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Sample records for reputation social geographies

  1. The Inevitability of Infidelity: Sexual Reputation, Social Geographies, and Marital HIV Risk in Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Meneses, Sergio; Thompson, Brenda; Negroni, Mirka; Pelcastre, Blanca; del Rio, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Marriage presents the single greatest risk for HIV infection among women in rural Mexico. We drew on 6 months of participant observation, 20 marital case studies, 37 key informant interviews, and archival research to explore the factors that shape HIV risk among married women in one of the country’s rural communities. We found that culturally constructed notions of reputation in this community lead to sexual behavior designed to minimize men’s social risk (threats to one’s social status or relationships), rather than viral risk and that men’s desire for companionate intimacy may actually increase women’s risk for HIV infection. We also describe the intertwining of reputation-based sexual identities with structurally patterned sexual geographies (i.e. the social spaces that shape sexual behavior). We propose that, because of the structural nature of men’s extramarital sexual behavior, intervention development should concentrate on sexual geographies and risky spaces rather than risky behaviors or identities. PMID:17463368

  2. Teaching Geography for Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellens, Jane; Berardi, Andrea; Chalkley, Brian; Chambers, Bill; Healey, Ruth; Monk, Janice; Vender, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers how higher education geography is a discipline that can make a significant contribution to addressing inequality and engaging with the agenda for social change. It adopts the view that the teaching of geography can promote social transformation through the development of knowledge, skills and values in students that encourage…

  3. Geography and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    This paper argues that geography teachers should commit themselves to social science programs. The paper concerns the role of geographers as social scientists through a consideration of the concepts classified by David Harvey (absolute, relative, relational). The argument concludes with a statement on the importance of the geographic approach for…

  4. Insensitivity to social reputation in autism

    PubMed Central

    Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji; Camerer, Colin F.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    People act more prosocially when they know they are watched by others, an everyday observation borne out by studies from behavioral economics, social psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. This effect is thought to be mediated by the incentive to improve one's social reputation, a specific and possibly uniquely human motivation that depends on our ability to represent what other people think of us. Here we tested the hypothesis that social reputation effects are selectively impaired in autism, a developmental disorder characterized in part by impairments in reciprocal social interactions but whose underlying cognitive causes remain elusive. When asked to make real charitable donations in the presence or absence of an observer, matched healthy controls donated significantly more in the observer's presence than absence, replicating prior work. By contrast, people with high-functioning autism were not influenced by the presence of an observer at all in this task. However, both groups performed significantly better on a continuous performance task in the presence of an observer, suggesting intact general social facilitation in autism. The results argue that people with autism lack the ability to take into consideration what others think of them and provide further support for specialized neural systems mediating the effects of social reputation. PMID:21987799

  5. Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Hauert, Christoph; Nowak, Martin A.; Wang, Long

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the cooperation dynamics attributed to the interplay between evolution of individual strategies and evolution of individual partnerships. We focus on the effect of reputation on individual's partner switching process. We assume individuals can either change their strategies by imitating their partners or adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputations. We manipulate the partner switching in two ways, that is, individuals can switch from the lowest reputation partners, either to their partners' partners who have the highest reputation (i.e., ordering in partnership) or to others randomly chosen from the entire population (i.e., randomness in partnership). We show that when individuals are able to alter their behavioral strategies and their social interaction partnerships on the basis of reputation, cooperation can prevail. We find that the larger temptation to defect and the denser the partner network, the more frequently individuals need shift their partnerships in order for cooperation to thrive. Furthermore, increasing tendency of switching to partners' partners is more likely to lead to higher level of cooperation. We show that when reputation is absent in such partner-switching process, cooperation is much less favored than that of reputation involved. Moreover, we investigate the effect of discounting individual's reputation on the evolution of cooperation. Our results highlight the importance of consideration of reputation (indirect reciprocity) on promotion of cooperation when individuals can adjust their partnerships. PMID:18850907

  6. Reputation, a universal currency for human social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Milinski, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Decision rules of reciprocity include ‘I help those who helped me’ (direct reciprocity) and ‘I help those who have helped others’ (indirect reciprocity), i.e. I help those who have a reputation to care for others. A person's reputation is a score that members of a social group update whenever they see the person interacting or hear at best multiple gossip about the person's social interactions. Reputation is the current standing the person has gained from previous investments or refusal of investments in helping others. Is he a good guy, can I trust him or should I better avoid him as a social partner? A good reputation pays off by attracting help from others, even from strangers or members from another group, if the recipient's reputation is known. Any costly investment in others, i.e. direct help, donations to charity, investment in averting climate change, etc. increases a person's reputation. I shall argue and illustrate with examples that a person's known reputation functions like money that can be used whenever the person needs help. Whenever possible I will present tests of predictions of evolutionary theory, i.e. fitness maximizing strategies, mostly by economic experiments with humans. PMID:26729939

  7. Reputation, a universal currency for human social interactions.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Decision rules of reciprocity include 'I help those who helped me' (direct reciprocity) and 'I help those who have helped others' (indirect reciprocity), i.e. I help those who have a reputation to care for others. A person's reputation is a score that members of a social group update whenever they see the person interacting or hear at best multiple gossip about the person's social interactions. Reputation is the current standing the person has gained from previous investments or refusal of investments in helping others. Is he a good guy, can I trust him or should I better avoid him as a social partner? A good reputation pays off by attracting help from others, even from strangers or members from another group, if the recipient's reputation is known. Any costly investment in others, i.e. direct help, donations to charity, investment in averting climate change, etc. increases a person's reputation. I shall argue and illustrate with examples that a person's known reputation functions like money that can be used whenever the person needs help. Whenever possible I will present tests of predictions of evolutionary theory, i.e. fitness maximizing strategies, mostly by economic experiments with humans. PMID:26729939

  8. Information Geography: A Bridge between Engineering and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…

  9. The effects of reputational and social knowledge on cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Edoardo; Yan, Chang

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and sustenance of cooperative behavior is fundamental for a society to thrive. Recent experimental studies have shown that cooperation increases in dynamic networks in which subjects can choose their partners. However, these studies did not vary reputational knowledge, or what subjects know about other’s past actions, which has long been recognized as an important factor in supporting cooperation. They also did not give subjects access to global social knowledge, or information on who is connected to whom in the group. As a result, it remained unknown how reputational and social knowledge foster cooperative behavior in dynamic networks both independently and by complementing each other. In an experimental setting, we show that global reputational knowledge is crucial to sustaining a high level of cooperation and welfare. Cooperation is associated with the emergence of dense and clustered networks with highly cooperative hubs. Global social knowledge has no effect on the aggregate level of cooperation. A community analysis shows that the addition of global social knowledge to global reputational knowledge affects the distribution of cooperative activity: cooperators form a separate community that achieves a higher cooperation level than the community of defectors. Members of the community of cooperators achieve a higher payoff from interactions within the community than members of the less cooperative community. PMID:25775544

  10. Using Geography To Integrate Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dircks, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on geography in secondary education, offering reasons why geography is becoming more popular in schools. Provides four activities that integrate science and social studies through geography. Includes topics such as ecological disasters, monsoons, the ozone layer, and global warming. (CMK)

  11. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes. PMID:26235682

  12. Difficult reputations and the social reality of occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Draper, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This response to Tee Guidotti's (2008) critique of Elaine Draper's 'The Company Doctor: Risk, Responsibility, and Corporate Professionalism' (2003) argues that a forthright examination of the conflicts of those working in the field of occupational medicine is essential to maintaining the health of the profession and to promoting constructive policies. Research for 'The Company Doctor' reveals how doctors walk a tightrope of professional demands on them. The author describes how corporate employment affects medicine and science and how professionals working in corporations are subject to the decisions of company managers and to economic and legal imperatives stemming from their status as corporate employees. Analyzing company doctors' role in confronting toxics and responding to liability fears in corporations, the author argues that problems of lost credibility, stigmatization, and tarnished reputation that company doctors describe largely stem from the organizational constraints, economic interests, and other aspects of the social context of their work. These social forces exert powerful pressure on the ethical framework and daily work lives of these professionals as well as on the reputation of their field. The author discusses ways in which the conflicting demands from being both a corporate employee and a physician are a social and structural problem beyond individual ethics. PMID:18826879

  13. World Geography Curriculum Guide: Secondary Social Studies. Bulletin 1727.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolosi, Louis J.; And Others

    This world geography curriculum guide is designed to help teachers improve the quality of secondary level geography instruction. The guide contains Louisiana's social studies curriculum goals and information about the scope and sequence of the state's social studies program. Part 1 discusses the major geographical concepts of: (1) map and globe…

  14. Some Thoughts on Strengthening Geography in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Salvatore J.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the gradual transfer of geographic education from the science curriculum to social studies. Contends that basic concepts of geography are misunderstood and this is the primary area where geographic education needs strengthening. Suggests how geography can be integrated into the social studies curriculum. (GG)

  15. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  16. Aspects of Social Reputation and Peer Relationships in Italian Children: A Cross-Cultural Perspective."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casiglia, Amedeo C.; Lo Coco, Alida; Zappulla, Carla

    1998-01-01

    Administered Revised Class Play to Italian children to explore cross-cultural differences from North American studies on social reputation. Administered sociometric nominations to examine association between social reputation and peer acceptance-rejection. Found that original Leadership-Sociability factor was split into separate dimensions. Also…

  17. Instructional Objectives Exchange. Social Studies (Geography). Grade K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Ninety-seven objectives reflecting major social science concepts in the discipline of geography at the kindergarten through ninth grade levels are included in this booklet, which is one of a series. Emphasis is upon requiring students to master behavioral aspects and concepts central to the field of geography. The material is organized into eleven…

  18. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 102, GEOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRECO, PETER

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES GEOGRAPHY AS A COMPLEMENT TO HISTORY AND VICE VERSA. TOGETHER THEY SERVE TO INTERRELATE ALL HUMAN KNOWLEDGE WHETHER PHYSICAL, BIOTIC, OR SOCIETAL. HISTORY ATTEMPTS TO ASSOCIATE DIVERSE PHENOMENA IN AND THROUGH TIME. GEOGRAPHY, AS A CHOROLOGICAL SCIENCE, ATTEMPTS TO ASSOCIATE DIVERSE SPATIAL AND AREAL PHENOMENA, AND STRIVES FOR…

  19. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  20. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  1. Cultivating Reputations: The Social Goal of Western Australian Primary School Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Elijah; Houghton, Stephen; Tan, Carol; Carroll, Annemaree

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This research sought to determine the significance of reputation in the lives of bullies particularly in relation to the social purposes it serves and the goals that are met through its enhancement. Method: One hundred and thirty-two (62 males and 70 females) Western Australian Grades 5, 6 and 7 primary school children completed the…

  2. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  3. Geographies of an Online Social Network.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the "death of distance", physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  4. Geographies of an Online Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the “death of distance”, physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  5. Improving Social Odometry Robot Networks with Distributed Reputation Systems for Collaborative Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, David; Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Vallejo, Juan Carlos; Campo, Alexandre; Bankovic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of odometry systems in collaborative robotics remains an important challenge for several applications. Social odometry is a social technique which confers the robots the possibility to learn from the others. This paper analyzes social odometry and proposes and follows a methodology to improve its behavior based on cooperative reputation systems. We also provide a reference implementation that allows us to compare the performance of the proposed solution in highly dynamic environments with the performance of standard social odometry techniques. Simulation results quantitatively show the benefits of this collaborative approach that allows us to achieve better performances than social odometry. PMID:22247671

  6. Improving social odometry robot networks with distributed reputation systems for collaborative purposes.

    PubMed

    Fraga, David; Gutiérrez, Alvaro; Vallejo, Juan Carlos; Campo, Alexandre; Bankovic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of odometry systems in collaborative robotics remains an important challenge for several applications. Social odometry is a social technique which confers the robots the possibility to learn from the others. This paper analyzes social odometry and proposes and follows a methodology to improve its behavior based on cooperative reputation systems. We also provide a reference implementation that allows us to compare the performance of the proposed solution in highly dynamic environments with the performance of standard social odometry techniques. Simulation results quantitatively show the benefits of this collaborative approach that allows us to achieve better performances than social odometry. PMID:22247671

  7. Comparing writing style feature-based classification methods for estimating user reputations in social media.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the anonymous nature of the Internet has made it difficult to detect manipulated user reputations in social media, as well as to ensure the qualities of users and their posts. To deal with this, this study designs and examines an automatic approach that adopts writing style features to estimate user reputations in social media. Under varying ways of defining Good and Bad classes of user reputations based on the collected data, it evaluates the classification performance of the state-of-art methods: four writing style features, i.e. lexical, syntactic, structural, and content-specific, and eight classification techniques, i.e. four base learners-C4.5, Neural Network (NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes (NB)-and four Random Subspace (RS) ensemble methods based on the four base learners. When South Korea's Web forum, Daum Agora, was selected as a test bed, the experimental results show that the configuration of the full feature set containing content-specific features and RS-SVM combining RS and SVM gives the best accuracy for classification if the test bed poster reputations are segmented strictly into Good and Bad classes by portfolio approach. Pairwise t tests on accuracy confirm two expectations coming from the literature reviews: first, the feature set adding content-specific features outperform the others; second, ensemble learning methods are more viable than base learners. Moreover, among the four ways on defining the classes of user reputations, i.e. like, dislike, sum, and portfolio, the results show that the portfolio approach gives the highest accuracy. PMID:27006870

