across the life span. PMID:25798117

  9. Dendrin ablation prolongs life span by delaying kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Weins, Astrid; Wong, Jenny S; Basgen, John M; Gupta, Ritu; Daehn, Ilse; Casagrande, Lisette; Lessman, David; Schwartzman, Monica; Meliambro, Kristin; Patrakka, Jaakko; Shaw, Andrey; Tryggvason, Karl; He, John Cijiang; Nicholas, Susanne B; Mundel, Peter; Campbell, Kirk N

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte loss is central to the progression of proteinuric kidney diseases leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), requiring renal replacement therapy, such as dialysis. Despite modern tools and techniques, the 5-year mortality of some patients requiring dialysis remains at about 70% to 80%. Thus, there is a great unmet need for podocyte-specific treatments aimed at preventing podocyte loss and the ensuing development of ESKD. Here, we show that ablation of the podocyte death-promoting protein dendrin delays the onset of ESKD, thereby expanding the life span of mice lacking the adapter protein CD2AP. Ablation of dendrin delays onset and severity of proteinuria and podocyte loss. In addition, dendrin ablation ameliorates mesangial volume expansion and up-regulation of mesangial fibronectin expression, which is mediated by a podocyte-secreted factor. In conclusion, onset of ESKD and death can be markedly delayed by blocking the function of dendrin. PMID:26073036

  10. Variation of color discrimination across the life span.

    PubMed

    Paramei, Galina V; Oakley, Beata

    2014-04-01

    The present study, an extension of Paramei [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 29, A290, 2012], provides normative data on chromatic discrimination, using the Cambridge Colour Test, for normal trichromats aged 10-88 years. Findings are in accord with a two-phase variation across the life span: chromatic sensitivity improves in adolescence, reaches a maximum around 30 years, and then undergoes a gradual decrease. Indicative parameters are Protan (P), Deutan (D), and Tritan (T) vector lengths and major axes and axis ratios of Ellipses. Trivector data are modeled as non-monotonic combinations of power functions, with goodness-of-fits R(P)2=0.23, R(D)2=0.23, and R(T)2=0.45. For advancing age, sensitivity decline in all chromatic systems was confirmed, though with a marked acceleration after 60 years (reflected by the power function exponent >1) and more pronounced for the tritan system. PMID:24695196

  11. Impact of height and weight on life span.

    PubMed Central

    Samaras, T. T.; Storms, L. H.

    1992-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate one aspect of the entropy theory of aging, which hypothesizes that aging is the result of increasing disorder within the body, and which predicts that increasing mass lowers life span. The first evaluation of the impact of human size on longevity or life span in 1978, which was based on data for decreased groups of athletes and famous people in the USA, suggested that shorter, lighter men live longer than their taller, heavier counterparts. In 1990, a study of 1679 decreased men and women from the general American population supported these findings. In the present study data on the height, weight, and age at death of 373 men were obtained from records at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. Men of height 175.3 cm or less lived an average of 4.95 years longer than those of height over 175.3 cm, while men of height 170.2 cm or less lived 7.46 years longer than those of at least 182.9 cm. An analysis by weight difference revealed a 7.72-year greater longevity for men of weight 63.6 kg or less compared with those of 90.9 kg or more. This corroborates earlier evidence and contradicts the popular notion that taller people are healthier. While short stature due to malnutrition or illness is undesirable, our study suggests that feeding children for maximum growth and physical development may not add to and may indeed be harmful to their long-term health and longevity. PMID:1600586

  12. Mice generated by in vitro fertilization exhibit vascular dysfunction and shortened life span.

    PubMed

    Rexhaj, Emrush; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Rimoldi, Stefano F; Fuster, Daniel G; Anderegg, Manuel; Somm, Emmanuel; Bouillet, Elisa; Allemann, Yves; Sartori, Claudio; Scherrer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    Children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) display a level of vascular dysfunction similar to that seen in children of mothers with preeclamspia. The long-term consequences of ART-associated vascular disorders are unknown and difficult to investigate in healthy children. Here, we found that vasculature from mice generated by ART display endothelial dysfunction and increased stiffness, which translated into arterial hypertension in vivo. Progeny of male ART mice also exhibited vascular dysfunction, suggesting underlying epigenetic modifications. ART mice had altered methylation at the promoter of the gene encoding eNOS in the aorta, which correlated with decreased vascular eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Administration of a deacetylase inhibitor to ART mice normalized vascular gene methylation and function and resulted in progeny without vascular dysfunction. The induction of ART-associated vascular and epigenetic alterations appeared to be related to the embryo environment; these alterations were possibly facilitated by the hormonally stimulated ovulation accompanying ART. Finally, ART mice challenged with a high-fat diet had roughly a 25% shorter life span compared with control animals. This study highlights the potential of ART to induce vascular dysfunction and shorten life span and suggests that epigenetic alterations contribute to these problems. PMID:24270419

  13. Ovariectomy shortens the life span of female mice

    PubMed Central

    Benedusi, Valeria; Martini, Elisa; Kallikourdis, Marinos; Villa, Alessandro; Meda, Clara; Maggi, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that lack of ovarian activity has a negative impact on the life span of female mice. The extent to which this phenomenon could be associated with the anti-inflammatory effect of estrogens was analyzed in metabolic organs and aorta, by quantitative analysis of mRNAs encoding proteins in the inflammatory cascade. We demonstrate that the TNF?, IL-1?, MCP-1, MIP-2 and IL-6 mRNA contents are increased in the liver, adipose tissue and aorta 7 months after ovariectomy (ovx) and this increased basal inflammation is maintained as the mice aged. In contrast, the extent of inflammatory gene expression is directly proportional to age in sham-operated mice. As a consequence, at 22 months, most of the inflammatory parameters examined were higher in the sham-operated group compared with the ovx group. These observations led us to propose that the decreased longevity of ovx mice may be due to an acceleration of the basal state of inflammation in metabolic organs, which is likely driven by the combination of a lack of estrogen-mediated anti-inflammatory activity and the loss of gonadal control of energy metabolism. PMID:25719423

  14. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  15. The evolution of prolonged life after reproduction.

    PubMed

    Croft, Darren P; Brent, Lauren J N; Franks, Daniel W; Cant, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Why females of some species cease ovulation before the end of their natural lifespan is a longstanding evolutionary puzzle. For many species in captivity, post-reproductive life is simply an epiphenomenon of lengthened lifespan. Yet in natural populations of humans as well as some cetaceans and insects, reproductive senescence occurs much faster than somatic aging and females exhibit prolonged post-reproductive lifespans (PRLSs). Determining the mechanisms and functions that underpin PRLSs has proved a significant challenge. Here we bring together both classic and modern hypotheses proposed to explain PRLSs and discuss their application to both human and nonhuman animals. By taking an integrative and broad taxonomic approach we highlight the need to consider multiple interacting explanations for the evolution of PRLSs. PMID:25982154

  16. Qualitative Exploration of Acculturation and Life-Span Issues of Elderly Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jee Hyang; Heo, Nanseol; Lu, Junfei; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2013-01-01

    Awareness of aging issues across diverse populations begins the journey toward counselors becoming culturally competent across client life spans. Understanding the life-span experiences of cultural groups is important for helping professionals. The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the qualitative experiences of Asian American…

  17. BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION THROUGH MULTIPLE LIFE SPAN MODELING Junliang Xing, Liwei Liu, Haizhou Ai

    E-print Network

    Ai, Haizhou

    competing approaches. Index Terms-- Background subtraction, life span model- ing, visual surveillance 1BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION THROUGH MULTIPLE LIFE SPAN MODELING Junliang Xing, Liwei Liu, Haizhou Ai Computer Science and Technology Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China {xjl07,llw09}@mails

  18. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  19. Sir2-Independent Life Span Extension by Calorie Restriction in Yeast

    E-print Network

    Fields, Stan

    Sir2-Independent Life Span Extension by Calorie Restriction in Yeast Matt Kaeberlein1 , Kathryn T, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Calorie restriction slows aging and increases life span in many organisms. In yeast, a mechanistic explanation has been proposed whereby calorie

  20. Requirement of NAD and SIR2 for Life-Span Extension by

    E-print Network

    Guarente, Leonard P.

    Requirement of NAD and SIR2 for Life-Span Extension by Calorie Restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Su-Ju Lin,* Pierre-Antoine Defossez,* Leonard Guarente Calorie restriction extends life-span in a wide variety of organisms. Although it has been suggested that calorie restriction may work by reducing

  1. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    RESEARCH PAPER Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA ABSTRACT Aim Species with deciduous and evergreen leaf habits typically differ in leaf life span (LLS). Yet quantification

  2. Reproduction: life cycle, larvae and larviculture.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam; Eriksson, Susanne P

    2013-01-01

    Nephrops norvegicus represents a very valuable fishery across Europe, and the species possesses a relatively complex life cycle and reproductive biology across spatial and temporal scales. Insights into embryonic and larval biology, and associated abiotic and biotic factors that influence recruitment, are important since this will affect population and species success. Much of the fishery, and indeed scientific sampling, is reliant on trawling, which is likely to cause direct and indirect stresses on adults and developing embryos. We have collated evidence, including that garnered from laboratory studies, to assess the likely effects on reproduction and population. Using know-how from hatchery operations in similar species such as Homarus sp., we also seek to optimise larviculture that could be commercialised to create a hatchery and thus assist stock remediation. This review chapter is therefore divided into three sections: (1) general N. norvegicus reproductive biology, (2) life cycle and larval biology and (3) a comprehensive review of all rearing attempts for this species to date, including a likely way forward for pilot scale and hence commercial restocking operations. PMID:23668591

  3. Antiquity of postreproductive life: are there modern impacts on hunter-gatherer postreproductive life spans?

    PubMed

    Blurton Jones, Nicholas G; Hawkes, Kristen; O'Connell, James F

    2002-01-01

    Female postreproductive life is a striking feature of human life history and there have been several recent attempts to account for its evolution. But archaeologists estimate that in the past, few individuals lived many postreproductive years. Is postreproductive life a phenotypic outcome of modern conditions, needing no evolutionary account? This article assesses effects of the modern world on hunter-gatherer adult mortality, with special reference to the Hadza. Evidence suggests that such effects are not sufficient to deny the existence of substantial life expectancy at the end of the childbearing career. Data from contemporary hunter-gatherers (Ache, !Kung, Hadza) match longevity extrapolated from regressions of lifespan on body and brain weight. Twenty or so vigorous years between the end of reproduction and the onset of significant senescence does require an explanation. PMID:11891933

  4. [Life span and longevity in representatives of creative professions].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, V N; Zharinov, G M

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on mean age of death of 49 064 representatives of various creative professions: visual artists (painters, sculptors, architects, n = 8 458), musicians (composers, conductors, singers, pianists, violinists, etc. n = 7 883), writers and poets (n = 11 488), scientists (n = 21 235). The mean age of death among writers and poets was significantly (p < 0.001) less than that in visual artists, musicians and scientists whereas scientists lived longer than representatives of other categories (p < 0.001). Women lived longer than men of any studied categories (p < 0.02). It was shown that the mean age of death gradually but irregularly increased since the 1st century A. C. until the 20th century in any professional cohort. Visual artists-men in 20th century lived longer than in previous historical periods (p < 0.001). Scientists both females and males in 20th century lived longer then these in 19th century (p < 0.001). The first five places of long-livers among men belong to Nobel prize winners (78,8 yrs.), academicians (72,7 yrs.) and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences (71,7 yrs.), conductors (71,1 yrs.) and scientists (71,0 yrs.). Rock-musicians, author's song singer and poets lived less than other categories (43,6; 53,6 and 61,6 yrs. respectively). Among women leading long-livers were conductors (83,2 yrs.), harp-players (80,9 yrs.), academicians of the RAS (80,3 yrs.), clavesin-players (79,1 yrs.) and violinists (78,2 yrs.). Among women, less lived rock-musicians (37,6 yrs.), author's songs singers (51,4), horns and woodwinds instruments players (59,0 yrs.). Relative number of nonagenarians (90+) was much higher among women as compared to men. The values were as 43.75% of harp-players, 33.33% of conductors, 29.17% of architects, 20% of violinists and viola-players and 18.99% sculptors for women, and 16.67% of Nobel prize winners, 12.12% of conductors, 7.51% of academicians, 7.44% of violinists and 7.0% of scientists survived 90+ years among men. Centenarians were 8.33% of academicians and architects, 6.25% of harp-players and 4.22% of writers-poets among women, and only 0.76% of pianists, 0.45% of scientists and 0.42% of violinists were centenarians among men. Our data are in agreement with the opinion that high intellect and education directly correlate with longer life span and longevity. PMID:24640685

  5. A Life-Span Human Development Model of Learning for Early Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languis, Marlin; Wilcox, Jean

    1981-01-01

    A life-span human development model of learning in early childhood is presented. Learning is viewed as a human enterprise which spans the entire lifetime and involves interaction among people. The bounds of interaction are derived from philosophy and from the biological and social behavioral sciences. (JN)

  6. Gene activities that mediate increased life span of C. elegans insulin-like signaling mutants

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Andrew V.; Carr, Christopher E.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and RNA interference (RNAi) screens for life span regulatory genes have revealed that the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway plays a major role in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. This pathway converges on the DAF-16 transcription factor and may regulate life span by controlling the expression of a large number of genes, including free-radical detoxifying genes, stress resistance genes, and pathogen resistance genes. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes necessary for the extended life span of daf-2 mutants and identified ?200 gene inactivations that shorten daf-2 life span. Some of these gene inactivations dramatically shorten daf-2 mutant life span but less dramatically shorten daf-2; daf-16 mutant or wild-type life span. Molecular and behavioral markers for normal aging and for extended life span in low insulin/IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signaling were assayed to distinguish accelerated aging from general sickness and to examine age-related phenotypes. Detailed demographic analysis, molecular markers of aging, and insulin signaling mutant test strains were used to filter progeric gene inactivations for specific acceleration of aging. Highly represented in the genes that mediate life span extension in the daf-2 mutant are components of endocytotic trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes. These gene inactivations disrupt the increased expression of the DAF-16 downstream gene superoxide dismutase sod-3 in a daf-2 mutant, suggesting trafficking between the insulin-like receptor and DAF-16. The activities of these genes may normally decline during aging. PMID:18006689

  7. Effect of carnosine and its Trolox-modified derivatives on life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Stvolinsky, Sergey; Antipin, Maxim; Meguro, Kanji; Sato, Tatsunori; Abe, Hiroki; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants, i.e., carnosine and its Trolox- (water-soluble analog of alpha-tocopherol) acylated derivatives (S,S)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carbonyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine (S,S-Trolox-carnosine, STC) and (R,S)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carbonyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine (R,S-Trolox-carnosine, RTC) on the life span of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Adding carnosine to foodstuff was accompanied and followed by a 20% increase in the average life span of males, but it did not influence the average life span of females. At the same time, adding STC to foodstuff prolonged average longevity both in males (by 16%) and females (by 36%), but the addition of RTC to foodstuff had no influence upon the average life span of insects of either gender. The compounds studied have previously been shown to protect neurons of the rat brain from oxidative stress in the descending order of efficiency: RTC > STC > carnosine. The finding obtained in the present study suggests another order of efficacy regarding the effect on life span in male insects: STC > carnosine > RTC (inefficient). No correlation between antioxidant protection of rat neurons and the effect on life span of the fruit fly makes it possible to suppose the presence of additional cellular targets to be acted upon by exposure of D. melanogaster to these compounds. PMID:20681748

  8. Herbal Supplement Extends Life Span Under Some Environmental Conditions and Boosts Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy; Nobles, Amber C.; Rizza, Cristina; Horwitz, Marc; Benford, Gregory; Mockett, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100) that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span. PMID:25879540

  9. Increased life span due to calorie restriction in respiratory-deficient yeast.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Hu, Di; Kerr, Emily O; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Westman, Eric A; Dang, Nick; Fields, Stanley; Kennedy, Brian K

    2005-11-01

    A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR) in yeast has been proposed whereby reduced glucose in the growth medium leads to activation of the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2. One mechanism proposed for this putative activation of Sir2 is that CR enhances the rate of respiration, in turn leading to altered levels of NAD+ or NADH, and ultimately resulting in enhanced Sir2 activity. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which CR decreases levels of the Sir2 inhibitor nicotinamide through increased expression of the gene coding for nicotinamidase, PNC1. We have previously reported that life span extension by CR is not dependent on Sir2 in the long-lived BY4742 strain background. Here we have determined the requirement for respiration and the effect of nicotinamide levels on life span extension by CR. We find that CR confers robust life span extension in respiratory-deficient cells independent of strain background, and moreover, suppresses the premature mortality associated with loss of mitochondrial DNA in the short-lived PSY316 strain. Addition of nicotinamide to the medium dramatically shortens the life span of wild type cells, due to inhibition of Sir2. However, even in cells lacking both Sir2 and the replication fork block protein Fob1, nicotinamide partially prevents life span extension by CR. These findings (1) demonstrate that respiration is not required for the longevity benefits of CR in yeast, (2) show that nicotinamide inhibits life span extension by CR through a Sir2-independent mechanism, and (3) suggest that CR acts through a conserved, Sir2-independent mechanism in both PSY316 and BY4742. PMID:16311627

  10. The Schiefelbush Institute for Life Span Studies The University of Kansas e Life Span Institute Annual Report 2013-2014

    E-print Network

    are affiliated with 20 academic departments to study human development from its genetic origins to the final stages of life through 102 research projects. These investigators are supported by 182 research assistance, direct services and leadership Most of the easy problems in the behavioral and the biological

  11. Enhanced Energy Metabolism Contributes to the Extended Life Span of Calorie-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Kadiyala, Chandra S.; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hakimi, Parvin; Saha, Sudipto; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Chao; Mullangi, Vennela; Wang, Liwen; Fivenson, Elayne; Hanson, Richard W.; Ewing, Rob; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Miyagi, Masaru; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) markedly extends life span and improves the health of a broad number of species. Energy metabolism fundamentally contributes to the beneficial effects of CR, but the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for this effect remain enigmatic. A multidisciplinary approach that involves quantitative proteomics, immunochemistry, metabolic quantification, and life span analysis was used to determine how CR, which occurs in the Caenorhabditis elegans eat-2 mutants, modifies energy metabolism of the worm, and whether the observed modifications contribute to the CR-mediated physiological responses. A switch to fatty acid metabolism as an energy source and an enhanced rate of energy metabolism by eat-2 mutant nematodes were detected. Life span analyses validated the important role of these previously unknown alterations of energy metabolism in the CR-mediated longevity of nematodes. As observed in mice, the overexpression of the gene for the nematode analog of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase caused a marked extension of the life span in C. elegans, presumably by enhancing energy metabolism via an altered rate of cataplerosis of tricarboxylic acid cycle anions. We conclude that an increase, not a decrease in fuel consumption, via an accelerated oxidation of fuels in the TCA cycle is involved in life span regulation; this mechanism may be conserved across phylogeny. PMID:22810224

  12. How to prolong network life-span in wireless networks

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Dana

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important problems in wireless sensor network is to develop a routing protocol that has energy efficiency. Since the power of the sensor Nodes are limited, conserving energy and network life is a critical issue in wireless sensor network. Clustering is one of the known methods widely used to face these challenges. In this paper, a cluster based communication protocol with considering the low energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, is introduced which balances the energy load among sensor nodes. The nodes close to each other have more overlap; they sense the same data from environment and cause a waste of energy by generating repetitive data. In this paper, a cluster based routing protocol is introduced, in the proposed protocol, in each round a certain number of nodes are specified; the nodes which have at least one neighboring node at a distance less than the threshold. Then, among them the nodes with less energy and greater overlap with their neighbors have been chosen to go to sleep...

  13. Aspirin Delimits Platelet Life Span by Proteasomal Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Manasa K.; Dash, Ayusman; Singh, Nitesh; Dash, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin is widely used in clinical settings as an anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet drug due its inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase activity. Although the drug has long been considered to be an effective and safe therapeutic regime against inflammatory and cardiovascular disorders, consequences of its cyclooxygenase-independent attributes on platelets, the key players in thrombogenesis, beg serious investigation. In this report we explored the effect of aspirin on platelet lifespan in murine model and its possible cytotoxicity against human platelets in vitro. Aspirin administration in mice led to significant reduction in half-life of circulating platelets, indicative of enhanced rate of platelet clearance. Aspirin-treated human platelets were found to be phagocytosed more efficiently by macrophages, associated with attenuation in platelet proteasomal activity and upregulation of conformationally active Bax, which were consistent with enhanced platelet apoptosis. Although the dosage of aspirin administered in mice was higher than the therapeutic regimen against cardiovascular events, it is comparable with the recommended anti-inflammatory prescription. Thus, above observations provide cautionary framework to critically re-evaluate prophylactic and therapeutic dosage regime of aspirin in systemic inflammatory as well as cardiovascular ailments. PMID:25126950

  14. Survival Analysis of Life Span Quantitative Trait Loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Khazaeli, Aziz A.; Curtsinger, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We used quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to evaluate the age specificity of naturally segregating alleles affecting life span. Estimates of age-specific mortality rates were obtained from observing 51,778 mated males and females from a panel of 144 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Twenty-five QTL were found, having 80 significant effects on life span and weekly mortality rates. Generation of RILs from heterozygous parents enabled us to contrast effects of QTL alleles with the means of RIL populations. Most of the low-frequency alleles increased mortality, especially at younger ages. Two QTL had negatively correlated effects on mortality at different ages, while the remainder were positively correlated. Chromosomal positions of QTL were roughly concordant with estimates from other mapping populations. Our findings are broadly consistent with a mix of transient deleterious mutations and a few polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection, which together contribute to standing genetic variation in life span. PMID:15834144

  15. Learning From Leaders: Life-span Trends in Olympians and Supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana da Silva; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Marck, Adrien; Noirez, Philippe; Latouche, Aurélien; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Life-span trends progression has worldwide practical implications as it may affect the sustainability of modern societies. We aimed to describe the secular life-span trends of populations with a propensity to live longer-Olympians and supercentenarians-under two hypotheses: an ongoing life-span extension versus a biologic "probabilistic barrier" limiting further progression. In a study of life-span densities (total number of life durations per birth date), we analyzed 19,012 Olympians and 1,205 supercentenarians deceased between 1900 and 2013. Among most Olympians, we observed a trend toward increased life duration. This trend, however, decelerates at advanced ages leveling off with the upper values with a perennial gap between Olympians and supercentenarians during the whole observation period. Similar tendencies are observed among supercentenarians, and over the last years, a plateau attests to a stable longevity pattern among the longest-lived humans. The common trends between Olympians and supercentenarians indicate similar mortality pressures over both populations that increase with age, scenario better explained by a biologic "barrier" forecast. PMID:25143003

  16. Leaf Life Span Plasticity in Tropical Seedlings Grown under Contrasting Light Regimes

    PubMed Central

    VINCENT, GREGOIRE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. • Methods Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (Alstonia scholaris, Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus and Lansium domesticum) were grown under three light regimes (full sunlight, 45 % sunlight and 12 % sunlight). Their leaf dynamics were monitored over 18 months. • Results All species showed a considerable level of plasticity with regard to leaf life span: over the range of light levels explored, the ratio of the range to the mean value of life span varied from 29 %, for the least plastic species, to 84 %, for the most. The common trend was for leaf life span to increase with decreasing light intensity. The plasticity apparent in leaf life span was similar in magnitude to the plasticity observed in specific leaf area and photosynthetic rate, implying that it has a significant impact on carbon gain efficiency when plants acclimate to different light regimes. In all species, median survival time was negatively correlated with leaf photosynthetic capacity (or its proxy, the nitrogen content per unit area) and leaf emergence rate. • Conclusions Longer leaf life spans under low light are likely to be a consequence of slower ageing as a result of a slower photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:16299004

  17. Trade-offs between seed output and life span - a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species.

    PubMed

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Nkurunziza, Libère; Murphy, Kevin; Weih, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Perennial plants allocate more resources belowground, thus sustaining important ecosystem services. Hence, shifting from annual to perennial crops has been advocated towards a more sustainable agriculture. Nevertheless, wild perennial species have lower seed production than selected annuals, raising the questions of whether there is a fundamental trade-off between reproductive effort and life span, and whether such trade-off can be overcome through selection. In order to address these questions and to isolate life span from phylogenetic and environmental factors, we conducted a meta-analysis encompassing c. 3000 congeneric annual/perennial pairs from 28 genera. This meta-analysis is complemented with a minimalist model of long-term productivity in perennial species. Perennials allocate more resources belowground and less to seeds than congeneric annuals, independently of selection history. However, existing perennial wheat and rice could achieve yields similar to annuals if they survived three years and each year doubled their biomass, as other perennial grasses do. Selected perennial crops maintain the large belowground allocation of wild perennials, and thus can provide desired regulatory ecosystem services. To match the seed yield of annuals, biomass production of perennial grains must be increased to amounts attained by some perennial grasses - if this goal can be met, perennial crops can provide a more sustainable alternative to annuals. PMID:26214792

  18. Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes

    PubMed Central

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A.; Ruderman, Lital; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that human cognitive function improves through young adulthood and then declines across the later life span. Here we examined how decision-making function changes across the life span by measuring risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains, as well as choice consistency, in an urban cohort ranging in age from 12 to 90 y. We identified several important age-related patterns in decision making under uncertainty: First, we found that healthy elders between the ages of 65 and 90 were strikingly inconsistent in their choices compared with younger subjects. Just as elders show profound declines in cognitive function, they also show profound declines in choice rationality compared with their younger peers. Second, we found that the widely documented phenomenon of ambiguity aversion is specific to the gain domain and does not occur in the loss domain, except for a slight effect in older adults. Finally, extending an earlier report by our group, we found that risk attitudes across the life span show an inverted U-shaped function; both elders and adolescents are more risk-averse than their midlife counterparts. Taken together, these characterizations of decision-making function across the life span in this urban cohort strengthen the conclusions of previous reports suggesting a profound impact of aging on cognitive function in this domain. PMID:24082105

  19. Relationship between heat shock protein 70 expression and life span in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles; Handy, Indhira; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2014-07-01

    The longevity of an organism is directly related to its ability to effectively cope with cellular stress. Heat shock response (HSR) protects the cells against accumulation of damaged proteins after exposure to elevated temperatures and also in aging cells. To understand the role of Hsp70 in regulating life span of Daphnia, we examined the expression of Hsp70 in two ecotypes that exhibit strikingly different life spans. Daphnia pulicaria, the long lived ecotype, showed a robust Hsp70 induction as compared to the shorter lived Daphnia pulex. Interestingly, the short-lived D. pulex isolates showed no induction of Hsp70 at the mid point in their life span. In contrast to this, the long-lived D. pulicaria continued to induce Hsp70 expression at an equivalent age. We further show that the Hsp70 expression was induced at transcriptional level in response to heat shock. The transcription factor responsible for Hsp70 induction, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), although present in aged organisms did not exhibit DNA-binding capability. Thus, the decline of Hsp70 induction in old organisms could be attributed to a decline in HSF-1's DNA-binding activity. These results for the first time, present a molecular analysis of the relationship between HSR and life span in Daphnia. PMID:24814302

  20. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference across the Life Span: Evidence from Two Working Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Sandra V.; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M.; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) as the ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate various kinds of information is known to be affected by proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant contents, but studies on developmental changes in the susceptibility to PI are scarce. In the present study, we investigated life span development of item-specific…

  1. Relationship between heat shock protein 70 expression and life span in Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Schumpert, Charles; Handy, Indhira; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of an organism is directly related to its ability to effectively cope with cellular stress. Heat shock response (HSR) protects the cells against accumulation of damaged proteins after exposure to elevated temperatures and also in ageing cells. To understand the role of Hsp70 in regulating life span of Daphnia, we examined the expression of Hsp70 in two ecotypes that exhibit strikingly different life spans. D. pulicaria, the long lived ecotype, showed a robust Hsp70 induction as compared to the shorter lived D. pulex. Interestingly, the short-lived D. pulex isolates showed no induction of Hsp70 at the mid point in their life span. In contrast to this, the long-lived D. pulicaria continued to induce Hsp70 expression at an equivalent age. We further show that the Hsp70 expression was induced at transcriptional level in response to heat shock. The transcription factor responsible for Hsp70 induction, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), although present in aged organisms did not exhibit DNA-binding capability. Thus, the decline of Hsp70 induction in old organisms could be attributed to a decline in HSF-1’s DNA-binding activity. These results for the first time, present a molecular analysis of the relationship between HSR and life span in Daphnia. PMID:24814302

  2. A Life-Span Analysis of Rural Kansas Children's Mental and Social Development: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poresky, Robert H.; And Others

    This first year report of a life span analysis of rural Kansas children's mental and social development focuses on the children's cognitive development and the effect of family attitudes and child caring patterns on the children's development. The subjects, 62 rural children aged 3, 6, and 9 years, are to be interviewed annually. Initial analysis…

  3. Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but controversial assumptions regarding…

  4. Sterile Technique Sterile (aseptic) technique is essential to avoiding contamination in yeast chronological life span

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    Sterile Technique Sterile (aseptic) technique is essential to avoiding contamination in yeast chronological life span (CLS) experiments. Sterile technique is also highly relevant in the health care setting use. 3. Never allow anything sterile to come into contact with anything nonsterile. 4. Keep sterile

  5. The Impact of Drug Use on Earnings: A Life-Span Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Among a longitudinal cohort of 400 employed males, illicit drug use had a positive impact on wages up to age 28-29 and a negative impact by the mid-30s. A life-span perspective emphasizes differential short- and long-term impacts of education, training, and job changes on users' and nonusers' incomes. Contains 57 references. (Author/SV)

  6. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  7. The Use of Digital Technologies across the Adult Life Span in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2010, a survey was carried out to explore access to digital technology, attitudes to digital technology and approaches to studying across the adult life span in students taking courses with the UK Open University. In total, 7000 people were surveyed, of whom more than 4000 responded. Nearly all these students had access to a computer and…

  8. Energy, quiescence and the cellular basis of animal life spans Jeffrey A. Stuart , Melanie F. Brown

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    Review Energy, quiescence and the cellular basis of animal life spans Jeffrey A. Stuart , Melanie F insufficient energy is available to grow and reproduce. Many animals adapt to this challenge by entering in energy sensing that are sensitive to aspects of mitochondrial energy transduction and can be modulated

  9. The Status of Number and Quantity Conservation Concepts Across the Life-span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Diane E.

    Conservation performance during childhood to portions of the life span beyond adolescence is examined, with existing data replicated on subjects ranging from the preschool to middle-childhood years. Age differences in performance are studied for the typical Piagetian paired-stimulus equivalence conservation of number, substance, weight, and volume…

  10. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Demography, Female Life History, and Reproductive

    E-print Network

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Demography, Female Life History, and Reproductive Profiles Among the Chimpanzees, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 4 Department of Life and Cognitive Sciences of the evolution, ecology, and conservation of primate populations. The chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains

  12. Divergent reproductive life histories in Haida Gwaii stickleback (Gasterosteus spp.)

    E-print Network

    Reimchen, Thomas E.

    stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L., 1758) as a test of life-history trade-offs, we quantified egg traits intraspécifique de la fécondité des épinoches a` trois épines (Gasterosteus aculeatus L., 1758) en tant que testARTICLE Divergent reproductive life histories in Haida Gwaii stickleback (Gasterosteus spp.) T

  13. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2015-02-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span. PMID:25395451

  14. Effect of habitat preference on frond life span in three Cyathea tree ferns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Tzu Yun; Wang, Hsiang Hua; Lun Kuo, Yao; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    It has been reported that plants living in various geographical areas had different physiological forms, as factors of microenvironment have strong impacts on physiological characters. However, the physiological characters of fronds have been scarcely reported in ferns. In this study, we investigated physiological differences in response to the habitat preference in the three tree ferns in northeast Taiwan, Cyathea lepifera, C. spinulosa, and C. podophylla, prefer to open site, edge of forest, and interior forest, respectively. The canopy openness above the individuals of C. lepifera, C. spinulosa and C. podophylla were 29.2 ± 14.10 , 7.0 ± 3.07 and 5.0 ± 2.24 %, respectively. Among three species, C. podophylla had the longest frond life span (13.0 ± 4.12 months) than the two others (C. lepifera (6.8 ± 1.29 months) and C. spinulosa (7.3 ±1.35 months). Our result supported the general patterns that shade intolerant species have a shorter leaf life span than shade tolerant species. The maximum net CO2 assimilation of C. lepifera, C. spinulosa and C. podophylla were 11.46 ± 1.34, 8.27 ± 0.69, and 6.34 ± 0.54 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. As well, C. lepifera had the highest photosynthetic light saturation point (LSP), while C. podophylla had the lowest LSP among these three tree ferns. These suggested that C. lepifera could be more efficient for capturing and utilizing light resources under the larger canopy openness condition than the other two species. We also found that frond C : N ratio were positively correlated with frond life span among species. C. podophylla, with the longest frond life span, had the highest frond C : N ratio (22.17 ± 1.95), which was followed by C. spinulosa (18.58 ± 1.37) and C. lepifera (18.68 ± 2.63) with shorter frond life span. The results were consistent to the theory that the fronds and leaves of shade intolerant species have high photosynthetic abilities with low C : N ratio. Key words: Canopy openness, frond life span, tree fern, Cyathea, frond C : N ratio

  15. Causes and consequences of variation in conifer leaf life-span

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.; Koike, T.; Gower, S.T.; Schoettle, A.W.

