Science.gov

Sample records for requirements optical mounts

  1. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optical mounts SSDR 1.4.4

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.

    1996-10-06

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for NIF Beam Transport Optomechanical Subsystems. optomechanical Subsystems includes the mounts for the beam transport mirrors, LMl - LM8, the polarizer mount, and the spatial filter lens mounts.

  2. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  3. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  4. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  5. Advanced centering of mounted optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Christian; Winkelmann, Ralf; Klar, Rainer; Philippen, Peter; Garden, Ron; Pearlman, Sasha; Pearlman, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Camera objectives or laser focusing units consist of complex lens systems with multiple lenses. The optical performance of such complex lens systems is dependent on the correct positioning of lenses in the system. Deviations in location or angle within the system directly affect the achievable image quality. To optimize the achievable performance of lens systems, these errors can be corrected by machining the mount of the lens with respect to the optical axis. The Innolite GmbH and Opto Alignment Technology have developed a novel machine for such center turning operation. A confocal laser reflection measurement sensor determines the absolute position of the optical axis with reference to the spindle axis. As a strong advantage compared to autocollimator measurements the utilized Opto Alignment sensor is capable of performing centration and tilt measurements without changing objectives on any radius surface from 2 mm to infinity and lens diameters from 0.5 mm to 300 mm, including cylinder, aspheric, and parabolic surfaces. In addition, it performs significantly better on coated lenses. The optical axis is skewed and offset in reference to the spindle axis as determined by the measurement. Using the information about the mount and all reference surfaces, a machine program for an untrue turning process is calculated from this data in a fully automated manner. Since the optical axis is not collinear with the spindle axis, the diamond tool compensates for these linear and tilt deviations with small correction movements. This results in a simple machine setup where the control system works as an electronic alignment chuck. Remaining eccentricity of <1 μm and angular errors of < 10 sec are typical alignment results.

  6. Dual resolution, vacuum compatible optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael

    2011-10-04

    An optical mount for an optical element includes a mounting plate, a lever arm pivot coupled to mounting plate, and an adjustment plate. The optical mount also includes a flexure pivot mechanically coupling the adjustment plate to the mounting plate and a lever arm. The optical mount further includes a first adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a first contact point. A projection of a line from the first contact point to a pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a first predetermined distance. The optical mount additionally includes a second adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a second contact point. A projection of a line from the second contact point to the pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a second predetermined distance greater than the first predetermined distance.

  7. Optical Mounts for Cryogenic Beam Splitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudman, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded optical mounts maintain flatness and alinement of rigid, framed, or pellicle beam splitters over wide temperature range, despite differences in thermal expansion amoung materials. Mounts permit optical adjustments at ambient temperature even though optical system operated subsequently within few degrees of absolute zero. Mounts useful as holders for integrated-circuit master patterns, survey targets, vibrating membranes, noise- or pressure-sensing membranes, osmosis filters, and fuel-cell elements.

  8. Bonded mounts for small cryogenic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Fetterhoff, Ken A.; Myers, James R.; Wheelwright, Paul D.; Cunnington, George R.

    2000-11-01

    Adhesive bonded mounting of small optics for use at cryogenic temperatures provides improved heat transfer, low optical surface distortion, and reduced cost in comparison with conventional flexural mounts. A design methodology based on the thermo-elastic properties of the adhesive and its interaction with the mounted optic is presented. Key factors in the selection of the appropriate adhesive are high thermal conductivity, a low elastic modulus, a low glass-transition temperature, good adhesion characteristics to optic and substrate, and low outgassing. A design example of 17-mm diameter, 2-mm thick circular polycrystalline germanium window used at a temperature of below 100 K is discussed. During cooling at a rate of more than 3 K/sec the temperature at the center of the window mounted in this way lags behind the mount by no more than 20 K at any instant, and reaches equilibrium with the mount in about 50 sec. Maximum optical surface deformation of the mounted optic is less than 0.031 waves RMS differential (1 wave equals 633 nm) for a temperature change of 300 K to 102 K. Predicted peak tensile stress is less than 17 MPa. The adhesive bonded mount is also simple and economical in comparison with the complex flexural mounts often used for cryogenic optics.

  9. Mounting small optics for cryogenic space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Jacoby, Mike S.; Kvamme, E. Todd

    2011-09-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes numerous optical assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K and the optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the optical assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. With using examples from NIRCam, this paper covers techniques for mounting small mirrors and lenses for cryogenic space missions.

  10. The impact of human factors, crashworthiness and optical performance design requirements on helmet-mounted display development from the 1970s to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; McLean, William E.; Martin, John S.

    2015-05-01

    Driven by the operational needs of modern warfare, the helmet-mounted display (HMD) has matured from a revolutionary, but impractical, World War I era idea for an infantry marksman's helmet-mounted weapon delivery system to a sophisticated and ubiquitous display and targeting system that dominates current night warfighting operations. One of the most demanding applications for HMD designs has been in Army rotary-wing aviation, where HMDs offer greater direct access to visual information and increased situational awareness in an operational environment where information availability is critical on a second-to-second basis. However, over the past 40 years of extensive HMD development, a myriad of crashworthiness, optical, and human factors issues have both frustrated and challenged designers. While it may be difficult to attain a full consensus on which are the most important HMD design factors, certainly head-supported weight (HSW), exit pupil size, field-of-view, image resolution and physical eye relief have been among the most critical. A confounding factor has been the interrelationship between the many design issues, such as early attempts to use non-glass optical elements to lower HSW, but at the cost of image quality, and hence, pilot visual performance. This paper traces how the role of the demanding performance requirements placed on HMDs by the U.S. Army aviation community has impacted the progress of HMD designs towards the Holy Grail of HMD design: a wide field-of-view, high resolution, binocular, full-color, totally crashworthy system.