  8. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 9: World Geography and General Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah secondary school teachers to help their level 9 students meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes world geography and general social studies. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology,…

  9. The reputational and social network benefits of prosociality in an Andean community

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Henry F.; Smith, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Several theories have emerged to explain how group cooperation (collective action) can arise and be maintained in the face of incentives to engage in free riding. Explanations focusing on reputational benefits and partner choice have particular promise for cases in which punishment is absent or insufficient to deter free riding. In indigenous communities of highland Peru, collective action is pervasive and provides critical benefits. Participation in collective action is unequal across households, but all households share its benefits. Importantly, investment in collective action involves considerable time, energy, and risk. Differential participation in collective action can convey information about qualities of fellow community members that are not easily observable otherwise, such as cooperative intent, knowledge, work ethic, skill, and/or physical vitality. Conveying such information may enhance access to adaptive support networks. Interview and observational data collected in a Peruvian highland community indicate that persons who contributed more to collective action had greater reputations as reliable, hard workers with regard to collective action and also were considered the most respected, influential, and generous people in the community. Additionally, household heads with greater reputations had more social support partners (measured as network indegree centrality), and households with larger support networks experienced fewer illness symptoms. PMID:24639494

  10. The reputational and social network benefits of prosociality in an Andean community.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Henry F; Smith, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    Several theories have emerged to explain how group cooperation (collective action) can arise and be maintained in the face of incentives to engage in free riding. Explanations focusing on reputational benefits and partner choice have particular promise for cases in which punishment is absent or insufficient to deter free riding. In indigenous communities of highland Peru, collective action is pervasive and provides critical benefits. Participation in collective action is unequal across households, but all households share its benefits. Importantly, investment in collective action involves considerable time, energy, and risk. Differential participation in collective action can convey information about qualities of fellow community members that are not easily observable otherwise, such as cooperative intent, knowledge, work ethic, skill, and/or physical vitality. Conveying such information may enhance access to adaptive support networks. Interview and observational data collected in a Peruvian highland community indicate that persons who contributed more to collective action had greater reputations as reliable, hard workers with regard to collective action and also were considered the most respected, influential, and generous people in the community. Additionally, household heads with greater reputations had more social support partners (measured as network indegree centrality), and households with larger support networks experienced fewer illness symptoms. PMID:24639494

  11. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks. PMID:26963089

  12. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks. PMID:26963089

  13. Producing Parsons' reputation: early critiques of Talcott Parsons' social theory and the making of a caricature.

    PubMed

    Owens, B Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the critical responses to Talcott Parsons' first major work, The Structure of Social Action (1937), and his two subsequent books, Toward a General Theory of Action and The Social System (both 1951). Because Parsons' work was the subject of such virulent debate, we cannot fully understand Parsons' impact on the discipline of sociology without understanding the source and nature of those early criticisms. I trace the responses to Parsons, first through book reviews and private letters and then in the more substantial statements of C. Wright Mills, George Homans, and Alvin Gouldner, from the largely positive but superficial reception of Structure to the polemics that followed Parsons' 1951 works. In the late 1930s and 1940s, Parsons' reputation grew steadily but there remained no careful reception of Structure, fostering resentment toward Parsons in some quarters while precluding a sophisticated understanding of his work. After 1951, a few critics capitalized on that tension, writing sweeping rejections of Parsons' work that spoke to a much broader audience of sociologists. That dynamic, coupled with Parsons' own indifference toward his harshest critics, produced a situation in which many sociologists simply chose not to read Parsons in the 1950s and 1960s, reinforcing a caricature and distorting perceptions of Parsons' place in mid-twentieth-century American sociology. PMID:20419789

  14. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  15. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Nadira S.

    2015-01-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members’ outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed. PMID:27019739

  16. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jim A C; Faber, Nadira S; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-12-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members' outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed. PMID:27019739

  17. Analysis of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers' Geography Perceptions through Metaphors: Case of Dumlupinar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Süleyman Hilmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to try to explain the perceptions of undergraduate students regarding geography concept using metaphors. A total of 192 students studying in the Department of Social Studies at Kütahya Dumlupinar University in the academic year 2014-2015 participated in this research. In the study following questions were searched to…

  18. The Status of Geography and the Social Sciences in Schools of the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belousov, Boris

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the changes in geography and social science education in the former Soviet Union that followed the sweeping political changes there. Explains how the curriculum and teacher education changed under glasnost and perestroika. Examines prospects for the future. Includes maps and charts detailing some of the many changes in the former USSR.…

  19. Fostering Academic and Social Growth in a Primary Literacy Workshop Classroom: "Restorying" Students with Negative Reputations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Consalvo, Annamary L.; Bogard, Treavor; Russell, Katie W.

    2012-01-01

    In most classrooms, there are students who have academic, behavioral, and/or interpersonal challenges that can disrupt the classroom community. In some cases, these challenges can build momentum, leading to a negative reputation or "story" that can follow the student throughout school. This academic, yearlong case study focused on Mae Graham, an…

  20. Zero Feet Away: The Digital Geography of Gay Social Media.

    PubMed

    Roth, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    For this contribution to the "Cartographies" section of the special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," the author focuses on the terrains of digital media, geosocial networking, and sexually based social media in LGBT communities. Addressing the communal potentials and ethical complications of geosocial connections made possible by such sexually based social media, the author asks whether digital forms of cartography via applications such as Grindr and Scruff simplify, complicate, or merely expose historically longstanding notions of queer interconnectivity. PMID:26643774

  1. Reputation Effects in Social Networks Do Not Promote Cooperation: An Experimental Test of the Raub & Weesie Model

    PubMed Central

    Corten, Rense; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Buskens, Vincent; Cook, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the notion that social cohesion in the form of dense social networks promotes cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemmas through reputation, very little experimental evidence for this claim exists. We address this issue by testing hypotheses from one of the few rigorous game-theoretic models on this topic, the Raub & Weesie model, in two incentivized lab experiments. In the experiments, 156 subjects played repeated two-person PDs in groups of six. In the “atomized interactions” condition, subjects were only informed about the outcomes of their own interactions, while in the “embedded” condition, subjects were informed about the outcomes of all interactions in their group, allowing for reputation effects. The design of the experiments followed the specification of the RW model as closely as possible. For those aspects of the model that had to be modified to allow practical implementation in an experiment, we present additional analyses that show that these modifications do not affect the predictions. Contrary to expectations, we do not find that cooperation is higher in the embedded condition than in the atomized interaction. Instead, our results are consistent with an interpretation of the RW model that includes random noise, or with learning models of cooperation in networks. PMID:27366907

  2. Tackling Social Media: Educating Student-Athletes about Using These Channels Responsibly Can Protect Reputations--Theirs and the Institution's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syme, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Broaching the subject of student-athletes on social media is liable to cause many institutional leaders, communications officers, and athletics directors to reach for the antacid. The speed and reach of social media, particularly Twitter, combined with the youth and bravado of student-athletes can damage reputations and tarnish university brands…

  3. The Role of Media in Geography Courses from the Perspectives of Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayas, Cemalettin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the social studies teacher candidates' understanding of the role of media in geography courses which they took. Qualitative research techniques were used in the study designed using phenomenological pattern. The study was conducted with 134 pre-service social studies teachers at a state university's Faculty of…

  4. Perceptions of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers Regarding the Concept of "Geography" by Mind Mapping Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk Demirbas, Cagri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the perceptions of preservice social sciences teachers regarding the concept of geography. In the study, the study group consists of 46 preservice social sciences teachers, who receive education at Ahi Evran University. The data were collected in December, 2010. Mind maps were used as data collection tools…

  5. Remapping Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Norwine, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Little that occurs in contemporary academic geography will surprise members of the National Association of Scholars, for a large part of the field has joined the other humanities and social sciences in the bawdy saloon of progressive politics, cultural nihilism, and subjective epistemology. That geographers are in there roistering with the…

  6. "Don't Affect the Share Price": Social Media Policy in Higher Education as Reputation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including…

  7. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Social Science Libraries and Geography and Map Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers presented on social science and map and geography libraries at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Information for the Developing World: NTIS's (National Technical Information Service) Role in Information Transfer to Developing Countries" (Joseph F. Caponio, United States); (2)…

  8. Geography in the Middle School: A Compendium of Lesson Plans for Social Studies and Other Subject Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Geographic Alliance, Baltimore.

    The geography lesson plans included in this packet of materials were prepared for middle school students. Lessons are divided into three categories according to the present school social studies curriculum: world cultures, United States history, and interdisciplinary focus. The lesson plans incorporate the five fundamental themes of location,…

  9. Social Representations of National Territory and Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century History and Geography Textbooks of the Colombian Caribbean Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Luis Alarcon; Calderon, Jorge Conde

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how the legitimization of the territory of a national community was going through a territorial and citizen-oriented pedagogy in which geography and history texts contributed to the elaboration of certain social representations that were part of the new Latin American nations' development process. Therefore, this paper reviews…

  10. United States History and Geography: Making a New Nation. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This publication is a response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the history and social science framework for California's public schools. The document sets out resources that are useful in teaching U.S. history and geography for fifth grade students. Participants in a summer institute worked in grade level groups to…

  11. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise) with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin. PMID:27305045

  12. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when—as is often the case in human societies—altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards (“distributional norms”); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise) with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin. PMID:27305045

  13. Some thoughts on Geography in 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, Gilles

    1975-01-01

    Current concerns of the discipline geography are presented. The following topics are discussed: 1) space and time; 2) space as area and space as an organizational framework; 3) ecological geography and social geography; 4) landscape and flows; and 5) general geography and regional geography. The journal is available from Unipub, Inc., P. O. Box…

  14. A Study of Planet Three: A World Geography/Social Studies Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Duncan

    This 12th grade course in world geography is based on the philosophical assumption that human beings on earth make up a global village of interdependent people. It is world geography with a planetary perspective--an inquiry into the nature of the planet and its dominant species, Homo Sapiens. Seven units cover the following topics on physical and…

  15. World Geography: A Human Perspective. Social Studies Senior 4 (Grade 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document is a curriculum guide to a world geography course for grade 12 students in Manitoba, Canada. Following an overview of the course, the guide presents information about the six units that comprise the course. The units are: (1) World geography overview; (2) World population: characteristics, distribution, and growth; (3) World food…

  16. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage as well as…

  17. An Introduction to Marxist Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, J. Richard

    1985-01-01

    In Marxist geography the relations that geography has traditionally analyzed--natural environment and spatial relations--are reviewed as outcomes of the mode of material production. To understand geographical relations, the social structure must also be examined. Marxist geography attempts to change the basic structure of society. (RM)

  18. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography. Social Studies, Grades 9-12. Update 1997/1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This packet contains five lessons related to the five themes of geography: location; place; human-environment interaction; movement; and region. The lessons are designed to support the teaching of courses in world geography, U.S. government/civics, and economics from a comparative U.S./German perspective. Lessons include: (1) "Location of Germany…

  19. Reputation and impact in academic careers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander Michael; Fortunato, Santo; Pan, Raj K; Kaski, Kimmo; Penner, Orion; Rungi, Armando; Riccaboni, Massimo; Stanley, H Eugene; Pammolli, Fabio

    2014-10-28

    Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication's citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its central author i, in addition to its net citation count c. To estimate the strength of the reputation effect, we perform a longitudinal analysis on the careers of 450 highly cited scientists, using the total citations Ci of each scientist as his/her reputation measure. We find a citation crossover c×, which distinguishes the strength of the reputation effect. For publications with c < c×, the author's reputation is found to dominate the annual citation rate. Hence, a new publication may gain a significant early advantage corresponding to roughly a 66% increase in the citation rate for each tenfold increase in Ci. However, the reputation effect becomes negligible for highly cited publications meaning that, for c ≥ c×, the citation rate measures scientific impact more transparently. In addition, we have developed a stochastic reputation model, which is found to reproduce numerous statistical observations for real careers, thus providing insight into the microscopic mechanisms underlying cumulative advantage in science. PMID:25288774

  20. Reputation and impact in academic careers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander Michael; Fortunato, Santo; Pan, Raj K.; Kaski, Kimmo; Penner, Orion; Rungi, Armando; Riccaboni, Massimo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Pammolli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication’s citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its central author i, in addition to its net citation count c. To estimate the strength of the reputation effect, we perform a longitudinal analysis on the careers of 450 highly cited scientists, using the total citations Ci of each scientist as his/her reputation measure. We find a citation crossover c×, which distinguishes the strength of the reputation effect. For publications with c < c×, the author’s reputation is found to dominate the annual citation rate. Hence, a new publication may gain a significant early advantage corresponding to roughly a 66% increase in the citation rate for each tenfold increase in Ci. However, the reputation effect becomes negligible for highly cited publications meaning that, for c ≥ c×, the citation rate measures scientific impact more transparently. In addition, we have developed a stochastic reputation model, which is found to reproduce numerous statistical observations for real careers, thus providing insight into the microscopic mechanisms underlying cumulative advantage in science. PMID:25288774

  1. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  2. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  3. Signatures of Reputation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethencourt, John; Shi, Elaine; Song, Dawn

    Reputation systems have become an increasingly important tool for highlighting quality information and filtering spam within online forums. However, the dependence of a user's reputation on their history of activities seems to preclude any possibility of anonymity. We show that useful reputation information can, in fact, coexist with strong privacy guarantees. We introduce and formalize a novel cryptographic primitive we call signatures of reputation which supports monotonic measures of reputation in a completely anonymous setting. In our system, a user can express trust in others by voting for them, collect votes to build up her own reputation, and attach a proof of her reputation to any data she publishes, all while maintaining the unlinkability of her actions.