    1995-07-01

    Species with mutually supporting traits, such as high N{sub mass}, SLA, and A{sub mass}, and short leaf life-span, tend to inhabit either generally resource-rich environments or spatial and/or temporal microhabitats that are resource-rich in otherwise more limited habitats (e.g., {open_quotes}precipitation{close_quotes} ephemerals in warm deserts or spring ephemerals in the understory of temperate deciduous forests). In contrast, species with long leaf life-span often support foliage with low SLA, N{sub mass}, and A{sub mass}, and often grow in low-temperature limited, dry, and/or nutrient-poor environments. The contrast between evergreen and deciduous species, and the implications that emerge from such comparisons, can be considered a paradigm of modern ecological theory. However, based on the results of Reich et al. (1992) and Gower et al. (1993), coniferous species with foliage that persists for 9-10 years are likely to assimilate and allocate carbon and nutrients differently than other evergreen conifers that retain foliage for 2-3 years. Thus, attempts to contrast ecophysiological or ecosystem characteristics of evergreen versus deciduous life forms may be misleading, and pronounced differences among evergreen conifers may be ignored. Clearly, the deciduous-evergreen contrast, although useful in several ways, should be viewed from the broader perspective of a gradient in leaf life-span.

  16. Having sons may shorten mother's life-span: anila : London, Wed Feb 27 2013, 19:09 hrs

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Having sons may shorten mother's life-span: study anila : London, Wed Feb 27 2013, 19:09 hrs Producing sons is more stressful for mothers and could shorten their life spans, a study has suggested daughters prolong mothers' lives by helping in tasks such as obtaining food and rearing younger siblings

  17. Leaf life span spectrum of tropical woody seedlings: effects of light and ontogeny and consequences for survival

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Cordero, Roberto A.; Wright, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf life span is widely recognized as a key life history trait associated with herbivory resistance, but rigorous comparative data are rare for seedlings. The goal of this study was to examine how light environment affects leaf life span, and how ontogenetic development during the first year may influence leaf fracture toughness, lamina density and stem density that are relevant for herbivory resistance, leaf life span and seedling survival. Methods Data from three experiments encompassing 104 neotropical woody species were combined. Leaf life span, lamina and vein fracture toughness, leaf and stem tissue density and seedling survival were quantified for the first-year seedlings at standardized ontogenetic stages in shade houses and common gardens established in gaps and shaded understorey in a moist tropical forest in Panama. Mortality of naturally recruited seedlings till 1 year later was quantified in 800 1-m2 plots from 1994 to 2011. Key Results Median leaf life span ranged widely among species, always greater in shade (ranging from 151 to >1790 d in the understorey and shade houses) than in gaps (115–867 d), but with strong correlation between gaps and shade. Leaf and stem tissue density increased with seedling age, whereas leaf fracture toughness showed only a weak increase. All these traits were positively correlated with leaf life span. Leaf life span and stem density were negatively correlated with seedling mortality in shade, while gap mortality showed no correlation with these traits. Conclusions The wide spectrum of leaf life span and associated functional traits reflects variation in shade tolerance of first-year seedlings among coexisting trees, shrubs and lianas in this neotropical forest. High leaf tissue density is important in enhancing leaf toughness, a known physical defence, and leaf life span. Both seedling leaf life span and stem density should be considered as key functional traits that contribute to seedling survival in tropical forest understoreys. PMID:23532047

  18. Demography of Genotypes: Failure of the Limited Life-Span Paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtsinger, James W.; Fukui, Hidenori H.; Townsend, David R.; Vaupel, James W.

    1992-10-01

    Experimental systems that are amenable to genetic manipulation can be used to address fundamental questions about genetic and nongenetic determinants of longevity. Analysis of large cohorts of ten genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster raised under conditions that favored extended survival has revealed variation between genotypes in both the slope and location of age-specific mortality curves. More detailed examination of a single genotype showed that the mortality trajectory was best fit by a two-stage Gompertz model, with no age-specific increase in mortality rates beyond 30 days after emergence. These results are contrary to the limited life-span paradigm, which postulates well-defined, genotype-specific limits on life-span and brief periods of intense and rapidly accelerating mortality rates at the oldest ages.

  19. Original Contribution Increased life span from overexpression of superoxide dismutase in Caenorhabditis

    E-print Network

    Gems, David

    ·- into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn is converted into H2O and O2 by the action of catalase, glutathione. sod-1 OE increased steady-state hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in vivo. However, co-overexpression of catalase did not suppress the life-span extension, arguing against H2O2 as a cause of longevity. sod-1 OE

  20. RERF Life Span Study, Adult Health Study, and F1 Cohorts (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)

    Cancer.gov

    The main cohort, called the Life Span Study (LSS), consisted of about 120,000 persons of all ages and both genders in 1950 of whom more than 90,000 were exposed to atomic bomb radiation, with a wide range of exposure doses. About 45,000 LSS participants completed questionnaires in the late 1960s and periodically since then on sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other disease risk factors.

  1. Verminoside mediates life span extension and alleviates stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pant, A; Asthana, J; Yadav, A K; Rathor, L; Srivastava, S; Gupta, M M; Pandey, R

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive molecules modulating aging in living organism promotes development of natural therapeutics for curing age-related afflictions. The progression in age-related disorders can be attributed to increment in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level. To this end, we isolated an iridoid verminoside (VMS) from Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. and evaluated its effect on Caenorhabditis elegans. The present study delineates VMS-mediated alteration of intracellular ROS, oxidative stress, and life span in C. elegans. The different tested doses of VMS (5 ?M, 25 ?M, and 50 ?M) were able to enhance ROS scavenging and extend mean life span in C. elegans. The maximal life span extension was observed in 25 ?M VMS, that is, 20.79% (P < 0.0001) followed by 9.84% (P < 0.0001) in 5 ?M VMS and 8.54% (P < 0.0001) in 50 ?M VMS. VMS was able to alleviate juglone-induced oxidative stress and enhanced thermotolerance in worms. The stress-modulating and ROS-scavenging potential of VMS was validated by increment in mean survival by 29.54% (P < 0.0001) in VMS-treated oxidative stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant strain. Furthermore, VMS modulates expression of DAF-16 (a FoxO transcription factor) promoting stress resistance and longevity. Altogether, our results suggest that VMS attenuates intracellular ROS and stress (oxidative and thermal) level promoting longevity. The longevity and stress modulation can be attributed to VMS-mediated alterations in daf-16 expression which regulates insulin signaling pathway. This study opens doors for development of phytomolecule-based therapeutics for prolonging life span and managing age-related severe disorders. PMID:26189547

  2. Blood volume and red cell life span (M113), part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Prechamber, in-chamber, and postchamber blood samples taken from Skylab simulation crewmembers did not indicate significant shortening of the red cell life span during the mission. This does not suggest that the space simulation environment could not be associated with red cell enzyme changes. It does show that any changes in enzymes were not sufficiently great to significantly shorten red cell survival. There was no evidence of bone marrow erythropoetic suppression nor was there any evidence of increased red cell destruction.

  3. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men. PMID:26098167

  4. Tequila Regulates Insulin-Like Signaling and Extends Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Horng-Dar; Bai, Hua; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Yen, Jui-Hung; Tatar, Marc; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    The aging process is a universal phenomenon shared by all living organisms. The identification of longevity genes is important in that the study of these genes is likely to yield significant insights into human senescence. In this study, we have identified Tequila as a novel candidate gene involved in the regulation of longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that a hypomorphic mutation of Tequila (Teq (f01792) ), as well as cell-specific downregulation of Tequila in insulin-producing neurons of the fly, significantly extends life span. Tequila deficiency-induced life-span extension is likely to be associated with reduced insulin-like signaling, because Tequila mutant flies display several common phenotypes of insulin dysregulation, including reduced circulating Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced body size, and altered glucose homeostasis. These observations suggest that Tequila may confer life-span extension by acting as a modulator of Drosophila insulin-like signaling. PMID:26265729

  5. "Pull and push back" concepts of longevity and life span extension.

    PubMed

    Muradian, Khachik

    2013-12-01

    The negative relation between metabolism and life span is a fundamental gerontological discovery well documented in a variety of ontogenetic and phylogenetic models. But how the long-lived species and populations sustain lower metabolic rate and, in more general terms, what is the efficient way to decline the metabolism? The suggested 'pull and push back' hypothesis assumes that decreased Po2 (hypoxia) and/or increased [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) may create preconditions for the declined metabolic and aging rates. However, wider implementation of such ideas is compromised because of little advances in modification of the metabolic rate. Artificial atmosphere with controlled [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] could be a promising approach because of the minimal external invasions and involvement of the backward and forward loops ensuring physiological self-regulation of the metabolic perturbations. General considerations and existing data indicate that manipulations of [Formula: see text] may be more efficient in life span extension than [Formula: see text]. Thus, maximum life span of mammals positively correlates with the blood [Formula: see text] and HCO3 (-) but not with [Formula: see text]. Yet, proportional decease of the body [Formula: see text] and increase of [Formula: see text] seems the most optimal regime ensuring lower losses of the energy equivalents. Furthermore, especially rewarding results could be expected when such changes are modeled without major external invasions using the animals' inner capacity to consume O2 and generate CO2, as it is typical for the extreme longevity. PMID:24114506

  6. Identification of respiratory chain gene mutations that shorten replicative life span in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hacioglu, Elise; Demir, Ayse Banu; Koc, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of alterations in cells that elevates the risk of death. The mitochondrial theory of aging postulates that free radicals produced by the mitochondrial respiratory system contribute to the aging process. However, the roles of individual electron transfer chain (ETC) components in cellular aging have not been elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the replicative life span of 73 yeast deletion mutants lacking the genes of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain system, and found that nine of these mutants (?nde1, ?tcm62, ?rip1, ?cyt1, ?qrc8, ?pet117, ?cox11, ?atp11, ?fmc1) had significantly shorter life spans. These mutants had lower rates of respiration and were slightly sensitive to exogenous administration of hydrogen peroxide. However, only two of them, ?nde1 and ?fmc1, produced higher amounts of intrinsic superoxide radicals in the presence of glucose compared to that of wild type cells. Interestingly, there were no significant alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potentials of these mutants. We speculate that the shorter life spans of ETC mutants result from multiple mechanisms including the low respiration rate and low energy production rather than just a ROS-dependent path. PMID:22137892

  7. The conserved NAD(H)-dependent corepressor CTBP-1 regulates Caenorhabditis elegans life span

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuzhen; Whetstine, Johnathan R.; Ghosh, Salil; Hanover, John A.; Gali, Reddy R.; Grosu, Paul; Shi, Yang

    2009-01-01

    CtBP (C-terminal binding protein) is an evolutionarily conserved NAD(H)-dependent transcriptional corepressor, whose activity has been shown to be regulated by the NAD/NADH ratio. Although recent studies have provided significant new insights into mechanisms by which CtBP regulates transcription, the biological function of CtBP remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that genetic inactivation of the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, ctbp-1, results in life span extension, which is suppressed by reintroduction of the ctbp-1 genomic DNA encoding wild-type but not NAD(H)-binding defective CTBP-1 protein. We show that CTBP-1 possibly modulates aging through the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, dependent on the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16, but independent of the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase SIR-2.1. Genome-wide microarray analysis identifies >200 potential CTBP-1 target genes. Importantly, RNAi inhibition of a putative triacylglycerol lipase gene lips-7(C09E8.2) but not another lipase suppresses the life span extension phenotype. Consistently, metabolic analysis shows that the triacylglycerol level is reduced in the ctbp-1 deletion mutant, which is restored to the wild-type level by RNAi inhibition of lips-7. Taken together, our data suggest that CTBP-1 controls life span probably through the regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:19164523

  8. Adaptive Physiological Response to Perceived Scarcity as a Mechanism of Sensory Modulation of Life Span.

    PubMed

    Waterson, Michael J; Chan, Tammy P; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Chemosensation is a potent modulator of organismal physiology and longevity. In Drosophila, loss of recognition of diverse tastants has significant and bidirectional life-span effects. Recently published results revealed that when flies were unable to taste water, they increased its internal generation, which may have subsequently altered life span. To determine whether similar adaptive responses occur in other contexts, we explored the impact of sensory deficiency of other metabolically important molecules. Trehalose is a major circulating carbohydrate in the fly that is recognized by the gustatory receptor Gr5a. Gr5a mutant flies are short lived, and we found that they specifically increased whole-body and circulating levels of trehalose, but not other carbohydrates, likely through upregulation of de novo synthesis. dILP2 transcript levels were increased in Gr5a mutants, a possible response intended to reduce hypertrehalosemia, and likely a contributing factor to their reduced life span. Together, these data suggest that compensatory physiological responses to perceived environmental scarcity, which are designed to alleviate the ostensive shortage, may be a common outcome of sensory manipulation. We suggest that future investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory modulation of aging may benefit by focusing on direct or indirect consequences of physiological changes that are designed to correct perceived disparity with the environment. PMID:25878032

  9. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  10. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  11. Lynx reproduction--long-lasting life cycle of corpora lutea in a feline species.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Painer, Johanna; Amelkina, Olga; Dehnhard, Martin; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-04-01

    A review of lynxes' reproductive biology and comparison between the reproductive cycles of the domestic cat and lynxes is presented. Three of the four lynx species (the bobcat excluded) express quite similar reproductive pattern (age at sexual maturity, estrus and pregnancy length, litter size). Similarly to the domestic cat, the bobcat is polyestric and can have more than one litter per year. Domestic cats and many other felid species are known to express anovulatory, pregnant and pseudo-pregnant reproductive cycles in dependence on ovulation induction and fertilization. The formation of corpora lutea (CLs) occurs after ovulation. In pregnant animals, luteal function ends with parturition, whereas during pseudo-pregnancy a shorter life span and lower hormone secretion are observed. The life cycle of corpora lutea in Eurasian lynxes is different from the pattern described in domestic cats. Lynx CLs produce progestagens in distinctive amounts permanently for at least two years, regardless of their origin (pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy). It is suggested that long-lasting CLs induce a negative feedback to inactivate folliculogenesis, turning a normally polyestric cycle observed in most felids into a monoestric cycle in lynxes. PMID:24856466

  12. Evolution, reproduction and definition of life.

    PubMed

    Chodasewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic theory of evolution is a superior integrative biological theory. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that multiple attempts of defining life are based on this theory. One of them even has a status of NASA's working definition. According to this definition, 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution' Luisi (Orig Life Evol Bios 28:613-622, 1998); Cleland, Chyba (Orig Life Evol Bios 32:387-393, 2002). This definition is often considered as one of the more theoretically mature definitions of life. This Darwinian definition has nonetheless provoked a lot of criticism. One of the major arguments claims that this definition is wrong due to 'mule's problem'. Mules (and other infertile hybrids), despite being obviously living organisms, in the light of this definition are considered inanimate objects. It is strongly counterintuitive. The aim of this article was to demonstrate that this reasoning is false. In the later part of the text, I also discuss some other arguments against the Darwinian approach to defining life. PMID:23674095

  13. Holistic Life-Span Health Outcomes Among Elite Intercollegiate Student–Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Martin, Brandon E.; Gordon, James E.; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. Objective: To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student–athletes (SAs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A large Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17–84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Results: Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P < .001; d = 1.05; pCID = 85%; OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.0, 16) and current students (P < .001; d = 2.25; pCID >99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = ?0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. Conclusions: The SAs demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful evidence of greater joint health concerns later in life, comparable cardiopulmonary health, and differences in life-span psychosocial health and HRQL profiles compared with NAs. These data provide timely evidence regarding a compelling public issue and highlight the need for further study of life-span health among modern athletes. PMID:25117874

  14. Provenance, life span, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Benfield, Cara D; Borer, Elizabeth T; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Successful conservation management requires an understanding of how species respond to intervention. Native and exotic species may respond differently to management interventions due to differences arising directly from their origin (i.e., provenance) or indirectly due to biased representations of different life history types (e.g., annual vs. perennial life span) or phylogenetic lineages among provenance (i.e., native or exotic origin) groups. Thus, selection of a successful management regime requires knowledge of the life history and provenance-bias in the local flora and an understanding of the interplay between species characteristics across existing environmental gradients in the landscape. Here we tested whether provenance, phylogeny, and life span interact to determine species distributions along natural gradients of soil chemistry (e.g., soil nitrogen and phosphorus) in 10 upland prairie sites along a 600-km latitudinal transect running from southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA. We found that soil nitrate, phosphorus, and pH exerted strong control over community composition. However, species distributions along environmental gradients were unrelated to provenance, life span, or phylogenetic groupings. We then used a greenhouse experiment to more precisely measure the response of common grass species to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. As with the field data, species responses to nutrient additions did not vary as a function of provenance, life span, or phylogeny. Native and exotic species differed strongly in the relationship between greenhouse-measured tolerance of low nutrients and field abundance. Native species with the greatest ability to maintain biomass production at low nutrient supply rates were most abundant in field surveys, as predicted by resource competition theory. In contrast, there was no relationship between exotic-species biomass at low nutrient levels and field abundance. The implications of these findings for management of invasive species are substantial in that they overturn a general belief that reduction of nutrient supplies favors native species. The idiosyncratic nature of species response to nutrients in this study suggests that manipulation of nutrient supplies is unlikely to alter the overall balance between native and exotic species, although it may well be useful to control specific exotic species. PMID:21939049

  15. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  16. Developmental change in proactive interference across the life span: evidence from two working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Sandra V; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2014-04-01

    Working memory (WM) as the ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate various kinds of information is known to be affected by proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant contents, but studies on developmental changes in the susceptibility to PI are scarce. In the present study, we investigated life span development of item-specific PI. To this end, 92 individuals between the ages of 8 and 74 years completed a recent-probes task and an n-back task that both composed experimental manipulations of PI. Regarding global WM development, young adults had higher WM performance than children and older adults in both tasks. Significant PI × Age interactions revealed that susceptibility to PI changed over the life span in both tasks, whereas the developmental course of PI differed between the tasks: Children committed more PI-related errors than young adults in the recent-probes task but showed marginally less PI in the n-back task. Regarding reaction time costs, children did not differ from adults in the recent-probes task and were less affected than adults in the n-back. Older adults showed more PI-related errors than young adults in both tasks. Therefore, as expected, item-specific PI changed over the life span with the young adults being less susceptible to PI than children and older adults. The diverging developmental effects of PI across both tasks, especially in the children, are supposed to reflect different causes for the difficulties regarding resisting PI in children and older adults. These might concern differently developed underlying cognitive processes such as inhibition or recollection, or different responses to task demands across both tasks. PMID:24294883

  17. Beliefs about the "hot hand" in basketball across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Rossi, Aimee Drolet; McGillivray, Shannon

    2012-09-01

    Many people believe in streaks. In basketball, belief in the "hot hand" occurs when people think a player is more likely to make a shot if they have made previous shots. However, research has shown that players' successive shots are independent events. To determine how age would impact belief in the hot hand, we examined this effect across the adult life span. Older adults were more likely to believe in the hot hand, relative to younger and middle-aged adults, suggesting that older adults use heuristics and potentially adaptive processing based on highly accessible information to predict future events. PMID:22288426

  18. Metabolism, Body Size and Life Span: A Case Study in Evolutionarily Divergent Populations of the Garter Snake (Thamnophis elegans)

    E-print Network

    Bronikowski, Anne

    SYMPOSIUM Metabolism, Body Size and Life Span: A Case Study in Evolutionarily Divergent Populations Biology, 253 Bessey Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA From the symposium ``Metabolism, Life of metabolism, life history and aging in the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). Early

  19. Dietary restriction downregulates free radical and lipid peroxide production: plausible mechanism for elongation of life span.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byung Pal; Lim, Beong Ou; Sugano, Michihiro

    2002-08-01

    Dietary restriction elongates life span by suppressing age-related diseases in experimental animals. It has received a great deal of attention in connection with the relationship between aging, nutrition, and oxidative stress because oxidative injury in several tissues is a prominent feature in the aging process. Although the oxidative stress theory of aging has currently gained popularity, the premise from which this hypothesis was derived is paradoxical because the same oxygen, that supports life in one hand threatens survival and promotes aging in the other. Until recently, no single experimental paradigm could offer satisfactory mechanistic explanations for this complex issue. Recent investigations using the life-extending dietary restriction regimen could offer satisfactory mechanistic explanations for this apparent self-contradiction to life. The modulation of free radical-induced oxidative stress provided sufficient data to support the notion that dietary restriction's antiaging effect may come from its ability to tightly regulate the oxidative status of an organism. The result is the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, a hallmark of dietary restriction's action in the extension of life span. To date, we reported that dietary restriction (maintained on 60% of ad libitum feeding) suppresses age-related oxidative damage by modulating the amount as well as the fatty acid composition of tissue phospholipids. These remarkable findings have been incorporated into the new "membrane peorxidation cycle" concept. The intervention of this cycle appears to be an evolutionary process that the dietary restricted rats have adapted as a strategy to protect the membrane in an oxidative environment. PMID:12489815

  20. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    PubMed

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. PMID:26438754

  1. Reduced Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) signaling extends replicative life span by enhancing NAD+ homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Felicia; James, Christol; Kato, Michiko; Myers, Victoria; Ilyas, Irtqa; Tsang, Matthew; Lin, Su-Ju

    2015-05-15

    Attenuated nutrient signaling extends the life span in yeast and higher eukaryotes; however, the mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we identify the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) amino acid sensing pathway as a novel longevity factor. A null mutation of SSY5 (ssy5?) increases replicative life span (RLS) by ?50%. Our results demonstrate that several NAD(+) homeostasis factors play key roles in this life span extension. First, expression of the putative malate-pyruvate NADH shuttle increases in ssy5? cells, and deleting components of this shuttle, MAE1 and OAC1, largely abolishes RLS extension. Next, we show that Stp1, a transcription factor of the SPS pathway, directly binds to the promoter of MAE1 and OAC1 to regulate their expression. Additionally, deletion of SSY5 increases nicotinamide riboside (NR) levels and phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling activity, suggesting that ssy5? increases NR salvaging. This increase contributes to NAD(+) homeostasis, partially ameliorating the NAD(+) deficiency and rescuing the short life span of the npt1? mutant. Moreover, we observed that vacuolar phosphatase, Pho8, is partially required for ssy5?-mediated NR increase and RLS extension. Together, our studies present evidence that supports SPS signaling is a novel NAD(+) homeostasis factor and ssy5?-mediated life span extension is likely due to concomitantly increased mitochondrial and vacuolar function. Our findings may contribute to understanding the molecular basis of NAD(+) metabolism, cellular life span, and diseases associated with NAD(+) deficiency and aging. PMID:25825491

  2. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  3. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  4. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success. PMID:11916470

  5. The structure of late-life depressive symptoms across a 20 year span: A taxometric investigation

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jason M.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies of the underlying structure of depressive symptoms have yielded mixed results, with some studies supporting a continuous conceptualization and others supporting a categorical one. However, no study has examined this research question with an exclusively older adult sample, despite the potential uniqueness of late-life depressive symptoms. In the present study, the underlying structure of late-life depressive symptoms was examined among a sample of 1289 individuals across three waves of data collection spanning 20 years. A taxometric methodology was employed using indicators of depression derived from the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Maximum eigenvalue (MAXEIG) analyses and inchworm consistency tests generally supported a categorical conceptualization and identified a group that was primarily characterized by thoughts about death/suicide. However, compared to a categorical depression variable, depressive symptoms treated continuously were generally better predictors of relevant criterion variables. These findings suggest that thoughts of death and suicide may characterize a specific type of late-life depression, yet a continuous conceptualization still typically maximizes the predictive utility of late-life depressive symptoms. PMID:20230135

  6. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians’ subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model by which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in auditory function in humans. PMID:23988583

  7. The Elderly Person With Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Implications for the Increasing Life-Span.

    PubMed

    Buhse, Marijean

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, unpredictable, progressive, and disabling autoimmune disease with significant neurodegenerative and inflammatory components. To effectively treat and care for older persons with MS, it is essential to examine the factors associated with a decrease in their quality of life. Typically, MS is diagnosed between 20 and 50 years old. Although not a fatal disease, the natural history data of persons with MS reveal survival approximately 38 years after diagnosis. With the advent of disease-modifying therapies, life-span has increased substantially over the past 2 decades among people with MS. Approximately 90% of people with MS now in their 20s may live into their 70s. Their quality of life as an older adult will be impacted by what we learn today. Currently, approximately a quarter of people with MS are mature adults over 65 years old. Older adults with MS are more likely to have a decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that refers to an individual's physical functioning, ability to perform activities of daily living, sense of well-being, satisfaction with life, perception of psychological status, and social functioning. This article focuses on the current literature in HRQOL in older persons with MS. A specific aim is to examine the factors associated with a decreased QOL in older persons with MS. Nursing screening and implementation of interventions that may reduce these factors and improve function of patients will be discussed. Although measures to improve HRQOL do not substitute for treatment of the disease, knowledge of factors that reduce HRQOL is essential to understand patient perceptions of their health and disease. PMID:26528951

  8. Inactivation of p53 and life span extension of human diploid fibroblasts by mot-2.

    PubMed

    Kaula, S C; Reddelb, R R; Sugiharac, T; Mitsuia, Y; Wadhwac, R

    2000-06-01

    Normal human lung fibroblasts were transfected with expression plasmids encoding mot-2, an hsp70 family member that is associated with the immortal phenotype. After the empty vector-transfected controls had become senescent and positive for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal), the mot-2-expressing cells continued to proliferate for an additional 12-18 population doublings and showed a young cell morphology and much lower SA-beta-gal activity. The tumor suppressor p53 was found to be transcriptionally inactivated in life span-extended cells. We have thus shown for the first time that overexpression of mot-2 in normal human cells is able to permit their temporary escape from senescence. PMID:10838077

  9. Life spans of a Bellman-Harris branching process with immigration

    SciTech Connect

    Badalbaev, I.S.; Mashrabbaev, A.

    1987-09-10

    One considers two schemes of the Bellman-Harris process with immigration when a) the lifetime of the particles is an integral-valued random variable and the immigration is defined by a sequence of independent random variables; b) the distribution of the lifetime of the particles is nonlattice and the immigration is a process with continuous time. One investigates the properties of the life spans of such processes. The results obtained here are a generalization to the case of Bellman-Harris processes of the results of A.M. Zubkov, obtained for Markov branching processes. For the proof one makes use in an essential manner of the known inequalities of Goldstein, estimating the generating function of the Bellman-Harris process in terms of the generating functions of the imbedded Galton-Watson process.

  10. Gains and losses in creative personality as perceived by adults across the life span.

    PubMed

    Hui, Anna N N; Yeung, Dannii Y; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C K; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age stereotypes and age-related differentiation in beliefs about personality development. Older adults perceived increases in both gains and losses in CP in old age. But they still maintained a similar level of self-perceived CP traits when compared with young participants. Emerging, young, and middle-aged adults were less optimistic about their creativity development into old age. Young adults, in contrast to older adults, believed that gains in CP began and ceased at an earlier age. Positive perceptions of CP in one's aging process may have implications for aging successfully. PMID:23978299

  11. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible. PMID:23429724

  12. Expectations about Memory Change Across the Life Span Are Impacted By Aging Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lineweaver, Tara T.; Berger, Andrea K.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether expectations about memory change with age vary for different personality types. Four adjectives from each of Hummert’s age-stereotype trait sets were selected to create 11 adjective clusters varying in both valence (positive versus negative) and relevance to memory functioning. Three hundred and seventy three participants in three age groups rated the memory abilities of target adults, defined by the adjective clusters, across the adult life span. Consistent with past studies, participants believed in age-related memory decline. However, participants rated target adults with positive personality traits as having better memory ability and less age-related memory decline than target adults with negative personality traits. This effect was larger when the traits were relevant to memory than when they were not. Finally, older participants were more strongly influenced by both the valence and the relevance of the personality descriptions than younger participants. PMID:19290748

  13. Altered Lipid Synthesis by Lack of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase Reduces Chronological Life Span.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhee; Han, Gil-Soo; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Garrett, Teresa A; Carman, George M

    2015-10-16

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. This evolutionarily conserved enzyme also plays a negative regulatory role in controlling de novo membrane phospholipid synthesis through its consumption of phosphatidate. We found that the pah1? mutant was defective in the utilization of non-fermentable carbon sources but not in oxidative phosphorylation; the mutant did not exhibit major changes in oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, F1F0-ATP synthase activity, or gross mitochondrial morphology. The pah1? mutant contained an almost normal complement of major mitochondrial phospholipids with some alterations in molecular species. Although oxidative phosphorylation was not compromised in the pah1? mutant, the cellular levels of ATP in quiescent cells were reduced by 2-fold, inversely correlating with a 4-fold increase in membrane phospholipids. In addition, the quiescent pah1? mutant cells had 3-fold higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide and cellular lipid hydroperoxides, had reduced activities of superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase, and were hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, the pah1? mutant had a shortened chronological life span. In addition, the loss of Tsa1 thioredoxin peroxidase caused a synthetic growth defect with the pah1? mutation. The shortened chronological life span of the pah1? mutant along with its growth defect on non-fermentable carbon sources and hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide was suppressed by the loss of Dgk1 diacylglycerol kinase, indicating that the underpinning of pah1? mutant defects was the excess synthesis of membrane phospholipids. PMID:26338708

  14. Methylated derivatives of myricetin enhance life span in Caenorhabditis elegans dependent on the transcription factor DAF-16.

    PubMed

    Büchter, C; Ackermann, D; Honnen, S; Arnold, N; Havermann, S; Koch, K; Wätjen, W

    2015-10-01

    Only certain flavonoids have been shown to enhance life span. This was pointed out for e.g. myricetin in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the structural requirements responsible for this effect are not known. We used methylated derivatives of myricetin (laricitrin, syringetin, myricetintrimethylether) to investigate if free OH moieties in the B-ring are necessary for the life span extending effect. In analogy to myricetin, all derivatives increased the life span, decreased oxidative stress (DCF) and decreased the accumulation of lipofuscin. In contrast to myricetin, the methylated compounds strongly enhanced the resistance against thermal stress. Furthermore, treatment with the derivatives induced a much stronger nuclear localization of the DAF-16 transcription factor (FoxO homologue). Additionally, no antioxidant effects and only minor effects on life span prolongation and stress resistance were detectable for the methylated compounds in a DAF-16 deficient nematode strain. Comparable to the dietary flavonoid myricetin, the methylated myricetin derivatives laricitrin, syringetin and myricetintrimethylether strongly enhance the life span of C. elegans. Therefore, OH groups of ring B are not necessary for this effect. Only the methylated compounds increase the stress resistance of the nematode which was dependent on DAF-16. These findings suggest that methylation of myricetin increases the biofunctionality. PMID:26281763

  15. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda. PMID:25791963

  16. The activity-dependent histone variant H2BE modulates the life span of olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Stephen W; Dulac, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We have identified a replication-independent histone variant, Hist2h2be (referred to herein as H2be), which is expressed exclusively by olfactory chemosensory neurons. Levels of H2BE are heterogeneous among olfactory neurons, but stereotyped according to the identity of the co-expressed olfactory receptor (OR). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that changes in H2be expression affect olfactory function and OR representation in the adult olfactory epithelium. We show that H2BE expression is reduced by sensory activity and that it promotes neuronal cell death, such that inactive olfactory neurons display higher levels of the variant and shorter life spans. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of H2BE differ from those of the canonical H2B, consistent with a role for H2BE in altering transcription. We propose a physiological function for H2be in modulating olfactory neuron population dynamics to adapt the OR repertoire to the environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00070.001 PMID:23240083

  17. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. PMID:22023569

  18. Aging Theories for Establishing Safe Life Spans of Airborne Critical Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2003-01-01

    New aging theories have been developed to establish the safe life span of airborne critical structural components such as B-52B aircraft pylon hooks for carrying air-launch drop-test vehicles. The new aging theories use the equivalent-constant-amplitude loading spectrum to represent the actual random loading spectrum with the same damaging effect. The crack growth due to random loading cycling of the first flight is calculated using the half-cycle theory, and then extrapolated to all the crack growths of the subsequent flights. The predictions of the new aging theories (finite difference aging theory and closed-form aging theory) are compared with the classical flight-test life theory and the previously developed Ko first- and Ko second-order aging theories. The new aging theories predict the number of safe flights as considerably lower than that predicted by the classical aging theory, and slightly lower than those predicted by the Ko first- and Ko second-order aging theories due to the inclusion of all the higher order terms.