  11. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  12. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  13. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2010-01-20

    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 deg. C and +150 deg. C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  14. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  15. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  16. Semi-kinematic mount of the FIREBALL large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, C.; Grange, R.; Milliard, B.; Martin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Blanchard, P.; Deharveng, J.-M.; Evrard, J.; Martin, C.; McLean, R.; Schiminovich, D.

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the NASA CNES FIREBALL balloon borne experiment, we present the design of a semi-kinematic mount to hold the 1 meter class mirrors of this mission. To maintain these large optics in a reasonable mass and price budgets we choose thin ULE mirrors with a thickness over diameter ratio of 1/16. Such thin mirrors require a multi support mount to reduce self weight deflection. Classical multi support mount used for ground based telescope would not survive the level of shock observed in a balloon experiment either at parachute opening or landing. To firmly maintain these mirrors in several points without noticeably deforming them we investigated the design of a two stages semi-kinematic mount composed of 24 monopods. We present the detailed design of this innovative mirror mount, the finite element modeling with the deduced optical wavefront deformation. During the FIREBALL integration and flight campaign in July 2007 at CSBF, we confirmed the validity of the mechanical concept by obtaining an image quality well within the required specifications. Variants of this approach are potentially applicable to large thin mirrors on ground-based observatories.

  17. Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzle mounted optic for throat plane spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Duncan, D. B.; Madzsar, G.

    1991-06-01

    A program intended to develop a flight-capable nozzle mounted optic for monitoring emissions from metals entrained in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) flowfield is described. The optic will collect light emitted from metal atoms within the high-temperature, high-pressure SSME chamber and transfer the optical signal to a high-resolution spectrometer via a fiber-optic cable. The nozzle mounted optic makes it possible to conduct earth-to-orbit monitoring of flowfield emissions without requiring modifications to the SSME.

  18. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  19. Analysis of Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ryan F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested x-ray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  20. Merging parallel optics packaging and surface mount technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Volpert, Marion; Routin, Julien; Bernabé, Stéphane; Rossat, Cyrille; Tournaire, Myriam; Hamelin, Régis

    2008-02-01

    Optical links are well known to present significant advantages over electrical links for very high-speed data rate at 10Gpbs and above per channel. However, the transition towards optical interconnects solutions for short and very short reach applications requires the development of innovative packaging solutions that would deal with very high volume production capability and very low cost per unit. Moreover, the optoelectronic transceiver components must be able to move from the edge to anywhere on the printed circuit board, for instance close to integrated circuits with high speed IO. In this paper, we present an original packaging design to manufacture parallel optic transceivers that are surface mount devices. The package combines highly integrated Multi-Chip-Module on glass and usual IC ceramics packaging. The use of ceramic and the development of sealing technologies achieve hermetic requirements. Moreover, thanks to a chip scale package approach the final device exhibits a much minimized footprint. One of the main advantages of the package is its flexibility to be soldered or plugged anywhere on the printed circuit board as any other electronic device. As a demonstrator we present a 2 by 4 10Gbps transceiver operating at 850nm.

  1. Freeform correction polishing for optics with semi-kinematic mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    Several mounting configurations could be applied to opto-mechanical design for achieving high precise optical system. The retaining ring mounting is simple and cost effective. However, it would deform the optics due to its unpredictable over-constraint forces. The retaining ring can be modified to three small contact areas becoming a semi-kinematic mounting. The semi-kinematic mounting can give a fully constrained in lens assembly and avoid the unpredictable surface deformation. However, there would be still a deformation due to self-weight in large optics especially in vertical setup applications. The self-weight deformation with a semi-kinematic mounting is a stable, repeatable and predictable combination of power and trefoil aberrations. This predictable deformation can be pre-compensated onto the design surface and be corrected by using CNC polisher. Thus it is a freeform surface before mounting to the lens cell. In this study, the freeform correction polishing is demonstrated in a Φ150 lens with semi-kinematic mounting. The clear aperture of the lens is Φ143 mm. We utilize ANSYS simulation software to analyze the lens deformation due to selfweight deformation with semi-kinematic mounting. The simulation results of the self-weight deformation are compared with the measurement results of the assembled lens cell using QED aspheric stitching interferometer (ASI). Then, a freeform surface of a lens with semi-kinematic mounting due to self-weight deformation is verified. This deformation would be corrected by using QED Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF® ) Q-flex 300 polishing machine. The final surface form error of the assembled lens cell after MRF figuring is 0.042 λ in peak to valley (PV).

  2. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs. 2 figs.

  3. Design and analysis of a large-diameter precision optical mount for NFIRAOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Hill, Alexis

    2014-08-01

    This study describes the design evolution, finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental testing completed to develop the large optical mounts for the Near-Field IR Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), the facility Adaptive Optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The mount design incorporates a unique combination of bonded flexure-based linear actuators and a roller-chain radial support. Extensive FEA was completed to refine the design to ensure the final mount design will meet the required operational performance. Experimental work was conducted to ensure that the suitability of the bonded interface between the optic and the flexures and to verify that the high bond stiffness did not cause fracture of the glass during thermal cycling.