  4. The Importance, Content and Teaching of the Political Geography Course in Social Studies Undergraduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocal, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Today, big countries and other countries inside their axes have entered power wars in regions where underground and aboveground sources are important. One of the characteristics of countries where these power wars take place is them not being able to understand the current world politics and elements of political geography. These countries cannot…

  5. Commentary: U.S. mortality, geography, and the anti-social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan D

    2016-08-01

    Drug-related overdoses appear to be a major factor behind an historic pause or even a reversal in the predominant downward trend over time in U.S. mortality rates, a departure that is especially evident among non-Hispanic white females of middle age. The new geography of accidental poisoning deaths and their covariates suggests that we should reassess traditional policies and perspectives in order to combat this threat to public health. PMID:27261412

  6. Social Science on the Frontier: New Horizons in History and Geography. The Social Science Education Consortium Conference Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham, Ed.; Bednarz, Robert S., Ed.

    This collection of essays examines recent scholarship in history and geography. The readings are for teachers, teacher educators, curriculum coordinators, and developers of curriculum materials. Following a foreword by the series editors, Matthew T. Downey and Joseph P. Stoltman, the essays are: (1) "At Play with Education and History" (Elliott…

  7. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles…

  8. Social Studies. Exceptional Child Education Curriculum K-12: Volume II. History Process and Skills, Geography, Economics, Citizenship, Political Science, Humanities, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Dean; And Others

    Volume II of the Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools exceptional child education curriculum for K-12 social studies covers history process and skills, geography, economics, citizenship, political science, humanities, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and world history. The curriculum guide is organized by content areas, and within each…

  9. Reputation and its risks.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Robert G; Newquist, Scott C; Schatz, Roland

    2007-02-01

    Regulators, industry groups, consultants, and individual companies have developed elaborate guidelines over the years for assessing and managing risks in a wide range of areas, from commodity prices to natural disasters. Yet they have all but ignored reputational risk, mostly because they aren't sure how to define or measure it. That's a big problem, say the authors. Because so much market value comes from hard-to-assess intangible assets like brand equity and intellectual capital, organizations are especially vulnerable to anything that damages their reputations. Moreover, companies with strong positive reputations attract better talent and are perceived as providing more value in their products and services, which often allows them to charge a premium. Their customers are more loyal and buy broader ranges of products and services. Since the market believes that such companies will deliver sustained earnings and future growth, they have higher price-earnings multiples and market values and lower costs of capital. Most companies, however, do an inadequate job of managing their reputations in general and the risks to their reputations in particular. They tend to focus their energies on handling the threats to their reputations that have already surfaced. That is not risk management; it is crisis management--a reactive approach aimed at limiting the damage. The authors provide a framework for actively managing reputational risk. They introduce three factors (the reputation-reality gap, changing beliefs and expectations, and weak internal coordination) that affect the level of such risks and then explore several ways to sufficiently quantify and control those factors. The process outlined in this article will help managers do a better job of assessing existing and potential threats to their companies' reputations and deciding whether to accept a particular risk or take actions to avoid or mitigate it. PMID:17345684

  10. Geography as a Liberal Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddall, William R.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that geography can contribute to the liberal arts curriculum by freeing students from confines of their own time and place. Maintains also that geography can provide a sense of unity to balance the abstract view imparted to students by most social and physical science courses. (Author/DB)

  11. Geography In-Service Course. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The teaching guide for an elementary geography in-service course provides a framework for broad geographic understandings. The emphasis is upon helping teachers better understand the structure of geography themselves so they may implement a social studies program in which students use the facts of geography to develop understandings of basic…

  12. Opportunities within the National Council for the Social Studies Geography Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    While the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) celebrated its 100th anniversary in August 2014 in Washington, DC, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2020 in Washington, DC. The mission of NCSS is to provide leadership, service, and support for all social studies educators; NCSS is…

  13. The Social Geography of Childcare: Making up a Middle-Class Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.; Kemp, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Childcare is a condensate of disparate social forces and social processes. It is gendered and classed. It is subject to an excess of policy and political discourse. It is increasingly a focus for commercial exploitation. This is a paper reporting on work in progress in an ESRC funded research project (R000239232) on the choice and provision of…

  14. Mapping Students' Lives: Children's Geographies, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2009-01-01

    The relatively new field of children's geographies builds on the theoretical foundations of human geography, critical geography, and spatial theories to examine the places and spaces children inhabit and create. This article reviews four major themes in children's geographies relevant to education: exclusion and agency, the social construction of…

  15. The entangled geographies of social exclusion/inclusion for people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hall, Edward

    2005-06-01

    People with learning disabilities (PWLD) are one of the most marginalised groups in Western society. Social policies attempting to redress this situation focus on their 'reinclusion' into mainstream socio-spaces through engagement in 'normal' activities, primarily paid employment and independent living. Drawing on group interviews in Scotland, the paper develops a nuanced account of the lives of PWLD, exploring their experiences of exclusion and seeming 'inclusion', and also the alternative spaces and networks of inclusion developed by many PWLD. The paper argues that the situations and experiences of exclusion/inclusion are complex and 'entangled', shaped by the socio-spatial contexts within which PWLD live. The paper 'reimagines' social inclusion as a transformation of mainstream social spaces to incorporate PWLD, achieved through self-advocacy. PMID:15629678

  16. Priorities in Teaching Economic Geography: "Placing" the Economy, Sense of Geograph"ies", Intellectual Bridging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies some personal priorities in teaching economic geography. The author places the economy relationally regarding social, cultural and political dimensions of life; she clarifies different modes of geographic inquiry-geographies; and she taps the breadth of economic geography by including a wide range of substantive topics. She…

  17. Using Baseball in Social Studies Instruction: Addressing the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, William D.; Hyman, William

    2005-01-01

    Many children do not enjoy social studies because they see it as having little, if any, relevance to their lives. That response is attributable primarily to two factors: Dry content and even drier instructional strategies. Teachers know that if material presented to children is not meaningful and relevant to their lives, real learning does not…

  18. Geography as destiny? Social and ecological resilience in rangelands of the American southwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods: Social-ecological systems perspectives focus on the reciprocal relationships between human and natural ecosystem elements and how these interactions determine human well-being, ecological state change, and land use change. In the arid southwestern US, which is dominated...

  19. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  20. Children's Understanding of Reputations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Valerie; Pillow, Bradford H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated age differences in children's understanding (a) that a person's behavior may contribute to the formation of a shared opinion within the peer group and (b) that origins of a reputation can be direct or indirect. The authors read stories in which a target character engaged in either prosocial or…

  1. Your Reputation Precedes You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eich, Ritch K.

    2006-01-01

    A good reputation goes hand in hand with a university's "brand," which in essence is the promise the institution makes to all of its constituencies. A brand is appreciably more than an attractive logo, reinforcing colors, and compelling admission brochures (though all of these reflect it). If properly thought through and developed from the inside…

  2. Multiple reputation domains and cooperative behaviour in two Latin American communities.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Lyle, Henry F

    2015-12-01

    Reputations are a ubiquitous feature of human social life, and a large literature has been dedicated to explaining the relationship between prosocial reputations and cooperation in social dilemmas. However, humans form reputations in domains other than prosociality, such as economic competency that could affect cooperation. To date, no research has evaluated the relative effects of multiple reputation domains on cooperation. To bridge this gap, we analyse how prosocial and competency reputations affect cooperation in two Latin American communities (Bwa Mawego, Dominica, and Pucucanchita, Peru) across a number of social contexts (Dominica: labour contracting, labour exchange and conjugal partnership formation; Peru: agricultural and health advice network size). First, we examine the behavioural correlates of prosocial and competency reputations. Following, we analyse whether prosocial, competency, or both reputation domains explain the flow of cooperative benefits within the two communities. Our analyses suggest that (i) although some behaviours affect both reputation domains simultaneously, each reputation domain has a unique behavioural signature; and (ii) competency reputations affect cooperation across a greater number of social contexts compared to prosocial reputations. Results are contextualized with reference to the social markets in which behaviour is embedded and a call for greater theory development is stressed. PMID:26503682

  3. Diets and Health: How Food Decisions Are Shaped by Biology, Economics, Geography, and Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Health is shaped by both personal choices and features of the food environment. Food-choice decisions depend on complex interactions between biology and behavior, and are further modulated by the built environment and community structure. That lower-income families have lower-quality diets is well established. Yet, diet quality also varies across small geographic neighborhoods and can be influenced by transportation, retail, and ease of access to healthy foods, as well as by attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions. The learnings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) can be usefully applied to the much larger, more complex, and far more socially and ethnically diverse urban environment of New York City. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) is ideally positioned to advance the understanding of health disparities by exploring the multiple underpinnings of food decision making. By combining geo-localized food shopping and consumption data with health behaviors, diet quality measures, and biomarkers, also coded by geographic location, the KHP will create the first-of-its-kind bio-behavioral, economic, and cultural atlas of diet quality and health for New York City. PMID:26487989

  4. Children's understanding of reputations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Valerie; Pillow, Bradford H

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated age differences in children's understanding (a) that a person's behavior may contribute to the formation of a shared opinion within the peer group and (b) that origins of a reputation can be direct or indirect. The authors read stories in which a target character engaged in either prosocial or antisocial interactions with peers to children in kindergarten, 2nd, and 4th grade. They then asked the children to judge how various peers viewed the target character. Children's explanations indicated that children in all of those age groups understood that firsthand experience influenced peers' opinions, and by 2nd grade, children understood that indirect experience or gossip also might have contributed to an individual's reputation. PMID:16910207

  5. The role of social geography on Lady Health Workers' mobility and effectiveness in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah; Nykiforuk, Candace; Bhatti, Afshan; Ataullahjan, Anushka; Ayyalasomayajula, Bharati

    2013-08-01

    The Pakistan Lady Health Worker (LHW) program provides door-step reproductive health services in a context where patriarchal norms of seclusion constrain women's access to health care facilities. The program has not achieved optimal functioning, particularly in relation to raising levels of contraceptive use. One reason may be that the LHWs face the same mobility constraints that necessitated their appointment. Past research has documented the influence of gendered norms and extended family (biradari) relationships on rural women's mobility patterns. This study explores whether and how these socio-cultural factors also impact LHWs' home-visit rates. A mixed-method study was conducted across 21 villages in one district of Punjab in 2009-2010. Social mapping exercises with 21 LHWs were used to identify and survey 803 women of reproductive age. The survey data and maps were linked to visually delineate the LHWs' visitation patterns. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 LHWs and 27 community members. Members of a LHW's biradari had two times higher odds of reporting a visit by their LHW and were twice as likely to be satisfied with their supply of contraceptives. Qualitative data showed that LHWs mobility led to a loss of status of women performing this role. Movement into space occupied by unrelated males was particularly shameful. Caste-based village hierarchies further discouraged visits beyond biradari boundaries. In response to these normative proscriptions, LHWs adopted strategies to reduce the amount of home visiting undertaken and to avoid visits to non-biradari homes. The findings suggest that LHW performance is constrained by both gender and biradari/caste-based hierarchies. Further, since LHWs tended to be poor and low caste, and at the same time preferentially visited co-members of their extended family who are likely to share similar socioeconomic circumstances, the program may be differentially providing health care services to poorer households

  6. Towards a Geography of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of the discipline of geography to the field of education is complex since they have both been dependent upon the contributions of other social science disciplines, particularly those in the mainstream of social sciences (economics, sociology and political science). Indeed, the number of researchers who would consider themselves as…

  7. Teaching the Social Construction of Regions in Regional Geography Courses; Or, Why Do Vampires Come from Eastern Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmer, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the difficulty of teaching about the construction of regions in regional geography courses, which are themselves built on a metageography that often goes unquestioned. The author advocates the use of popular culture to make this very complex issue palpable for undergraduates. Thus, the construction of Eastern Europe within a…

  8. Fractured History and Geography: An Examination of Why Students Choose "Wrong" Words To Write and Talk about Social Studies Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Price, Margaret A.