  19. Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydel, Jennifer

    While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

  20. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. PMID:22023569

  1. Life-span development of odor identification, learning, and olfactory sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cain, W S; Stevens, J C; Nickou, C M; Giles, A; Johnston, I; Garcia-Medina, M R

    1995-01-01

    In the first of three studies, children (aged 8 to 14 years) were found to perform worse than young and middle-aged adults in unprompted identification of doors, with average performance much like that of elderly adults. Comparisons on other tasks, specifically odor threshold, prompted odor identification, and object naming (Boston Naming Test), across the life span (five groups) revealed that children have the same excellent olfactory sensitivity as young adults and merely lack odor-specific knowledge that accumulates slowly through life. Such knowledge apparently accumulates so slowly that age-associated discriminative losses, measurable by early middle age, begin to wear away gains obtained through experience before odors can become overlearned. In the second study, a novel adaptive psychophysical method, the step procedure, confirmed the equivalent sensitivity of children and young adults. In the third study, a paired-associate task illustrated the sluggish course of odor learning. Young adults outperformed children, though the youngest group, first graders, made up ground relatively fast. For children and adults, common odors facilitated performance relative to novel odors. The outcome highlighted the relevance of semantic factors in odor learning irrespective of age. PMID:8734544

  2. Introduction: Sleep-disordered breathing across the life span: exploring a human disorder using animal models.

    PubMed

    Gauda, Estelle B

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a constellation of breathing disorders that occur during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most common form, is characterized by complete or partial airway obstruction, hypoventilation, and central apneas, all of which lead to recurrent episodes of hypoxia, hypercapnia, sleep fragmentation, and elevated sympathetic tone. OSA occurs throughout the life span and is associated with significant cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular consequences that impair the quality of life. Building on observations that the upper airway collapses during sleep, obesity increases the risk of upper airway obstruction, and this obstruction leads to periods of hypoxia and reoxygenation that cause oxidative stress, researchers used large and small animal models to study the genetic predeterminants of OSA, the neuromechanical control of the upper airway during development and aging, and the metabolic consequences of oxidative stress. From the early canine models of experimentally induced upper airway obstruction to the current rodent models of intermittent hypoxia, the information now available has significantly improved scientists' understanding of the pathogenesis of OSA and its consequences, leading to better care for individuals with sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:19506311

  3. Systemic mechanisms of individual reproductive life history in female Medflies.

    PubMed

    Novoseltsev, V N; Carey, R J; Novoseltseva, J A; Papadopoulos, N T; Blay, S; Yashin, A I

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second one in a series of two papers hypothesizing and testing systemic grounds of reproductive life history in the female fruit fly. In the first paper, we analyzed mechanisms of individual fecundity scheduling and have drawn the following conclusions. Individual fecundity in female flies is endowed as a flat pattern with a steady-state period of a constant rate of egg-laying. An individual female reveals three stages in her adult life history: maturation, maturity, and senescence. The first stage is a transient period of achieving a steady state at maturity, which can be maintained until the senescence stage. Thus, an individual fecundity pattern has no maximum. The maximums observed experimentally are averaging-caused artifacts. Two natural causes of deaths exist in flies, senescence-caused ones and premature deaths, probably due to a reproductive overload. In this paper, to confirm these findings, we use individual daily scores of egg-laying in four populations of Mediterranean fruit flies. Based on fecundity scores, we divide each Medfly population into four classes, namely zero-egg, short-, medium- and long-lived egg-layers. We demonstrate that, indeed, the three above findings definitely exist in Medflies. Our procedure allows the efficient storage of individual fecundity in parametric form, with only five numbers for each fly. Finally, this protocol will allow a more precise analysis of fecundity-energy trade-offs in flies carrying appropriate longevity mutations. PMID:14706240

  4. [Life Span of F1 Progeny of Female Drosophila Exposed to Low Intensity Terahertz Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V I; Weisman, N Ya

    2015-01-01

    Virgin female fruit flies were stressed by placement into a confined space without food for 3 hours. Some flies were subjected to terahertz irradiation (0,1-2,2 THz) for the last 30 min. Irradiated and nonirradiated females were then copulated with males. We investigated the F1 progeny of fruit flies with mature and immature oocytes at the moment of irradiation (days of oviposition: 1-2 and 9-10 after irradiation). Life span of individual flies was evaluated. It was demonstrated that terahertz radiation does not influence the absolute and average lifespan of the F1 progeny in both sexes. In response to terahertz irradiation the sexual dimorphism was detected. Survival curves of males, developed from mature and immature oocytes at the time of irradiation, differ significantly from the appropriate control, whereas in the case of females the survival curves are similar to the control. It is concluded that terahertz radiation has a remote effect on a survival of the F1 male progeny. PMID:26591613

  5. Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

  6. Effects of kaolin particle films on the life span of an orb-weaver spider.

    PubMed

    Benhadi-Marín, Jacinto; Pereira, José Alberto; Santos, Sónia A P

    2016-02-01

    Araniella cucurbitina (Araneae: Araneidae) is a widespread orb-weaver spider commonly found in agroecosystems. Mineral particle films such as kaolin, due to their protective or anti-feeding action, can represent an alternative to pesticides, especially in organic farming systems, but little is known about its effects on A. cucurbitina. Therefore, we tested the effect of kaolin sprays on the life span of A. cucurbitina under laboratory conditions. Four treatments were tested encompassing different exposure routes. Thus, kaolin sprays were applied on (i) the surface, (ii) the prey (fly), (iii) the spider and (iv) both spider & prey. A control group was tested with water in each treatment. Results showed that sprays of kaolin significantly affected the survival of A. curcubitina when applications were done on the surface and on both spider & prey registering a reduction of 48% and 56%, respectively. Spiders in control obtained higher probability of reaching alive at the end of the assay than those treated with kaolin. Differences observed can be explained by the feeding behavior of the species and may depend on the consumption of the web by the spider and the ratio spider/fly for body size. PMID:26432533

  7. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anthony D.; Knutson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. PMID:20501485

  8. The complex nature of family support across the life span: Implications for psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and older adults (ages 50+). A sample of 881 adults (72% White; 26% Black) was drawn from the longitudinal Social Relations, Age, and Health Study. Structural equation modeling indicated that among young and middle-aged adults, increasing family negativity was associated with increases in depressive symptoms over time. In contrast, among older adults, lowered proportion of family in network and an increasing number of family members in the network (i.e., family size) were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms. These findings were moderated by family negativity. Among older adults with low family negativity, having a lower proportion of family and larger family size were associated with decreasing depressive symptoms, but there was no effect among those reporting high family negativity. Overall, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the complex, developmental nature of how family support influences well-being across the life span and highlights unique age differences. PMID:25602936

  9. Childhood self-control and unemployment throughout the life span: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  10. Cognitive control and language across the life span: does labeling improve reactive control?

    PubMed

    Lucenet, Joanna; Blaye, Agnès; Chevalier, Nicolas; Kray, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    How does cognitive control change with age, and what are the processes underlying these changes? This question has been extensively studied using versions of the task-switching paradigm, which allow participants to actively prepare for the upcoming task (Kray, Eber, & Karbach, 2008). Little is known, however, about age-related changes in this ability across the life span when there is no opportunity to anticipate task goals. We examined the effect of 2 kinds of verbal self-instruction-labeling either the task goal or the relevant feature of the stimulus-on 2 components of cognitive control, goal setting and switching, in children, young adults, and older adults. All participants performed single-task blocks and mixed-task blocks (involving unpredictable switching between 2 tasks) in silent and labeling conditions. Participants categorized bidimensional stimuli either by picture or by color, depending on their spatial position in a 2-cell vertical grid. Response times revealed an inverted U shape in performance with age. These age differences were more pronounced for goal setting than for switching, thus generalizing results obtained in situations taping proactive control to this new context forcing reactive control. Further, differential age-related effects of verbalization were also obtained. Verbalizations were detrimental for young adults, beneficial for older adults, and had mixed effects in children. These differences are interpreted in terms of qualitative developmental changes in reactive goal-setting strategies. PMID:24491213

  11. Sustained Attention Across the Life Span in a Sample of 10,000: Dissociating Ability and Strategy.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Grosso, Mallory; Russo, Kathryn; Esterman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Normal and abnormal differences in sustained visual attention have long been of interest to scientists, educators, and clinicians. Still lacking, however, is a clear understanding of how sustained visual attention varies across the broad sweep of the human life span. In the present study, we filled this gap in two ways. First, using an unprecedentedly large 10,430-person sample, we modeled age-related differences with substantially greater precision than have prior efforts. Second, using the recently developed gradual-onset continuous performance test (gradCPT), we parsed sustained-attention performance over the life span into its ability and strategy components. We found that after the age of 15 years, the strategy and ability trajectories saliently diverge. Strategy becomes monotonically more conservative with age, whereas ability peaks in the early 40s and is followed by a gradual decline in older adults. These observed life-span trajectories for sustained attention are distinct from results of other life-span studies focusing on fluid and crystallized intelligence. PMID:26253551

  12. Osteopenia is present at an early age and worsens across the life span in girls and women with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...

  13. The living, the dead, and the expected dead: variation in life span yields little bias of proportional abundances in bivalve

    E-print Network

    of proportional abundances in bivalve death assemblages Susan M. Kidwell and Thomas A. Rothfus Abstract.--All else sets on the living and dead abundances of marine bivalves in local habitats is combined with a global compilation of bivalve life spans to determine whether bias from mortality rate can explain observed

  14. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  15. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  16. elf-reproduction is central to biological life for long-term sustainability and

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    S elf-reproduction is central to biological life for long-term sustainability and evolutionary- reproduction have not been exploited in machine design1 . Here we create simple machines that act as autonomous modular robots and are capable of physical self- reproduction using a set of cubes. A physical system

  17. Generation and Characterization of Telomerase-Transfected Human Lymphatic Endothelial Cells with an Extended Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Nisato, Riccardo E.; Harrison, Jillian A.; Buser, Raphaele; Orci, Lelio; Rinsch, Chris; Montesano, Roberto; Dupraz, Philippe; Pepper, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    The study of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymphangiogenesis has, in the past, been hampered by the lack of lymphatic endothelial-specific markers. The recent discovery of several such markers has permitted the isolation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) from human skin. However, cell numbers are limited and purity is variable with the different isolation procedures. To overcome these problems, we have transfected human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVECs) with a retrovirus containing the coding region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and have produced a cell line, hTERT-HDLEC, with an extended lifespan. hTERT-HDLEC exhibit a typical cobblestone morphology when grown in culture, are contact-inhibited, and express endothelial cell-specific markers. hTERT-HDLEC also express the recognized lymphatic markers, Prox-1, LYVE-1 and podoplanin, as well as integrin ?9, but do not express CD34. They also form tube-like structures in three-dimensional collagen gels when stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factors -A and -C. Based on these currently recognized criteria, these cells are LEC. Surprisingly, we also found that the widely studied HMEC-1 cell line expresses recognized lymphatic markers; however, these cells are also CD34-positive. In summary, the ectopic expression of hTERT increases the life span of LECs and does not affect their capacity to form tube-like structures in a collagen matrix. The production and characterization of hTERT-HDLEC will facilitate the study of the properties of lymphatic endothelium in vitro. PMID:15215158

  18. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  19. Missing Doses in the Life Span Study of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations. PMID:23429722

  20. Colony life history and lifetime reproductive success of red harvester ant colonies

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Deborah

    Colony life history and lifetime reproductive success of red harvester ant colonies Krista K. There was no relationship between the number of gynes pro- duced by a colony in 1 year and the number of offspring colonies subsequently founded by its daughter reproductive females. 6. The results provide the first estimate of a life

  1. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories. PMID:25485608

  2. Lack of methionine sulfoxide reductase A in mice increases sensitivity to oxidative stress but does not diminish life span

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Adam B.; Pérez, Viviana I.; Bokov, Alex; Jernigan, Amanda; Kim, Geumsoo; Zhao, Hang; Levine, Rodney L.; Richardson, Arlan

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) repairs oxidized methionine residues within proteins and may also function as a general antioxidant. Previous reports have suggested that modulation of MsrA in mice and mammalian cell culture can affect the accumulation of oxidized proteins and may regulate resistance to oxidative stress. Thus, under the oxidative stress theory of aging, these results would predict that MsrA regulates the aging process in mammals. We show here that MsrA?/? mice are more susceptible to oxidative stress induced by paraquat. Skin-derived fibroblasts do not express MsrA, but fibroblasts cultured from MsrA?/? mice were, nevertheless, also more susceptible to killing by various oxidative stresses. In contrast to previous reports, we find no evidence for neuromuscular dysfunction in MsrA?/? mice in either young adult or in older animals. Most important, we found no difference between MsrA?/? and control mice in either their median or maximum life span. Thus, our results show that MsrA regulates sensitivity to oxidative stress in mice but has no effect on aging, as determined by life span.—Salmon, A. B., Pérez, V. I., Bokov, A., Jernigan, A., Kim, G., Zhao, H., Levine, R. L., Richardson, A. Lack of methionine sulfoxide reductase A in mice increases sensitivity to oxidative stress but does not diminish life span. PMID:19487311

  3. Variability in Reproductive Success Viewed From a Life-History Perspective in Baboons

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    Variability in Reproductive Success Viewed From a Life-History Perspective in Baboons JEANNE- tribute to within-population variance in reproductive success for savannah baboons. We also discuss the extent to which savannah baboons, with their highly flexible and adaptable behavior, change

  4. ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Phenology, Life Tables, and Reproductive Biology of

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    attacking T. perseae in California was an aphelinid, Cales noacki Howard, and parasitism over February from 34 to 37%. There were no signiÞcant differences in marginal mortality rates by life stage has a high reproductive potential with net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase estimates

  5. Plant Reproduction. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Plants are vital to all other life on this planet - without them, there would be no food, shelter or oxygen. Luckily, over millions of years plants have developed many different features in order to survive and reproduce. In Plant Reproduction, students will discover that primitive mosses and algae are dependent upon water for their reproduction.…

  6. Potentially Traumatic Events at Different Points in the Life Span and Mental Health: Findings From SHARE-Israel

    PubMed Central

    Shrira, Amit; Shmotkin, Dov; Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the association between adversity cumulated at different points in the life span and present mental health. Data of 1,130 participants aged 50+ were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Measures included an inventory of potentially traumatic events, mental distress (depressive symptoms), and well-being (quality of life, life satisfaction). Adversity reported to have occurred early in life was positively related to mental health (i.e., to lower distress and higher well-being), whereas adversity reported to occur in late life was negatively related (i.e., to higher distress and lower well-being). Additional analyses showed that the positive association between early-life adversity and mental health was mainly restricted to adversity in which the primary harm was to another person (other-oriented adversity). In contrast, the negative association between late-life adversity and mental health was mainly restricted to adversity in which the primary harm was to the self (self-oriented adversity). This study suggests that the differential association between cumulative adversity and mental health is best captured when accounting for both time of occurrence and adversity type. PMID:22506527

  7. Mental health in adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: the role of recent life events and traumatic experiences across the life span.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Almudena; Tsakanikos, Elias; Pereda, Amada; Gutiérrez-Recacha, Pedro; Bouras, Nick; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between recent life events and traumatic experiences across the life span and psychiatric disorders in people with ID. One hundred seventy-seven individuals with mild and moderate intellectual disability and their principal carers were assessed. Psychiatric disorders were evaluated with a semistructured psychiatric interview, the Psychiatric Assessment for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. This interview also includes a checklist of life events experienced over the previous 12 months, which was assessed through key informants. Presence of traumas was assessed through Allen's trauma history screen, also administered to key informants. After a descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression was used to see whether traumatic events and life events predicted the presence of ICD-10 disorders. A 75% of the participants had experienced at least 1 traumatic event during their life span, and 50% of the participants had experienced at least 1 life event in the 12 months previous to the study. Binary logistic regression showed that exposure to 1 or more traumatic experiences significantly increased the odds of a mental disorder (OR = 1.8), as did exposure to life events (OR = 1.4). However, when both life events and traumatic experiences were entered together in the model, calculation of odds ratios revealed that traumatic experiences significantly increased the odds of ICD-10 disorders (OR = 1.7) although life events were no longer significant. Though they have been less studied by the literature regarding predictors of mental illness in people with intellectual disability, traumatic experiences seem to play a more important role in psychopathology than life events. PMID:19282685

  8. Alteration of Drosophila life span using conditional, tissue-specific expression of transgenes triggered by doxycyline or RU486/Mifepristone.

    PubMed

    Ford, Daniel; Hoe, Nicholas; Landis, Gary N; Tozer, Kevin; Luu, Allan; Bhole, Deepak; Badrinath, Ananth; Tower, John

    2007-06-01

    The conditional systems Tet-on and Geneswitch were compared and optimized for the tissue-specific expression of transgenes and manipulation of life span in adult Drosophila. Two versions of Tet-on system reverse-tetracycline-Trans-Activator (rtTA) were compared: the original rtTA, and rtTAM2-alt containing mutations designed to optimize regulation and expression. The rtTAM2-alt version gave less leaky expression of target constructs in the absence of doxycyline, however the absolute level of expression that could be achieved was less than that produced by rtTA, in contrast to a previous report. Existing UAS-rtTAM2-alt insertions were re-balanced, and combined with several tissue-general and tissue-specific GAL4 driver lines to yield tissue-specific, doxycyline-inducible transgene expression over three orders of magnitude. The Geneswitch (GS) system also had low background, but the absolute level of expression was low relative to Tet-on. Consequently, actin5C-GS multi-insert chromosomes were generated and higher-level expression was achieved without increased background. Moderate level over-expression of MnSOD has beneficial effects on life span. Here high-level over-expression of MnSOD was found to have toxic effects. In contrast, motor-neuron-specific over-expression of MnSOD had no detectable effect on life span. The results suggest that motor-neuron tissue is not the essential tissue for either MnSOD induced longevity or toxicity in adult males. PMID:17349761

  9. The paradox of the short life span of organisms with long telomeres: A possible solution to this paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Olovnikov, A.M.

    1995-07-01

    Earlier we proposed an idea about the direct proportional dependence between the length of buffer DNA at the ends of chromosomes, i.e., telomeric DNA, and the life span of organisms. In these publications, we predicted the phenomenon of shortening of telomeric DNA as a result of under-replication (incomplete replication) of terminal DNA sequences. In this study, we try to demonstrate that this shortening of telomeric DNA may indeed be a leading factor in the process of fibroblast aging. 12 refs.

  10. Comparison of Building Energy Efficiency and Life Span for Different Envelopes 

    E-print Network

    Li, Z.; Li, D.; Li, L.; Zhang, G.; Liu, J.

    2006-01-01

    life and provide occupants a more comfortable indoor climate. At the same time, this heat preservation technology can ensure building energy efficiency and economy. It is reasonable to adopt the external heat preservation wall mode to make the building...

  11. Fullness of Life as Minimal Unit: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Learning across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Van Eijck, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Challenged by a National Science Foundation-funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of research across the lifespan to propose a new way…

  12. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Reuben H.; Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 ; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun; Park, No-Hee; UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095; UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095; David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 ; Kang, Mo K.

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  13. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    SciTech Connect

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-05-09

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

  14. Genetic Structures of Population Cohorts Change with Increasing Age: Implications for Genetic Analyses of Human aging and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Anatoliy I.; Wu, Deqing; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Arbeeva, Liubov S.; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Correcting for the potential effects of population stratification is an important issue in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the genetic structure of the population under study with subsequent incorporation of the first several principal components (PCs) in the GWAS regression model is often used for this purpose. Problem For longevity related traits such a correction may negatively affect the accuracy of genetic analyses. This is because PCs may capture genetic structure induced by mortality selection processes in genetically heterogeneous populations. Data and Methods We used the Framingham Heart Study data on life span and on individual genetic background to construct two sets of PCs. One was constructed to separate population stratification due to differences in ancestry from that induced by mortality selection. The other was constructed using genetic data on individuals of different ages without attempting to separate the ancestry effects from the mortality selection effects. The GWASs of human life span were performed using the first 20 PCs from each of the selected sets to control for possible population stratification. Results The results indicated that the GWAS that used the PC set separating population stratification induced by mortality selection from differences in ancestry produced stronger genetic signals than the GWAS that used PCs without such separation. Conclusion The quality of genetic estimates in GWAS can be improved when changes in genetic structure caused by mortality selection are taken into account in controlling for possible effects of population stratification. PMID:25893220

  15. DNA damage leads to progressive replicative decline but extends the life span of long-lived mutant animals

    PubMed Central

    Lans, H; Lindvall, J M; Thijssen, K; Karambelas, A E; Cupac, D; Fensgård, Ø; Jansen, G; Hoeijmakers, J H J; Nilsen, H; Vermeulen, W

    2013-01-01

    Human-nucleotide-excision repair (NER) deficiency leads to different developmental and segmental progeroid symptoms of which the pathogenesis is only partially understood. To understand the biological impact of accumulating spontaneous DNA damage, we studied the phenotypic consequences of DNA-repair deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that DNA damage accumulation does not decrease the adult life span of post-mitotic tissue. Surprisingly, loss of functional ERCC-1/XPF even further extends the life span of long-lived daf-2 mutants, likely through an adaptive activation of stress signaling. Contrariwise, NER deficiency leads to a striking transgenerational decline in replicative capacity and viability of proliferating cells. DNA damage accumulation induces severe, stochastic impairment of development and growth, which is most pronounced in NER mutants that are also impaired in their response to ionizing radiation and inter-strand crosslinks. These results suggest that multiple DNA-repair pathways can protect against replicative decline and indicate that there might be a direct link between the severity of symptoms and the level of DNA-repair deficiency in patients. PMID:24013725

  16. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility. PMID:19416965

  17. An extraordinary life span estimate for the clown anemonefish Amphiprion percula

    E-print Network

    Buston, Peter

    : ageing; life expectancy; longevity; queuing; senescence; sociality. INTRODUCTION The evolutionary theory be an excellent group for a broad scale comparative test of the predictions of the evolutionary theory of ageing factors) will have reduced the proportion of a cohort subject to selection. The theory predicts

  18. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  19. Life Span as the Measure of Performance and Learning in a Business Gaming Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the learning curve method of measuring learning to participants of a computer-assisted business gaming simulation that includes a multiple-life-cycle feature. The study involved 249 participants. It verified the workability of the feature and estimated the participants' rate of learning at 17.4% for every doubling of experience.…

  20. Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves health span in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice. Results Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72). We evaluated longevity and several health parameters including grip strength, motor coordination, exercise capacity (VO2max) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also measured the cortical levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin associated with brain plasticity. In addition, we measured systemic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl plasma levels) and the expression and activity of two genes involved in antioxidant defense in the liver (that is, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)). Genes that encode antioxidant enzymes are considered longevity genes because their over-expression may modulate lifespan. Aging was associated with an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, GPx and Mn-SOD, in the liver in mice. Life-long spontaneous exercise did not prolong longevity but prevented several signs of frailty (that is, decrease in strength, endurance and motor coordination). This improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and in the cortical BDNF levels. Conclusion Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves healthspan in mice. Exercise is an intervention that delays age-associated frailty, enhances function and can be translated into the clinic. PMID:24472376

  1. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    PubMed

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring. PMID:24852016

  2. Recent Progress in Metabolic Signaling Pathways Regulating Aging and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Summit, Advances in Geroscience: Impact on Health Span and Chronic Disease, discusses several aspects of cellular degeneration that underlie susceptibility to chronic aging-associated diseases, morbidity, and mortality. In particular, the session on Metabolism focuses on the interrelationship between signal transduction, intermediary metabolism, and metabolic products and byproducts that contribute to pathophysiologic phenotypes and detrimental effects that occur during the aging process, thus leading to susceptibility to disease. Although it is well established that many metabolic pathways (ie, oxidative phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake) decline with age, it often remains uncertain if these are a cause or consequence of the aging process. Moreover, the mechanisms accounting for the decline in metabolic function remain enigmatic. Several novel and unexpected concepts are emerging that will help to define the roles of altered metabolic control in the degenerative mechanisms of aging. This brief review summarizes several of the topics to be discussed in the metabolism of aging session (http://www.geron.org/About%20Us/nih-geroscience-summit). PMID:24833582

  3. Visualizing Life Zone Boundary Sensitivities Across Climate Models and Temporal Spans

    SciTech Connect

    Sisneros, Roberto R; Huang, Jian; Ostrouchov, George; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2011-01-01

    Life zones are a convenient and quantifiable method for delineating areas with similar plant and animal communities based on bioclimatic conditions. Such ecoregionalization techniques have proved useful for defining habitats and for studying how these habitats may shift due to environmental change. The ecological impacts of climate change are of particular interest. Here we show that visualizations of the geographic projection of life zones may be applied to the investigation of potential ecological impacts of climate change using the results of global climate model simulations. Using a multi-factor classification scheme, we show how life zones change over time based on quantitative model results into the next century. Using two straightforward metrics, we identify regions of high sensitivity to climate changes from two global climate simulations under two different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Finally, we identify how preferred human habitats may shift under these scenarios. We apply visualization methods developed for the purpose of displaying multivariate relationships within data, especially for situations that involve a large number of concurrent relationships. Our method is based on the concept of multivariate classification, and is implemented directly in VisIt, a production quality visualization package.

  4. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  5. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  6. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death.

    PubMed

    Glasier, Anna; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Schmid, George P; Moreno, Claudia Garcia; Van Look, Paul F A

    2006-11-01

    Despite the call for universal access to reproductive health at the 4th International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, sexual and reproductive health was omitted from the Millennium Development Goals and remains neglected (panel 1). Unsafe sex is the second most important risk factor for disability and death in the world's poorest communities and the ninth most important in developed countries. Cheap effective interventions are available to prevent unintended pregnancy, provide safe abortions, help women safely through pregnancy and child birth, and prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections. Yet every year, more than 120 million couples have an unmet need for contraception, 80 million women have unintended pregnancies (45 million of which end in abortion), more than half a million women die from complications associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, and 340 million people acquire new gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, or trichomonas infections. Sexual and reproductive ill-health mostly affects women and adolescents. Women are disempowered in much of the developing world and adolescents, arguably, are disempowered everywhere. Sexual and reproductive health services are absent or of poor quality and underused in many countries because discussion of issues such as sexual intercourse and sexuality make people feel uncomfortable. The increasing influence of conservative political, religious, and cultural forces around the world threatens to undermine progress made since 1994, and arguably provides the best example of the detrimental intrusion of politics into public health. PMID:17084760

  7. From adaptive licensing to adaptive pathways: delivering a flexible life-span approach to bring new drugs to patients.

    PubMed

    Eichler, H-G; Baird, L G; Barker, R; Bloechl-Daum, B; Børlum-Kristensen, F; Brown, J; Chua, R; Del Signore, S; Dugan, U; Ferguson, J; Garner, S; Goettsch, W; Haigh, J; Honig, P; Hoos, A; Huckle, P; Kondo, T; Le Cam, Y; Leufkens, H; Lim, R; Longson, C; Lumpkin, M; Maraganore, J; O'Rourke, B; Oye, K; Pezalla, E; Pignatti, F; Raine, J; Rasi, G; Salmonson, T; Samaha, D; Schneeweiss, S; Siviero, P D; Skinner, M; Teagarden, J R; Tominaga, T; Trusheim, M R; Tunis, S; Unger, T F; Vamvakas, S; Hirsch, G

    2015-03-01

    The concept of adaptive licensing (AL) has met with considerable interest. Yet some remain skeptical about its feasibility. Others argue that the focus and name of AL should be broadened. Against this background of ongoing debate, we examine the environmental changes that will likely make adaptive pathways the preferred approach in the future. The key drivers include: growing patient demand for timely access to promising therapies, emerging science leading to fragmentation of treatment populations, rising payer influence on product accessibility, and pressure on pharma/investors to ensure sustainability of drug development. We also discuss a number of environmental changes that will enable an adaptive paradigm. A life-span approach to bringing innovation to patients is expected to help address the perceived access vs. evidence trade-off, help de-risk drug development, and lead to better outcomes for patients. PMID:25669457

  8. Human adipose tissue derived pericytes increase life span in Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice.

    PubMed

    Valadares, M C; Gomes, J P; Castello, G; Assoni, A; Pellati, M; Bueno, C; Corselli, M; Silva, H; Bartolini, P; Vainzof, M; Margarido, P F; Baracat, E; Péault, B; Zatz, M

    2014-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is still an untreatable lethal X-linked disorder, which affects 1 in 3500 male births. It is caused by the absence of muscle dystrophin due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. The potential regenerative capacity as well as immune privileged properties of mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has been under investigation for many years in an attempt to treat DMD. One of the questions to be addressed is whether stem cells from distinct sources have comparable clinical effects when injected in murine or canine muscular dystrophy animal models. Many studies comparing different stem cells from various sources were reported but these cells were obtained from different donors and thus with different genetic backgrounds. Here we investigated whether human pericytes obtained from 4 different tissues (muscle, adipose tissue, fallopian tube and endometrium) from the same donor have a similar clinical impact when injected in double mutant Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice, a clinically relevant model for DMD. After a weekly regimen of intraperitoneal injections of 10(6) cells per 8 weeks we evaluated the motor ability as well as the life span of the treated mice as compared to controls. Our experiment showed that only adipose tissue derived pericytes are able to increase significantly (39 days on average) the life span of affected mice. Microarray analysis showed an inhibition of the interferon pathway by adipose derived pericytes. Our results suggest that the clinical benefit associated with intraperitoneal injections of these adult stem cells is related to immune modulation rather than tissue regeneration. PMID:24943487

  9. Empowerment and physical violence throughout women's reproductive life in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro, Roberto; Casique, Irene; Brindis, Claire D

    2008-06-01

    This article analyzes intimate partner violence (IPV) against women aged 15 to 21, 30 to 34, and 45 to 49, based on the 2003 National Survey on the Dynamics of Household Relationships (in Spanish, ENDIREH) in Mexico. The authors examined the degree of women's empowerment and autonomy in relation to their partners. Logit regression analyses showed that variables significantly associated with physical violence varied between the three age groups, suggesting that women followed specific trajectories throughout their reproductive lives. Some dimensions of empowerment reduced the risk of violence (women's ability to decide whether to work, when to have sexual relations, and the extent of their partners' participation in household chores). Other dimensions (women's decision making regarding reproductive matters) increased such risk. Thus, access to resources meant to empower women did not automatically decrease the risk of violence. The authors recommend specific interventions tailored to each age group, aimed at breaking the cycle of violence. PMID:18535307

  10. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside extends mouse life span via upregulating neural klotho and downregulating neural insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuanxuan; Yang, Qian; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Hu, Jing; Qiu, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Wang, Siwang

    2015-03-01

    A Chinese herb, Polygonatum multiflorum, has been reported to prolong animal life span, but the relevant molecular mechanism remains unclear. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) is one main component of P. multiflorum and may contribute to extending life span of mammals. On the other hand, neuronal insulin signaling mediates the life span of mammals. Therefore, we investigated the effects of TSG on memory ability, life span, and the neural insulin signaling in the senescence-accelerated prone mouse (SAMP8). TSG improved the memory ability significantly (p < 0.01, compared with a control group). TSG prolonged the life span of SAMP8 by 17% at the most (p < 0.01, compared with a control group). TSG increased the protein level of neural klotho and reduced the levels of neural insulin, insulin-receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in the brain of SAMP8 (p < 0.01, compared with a control group). All these proteins are key factors of the pathways related to neural insulin/IGF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that TSG has anti-aging effects on mammals. From these results, TSG from P. multiflorum should be developed as a potential anti-age drug. PMID:25595496

  11. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of SNEVhPrp19/hPso4 is involved in extending cellular life span and suppression of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dellago, Hanna; Khan, Abdulhameed; Nussbacher, Monika; Gstraunthaler, Anna; Lämmermann, Ingo; Schosserer, Markus; Mück, Christoph; Anrather, Dorothea; Scheffold, Annika; Ammerer, Gustav; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Voglauer-Grillari, Regina; Grillari, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Defective DNA repair is widely acknowledged to negatively impact on healthy aging, since mutations in DNA repair factors lead to accelerated and premature aging. However, the opposite, namely if improved DNA repair will also increase the life or health span is less clear, and only few studies have tested if overexpression of DNA repair factors modulates life and health span in cells or organisms. Recently, we identified and characterized SNEVhPrp19/hPso4, a protein that plays a role in DNA repair and pre-mRNA splicing, and observed a doubling of the replicative life span upon ectopic overexpression, accompanied by lower basal DNA damage and apoptosis levels as well as an increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we find that SNEVhPrp19/hPso4 is phosphorylated at S149 in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM)-dependent manner in response to oxidative stress and DNA double strand break inducing agents. By overexpressing wild-type SNEVhPrp19/hPso4 and a phosphorylation-deficient point-mutant, we found that S149 phosphorylation is necessary for mediating the resistance to apoptosis upon oxidative stress and is partially necessary for elongating the cellular life span. Therefore, ATM dependent phosphorylation of SNEVhPrp19/hPso4 upon DNA damage or oxidative stress might represent a novel axis capable of modulating cellular life span. PMID:22529335

  12. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Vélez-Uribe, Idaly

    2014-01-01

    Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge) and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability). Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:26317109

  13. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life

    PubMed Central

    Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted. PMID:24369133

  14. Early Reproductive Experiences in Females Make Differences in Cognitive Function Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rena; Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; Shen, Juliet; He, Ping; Shen, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive function in later life, research conducted on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth (primiparous or multiparous) compared to virgin controls (nulliparous). In this mini review, we will focus on the effect of early motherhood on cognitive function later in life, which would provide insight on how reproductive experiences influence women’s health during ageing. PMID:23271317

  15. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits. PMID:23213030

  16. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    PubMed

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments. PMID:26699477

  17. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. PMID:25542633

  18. COPEPOD REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: LIFE-HISTORY THEORY, PHYLOGENETIC PATTERN AND INVASION OF INLAND WATERS. (R824771)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...