  4. System and method for reproducibly mounting an optical element

    DOEpatents

    Eisenbies, Stephen; Haney, Steven

    2005-05-31

    The present invention provides a two-piece apparatus for holding and aligning the MEMS deformable mirror. The two-piece apparatus comprises a holding plate for fixedly holding an adaptive optics element in an overall optical system and a base spatially fixed with respect to the optical system and adapted for mounting and containing the holding plate. The invention further relates to a means for configuring the holding plate through adjustments to each of a number of off-set pads touching each of three orthogonal plane surfaces on the base, wherein through the adjustments the orientation of the holding plate, and the adaptive optics element attached thereto, can be aligned with respect to the optical system with six degrees of freedom when aligning the plane surface of the optical element. The mounting system thus described also enables an operator to repeatedly remove and restore the adaptive element in the optical system without the need to realign the system once that element has been aligned.

  5. Mounting and Alignment of Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Kester, Thomas; Ramsey, Brian; Smithers, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for astronomy. The optics are full-cylinder mirror shells fabricated using electroformed-nickel replication off super-polished mandrels. For space-based applications where weight is at a premium, very-thin-walled, light-weight mirrors are required. Such shells have been fabricated at MSFC with greater than 15 arcsec resolution. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center to meet this challenge.

  6. Temporally-stable active precision mount for large optics.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Damm, Christoph; Lange, Nicolas; Kamm, Andreas; Mohaupt, Matthias; Brady, Aoife; Goy, Matthias; Leonhard, Nina; Eberhardt, Ramona; Zeitner, Uwe; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-06-13

    We present a temporally-stable active mount to compensate for manufacturing-induced deformations of reflective optical components. In this paper, we introduce the design of the active mount, and its evaluation results for two sample mirrors: a quarter mirror of 115 × 105 × 9 mm3, and a full mirror of 228 × 210 × 9 mm3. The quarter mirror with 20 actuators shows a best wavefront error rms of 10 nm. Its installation position depending deformations are addressed by long-time measurements over 14 weeks indicating no significance of the orientation. Size-induced differences of the mount are studied by a full mirror with 80 manual actuators arranged in the same actuator pattern as the quarter mirror. This sample shows a wavefront error rms of (27±2) nm over a measurement period of 46 days. We conclude that the developed mount is suitable to compensate for manufacturing-induced deformations of large reflective optics, and likely to be included in the overall systems alignment procedure. PMID:27410369

  7. Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakonjac, Ana; Roberts, Kris O.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-02-01

    We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap. A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03° and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

  8. Design and performance of an optical mount using cross-flexure pivots

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, W.J.

    1989-07-01

    The design of an optical mount using commercially available cross-flexure steel pivots is described. The pivots and their incorporation into a 5- /times/ 10-inch rectangular optical mount are illustrated. Test data on this mount show acceptable thermal stability and thermal hysteresis for use in a laboratory optical system. The design is easily scaled to other optic sizes. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Psychophysical Research in Development of a Fiber-optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Longridge, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) was conceived as an innovative solution to existing flight simulator display deficiencies. An initial (breadboard) version of the system was fabricated to permit experimentation which would help define design requirements for a more refined engineering prototype. A series of visual/human factors studies are being conducted at the USAF Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) Operations Training Division, Williams AFB, Arizona to determine the optimum fit of human observer operating characteristics and fiber optic helmet mounted display technology. Pilot performance within a variety of high resolution insert/binocular overlap combinations is being assessed in two classes of environment. The first two of four studies planned incorporate an air-to-air combat environment, whereas the second two studies will use a low level environment with air to ground weapons delivery.

  10. Mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in China's high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Xiong, Zhao; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    SG-III, a high-power laser facility of China, is constructed to produce 0.18MJ energy for physical experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Each laser beam requires the ability to align to a millimeter-sized target with a precision of 30 μm (RMS) and the single-beam energy will be up to 3.75 KJ. Arrayed along each beam-path, hundreds of optics must be positioned to stringent tolerances. Therefore, this paper introduces the approaches used by engineers to overcome the technical challenges on precise mounting, alignment and integration of large optics in china's high power laser facility.

  11. Optical waveguide technology and its application in head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Applying optical waveguide technology to head mounted display (HMD) solutions has the key goal of providing the user with improved tactical situational awareness by providing information and imagery in an easy to use form which also maintains compatibility with current night vision devices and also enables the integration of future night vision devices. The benefits of waveguide technology in HMDs have seen a number of alternative waveguide display technologies and configurations emerge for Head mounted Display applications. BAE System's presented one such technology in 2009 [1] and this is now in production for a range of Helmet Mounted Display products. This paper outlines the key design drivers for aviators Helmet Mounted Displays, provides an update of holographic Optical Waveguide Technology and its maturation into compact, lightweight Helmet Mounted Displays products for aviation and non-aviation applications. Waveguide displays have proved too be a radical enabling technology which allows higher performance display devices solutions to be created in a revolutionary way. It has also provided the user with see through daylight readable displays, offering the combination of very large eye box and excellent real world transmission in a compact format. Holographic Optical Waveguide is an optical technology which reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. BAE Systems has exploited this technology in the Q-SightTM family of scalable Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as it is required in a flexible, low-cost way The basic monocular Q-SightTM architecture has been extended to offer wide field of view, monochrome and full colour HMD solution for rotary wing, fast jet and solider system applications. In its basic form Q-SightTM now offers plug

  12. Optical waveguide circuit board with a surface-mounted optical receiver array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J. E.; Levesque, Harold; Savov, Emil; Horwitz, Fred; Booth, Bruce L.; Marchegiano, Joseph E.

    1994-03-01

    A photonic circuit board is fabricated for potential application to interchip and interboard parallel optical links. The board comprises photolithographically patterned polymer optical waveguides on a conventional glass-epoxy electrical circuit board and a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package that optically and electrically couples to an optoelectronic IC. The waveguide circuits include eight-channel arrays of straights, cross-throughs, curves, self- aligning interconnects to multi-fiber ribbon, and out-of-plane turning mirrors. A coherent, fused bundle of optical fibers couples light between 45-deg waveguide mirrors and a GaAs receiver array in the IC package. The fiber bundle is easily aligned to the mirrors and the receivers and is amenable to surface mounting and hermetic sealing. The waveguide-receiver- array board achieved error-free data rates up to 1.25 Gbits/s per channel, and modal noise was shown to be negligible.