    This paper analyzes "confused history" on the part of students and where that confusion might originate. The study is based on a modified form of content analysis of articles by R. Lederer. The articles offer a compilation of student errors in history and geography. Two major categories of errors are recognized: (1) Type I, represented by errors…

  9. A Geography Syllabus for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Proposes content changes for a revised geography syllabus in New Zealand discussing each strand: (1) social organization; (2) culture and heritage; (3) place and environment; (4) time, continuity, and change; (5) resources and economic activities; and (6) making sense of planet earth and beyond. Addresses current trends in geography and syllabus…

  10. Diffusion Strategies in High School Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Indiana Social Studies Quarterly, 1974

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Indiana Social Studies Quarterly on the High School Geography Project focuses on efforts which have been made nationally to have the project diffused and utilized by teachers. The following articles are included: (1) Second Thoughts About the High School Geography Project by Nicholas Helburn, Project Director; (2) Dissemination…

  11. Reconceptualizing Geography as Democratic Global Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William; Heilman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geography education typically appears in school curricula in a didactic or disciplinary manner. Yet, both the didactic and the disciplinary approach to geography education lack a serious engagement with society, politics, and power, or democratic theory. We suggest, from Dewey, that most students, the social studies, and indeed society…

  12. Geography and Interdisciplinary, Future Oriented Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, C. Murray

    This paper identifies issues which can best be understood within a geographic dimension and suggests how educators at all levels can help students understand the increasing interdependence in economic, political, social, and technological systems by emphasizing geography's integrative dimensions. Geography's potential as an integrating force in…

  13. Some Suggestions for Teaching Introductory Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, C. Murray

    1977-01-01

    Describes objectives, content, and teaching procedures of an introductory college-level urban geography course. Lectures, student papers, and role playing are designed to help students learn about central place theory, space economy, land use, and social geography. (Author/AV)

  14. The Problems of Geography Education and Some Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Nazli

    2009-01-01

    When teacher education programs in Turkey are scrutinized in detail, it can be seen that geography education is included in the teacher training programs of Geography, Primary School, and Social Studies. These programs aim to provide field knowledge, general culture, and field teaching skills. The success of geography teaching depends on defining…

  15. What Are Punishment and Reputation for?

    PubMed Central

    Krasnow, Max M.; Cosmides, Leda; Pedersen, Eric J.; Tooby, John

    2012-01-01

    Why did punishment and the use of reputation evolve in humans? According to one family of theories, they evolved to support the maintenance of cooperative group norms; according to another, they evolved to enhance personal gains from cooperation. Current behavioral data are consistent with both hypotheses (and both selection pressures could have shaped human cooperative psychology). However, these hypotheses lead to sharply divergent behavioral predictions in circumstances that have not yet been tested. Here we report results testing these rival predictions. In every test where social exchange theory and group norm maintenance theory made different predictions, subject behavior violated the predictions of group norm maintenance theory and matched those of social exchange theory. Subjects do not direct punishment toward those with reputations for norm violation per se; instead, they use reputation self-beneficially, as a cue to lower the risk that they personally will experience losses from defection. More tellingly, subjects direct their cooperative efforts preferentially towards defectors they have punished and away from those they haven’t punished; they avoid expending punitive effort on reforming defectors who only pose a risk to others. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the psychology of punishment evolved to uphold group norms. The circumstances in which punishment is deployed and withheld–its circuit logic–support the hypothesis that it is generated by psychological mechanisms that evolved to benefit the punisher, by allowing him to bargain for better treatment. PMID:23049833

  16. What are punishment and reputation for?

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Max M; Cosmides, Leda; Pedersen, Eric J; Tooby, John

    2012-01-01

    Why did punishment and the use of reputation evolve in humans? According to one family of theories, they evolved to support the maintenance of cooperative group norms; according to another, they evolved to enhance personal gains from cooperation. Current behavioral data are consistent with both hypotheses (and both selection pressures could have shaped human cooperative psychology). However, these hypotheses lead to sharply divergent behavioral predictions in circumstances that have not yet been tested. Here we report results testing these rival predictions. In every test where social exchange theory and group norm maintenance theory made different predictions, subject behavior violated the predictions of group norm maintenance theory and matched those of social exchange theory. Subjects do not direct punishment toward those with reputations for norm violation per se; instead, they use reputation self-beneficially, as a cue to lower the risk that they personally will experience losses from defection. More tellingly, subjects direct their cooperative efforts preferentially towards defectors they have punished and away from those they haven't punished; they avoid expending punitive effort on reforming defectors who only pose a risk to others. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the psychology of punishment evolved to uphold group norms. The circumstances in which punishment is deployed and withheld-its circuit logic-support the hypothesis that it is generated by psychological mechanisms that evolved to benefit the punisher, by allowing him to bargain for better treatment. PMID:23049833

  17. Celebrating Geography: Geography in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    The paper suggests that the five fundamental themes of geography can serve as a good starting point for understanding how geography affects lives everyday in every way. Geography serves to remind people how interwoven geographic concepts are in individuals' lives. Ten activities are suggested to incorporate the five fundamental themes into a…

  18. Urban Geography: Topics in Geography, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    The scope, objectives, and some of the findings of urban geography are discussed in this paper. Curriculum development in urban geography at the high-school level is also briefly described. The first of six articles, "Aspects and Trends of Urban Geography," explains the urban geographer's interest in internal city structure, interaction of static…

  19. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  20. The caudate signals bad reputation during trust decisions.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Angstadt, Michael; Sripada, Chandra S; McCabe, Kevin; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to initiate and sustain trust is critical to health and well-being. Willingness to trust is in part determined by the reputation of the putative trustee, gained via direct interactions or indirectly through word of mouth. Few studies have examined how the reputation of others is instantiated in the brain during trust decisions. Here we use an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) design to examine what neural signals correspond to experimentally manipulated reputations acquired in direct interactions during trust decisions. We hypothesized that the caudate (dorsal striatum) and putamen (ventral striatum) and amygdala would signal differential reputations during decision-making. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent fMRI scanning while completing an iterated Trust Game as trusters with three fictive trustee partners who had different tendencies to reciprocate (i.e., likelihood of rewarding the truster), which were learned over multiple exchanges with real-time feedback. We show that the caudate (both left and right) signals reputation during trust decisions, such that caudate is more active to partners with two types of "bad" reputations, either indifferent partners (who reciprocate 50% of the time) or unfair partners (who reciprocate 25% of the time), than to those with "good" reputations (who reciprocate 75% of the time). Further, individual differences in caudate activity related to biases in trusting behavior in the most uncertain situation, i.e. when facing an indifferent partner. We also report on other areas that were activated by reputation at p < 0.05 whole brain corrected. Our findings suggest that the caudate is involved in signaling and integrating reputations gained through experience into trust decisions, demonstrating a neural basis for this key social process. PMID:23922638

  1. Putting Geography Education into Place: What Geography Educators Can Learn from Place-Based Education, and Vice Versa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Andrei L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, geography educators have sought to make their pedagogy relevant to pressing social and environmental issues, but these efforts have largely imported pedagogies from outside of geography. In place-based education, in contrast, place--one of geography's defining themes--serves as a central organizing principle for a socially…

  2. Geography in Parental Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    If we are to fully understand the demand side of school choice, we have to understand geography. But geography is not simply distance and commute time. It is also neighborhood and community. Using two conceptions of geography--space and place--I investigate how and when geography factored into parents' thinking. Drawing on spatial analyses of…

  3. Beyond the Family Geography Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Christy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school-community program based on and extending the efforts of the Michigan Model Family Geography Challenge. The program includes inviting community members to participate in hands-on activities, as well as, shared activities between parents and students followed by dinner and socializing. Discusses materials, assessment, and…

  4. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  5. ASN reputation system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Steve; Erbacher, Robert F.

    2015-05-01

    Network security monitoring is currently challenged by its reliance on human analysts and the inability for tools to generate indications and warnings for previously unknown attacks. We propose a reputation system based on IP address set membership within the Autonomous System Number (ASN) system. Essentially, a metric generated based on the historic behavior, or misbehavior, of nodes within a given ASN can be used to predict future behavior and provide a mechanism to locate network activity requiring inspection. This will provide reinforcement of notifications and warnings and lead to inspection for ASNs known to be problematic even if initial inspection leads to interpretation of the event as innocuous. We developed proof of concept capabilities to generate the IP address to ASN set membership and analyze the impact of the results. These results clearly show that while some ASNs are one-offs with individual or small numbers of misbehaving IP addresses, there are definitive ASNs with a history of long term and wide spread misbehaving IP addresses. These ASNs with long histories are what we are especially interested in and will provide an additional correlation metric for the human analyst and lead to new tools to aid remediation of these IP address blocks.

  6. Collaboration and Human Factor as Drivers for Reputation System Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boella, Guido; Remondino, Marco

    Reputation management is about evaluating an agent's actions and other agents' opinions about those actions, reporting on those actions and opinions, and reacting to that report thus creating a feedback loop. This social mechanism has been successfully used, through Reputation Management Systems (RMSs) to classify agents within normative systems. Most RMSs rely on the feedbacks given by the member of the social network in which the RMS itself operates. In this way, the reputation index can be seen as an endogenous and self produced indicator, created by the users for the users' benefit. This implies that users' participation and collaboration is a key factor for the effectiveness a RMS. In this work the above factor is explored by means of an agent based simulation, and is tested on a P2P network for file sharing.

  7. Parental Preferences in School Choice: Comparing Reputational Hierarchies of Schools in Chile and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosunen, Sonja; Carrasco, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Parents evaluate the reputations of the schools when making judgements about their desirability. They try to approximate the quality of schools and the social environment and contrast those with their hopes and fears concerning their child's education. We aim to clarify how the reputations of schools are constructed in Finland and Chile and what…

  8. Geography and Teaching: National Geography Bee?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichen, Marc

    1988-01-01

    Questions value of the National Geography Bee proposed by the National Geographic Society because the public may see geography content as unrelated facts; students may not be motivated; and content can be trivialized. Encourages group competitions that focus on conceptual and regional themes combined with societal, environmental, and locational…

  9. Comments on Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taaffe, Edward J.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons why regional geography should play a vital role in the development of U.S. geography are discussed. In addition, problems facing regional geographers are examined. A revival of regional geography can be significantly strengthened if there is more effective communication between regional and scientific geographers. (RM)

  10. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  11. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing California's history-social science framework. The document offers stimulating ideas to enrich the teaching of history and social science, enliven instruction for every student, focus on essential topics, and help make learning more memorable. Experiences…

  12. Social Studies at the Beginning of the New Millennium: Teach Democratic Ideals, Geography, and History or Is that Objective Outdated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villier, Paul Wayne

    Although many pressures have been brought to bear in the social studies curriculum over the past 70 years, the leaders of the country's society have maintained the middle ground. They have ensured that educators remain somewhat conservative in their approach to the social sciences, ensuring that the history of the culture be continually passed on…

  13. The Geography of Crime and Violence: A Spatial and Ecological Perspective. Resource Papers for College Geography, No. 78-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georges, Daniel E.