  19. How Much Should We Weigh for a Long and Healthy Life Span? The Need to Reconcile Caloric Restriction versus Longevity with Body Mass Index versus Mortality Data

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzini, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Total caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters, it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U-shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI) with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25–29.9). Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI–mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: “excess fat is deleterious for health”; although a second interpretation may be that: “additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging.” This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be considered the “healthiest” for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span. PMID:25126085

  20. The Lignan Pinoresinol Induces Nuclear Translocation of DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans but has No Effect on Life Span.

    PubMed

    Koch, Karoline; Büchter, Christian; Havermann, Susannah; Wätjen, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The lignan pinoresinol is a constituent of flaxseed, sesame seeds and olive oil. Because of different molecular effects reported for this compound, e.g. antioxidative activity, pinoresinol is suggested to cause positive effects on humans. Because experimental data are limited, we have analysed the effects of the lignan on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: in spite of a strong antioxidative capacity detected in an in vitro assay, no antioxidative effects were detectable in vivo. In analogy to this result, no modulation of the sensitivity against thermal stress was detectable. However, incubation with pinoresinol caused an enhanced nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor DAF-16 (insulin/IGF-like signalling pathway). Using a strain with an enhanced oxidative stress level (mev-1 mutant), we clearly see an increase in stress resistance caused by this lignan, but no change in reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of pinoresinol on the life span of the nematode, but no modulation was found, neither in wild-type nor in mev-1 mutant nematodes. These results suggest that pinoresinol may exert pharmacologically interesting effects via modulation of the insulin-like signalling pathway in C.?elegans as well as in other species like mammals due to the evolutionary conservation of this signalling pathway. PMID:25826281

  1. The Concept of Homology as a Basis for Evaluating Developmental Mechanisms: Exploring Selective Attention Across the Life-Span

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Research with human infants as well as non-human animal embryos and infants has consistently demonstrated the benefits of intersensory redundancy for perceptual learning and memory for redundantly specified information during early development. Studies of infant affect discrimination, face discrimination, numerical discrimination, sequence detection, abstract rule learning, and word comprehension and segmentation have all shown that intersensory redundancy promotes earlier detection of these properties when compared to unimodal exposure to the same properties. Here we explore the idea that such intersensory facilitation is evident across the life-span and that this continuity is an example of a developmental behavioral homology. We present evidence that intersensory facilitation is most apparent during early phases of learning for a variety of tasks, regardless of developmental level, including domains that are novel or tasks that require discrimination of fine detail or speeded responses. Under these conditions, infants, children, and adults all show intersensory facilitation, suggesting a developmental homology. We discuss the challenge and propose strategies for establishing appropriate guidelines for identifying developmental behavioral homologies. We conclude that evaluating the extent to which continuities observed across development are homologous can contribute to a better understanding of the processes of development. PMID:22711341

  2. How long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of extended development and long life span

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    as incompetent hunters in ethnographies of hunter-gatherers. This paper explores the extent to which adultHow long does it take to become a proficient hunter? Implications for the evolution of extended development and long life span Michael Gurven a,*, Hillard Kaplan b , Maguin Gutierrez c a Department

  3. Differential reproductive responses to stress reveal the role of life-history strategies within a species

    PubMed Central

    Schultner, J.; Kitaysky, A. S.; Gabrielsen, G. W.; Hatch, S. A.; Bech, C.

    2013-01-01

    Life-history strategies describe that ‘slow’- in contrast to ‘fast’-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. Recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. Here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living Pacific and fast-living Atlantic black-legged kittiwakes. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive responses in kittiwakes under stress reflect their life-history strategies. We predicted that in response to stress, Pacific kittiwakes reduce investment in reproduction compared with Atlantic kittiwakes. We exposed chick-rearing kittiwakes to a short-term (3-day) period of increased exogenous corticosterone (CORT), a hormone that is released during food shortages. We examined changes in baseline CORT levels, parental care and effects on offspring. We found that kittiwakes from the two populations invested differently in offspring when facing stress. In response to elevated CORT, Pacific kittiwakes reduced nest attendance and deserted offspring more readily than Atlantic kittiwakes. We observed lower chick growth, a higher stress response in offspring and lower reproductive success in response to CORT implantation in Pacific kittiwakes, whereas the opposite occurred in the Atlantic. Our findings support the hypothesis that life-history strategies predict short-term responses of individuals to stress within a species. We conclude that behaviour and physiology under stress are consistent with trade-off priorities as predicted by life-history theory. We encourage future studies to consider the pivotal role of life-history strategies when interpreting inter-population differences of animal responses to stressful environmental events. PMID:24089339

  4. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom. I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare – one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while healthcare policy endorses this model for ideological and economic reasons. To contrast this, I propose a different model of care together with a different model of selfhood. Here I develop and apply Foucault's late work on the "care of the self." In this understanding of "care," I suggest that we might work towards an ethical self that is more commensurable both with recent theoretical views on subjectivity and – more pressingly – with the challenges of emergent biotechnologies. I end this paper with a discussion on ethical parenthood, which offers a practical reading of the "care of the self" in relation to new reproductive technologies (NRTs). PMID:17480234

  5. Trimethylation of Lys36 on H3 restricts gene expression change during aging and impacts life span.

    PubMed

    Pu, Mintie; Ni, Zhuoyu; Wang, Minghui; Wang, Xiujuan; Wood, Jason G; Helfand, Stephen L; Yu, Haiyuan; Lee, Siu Sylvia

    2015-04-01

    Functional data indicate that specific histone modification enzymes can be key to longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans, but the molecular basis of how chromatin structure modulates longevity is not well understood. In this study, we profiled the genome-wide pattern of trimethylation of Lys36 on histone 3 (H3K36me3) in the somatic cells of young and old Caenorhabditis elegans. We revealed a new role of H3K36me3 in maintaining gene expression stability through aging with important consequences on longevity. We found that genes with dramatic expression change during aging are marked with low or even undetectable levels of H3K36me3 in their gene bodies irrespective of their corresponding mRNA abundance. Interestingly, 3' untranslated region (UTR) length strongly correlates with H3K36me3 levels and age-dependent mRNA expression stability. A similar negative correlation between H3K36me3 marking and mRNA expression change during aging was also observed in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting a conserved mechanism for H3K36me3 in suppressing age-dependent mRNA expression change. Importantly, inactivation of the methyltransferase met-1 resulted in a decrease in global H3K36me3 marks, an increase in mRNA expression change with age, and a shortened life span, suggesting a causative role of the H3K36me3 marking in modulating age-dependent gene expression stability and longevity. PMID:25838541

  6. Trimethylation of Lys36 on H3 restricts gene expression change during aging and impacts life span

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Mintie; Ni, Zhuoyu; Wang, Minghui; Wang, Xiujuan; Wood, Jason G.; Helfand, Stephen L.; Yu, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Functional data indicate that specific histone modification enzymes can be key to longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans, but the molecular basis of how chromatin structure modulates longevity is not well understood. In this study, we profiled the genome-wide pattern of trimethylation of Lys36 on histone 3 (H3K36me3) in the somatic cells of young and old Caenorhabditis elegans. We revealed a new role of H3K36me3 in maintaining gene expression stability through aging with important consequences on longevity. We found that genes with dramatic expression change during aging are marked with low or even undetectable levels of H3K36me3 in their gene bodies irrespective of their corresponding mRNA abundance. Interestingly, 3? untranslated region (UTR) length strongly correlates with H3K36me3 levels and age-dependent mRNA expression stability. A similar negative correlation between H3K36me3 marking and mRNA expression change during aging was also observed in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting a conserved mechanism for H3K36me3 in suppressing age-dependent mRNA expression change. Importantly, inactivation of the methyltransferase met-1 resulted in a decrease in global H3K36me3 marks, an increase in mRNA expression change with age, and a shortened life span, suggesting a causative role of the H3K36me3 marking in modulating age-dependent gene expression stability and longevity. PMID:25838541

  7. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  8. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M

    2015-07-31

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken ?-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). PMID:26025364

  9. Body Size, Growth and Life Span: Implications for the Polewards Range Shift of Octopus tetricus in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge E.; Pecl, Gretta T.; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A.; Strugnell, Jan M.; León, Rafael I.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  10. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient.

  11. Deletion of Brca2 exon 27 causes hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks, chromosomal instability, and reduced life span in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoho, Greg; Brenneman, Mark A.; Cui, Tracy X.; Donoviel, Dorit; Vogel, Hannes; Goodwin, Edwin H.; Chen, David J.; Hasty, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27 encodes a single, distinct interaction domain. Deletion of all RAD51-interacting domains causes embryonic lethality in mice. A less severe phenotype is seen with BRAC2 truncations that preserve some, but not all, of the BRC motifs. These mice can survive beyond weaning, but are runted and infertile, and die very young from cancer. Cells from such mice show hypersensitivity to some genotoxic agents and chromosomal instability. Here, we have analyzed mice and cells with a deletion of only the RAD51-interacting region encoded by exon 27. Mice homozygous for this mutation (called brca2(lex1)) have a shorter life span than that of control littermates, possibly because of early onsets of cancer and sepsis. No other phenotype was observed in these animals; therefore, the brca2(lex1) mutation is less severe than truncations that delete some BRC motifs. However, at the cellular level, the brca2(lex1) mutation causes reduced viability, hypersensitivity to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and gross chromosomal instability, much like more severe truncations. Thus, the extreme carboxy-terminal region encoded by exon 27 is important for BRCA2 function, probably because it is required for a fully functional interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation) and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause. PMID:25405763

  13. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Kawamoto, T; Kawakami, R; Edo, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-09-01

    The life history, reproductive ecology and habitat utilization of the Itasenpara (deepbody) bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis were investigated in a lowland segment of the Moo River in Toyama Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Analysis of 1285 individuals revealed that the study population comprised a single size class, an age at maturation of 3 months and a life span of 1 year. On the basis of the growth pattern, the life cycle was divided into two stages: the juvenile stage, characterized by rapid growth, and the adult stage at which growth ceased. Spawning by A. longipinnis was recorded between early September and late October. Female A. longipinnis in the 0+ year age class began to mature when they reached a standard length (LS ) of 56·4 mm. Mature females had a large clutch size (maximum 273 eggs) and deposited highly adhesive and relatively large eggs (2·55 mm(3) ; major axis, 3·12 mm; minor axis, 1·22 mm) via a short ovipositor (mean length, 21·5 mm) into freshwater mussels. The embryos remained in the gill cavities of the freshwater mussels (used as a spawning substratum) and emerged as juveniles (LS , 9 mm). Habitat utilization during spawning was analysed using a generalized linear model. The best-fit model showed that three environmental factors (freshwater mussel availability, water depth and vegetation cover) were important variables for habitat utilization by A. longipinnis. Shallow areas (water depth, 250-330 mm) created for rice paddy management and areas with an abundance of cover were particularly effective for predator avoidance. These results suggest that maintenance of water level fluctuations corresponding with rice cultivation and the abundance of vegetation on the river bank (particularly avoidance of concrete revetments) is essential for conservation of this species under current practices for rice cultivation in Japan. PMID:26255608

  14. The development of memory efficiency and value-directed remembering across the life span: a cross-sectional study of memory and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Galván, Adriana; Balota, David A; McCabe, David P

    2011-11-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A selectivity task was used in which participants were asked to study and recall items worth different point values in order to maximize their point score. This procedure allowed for measures of memory quantity/capacity (number of words recalled) and memory efficiency/selectivity (the recall of high-value items relative to low-value items). Age-related differences were found for memory capacity, as young adults recalled more words than the other groups. However, in terms of selectivity, younger and older adults were more selective than adolescents and children. The dissociation between these measures across the life span illustrates important age-related differences in terms of memory capacity and the ability to selectively remember high-value information. PMID:21942664

  15. TSG (2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O- ? -D-glucoside) from the Chinese Herb Polygonum multiflorum Increases Life Span and Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Büchter, Christian; Zhao, Liang; Havermann, Susannah; Honnen, Sebastian; Fritz, Gerhard; Proksch, Peter; Wätjen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside (TSG) was isolated from Polygonum multiflorum, a plant which is traditionally used as an anti-ageing drug. We have analysed ageing-related effects of TSG in the model organism C. elegans in comparison to resveratrol. TSG exerted a high antioxidative capacity both in a cell-free assay and in the nematode. The antioxidative capacity was even higher compared to resveratrol. Presumably due to its antioxidative effects, treatment with TSG decreased the juglone-mediated induction of the antioxidative enzyme SOD-3; the induction of the GST-4 by juglone was diminished slightly. TSG increased the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal stress more prominently than resveratrol (50??M TSG increased mean survival by 22.2%). The level of the ageing pigment lipofuscin was decreased after incubation with the compound. TSG prolongs the mean, median, and maximum adult life span of C. elegans by 23.5%, 29.4%, and 7.2%, respectively, comparable to the effects of resveratrol. TSG-mediated extension of life span was not abolished in a DAF-16 loss-of-function mutant strain showing that this ageing-related transcription factor is not involved in the effects of TSG. Our data show that TSG possesses a potent antioxidative capacity, enhances the stress resistance, and increases the life span of the nematode C. elegans. PMID:26075030

  16. TSG (2,3,5,4?-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside) from the Chinese Herb Polygonum multiflorum Increases Life Span and Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Büchter, Christian; Zhao, Liang; Fritz, Gerhard; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    2,3,5,4?-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside (TSG) was isolated from Polygonum multiflorum, a plant which is traditionally used as an anti-ageing drug. We have analysed ageing-related effects of TSG in the model organism C. elegans in comparison to resveratrol. TSG exerted a high antioxidative capacity both in a cell-free assay and in the nematode. The antioxidative capacity was even higher compared to resveratrol. Presumably due to its antioxidative effects, treatment with TSG decreased the juglone-mediated induction of the antioxidative enzyme SOD-3; the induction of the GST-4 by juglone was diminished slightly. TSG increased the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal stress more prominently than resveratrol (50??M TSG increased mean survival by 22.2%). The level of the ageing pigment lipofuscin was decreased after incubation with the compound. TSG prolongs the mean, median, and maximum adult life span of C. elegans by 23.5%, 29.4%, and 7.2%, respectively, comparable to the effects of resveratrol. TSG-mediated extension of life span was not abolished in a DAF-16 loss-of-function mutant strain showing that this ageing-related transcription factor is not involved in the effects of TSG. Our data show that TSG possesses a potent antioxidative capacity, enhances the stress resistance, and increases the life span of the nematode C. elegans. PMID:26075030

  17. A structured population model suggests that long life and post-reproductive lifespan promote the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin; Rychtá?, Jan; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-03-21

    Social organization correlates with longevity across animal taxa. This correlation has been explained by selection for longevity by social evolution. The reverse causality is also conceivable but has not been sufficiently considered. We constructed a simple, spatially structured population model of asexually reproducing individuals to study the effect of temporal life history structuring on the evolution of cooperation. Individuals employed fixed strategies of cooperation or defection towards all neighbours in a basic Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm. Individuals aged and transitioned through different life history stages asynchronously without migration. An individual's death triggered a reproductive event by one immediate neighbour. The specific neighbour was chosen probabilistically according to the cumulative payoff from all local interactions. Varying the duration of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive life history stages, long-term simulations allowed a systematic evaluation of the influence of the duration of these specific life history stages. Our results revealed complex interactions among the effects of the three basic life history stages and the benefit to defect. Overall, a long post-reproductive stage promoted the evolution of cooperation, while a prolonged pre-reproductive stage has a negative effect. In general, the total length of life also increased the probability of the evolution of cooperation. Thus, our specific model suggests that the timing of life history transitions and total duration of life history stages may affect the evolution of cooperative behaviour. We conclude that the causation of the empirically observed association of life expectancy and sociality may be more complex than previously realized. PMID:25637763

  18. Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2009-07-01

    Variations among individuals in phenotypic quality and fitness often confound analyses of life-history strategies assessed at the population level. We used detailed long-term data from three populations of large herbivores with generation times ranging from four to nine years to quantify heterogeneity in individual quality among females, and to assess its influence on mean annual reproductive success over the lifetime (MRS). We also determined how environmental conditions in early life shaped individual quality and tested A. Lomnicki's hypothesis that variance in individual quality should increase when environmental conditions deteriorate. Using multivariate analyses (PCA), we identified one (in sheep and deer) or two (in goats) covariations among life-history traits (longevity, success in the last breeding opportunity, adult mass, and social rank) as indexes of individual quality that positively influenced MRS of females. Individual quality was reduced by unfavorable weather, low resource availability, and high population density in the year of birth. Early-life conditions accounted for 35-55% of variation in individual quality. In roe deer, we found greater variance in individual quality for cohorts born under unfavorable conditions as opposed to favorable ones, but the opposite was found in bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneity in female quality can originate from environmental conditions in early life and can markedly influence the fitness of females in species located at different positions along the slow-fast continuum of life-history strategies. PMID:19694145

  19. Antioxidant capacity of "Mexican arnica" Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives: their anti-inflammatory evaluation and effect on C. elegans life span.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the accumulation of biomolecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to aging. The antioxidant activity is related to the ability of certain compounds to protect against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving ROS. This ability is associated with the termination of free radical propagation in biological systems. From Heterotheca inuloides various compounds which have shown to possess antioxidant capacity and scavenging ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of additional natural components isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives, their anti-inflammatory activity and the effect on Caenorhabditis elegans nematode life span. Compounds showed ability to inhibit various biological processes such as lipid peroxidation, scavenge nonbiological important oxidants such as (1)O2, OH(?), H2O2, and HOCl and scavenge non biological stable free radicals (DPPH). Some cadinane type compounds showed possess antioxidant, ROS scavenging capacity, anti-inflammatory activity, and effect on the C. elegans life span. Flavonoid type compounds increased the life of the nematode and quercetin was identified as the compound with the greatest activity. The modification of chemical structure led to a change in the antioxidant capacity, the anti-inflammatory activity, and the survival of the worm. PMID:25821555

  20. Antioxidant Capacity of “Mexican Arnica” Heterotheca inuloides Cass Natural Products and Some Derivatives: Their Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation and Effect on C. elegans Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the accumulation of biomolecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to aging. The antioxidant activity is related to the ability of certain compounds to protect against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving ROS. This ability is associated with the termination of free radical propagation in biological systems. From Heterotheca inuloides various compounds which have shown to possess antioxidant capacity and scavenging ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of additional natural components isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives, their anti-inflammatory activity and the effect on Caenorhabditis elegans nematode life span. Compounds showed ability to inhibit various biological processes such as lipid peroxidation, scavenge nonbiological important oxidants such as 1O2, OH?, H2O2, and HOCl and scavenge non biological stable free radicals (DPPH). Some cadinane type compounds showed possess antioxidant, ROS scavenging capacity, anti-inflammatory activity, and effect on the C. elegans life span. Flavonoid type compounds increased the life of the nematode and quercetin was identified as the compound with the greatest activity. The modification of chemical structure led to a change in the antioxidant capacity, the anti-inflammatory activity, and the survival of the worm. PMID:25821555

  1. Expression of an AtNAP gene homolog in senescing morning glory (Ipomoea nil) petals of two cultivars with a different flower life span.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Ogiwara, Isao; Kanekatsu, Motoki; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    AtNAP, a NAC family transcription factor, has been shown to promote leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. We isolated an AtNAP homolog in morning glory (Ipomoea nil), designated InNAP, and investigated its expression during petal senescence. We used two cultivars, one showing a normal short flower life span (cv. Peking Tendan) and another a longer life span (cv. Violet). InNAP was highly expressed in both cultivars. Expression was high before that of the senescence marker gene InSAG12. InNAP and InSAG12 expression was high in cv. Peking Tendan before cv. Violet. The expression of both genes was therefore temporally related to the onset of the visible senescence symptoms. An inhibitor of ethylene action (silver thiosulphate, STS) delayed petal senescence in cv. Peking Tendan but had no effect in cv. Violet. STS treatment had no clear effect on the InNAP expression in petals of both cultivars, suggesting that endogenous ethylene may not be necessary for its induction. These data suggest the hypothesis that InNAP plays a role in petal senescence, independent of the role of endogenous ethylene. PMID:24709156

  2. Transcriptional remodeling in response to transfer upon carbon-limited or metformin-supplemented media in S. cerevisiae and its effect on chronological life span.

    PubMed

    Borklu-Yucel, Esra; Eraslan, Serpil; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2015-08-01

    One of the factors affecting chronological life span (CLS) in budding yeast is nutrient, especially carbon limitation. Aside from metabolites in the growth medium such as glucose, amino acids, and acetic acid, many pharmaceuticals have also been proven to alter CLS. Besides their impact on life span, these drugs are also prospective chemicals to treat the age-associated diseases, so the identification of their action mechanism and their potential side effects is of crucial importance. In this study, the effects of caloric restriction and metformin, a dietary mimetic pharmaceutical, on yeast CLS are compared. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in synthetic dextrose complete (SDC) up to mid-exponential phase were either treated with metformin or were subjected to glucose limitation. The impacts of these perturbations were analyzed via transcriptomics, and the common (stimulation of glucose uptake, induction of mitochondrial maintenance, and reduction of protein translation) and divergent (stimulation of aerobic respiration and reprogramming of respiratory electron transport chain (ETC)) cellular responses specific to each treatment were determined. These results revealed that both glucose limitation and metformin treatment stimulate CLS extension and involve the mitochondrial function, probably by creating an efficient mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling of either aerobic respiration or ETC signaling stimulation, respectively. PMID:26099330

  3. Dead or alive: Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated winter losses of managed honey bee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae and associated viruses. Here, we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expecta...

  4. Being Labeled as Gifted, Self-Appraisal, and Psychological Well-Being: A Life Span Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Holahan, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relation of being labeled as intellectually gifted to a mid-life appraisal of having lived up to one's abilities and to psychological well-being at age 80. Learning at a younger age of membership in a study of intellectual giftedness was related to less likelihood of believing that one has lived up to one's intellectual abilities at…

  5. InterLACE: A New International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Women's Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; Anderson, Debra; Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Adami, Hans-Olov; Avis, Nancy E; Brown, Daniel; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunner, Eric; Cade, Janet E; Crawford, Sybil L; Dobson, Annette J; Elliott, Jane; Giles, Graham G; Gold, Ellen B; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Kuh, Diana; Lee, Kathryn A; Lee, Jung Su; Melby, Melissa K; Mizunuma, Hideki; Sievert, Lynette L; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from population-based studies of women increasingly points to the inter-related nature of reproductive health, lifestyle, and chronic disease risk. This paper describes the recently established International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease. InterLACE aims to advance the evidence base for women's health policy beyond associations from disparate studies by means of systematic and culturally sensitive synthesis of longitudinal data. Currently InterLACE draws on individual level data for reproductive health and chronic disease among 200,000 women from over thirteen studies of women's health in seven countries. The rationale for this multi-study research programme is set out in terms of a life course perspective to reproductive health. The research programme will build a comprehensive picture of reproductive health through life in relation to chronic disease risk. Although combining multiple international studies poses methodological challenges, InterLACE represents an invaluable opportunity to strength evidence to guide the development of timely and tailored preventive health strategies. PMID:23313437

  6. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long-term implementation comprises opportunities, risks and needs. The most common reason for not using the RLP was lack of information. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION There was general lack of experience of using the RLP with women from different cultural backgrounds, with non-Swedish speaking women and, when a partner was present. Due to the non-random sample, the limited knowledge about non-responders and a short follow-up period, results apply to short-term implementations and might not fully apply to long-term implementation. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The use of RLP in contraceptive counselling appears a feasible way of promoting reproductive health. Results from the USA and Sweden indicate it is a promising tool for midwives and other health professionals involved in reproductive counselling, which deserves to be explored in other nations. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Grants were received from the Medical Faculty at Uppsala University and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health. There are no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:25771220

  7. The Study of Life Review. An Approach to the Investigation of Intellectual Development across the Life Span. Studien und Berichte 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudinger, Ursula M.

    A study looked for age differences in the quality of responses to the Life Review Task (LRT), studied the LRT itself as a tool for exploring wisdom and intellectual functioning in adulthood, and considered personality characteristics and life experience as alternative predictors of response quality. Sixty-three West German women of different ages…

  8. Making eggs from nectar: the role of life history and dietary carbon turnover in butterfly reproductive resource allocation

    E-print Network

    Boggs, Carol L.

    Making eggs from nectar: the role of life history and dietary carbon turnover in butterfly turnover in butterfly reproductive resource allocation. Á/ Oikos 105: 279Á/291. The diets of many proposed for that species. This similarity suggests that the turnover from larval to adult dietary support

  9. Anim. Behar., 1986,34,551560 Reproductive life history correlates of early and late sexual maturation in

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    maturation in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) MERTICE M. CLARK, CHERYL A. SPENCER & BENNETT Abstract, Age at vaginal introitus is bimodally distributed in female domesticated Mongolian gerbils; some- and late-maturing female gerbils to ditfer significantly in reproductive life history. Early

  10. Age differences in big five behavior averages and variabilities across the adult life span: moving beyond retrospective, global summary accounts of personality.

    PubMed

    Noftle, Erik E; Fleeson, William

    2010-03-01

    In 3 intensive cross-sectional studies, age differences in behavior averages and variabilities were examined. Three questions were posed: Does variability differ among age groups? Does the sizable variability in young adulthood persist throughout the life span? Do past conclusions about trait development, based on trait questionnaires, hold up when actual behavior is examined? Three groups participated: young adults (18-23 years), middle-aged adults (35-55 years), and older adults (65-81 years). In 2 experience-sampling studies, participants reported their current behavior multiple times per day for 1- or 2-week spans. In a 3rd study, participants interacted in standardized laboratory activities on 8 occasions. First, results revealed a sizable amount of intraindividual variability in behavior for all adult groups, with average within-person standard deviations ranging from about half a point to well over 1 point on 6-point scales. Second, older adults were most variable in Openness, whereas young adults were most variable in Agreeableness and Emotional Stability. Third, most specific patterns of maturation-related age differences in actual behavior were more greatly pronounced and differently patterned than those revealed by the trait questionnaire method. When participants interacted in standardized situations, personality differences between young adults and middle-aged adults were larger, and older adults exhibited a more positive personality profile than they exhibited in their everyday lives. PMID:20230131

  11. Investigation of a free-tip rotor configuration for research on spanwise life distributions and wake velocity surveys of a semi-span wing with a discontinuous twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, Paul; Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Ames 7 x 10 Foot Wind Tunnel to investigate the lift distribution on a semi-span wing with a discontinuous change in spanwise twist. The semi-span wing had a tip with an adjustable pitch angle independent on the inboard section pitch angle simulating the free-tip rotor blade when its free-tip is at a deflected position. The spanwise lift distribution over the wing and the tip were measured and three component velocity surveys behind the wing were obtained with a three dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter (LV) with the wing at one angle of attack and the tip deflected at different pitch angles. A six component internal strain gage balance was also used to measure total forces and moments on the tip. The three dimensional lift was computed from the two dimensional life distributions obtained from the LV and from the strain gage balance. The results from both experimental methods are shown to be in agreement with predictions made by a steady, three dimensional panel code, VSAERO.

  12. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    TACKETT, JENNIFER L.; BALSIS, STEVE; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.

    2010-01-01

    Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880

  13. Reproductive Effort and Reproductive Values in Periodic Environments.

    PubMed

    Brommer; Kokko; Pietiäinen

    2000-04-01

    Life-history theory concerns the optimal spread of reproduction over an organism's life span. In variable environments, there may be extrinsic differences between breeding periods within an organism's life, affecting both offspring and parent and giving rise to intergenerational trade-offs. Such trade-offs are often discussed in terms of reproductive value for parent and offspring. Here, we consider parental life-history optimization in response to varying offspring values of a population regulated by territoriality, where the quality of the environment varies periodically. Periods are interpreted as either within-year (seasonality) or between-years variation (cyclicity). The evolutionarily stable strategy in a general model with two-phased periodicity in the environment can generate either higher or lower effort in the more favorable of the two phases; hence knowing survival prospects of offspring does not suffice for predicting reproductive effort-the future of all descendants and the parent must be tracked. We also apply our method to data on the Ural owl Strix uralensis, a species preying on cyclically fluctuating voles. The observed dynamics are best predicted by assuming delayed reproductive costs and Type II functional response. Accounting for varying offspring values can lead to cases where both reproductive effort and recruitment of offspring are higher in the phase when voles are not maximally abundant, a pattern supported by our data. PMID:10753074

  14. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with disability from many of the associated conditions. PMID:10859859

  15. Immortalization of Human Fetal Cells: The Life Span of Umbilical Cord Blood-derived Cells Can Be Prolonged without Manipulating p16INK4a/RB Braking PathwayD?