  13. Daytime Polar Alignment of Telescope Mountings Using GPS and Internal Reference Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, R. R.; Scheld, D.; Stencel, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    A technique is presented for performing polar alignment of astronomical telescope mountings to high precision during daylight hours. This work originated in the requirement to erect a truck mounted astronomical telescope at multiple locations during the day in order to measure the atmospheric convective turbulence Fried Parameter r0 by tracking stars at various zenith angles. The custom equatorial mounting built for this project incorporates a surveyor's theodolite, which is used to establish an optical line of sight to the North Celestial Pole (NCP). The elevation angle of this line of sight is set directly by adjusting the theodolite tube elevation angle to that of the local geographic latitude obtained from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The theodolite is set into the azimuth of the Pole by observing an object on the horizon of known bearing angle or by observing the Sun=92s known azimuth at a specified time. Once the theodolite line of sight to the NCP is established, an optical target projector contained within and aligned with the polar axis provides an illuminated pattern, which is viewed by the theodolite. Subsequent adjustments of the elevation and azimuth of the polar axis bring the projected pattern onto the intersection of the crosshairs in the theodolite reticule, thereby bringing the polar axis into close coincidence with the NCP. Denver University astronomers are interested in this application for their proposed Fully Adaptive Segmented Telescope (FAST) instrument, a meter-class instrument which can be transported among high altitude sites (see www. adaptive-optics.com). Equinox Interscience (303-843-0313) can provide this daytime polar alignment capability to interested users for equatorial mountings.

  14. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Wu, Dengshan; Shi, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology and the promotion of many local wars in the world, altitude optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle is more widely applied in the airborne remote sensing, measurement and detection. In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 138.2 nm, which is under PV ≤1 4λ . The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  15. The Mount Wilson optical interferometer: The first automated instrument and the prospects for lunar interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Ken J.; Mozurkewich, D.; Simon, R. S.; Shao, Michael; Colavita, M.

    1992-01-01

    Before contemplating an optical interferometer on the Moon one must first review the accomplishments achieved by this technology in scientific applications for astronomy. This will be done by presenting the technical status of optical interferometry as achieved by the Mount Wilson Optical Interferometer. The further developments needed for a future lunar-based interferometer are discussed.

  16. Joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) helmet qualification testing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orf, Garry W.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) program will provide capability to cue high off-boresight (HOBS) weapons to the operator's line of sight and to confirm weapon sensor LOS for the US Air Force and US Navy (USN) aircrew. This capability will ensure the USAF and USN pilots a first shot opportunity. The JHMCS incorporates an ejection-compatible helmet-mounted display system that will be installed on F- 15, F-16, F/A-18, and F-22 aircraft. The JHMCS includes a flight helmet with display optics, miniature cathode ray tube, magnetic receiver unit, miniature camera, automatic brightness control sensor, and microcontroller. The flight helmet for JHMCS is based on the new lightweight HGU-55A/P. This paper describes the requirements for the helmet qualification tests including: windblast, ejection tower, hanging harness, centrifuge, mass properties, energy attenuation and penetration resistance, noise attenuation, visor characteristics, compatibility demonstration, sled/in- flight ejection, water survival, standard conditions and environment. The test objective, success criteria, equipment configuration, and data collection requirements for each test is discussed.

  17. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues. PMID:26698993

  18. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Haynes, David P. (Inventor); Jones, Howard C. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  19. Optical studies of meteors at Mount Hopkins Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weekes, T. C.; Williams, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    The 10-m optical reflector and an array of phototubes are used to extend the optical measurements beyond the present limit achieved by the Vidicon system. The first detection of optical meteors with M sub v = + 12 is reported. It is hoped that this system can be used to determine intermediate points in the meteor frequency mass curve for sporadic meteors and to study in detail the faint components of meteor showers. Preliminary observations made on three nights in September 1974 are presented.

  20. Side-mounted IR window aero-optic and aerothermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, John E.; Welch, Charles T.; Sutton, George W.

    1999-07-01

    Addition of a side mounted IR seeker, to an existing missile design, introduces new issues involving the aerodynamic flow over the optical window and its near field effect on the ability of the seeker to view the target. Image aberration, distortion and boresight shift vary according to flow conditions and the thermal state of the window system. A detailed analysis of the aerodynamic flow and its aero-optic effect for a side mounted IR window was performed to quantify target image degradation, window heating and bending, and window structural failure probability due to aerothermal and aero-optical effects.

  1. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  2. Embedded and surface-mounted fiber optic sensors for civil structural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Marazzi, Silvio; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    Civil structural monitoring by optical fiber sensors, require the development of reliable sensors that can be embedded or surface mounted in concrete, mortars, steel, timber and other construction materials as well as in rocks, soils and road pavements. These sensors should be rapid and simple to install in order to avoid any interference with the building site schedule and not to require specialized operators to accomplish the task. The sensors have to be rugged enough to withstand the harsh conditions typically found in civil engineering including, dust, moisture, shocks, EM disturbances and unskilled workman. It is also desirable that the instrumentation survives for tens of years in order to allow a constant monitoring of the structure aging. This contribution presents the results of a four-year effort to develop, test and industrially produce a palette of sensors responding to the above requirements and adapted to different applications and host materials. These sensors include a small version (length up to 2 m) adapted for embedding in mortars, grout and glues, an intermediate version of length between 20 cm and 6 m adapted to direct concrete embedding or surface installation and a long version adapted to measure large deformations (up to 2%) over length up to 30 m and especially adapted for geostructures monitoring.