    The paper examines crime from a spatial perspective and provides an introduction to social ecology theory. The document is part of 8 series of resource papers intended to supplement college level geography textbooks. The geography of crime is defined as the spatial manifestation of criminal acts. The social ecological approach interprets crime as…

  14. Multiple gossip statements and their effect on reputation and trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, Ralf D; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Milinski, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Empirical and theoretical evidence from various disciplines indicates that reputation, reputation building and trust are important for human cooperation, social behaviour and economic progress. Recently, it has been shown that reputation gained in games of indirect reciprocity can be transmitted by gossip. But it has also been shown that gossiping has a strong manipulative potential. We propose that this manipulative potential is alleviated by the abundance of gossip. Multiple gossip statements give a better picture of the actual behaviour of a person, and thus inaccurate or fake gossip has little power as long as it is in the minority. In addition, we investigate the supposedly strong connection between reciprocity, reputation and trust. The results of this experimental study (with 11 groups of 12 students each) document that gossip quantity helps to direct cooperation towards cooperators. Moreover, reciprocity, trust and reputations transferred via gossip are positively correlated. This interrelation might have helped to reach the high levels of cooperation that can be observed in humans. PMID:18664435

  15. Online reputation management: the first steps.

    PubMed

    Gay, Susan; Pho, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Can patients reliably choose a good doctor online? Inevitably, some will. Many doctors are not comfortable being visible online. So if you do not have a blog or a social media profile, what shows up when a patient Googles you most likely will be something from an online rating site. This trend can have a profound impact on a medical practice. As one of authors (KP) noticed, patients are now saying that they found his practice through the Internet, in stark contrast to 10 years ago, when their information sources were the Yellow Pages or a newspaper ad, or from calling the local hospital. Below are five key reasons why determining your online reputation today can pay off in the future. This article will guide you in establishing your social media footprint and includes a personal story of one physician's reaction to conducting a Google search on herself. PMID:24228366

  16. Multiple Perspectives in a Rock: How Physical Geography Is Affected by Human Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching geography, focusing on the multiple perspectives associated with a physical place. Provides suggestions for exploring these perspectives at the primary, intermediate, and high school levels in a geography-centered social studies classroom. (CMK)

  17. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  18. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and…

  19. Transnational Geographies of Academic Distinction: The Role of Social Capital in the Recognition and Evaluation of "Overseas" Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Johanna L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of specific and place-based social capital in the recognition and evaluation of international credentials. Whilst research on labour market segmentation has contributed towards an understanding of the spatial variability of the value of human capital, very little attention has been paid to the ways in which the…

  20. Population geography.

    PubMed

    Nash, A

    1994-03-01

    Population geographers are involved in contemporary policy issues, the production of quality work, and successful communication of research findings. This article reviewed some contributions population geographers have made to the understanding of the geographic impact of aging and the consequences of migration. Geographers have come late to the study of aging and have focused primarily on four main policy issues: 1) fertility decline, 2) housing demography, 3) aged patterns of housing and migration, and 4) government policy. Fertility decline research has highlighted information diffusion theories for fertility decline by researchers such as Zelinsky, Skeldon, and Noin. Changes in attitudes and the removal on constraints has been examined by Woods. Residential mobility studies have been the focus of researchers such as Gober, Moore, and Clark, and Myers. Regional labor markets and the movement of the "baby boom" through the life course have been examined by Miron, Plane and Rogerson, and Clout, who studied the empty nesters and the movement out of suburbia. Private residential housing has increased for the elderly in England and Wales (Hamnett and Mullings), and seasonal migration of Minnesotans results in lost sales revenues and high health and social costs for those too ill to travel (Craig). Geographers have not accomplished a significant thrust into the literature on demographic aging. Contributions to the transnational and international literature have resulted in internal migration studies by Clout on "counterurbanization" in northwestern industrial Europe, while Fielding, Baltensperger, Marchand and Scott, and Jones have examined the continuing rural-urban migration. The loss of urban population has been associated with inner city problems, the impact of labor supply and market demand, and the revenue and health care consequences in the work of Champion, Gibson, and Champion and Illeris, and Craig. Impacts are felt differently by geographic location, and

  1. Geography and gender.

    PubMed

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs. PMID:12320248

  2. Geography Teachers and Curriculum Making in "Changing Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the controls and influences over geography teachers' curriculum making. A tension is identified between the teacher's agency to "make" a geography curriculum and a controlling social-economic climate of accountability, performance pressure and technological change which limits the teacher's agency. The paper argues…

  3. Preservice Elementary Education Majors' Knowledge of World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, C. Warren; And Others

    This research study was designed to assess preservice elementary education teachers' knowledge of world geography. The "High School Subject Tests: World Geography," developed by Scott, Foresman and Company for use with high school students, was administered to 124 undergraduate elementary education majors enrolled in social studies methods courses…

  4. A Bibliography of Paperback Books Relating to Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstein, Hugh A.

    A total of 641 paperback books by commercial publishers and university presses, including a brief sampling by the United States Government, published between 1950 and 1970, with the majority appearing after 1965, are listed in this bibliography for geography and social studies teachers. Emphasis is on a broad coverage of geography including…

  5. Geography Makes a Comeback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPike, Elizabeth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents two lesson plans exemplifying analytical geography. The first lesson shows how medical geography can be used to track the silent route of cholera. The second lesson about the Bermuda Triangle is an exercise in fundamental mapping skills and teaches children a valuable lesson in double-checking facts. (RLC)

  6. Lafayette Geography Institute, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    This document contains 7 geography lesson plans: (1) "Can You Give Me Directions to the Game?" by Tim Robison (uses Geographic Information Systems to establish directions to a place; grades 6-8); (2) "Crossing China by Sampan" by Marcie Ritchie (examines the role of geography in communication throughout China; grade 6); (3) "Indiana Tornado…

  7. Improving Trust and Reputation Modeling in E-Commerce Using Agent Lifetime and Transaction Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Catherine; Tran, Thomas T.

    Effective and reliable trust and reputation modeling systems are central to the success of decentralized e-commerce systems where autonomous agents are relied upon to conduct commercial transactions. However, the subjective and social-based qualities that are inherent to trust and reputation introduce many complexities into the development of a reliable model. Existing research has successfully demonstrated how trust systems can be decentralized and has illustrated the importance of sharing trust information, or rather, modeling reputation. Still, few models have provided a solution for developing an initial set of advisors from whom to solicit reputation rankings, or have taken into account all of the social criteria used to determine trustworthiness. To meet these objectives, we propose the use of two new parameters in trust and reputation modeling: agent lifetime and total transaction count. We describe a model that employs these parameters to calculate an agent’s seniority, then apply this information when selecting agents for soliciting and ranking reputation information. Experiments using this model are described. The results are then presented and discussed to evaluate the effect of using these parameters in reputation modeling. We also discuss the value of our particular model in contrast with related work and conclude with directions for future research.

  8. Finding a Way: Learning Activities in Geography for Grades 7-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This set of curriculum modules contains geography learning activities that emphasize strategies to encourage young women in geography and social studies classes. Compiled in an effort to improve the motivation and achievement levels of students in geography classrooms, grades 7-11, the modules aim to boost academic performance and overall interest…

  9. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kortepeter, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography.

  10. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts. PMID:19450013

  11. Reputation, Goodwill, and Loss: Entering the Employee Training Audit Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Organizations, like individuals, have reputations that create consequences. Six features of organizational reputations are reviewed. A model for how organizational reputation is created is presented, with special attention to the role of employee training in reputation formation. The effects of organizational reputation on a firm's financial…

  12. Themes to Emphasize in the Geography Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    There are major themes in geography, which all teachers should incorporate into the social studies. These themes assist students to organize information and relate relevant ideas. Teachers need to study and experiment with using a set of structural ideas to facilitate student learning. Otherwise, learning may comprise of isolated facts, concepts,…

  13. British Columbian Geography in Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how Geography's position in British Columbia (BC), Canada's school social studies curricula has been affected by changes in educational cycles over the twentieth century. The amount of instructional time, the importance assigned to the subject and the content of the subject have varied in accordance with the pre-eminence given…

  14. Geography Ed for a Flat World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Geography is not what it used to be. Nowadays, that subject is often buried--and therefore inadequately covered--in a social studies curriculum itself under siege because of the extended commitment in schools to reading and math. But geographical knowledge also is not what it used to be. It has become essential to understanding a brave new world…

  15. Recent Trends in School Geography in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Sarfaraz

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the recommendations of two major Indian education reports--NCFSE 2000 and NCF 2005--prepared by the National Council of Educational Research and Training in India. The NCFSE 2000 has recommended an integrated teaching of geography as one component of the social studies. The NCF 2005 has reverted to the pre-NCFSE…

  16. Reputation in the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The present paper raises questions about the use of the concept of reputation in sociological studies of the relationship between higher education and the labour market. Sociologists of education have yet to subject the concept of reputation to sustained critique and evaluation. This situation is unsatisfactory because a number of critical…

  17. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  18. Teaching about Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database concerning the teaching of human geography. Includes documents dealing with Africa, Asia, the United States, Canada, Antarctica, and geographic concepts. Explains how to obtain ERIC documents. (SG)

  19. Geography Undergraduate Program Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Brown, Brock J.; Caldwell, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of geography undergraduate programs, which incorporate external reviews and concomitant departmental self-studies, attempt to assure pedagogical excellence within uncompromising commitments to successful student learning outcomes, currency of the knowledge and skills imparted, and continuous programmatic improvement. Programmatic…

  20. Geography and Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses three books that can take readers all over the world in geographies both personal and global, visiting grandfather's and grandmother's spaces, literally and figuratively, helping readers know themselves as they remember their "belonging." (SR)

  1. Geography and health.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, O

    1981-01-01

    The most important factors affecting the social, economic, and cultural development are geography, climate, and social fertility. The interaction of these different influences are described, and their relationship with the world's health as shown. Of particular interest is how the introduction of modern techniques can counteract certain of the effects of climatic and geographical factors. Health in the various population groups of the world results from the successive interplay of a long series of factors. Generally, it is known that poverty and ignorance breed disease. Possibly the extent to which economic and educational development is dependent upon climatic and other geographical factors is not fully realized. The distribution of humans over the world's surface is governed by the availability of food and water. Agriculture alone allows the congregation of large populations and the establishment of settled communities, villages, and eventually towns. Social development ensues which may give rise to culture and science. This will allow the birth of industry and the improvement of agricultural techniques. Together they will permit economic development, capable in turn of supporting a competent administration, part of which will cater to the sanitary and medical needs of the community and contribute the health of the population. Apart from the general consequences of living in isolation, or in communities of humankind's social and cultural development, there is also an immediate and direct effect upon health. Complete isolation interferes with the transmission of cultural traditions and with the transmission of most infections. Community life creates chances of mutual infection with resulting immunity. Large cities present many opportunities for acquiring numerous infections and building up resistance to them at an early age. Their endemicity will replace epidemics. The extremely cold climate of the arctic and subarctic regions is usually well tolerated provided

  2. Optimizing census geography: the separation of collection and output geographies.

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1998-01-01

    "This paper reviews the changing way in which census geography has been treated with the increasing automation of census data processing. A four-stage model of modern census geography development is presented. In the context of this model, current practice is reviewed, and new opportunities for automated census geography design presented, culminating in a current prototype for the separation of purpose-designed data collection and output geographies. The narrative is presented primarily from a British perspective, but focuses on internationally relevant issues such as the implementation of census geography design, and the influence of census output geography on data analysis." PMID:12294535

  3. Reputation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the UK: the patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Abu-Serriah, M; Dhariwal, D; Martin, G

    2015-04-01

    Our intention is to shed theoretical and practical light on the professional reputation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) in the UK by drawing on theories from management literature, particularly concerning reputation. Since professional reputation is socially constructed by stakeholders, we used interpretivist methods to conduct a qualitative study of patients (stakeholders) to gain an insight into their view of the profession. Findings from our focus groups highlighted the importance of "soft-wired skills" and showed a perception - reality gap in the interaction between patients and doctors. They also highlighted the importance of consistency, relational coordination, mechanisms to enable transparent feedback, and professional processes of governance. To help understand how best to manage the reputation of the specialty, we also explored how this is affected by the media and the Internet. PMID:25631399

  4. Cooperation Survives and Cheating Pays in a Dynamic Network Structure with Unreliable Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Antonioni, Alberto; Sánchez, Angel; Tomassini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In a networked society like ours, reputation is an indispensable tool to guide decisions about social or economic interactions with individuals otherwise unknown. Usually, information about prospective counterparts is incomplete, often being limited to an average success rate. Uncertainty on reputation is further increased by fraud, which is increasingly becoming a cause of concern. To address these issues, we have designed an experiment based on the Prisoner’s Dilemma as a model for social interactions. Participants could spend money to have their observable cooperativeness increased. We find that the aggregate cooperation level is practically unchanged, i.e., global behavior does not seem to be affected by unreliable reputations. However, at the individual level we find two distinct types of behavior, one of reliable subjects and one of cheaters, where the latter artificially fake their reputation in almost every interaction. Cheaters end up being better off than honest individuals, who not only keep their true reputation but are also more cooperative. In practice, this results in honest subjects paying the costs of fraud as cheaters earn the same as in a truthful environment. These findings point to the importance of ensuring the truthfulness of reputation for a more equitable and fair society. PMID:27251114

  5. Cooperation Survives and Cheating Pays in a Dynamic Network Structure with Unreliable Reputation.

    PubMed

    Antonioni, Alberto; Sánchez, Angel; Tomassini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In a networked society like ours, reputation is an indispensable tool to guide decisions about social or economic interactions with individuals otherwise unknown. Usually, information about prospective counterparts is incomplete, often being limited to an average success rate. Uncertainty on reputation is further increased by fraud, which is increasingly becoming a cause of concern. To address these issues, we have designed an experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma as a model for social interactions. Participants could spend money to have their observable cooperativeness increased. We find that the aggregate cooperation level is practically unchanged, i.e., global behavior does not seem to be affected by unreliable reputations. However, at the individual level we find two distinct types of behavior, one of reliable subjects and one of cheaters, where the latter artificially fake their reputation in almost every interaction. Cheaters end up being better off than honest individuals, who not only keep their true reputation but are also more cooperative. In practice, this results in honest subjects paying the costs of fraud as cheaters earn the same as in a truthful environment. These findings point to the importance of ensuring the truthfulness of reputation for a more equitable and fair society. PMID:27251114

  6. Language Geography from Microblogging Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, Delia; Baronchelli, Andrea; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Microblogging platforms have now become major open source indicators for complex social interactions. With the advent of smartphones, the everincreasing mobile Internet traffic gives us the unprecedented opportunity to complement studies of complex social phenomena with real-time location information. In this work, we show that the data nowadays accessible allows for detailed studies at different scales, ranging from country-level aggregate analysis to the analysis of linguistic communities withing specific neighborhoods. The high resolution and coverage of this data permits us to investigate such issues as the linguistic homogeneity of different countries, touristic seasonal patterns within countries, and the geographical distribution of different languages in bilingual regions. This work highlights the potentialities of geolocalized studies of open data sources that can provide an extremely detailed picture of the language geography.