    PubMed Central

    Terai, Masanori; Uyama, Taro; Sugiki, Tadashi; Li, Xiao-Kang; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kiyono, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) are expected to serve as an excellent alternative to bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. However, it is difficult to study them because of their limited life span. To overcome this problem, we attempted to produce a strain of UCBMSCs with a long life span and to investigate whether the strain could maintain phenotypes in vitro. UCBMSCs were infected with retrovirus carrying the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to prolong their life span. The UCBMSCs underwent 30 population doublings (PDs) and stopped dividing at PD 37. The UCBMSCs newly established with hTERT (UCBTERTs) proliferated for >120 PDs. The p16INK4a/RB braking pathway leading to senescence can be inhibited by introduction of Bmi-1, a polycomb-group gene, and human papillomavirus type 16 E7, but the extension of the life span of the UCBMSCs with hTERT did not require inhibition of the p16INK4a/RB pathway. The characteristics of the UCBTERTs remained unchanged during the prolongation of life span. UCBTERTs provide a powerful model for further study of cellular senescence and for future application to cell-based therapy by using umbilical cord blood cells. PMID:15647378

  16. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Duval, Camille; Zimmer, Cédric; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, Phillip; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-11-01

    Physiological constraints on colouration have been widely reported; especially in birds, which trade-off antioxidant responses against colourful costly signals. One female extended phenotypic trait, which might also highlight important physiological trade-offs, is the pigmentation of their eggshells. In ground-nesting species, producing eggs that are visually undetectable by predators is the best camouflage strategy. However, the condition-dependence of eggshell pigmentation, and the pigments role in oxidative stress, may constrain females to trade-off between their antioxidant capacity and maximising the camouflage of their eggs when they deposit eggshell pigments. Developmental stress is one factor that influences female antioxidant capacity, and could lead to variations in eggshell pigmentation that might have crucial consequences on individual fitness if egg crypsis is compromised especially under stressful conditions. We investigated the interaction between developmental and breeding conditions with respect to eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail. We studied 30 females that bred under both control and stressful conditions, and were exposed to pre- and/or post-natal stress, or neither. Pre- and post-natal stress independently influenced eggshell pigmentation strategies under stressful breeding conditions. Under stressful reproduction, eggshell protoporphyrin concentration and maculation were affected by pre-natal stress, whereas eggshell reflectance and biliverdin concentration were influenced by post-natal stress. These changes may reflect potential adaptive strategies shaped by developmental stress, but additional data on the benefit of egg crypsis in quail, combined with studies on the role of both pigments on chick survival, will help to clarify whether early life stress can enhance fitness through eggshell pigmentation when developmental and reproductive environments match. PMID:25169834

  17. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martí, María L.; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27–36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37–46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47–57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span. PMID:25408678

  18. Telomeres and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract. PMID:23273986

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... their life span. C. Results of chronic tests in which survival, growth, or reproduction in the control... embryos or newly hatched young less than 48 hours old, continue through maturation and reproduction, and... species that require more than a year to reach sexual maturity, so that all major life stages can...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... their life span. C. Results of chronic tests in which survival, growth, or reproduction in the control... embryos or newly hatched young less than 48 hours old, continue through maturation and reproduction, and... species that require more than a year to reach sexual maturity, so that all major life stages can...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... their life span. C. Results of chronic tests in which survival, growth, or reproduction in the control... embryos or newly hatched young less than 48 hours old, continue through maturation and reproduction, and... species that require more than a year to reach sexual maturity, so that all major life stages can...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... their life span. C. Results of chronic tests in which survival, growth, or reproduction in the control... embryos or newly hatched young less than 48 hours old, continue through maturation and reproduction, and... species that require more than a year to reach sexual maturity, so that all major life stages can...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... their life span. C. Results of chronic tests in which survival, growth, or reproduction in the control... embryos or newly hatched young less than 48 hours old, continue through maturation and reproduction, and... species that require more than a year to reach sexual maturity, so that all major life stages can...

  4. Reproductive adaptation in Drosophila exposed to oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloek, G.; Winkle, L.

    1979-01-01

    Ten successive generations of a Drosophila melanogaster population were exposed to an atmospheric mix of 50% oxygen/50% nitrogen at standard pressure. This atmospheric mix has been shown to be toxic to this species and causes significantly shortened life span. By the fifth generation, survivorship and life span for the first 25-30 days were identical to control populations and total life span was shorter by only a few days. Egg-laying rates were stable in the experimental populations but below those of the controls. Hatching success was identical between experimental and control populations. Even though the egg-laying rates were lower in 50% oxygen, it was concluded that the population had adapted and could maintain a stable population in these conditions. The near-normal life spans, normal hatching rates, and overall population stability, exhibited following five generations of adaptation, were considered sufficient to allow continued reproduction in spite of a reduced egg-laying rate.

  5. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wan-chi; Li, Yin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Xu, Huanu

    2014-01-01

    An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637). The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales) for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither “primacy of primary control” nor “primacy of secondary control” was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos' ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses. PMID:24904483

  6. Life span in online communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosi?ski, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users’ activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users’ lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  7. Life span in online communities.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, A; Kosi?ski, R A

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users' activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users' lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation. PMID:21230706

  8. Long-term oral administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine extends life span in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Akira; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2015-04-10

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by extension of a CAG repeat in the Sca1gene. Although the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of SCA1 have not been determined, aberrant neuronal activation potentially contributes to the neuronal cell death characteristic of the disease. Here we examined the potential involvement of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation in the pathogenesis of SCA1 by administering memantine, a low-affinity noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, in SCA1 knock-in (KI) mice. In KI mice, the exon in the ataxin 1 gene is replaced with abnormally expanded 154CAG repeats. Memantine was administered orally to the SCA1 KI mice from 4 weeks of age until death. The treatment significantly attenuated body-weight loss and prolonged the life span of SCA1 KI mice. Furthermore, memantine significantly suppressed the loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, which are critical for motor function and parasympathetic function, respectively. These findings support the contribution of aberrant activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs to neuronal cell death in SCA1 KI mice and suggest that memantine may also have therapeutic benefits in human SCA1 patients. PMID:25725171

  9. Manganous ion supplementation accelerates wild type development, enhances stress resistance, and rescues the life span of a short-lived Caenorhabditis elegans mutant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Hoang, Hanh; Hsieh, Scott I; Rangel, Natalie; Foster, Amanda L; Sampayo, James N; Lithgow, Gordon J; Srinivasan, Chandra

    2006-04-01

    Relative to iron and copper we know very little about the cellular roles of manganese. Some studies claim that manganese acts as a radical scavenger in unicellular organisms, while there have been other reports that manganese causes Parkinson's disease-like syndrome, DNA fragmentation, and interferes with cellular energy production. The goal of this study was to uncover if manganese has any free radical scavenging properties in the complex multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. We measured internal manganese in supplemented worms using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the data obtained suggest that manganese supplemented to the growth medium is taken up by the worms. We found that manganese did not appear to be toxic as supplementation did not negatively effect development or fertility. In fact, supplementation at higher levels accelerated development and increased total fertility of wild type worms by 16%. Manganese-supplemented wild type worms were found to be thermotolerant and, under certain conditions, long-lived. In addition, the oxidatively challenged C. elegans strain mev-1's short life span was significantly increased after manganese supplementation. Although manganese appears to be beneficial to C. elegans, the mode of action remains unclear. Manganese may work directly as a free radical scavenger, as it has been postulated to do so in unicellular organisms, or may work indirectly by up regulating several protective factors. PMID:16545686

  10. The effect of race and predictors of socioeconomic status on diet quality in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study sample

    PubMed Central

    Raffensperger, Sarah; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Cotugna, Nancy; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine effects of race and predictors of socioeconomic status (SES) on nutrient-based diet quality and their contribution to health disparities in an urban population of low SES. Design Data were analyzed from a sample of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) Study participants examining effects of age, sex, race, income, poverty income ratio (PIR), education, employment, and smoking status on nutrient-based diet quality as measured by a micronutrient composite index of nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Regression models were used to examine associations and t-tests were used to look at racial differences. Subjects African American and white adults ages 30-64 residing in 12 predefined census tracts in Baltimore City, Maryland. Results Sex, age, education, PIR, and income were statistically significant predictors of diet quality for African Americans, while sex, education, and smoking status were statistically significant for whites. African Americans had lower MAR scores than whites (76.4 vs. 79.1). Whites had significantly higher NAR scores for thiamin, riboflavin, folate, B12, vitamins A and E, magnesium, copper, zinc, and calcium, while African Americans had higher vitamin C scores. Conclusion Education significantly impacted diet quality in the HANDLS sample, but race cannot be discounted. Whether the racial differences in diet quality are indicative of cultural differences in food preferences, selection, preparation, and availability or disparities in socioeconomic status remains unclear. PMID:21053707

  11. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Causes Lifelong Molecular Reprogramming of the Hypothalamus and Premature Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Zama, Aparna M.; Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Gestational exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors reprograms expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive aging. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 ?g/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were aged to 16–17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life exposure to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence. PMID:22016562

  12. Combination of hTERT and bmi-1, E6, or E7 Induces Prolongation of the Life Span of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells from an Elderly Donor without Affecting Their Neurogenic Potential†

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Taisuke; Kiyono, Tohru; Imabayashi, Hideaki; Takeda, Yukiji; Tsuchiya, Kohei; Miyoshi, Shunichirou; Makino, Hatsune; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Ogawa, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Michiie; Hata, Jun-Ichi; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    Murine bone marrow stromal cells differentiate not only into mesodermal derivatives, such as osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, skeletal myocytes, and cardiomyocytes, but also into neuroectodermal cells in vitro. Human bone marrow stromal cells are easy to isolate but difficult to study because of their limited life span. To overcome this problem, we attempted to prolong the life span of bone marrow stromal cells and investigated whether bone marrow stromal cells modified with bmi-1, hTERT, E6, and E7 retained their differentiated capability, or multipotency. In this study, we demonstrated that the life span of bone marrow stromal cells derived from a 91-year-old donor could be extended and that the stromal cells with an extended life span differentiated into neuronal cells in vitro. We examined the neuronally differentiated cells morphologically, physiologically, and biologically and compared the gene profiles of undifferentiated and differentiated cells. The neuronally differentiated cells exhibited characteristics similar to those of midbrain neuronal progenitors. Thus, the results of this study support the possible use of autologous-cell graft systems to treat central nervous system diseases in geriatric patients. PMID:15923633

  13. Reproduction and early life history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the St. Louis River, a Lake Superior tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, William P.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1998-01-01

    Reproduction and early life history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) was investigated during April to July in 1993 and 1994 in the St. Louis River, a western Lake Superior tributary. This study was conducted to assist fishery managers in determining possible interactions among the early life history stages of ruffe and other North American percids, and in obtaining information useful in developing control methods targeted at the early life history stages of ruffe. Ruffe had a prolonged spawning period that extended from late April to late June with peak spawning in mid to late May when water temperatures were between 12 and 14 degrees C. The majority of ruffe protolarva were captured 1 to 2 weeks after egg deposition between mid May and late June and most were captured in water 0.5-m deep. Onshore-offshore movements were not observed, but diel vertical movements of larval ruffe were observed on several occasions. The greatest chance of ballast water transport of pelagic larval ruffe is between mid May and July. Information on reproduction and early life history in this report will assist fishery managers in development of ruffe control methods, and assist Great Lakes shipping in ballast water management to prevent the spread of ruffe.

  14. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6?mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  15. Reproductive History and Later-Life Comorbidity Trajectories: A Medicare-Linked Cohort Study From the Utah Population Database.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R; Zimmer, Zachary

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive lives of men and women may provide significant insight into later-life morbidity and mortality. Sociological, biological, and evolutionary theories predict a relationship between reproductive history and later-life health; however, current research is lacking consensus on the direction of the relationship. Parity, early age at first birth and last birth, birth weight of offspring, having a child die as an infant, and having a preterm birth may have long-term effects on health for both men and women. In this study, the relationship between these measures of reproductive history and later-life health is examined using the Utah Population Database (a rich source of longitudinal data), and Medicare claims data from 1992-2009. Later-life health is measured using annual Charlson comorbidity index scores, a construct that summarizes most serious illnesses afflicting older individuals. Group-based trajectory modeling that accounts for nonrandom attrition due to death is used to identify the number and types of morbidity trajectories by sex and age for 52,924 individuals aged 65-84 in 1992. For females, early age at first birth, high parity, and having a preterm or high-birth-weight baby are associated with increased risks of comorbidity; later age at last birth is associated with a decreased risk of comorbidity. For males, early age at first birth and having a child with an abnormal birth weight leads to increased risk of comorbidity. The results suggest that both biological and social factors play important roles in the relationships between fertility and morbidity profiles at older ages. PMID:26527471

  16. Social-Emotional Support, Life Satisfaction, and Mental Health on Reproductive Age Women’s Health Utilization, US, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Willet, Michelle N.; Zaha, Rebecca L.; Fuddy, Loretta J.

    2015-01-01

    To examine the associations among social-emotional support, life satisfaction, and mental health with not having a routine checkup among women of reproductive age in the US, data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of health behaviors, were analyzed among reproductive aged (18–44 years) women in the US. Prevalence estimates were calculated for not having a routine checkup in the past year with measures of social-emotional support, life satisfaction, and mental distress. Independent multivariable logistic regressions for each measure assessed not having a routine checkup within the past year with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, education level, and health care coverage. Among women of reproductive age, 33.7 % (95 % CI 33.0–34.4) did not have a routine checkup within the past year. Factors associated with not having a routine checkup included: having social-emotional support most of the time (AOR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.20–1.38) or sometimes or less (AOR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.34–1.61) compared to those who reported always having the social-emotional support they need; reporting life satisfaction as being satisfied (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.19–1.36) or dissatisfied (AOR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.43–1.91) compared to being very satisfied; and frequent mental distress (AOR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.09–1.30) compared to those without. Women who report lower levels of social-emotional support, less life satisfaction, and frequent mental distress are less likely to see a doctor for a routine checkup. Targeted outreach that provides appropriate support are needed so these women can access clinical services to increase exposure to preventive health opportunities and improve overall health. PMID:22956364

  17. Perceived risk of predation affects reproductive life-history traits in Gambusia holbrooki, but not in Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shomen; Heithaus, Michael R; Trexler, Joel C; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Vaudo, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less documented, and appreciated, is the potential for predator presence to directly suppress prey reproduction and affect life-history characteristics. For the first time, we tested the effects of visual predator cues on reproduction of two prey species with different reproductive modes, lecithotrophy (i.e. embryonic development primarily fueled by yolk) and matrotrophy (i.e. energy for embryonic development directly supplied by the mother to the embryo through a vascular connection). Predation risk suppressed reproduction in the lecithotrophic prey (Gambusia holbrokii) but not the matrotroph (Heterandria formosa). Predator stress caused G. holbrooki to reduce clutch size by 43%, and to produce larger and heavier offspring compared to control females. H. formosa, however, did not show any such difference. In G. holbrooki we also found a significantly high percentage (14%) of stillbirths in predator-exposed treatments compared to controls (2%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct empirical evidence of predation stress affecting stillbirths in prey. Our results suggest that matrotrophy, superfetation (clutch overlap), or both decrease the sensitivity of mothers to environmental fluctuation in resource (food) and stress (predation risk) levels compared to lecithotrophy. These mechanisms should be considered both when modeling consequences of perceived risk of predation on prey-predator population dynamics and when seeking to understand the evolution of reproductive modes. PMID:24551171

  18. Temperature-related variation in growth rate, size, maturation and life span in a marine herbivorous fish over a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Trip, Elizabeth D L; Clements, Kendall D; Raubenheimer, David; Choat, J Howard

    2014-07-01

    In ectotherms, growth rate, body size and maturation rate covary with temperature, with the direction and magnitude of variation predicted by the Temperature-Size Rule (TSR). Nutritional quality or availability of food, however, may vary over latitudinal gradients, resulting in ambiguous effects on body size and maturation rate. The Temperature-Constraint Hypothesis (TCH) predicts that marine herbivorous ectotherms are nutritionally compromised at latitudes exceeding 30°. This provides an opportunity to resolve the contrasting demographic responses of ectotherms to variation in temperature and nutritional status over latitudinal gradients. This study uses analysis of demographic rates to evaluate the predictions of the TSR in a marine herbivorous ectotherm sampled over a significant latitudinal gradient. The direction and magnitude of demographic variation was established in the marine herbivorous fish, Odax pullus (the butterfish), and compared with that of a phylogenetically related but trophically distinct species, the carnivorous Notolabrus fucicola (the banded wrasse). Both species were sampled at three locations across the length of New Zealand covering latitudes between 35°S and 49°S. Growth rate, mean size-at-age, age- and size-at-maturity, life span and abundance were estimated for each species at each location. Demographic traits of both taxa varied with latitude. Both species showed slower initial growth rates, and matured later at a larger body size at higher latitudes than populations sampled at lower latitudes. In addition, abundances increased significantly at higher latitudes in both species. These results were consistent with the TSR but not with the TCH, confirming that nutritional ecology (herbivore vs. carnivory) did not determine demographic patterns over a biologically significant latitudinal gradient. Results from this study suggest that the absence of herbivorous reef fishes from the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere may not reflect a general physiological mechanism as suggested by the TCH and highlights the need to clarify the evolutionary histories of the marine biota of each hemisphere. PMID:24252150

  19. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study:?Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study.?Design and Method:?The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches.?Results:?This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants.?Implications:?Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  20. Life as a bachelor: quantifying the success of an alternative reproductive tactic in male blue monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cords, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In species that live in one-male groups, resident males monopolize access to a group of females and are assumed to have higher reproductive success than bachelors. We tested this assumption using genetic, demographic, and behavioral data from 8 groups of wild blue monkeys observed over 10 years to quantify reproduction by residents and bachelors and compare the success of the two tactics. We used maximum-likelihood methods to assign sires to 104 offspring born in the study groups, 36 of which were sired by extra-group males, i.e., residents of neighboring groups and bachelors. Among these extra-group males, high-ranking males (many of whom were neighboring residents) were more likely to sire offspring than low-ranking males, but the time these visiting males spent in the mother’s group when she conceived (male presence) did not predict their relative success. When bachelors competed for reproduction with other bachelors, neither rank nor male presence during the mother’s conceptive period affected the probability of siring an offspring, suggesting that highly opportunistic mating with conceptive females is important in bachelor reproduction. In a second analysis, we used long-term data to estimate resident and bachelor reproductive success over the long term, and particularly to determine if there are any circumstances in which a typical bachelor may sire as many offspring as a typical resident during one or two periods of residency. Our findings generally support the assumption of a resident reproductive advantage because in most circumstances, a lifelong bachelor would be unable to sire as many offspring as a resident. However, a bachelor who performs at the average rate in the average number of groups for several years may have similar lifetime reproductive success as a male whose reproduction is limited to one short period of residency, especially in a small group. Our findings suggest that one should not assume a resident reproductive advantage for males in one-male groups in all circumstances. PMID:26131380

  1. The perfume of reproduction in birds: chemosignaling in avian social life.

    PubMed

    Caro, Samuel P; Balthazart, Jacques; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Chemical cues were probably the first cues ever used to communicate and are still ubiquitous among living organisms. Birds have long been considered an exception: it was believed that birds were anosmic and relied on their acute visual and acoustic capabilities. Birds are however excellent smellers and use odors in various contexts including food searching, orientation, and also breeding. Successful reproduction in most vertebrates involves the exchange of complex social signals between partners. The first evidence for a role of olfaction in reproductive contexts in birds only dates back to the seventies, when ducks were shown to require a functional sense of smell to express normal sexual behaviors. Nowadays, even if the interest for olfaction in birds has largely increased, the role that bodily odors play in reproduction still remains largely understudied. The few available studies suggest that olfaction is involved in many reproductive stages. Odors have been shown to influence the choice and synchronization of partners, the choice of nest-building material or the care for the eggs and offspring. How this chemical information is translated at the physiological level mostly remains to be described, although available evidence suggests that, as in mammals, key reproductive brain areas like the medial preoptic nucleus are activated by relevant olfactory signals. Olfaction in birds receives increasing attention and novel findings are continuously published, but many exciting discoveries are still ahead of us, and could make birds one of the animal classes with the largest panel of developed senses ever described. PMID:24928570

  2. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine in a preindustrial population

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Rickard, Ian J.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with insufficient nutrition during development often experience poorer later-life health and evolutionary fitness. The Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that poor early-life nutrition induces physiological changes that maximize fitness in similar environments in adulthood and that metabolic diseases result when individuals experiencing poor nutrition during development subsequently encounter good nutrition in adulthood. However, although cohort studies have shown that famine exposure in utero reduces health in favorable later-life conditions, no study on humans has demonstrated the predicted fitness benefit under low later-life nutrition, leaving the evolutionary origins of such plasticity unexplored. Taking advantage of a well-documented famine and unique datasets of individual life histories and crop yields from two preindustrial Finnish populations, we provide a test of key predictions of the PAR hypothesis. Known individuals from fifty cohorts were followed from birth until the famine, where we analyzed their survival and reproductive success in relation to the crop yields around birth. We were also able to test whether the long-term effects of early-life nutrition differed between individuals of varying socioeconomic status. We found that, contrary to predictions of the PAR hypothesis, individuals experiencing low early-life crop yields showed lower survival and fertility during the famine than individuals experiencing high early-life crop yields. These effects were more pronounced among young individuals and those of low socioeconomic status. Our results do not support the hypothesis that PARs should have been favored by natural selection and suggest that alternative models may need to be invoked to explain the epidemiology of metabolic diseases. PMID:23918366

  3. DEVELOPMENT, LIFE HISTORY Geographic Variation in Adult Survival and Reproductive Tactics of

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    , survival, fecundity, reproductive investment The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse health risks (Lounibos 2002). Of fundamental importance to the invasion and spread of an organism). In many in- stances, energy available to organisms is limiting; thus, trade-offs occur among traits when

  4. An FXPRLamide Neuropeptide Induces Seasonal Reproductive Polyphenism Underlying a Life-History Tradeoff in the Tussock Moth

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Hiroshi; Senoh, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kyohei; Kato, Yoshiomi; Shiomi, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    The white spotted tussock moth, Orgyia thyellina, is a typical insect that exhibits seasonal polyphenisms in morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits, including a life-history tradeoff known as oogenesis-flight syndrome. However, the developmental processes and molecular mechanisms that mediate developmental plasticity, including life-history tradeoff, remain largely unknown. To analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive polyphenism, including the diapause induction, we first cloned and characterized the diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) cDNA encoding the five Phe-X-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH2 (FXPRLa) neuropeptides: DH, PBAN, and ?-, ?-, and ?-SGNPs (subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides). This gene is expressed in neurosecretory cells within the subesophageal ganglion whose axonal projections reach the neurohemal organ, the corpus cardiacum, suggesting that the DH neuroendocrine system is conserved in Lepidoptera. By injection of chemically synthetic DH and anti-FXPRLa antibody into female pupae, we revealed that not only does the Orgyia DH induce embryonic diapause, but also that this neuropeptide induces seasonal polyphenism, participating in the hypertrophy of follicles and ovaries. In addition, the other four FXPRLa also induced embryonic diapause in O. thyellina, but not in Bombyx mori. This is the first study showing that a neuropeptide has a pleiotropic effect in seasonal reproductive polyphenism to accomplish seasonal adaptation. We also show that a novel factor (i.e., the DH neuropeptide) acts as an important inducer of seasonal polyphenism underlying a life-history tradeoff. Furthermore, we speculate that there must be evolutionary conservation and diversification in the neuroendocrine systems of two lepidopteran genera, Orgyia and Bombyx, in order to facilitate the evolution of coregulated life-history traits and tradeoffs. PMID:21887383

  5. Reproduction & life I. Reproductive cycles

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Fertilization l Evolved independently several times l Only a few Anurans, 90% salamanders & all caecilians (phallodeum) § Caecilians have Mullerian glands (unique) - fluid for transporting sperm From Sever (2002 in temperature l Limited to Caecilians, salamanders & frogs found in warmer regions l In reptiles ­ Associated

  6. Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María; Mejías, José; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. PMID:26697222

  7. Reproductive bionomics and life history traits of three gammaridean amphipods, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, Ampithoe laxipodus Appadoo and Myers and Mallacoota schellenbergi Ledoyer from the tropical Indian Ocean (Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appadoo, Chandani; Myers, Alan A.

    2004-12-01

    The reproductive bionomics and life history traits of two corophiid amphipods ( Ampithoe laxipodus, Cymadusa filosa) and one melitid ( Mallacoota schellenbergi) were studied in Mauritius (Indian Ocean) for the period March 1999 to February 2000. Results on the population structure, monthly size class variations, sex ratio, female reproductive states and fecundity are presented. The study demonstrates multivoltinism and continuous reproduction in the three species. Increase in number of juveniles was observed in warmer months for C. filosa and A. laxipodus. Sexual maturity was attained at smaller sizes in warmer months in the three species. Linear relationship on body length and number of eggs in brood pouch are presented. Size-independent analysis of egg number revealed a decrease in number of eggs in cooler months. Sex ratio is male skewed in M. schellenbergi and female skewed in C. filosa and A. laxipodus. Some of the plausible explanations for the reproductive strategies adopted by these three species in a tropical system are discussed.

  8. Selective Reproduction: Social and Temporal Imaginaries for Negotiating the Value of Life in Human and Animal Neonates.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Mette N

    2015-06-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as models for the premature infants in research experiments within neonatology. While the comparison is unusual, the article argues that there are parallels across the decision-making processes that shape the lives and deaths of infants and pigs alike. Collectivities or the lack thereof as well as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge. PMID:25359420

  9. Reproductive success in presenescent common gulls (Larus canus): the importance of the last year of life.

    PubMed

    Rattiste, Kalev

    2004-10-01

    Survival selection against individuals of inferior quality (measured as breeding success) has been proposed to account for the increase in average reproductive success with advancing age in presenescent birds. This so-called selection hypothesis relies on quality-dependent survival. In the present breeding performance study of common gulls, Larus canus, this assumption was not verified. In particular, omitting the last breeding year from the analysis resulted in the disappearance of the correlation between breeding success and survival. A positive correlation in the full dataset was thus solely based on the poor breeding success of ultimate breeders. Indeed, presenescent individuals were shown to have a specifically low breeding success in their terminal breeding event. The poor success of ultimate breeders thus reflects an abruptly declined condition rather than the birds' overall quality. A comparison of the survival of poor and good performers, involving last-time breeders, thus needs not to be a proper test of the selection hypothesis. Longitudinal analysis revealed a steady increase of individual breeding success until the tenth breeding year. The results suggest that an increase of breeding success with age often found in cross-sectional analyses is primarily a result of age-related improvements of competence and/or increased reproductive effort. PMID:15451696

  10. Influence of early-life nutrition on mortality and reproductive success during a subsequent famine

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    in fetal and neonatal life is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (4), diabetes (5- lular, and epigenetic level (3, 7). An increasingly cited explanation for such findings is that some

  11. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Helene

    Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback Helene Marsh a,b,Ã, Donna Kwan a,b a School of Environmental in revised form 18 August 2007 Accepted 10 March 2008 Available online 3 April 2008 Keywords: Sea grass Life history Reproduction Dugong and turtle fisheries Torres Strait a b s t r a c t The extensive sea grass

  12. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  13. Bioscience-bioethics and life factors affecting reproduction with special reference to the Indigenous Australian population.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Irina

    2005-04-01

    The demand for equality of recognition or respect is the dominant passion of modernity. The 20th century experienced a giant leap in technological inventiveness and ruthless use of technological power. In the 21st century, human welfare and environmental wellbeing demand fundamental political appraisal. We have the means, if we choose, to eradicate poverty and to responsibly protect the global environment. However, economic, political and cultural systems act to differentially allocate the benefits and risks for growth between socioeconomic groups. For example, it is a matter of pride that the neonatal mortality rate in affluent societies has dropped substantially since the late 1970s. However, the level of infant mortality (three times the national average) and low birthweight (13%) among the Indigenous Australian population is the highest in the country. With hindsight we now know that is the inevitable legacy of Australia's colonial history. Chronic physical and psychological stress is recognized as an important etiological factor in many lifestyle diseases of the cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Diseases of adaptation are further advanced by non-adaptive lifestyle choices, depression, alcoholism and other drug dependencies. This review describes the principles of bioscience ethics and targets equity issues as they affect human reproduction across generations with particular reference to the Indigenous population of Australia. The review also considers ways we may advance global and cultural maturity from the Indigenous Australian perspective and proposes an ecologically based model of preventative care. If we are to embrace fundamental social change and protect future children without threatening parents' basic freedoms, then new beliefs and priorities--based on a compassionate understanding of biological systems--must evolve from the general public. Belief in human rights arising from a sense of human dignity is a collective outcome originating from individual commitment. The golden rule; that is, Nature's principle of reciprocity, is fundamental in bridging the gap between knowledge and effective action. PMID:15798014

  14. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout history, humans have celebrated the beauty and fertility of flowering plants. In addition to their aesthetic appeal, flowers contain the reproductive organs of the plant and are therefore essential for sexual propagation of plant life. Our dependence on flowering is illustrated by the die...

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  16. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects. PMID:25404225

  17. The Years of Uncertainty: Eighth Grade Family Life Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    The family life sex education unit for eighth graders, "The Years of Uncertainty," consists of a series of daily lesson plans that span a 29-day period of one-hour class sessions. Topics covered are: problem solving, knowledge and attitudes, male and female reproductive systems, conception, pregnancy, birth, birth defects, venereal disease,…

  18. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a dsDNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rice; L. Tang; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; E. Gillitzer; J. E. Johnson; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2004-05-01

    Of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea), the least understood is Archaea and its associated viruses. Many Archaea are extremophiles, with species that are capable of growth at some of the highest temperatures and extremes of pH of all known organisms. Phylogenetic rRNA-encoding DNA analysis places many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea (species with an optimum growth >80°C) at the base of the universal tree of life, suggesting that thermophiles were among the first forms of life on earth. Very few viruses have been identified from Archaea as compared to Bacteria and Eukarya. We report here the structure of a hyperthermophilic virus isolated from an archaeal host found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA viral genome shows that it shares little similarity to other known genes in viruses or other organisms. By comparing the tertiary and quaternary structures of the coat protein of this virus with those of a bacterial and an animal virus, we find conformational relationships among all three, suggesting that some viruses may have a common ancestor that precedes the division into three domains of life >3 billion years ago.