  3. Analysis of Mount St. Helens ash from optical photoelectric photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, J. A.; Ackerman, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    The optical properties of suspended dust particles from the eruption of Mt. St. Helens on July 23, 1980 are investigated using photoelectric observations of standard stars obtained on the 0.76-m telescope at the University of Washington 48 hours after the eruption. Measurements were made with five broad-band filters centered at 3910, 5085, 5480, 6330, and 8050 A on stars of varying color and over a wide range of air masses. Anomalous extinction effects due to the volcanic ash were detected, and a significant change in the wavelength-dependent extinction parameter during the course of the observations was established by statistical analysis. Mean particle size (a) and column density (N) are estimated using the Mie theory, assuming a log-normal particle-size distribution: a = 0.18 micron throughout; N = 1.02 x 10 to the 9th/sq cm before 7:00 UT and 2.33 x 10 to the 9th/sq cm after 8:30 UT on July 25, 1980. The extinction is attributed to low-level, slowly migrating ash, possibly combined with products of gas-to-particle conversion and coagulation.

  4. A conceptual design for a Cassegrain-mounted high-resolution optical spectrograph for large-aperture telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steven; Burgh, Eric; Beasley, Matthew; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Jordan, Steven; Ebbets, Dennis; Lieber, Michael; deCino, James; Castilho, Bruno Vaz; Gneiding, Clemens; César de Oliveira, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We present a conceptual design for a high-resolution optical spectrograph appropriate for mounting at Cassegrain on a large aperture telescope. The design is based on our work for the Gemini High Resolution Optical Spectrograph (CUGHOS) project. Our design places the spectrograph at Cassegrain focus to maximize throughput and blue wavelength coverage, delivering R=40,000 resolving power over a continuous 320-1050 nm waveband with throughputs twice those of current instruments. The optical design uses a two-arm, cross-dispersed echelle format with each arm optimized to maximize efficiency. A fixed image slicer is used to minimize optics sizes. The principal challenge for the instrument design is to minimize flexure and degradation of the optical image. To ensure image stability, our opto-mechanical design combines a cost-effective, passively stable bench employing a honeycomb aluminum structure with active flexure control. The active flexure compensation consists of hexapod mounts for each focal plane with full 6-axis range of motion capability to correct for focus and beam displacement. We verified instrument performance using an integrated model that couples the optical and mechanical design to image performance. The full end-to-end modeling of the system under gravitational, thermal, and vibrational perturbations shows that deflections of the optical beam at the focal plane are <29 μm per exposure under the worst case scenario (<10 μm for most orientations), with final correction to 5 μm or better using open-loop active control to meet the stability requirement. The design elements and high fidelity modeling process are generally applicable to instruments requiring high stability under a varying gravity vector.

  5. Evacuated optical structure comprising optical bench mounted to sidewall of vacuum chamber in a manner which inhibits deflection and rotation of the optical bench

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, J.M.

    1994-04-19

    An improved evacuated optical structure is disclosed comprising an optical bench mounted in a vacuum vessel in a manner which inhibits transmission of movement of the vacuum vessel to the optical bench, yet provides a compact and economical structure. The vacuum vessel is mounted, through a sidewall thereof, to a support wall at four symmetrically positioned and spaced apart areas, each of which comprises a symmetrically positioned group of mounting structures passing through the sidewall of the vacuum vessel. The optical bench is pivotally secured to the vacuum vessel by four symmetrically spaced apart bolts and spherical bearings, each of which is centrally positioned within one of the four symmetrically positioned groups of vacuum vessel mounting structures. Cover plates and o-ring seals are further provided to seal the vacuum vessel mounting structures from the interior of the vacuum vessel, and venting bores are provided to vent trapped gases in the bores used to secure the cover plates and o-rings to the vacuum vessel. Provision for detecting leaks in the mounting structures from the rear surface of the vacuum vessel sidewall facing the support wall are also provided. Deflection to the optical bench within the vacuum vessel is further minimized by tuning the structure for a resonant frequency of at least 100 Hertz. 10 figures.

  6. Evacuated optical structure comprising optical bench mounted to sidewall of vacuum chamber in a manner which inhibits deflection and rotation of the optical bench

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Joel M.

    1994-01-01

    An improved evacuated optical structure is disclosed comprising an optical bench mounted in a vacuum vessel in a manner which inhibits transmission of movement of the vacuum vessel to the optical bench, yet provides a compact and economical structure. The vacuum vessel is mounted, through a sidewall thereof, to a support wall at four symmetrically positioned and spaced apart areas, each of which comprises a symmetrically positioned group of mounting structures passing through the sidewall of the vacuum vessel. The optical bench is pivotally secured to the vacuum vessel by four symmetrically spaced apart bolts and spherical bearings, each of which is centrally positioned within one of the four symmetrically positioned groups of vacuum vessel mounting structures. Cover plates and o-ring seals are further provided to seal the vacuum vessel mounting structures from the interior of the vacuum vessel, and venting bores are provided to vent trapped gases in the bores used to secure the cover plates and o-rings to the vacuum vessel. Provision for detecting leaks in the mounting structures from the rear surface of the vacuum vessel sidewall facing the support wall are also provided. Deflection to the optical bench within the vacuum vessel is further minimized by tuning the structure for a resonant frequency of at least 100 Hertz.