  7. Imaginative geographies of Mars: The science and significance of the red planet, 1877--1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Kristina Maria Doyle

    2006-12-01

    Over several decades spanning the turn of the twentieth century, Western astronomers' claims about the landscape and climate of Mars spurred widespread scientific and popular interest in the possibility that the red planet might be inhabited by intelligent beings far more advanced than humans. This dissertation challenges traditional interpretations of this episode---as an amusing example of science gone awry---with a critical re-investigation of the production of geographical knowledge about Mars in historical context. Based on extensive archival and documentary research, I offer a new explanation for the power with which the notion of an inhabited Mars gripped scholars and citizens alike, showing that turn-of the century scientific narratives about Mars derived much of their power and popularity from ties with the newly established discipline of geography. At the same time, the dissertation reveals the Mars mania to be integrally connected with the history of geography, suggesting that scientific and popular representations of Martian geography also helped circulate knowledge claims regarding the geography of Earth. Specifically, the dissertation examines astronomers' use of geographical rhetoric, imagery, method, and themes, analyzing the extent to which these elements contributed to their scientific credibility and popular reputations. I first focus on the development of Mars knowledge through cartography, examining the evolution of cartographic conventions and styles used to portray Mars and revealing how an early geometric map established the authority to influence the cartography of Mars over the next several decades. I show, furthermore, that much of the power and longevity of the inhabited-Mars hypothesis derived from this map's visual authority as a geographical representation, thus explaining why Mars maps were ubiquitous during the canal craze, with astronomers seemingly competing with one another to add cartographic detail. In addition to their deft

  8. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Anthony R.; Downs, Roger M.

    This booklet is both an executive summary of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994" and an introduction to geography as an essential part of every child's education, and as an integral part of the lives of all U.S. citizens. The publication is illustrated on every page with photographs, paintings, graphs, and maps. It defines the…

  9. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were…

  10. A Single Transferable Geography? Teaching Geography in a Contested Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of the political situation in Northern Ireland and geography teaching in schools. Student teachers on the PGCE (Postgraduate Certificate in Education) Geography Course at the University of Ulster (UU) conducted discussions within their geography departments whilst on teaching practice and reported the outcomes to…

  11. Privacy, Liveliness and Fairness for Reputation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffner, Stefan; Clauß, Sebastian; Steinbrecher, Sandra

    In various Internet applications, reputation systems are typical means to collect experiences users make with each other. We present a reputation system that balances the security and privacy requirements of all users involed. Our system provides privacy in the form of information theoretic relationship anonymity w.r.t. users and the reputation provider. Furthermore, it preserves liveliness, i.e., all past ratings can influence the current reputation profile of a user. In addition, mutual ratings are forced to be simultaneous and self rating is prevented, which enforces fairness. What is more, without performing mock interactions - even if all users are colluding - users cannot forge ratings. As far as we know, this is the first protocol proposed that fulfills all these properties simultaneously.

  12. Geographical Knowledge and Teaching Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Recent events in England and Wales would suggest that geography teachers need to re-engage with their subject matter to enable them to improve how they teach the geography. However, this requires a detailed understanding of how teachers use their subject knowledge. This paper outlines how two geography teachers experience tension between how they…

  13. Whatever Happened to Economic Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Maintains that economic geography is alive and well. Describes some of the challenges facing research in economic geography and highlights the changing approaches being applied to economic geography. Includes sections on structural change, economic reorganization, and internationalization of manufacturing and finances. (JDH)

  14. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  15. School Choice in a Stratified Geography: Class, Geography, Otherness, and Moral Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabay-Egozi, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Using open-ended, semi-structured interviews, this study pulls together insights on social class and geography to explore how parents choose schools differently for their children in a unique Israeli setting. Querying parents' feelings and perceptions about themselves and others in their immediate and distant locality offers an opportunity to…

  16. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict. PMID:23253792

  17. Symposium: Teaching Medical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Stephen A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents seven brief papers reflecting workshops given at the 1994 Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Each workshop presented a teaching module concerning issues in medical geography. Methodological issues included interpretations of vital statistics and epidemiological diffusion. Theoretical issues included womens' health data…

  18. Dialectic Teaching in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1977-01-01

    Explains how a dialectical approach to geography can help students analyze geographical issues and recognize the unspoken assumptions of any particular scientific method. The author describes his course in which conservative, liberal, and radical perspectives are used to examine the population problem in the Third World. (Author/AV)

  19. Geography. Senior Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    An integrated secondary curriculum is outlined in this particular guide for Canadian schools. The grade 11 World Geography course is intended to help students place geographic concepts developed in the first ten years of school into a systematic framework. Here conservation of all resources is an important topic: water resources and pollution,…

  20. Geography Objectives: 1988 Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    To measure and report on the extent and quality of students' understanding of geography, the National Geographic Society initiated and provided support for a national assessment of students 17 years old and in the 12th grade. Since 1969, the Nation's Report Card, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), has been responsible for…

  1. Geography, Planning and EIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, R . K.

    1987-01-01

    Defines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a major tool for environmental management throughout the world. Provides background to the EIA concept and describes how it might be used within secondary school geography as an integrative teaching device. Special emphasis is given to the new EIA/Seventh-Form syllabus currently being used in New…

  2. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  3. Online Reputation Systems in Web 2.0 Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weijun; Jin, Leigh

    Web 2.0 has transformed how reputation systems are designed and used by the Web. Based on a thorough review of the existing online reputation systems and their challenges in use, this paper studied a case of Amazon’s reputation system for the impacts of Web 2.0. Through our case study, several distinguished features of new generation reputation systems are noted including multimedia feedbacks, reviewer centered, folksonomy, community contribution, comprehensive reputation, dynamic and interactive system etc. These new developments move towards a relatively trustworthy and reliable online reputation system in the Web 2.0 era.

  4. Preschoolers affect others' reputations through prosocial gossip.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Providing evaluative information to others about absent third parties helps them to identify cooperators and avoid cheaters. Here, we show that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, reliably engage in such prosocial gossip. In an experimental setting, 5-year-old children spontaneously offered relevant reputational information to guide a peer towards a cooperative partner. Three-year-old children offered such evaluative information only rarely, although they still showed a willingness to inform in a non-evaluative manner. A follow-up study revealed that one component involved in this age difference is children's developing ability to provide justifications. The current results extend previous work on young children's tendency to manage their own reputation by showing that preschoolers also influence others' reputations via gossip. PMID:27125334

  5. GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT to study geography: the homepage and reflections from the users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT is to convey structured information to teachers and pupils, as well as, professors and students of geography. This learning aid is a homepage, first published in Hungarian still in 2006 (http://netszkozkeszlet.ektf.hu), to help in orientation among the rapidly growing information on the Internet, to provide extra digitalized professional materials that are not yet available digitally and to share experiences of the teachers and professors working in the same area of interest and language environment. At present, its English version is already prepared and partly available at the same address. The GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT can be used free after registration, at present the homepage counts 2807 registered users. The interested user first enters a virtual office where the entries of the Menu can be opened by clicking at the drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, TV-set, etc. These entries are professional lesson plans using digital technology, photos, video clips, animations on physical and social geography. The homepage also mirrors pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database links, diagrams, bibliography, lecture notes, dictionaries, scientific and popular journals, geography games, web pages, etc. The whole set of appliances is based on Dreamweaver MX program. During the past 2.5 years some experience has been gained about the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT in use, mainly from teachers of geography, who downloaded and responded to the questionnaire. Another source of information is the group of students in the College, where future teachers of geography are trained in a one-semester course on application of the Info-Communication Technology. From the first group, i.e. 59 active teachers of geography, 54 % use the Internet "always" or "frequently" in the classroom, whereas 75 % of them rely on it for preparation to the lessons. Before trying the homepage, these numbers were 25 % and 54 %, only. From among the listed

  6. Structural Location and Reputed Influence in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamara V.; Lewis, Wayne D.; Sanders, Marla S.

    2010-01-01

    Using data about collaborative relationships among 109 reading policy actors from four states, this study investigated the extent to which social capital, operationalized as spanning structural holes, predicted a policy actor's reputed influence. Regression analysis showed that after controlling for state, centrality, and government entity, having…

  7. The evolution of reputation-based partner-switching behaviors with a cost.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Humans constantly adjust their social relationships and choose new partners of good reputations, thereby promoting the evolution of cooperation. Individuals have to pay a cost to build a reputation, obtain others' information and then make partnership adjustments, yet the conditions under which such costly behaviors are able to evolve remain to be explored. In this model, I assume that individuals have to pay a cost to adjust their partnerships. Furthermore, whether an individual can adjust his partnership based on reputation is determined by his strategic preference, which is updated via coevolution. Using the metaphor of a public goods game where the collective benefit is shared among all members of a group, the coupling dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment were numerically simulated. Partner-switching behavior cannot evolve in a public goods game with a low amplification factor. However, such an effect can be exempted by raising the productivity of public goods or the frequency of partnership adjustment. Moreover, costly partner-switching behavior is remarkably promoted by the condition that the mechanism of reputation evaluation considers its prosociality. A mechanism of reputation evaluation that praises both cooperative and partner-switching behaviors allows them to coevolve. PMID:25091006

  8. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions. PMID:26650842

  9. The evolution of reputation-based partner-switching behaviors with a cost

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Humans constantly adjust their social relationships and choose new partners of good reputations, thereby promoting the evolution of cooperation. Individuals have to pay a cost to build a reputation, obtain others' information and then make partnership adjustments, yet the conditions under which such costly behaviors are able to evolve remain to be explored. In this model, I assume that individuals have to pay a cost to adjust their partnerships. Furthermore, whether an individual can adjust his partnership based on reputation is determined by his strategic preference, which is updated via coevolution. Using the metaphor of a public goods game where the collective benefit is shared among all members of a group, the coupling dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment were numerically simulated. Partner-switching behavior cannot evolve in a public goods game with a low amplification factor. However, such an effect can be exempted by raising the productivity of public goods or the frequency of partnership adjustment. Moreover, costly partner-switching behavior is remarkably promoted by the condition that the mechanism of reputation evaluation considers its prosociality. A mechanism of reputation evaluation that praises both cooperative and partner-switching behaviors allows them to coevolve. PMID:25091006

  10. The evolution of reputation-based partner-switching behaviors with a cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao

    2014-08-01

    Humans constantly adjust their social relationships and choose new partners of good reputations, thereby promoting the evolution of cooperation. Individuals have to pay a cost to build a reputation, obtain others' information and then make partnership adjustments, yet the conditions under which such costly behaviors are able to evolve remain to be explored. In this model, I assume that individuals have to pay a cost to adjust their partnerships. Furthermore, whether an individual can adjust his partnership based on reputation is determined by his strategic preference, which is updated via coevolution. Using the metaphor of a public goods game where the collective benefit is shared among all members of a group, the coupling dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment were numerically simulated. Partner-switching behavior cannot evolve in a public goods game with a low amplification factor. However, such an effect can be exempted by raising the productivity of public goods or the frequency of partnership adjustment. Moreover, costly partner-switching behavior is remarkably promoted by the condition that the mechanism of reputation evaluation considers its prosociality. A mechanism of reputation evaluation that praises both cooperative and partner-switching behaviors allows them to coevolve.

  11. Influences of Agents with a Self-Reputation Awareness Component in an Evolutionary Spatial IPD Game

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Chun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Iterated prisoner’s dilemma (IPD) researchers have shown that strong positive reputations plus an efficient reputation evaluation system encourages both sides to pursue long-term collaboration and to avoid falling into mutual defection cycles. In agent-based environments with reliable reputation rating systems, agents interested in maximizing their private interests must show concern for other agents as well as their own self-reputations–an important capability that standard IPD game agents lack. Here we present a novel learning agent model possessing self-reputation awareness. Agents in our proposed model are capable of evaluating self-behaviors based on a mix of public and private interest considerations, and of testing various solutions aimed at meeting social standards. Simulation results indicate multiple outcomes from the addition of a small percentage of self-reputation awareness agents: faster cooperation, faster movement toward stability in an agent society, a higher level of public interest in the agent society, the resolution of common conflicts between public and private interests, and a lower potential for rational individual behavior to transform into irrational group behavior. PMID:24945966

  12. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one’s reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one’s own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions. PMID:26650842

  13. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. PMID:22796271

  14. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ezama, David; Dunfield, Derek; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Prelec, Drazen

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  15. Peer Effects in Unethical Behavior: Standing or Reputation?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker’s self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals’ behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  16. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  17. Improving the "Awful Reputation" of Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the reputation of education research is simultaneously worse--and better--than most have assumed and that some efforts recently initiated suggest a strategy for improving the situation. Efforts to stimulate research syntheses on significant education problems are highlighted. (GR)

  18. Behavioral Reputation: A Cross-Age Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Meg; Vannatta, Kathryn; Schafer, John; Noll, Robert B.