  19. Communicating Employability Enhancement throughout the Life-Span: A National Intervention Program Aimed at Combating Age-Related Stereotypes at the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Selm, Martine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of lifelong employability of employees is one of today's challenges in all sectors of the Dutch society. In this article, we will outline the historical context of the life-long employability issue in the Netherlands, and provide an overview of current business responses to the issue. We will discuss key obstacles for improving…

  20. What Deficits in Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge Exist among Women with Cystic Fibrosis? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, L. Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The life span of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) continues to extend due to advances in treatments and care. The rate of pregnancy for female patients with CF has also continued to rise. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the available literature on female patients with CF and their knowledge of sexual and reproductive

  1. Life-history trade-offs mediate 'personality' variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Wiebke; Dall, Sasha R X; Kloesener, Michaela H; Baeumer, Jana; Beinlich, Felix; Eggers, Till

    2015-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are considered a major driving force in the emergence of consistent behavioural differences (personality variation); but empirical tests are scarce. We investigated links between a personality trait (escape response), life-history and state variables (growth rate, size and age at first reproduction, age-dependent reproductive rates, lifetime reproductive success, life span) in red and green colour morphs of clonal pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Escape response (dropping/non-dropping off a plant upon a predatory attack) was measured repeatedly to classify individuals as consistent droppers, consistent nondroppers or inconsistents. Red morphs experienced stronger trade-offs between early reproduction and life span than green morphs; and red consistent (non)droppers had highest lifetime reproductive success. Red droppers followed a risk-averse life-history strategy (high late reproduction), red nondroppers a risk-prone strategy (high early reproduction), while reproductive rates were equivalent for all green behavioural types and red inconsistents. This suggests that red morphs suffer the highest costs of dropping (they are most conspicuous to predators), which 'equivalates' fitness payoffs to both risk-takers (red non-droppers) and risk-averse red droppers. The strong trade-off also means that committing to a particular lifestyle (being consistent) maximises fitness. Our study suggests that life-history trade-offs likely mediate personality variation but effects might depend on interactions with other organismal characteristics (here: colour morph). PMID:24942327

  2. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Li, Li; Wu, Ning; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu; Gu, Zemao

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been found to cause reproductive and developmental impairments as well as to disrupt sex hormone homeostasis of fish during acute and sub-chronic toxic experiments. However, fish in natural environments are continuously exposed to MC-LR throughout their entire life cycle as opposed to short-term exposure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MC-LR harms female fish reproduction and development within natural water bodies is through interference of the reproductive endocrine system. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30 ?g/L MC-LR for 90 d until reaching sexual maturity. Female zebrafish were selected, and the changes in growth and developmental indicators, ovarian ultrastructure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones and vitellogenin (VTG) were examined along with the transcription of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis (HPGL-axis). The results showed for the first time, a life cycle exposure to MC-LR caused growth inhibition, decreased ovary weight and ovarian ultra-pathological lesions. Decreased ovarian testosterone levels indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormone balance. Significantly up-regulated transcription of brain FSH? and LH? along with ovarian ER?, FSHR and LHR suggested positive feedback regulation in the HPGL-axis was induced as a compensatory mechanism for MC-LR damage. It was also noted that ovarian VTG content and hepatic ER? and VTG1 expression were all down-regulated, which might be responsible for reduced vitellus storage noted in our histological observations. Our findings indicate that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR impairs the development and reproduction of female zebrafish by disrupting the transcription of related HPGL-axis genes, suggesting that MC-LR has potential adverse effects on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environment. PMID:26552529

  3. The Association between Endometriomas and Ovarian Cancer: Preventive Effect of Inhibiting Ovulation and Menstruation during Reproductive Life

    PubMed Central

    Grandi, Giovanni; Toss, Angela; Cortesi, Laura; Botticelli, Laura; Volpe, Annibale; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Although endometriosis frequently involves multiple sites in the pelvis, malignancies associated with this disease are mostly confined to the ovaries, evolving from an endometrioma. Endometriomas present a 2-3-fold increased risk of transformation in clear-cell, endometrioid, and possibly low-grade serous ovarian cancers, but not in mucinous ovarian cancers. These last cancers are, in some aspects, different from the other epithelial ovarian cancers, as they do not appear to be decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and menstruation. The step by step process of transformation from typical endometrioma, through atypical endometrioma, finally to ovarian cancer seems mainly related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperestrogenism, and specific molecular alterations. Particularly, activation of oncogenic KRAS and PI3K pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and ARID1A are suggested as major pathogenic mechanisms for endometriosis associated clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Both the risk for endometriomas and their associated ovarian cancers seems to be highly and similarly decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and retrograde menstruation, suggesting a common pathogenetic mechanism and common possible preventive strategies during reproductive life. PMID:26413541

  4. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes #12;Spanning trees

  5. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes #12;Spanning trees of graphs

  6. 'The brain is the organ of longevity': Introduction to G. A. Sacher's free-energy hypothesis of life-span enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    No experiment reported to date constitutes an adequate test in the sense of supplying comprehensive information on survival time, metabolic rate, food consumption and utilization, body mass, anatomical integrity (especially that of the skeletal and nervous systems), status of the immune and endocrine systems, and physiological and behavioral competence in the wake of chronic exposure to a moderately thermalizing radio field. Some reports do provide data on one or more of the important end points, usually in association with a single exposure or a limited number of brief exposures. One must distinguish between prolongation of life in senescence and enhancement of longevity based on actual retardation of the rate of aging. More, retardation of aging, if sorely taxed at the expense of quality of living, is no bargain. Some hibernators live relatively long lives, but the torpor of hibernation--a prolonged period of somnolence and greatly reduced metabolic activity--is hardly the stuff of a vibrant psychological existence.

  7. View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from navy land. Note that navigational channel exists only on north side of movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  8. EAST END FROM MID SPAN OF EASTERN SPAN (THREE DIFFERENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST END FROM MID SPAN OF EASTERN SPAN (THREE DIFFERENT TRUSSES, EAST SOUTHEAST 110 DEGREES) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  9. Approximate Span Programs

    E-print Network

    Tsuyoshi Ito; Stacey Jeffery

    2015-07-02

    Span programs are a model of computation that have been used to design quantum algorithms, mainly in the query model. For any decision problem, there exists a span program that leads to an algorithm with optimal quantum query complexity, but finding such an algorithm is generally challenging. We consider new ways of designing quantum algorithms using span programs. We show how any span program that decides a problem $f$ can also be used to decide "property testing" versions of $f$, or more generally, approximate the span program witness size, a property of the input related to $f$. For example, using our techniques, the span program for OR, which can be used to design an optimal algorithm for the OR function, can also be used to design optimal algorithms for: threshold functions, in which we want to decide if the Hamming weight of a string is above a threshold or far below, given the promise that one of these is true; and approximate counting, in which we want to estimate the Hamming weight of the input. We achieve these results by relaxing the requirement that 1-inputs hit some target exactly in the span program, which could make design of span programs easier. We also give an exposition of span program structure, which increases the understanding of this important model. One implication is alternative algorithms for estimating the witness size when the phase gap of a certain unitary can be lower bounded. We show how to lower bound this phase gap in some cases. As applications, we give the first upper bounds in the adjacency query model on the quantum time complexity of estimating the effective resistance between $s$ and $t$, $R_{s,t}(G)$, of $\\tilde O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon^{3/2}}n\\sqrt{R_{s,t}(G)})$, and, when $\\mu$ is a lower bound on $\\lambda_2(G)$, by our phase gap lower bound, we can obtain $\\tilde O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon}n\\sqrt{R_{s,t}(G)/\\mu})$, both using $O(\\log n)$ space.

  10. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here.''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments.

  11. Biodemography of a long-lived tephritid: Reproduction and longevity in a large cohort of female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens

    E-print Network

    Sentürk, Damla

    in a large cohort of female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens James R. Careya,b, *, Pablo Liedoc , Hans reproductive rates, and life span were recorded in a laboratory cohort of Mexican fruit flies consisting), the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Clark and Guadalupe, 1995; Curtsinger et al., 1992; Promislow et al

  12. 5. VIEW OF SPAN ADJOINING SPAN TO THE NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SPAN ADJOINING SPAN TO THE NORTH OF THE VERTICAL LIFT SPAN (IN THE DISTANCE IS THE RECENTLY COMPLETED NEW STATE ROUTE 51 BRIDGE CROSSING THE ILLINOIS RIVER). - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  13. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Color-shifted complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of color-shifted complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1University in St. Louis October 20, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of color

  14. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 Mathematics Colloquium New Mexico State University October 20, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  15. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Discrete CATS seminar University of Kentucky March 30, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  16. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 of Mississippi March 2, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful

  17. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Complete colorful complexes Weighted spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes Ghodratollah Aalipour1,2 Art Duval1 1 April 21, 2013 Ghodratollah Aalipour, Art Duval Spanning tree enumerators of complete colorful complexes

  18. Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes

    E-print Network

    Duval, Art

    Spanning trees of graphs Spanning trees of simplicial complexes Critical group of graphs Critical group of simplicial complexes Spanning trees and the critical group of simplicial complexes Art Duval1 of Kansas Mathematics Seminar Reed College April 28, 2011 Duval, Klivans, Martin Spanning trees

  19. Oosorption in response to poor food: complexity in the trade-off between reproduction and survival.

    PubMed

    Moore, Patricia J; Attisano, Alfredo

    2011-09-01

    Plasticity in reproductive physiology is one avenue by which environmental signals, such as poor quality food, can be coordinated with adaptive responses. Insects have the ability to resorb oocytes that are not oviposited. Oosorption is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism to optimize fitness in hostile environments, recouping resources that might otherwise be lost, and reinvesting them into future reproductive potential. We tested the hypothesis that oosorption is an evolved mechanism by which females can reallocate resources from current reproductive effort to survival and future reproduction, when conditions for reproduction are poor, by examining the reproductive physiology and life-history outcome under poor quality food in populations of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) that have adapted to live on sunflower seed. Females fed a diet of pumpkin seeds, known to be a poor host food, had higher levels of ovarian apoptosis (oosorption), lower reproductive output, but no reduction in life span under poor nutrition, as predicted under the oosorption hypothesis. However, the schedule of reproduction was surprising given the "wait to reproduce" assumption of oosorption as early fecundity was unaffected. PMID:22393481

  20. Migratory carryover effects and endocrinological correlates of reproductive decisions and reproductive success in female albatrosses

    E-print Network

    - ulatory systems required for different activities or life-history stages (migration vs. reproduction) and hormonal (progesterone, testosterone, estrogen-dependent yolk precursors) traits. In contrast, reproductiveMigratory carryover effects and endocrinological correlates of reproductive decisions

  1. Autobiographical Memory from a Life Span Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroots, Johannes J. F.; van Dijkum, Cor; Assink, Marian H. J.

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study (i.e., three age groups, three measures) explores the distribution of retrospective and prospective autobiographical memory data across the lifespan, in particular the bump pattern of disproportionally higher recall of memories from the ages 10 to 30, as generally observed in older age groups, in conjunction with the…

  2. Getting Serious Play: Life Span Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Phil; Esbin, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Canada's $76.5 billion annual investment in education is paying dividends. A recent international survey ranked Canadian students "second" in reading literacy, "fifth" in mathematics and "fifth" in science. For nations and individuals alike, such mastery is intrinsic to success in the new knowledge economy. Yet, mastering these academic skills in…

  3. Life-span distributions of supermarket products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Misako

    2010-04-01

    We have analyzed the lifetime distributions of more than 0.7 million products sold across approximately 400 Japanese supermarkets. The distributions are well approximated by an exponential function for products with lifetimes longer than 1000 days, implying that the manufacturers' decisions about whether to continue production are purely random. However, the distributions tend to deviate from an exponential distribution for products with lifetimes shorter than 1000 days. Specifically, the distributions for food products exhibit a quicker decay in a short time scale, suggesting the existence of competing products during the initial stages of the product lifecycle. On the other hand, the distributions for toiletry products exhibit a slower decay in a short time scale.

  4. Embodied learning across the life span.

    PubMed

    Kontra, Carly; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-10-01

    Developmental psychologists have long recognized the extraordinary influence of action on learning (Held & Hein, 1963; Piaget, 1952). Action experiences begin to shape our perception of the world during infancy (e.g., as infants gain an understanding of others' goal-directed actions; Woodward, 2009) and these effects persist into adulthood (e.g., as adults learn about complex concepts in the physical sciences; Kontra, Lyons, Fischer, & Beilock, 2012). Theories of embodied cognition provide a structure within which we can investigate the mechanisms underlying action's impact on thinking and reasoning. We argue that theories of embodiment can shed light on the role of action experience in early learning contexts, and further that these theories hold promise for using action to scaffold learning in more formal educational settings later in development. PMID:22961943

  5. The life span of the biosphere revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Kasting, James F.

    1992-12-01

    A DECADE ago, Lovelock and Whitfield1 raised the question of how much longer the biosphere can survive on Earth. They pointed out that, despite the current fossil-fuel induced increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, the long-term trend should be in the opposite direction: as increased solar luminosity warms the Earth, silicate rocks should weather more readily, causing atmospheric CO2 to decrease. In their model1, atmospheric CO2 falls below the critical level for C3 photosynthesis, 150 parts per million (p.p.m.), in only 100 Myr, and this is assumed to mark the demise of the biosphere as a whole. Here, we re-examine this problem using a more elaborate model that includes a more accurate treatment of the greenhouse effect of CO2 (refs 2-4), a biologically mediated weathering parameterization, and the realization that C4 photosynthesis can persist to much lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2(<10 p.p.m.)5,6. We find that a C4-plant-based biosphere could survive for at least another 0.9 Gyr to 1.5 Gyr after the present time, depending respectively on whether CO2 or temperature is the limiting factor. Within an additional 1 Gyr, Earth may lose its water to space, thereby following the path of its sister planet, Venus.

  6. The life span of the biosphere revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Kasting, James F.

    1992-01-01

    How much longer the biosphere can survive on earth is reexamined using a more elaborate model than that of Lovelock and Whitfield (1982). The model includes a more accurate treatment of the greenhouse effect of CO2, a biologically mediated weathering parametrization, and the realization that C4 photosynthesis can persist to much lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2. It is found that a C4-plant-based biosphere could survive for at least another 0.9 Gyr to 1.5 Gyr after the present time, depending respectively on whether CO2 or temperature is the limiting factor. Within an additional 1 Gyr, earth may lose water to space, thereby following the path of Venus.

  7. Streamflow life cycles spanning the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; McDonnell, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are replenished by precipitation that works its way through watersheds and into stream networks. The time that precipitation requires to travel into a stream regulates contaminant transports, nutrient mobility and bedrock weathering, but has not yet been evaluated at a continental scale. Here we synthesize a pan-U.S.A. dataset of rain, snow and streamflow 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios and analyze the data to show that the lion's share of USA streamflow is generated by precipitation that takes ~2 months to ~2.5 years to flush through watersheds and into networks of streams (i.e., rivers replenished by "infant-to-toddler aged" precipitation). These streamflow ages are considerably shorter than the average amount of time that water spends within streams themselves (~1 month, globally), and much shorter than the global groundwater residence time of more than ~1000 years. We also estimate the depth of "dynamic" groundwater storage that actively generates the majority of streamflow and discover that less than ~1% of watershed flowpaths generate the bulk of continental runoff. Our finding showcases that the most hydrologically-active zone within Earth's hydrosphere is located nearest to the surface where atmosphere-biosphere-lithosphere interactions are at a maximum. This research emphasizes the importance of critical zone research for developing accurate forecasts of how human modifications to the land and climate will impact downstream water, nutrient and contaminant fluxes.

  8. Learning To Learn across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert M.; And Others

    Ways to help learners of all ages to independently search out and use existing knowledge and new information to solve problems and acquire new skills is examined through 15 papers by leading experts in learning-to-learn theory and application. Papers have the following titles and authors: "The Promise of Learning to Learn" (Robert M. Smith); "How…

  9. 100. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 198, July 25, 1908) VIEW OF DRAW SPAN - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 98. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 181, May 5, 1908) STEEL ERECTION AT DRAW SPAN - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 95. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 150, January 18, 1908) SPANS 4 AND 5 - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 89. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 6, not dated) DRAW SPAN - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Higher HEI-2005 scores associated with reduced symptoms of depression in an urban population: Findings from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Cremer, Alexandra; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression affects over 15 million Americans in a given year. Compared to physical health, less is known about the affect of diet quality on symptoms of depression. Objective This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and reported symptoms of depression in a low-income urban population. Subjects/setting Subjects included 1,118 African American and white adults, aged 30–64 years, living in Baltimore, MD and represented a sub-sample of the initial examination and recruitment phase of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Methods Nutrition data were based on two 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained interviewers using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a trained interviewer using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Statistical analysis Both linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether or not diet quality was associated with depressive symptoms. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms and independent variables included HEI-2005, race, sex, age, education, income, and food assistance program participation. Results Mean HEI-2005 score (± SEM) was 52.17 ± 0.40 (out of 100). Mean CES-D score was 11.64 ± 0.25 (out of 40). Diet quality was significantly associated with reported symptoms of depression. However, income was a significantly stronger predictor of depression compared to diet quality, education and sex. Conclusion Registered dietitians should be aware of relationship between psychological status and nutritional health when assisting clients to better manage their food choices to improve their overall health and quality of life. PMID:20184988

  14. Community attitude towards the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Adebimpe, WO; Olugbenga-Bello, AI

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic remains a major public health problem. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has already reversed the post-independence developmental gains. Purpose This study assessed community attitudes regarding the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Design and methods In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 67% of the target population has a negative attitude regarding the reproductive rights of PLWHA; a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was used. A minimum sample size of 340 was obtained using the formula n = Z2pq/d2. An anticipated 10% nonresponse rate was added to obtain a sample size of 374; a multistage sampling technique was utilized to select a total of 450 respondents. Data collected through a semistructured standardized and pretested questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15. Results The study revealed that 283 (66.6%) and 142 (33.4%) of respondents were urban and rural dwellers, respectively. Mean age of respondents was 28.7 years ± 2.2 years. Four hundred and two (94.6%) respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 88.7% had knowledge of at least six different modes of HIV/AIDS transmission. About 30.7% of respondents had discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA, and 50.9% and 44.8% had negative attitudes towards their sexual and reproductive rights, respectively. There were significant associations between gender, marital status, educational status, occupation, and residential area of respondents and their attitude towards the reproductive and sexual right of PLWHA (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation Discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes to PLWHA found among respondents translated into a negative attitude regarding the reproductive and sexual rights of PLWHA. There is an urgent need to institute programs for raising community awareness about the rights of PLWHA, especially in rural areas, and to strengthen legislative provisions for protecting and preserving the reproductive rights of PLWHA. PMID:23807862

  15. A report from the 2013 international symposium: the evaluation of the effects of low-dose radiation exposure in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors and other similar studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Ban, N; de González, A Berrington; Cologne, J; Cullings, H M; Doi, K; Furukawa, K; Imaoka, T; Kodama, K; Nakamura, N; Niwa, O; Preston, D L; Rajaraman, P; Sadakane, A; Saigusa, S; Sakata, R; Sobue, T; Sugiyama, H; Ullrich, R; Wakeford, R; Yasumura, S; Milder, C M; Shore, R E

    2015-05-01

    The RERF International Low-Dose Symposium was held on 5-6 December 2013 at the RERF campus in Hiroshima, Japan, to discuss the issues facing the Life Span Study (LSS) and other low-dose studies. Topics included the current status of low-dose risk detection, strategies for low-dose epidemiological and statistical research, methods to improve communication between epidemiologists and biologists, and the current status of radiological studies and tools. Key points made by the participants included the necessity of pooling materials over multiple studies to gain greater insight where data from single studies are insufficient; generating models that reflect epidemiological, statistical, and biological principles simultaneously; understanding confounders and effect modifiers in the current data; and taking into consideration less studied factors such as the impact of dose rate. It is the hope of all participants that this symposium be used as a trigger for further studies, especially those using pooled data, in order to reach a greater understanding of the health effects of low-dose radiation. PMID:25811153

  16. Characteristics of an infinite life span diploid human fibroblast cell strain and a near-diploid strain arising from a clone of cells expressing a transfected v-myc oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; Dajun Yang; Fry, D.G.; Hurlin, P.J.; Kohler, S.K.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. )

    1991-11-01

    Diploid human fibroblasts were transfected with a plasmid carrying a v-myc oncogene linked to the neo gene or with a vector control carrying a neo gene. Drug-resistant clones were isolated and subcultured as needed. All populations went into crisis and eventually senesced. But while they were senescing, viable-appearing clones were noted among the progeny of a transfected population that expressed the v-myc oncogene. After several months, these cells began replicating more rapidly. Karyotype analysis indicated that they were clonally derived since all of them had 45 chromosomes, including 2 marker chromosomes. This cell strain was designated MSU-1.1. Similar analysis showed that cells from an earlier passage were diploid. These cells were designated MSU-1.0. The expression of v-myc is probably required for acquisition of an infinite life span, since this phenotype did not develop in populations not expressing this oncogene. However, expression of v-myc is clearly not sufficient, since all of the progeny of the clone that gave rise to the MSU-1.0 cells expressed this oncogene, but the vast majority of them senesced.

  17. View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from navy land. Note that navigational channel exists only on north side of movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  18. Performance evaluation of spanning systems

    E-print Network

    Iwamoto, Grant T

    2014-01-01

    The design of spanning systems is a common task that structural engineers perform, and beam theory is one of the first things taught in a mechanics course. This thesis studies a range of spanning systems, and evaluates ...

  19. An emerging interface between life science and nanotechnology: present status and prospects of reproductive healthcare aided by nano-biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rakhi K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Chaudhury, Koel; Rana, Suresh V.S.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2014-01-01

    Among the various applications of nano-biotechnology, healthcare is considered one of the most significant domains. For that possibility to synthesize various kind of nanoparticles (NPs) and the ever-increasing ability to control their size as well as structure, to improve surface characteristics and binding NPs with other desired curing agents has played an important role. In this paper, a brief sketch of various kinds of nanomaterials and their biomedical applications is given. Despite claims of bio-nanotechnology about to touch all areas of medical science, information pertaining to the role of nanotechnology for the betterment of reproductive healthcare is indeed limited. Therefore, the various achievements of nano-biotechnology for healthcare in general have been illustrated while giving special insight into the role of nano-biotechnology for the future of reproductive healthcare betterment as well as current achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology in this arena. PMID:24600516

  20. An Evolutionary Span: Embodied

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    suggesting that secular trends in life expectancy due to im- provements in the environment (broadly conceived obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in both developed and developing nations (Crimmins et al., 2005 may be offset by food abun- dance and greater ensuing risk for those diseases. An understanding of how

  1. Effects of assisted reproductive technology and of women's quality of life on depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Monti, Fiorella; Agostini, Francesca; Paterlini, Marcella; Andrei, Federica; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the influence of both assisted reproductive technology (ART) and reduced quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy on postpartum blues (PPB). Sixty-three sub-fertile patients who conceived through ART and 72 women who naturally conceived were enrolled in this prospective study. At 22nd and 32nd gestational weeks, women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), to investigate depressive symptoms and QoL, respectively; EPDS was again used at 15 days after birth to assess PPB. At both time points, higher EPDS scores and lower mental well-being scores (SF-36) significantly predicted PPB. The number of previous ART cycles emerged as the strongest predictor, whereas no significant effect was observed for the conceiving method. The results suggest the usefulness of assessing QoL during pregnancy and considering previous ART failures in preventing PPB. PMID:25625377

  2. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Trueperella pyogenes on endometrial mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and luteolytic cascade genes and their association with luteal life span in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Martinez, N M; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Reinhard, M K; Galvão, K N

    2015-11-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of intrauterine infusion (IUI) of Trueperella pyogenes on endometrial expression of proinflammatory cytokines and luteal life span. Holstein cows (n = 32) were allocated randomly, in two replicates (15 then 17 cows), to receive one of three treatments on Day 5 of the estrous cycle: TP (n = 13), IUI containing 10(9) colony-forming units/mL of T pyogenes; tumor necrosis factor (TNF; n = 9), IUI containing 1 ?g of TNF?; and control (n = 10), IUI of saline solution. Five cows per treatment had uterine biopsies collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours after treatment to evaluate the endometrial messenger RNA expression of TNF? (TNF), interleukin-1? (IL1B), IL6, IL8, prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS), and oxytocin receptor (OXR), and histologic evidence of inflammation. Messenger RNA expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The remaining cows had ovaries scanned and blood collected for progesterone evaluation; however, only seven, four, and three cows in the TP, TNF, and control groups were used for comparison in replicate 2. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. All TP and TNF cows had moderate to severe endometrial inflammation, whereas only one control had mild inflammation. Premature luteolysis occurred in three, one, and zero cows in the TP, TNF and control groups, respectively. Delayed luteolysis occurred in one TP and one TNF cow. Interleukin-1? expression was greater in the TP cows than in the TNF cows at 24 hours after IUI. Moreover, IL6 expression tended to be greater for the TP cows than for the control cows at 12 hours after IUI. Interleukin 8 expression was greater in the TP cows than in the control and TNF cows at 24 hours after IUI. Oxytocin receptor expression tended to be greater for the TP cows and was greater for the TNF cows than for the control cows at 12 hours. The messenger RNA expressions of TNF, PGES, and PGFS were not affected by treatment, time, or their interaction. In conclusion, IUI of T pyogenes or TNF? led to histologic evidence of inflammation and early luteolysis in some cows, which may have been caused by increased endometrial expression of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL1B, IL6), chemokines (i.e., IL8), and luteolytic cascade factors (i.e., OXR). PMID:26234463

  3. Sentencing Juveniles to Life in Prison: The Reproduction of Juvenile Justice for Young Adolescents Charged with Murder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    In "Roper v. Simmons," the U.S. Supreme Court determined that the sentencing of juveniles to death violated the constitutional amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Similarly, the Court most recently decided that life without parole for non-homicide offenses is also unconstitutional ("Graham v. Florida," 2010). Part of the reason for the…

  4. Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    rights reserved. Keywords: Delayed reproduction; Sexual maturity; Life history; Lineage persistence 1Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women predicts a trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of delaying age at first reproduction (AFR

  5. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is structurally suitable for ovigerity. Species with Pseudocalanus-type gonads are present from polar seas to the tropics, some of them being key species. The Acartia-type was scarce, found in only one species, Acartia clausi. Here all oocyte developmental stages are present, including intermediate stages, but only a few oocytes mature synchronously and are released together. High spawning frequency compensates for the small clutches, and hence egg production rate may be as high as in Calanus-type gonads. In the Aetidius-type gonad, the total number of oocytes in the diverticula is low as is the number of oocytes maturing synchronously. Less is known about the reproductive biology of species with Aetidius-type gonads; however, their distribution and feeding patterns suggest that this type is common in species inhabiting environments of low food availability. The differences in gonad structures also lead to differences in the egg size:female size ratio, as the space available for each mature oocyte depends on the total number of oocytes. Independent from gonad-type, the eggs are relatively large in species in which the gonads contain only few oocytes, whereas small eggs are produced by species with gonads filled with many oocytes. Since all species carrying their eggs in external sacs until hatching (ovigerous species) have Pseudocalanus-type gonads, the scatter in their egg size:female size ratio is low. The broadcast spawning species are of all gonad-types, and consequently the scatter among them is high. A major factor affecting the timing and magnitude of spawning of calanoid copepods is the energy supply for gonad development. Therefore, part of the review elucidates the role of internal and external resources in fuelling egg production. In many species, freshly assimilated food is transferred into egg material within a short period of time, and clutch size and spawning frequency are the two parameters that allow adjustment of egg production to food availability and temperature. However, internal body reserves may also fuel oocyte development. The extent to which oogene

  6. Nursing Process. Nursing: Basic Needs I. Nursing: Basic Needs II. Nursing through the Life Span. Entry into Professional Nursing. A Basic Course Outline (College Freshmen) for Nursing. A Four Year "2+2" Articulated Curriculum for the Occupation of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Gaylon; And Others

    This course outline provides materials for third-year courses in a "2+2" curriculum for the occupation of registered nurse. It is part of a planned and articulated 4-year curriculum that spans the junior and senior years of high school and the freshman and sophomore years of the postsecondary institution. Introductory materials include: the…

  7. Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.

    2009-01-01

    At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than ?.

  8. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  9. Childhood Abuse is Associated with Adiposity in Mid-life Women: Possible Pathways through Trait Anger and Reproductive Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between childhood abuse/neglect and central adiposity and obesity in a sample of 311 women (106 Black, 205 White) from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Methods SWAN included a baseline measurement of women in midlife (mean age = 45.7) and 8 follow-up visits during which waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire retrospectively assessed emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and emotional and physical neglect in childhood. Results ANCOVA analyses showed that women with a history of any abuse/neglect, and specifically physical and sexual abuse, had significantly higher WC and BMI at baseline than women with no abuse history. A significant interaction between abuse and BMI showed that among women with BMI < 30, any abuse/neglect and certain subtypes of abuse predicted greater increases in WC over time. Additional analyses showed that Trait Anger scores and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) attenuated cross-sectional relationships between abuse/neglect and WC and BMI. Conclusion This study suggests that abused/neglected women appear to have greater anger and lower levels of SHBG, which are associated with adiposity in mid-life. PMID:20064904

  10. Aspects of reproduction, early life history, and biology of macrourid fishes off Oregon, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, David L.; Pearcy, William G.

    1982-11-01

    Egg sizes, fecundities, times of spawning, early benthic life, size frequency, and distribution by sex and size are described for some of the four most common macrourid species off Oregon: Coryphaenoides acrolepis, C. armatus, C. filifer and C. leptolepis. Sizes of eggs at comparable developmental stages from different species were quite different. Average fecundities ranged about 26,000 to 2,500,000 eggs. C. acrolepis and C. filifer may spawn semi-annually. Juveniles of the three sympatric species, C. armatus, C. filifer, and C. leptolepis, become benthic in habit at different sizes. Different mouth size of each species may minimize competition for food. Size frequency distributions were either unimodal ( C. filifer, C. armatus) or bimodal ( C. acrolepis, C. leptolepis). However, small C. filifer were rarely collected suggesting that they remain pelagic longer than the young of other species. C. armatus and C. leptolepis were 'bigger-deeper', but the trend was not evident in the other two species. Sex ratios also differed: male C. armatus and C. leptolepis were less abundant than females, although their proportion increased with distance offshore. Numbers of males and females were about equal in C. acrolepis and C. filifer. Little evidence for the existence of sexual segregation was found. The liver apparently serves as a buoyancy mechanism in large C. armatus.

  11. Male Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  12. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the "-Omics" Era.

    PubMed

    Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F

    2015-12-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3) substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery. PMID:26394276

  13. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  14. The SPAN cookbook: A practical guide to accessing SPAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Stephanie; Tencati, Ronald D.; Stern, David M.; Capps, Kimberly D.; Dorman, Gary; Peters, David J.

    1990-01-01

    This is a manual for remote users who wish to send electronic mail messages from the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) to scientific colleagues on other computer networks and vice versa. In several instances more than one gateway has been included for the same network. Users are provided with an introduction to each network listed with helpful details about accessing the system and mail syntax examples. Also included is information on file transfers, remote logins, and help telephone numbers.

  15. Exploring the Dimensionality of Digit Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Petrauskas, Vilija M.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Meade, Catherine E.; Simpson, Leonie C.

    2013-01-01

    The Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Scales is used to measure Freedom from Distractibility or Working Memory. Some published research suggests that Digit Span forward should be interpreted differently from Digit Span backward. The present study explored the dimensionality of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Digit Span (forward and backward)…

  16. 91. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 44, October 13, 1906) SANDBAGGING PIER No. 4 - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 96. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 161, March 2, 1908) DERRICK AT PIER 2 - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 94. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 106, May 13, 1907) CAISSON No. 3 - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 90. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 26, August 24, 1906) INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, PRESSURE BARGE - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 93. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 92, February 9, 1907) CAISSON No. 3 JUST BEFORE LAUNCHING - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 92. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection No. 70, December 24, 1906) CAISSON No. 2 - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 88. Reproduction from glass plate negative (original in Modjeski and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Reproduction from glass plate negative (original in Modjeski and Masters office, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Modjeski Collection, No. 4, not dated) LOOKING DOWNSTREAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 99. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 183, May 6, 1908) SETTING CENTER CASTING - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  4. THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measures like the ultimate proliferation rate must be used. A third measure of reproductive success, which combines properties of both the basic reproductive number and the ultimate proliferation rate, is the discounted reproductive number . The discounted reproductive number is a measure of reproductive success that is an individual’s expected lifetime offspring production discounted by the background population growth rate. Here, we draw attention to the discounted reproductive number by providing an explicit definition and a systematic application framework. We describe how the discounted reproductive number overcomes the limitations of both the standard reproductive numbers and proliferation rates, and show that is closely connected to Fisher’s reproductive values for different life-history stages PMID:19364158

  5. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. PMID:20884138

  6. Hibernation is associated with increased survival and the evolution of slow life histories among mammals

    PubMed Central

    Turbill, Christopher; Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Survival probability is predicted to underlie the evolution of life histories along a slow–fast continuum. Hibernation allows a diverse range of small mammals to exhibit seasonal dormancy, which might increase survival and consequently be associated with relatively slow life histories. We used phylogenetically informed GLS models to test for an effect of hibernation on seasonal and annual survival, and on key attributes of life histories among mammals. Monthly survival was in most cases higher during hibernation compared with the active season, probably because inactivity minimizes predation. Hibernators also have approximately 15 per cent higher annual survival than similar sized non-hibernating species. As predicted, we found an effect of hibernation on the relationships between life history attributes and body mass: small hibernating mammals generally have longer maximum life spans (50% greater for a 50 g species), reproduce at slower rates, mature at older ages and have longer generation times compared with similar-sized non-hibernators. In accordance with evolutionary theories, however, hibernating species do not have longer life spans than non-hibernators with similar survival rates, nor do they have lower reproductive rates than non-hibernators with similar maximum life spans. Thus, our combined results suggest that (i) hibernation is associated with high rates of overwinter and annual survival, and (ii) an increase in survival in hibernating species is linked with the coevolution of traits indicative of relatively slow life histories. PMID:21450735

  7. Reproduction and Feeding of the Electric Fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae) and the Discussion of a Life History Pattern for Gymnotiforms from High Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Giora, Julia; Tarasconi, Hellen M.; Fialho, Clarice B.