  7. NIF small mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T

    1999-07-01

    A number of small mirror mounts have been identified that meet the stringent stability, wave front, and cleanliness standards of the NIF. These requirements are similar to those required in other performance critical optical design applications. Future design teams would conserve time and effort if recognized standards were established for mirror mount design and performance characteristics. Standards for stability, physical features, wave front distortion, and cleanliness would simplify the qualification process considerably. At this point such standards are not difficult to define, as the technical support work has been performed repeatedly by mirror mount consumers and suppliers.

  8. The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally head up displays and helmet mounted displays use a conventional arrangement of complex lenses to generate a display for the pilot from an image source such as a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). These systems tend to be complex, comprising many components and they also add mass and adversely modify the centre of the gravity of the helmet. This has resulted in the development of the Holographic Optical Waveguide, a revolutionary new optical technology which dramatically reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. This is made possible by embedding within the substrate a specially designed hologram which has carefully tailored set of optical properties. The image (or light waves) is constrained to follow a path through the substrate. As these waves pass through the substrate the hologram is programmed to allow some energy to escape in a carefully controlled manner reforming the image that was injected into the substrate. At the same time the hologram design modifies the image geometry such that the user views it as a full size conformal image precisely overlaid on his outside world view. Furthermore this image is maintained over a very large exit-pupil giving the user great flexibility in the installation of the display onto a helmet. The image is formed conventionally from a reflective LCD illuminated with a high brightness LED. The Q-SightTM Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which exploits this concept is part of a modular-family of Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as required in a flexible, low-cost way. The basic monocular QSightTM architecture offers plug-and-play solutions into any cockpit with either Analog (stroke) or Digital Video Interface (DVI) connections. This offers a significant upgrade opportunity

  9. A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gühr, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We describe a flexible, simple to build, low-cost, and computer-controlled optical mirror actuator system, developed for undergraduate research laboratories. Geared motors for hobby robotics are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller in combination with an H bridge to finely position mirror mount actuators. We present a graphical user interface based on the Python script language. The price of the fully controlled actuator system is only a small fraction of the price of a commercial system. It can be quickly implemented due to the use of open-hardware electronics. We discuss the performance of the system and give an outlook for future expansions and use in advanced optical setups.

  10. Comparison of optical and video see-through, head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Jannick P.; Holloway, Richard L.; Fuchs, Henry

    1995-12-01

    One of the most promising and challenging future uses of head-mounted displays (HMDs) is in applications where virtual environments enhance rather than replace real environments. To obtain an enhanced view of the real environment, the user wears a see-through HMD to see 3D computer-generated objects superimposed on his/her real-world view. This see-through capability can be accomplished using either an optical or a video see-through HMD. We discuss the tradeoffs between optical and video see-through HMDs with respect to technological, perceptual, and human factors issues, and discuss our experience designing, building, using, and testing these HMDs.

  11. Self-normalized photoacoustic technique for thermo-optical characterization of samples mounted between transparent media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Díaz-Reyes, J.; Jaime-Fonseca, M. R.; Martínez-Pérez, L.; Pescador-Rojas, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A self-normalized photoacoustic technique for thermo-optical characterization of materials, mounted between transparent media, is presented. It involves a complex ratio of photoacoustic signals in transmission and front configurations, taking the modulation frequency as the only variable. The analytical solutions for the corresponding 1D heat diffusion problems are analyzed to provide suitable methodologies for measuring the optical absorption coefficients and thermal diffusivity of such samples. This methodology was tested by measuring the optical absorption coefficient, at 660 nm, of methylene blue solutions at various concentrations and the thermal diffusivity of a black drawing ink sample. In addition, an approximated range of optical absorption coefficients, where this photoacoustic methodology is adequate, was established.

  12. Optical design and cryogenic mounting of the optics for a pyramid waterfront sensor working in the near infrared wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizenberger, P.; Baumeister, H.; Büchler Costa, J.; Peter, D.

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the whole process of designing, manufacturing and assembling the optics for an infrared pyramid wavefront sensor, called PYRAMIR. This sensor is built to work with the adaptive optical system at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, which controls a 97 actuator deformable mirror. PYRAMIR is working in combination with an infrared science camera, which is used for observations. Since the wavefront sensor works in the near infrared (1.0 μm to 2.4 μm), the detector, the optics and all the mechanics are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. For this cryogenic condition, special care has to be taken for the optical design and the mounting of the lenses. We describe in detail the process from infrared optical design and cryo-mechanical engineering, to the final assembly of the opto-mechanical units and testing in the lab. Technical solutions are illustrated and the final performance is demonstrated.

  13. Simulation and flight trials of a simple helmet-mounted sight system incorporating an optical helmet tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Steven J.

    1999-07-01

    British Aerospace (BAe) have been involved in a number of Helmet Mounted Display programs over some twenty years. The continuing trials around the globe are indicative of the growing interest in Helmet Mounted Displays and recognition that today's Helmet Systems technology is becoming 'fit for purpose.' In 1997 BAe initiated a series of Simulation and Flight Trials of the latest Helmet System Technology for combat fixed wing aircraft. The focus of the R&D is to evaluate the Helmet System as an integrated part of the aircraft weapon system by establishing quantitative measures of operational performance. The comparison between different levels of sophistication of both aircraft integration and helmet capability in terms of the resultant operational performance will provide hard evidence to ensure that appropriate levels of Helmet System technology are matched to different platform capability. The basis of the 1997 trial was an assessment of the operational effectiveness of a simple Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) system in short range air-to-air combat applicable to high off-boresight missiles such as ASRAAM and was carried out in a BAe Hawk 200 against Hawk target aircraft. Although Helmet Mounted Sights have been flight-tested in the past, the available information has generally been limited to the integration aspects and a qualitative assessment of the technology and less attention was paid towards a quantification of the system operational effectiveness. The 1997 program produced a strong foundation for assessing the cost-benefit of various capabilities of Helmet System planned for subsequent trials. The Flight Trial aircraft incorporated the Pilkington Optronics-Kentron GuardianTM Helmet Mounted Sight System and of particular interest, the Helmet System included the latest Optical Helmet Tracking System technology. The trials included an assessment of the Helmet System technology and specifically, the integration aspects and performance of the Optical Helmet