    2003-01-01

    Used the Revised Class Play measure to examine measurement of peer perceptions of behavioral reputation in elementary, middle, and high school environments. Found that data did not fit the original 3-factor structure; cross-loading of items and different patterns of association between subscales across age groups contributed to poor fit.…

  19. Does a Professor's Reputation Affect Course Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, John H.; And Others

    To examine whether a professor's reputation affects course selection, a survey was conducted of about 280 students in a junior level marketing class required of all business students at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). The questionnaire listed 25 economics professors and asked what the students had heard about the professors in five…

  20. Cultural Diversity in Geography Curriculum: The Geography of American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the content of a university geography course on American Indians. Discusses the role of geography curriculum in teaching cultural diversity. Summarizes three lectures on the Great Lakes Chippewa. Describes student projects, outside activities, and learning evaluation. States that students improved geographical skills and increased…

  1. Aesthetics in Geography: Ideas for Teaching Geography Using Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how poetry can be used for teaching geography. The rational for using and writing poetry, its relationship to the National Standards for Geography, grade levels, pedagogical concerns associated with poetry writing, and subject integration are discussed. There are also classroom activities, sample discussion questions, lesson…

  2. Geography Teachers' Views on the Revised High School Geography Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akengin, Hamza

    2008-01-01

    Problems are experienced in geography teaching in almost all countries. Modifications made to curriculums from time to time aim to meet the expectations of the community and the Ministry of National Education in the fields of education considered problematic. The purpose of the geography teaching is to bring up individuals that are responsible,…

  3. The Geography for Life Standards and American Political Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Douglas Deane

    1997-01-01

    Explores the intersection of geography and politics in U.S. public policy development and connects this to several of the National Geography Standards. Discusses contemporary issues including economic interdependence, the impact of migration, resource competition, cultural values, and environmental issues. Offers suggested student activities. (MJP)

  4. The Costs of Reneging: Reputation and Alliance Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibler, Douglas M.

    2008-01-01

    Reputations are supposed to matter. Decision makers consistently refer to reputations for resolve, and international relations theories confirm the value of being able to credibly signal intentions during times of crisis. However, empirical support for the effects of reputation has been lacking. Problems of strategic selection have hampered…

  5. Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an empirical study of the Fortune 500 companies suggesting that "reputation management" is gaining ground as a driving philosophy behind corporate public relations. Finds some interesting correlations between reputation and specific categories of spending. Concludes that if reputation management is the new face of corporate public…

  6. Female Representation in the Higher Education of Geography in Hungary. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Judit; Jelenszkyne, Ildiko Fabian

    2004-01-01

    This paper charts the changing female representation in the higher education of geography, connecting it with the faltering development of feminist geography in Hungary. The transition from socialism to capitalism has compounded gender inequalities while many of the relevant statistical data display gender blindness. Gender issues fail to form a…

  7. Geography in History: A Necessary Connection in the School Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    Recent state-level curriculum frameworks have emphasized geography and history as core subjects of the social studies sequence of courses, from kindergarten through the twelfth grade. This Digest presents a rationale for the connection between geography and history, presents ideas for developing this connection within the curriculum, and…

  8. How Can Teaching Geography Contribute to the Understanding of the Common Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.

    This lesson plan for instruction in geography addresses three social studies standards (People, Places and Environments; Culture; Civic Ideals and Values) and seven geography standards (development of mental maps; physical and human characteristics of places; people create regions to interpret the earth's complexity; patterns and networks of…

  9. Geography's Place in Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodring, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Geography instruction provides a basis for more education and for life. A knowledge of geography is basic to the study of history, economics, political science, geology, biology, and many other disciplines. Geographical knowledge is essential for daily activities such as reading a newspaper or comprehending world events. (RM)

  10. Helping Your Child Learn Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromboluti, Carol Sue

    Providing practical learning activities for parents to use to teach geography to children under age 10, this profusely illustrated handbook is organized in terms of 5 major themes of geography: (1) physical location; (2) physical and human characteristics of places; (3) relationships among people and places; (4) patterns of movement of people,…

  11. The Realm of Physical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Patrick S.

    This secondary education student geography book contains chapters on climate, landforms, oceans, world vegetation, water resources, and population. Each chapter provides an introduction that describes the unit's topics, descriptive and instructional materials, learning activities, and questions. A glossary of geography-related terms and an…

  12. The Ecological Transformation of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shkarban, N. V.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that natural conditions and resources and the territorial organization of the use of resources constitute the study of geography. Argues that how geography is defined determines both prospects for resource use and environmental attitudes. Suggests that methodological study of how human activities affect the environment deepens students'…

  13. Culture Regions in Geography Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehn, Dieter L.

    One of the demands imposed on geography instruction is to inform about the world, but there is some disagreement on how this is to be achieved. Criticism is most frequently directed at the regional geography approach of subdividing the world into culture regions. This paper addresses the question of whether global subdivision by culture regions…

  14. Finding Geography Using Found Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional literacy is important in both English/language arts and geography. Using the "found poetry" strategy, students will summarize a piece of text, identify main ideas and find geographic connections. While using young adult literature is a great way to incorporate geography into English/language arts classroom, understanding of geography…

  15. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  16. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  17. Negative Geography: Locating Things Elsewhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Robert H.

    The phenomenon of negative geography--the assertion that any location is better than the one selected--is discussed and ways in which this approach differs from traditional geography methodology are analyzed. Case studies of two citizens' groups which protested the relocation of a city mission and halfway house in their neighborhoods illustrate…

  18. Cooperative behaviour and prosocial reputation dynamics in a Dominican village

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlan, Shane J.; Quinlan, Robert; Remiker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Prosocial reputations play an important role, from the evolution of language to Internet transactions; however, questions remain about their behavioural correlates and dynamics. Formal models assume prosocial reputations correlate with the number of cooperative acts one performs; however, if reputations flow through information networks, then the number of individuals one assists may be a better proxy. Formal models demonstrate indirect experience must track behaviour with the same fidelity as direct experience for reputations to become viable; however, research on corporate reputations suggests performance change does not always affect reputation change. Debate exists over the cognitive mechanisms employed for assessing reputation dynamics. Image scoring suggests reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in need, while standing strategy claims reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in good standing. This study examines the behavioural correlates of prosocial reputations and their dynamics over a 20-month period in an Afro-Caribbean village. Analyses suggest prosocial reputations: (i) are correlated with the number of individuals one assists in economic production, not the number of cooperative acts; (ii) track cooperative behaviour, but are anchored across time; and (iii) are captured neither by image scoring nor standing strategy-type mechanisms. PMID:23760642

  19. Cooperative behaviour and prosocial reputation dynamics in a Dominican village.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Quinlan, Robert; Remiker, Mark

    2013-06-22

    Prosocial reputations play an important role, from the evolution of language to Internet transactions; however, questions remain about their behavioural correlates and dynamics. Formal models assume prosocial reputations correlate with the number of cooperative acts one performs; however, if reputations flow through information networks, then the number of individuals one assists may be a better proxy. Formal models demonstrate indirect experience must track behaviour with the same fidelity as direct experience for reputations to become viable; however, research on corporate reputations suggests performance change does not always affect reputation change. Debate exists over the cognitive mechanisms employed for assessing reputation dynamics. Image scoring suggests reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in need, while standing strategy claims reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in good standing. This study examines the behavioural correlates of prosocial reputations and their dynamics over a 20-month period in an Afro-Caribbean village. Analyses suggest prosocial reputations: (i) are correlated with the number of individuals one assists in economic production, not the number of cooperative acts; (ii) track cooperative behaviour, but are anchored across time; and (iii) are captured neither by image scoring nor standing strategy-type mechanisms. PMID:23760642

  20. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing.

    PubMed

    Izuma, Keise; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    How we are viewed by other individuals-our reputation-has a considerable influence on our everyday behaviors and is considered an important concept in explaining altruism, a uniquely human trait. Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. Here, we directly tested this idea using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects disclosed their behavioral tendencies with reference to social norms in the presence or absence of other people, a manipulation that is known to greatly affect an individual's concern for their reputation. The mPFC showed strong activation during self-referential processing, and this activity was enhanced by the mere presence of observers. Moreover, the striatum was also strongly activated when subjects responded in front of observers. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the mPFC and striatum were automatically recruited when the task placed a high demand on processing how one is viewed by others. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mPFC and the striatum play a key role in regulating human social behaviors, and these results provide valuable insight into the neural basis of human altruism. PMID:19705330

  1. Rural Homelessness: A Geography without a Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Homelessness in rural Iowa is proportionately high but well hidden, obliging the rural homeless to discursively and materially relate their needs to a placeless condition of being defined by agencies, institutions, and academics. Positioning the homeless outside of social space places them in the space of nature, with implications for the meaning…

  2. Application of the AHP method in modeling the trust and reputation of software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zytniewski, Mariusz; Klementa, Marek; Skorupka, Dariusz; Stanek, Stanislaw; Duchaczek, Artur

    2016-06-01

    Given the unique characteristics of cyberspace and, in particular, the number of inherent security threats, communication between software agents becomes a highly complex issue and a major challenge that, on the one hand, needs to be continuously monitored and, on the other, awaits new solutions addressing its vulnerabilities. An approach that has recently come into view mimics mechanisms typical of social systems and is based on trust and reputation that assist agents in deciding which other agents to interact with. The paper offers an enhancement to existing trust and reputation models, involving the application of the AHP method that is widely used for decision support in social systems, notably for risks analysis. To this end, it is proposed to expand the underlying conceptual basis by including such notions as self-trust and social trust, and to apply these to software agents. The discussion is concluded with an account of an experiment aimed at testing the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  3. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  4. The New School Geography: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Compares "old" geography curriculum with "new" geography curriculum proposed by National Geographic Society and based on five geographic themes. Examines new course as both geography course and as subject in the general education curriculum. Noting the marginal value and limitations of the new geography, recommends that the geographic educators'…

  5. Geography and the Study of Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, James E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the development of urban geography since 1920 as a subfield of geography, explores the relationship between urban living and urban geography, and identifies major research concerns of urban geographers. Reviews geography literature relevant to the study of cities. (Author/DB)

  6. Introduction. Teaching Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Alexander B.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of "Journal of Geography" focusing on the teaching of Advanced Placement (AP) human geography. States that essays were developed by members of the AP Human Geography Development Committee focusing on areas in the human geography course outline which are included in the appendix. (CMK)

  7. Geography From Another Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The GEODESY software program is intended to promote geographical awareness among students with its remote sensing capabilities to observe the Earth's surface from distant vantage points. Students and teachers using GEODESY learn to interpret and analyze geographical data pertaining to the physical attributes of their community. For example, the program provides a digital environment of physical features, such as mountains and bodies of water, as well as man-made features, such as roads and parks, using aerial photography, satellite imagery, and geographic information systems data in accordance with National Geography Standards. The main goal is to have the students and teachers gain a better understanding of the unique forces that drive their coexistence. GEODESY was developed with technical assistance and financial support from Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, now known as the Earth Science Applications Directorate.

  8. Geography Education in Asia: Samples from Different Countries and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incekara, Suleyman

    2010-01-01

    With the maximum use of the technology such as geographic information science (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and global positioning systems (GPSs) in geography courses, along with its integrative perspective on the social and life sciences and an emphasis on student-centered education, problem solving, and sustainable and environmental education,…

  9. Departmental Climate and Student Experiences in Graduate Geography Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Michael; Lee, Jenny; Schlemper, Beth

    2009-01-01

    This study explores how graduate students enrolled in M.A./M.S. and Ph.D. geography programs perceive the social and academic climate of their departments. A second objective is to understand how these students self-assess their own professional abilities, values, and goals, and whether these self-assessments differ across demographic and…

  10. Choosing to Teach Relationships: Economic Geography and the Local Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    Both the teaching of the free enterprise system and the teaching of geography are an integral part of the guidelines for elementary school social studies in most states. The two have been combined into a resource unit for studying localities so that students may understand that U.S. citizens, the environment, and the economy are interdependent.…

  11. Toward a Geography of Rural Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The field of rural education has not been significantly developed in Canada and the marginal status of the rural itself has contributed to this peripheral status. The emergence of geography and spatial thinking generally in social theory and in educational thought represents an opportunity to re-evaluate the importance of space and place in…

  12. Hands-On Activities for Integrating Geography across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Leslie Mills, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Describes ways to integrate geography into the curriculum of primary and intermediate grades. Suggests hands-on activities for teaching abstract concepts through concrete experiences. Includes two units: creating a global map of the earth and incorporating social studies into language arts and mathematics by using magnet cars on maps. (NL)

  13. Spaces and Places: A Geography Manual for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemball, Walter, Ed.

    This manual is designed as a resource guide for preservice and classroom teachers with an interest in geographic education. The chapters cover a variety of topics including the most recent developments in geographic education. Each chapter offers suggestions and ideas that can be included in general geography/social studies methods courses or…

  14. Teaching Cultural Geography with "Bend It like Beckham"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, Katie

    2007-01-01

    The British film "Bend It Like Beckham" (2002) is pedagogically useful in the cultural geography classroom for engaging students with core concepts, such as ethnicity, migration, acculturation, and assimilation, and with more advanced modes of analysis, such as the social construction of identity. Although the film depicts a particular ethnic…

  15. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  16. Module Cluster: UG - 001.00 (GSC) Urban Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Wade R.