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio were studied. The species has seasonal reproductive behavior, with breeding occurring during the Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, and having a positive relation with the photoperiod variation. Brachyhypopomus gauderio was defined as a fractional spawner, with low relative fecundity and high first maturation size. Sexual dimorphism was registered, males undergoing hypertrophy of the distal portion of caudal filament. The results on reproductive biology herein obtained are in agreement with data concerning gymnotiforms from Southern Brazil and Uruguay, pointing to an ecological pattern for the species from high latitudes, differing from species with tropical distribution. According to the analysis of the food items, B. gauderio feed mainly on autochthonous insects, likewise the other gymnotiforms previously investigated, leading to conclude that there is no variation on the diet of the species of the order related to climatic conditions or even to habitat of occurrence. PMID:25207924

  8. 97. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 180, May 20, 1908) LOADING BEAMS OF WILLAMETTE BRIDGE DRAW SPAN - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  9. C-SPAN Networks: Professors' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C-SPAN in the Classroom, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The intention of this guide is to serve as a forum for college faculty members to share ideas and articles about using C-SPAN programming in college classrooms and in academic research. The first article, "C-SPAN as a 'Lecture Launcher'" (Stephen Frantzich) illustrates how well-chosen segments of C-SPAN programming can be used to stimulate…

  10. Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs The Firefighter Problem Automated Proof and Discovery #12;Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs The Firefighter Problem Automated Proof and Discovery #12;Avoiding Differences Spanning Trees in Grid Graphs The Firefighter Problem Outline 1 Avoiding

  11. Octave-spanning semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We present a semiconductor injection laser operating in continuous wave with emission covering more than one octave in frequency and displaying homogeneous power distribution among the lasing modes. The gain medium is based on a heterogeneous quantum cascade structure operating in the terahertz range. Laser emission in continuous wave takes place from 1.64?THz to 3.35?THz with optical powers in the milliwatt range and more than 80 modes above threshold. For narrow waveguides, a collapse of the free-running beatnote to linewidths of 980?Hz, limited by jitter, indicate frequency comb operation on a spectral bandwidth as wide as 624?GHz, making such devices ideal candidates for octave-spanning semiconductor-laser-based terahertz frequency combs.

  12. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Reproductive Medicine: An Evidence-Based Overview

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Carter M.; Goldstein, Ellen H.; Clayton, Janine A.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities in reproductive medicine exist across the life span and are costly and burdensome to our healthcare system. Reduction and ultimate elimination of health disparities is a priority of the National Institutes of Health who requires reporting of race and ethnicity for all clinical research it supports. Given the increasing rates of admixture in our population, the definition and subsequent genetic significance of self-reported race and ethnicity used in health disparity research is not straightforward. Some groups have advocated using self-reported ancestry or carefully selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms, also known as ancestry informative markers, to sort individuals into populations. Despite the limitations in our current definitions of race and ethnicity in research, there are several clear examples of health inequalities in reproductive medicine extending from puberty and infertility to obstetric outcomes. We acknowledge that socioeconomic status, education, insurance status, and overall access to care likely contribute to the differences, but these factors do not fully explain the disparities. Epigenetics may provide the biologic link between these environmental factors and the transgenerational disparities that are observed. We propose an integrated view of health disparities across the life span and generations focusing on the metabolic aspects of fetal programming and the effects of environmental exposures. Interventions aimed at improving nutrition and minimizing adverse environmental exposures may act synergistically to reverse the effects of these epigenetic marks and improve the outcome of our future generations. PMID:23934691

  13. The SPAN/DSUWG Meeting report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Thomas, V. L.; Gallagher, D.; Greene, J. L.; King, J. H.; Zwickl, R. D.

    On May 8-9, 1986, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in Greenbelt, Md., hosted the spring meeting of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Systems Users Working Group (DSUWG). Most of the attention of the plenary sessions focused on the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) move to a new configuration in summer 1986 (see sidebar), which builds upon NASA's Program Support Communication Network (PSCN). DSUWG considered the new SPAN project management plan and also heard presentations concerning several other scientific and academic computer networks to which SPAN will be connected.As discussed in the accompanying article concerning SPAN, the network is moving toward a new configuration. Dave Peters (Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Ala.) discussed SPAN's use of and relationship to the PSCN. As part of its deliberations, DSUWG approved the new SPAN physical configuration and the new SPAN management plan.

  14. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  15. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Body Basics > Male Reproductive ... your son's reproductive health. Continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  16. Early reproductive investment, senescence and lifetime reproductive success in female Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, A D; Mar, K U; Lahdenperä, M; Lummaa, V

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary theory of senescence posits that as the probability of extrinsic mortality increases with age, selection should favour early-life over late-life reproduction. Studies on natural vertebrate populations show early reproduction may impair later-life performance, but the consequences for lifetime fitness have rarely been determined, and little is known of whether similar patterns apply to mammals which typically live for several decades. We used a longitudinal dataset on Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to investigate associations between early-life reproduction and female age-specific survival, fecundity and offspring survival to independence, as well as lifetime breeding success (lifetime number of calves produced). Females showed low fecundity following sexual maturity, followed by a rapid increase to a peak at age 19 and a subsequent decline. High early life reproductive output (before the peak of performance) was positively associated with subsequent age-specific fecundity and offspring survival, but significantly impaired a female's own later-life survival. Despite the negative effects of early reproduction on late-life survival, early reproduction is under positive selection through a positive association with lifetime breeding success. Our results suggest a trade-off between early reproduction and later survival which is maintained by strong selection for high early fecundity, and thus support the prediction from life history theory that high investment in reproductive success in early life is favoured by selection through lifetime fitness despite costs to later-life survival. That maternal survival in elephants depends on previous reproductive investment also has implications for the success of (semi-)captive breeding programmes of this endangered species. PMID:24580655

  17. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  18. Long-Term Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Reproductive Physiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Adewale, Heather B.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:19587848

  19. Long-term effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on reproductive physiology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B; Adewale, Heather B

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:19587848

  20. Reproductive hacking

    PubMed Central

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  1. REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS SCREENING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several DBPs, particularly the disubstituted haloacetic acids (e.g. dibromoacetic acid, bromochloroacetic acid), have been shown to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animals. In 1993, an expert panel convened by the EPA and the International Life Scien...

  2. Development of a Reproductive Performance Test for Endocrine

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Charles

    disrupt the endocrine system and cause alterations in both reproduction and development (mammals (6Development of a Reproductive Performance Test for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Using Pair of the full life- cycle test) are not adequate for assessing the reproductive effects of endocrine disrupting

  3. The Effects of a Single Developmentally Entrained Pulse of Testosterone in Female Neonatal Mice on Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyeran; Bhasin, Shalender; Guarneri, Tyler; Serra, Carlo; Schneider, Mary; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Guo, Wen; Fried, Susan K; Pencina, Karol; Jasuja, Ravi

    2015-10-01

    Early postnatal exposures to sex steroids have been well recognized to modulate predisposition to diseases of adulthood. There is a complex interplay between timing, duration and dose of endocrine exposures through environmental or dietary sources that may alter the sensitivity of target tissues to the exogenous stimuli. In this study, we determined the metabolic and reproductive programming effects of a single developmentally entrained pulse of testosterone (T) given to female mice in early postnatal period. CD-1 female mice pups were injected with either 5 ?g of T enanthate (TE) or vehicle (control [CON] group) within 24 hours after birth and followed to adult age. A total of 66% of T-treated mice exhibited irregular cycling, anovulatory phenotype, and significantly higher ovarian weights than vehicle-treated mice. Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance measurements revealed that TE group had greater body weight, whole-body lean, and fat mass than the CON group. Adipose tissue cellularity analysis in TE group revealed a trend toward higher size and number than their littermate CONs. The brown adipose tissue of TE mice exhibited white fat infiltration with down-regulation of several markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, ?-subunit-like effector A, bone morphogenetic protein 7 as well as brown adipose tissue differentiation-related transcription regulators. T-injected mice were also more insulin resistant than CON mice. These reproductive and metabolic reprogramming effects were not observed in animals exposed to TE at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Collectively, these data suggest that sustained reproductive and metabolic alterations may result in female mice from a transient exposure to T during a narrow postnatal developmental window. PMID:26132920

  4. Current Development in Reproductive Toxicity Testing of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol to evaluate the potential developmental and reproductive effects of test chemicals has been developed by the Life Stages Task Force of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI)/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Agricultural Chemical Safety Asses...

  5. Meditation improves self-regulation over the life span.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    The use of meditation to improve emotion and attention regulation has a long history in Asia and there are many practitioners in Western countries. Much of the evidence on the effectiveness of meditation is either anecdotal or a comparison of long-term meditators with controls matched in age and health. Recently, it has been possible to establish changes in self-regulation in undergraduate students after only 5 days of meditation practice, allowing randomized trials comparing effects of meditation with other self-control methods such as relaxation training. Early studies took place in Chinese universities; however, similar effects have been obtained with U.S. undergraduates, and with Chinese children aged 4.5 years and older Chinese participants aged 65 years. Studies using neuroimaging techniques have shown that meditation improves activation and connectivity in brain areas related to self-regulation, and these findings may provide an opportunity to examine remediation of mental disorders in a new light. PMID:24033306

  6. Mental health disaster response: nursing interventions across the life span.

    PubMed

    Adams, S M; Dolfie, E K; Feren, S S; Love, R A; Taylor, S W

    1999-11-01

    In the aftermath of a natural disaster, adult survivors often move through the following phases of disaster response: Heroic Phase, Honeymoon Phase, Disillusionment Phase, and Reconstruction Phase. Understanding age-related responses to traumatic events such as a tornado enables mental health clinicians to individualize appropriate interventions and prevent or diminish emotional sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorders. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are encouraged to attend local Red Cross disaster training to be prepared should the need arise for mobilization of mental health disaster response teams in your community. PMID:10572851

  7. Perceptual asymmetry for chimeric faces across the life span.

    PubMed

    Levine, S C; Levy, J

    1986-07-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for processing chimeric faces were investigated in dextral subjects, ranging in age from 5 years to elderly adults. The task involved deciding which member of a pair of face chimeras presented in free vision looks happier, the one with the smile to the left or its mirror image with the smile to the right (Levy, Heller, Banich, & Burton, 1983a, Brain and Cognition, 2, 404-419). A leftward bias was found for all age groups. However, kindergarteners' mean asymmetry score was lower than that of all other groups combined, most likely due to noise in their data. The direction in which subjects drew circles with their left and right hands was also observed as an index of interhemispheric communication. All groups showed a bias toward drawing the circles in concordant directions except the kindergarteners. The relation between subjects' performance on the circle drawing and facebook tasks is discussed. PMID:3756006

  8. Memory Plasticity across the Life Span: Uncovering Children's Latent Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehmer, Yvonne; Li, Shu-Chen; Muller, Viktor; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2007-01-01

    Memory plasticity, or the ability to improve one's memory performance through instruction and training, is known to decline during adulthood. However, direct comparisons among middle childhood, adulthood, and old age are lacking. The authors examined memory plasticity in an age-comparative multisession training study. One hundred and eight…

  9. Emotion recognition in music changes across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cesar F; Castro, Sao Luis

    2011-06-01

    In comparison with other modalities, the recognition of emotion in music has received little attention. An unexplored question is whether and how emotion recognition in music changes as a function of ageing. In the present study, healthy adults aged between 17 and 84 years (N=114) judged the magnitude to which a set of musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) expressed happiness, peacefulness, sadness and fear/threat. The results revealed emotion-specific age-related changes: advancing age was associated with a gradual decrease in responsiveness to sad and scary music from middle age onwards, whereas the recognition of happiness and peacefulness, both positive emotional qualities, remained stable from young adulthood to older age. Additionally, the number of years of music training was associated with more accurate categorisation of the musical emotions examined here. We argue that these findings are consistent with two accounts on how ageing might influence the recognition of emotions: motivational changes towards positivity and, to a lesser extent, selective neuropsychological decline. PMID:21547762

  10. Self-determination -- A life-span perspective

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Susan B.

    2011-12-27

    primarily encompassed alterations to the environment (Brotherson, Cook, Erwin, & Weigel, 2008) and ideas for parents to support the development of self--determination at a later age (Erwin et al., 2009). The article will also detail the emerging conceptual..., Soresi, & Wehmeyer, 2007) is providing additional perspectives For this primarily western construct (Lee & Wehmeyer, 2008). A number of researchers view self-determination as an ongoing process (Abery & Zajac, 1996; Brotherson et al., 2008; Erwin & Brown...

  11. Disability in the Family: A Life Span Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Martha E.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of disability in families. The goal of the article is to raise awareness of the status of people with disabilities and their families to develop culturally relevant psychological support. An international literature review is provided with consideration of cultural meanings of disability, preparation for dealing with…

  12. Online dating across the life span: Users' relationship goals.

    PubMed

    Menkin, Josephine A; Robles, Theodore F; Wiley, Joshua F; Gonzaga, Gian C

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing data from an eHarmony.com relationship questionnaire completed by new users (N = 5,434), this study identifies prioritized goals in new romantic relationships and whether importance of these goals differs by participants' age and gender. Overall, users valued interpersonal communication more than sex appeal. Older users rated sexual attraction as slightly less important than younger users did, but they still highly valued the goal. Women placed even greater emphasis on communication over sexual attraction compared to men. However, although men valued sexual attraction more than women at all ages, only the youngest women valued interpersonal communication more than young men. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479015

  13. Assessing Executive Functions: A Life-Span Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Despite many disagreements on the utility of neuropsychological applications in schools, executive function measures have been found to be useful across a variety of areas and ages. In addition, many disagreements are extant in discussions of the maturational course of the development of executive functioning abilities that are dependent on…

  14. Telomere Model Predicts Cell Life Span | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Using a sophisticated mathematical model describing the biophysics of the ends of chromosomes, researchers at New York University's Courant School of Mathematics have shown they can describe how changes in the spatial organization of structures known as telomeres affect the lifespan of a cell.

  15. Life-span knowledge engineering for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Ordinarily, knowledge engineering is thought of as the process of translating the knowledge and problem solving strategies of a human expert into rules and procedures incorporated into a machine based expert system which can, given adequate input, solve the same sorts of problems as the expert. One appeal of these knowledge based systems is their ability to take care of problems without having a human expert present. For work in space, being independent of humans is especially important both for situations where devices will be in remote or dangerous locales and for situations such as space stations where human resources are limited and schedules are tight. In qualification of the above ideas, it is argued herein that the notion of knowledge engineering and the expectations for its application should be extended beyond the period of construction of unit expert systems to the entire knowledge system management associated with one or another real systems, whether it is a piece of hardware or an entire human-machine operation such as a lunar factory.

  16. Gains in Life Spans Seen Around the Globe

    MedlinePLUS

    ... illness and death caused by HIV/AIDS and malaria, the researchers said, along with major advances in ... pulmonary disease, premature birth complications, HIV/AIDS and malaria. Health loss from HIV/AIDS rose more than ...

  17. Effects of calorie restriction on life span of microorganisms

    E-print Network

    Skinner, Craig; Lin, Su-Ju

    2010-01-01

    CR, increases both respiration and cellular resistance to aaerobic respiration represents the vast majority of cellularcellular and nuclear NADH, enforced by a metabolic shift to mitochondrial respiration,

  18. Life span of multipotential hematopoietic stem cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.; Snodgrass, R. )

    1990-05-01

    The findings reported in this study highlight several important features of the development of hematopoietic stem cells after transplantation into irradiated recipients. First, they demonstrate the existence of a class of primitive multipotential stem cells that can function for a significant portion of the lifetime of a mouse (15 mo). In addition, they clearly show that these primitive stem cells can be infected with recombinant retroviruses and thus would be appropriate targets for gene therapy in somatic tissues. Second, our data indicate that the progeny of some, but not all, of the primitive stem cells have fully expanded into the various hematopoietic lineages by 2 mo after reconstitution. Finally, our analysis of the secondary recipients provides strong evidence suggesting that the primitive stem cell population can actually clonally expand. Our current experiments are aimed at determining the extent to which this expansion can occur and whether or not this expansion can be influenced by exogenous factors.

  19. 8. General view of movable span from water level, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General view of movable span from water level, showing piers turntable, movable span, parts of west land span and east viaduct. VIEW NORTHEAST - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  1. Effects of nutrition on disease and life span. I. Immune responses, cardiovascular pathology, and life span in MRL mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mark, D. A.; Alonso, D. R.; Quimby, F.; Thaler, H. T.; Kim, Y. T.; Fernandes, G.; Good, R. A.; Weksler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Mice of the autoimmune, lymphoproliferative strain MRL/lpr and the congenic, nonlymphoproliferative strain MRL/n were fed one of six diets from weaning on-ward. These mice were sacrificed at 3 or 5 months of age. Low fat diets resulted in lower cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels than did cholesterol-containing high-fat diets. Caloric restriction of MRL/lpr mice was associated with an increased plaque-forming cell response to trinitrophenylated polyacrylamide beads, less lymphoproliferation, and less severe glomerulonephritis. Diet did not affect the incidence of autoimmune vasculitis in MRL/lpr mice sacrificed at 5 months. MRL/lpr mice fed a low-fat, calorically restricted diet from 5 months of age to death lived longer than mice which were fed ad libitum a cholesterol-containing, high-fat diet. At death, MRL/lpr mice fed the former diet had the autoimmune vasculitis which had been evident in mice killed at 5 months, whereas mice fed the latter diet, in addition to the vasculitis, had a high incidence of atherosclerotic lesions of intrarenal and aortic branch arteries. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6333184

  2. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  3. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  4. Measuring selective constraint on fertility in human life histories.

    PubMed

    Jones, James Holland; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2015-07-21

    Human life histories combine late age at first reproduction, long reproductive span, relatively high fertility, and substantial postreproductive survival. However, even among the most fecund populations, human fertility falls far below its theoretical maximum. The extent of parental care required for successful offspring recruitment and widespread fertility decline under proper economic conditions suggest that selection on fertility is constrained by trade-offs with recruitment. Here we measure the trade-offs between life history traits under selection by approximating the slope of the selective constraint curve on two traits at the observed values. Using a selection of populations that span human demographic space, we find that the substitution elasticity of fertility for infant survival shows age-related patterns, with minimum substitution elasticities ranging from 14 to 22 for the four populations. The age of this minimum occurs earlier in the high-mortality populations relative to generation time than it does in the low-mortality populations. The human curves are qualitatively similar to one of two comparable nonhuman primate age-specific substitution elasticity curves. The curve for rhesus macaques has a similar shape but is shifted down, meaning that the threshold for switching from investing in survival to fertility is lower at all ages. The magnitude of the substitution elasticities is similar between chimpanzees and humans but the shape is quite different, rising more slowly for a longer fraction of the chimpanzee life cycle. The steeply rising substitution elasticities with age in humans has clear implications for the evolution of reproductive senescence. PMID:26150499

  5. Measuring selective constraint on fertility in human life histories

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2015-01-01

    Human life histories combine late age at first reproduction, long reproductive span, relatively high fertility, and substantial postreproductive survival. However, even among the most fecund populations, human fertility falls far below its theoretical maximum. The extent of parental care required for successful offspring recruitment and widespread fertility decline under proper economic conditions suggest that selection on fertility is constrained by trade-offs with recruitment. Here we measure the trade-offs between life history traits under selection by approximating the slope of the selective constraint curve on two traits at the observed values. Using a selection of populations that span human demographic space, we find that the substitution elasticity of fertility for infant survival shows age-related patterns, with minimum substitution elasticities ranging from 14 to 22 for the four populations. The age of this minimum occurs earlier in the high-mortality populations relative to generation time than it does in the low-mortality populations. The human curves are qualitatively similar to one of two comparable nonhuman primate age-specific substitution elasticity curves. The curve for rhesus macaques has a similar shape but is shifted down, meaning that the threshold for switching from investing in survival to fertility is lower at all ages. The magnitude of the substitution elasticities is similar between chimpanzees and humans but the shape is quite different, rising more slowly for a longer fraction of the chimpanzee life cycle. The steeply rising substitution elasticities with age in humans has clear implications for the evolution of reproductive senescence. PMID:26150499

  6. Secondary reproduction in the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata: time-constrained primary reproduction does not result in increased deferral of reproductive effort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although semelparity is a life history characterized by a single reproductive episode within a single reproductive season, some semelparous organisms facultatively express a second bout of reproduction, either in a subsequent season (“facultative iteroparity”) or later within the same season as the primary bout (“secondary reproduction”). Secondary reproduction has been explained as the adaptive deferral of reproductive potential under circumstances in which some fraction of reproductive success would otherwise have been lost (due, for example, to inopportune timing). This deferral hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between constraints on primary reproduction and expression of secondary reproduction. The herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata has been observed occasionally to express a secondary reproductive episode in the field. However, it is unknown whether secondary reproduction is an example of adaptive reproductive deferral, or is more parsimoniously explained as the vestigial expression of iteroparity after a recent transition to semelparity. Here, we experimentally manipulate effective season length in each of three years to test whether secondary reproduction is a form of adaptive plasticity consistent with the deferral hypothesis. Results Our results were found to be inconsistent with the adaptive deferral explanation: first, plants whose primary reproduction was time-constrained exhibited decreased (not increased) allocation to subsequent secondary reproduction, a result that was consistent across all three years; second, secondary offspring—although viable in the laboratory—would not have the opportunity for expression under field conditions, and would thus not contribute to reproductive success. Conclusions Although alternative adaptive explanations for secondary reproduction cannot be precluded, we conclude that the characteristics of secondary reproduction found in L. inflata are consistent with predictions of incomplete or transitional evolution to annual semelparity. PMID:24886288

  7. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & ... reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a network of excretory ducts (epididymis, ductus ...

  8. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  9. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy View/Download: Small: 720x756 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

  10. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Body Basics > Female Reproductive ... egg or sperm. Continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  11. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Your Changing Body > Female ... female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  12. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Your Changing Body > Male ... female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  13. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  14. Palaeobiology: Ecological Revelations in Ediacaran Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Marc; Darroch, Simon A F

    2015-11-01

    The biology of Ediacaran organisms - the oldest fossils of large multicellular life - has been notoriously hard to decipher, as they show little obvious relation to extant life forms. Ecological analyses, rather than anatomy, yield new revelations about their reproduction. PMID:26528749

  15. Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation Yu synchronized reproduction. The facilitation on reproduction may enhance species persistence and coexistence- meters, such as mortality and recruitment rates, and functions of reproductive facilitation. Both

  16. Wind effect on long span bridge

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis has studied different types of reactions of long span bridge under wind load, such as vortex shedding, flutter and buffeting. Since all of these conditions have the chance to damage bridge structure, we calculate ...

  17. Faster generation of random spanning trees

    E-print Network

    Ma?dry, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we set forth a new algorithm for generating approximately uniformly random spanning trees in undirected graphs. We show how to sample from a distribution that is within a multiplicative (1+6) of uniform in ...

  18. Reproductive allocation and output in herbaceous annuals of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia in elevated CO[sub 2] environments

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, E.J.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the capacity of plants to adapt to rapidly changing global climate, we must elucidate the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on reproduction, fitness and evolution. We investigated how elevated CO[sub 2] influenced reproduction and growth of plants exhibiting a range of floral displays, the implications of shifts in allocation for fitness in these species, and whether related taxa would show similar patterns of response. Three herbaceous, annual species each of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia were grown under 350 or 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. Vegetative growth and reproductive output were non-destructively measured throughout the full life span, and biomass calibrated with a subsample harvest at first flowering. Viability and germination studies of seed progeny were conducted to more precisely characterize fitness. Timecourse and numbers of floral buds, flowers, unripe and abscised fruits differed between CO[sub 2] treatments. Genera differed significantly in their phenological responses to elevated CO[sub 2], Polygonum and Cassia species (but not Ipomoea) showed accelerated, enhanced reproduction. Elevated CO[sub 2] ameliorated trade-offs between vegetative and floral production. However, seed [open quotes]quality[close quotes] and fitness were not always directly correlated with quantity produced. Species within general responded more consistently to CO[sub 2], indicating that phylogeny and life form may be general predictors of performance under global change.

  19. Reproductive success, early life stage development, and survival of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Barri-Lynn; Andreller, Iisak; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2008-04-15

    The effects of accumulated Se on the reproductive success and larval development of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewis,) collected from a site of active coal mining in British Columbia were assessed. Eggs from 12 fish from an exposed site (Clode Pond) and 16 from a reference site (O'Rourke Lake) were field-collected and reared in the laboratory. Egg Se concentrations ranged from 12.3 to 16.7 and 11.8 to 140.0 microg/g dry weight (dw) from fish collected at the reference and exposed sites, respectively. Other studies, including those with this species, have not shown Se to affect egg viability; however, in the present study, eggs with Se concentrations > 86.3 microg/g dw were not successfully fertilized or were nonviable at fertilization, while eggs with concentrations > 46.8 and < 75.4 microg/g dw were fertilized (96% reached the eyed stage) but did not produce viable fry. A significant positive relationship between egg Se concentration and alevin mortality was observed. Deformities were analyzed in surviving fry which developed from eggs with Se concentrations between 11.8 and 20.6 microg/g dw. No relationship between Se concentration in eggs and deformities or edema was found in this range, suggesting that the no-effect threshold for deformity is > 20.6 microg/g dw. The present data, in conjunction with the data from several other studies in temperate fish, suggest that current Se thresholds are conservative for cold-water fish. PMID:18497174

  20. Reproductive success, early life stage development, and survival of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Barri-Lynn Rudolph; Iisak Andreller; Christopher J. Kennedy

    2008-04-15

    The effects of accumulated Se on the reproductive success and larval development of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) collected from a site of active coal mining in British Columbia were assessed. Eggs from 12 fish from an exposed site (Clode Pond) and 16 from a reference site (O'Rourke Lake) were field-collected and reared in the laboratory. Egg Se concentrations ranged from 12.3 to 16.7 and 11.8 to 140.0 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw) from fish collected at the reference and exposed sites, respectively. Other studies, including those with this species, have not shown Se to affect egg viability. However, in the present study, eggs with Se concentrations >86.3 {mu}g/g dw were not successfully fertilized or were nonviable at fertilization, while eggs with concentrations >46.8 and <75.4 {mu}g/g dw were fertilized (96% reached the eyed stage) but did not produce viable fry. A significant positive relationship between egg Se concentration and alevin mortality was observed. Deformities were analyzed in surviving fry which developed from eggs with Se concentrations between 11.8 and 20.6 {mu}g/g dw. No relationship between Se concentration in eggs and deformities or edema was found in this range, suggesting that the no-effect threshold for deformity is >20.6 {mu}g/g dw. The present data, in conjunction with the data from several other studies in temperate fish, suggest that current Se thresholds are conservative for cold-water fish. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Age-based demographic and reproductive assessment of orangespine Naso lituratus and bluespine Naso unicornis unicornfishes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B M; Rhodes, K L; Marshell, A; McIlwain, J L

    2014-09-01

    Bluespine unicornfish Naso unicornis and orangespine unicornfish Naso lituratus were sampled in Pohnpei and Guam, Micronesia, over 13 months to identify reproductive and age-based demographic features necessary for informed management. Age and reproductive information were derived from analysis of sagittal otoliths and gonads. Both species had moderate life spans [maximum ages of 23 (N. unicornis) and 14 years (N. lituratus)] compared with published estimates of conspecifics from other locations (>30 years) and of other Naso species. Length at maturation for N. unicornis was similar between Pohnpei and Guam while females consistently matured at a larger size [c. 30 cm fork length (LF )] than males (c. 27 cm LF ). This sex-specific pattern was reversed in N. lituratus for which estimates of maturation length (females: 15 cm LF ; males: 18 cm LF ) were only obtained from Guam. Developmental patterns in female gonads of both species suggested that initiation of maturation occurs very early. Growth patterns of N. lituratus displayed rapid asymptotic growth compared with N. unicornis and other congeners as well as slight sex-specific patterns of length-at-age. Results highlight the considerable spatial variation that may occur in the population biology of these species across various scales. Additionally, proper management remains complicated without improved knowledge of fishery trends and reproductive behaviour in unicornfishes, species that are prime fishery targets in Micronesia and elsewhere. PMID:25082347

  2. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    PubMed

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress. PMID:25784612

  3. Component Analysis of Simple Span vs. Complex Span Adaptive Working Memory Exercises: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Bradley S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Johnson, Ann C.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.; Steeger, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using adaptive training interventions such as Cogmed-RM to increase the capacity of working memory (WM), but this intervention may not be optimally designed. For instance, Cogmed-RM can target the primary memory (PM) component of WM capacity, but not the secondary memory (SM) component. The present study hypothesized that Cogmed-RM does not target SM capacity because the simple span exercises it uses may not cause a sufficient amount of information to be lost from PM during training. To investigate, we randomly assigned participants to either a standard (simple span; N = 31) or a modified (complex span; N = 30) training condition. The main findings showed that SM capacity did not improve, even in the modified training condition. Hence, the potency of span-based WM interventions cannot be increased simply by converting simple span exercises into complex span exercises. PMID:23066524

  4. Component Analysis of Simple Span vs. Complex Span Adaptive Working Memory Exercises: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bradley S; Kronenberger, William G; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Morrissey, Rebecca A; Steeger, Christine M

    2012-09-01

    There has been growing interest in using adaptive training interventions such as Cogmed-RM to increase the capacity of working memory (WM), but this intervention may not be optimally designed. For instance, Cogmed-RM can target the primary memory (PM) component of WM capacity, but not the secondary memory (SM) component. The present study hypothesized that Cogmed-RM does not target SM capacity because the simple span exercises it uses may not cause a sufficient amount of information to be lost from PM during training. To investigate, we randomly assigned participants to either a standard (simple span; N = 31) or a modified (complex span; N = 30) training condition. The main findings showed that SM capacity did not improve, even in the modified training condition. Hence, the potency of span-based WM interventions cannot be increased simply by converting simple span exercises into complex span exercises. PMID:23066524

  5. Morphological indicators of initial reproductive commitment in Mustelus schmitti (Springer 1939) (Chondrichthyes, Triakidae): folliculogenesis and ovarian structure over the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Galíndez, E J; Díaz Andrade, M; Estecondo, S

    2014-08-01

    This work provides information about the sexual commitment and the folliculogenesis of the gatuzo, Mustelus schmitti. A total of 112 females of all maturity stages were fished in the Bahía Blanca estuary, between 2009 and 2010. The oogonia were present throughout the life cycle of the animals. The folliculogenesis follows a pattern similar to other elasmobranchs. The granulosa layer keeps monolayered throughout the folliculogenesis, but with two cell types in the vitellogenic follicle. The zona pellucida forms in the primordial follicles. The thecal system shows a connective inner layer and a glandular outer sheath. The microscopic beginning of the sexual commitment, indicated by the vitello hoarding, takes place in follicles from 500 micrometres, while the macroscopic evidence appears in follicles of 2500-3000 micrometres. The results presented in this study suggest that the fishery pressure may affect a susceptible range of sizes of the species, not previously considered and provides a biological framework for the development of fisheries policy. PMID:25627379

  6. The Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Correct sexual development is arguably the most important trait in an organism's life history since it is directly related to its genetic fitness. The developing gonad houses the germ cells, the only legacy we pass on to subsequent generations. Given the pivotal importance of correct reproductive function, it is confounding that disorders of sex development (DSDs) are among the most common congenital abnormalities in humans (Lee et al. J Pediatr Urol 8(6):611-615, 2012). Urogenital development is a highly complex process involving coordinated interactions between molecular and hormonal pathways in a tightly regulated order. The controls that regulate some of the key events in this process are beginning to be unraveled. This chapter provides an overview of our understanding of urogenital development from the gonads to the urogenital ducts and external genitalia. PMID:26659484

  7. 10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  9. 47. DRAW SPAN OVER PASSAIC RIVER Drawing No. 54 General ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DRAW SPAN OVER PASSAIC RIVER Drawing No. 54 General Details of Wedge Operating Machinery for Draw Span Scale 1-1/2'=1'; April 1897 - Jackson Street Bridge, Spanning Passaic River, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  10. 13. View showing junction of north span (fixed end) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View showing junction of north span (fixed end) and center span (expansion end) at north pier (pier #2), looking from the east - Bridge No. 4900, Spanning Root River at Trunk Highway 16, Rushford, Fillmore County, MN

  11. 16. Perspective view of bascule span in closed position and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Perspective view of bascule span in closed position and vertical left span in open position, facing northeast - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care. PMID:22707757

  13. Fat tissue and long life.

    PubMed

    Bluher, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Studies over the last several years have revealed important roles of the body fat content, caloric intake and nutrition, insulin/IGF-1 signaling systems, and pathways involved in oxidative stress and control of protein acetylation on life span. Although the discovery of longevity genes supports the concept that life span is genetically determined, adipose tissue seems to be a pivotal organ in the aging process and in the determination of life span. Leanness and caloric restriction have been shown to increase longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Increased longevity in mice with a fat-specific disruption of the insulin receptor gene (FIRKO) suggests that reduced adiposity, even in the presence of normal or increased food intake, leads to an extended life span. Reduced fat mass has an impact on longevity in a number of other model organisms. In Drosophila, a specific reduction in the fat body through overexpression of forkhead type transcription factor (dFOXO) extends life span. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the mammalian ortholog of the life-extending yeast gene silent information regulator 2 (SIR2), was proposed to be involved in the molecular mechanisms linking life span to adipose tissue. Moreover, in the control of human aging and longevity, one of the striking physiological characteristics identified in centenarians is their greatly increased insulin sensitivity even compared with younger individuals. On the other hand, overweight and obesity seem to be associated with decreased life span in humans. In addition, it was recently shown that modifiable risk factors during the later years of life, including smoking, obesity, and hypertension, are associated not only with lower life expectancy, but also with poor health and function during older age. There is growing evidence that the effect of reduced adipose tissue mass on life span could be due to the prevention of obesity-related metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. PMID:20054178

  14. Garden Banks 388 deepwater pipeline span avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.W.; Sawyer, M.A.; Kenney, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will describe the span avoidance measures taken for the installation of the Garden Banks 388 deepwater oil and gas gathering pipelines. The two 12 inch pipelines connect a shallow water facility in EI-315 to a deep water subsea template in GB-388. These pipelines run across the irregular continental slope typically found in moderate to deep water in the Gulf of Mexico. To minimize pipeline spans, steps were taken during design, survey, and installation phases of the project. During each phase, as additional information became available, analyses and resulting recommended approaches were refined. This continuity, seldom easily obtained, proved beneficial in translating design work into field results.