  14. Corneal-Imaging Calibration for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Plopski, Alexander; Itoh, Yuta; Nitschke, Christian; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Klinker, Gudrun; Takemura, Haruo

    2015-04-01

    In recent years optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs) have moved from conceptual research to a market of mass-produced devices with new models and applications being released continuously. It remains challenging to deploy augmented reality (AR) applications that require consistent spatial visualization. Examples include maintenance, training and medical tasks, as the view of the attached scene camera is shifted from the user's view. A calibration step can compute the relationship between the HMD-screen and the user's eye to align the digital content. However, this alignment is only viable as long as the display does not move, an assumption that rarely holds for an extended period of time. As a consequence, continuous recalibration is necessary. Manual calibration methods are tedious and rarely support practical applications. Existing automated methods do not account for user-specific parameters and are error prone. We propose the combination of a pre-calibrated display with a per-frame estimation of the user's cornea position to estimate the individual eye center and continuously recalibrate the system. With this, we also obtain the gaze direction, which allows for instantaneous uncalibrated eye gaze tracking, without the need for additional hardware and complex illumination. Contrary to existing methods, we use simple image processing and do not rely on iris tracking, which is typically noisy and can be ambiguous. Evaluation with simulated and real data shows that our approach achieves a more accurate and stable eye pose estimation, which results in an improved and practical calibration with a largely improved distribution of projection error. PMID:26357098

  15. Mount St. Helens dust veil observed at Boulder, Colorado by optical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerfald, G.

    1982-01-01

    Following the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, photometric and photograhic observations were taken at Boulder, Colorado, to record the optical effects of volcanic dust atmospherically transported to this area. The instruments used included a narrow-beamwidth solar photometer which recorded solar irradiance in eight narrow-bandwidth channels in the wavelength range 0.3 to 1.1 microns, a solar aureole photometer, and two time-lapse camera systems. The eight-channel solar photometer data have been analyzed to obtain the wavelength dependence of optical thickness. At the longer wavelengths, on May 20, 1980, the optical thickness was as much as nine times that expected from a 'clean atmosphere' model. During the first several days following the eruption, the dust veil sometimes exhibited sufficient spatial structure that its motion can be seen on the time-lapse films. The results of analysis to date are presented and the plans for additional analysis are outlined.

  16. System requirements for head down and helmet mounted displays in the military avionics environment

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.F.; Kalmanash, M.; Sethna, V.

    1996-12-31

    The introduction of flat panel display technologies into the military avionics cockpit is a challenging proposition, due to the very difficult system level requirements which must be met. These relate to environmental extremes (temperature and vibrational), sever ambient lighting conditions (10,000 fL to nighttime viewing), night vision system compatibility, and wide viewing angle. At the same time, the display system must be packaged in minimal space and use minimal power. The authors will present details on the display system requirements for both head down and helmet mounted systems, as well as information on how these challenges may be overcome.

  17. Overview of benefits, challenges, and requirements of wheeled-vehicle mounted infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John Lester; Clayton, Paul; Olsson, Stefan F.

    2013-06-01

    Requirements for vehicle mounted infrared sensors, especially as imagers evolve to high definition (HD) format will be detailed and analyzed. Lessons learned from integrations of infrared sensors on armored vehicles, unarmored military vehicles and commercial automobiles will be discussed. Comparisons between sensors for driving and those for situation awareness, targeting and other functions will be presented. Conclusions will be drawn regarding future applications and installations. New business requirements for more advanced digital image processing algorithms in the sensor system will be discussed. Examples of these are smarter contrast/brightness adjustments algorithms, detail enhancement, intelligent blending (IR-Vis) modes, and augmented reality.

  18. A compact eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Gao, Chunyu

    2012-03-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical HMD does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. There is ample evidence that a fully-integrated ETHMD system offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. For instance eyetracking capability in HMDs adds a very valuable tool and objective metric for scientists to quantitatively assess user interaction with 3D environments and investigate the effectiveness of various 3D visualization technologies for various specific tasks including training, education, and augmented cognition tasks. In this paper, we present an innovative optical approach to the design of an optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology and an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the display optics with the eye imaging optics. A preliminary design of the described ET-HMD system will be presented.

  19. Design of a flexure mount for optics in dynamic and cryogenic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, Lloyd Wayne

    1989-01-01

    The design of a flexure mount for a mirror operating in a cryogenic environment is presented. This structure represents a design effort recently submitted to NASA Ames for the support of the primary mirror of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The support structure must passively accommodate the differential thermal contraction between the glass mirror and the aluminium structure of the telescope during cryogenic cooldown. Further, it must support the one meter diameter, 116 kilogram (258 pound) primary mirror during a severe launch to orbit without exceeding the micro-yield of the material anywhere in the flexure mount. Procedures used to establish the maximum allowable radial stiffness of the flexural mount, based on the finite element program NASTRAN and the optical program FRINGE, are discussed. Early design concepts were evaluated using a parametric design program, and the development of that program is presented. Dynamic loading analyses performed with NASTRAN are discussed. Methods of combining modal responses resulting from a displacement response spectrum analysis are discussed, and a combination scheme called MRSS, modified root of sum of squares, is presented. Model combination schemes using MRSS, SRSS, and ABS are compared to the results of the modal frequency response analysis performed with NASTRAN.