    This is one of several module clusters developed for the Camden Teacher Corps project. This module cluster is designed to introduce students to urban studies through the application of a geographic approach. Although geography shares with other social sciences many concepts and methods, it has contributed a distinctive set of viewpoints and a…

  17. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  18. A New Pathway: Video-Based Professional Development in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Richard G.; Brysch, Carmen P.; Mohan, Audrey; Backler, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Gilbert M. Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education, in partnership with the Agency for Instructional Technology, and the National Geographic Education Foundation have embarked on the production of a twenty-two-program, Web-based professional development series for teachers of geography, social studies, and environmental science, titled…

  19. The Tales of the Dogs: Integrating Geography and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Francie Keller; Stearns, Louise; Kallo, Joe

    2006-01-01

    As elementary social science methods instructors, the authors observed a need in their student population for instructional methods that would engage students in the content, process, and values of geography instruction. Their initial purpose was to create an instructional model that pre-service teachers could adapt and use in their future…

  20. A neural network based reputation bootstrapping approach for service selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanwang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Li, Peng

    2015-10-01

    With the concept of service-oriented computing becoming widely accepted in enterprise application integration, more and more computing resources are encapsulated as services and published online. Reputation mechanism has been studied to establish trust on prior unknown services. One of the limitations of current reputation mechanisms is that they cannot assess the reputation of newly deployed services as no record of their previous behaviours exists. Most of the current bootstrapping approaches merely assign default reputation values to newcomers. However, by this kind of methods, either newcomers or existing services will be favoured. In this paper, we present a novel reputation bootstrapping approach, where correlations between features and performance of existing services are learned through an artificial neural network (ANN) and they are then generalised to establish a tentative reputation when evaluating new and unknown services. Reputations of services published previously by the same provider are also incorporated for reputation bootstrapping if available. The proposed reputation bootstrapping approach is seamlessly embedded into an existing reputation model and implemented in the extended service-oriented architecture. Empirical studies of the proposed approach are shown at last.

  1. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of Japan's Prince…

  2. Chinese Philosophy. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.3. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.3 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structure of the civilizations of China in the middle ages." Seventh-grade students focus on the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism; agricultural,…

  3. Exploring the Micro-Social Geography of Children's Interactions in Preschool: A Long-Term Observational Study and Analysis Using Geographic Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Paul M.; Griffin, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an observational and analytic methodology for recording and interpreting dynamic microprocesses that occur during social interaction, making use of space--time data collection techniques, spatial-statistical analysis, and visualization. The scheme has three investigative foci: Structure, Activity Composition, and Clustering.…

  4. Geography in an Urban Age: Trials of High School Geography Project Materials in New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John; Slater, Frances

    1974-01-01

    The High School Geography Project was used and evaluated by 15-year old students in New Zealand. The program, highly innovative in approaches in teaching Geography, is found to be highly adapted to Australian needs in Geography instruction. (JR)

  5. How Is Your Moon Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1971-01-01

    Describes geography of the moon. A brief history of selenographic history is given and basic features including lunar seas, mountains, craters, rays, and faults are described. Lunar photographs are included. (JM)

  6. The social geography of AIDS and hepatitis risk: qualitative approaches for assessing local differences in sterile-syringe access among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Stopka, T; Siano, C; Springer, K; Barton, G; Khoshnood, K; Gorry de Puga, A; Heimer, R

    2000-01-01

    While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional epidemiologic survey approaches and laboratory bioassay procedures to examine neighborhood differences in access to sterile syringes among IDUs in 3 northeastern cities. These methods consisted of (1) neighborhood-based IDU focus groups to construct social maps of local equipment acquisition and drug use sites; (2) ethnographic descriptions of target neighborhoods; (3) IDU diary keeping on drug use and injection equipment acquisition; (4) ethnographic day visits with IDUs in natural settings; (5) interviews with IDUs about syringe acquisition and collection of syringes for laboratory analysis; and (6) focused field observation and processual interviewing during drug injection. Preliminary findings from each of these methods are reported to illustrate the methods' value in elucidating the impact of local and regional social factors on sterile syringe access. PMID:10897181

  7. Enhancing Multilateral Security in and by Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, Sandra

    With the increasing possibilities for interaction between Internet users exceeding pure communication, in multilateral security the research question arises to rethink and extend classical security requirements. Reputation systems are a possible solution to assist new security requirements. But naturally also reputation systems have to be designed in a multilateral secure way. In this paper we discuss both multilateral security by and in reputation systems. An overview on the possibilities how such systems could be realised is given.

  8. The geography of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Vivienne; Solomina, Olga

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the physical and human geography of the Kamchatka region and summarises previous research on Holocene climate dynamics. We provide context for the rest of the Special Issue of the Journal Global and Planetary Change entitled 'Holocene climate change in Kamchatka', the primary focus of which is the use of lake sediment records for palaeoclimatic inferences. In this paper an additional perspective from ongoing tree ring, ice core and borehole temperature reconstructions illustrates that the Kamchatka region is rich in paleoclimatic proxies. The period of the last 200 years is sufficiently covered by the proxy information, including reconstructions with annual resolution. In this period the tree-rings, ice cores, boreholes, and glacier fluctuations recorded a 1 °C warming and a general glacier retreat, i.e. the transition from the Little Ice Age climate to the modern one. Although the proxies have different resolution, accuracy and seasonality in general they demonstrate a coherent picture of environmental changes in the last two centuries. The tree ring and ice core records are up to four-six hundred years long and they provide information on annual to decadal variability of summer temperature, accumulation processes, volcanic eruptions and lahar activity.

  9. Teaching Geography Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Jones, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    Twenty suggestions in five conceptual areas -- interdependence, population, pollution, resource utilization, land use -- are offered to teachers incorporating environmental studies into their social studies curricula. (JH)

  10. Replacing positivism in medical geography.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David

    2005-06-01

    Revisiting debates about philosophical approaches in medical geography suggests that logical positivism may have been prematurely discarded. An analysis of authoritative texts in medical geography and their sources in human geography shows that logical positivism has been conflated with Comtean positivism, science, empiricism, quantification, science politics, scientism and so on, to produce the "standard version" of the all-purpose pejorative "positivism", which it is easy to dismiss as an evil. It is argued that the standard version fails to do justice to logical positivism, being constructed on sources which are at some distance from the logical positivist movement itself. An alternative approach is then developed, an historically and geographically situated interpretation of logical positivism as a deliberately and knowingly constructed oppositional epistemology within an oppressive and anti-scientific culture predicated on idealist intuitionism. Contrasting the standard version with this alternative reading of logical positivism suggests that much may have been lost in human, and thus, medical geography, by throwing out the logical positivist baby with the "positivism" bath water. It is concluded that continuing to unpack the standard version of logical positivism may identify benefits from a more nuanced appreciation of logical positivism, but it is premature to take these to the level of detailed impacts on the kinds of medical geographies that could be done or the ways of doing them. PMID:15820580

  11. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  12. The Cultural Geography of Health Care Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesler, Wilbert M.

    1987-01-01

    This article shows how health care delivery is related to cultural or human geography. This is accomplished by describing health care delivery in terms of 12 popular themes of cultural geography. (JDH)

  13. School Reputation and Its Relation to Parents' Satisfaction and Loyalty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skallerud, Kare

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the direction and strength of the relationships between school reputation, parent satisfaction and parent loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports the findings of a survey of 325 parents from three primary schools across Norway. Building on previous work examining corporate reputations, a new…

  14. An Analytical Model for University Identity and Reputation Strategy Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lars; Sundstrom, Agneta C.; Sammalisto, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Universities face increasing global competition, pressuring them to restructure and find new identities. A multidimensional model: identity, image and reputation of strategic university identity and reputation work is developed. The model includes: organizational identity; employee and student attitudes; symbolic identity; influence from…

  15. Reputational Quality of Academic Programs: The Institutional Halo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the contribution of institutional characteristics to the National Academy of Sciences' reputational ratings of faculty found that program characteristics do influence ratings, but an "institutional halo" effect also exists, indicating that faculty reputations and program quality are more complex phenomena than implied by…

  16. Can the Reputation of an Established Business School Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safon, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. This paper examines the causes of business school reputation using two competing perspectives: the meritocratic and the institutional. The meritocratic perspective is based on the belief that reputation is an outcome of the business school's…

  17. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. PMID:21332721

  18. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  19. Preparing Geography Teachers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Stoltman, Joseph P.; Lee, Jongwon

    2004-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been called the "bete noire" of geography education in the United States (Boehm et al., 1994). Despite progress in other areas of geography, teacher education remains a significant issue affecting the quality of geography instruction nationwide. It is a multifaceted, multidimensional problem tied inextricably to national…

  20. A Proposal for Assessment in Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcello, Jody Smothers

    2009-01-01

    The geographic skills, as outlined in "Geography for Life", provide an avenue for assessing students' work in geography. If used across the scope and sequence of the curriculum, a common scoring guide based on these skills offers opportunities for students to demonstrate their ability to use inquiry approaches to study geography and to improve…

  1. Environmental Education and Geography of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecioni, Ester

    2005-01-01

    Geography is defined as "a transition point between natural temporality and human temporality" (Maragliano, 1998). Presented like this, geography seems, at least at first sight, to assume an inexorable function as a linking discipline between nature and society. Unfortunately this pivotal role is not realised, given that geography is often…

  2. Toward a Geography of the Negro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Fredric A.

    1971-01-01

    Within geography, Black America can best be studied in the geography of cities. Topics suggested include sources of data, urban sprawl, arrangement and support of cities, urban demography, urban land values, urban land uses, and especially the geography of the black community within the city. (NH)

  3. The Study and Teaching of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broek, Jan O. M.; And Others

    The document discusses the discipline of geography in terms of its nature, development, research, and teaching methods. It is presented in six chapters. Chapter one briefly discusses the value of geography, its position among the sciences, and careers in geography. Chapter two traces the development of geographic thought from antiquity through the…

  4. The All-Russian Geography Olympiad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumov, Alexey

    2007-01-01

    The history of intellectual geography competitions for secondary school students in Russia (by that time--USSR) began after World War II, when the Faculty of Geography of Lomonosov Moscow State University started to organise a yearly Geography Olympiad for Muscovite youngsters. Soon, organisers of this Olympiad decided to open it for secondary…

  5. Building Geography's New Frontier: Implementing the Australian Curriculum Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Geography as a compulsory learning area from Foundation year, such as Kindergarten, to Year 8 in Australia provides new opportunities for learning and teaching. Opportunities, in part, will be driven by challenges associated with the introduction of this learning area. Key challenges are about variability: in take-up of the…

  6. Everyday Geography: 365 Reflections on Why Geography Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Last year, beginning on New Year's Day, as president of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), the author wrote one tweet every day beginning with "What is Geography? 1 of 365" and posted them to his Twitter page. His goals in the series were several. He sought to point out as organization president how the NCGE serves the geography…

  7. Statistics for Geography Teachers: Topics in Geography, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This publication is designed to provide geography teachers with useful statistical information. It presents tables, maps, graphs, diagrams, and explanations of statistical data in 24 areas. The areas in which statistics are given are conversions, measurement, astronomy, time, daylight, twilight, latitude and longitude as distance, the relationship…

  8. Geography and Educational Media: Topics in Geography, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This collection of articles is designed to acquaint elementary and secondary school teachers with new educational media and with effective uses of old media. Two articles discuss the media concept and its appropriateness to the study of geography. In several articles, commonly used materials such as wall maps, globes, and elements of the classroom…

  9. Glamorizing Place Geography: The Sidney High School Place Geography Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Bill, III

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a high school designed a contest to reduce geographic illiteracy. A preliminary geographic location and map skill test was given schoolwide, with prizes for the top 10 scores. Concludes that the test results gave a picture of the geographically illiterate and that the test helped glamorize geography. (GG)

  10. Perspectives on Political Geography in AP® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leib, Jonathan; Smothers-Marcello, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Two trends have remade the field of political geography over the past quarter-century. First, a revision of taken-for-granted concepts that amounted to "spatial determinism." Second, pioneering many new and emerging concepts such as political ecology. Both trends are important contributions to the evolving section of the AP Human…