  15. Boundary Spanning Leadership Practices for Population Health.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R; White-Williams, Connie

    2015-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. In this article, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices for achieving the Triple Aim of simultaneously improving the health of populations, improving the patient experience, and reducing per-capita cost of health care. Drawing on experience with an existing population-focused heart failure clinic borne of an academic-practice partnership, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices aimed at achieving the Triple Aim concept and its intended design. PMID:26301546

  16. General closeup view of the swing span bridge in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General close-up view of the swing span bridge in the close position, looking upriver. The pivot/center pier is positioned in the center of Tennessee River. Note: Each arm of the continuous swing span acts as simple spans. The total span over four (4) supports is partially continuous-- the middle panel at the center pier is continuous for bending moments, but discontinuous for shears. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  17. 10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, cracks, and efflorescence; view to southeast. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

  18. Reproductive cessation and post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants and pre-industrial humans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Short post-reproductive lifespan is widespread across species, but prolonged post-reproductive life-stages of potential adaptive significance have been reported only in few mammals with extreme longevity. Long post-reproductive lifespan contradicts classical evolutionary predictions of simultaneous senescence in survival and reproduction, and raises the question of whether extreme longevity in mammals promotes such a life-history. Among terrestrial mammals, elephants share the features with great apes and humans, of having long lifespan and offspring with long dependency. However, little data exists on the frequency of post-reproductive lifespan in elephants. Here we use extensive demographic records on semi-captive Asian elephants (n?=?1040) and genealogical data on pre-industrial women (n?=?5336) to provide the first comparisons of age-specific reproduction, survival and post-reproductive lifespan in both of these long-lived species. Results We found that fertility decreased after age 50 in elephants, but the pattern differed from a total loss of fertility in menopausal women with many elephants continuing to reproduce at least until the age of 65 years. The probability of entering a non-reproductive state increased steadily in elephants from the earliest age of reproduction until age 65, with the longer living elephants continuing to reproduce until older ages, in contrast to humans whose termination probability increased rapidly after age 35 and reached 1 at 56 years, but did not depend on longevity. Post-reproductive lifespan reached 11–17 years in elephants and 26–27 years in humans living until old age (depending on method), but whereas half of human adult lifespan (of those reproductive females surviving to the age of 5% fecundity) was spent as post-reproductive, only one eighth was in elephants. Consequently, although some elephants have long post-reproductive lifespans, relatively few individuals reach such a phase and the decline in fertility generally parallels declines in survivorship in contrast to humans with a decoupling of senescence in somatic and reproductive functions. Conclusions Our results show that the reproductive and survival patterns of Asian elephants differ from other long-lived animals exhibiting menopause, such as humans, and extreme longevity alone does not promote the evolution of menopause or post-reproductive lifespan, adding weight to the unusual kin-selected benefits suggested to favour such traits in humans and killer whales. PMID:25183990

  19. Comparative toxicant sensitivity of sexual and asexual reproduction in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, T.W.; Carmona, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    Cyclically parthenogenetic zooplankters like rotifers are important tools for assessing toxicity in aquatic environments. Sexual reproduction is an essential component of rotifer life cycles, but current toxicity tests utilize only asexual reproduction. The authors compared the effects of four toxicants on asexual and sexual reproduction of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Toxicants had a differential effect on sexual and asexual reproduction, with sexual reproduction consistently the most sensitive. Concentrations of 0.2 {mu}g/ml PCP (sodium pentachlorophenate) had no effect on the asexual reproductive rate, but significantly reduced sexual reproduction. Likewise, chlorpyrifos concentrations of 0.3 {mu}g/ml had no significant effect on asexual reproduction, but sexual reproduction was significantly reduced. There was no difference in NOECs, LOECs, and chronic values for asexual and sexual reproduction for cadmium and naphthol tests. However, comparison of toxicant effect levels revealed that sexual reproduction was more strongly reduced at each toxicant concentration. The four toxicants tested inhibited sexual reproduction 2 to 68 times more than asexual reproduction at the lowest observed effect concentrations. Toxicants inhibited sexual reproduction in its initial step: sexual female production. Because sexual reproduction is more sensitive, toxicity tests based exclusively on asexual reproduction may not be protective of rotifer life cycles.

  20. Full Scale Span Load Distribution on a Tapered Wing with Split Flaps of Various Spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, John F; Silverstein, Abe

    1937-01-01

    Pressure-distribution tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a 2:1 tapered U.S.A. 45 airfoil equipped with 20 percent chord split trailing-edge flaps of various spans. A special installation was employed in the tests utilizing a half-span airfoil mounted vertically above a reflection plane. The airfoil has a constant chord center section and rounded tips and is tapered in thickness from 18 percent c at the root to 9 percent c at the tip. The aerodynamic characteristics, given by the usual dimension less coefficients, are presented graphically as functions of flap span and angle of attack as well as by semispan load diagrams. The results indicate, in general, that only a relatively small increase in the normal-force coefficient is to be expected by extending the flap span of an airfoil-flap combination, similar to the one tested, beyond 70 percent of the wing span.

  1. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  2. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  3. Complex Systems: Boundary-Spanning Training Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Terry; Black, Janice A.; Loveland, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The complex system dynamics of organizations and the influence of information technology requires workers to have boundary-spanning skills and the ability to work in virtual teams. The integrated business core is an experiential graduate-level course designed to develop these skills; it is also adaptable for inservice training. (Contains 69…

  4. Minimum Spanning Trees weighted graph API

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xiaolin

    1 Minimum Spanning Trees weighted graph API cycles and cuts Kruskal's algorithm Prim's algorithm of the evolutionary spirit." - Gordon Gecko #12;9 weighted graph API cycles and cuts Kruskal's algorithm Prim's algorithm advanced topics #12;10 Weighted Graph API iterate through all edges (once in each direction

  5. 101. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Reproduction from glass plate negative (Modjeski and Masters office, Modjeski Collection, No. 199, July 25, 1908) TURNING THE DRAW FOR THE FIRST TIME - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  6. Reproduction, genetics and the law.

    PubMed

    Crockin, Susan L

    2005-06-01

    Both reproductive medicine and genetics are seeing rapid, and in some instances revolutionary, medical and scientific advances. Courts have been called upon to resolve a variety of novel disputes arising from these areas, and more can be anticipated as these technologies continue to develop and their use becomes more widespread. This article discusses some of the most relevant areas of the law and litigation that currently bear on reproduction and genetics or that may be anticipated to do so in the future. Specific developments and judicial decisions addressing them include: legal theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life and their application to children born with genetic impairments; a physician's duty to warn family members about a relative's genetic disease; disputes over reproductive materials and non-reproductive cells and tissues; unauthorized genetic testing in the workplace; and genetic discrimination. It is hoped that this discussion will be of value to medical and legal professionals and policy makers who work with these concepts in the increasingly inter-related fields of law and medicine. PMID:15969994

  7. Analysis of life-history traits in a sex-changing marine shrimp (decapoda: caridea: rhynchocinetidae).

    PubMed

    Osawa, Yumiko; Aoki, Masakazu N; Thiel, Martin; Bauer, Raymond T

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis of protandrous (male to female) sex change was tested for the first time in a rhynchocinetid shrimp, Rhynchocinetes uritai, with an analysis of life-history traits. Samples were taken monthly for 2 years in Oura Bay, Japan, using a combination of bait and refuge traps. Breeding was seasonal but extended from spring through autumn, with female-phase individuals (FPs) producing broods successively, with their ovaries maturing for a new spawn during incubation of a previous brood. Females incubated numerous (?500-4000) embryos that suffered insignificant mortality before hatching. Recruitment of juveniles after planktonic larval development began in summer and peaked during the autumn, with negligible recruitment during winter and spring. Cohort analysis confirmed the hypothesis of protandric sex change in this species, with juveniles maturing into the male phase (MP) during their first reproductive season at an age of 6-10 mon, depending on the time of recruitment. Sex change occurred during the following winter when transitional individuals matured into FPs during their second reproductive season at an age of ?18 mon. Two cohorts were followed from recruitment until the end of the study, indicating a life span of 21-25 mon. Aside from its sexual system, this sex-changing species showed no obvious differences in reproductive and other life-history traits from those of gonochoric species from similar latitudes and habitats. PMID:25920716

  8. Feature Article Testosterone-Mediated Immune Functions and Male Life

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    systems, including metabolic, reproductive, and stress hormones. Because androgens influence and modulate male life history trade-offs between immune and reproductive endocrine functions as well as provide in the evolution of male life histories. In doing so, we review testoster- one's actions on reproductive and immune

  9. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  10. SPECIAL CONTRIBUTION Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-

    E-print Network

    McLachlan, John

    SPECIAL CONTRIBUTION Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine- disrupting compounds related to the contribution of EDCs to disorders of the ovary (aneuploidy, polycystic ovary syndrome disorders, which can be addressed by correlative studies on early life exposure and adult reproductive

  11. Teaching Angiosperm Reproduction by Means of the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is an alternative teaching strategy to uncover and assess a common misconception in the life sciences and to articulate its use in teaching a unit on angiosperm reproduction. The learning cycle is described, and a concept map on reproduction on angiosperms is included. (KR)

  12. 9. VIEW SHOWING JUNCTION OF CONCRETE EAST APPROACH SPAN WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING JUNCTION OF CONCRETE EAST APPROACH SPAN WITH STEEL SPAN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ROCKING CAST STEEL SHOE ATTACHED TO PIER TO ALLOW FOR EXPANSION OF STEEL SPAN - Jensen Bridge, Spanning Green River at Town of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

  13. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  14. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable. PMID:26242944

  15. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  16. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  17. Microbes Central to Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe–host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions. PMID:25250861

  18. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions. PMID:25250861

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING REPRODUCTION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ADULT SIZE ON REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT OF THE MIDGE, CHIRONOMUS TENTANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating reproductive endpoints into sediment toxicity tests has become an important consideration in ecological risk assessments. The capacity to assess reproduction was one of the primary objectives underlying the recent development of a life-cycle test with the midge, Ch...

  20. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of tests used to evaluate reproductive toxicity and the application of such methodologies to the evaluation of the potential of pesticides to induce developmental and/or reproductive toxicity will be presented. Reproductive toxicity encompasses adverse effects on the mal...

  1. Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. The two (2) arms act as simple spans, a small amount of negative bending is accommodated by the continous top and bottom truss chords due to a continuous condition. Note the inclined end post of each of the simple spans, the operator's house, center/pivot pier and the pivotal pole-line pole placed atop of bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  2. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic elements, as predicted from life history theory. PMID:23056440

  3. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-06-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between reproduction and longevity than herbivores. Annual reproduction and adult mass were significant predictors of longevity among all mammals; although, the relative importance of reproduction and mass for explaining longevity varied among trophic levels. In herbivores, reproduction was a stronger predictor of longevity than mass. Carnivores showed the opposite pattern with reproduction explaining much less of the variation in longevity. Omnivores showed an intermediate pattern with mass and reproduction explaining similar amounts of variation in longevity. In addition, longevity and reproduction were significantly higher in omnivores than herbivores and carnivores, which were not different from each other. Higher dietary protein at higher trophic levels may allow mammals to avoid potential conflicts between reproduction and longevity. However, there may be potential costs of carnivorous diets that limit the overall performance of carnivores and explain the peak in reproduction and longevity for omnivores. PMID:22237559

  4. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Conry, Jeanne A; Blake, Jennifer; DeFrancesco, Mark S; DeNicola, Nathaniel; Martin, James N; McCue, Kelly A; Richmond, David; Shah, Abid; Sutton, Patrice; Woodruff, Tracey J; van der Poel, Sheryl Ziemin; Giudice, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are disproportionately borne by people with low incomes. Discrimination, other social factors, economic factors, and occupation impact risk of exposure and harm. Documented links between prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals and adverse health outcomes span the life course and include impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer. The global health and economic burden related to toxic environmental chemicals is in excess of millions of deaths and billions of dollars every year. On the basis of accumulating robust evidence of exposures and adverse health impacts related to toxic environmental chemicals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) joins other leading reproductive health professional societies in calling for timely action to prevent harm. FIGO recommends that reproductive and other health professionals advocate for policies to prevent exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, work to ensure a healthy food system for all, make environmental health part of health care, and champion environmental justice. PMID:26433469

  5. Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Zhang, Chunguang

    2009-01-01

    Elongate ilisha ( Ilisha enlongata) is a commercially important species that contributes to clupeoid fisheries in Asian countries. In the present study, the reproductive biology of I. elongata in Ariake Sound, Japan is determined for the first time. Six maturity stages were described using ovarian and testicular histology throughout the annual cycle. The spawning season in Ariake Sound lasts from May to July, with peak spawning activity in May and June. Age at first maturity was estimated to be 2 years, with a few exceptions of 1 year in well-developed males. Ovaries that contained both tertiary yolk oocytes and postovulatory follicles occurred from late May to late July, indicating that I. elongata is a multiple spawner. The size-frequency distribution of oocytes provided evidence for its multiple spawning and accuracy of the fecundity estimates. The batch fecundity of this species was estimated at between 22,200 and 270,900 eggs per individual, increasing with age between two and six years. The present findings on the reproductive strategy of I. elongata in Ariake Sound are generally consistent with those in temperate or subtropical populations, but quite different from those of tropical population where first maturation occurs around 200 days and life spans are shorter, with a maximum age less than 3 years. The conservation implications of this reproductive strategy in a harsh, variable environment in Asian countries are also discussed.

  6. Reductions in serum IGF-1 during aging impair health span

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhenwei; Kennedy, Oran; Sun, Hui; Wu, YingJie; Williams, Garry A; Klein, Laura; Cardoso, Luis; Matheny, Ronald W; Hubbard, Gene B; Ikeno, Yuji; Farrar, Roger P; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Adamo, Martin L; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Yakar, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In lower or simple species, such as worms and flies, disruption of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and the insulin signaling pathways has been shown to increase lifespan. In rodents, however, growth hormone (GH) regulates IGF-1 levels in serum and tissues and can modulate lifespan via/or independent of IGF-1. Rodent models, where the GH/IGF-1 axis was ablated congenitally, show increased lifespan. However, in contrast to rodents where serum IGF-1 levels are high throughout life, in humans, serum IGF-1 peaks during puberty and declines thereafter during aging. Thus, animal models with congenital disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis are unable to clearly distinguish between developmental and age-related effects of GH/IGF-1 on health. To overcome this caveat, we developed an inducible liver IGF-1-deficient (iLID) mouse that allows temporal control of serum IGF-1. Deletion of liver Igf -1 gene at one year of age reduced serum IGF-1 by 70% and dramatically impaired health span of the iLID mice. Reductions in serum IGF-1 were coupled with increased GH levels and increased basal STAT5B phosphorylation in livers of iLID mice. These changes were associated with increased liver weight, increased liver inflammation, increased oxidative stress in liver and muscle, and increased incidence of hepatic tumors. Lastly, despite elevations in serum GH, low levels of serum IGF-1 from 1 year of age compromised skeletal integrity and accelerated bone loss. We conclude that an intact GH/IGF-1 axis is essential to maintain health span and that elevated GH, even late in life, associates with increased pathology. PMID:24341939

  7. Effects of Bartonella spp. on Flea Feeding and Reproductive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J.; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

  8. Autopoiesis and natural drift: genetic information, reproduction, and evolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Arantza

    2004-01-01

    The contribution of the theory of autopoiesis to the definition of life and biological theory affirms biological autonomy as a central notion of scientific and philosophical inquiry, and opposes other biological approaches, based on the notion of genetic information, that consider reproduction and evolution to be the central aspects of life and living phenomenology. This article reviews the autopoietic criticisms of genetic information, reproduction, and evolution in the light of a biology that can solve the problem of living organization. PMID:15245632

  9. Costs of reproduction and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a `ying lizard' Draco melanopogon (Agamidae)

    E-print Network

    Keogh, Scott

    Costs of reproduction and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a `¯ying lizard' Draco melanopogon) Abstract Life-history models suggest that `costs of reproduction' can in¯uence the evolution of sexual models that incorporate `costs of reproduction' yield different pre- dictions. For example, sexual

  10. Reproductive Health Education Model in Early Childhood through Education Film "Damar Wulan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahrulianingdyah, Atiek

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health education for early childhood it has been the time to teach, because the demand of the changing times and will affect the child's life when he/she is a teenager. During this time, the reproductive health education, which is in it there is sex education, considered taboo among some communities. They argue that the reproductive

  11. Balanced Trade-Offs between Alternative Strategies Shape the Response of C. elegans Reproduction to

    E-print Network

    Ruvinsky, Ilya

    laying, and thus protecting the reproductive system, is negated by the cost associated with implementing-offs as a dynamic response of the C. elegans reproductive system to stress and an adaptation to life in variableBalanced Trade-Offs between Alternative Strategies Shape the Response of C. elegans Reproduction

  12. The Burden of Motherhood: The Effect of Reproductive Load on Female Lizard Locomotor, Foraging, and Social Behavior

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    success in favor of current reproductive efforts. Life history models assume such trade-offs between can be associated with predator avoidance. For example, gravid sticklebacks manage predation risks Introduction Across reproductive cycles, females experience many physical and physiological changes

  13. Disordered Systems, Spanning Trees and SLE

    E-print Network

    Davide Fichera

    2007-09-18

    We define a minimization problem for paths on planar graphs that, on the honeycomb lattice, is equivalent to the exploration path of the critical site percolation and than has the same scaling limit of SLE_6. We numerically study this model (testing several SLE properties on other lattices and with different boundary conditions) and state it in terms of spanning trees. This statement of the problem allows the definition of a random growth process for trees on two dimensional graphs such that SLE is recovered as a special choice of boundary conditions.

  14. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  15. From reproductive choice to reproductive justice.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-08-01

    Since the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development, the human rights movement has embraced the concept of reproductive rights. These are often pursued, however, by means to which objection is taken. Some conservative political and religious forces continue to resist implementation of several means of protecting and advancing reproductive rights. Individuals' rights to grant and to deny consent to medical procedures affecting their reproductive health and confidentiality have been progressively advanced. However, access to contraceptive services, while not necessarily opposed, is unjustifiably obstructed in some settings. Rights to lawful abortion have been considerably liberalized by legislative and judicial decisions, although resistance remains. Courts are increasingly requiring that lawful services be accommodated under transparent conditions of access and of legal protection. The conflict between rights of resort to lawful reproductive health services and to conscientious objection to participation is resolved by legal duties to refer patients to non-objecting providers. PMID:19426975

  16. Influence of Constant Temperature on Reproductive Parameters of Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Holotrichia oblita Faldermann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major pest both in field crops and forests because the larvae could eat the roots of most crops in the field, and the adults damage the leaves of trees and field crops. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on H. oblita reproductive parameters. The results indicated H. oblita female adults at 25°C could lay more eggs (84.0 eggs per female) and have the shortest preoviposition period (19.1?d), the greatest oviposition rate (2.8 eggs per female per 3?d), and largest percentage of life span spent in oviposition (59.5%). The longevity and the time to 50% egg laying decreased with increasing temperature, and female longevity was always longer than male longevity. The preoviposition and postoviposition period decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 25°C and then increased when the temperature increased from 25 to 30°C. These results show that 25°C is the optimal temperature for reproduction of H. oblita. PMID:26160804

  17. Age, growth, and reproductive biology of three catostomids from the Apalachicola River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Ely, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Riverine catostomids can show a wide range of interspecific variation in life-history characteristics. Understanding these differences is an important consideration in evaluating the sensitivity of these fishes to disturbance and in formulating effective conservation strategies, particularly when dealing with an assemblage consisting of multiple species within a watershed. We collected Apalachicola redhorse Moxostoma n. sp. cf. poecilurum (n = 125), spotted sucker Minytrema melanops (n = 94), and quillback Carpiodes cyprinus (n = 94) to determine age, growth, and reproductive biology of spawning catostomids in the Apalachicola River, Florida, during 2007. Quillback was the smallest in total length at age; longest-lived; most fecund; and produced the smallest eggs. Apalachicola redhorse was the largest in body size; had an intermediate life span; and produced the fewest yet largest eggs. Spotted sucker was more similar to Apalachicola redhorse in most characteristics. Growth during ages 1-3 in all three species seemed to be negatively related to the proportion of observations of extreme flow, both high (Q90) and low (Q10), per year and a positive response in growth rate to high flows (>Q75 but < Q90). However, Apalachicola redhorse and spotted sucker growth was more sensitive to flow conditions than that of quillback. Our results suggest the life histories and ecological response of Apalachicola River catostomids to flow regulation are important components for developing strategies that incorporate the needs of these fishery resources into an ecosystem-based management approach.

  18. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    PubMed

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming. PMID:21970255

  19. Factorization of Spanning Trees on Feynman Graphs

    E-print Network

    R. Hong Tuan

    1995-07-20

    In order to use the Gaussian representation for propagators in Feynman amplitudes, a representation which is useful to relate string theory and field theory, one has to prove first that each $\\alpha$- parameter (where $\\alpha$ is the parameter associated to each propagator in the $\\alpha$-representation of the Feynman amplitudes) can be replaced by a constant instead of being integrated over and second, prove that this constant can be taken equal for all propagators of a given graph. The first proposition has been proven in one recent letter when the number of propagators is infinite. Here we prove the second one. In order to achieve this, we demonstrate that the sum over the weighted spanning trees of a Feynman graph $G$ can be factorized for disjoint parts of $G$. The same can also be done for cuts on $G$, resulting in a rigorous derivation of the Gaussian representation for super-renormalizable scalar field theories. As a by-product spanning trees on Feynman graphs can be used to define a discretized functional space.

  20. Near-critical spanning forests and renormalization

    E-print Network

    Stéphane Benoist; Laure Dumaz; Wendelin Werner

    2015-03-27

    We study random two-dimensional spanning forests in the plane that can be viewed both in the discrete case and in their scaling limit as slight perturbations of an uniformly chosen spanning tree. We show how to relate this scaling limit to a stationary distribution of a natural Markov process on a state of abstract graphs with non-constant edge-weights. This simple Markov process can be viewed as a renormalization flow, so that in this two-dimensional case, one can give a rigorous meaning to the fact that there is a unique fixed point (ie. stationary distribution) in two dimensions for this renormalization flow, and that when starting from any periodic two-dimensional lattice, the renormalization flow converges to this fixed point (ie. the Markov process converges in law to its stationary distribution). While the results of this paper are dealing with the planar case and build on the convergence in distribution of branches of the UST to SLE$_2$ as well as on the predicted convergence of the suitably renormalized length of the loop-erased random walk to the "natural parametrization" of the SLE$_2$, this Markov process setup is in fact not restricted to two dimensions.

  1. Detail of moveable span over navigation channel of Fort Point ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of moveable span over navigation channel of Fort Point Channel showing fender remanent. View west - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 31. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN, UPPER TRUSS GUSSET PLATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN, UPPER TRUSS GUSSET PLATE, CONNECTION OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL MEMBERS AT BRIDGE TENDER'S MOUSE (taken in December 1983) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  3. 36. DETAIL, ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS Pencil drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAIL, ALTERNATE DESIGN USING THROUGH ARCH SPANS Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, ca. 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF NORTH SPAN, SHOWING LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERIOR OF NORTH SPAN, SHOWING LOWER BRACING, LOOKING FROM NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  5. 2. VIEW OF NORTH SPAN TRUSS, SHOWING CAUSEWAY BETWEEN NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTH SPAN TRUSS, SHOWING CAUSEWAY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH TRUSS, LOOKING FROM SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  6. Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on Abutment No. 1, view to south - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  8. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  9. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  10. 48. Fixed Span, Detail of Pinned Connection between End Post ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Fixed Span, Detail of Pinned Connection between End Post & First Segment of Top Chord (Vertical Tension Member goes to 2L); looking E. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  11. 52. Fixed Span, Top Chord at Panel Point 6; diagonal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Fixed Span, Top Chord at Panel Point 6; diagonal member goes to intermediate connection 7 & then to bottom chord at 8; looking ESE. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  12. Carbon nanotubes and their application to very long span bridges

    E-print Network

    Damolini, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    Spanning long distances in bridge construction relies mainly on the structure's efficiency and materials used. Whereas structural design for high rise building is fast-expanding, the overall design of long span bridges has ...

  13. 15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  14. 5. EAST SPAN, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING POLYGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST SPAN, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING POLYGONAL TOP CHORD, TRUSS PANELS, EAST ABUTMENT, AND CENTRAL PIER - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  15. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  16. 6. DETAIL OF COUNTERWEIGHT AND RAISED BASCULE SPAN OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF COUNTERWEIGHT AND RAISED BASCULE SPAN OF THE B & O RAILROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Chicago Terminal Railroad, South Branch of Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 7. DETAIL OF HINGE OF BASCULE SPAN OF B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF HINGE OF BASCULE SPAN OF B & O RAILROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Chicago Terminal Railroad, South Branch of Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. 33. DETAIL VIEW OF PIVOT SPAN TURNTABLE, SHOWING BEVEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. DETAIL VIEW OF PIVOT SPAN TURNTABLE, SHOWING BEVEL AND MORTISE GEARS, GEAR SHAFT, DRIVE GEAR AND BULL GEAR, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Alton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River between IL & MO, Alton, Madison County, IL

  19. 32. DETAIL VIEW OF PIVOT SPAN TURNTABLE, SHOWING MORTISE GEAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL VIEW OF PIVOT SPAN TURNTABLE, SHOWING MORTISE GEAR, GEAR SHAFT, DRIVE GEAR AND BULL GEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Alton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River between IL & MO, Alton, Madison County, IL

  20. 26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  1. 21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  2. 95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, 3/4' and 1 1/2' = 1' (CENTER CONE, RADIAL STRUT RING, TRACK, ROLLERS, PINION GEARS) - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

  3. ELEVATION NORTHEAST BY 30 DEGREES, WEST SECTIONS OF SPAN COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION NORTHEAST BY 30 DEGREES, WEST SECTIONS OF SPAN COVERED BY OVERGROWTH - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  4. 9. Close general view of movable span from water level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Close general view of movable span from water level, from west to cast piers, showing remnants of bumper piers. VIEW NORTHEAST - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 9. Detail of truss work on southwesternmost span, looking northnortheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of truss work on southwesternmost span, looking north-northeast - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  6. 44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility conduit. Structure rests on granite blocks mounted on granite piers. - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 3. LOOKING NORTH TO STREET ACROSS SPAN FROM INTERIOR. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING NORTH TO STREET ACROSS SPAN FROM INTERIOR. NOTE TIMBER PANELS NOT ORIGINAL TO DESIGN. - South High Street Bridge, South High Street, spanning Little Juniata Creek, Duncannon, Perry County, PA

  8. 13. Underside Span 1, Hot Metal Bridge on right toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Underside Span 1, Hot Metal Bridge on right toward Pier 1. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Perspectives on elasmobranch life-history studies: a focus on age validation and relevance to fishery management.

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M

    2015-12-01

    Life-history (age, growth, age validation, reproduction and demography) studies of elasmobranchs date back to the middle of the last century with major early contributions made by British fishery scientists. As predicted by Holden in the early 1970s, many sharks and rays can be vulnerable to fishery mortality because they grow slowly, mature late in life, reproduce infrequently, have relatively low fecundities and can have relatively long life spans. As has now been found, however, not all species exhibit these traits. Also, ageing structures (neural arches and caudal thorns), other than vertebrae and spines, have since been evaluated. Various methods for validating age and growth estimates have been developed and tested on numerous species of elasmobranchs. These include tag-recapture analyses, oxytetracycline injections, centrum or spine edge and marginal increment analyses, and bomb radiocarbon dating of calcified structures. Application of these techniques has sometimes not only validated relatively slow growth and long life span estimates, but also has produced other results. A brief historical perspective on the applications and limitations of these techniques for elasmobranchs is provided, along with a discussion of selected species for which these techniques worked well, did not work at all or have produced variable and conflicting results. Because many fishery management techniques utilize age or stage-specific information, often through demographic analyses, accurate information on the life histories of fished populations, especially age validation, is extremely important for the fishery management of these cartilaginous fishes. PMID:26709208

  10. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gilarte, Patricia; Kreuzinger-Janik, Bianca; Majdi, Nabil; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs) of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×109 Escherichia coli cells ml–1 at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day); mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile). The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny. PMID:26247841

  11. Social Network Changes and Life Events across the Life Span: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Hanel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network…

  12. Integrating Existentialism and Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, William R.

    2012-01-01

    As workers face a changing and ever-complex employment landscape, traditional career theories and approaches may not be sufficient in meeting career challenges. Calls for integrated career theories have emerged as more people seek meaning and purpose in their lives and careers. This article proposes a career counseling option that integrates…

  13. Integrating Barriers to Caucasian Lesbians' Career Development and Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Chloe J. C.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners do not fully understand the nature and extent of actual and perceived barriers in lesbians' career development (S. L. Morrow, P. A. Gore, & B. W. Campbell, 1996). In this study, 10 lesbian women, ages 42 to 64 years, were interviewed and asked to identify barriers to career development due to sexual identity.…

  14. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life

  15. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  16. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  17. July 9, 2001 Geometry of the Uniform Spanning Forest

    E-print Network

    Peres, Yuval

    July 9, 2001 Geometry of the Uniform Spanning Forest: Transitions in Dimensions 4, 8, 12, : : : by Itai Benjamini, Harry Kesten, Yuval Peres, Oded Schramm Abstract. The uniform spanning forest (USF 60J15. Key words and phrases. Stochastic dimension , Uniform spanning forest. Research partially

  18. Position-Numeral Equivalences and Delayed Position Recognition Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Harry A.; Ratti, Carla A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of equivalence class formation in delayed position recognition span performance was examined with three mentally retarded adults. Matching-to-sample training established equivalence classes. In subsequent span tests, subject-produced numeral names led to dramatic increases in span scores. The equivalences provided precursors of verbal…

  19. 16. DETAIL OF END OF SWING SPAN (LEFT) AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF END OF SWING SPAN (LEFT) AND SOUTH END OF NORTH STATIONARY SPAN REVEALING IRON SKID AND SWING BALANCE SUPPORT WHEEL. NOTE CHAIN USED TO HOLD BRIDGE IN PLACE - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  20. Spanning can be prevented, corrected in deeper water

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, M.M.; Hale, J.R.; Lamison, C.W. )

    1991-12-23

    Analysis and correction of subsea pipeline spans are becoming more important as pipelay operations move into the deeper waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Careful rout selection may prevent spanning. This article sets forth methods for eliminating spans during design or correcting those which occur despite careful design.