  20. Optical manufacturing requirements for an AVLIS plant

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.

    1997-07-14

    A uranium enrichment plant utilizing Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology is currently being planned. Deployment of the Plant will require tens of thousands of commercial and custom optical components and subsystems. The Plant optical system will be expected to perform at a high level of optical efficiency and reliability in a high-average-power-laser production environment. During construction, demand for this large number of optics must be coordinated with the manufacturing capacity of the optical industry. The general requirements and approach to ensure supply of optical components is described. Dynamic planning and a closely coupled relationship with the optics industry will be required to control cost, schedule, and quality.

  1. Design and structural/optical analysis of a kinematic mount for the testing of silicon carbide mirrors at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Christopher; Frohlich, Charles; Shirgur, Badri; Mink, Ronald G.

    2004-10-01

    A kinematic mount has been designed to support two Silicon Carbide-based spherical mirrors during cryogenic testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The mirrors are flight representative test mirrors for the NIRSpec Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), provided by Galileo Avionica of Florence, Italy. One is cold-pressed Silicon Carbide (SiC) and one is Carbon reinforced Silicon Carbide (C/SiC); both are coated in a SiC-based chemical vapor deposit. Each is lightweighted and has an integral mount on the rear surface. The integral mount is used as an interface to the kinematic mount, which is designed to support the mirrors during cryogenic testing while minimizing distortions induced by CTE mismatch among the materials. Additionally, an alternative "simply supported" mount is used to hold the mirrors around the outer edge of the optical surface. This eliminates the bending of the integral mount under the weight of the mirror and evaluates the effectiveness of the kinematic mount. The mirrors were analyzed for optical performance during testing from room temperature to 20K using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with MSC/NASTRAN 2001. Predicted surface figure error (SFE) based on the removal of bias, tilt, and power was calculated using an in-house Matlab script for spherical mirrors. SFE was verified using the SigFit optical post-processing program to provide Zernike polynomial input for analysis with the Zemax optical software. The results show that the kinematic mount induces minimal figure error on the optical surface.

  2. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements. PMID:25882923

  3. Optical see-through head-mounted display with occlusion capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunyu; Lin, Yuxiang; Hua, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Lack of mutual occlusion capability between computer-rendered and real objects is one of fundamental problems for most existing optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). Without the proper occlusion management, the virtual view through an OST-HMD appears "ghost-like", floating in the real world. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the eyepiece and see-through relay optics to achieve an occlusion-capable OST-HMD system with a very compelling form factor and high optical performances. The proposed display system was based on emerging freeform optical design technologies and was designed for highly efficient liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type spatial light modulator (SLM) and bright Organic LED (OLED) microdisplay. The proposed display technology was capable of working in both indoor and outdoor environments. Our current design offered a 1280x1024 color resolution based on 0.8" microdisplay and SLM. The MTF values for the majority of the fields at the cutoff frequency of 40lps/mm, which is determined by the pixel size of the microdisplay, are better than 15%. The design achieved a diagonal FOV of 40 degrees, 31.7 degrees horizontally and 25.6 degrees vertically, an exit pupil diameter of 8mm (non-vignetted), and an eye clearance of 18mm. The optics weights about 20 grams per eye. Our proposed occlusion capable OST-HMD system can easily find myriads of applications in various military and commercial sectors such as military training, gaming and entertainment.

  4. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  5. Mounting for fabrication, metrology, and assembly of full-shell grazing-incidence optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Smith, W. S.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-07-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on thin, full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  6. Design and validation of the mounting structure for BETTII balloon-based telescope with thin-walled optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen; Dow, Tom; Garrard, Ken; Sohn, Alex; Fixsen, Dale; Rinehart, Stephen; Mentzell, Eric; Veach, Todd; Rizzo, Maxime; Dhabal, Arnab

    2016-04-01

    The NASA Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) system is designed to study the infrared emissions from star formation and active galactic nuclei through a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer located on a balloon at an altitude of 37 km. The BETTII external optics include a pair of identical beam-reducing, four-mirror telescopes, each with a 522-mm aperture, nonrotationally symmetric primary mirror. These telescopes were designed and assembled at the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Consortium and are composed entirely of thin-walled aluminum components. The mounting structure is designed to be light weight and stiff to reduce thermal equilibration time in the rarified air at the edge of space and to maintain robust alignment of the optical elements. The mounts also prevent deformation of the large optical elements via custom-built kinematic Kelvin couplings and fixed-load clamps; the maximum form error of the optical surfaces are 300 nm RMS. This work details the design of the thin mirrors and mounting structure as well as validation of the mount assembly process, mount stiffness, and the kinematic couplings.

  7. Spherical mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  8. Eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display as an AAC device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu; Qin, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical headmounted display (HMD) does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. An HMD with fullyintegrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art ET-HMD technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display, and better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the see-through view. We will demonstrate the application of the technology as an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) device.

  9. Characterization of optical turbulence at the solar observatory at the Mount Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 is regarded as one of the chief causes of image degradation of ground-based astronomical telescopes operating in visible or infrared wavebands. Especially, it affects the attainable spatial resolution. Therefore since the middle of September 2012 the optical turbulence has been monitored between two German solar telescopes at the Observatory in Tenerife /Canary Islands /Spain. It comprises the solar telescope GREGOR and the vacuum tower telescope VTT mounted on two 30 m high towers. Between the two towers at the level of the telescopes, Cn2 was measured using a Laser-Scintillometer SLS40 (Scintec, Rottenburg, Germany). The horizontal distance of the measurement path was 75 m. The first results of the measurements starting from the 15th September 2012 up to the end of December 2012 are presented and analyzed using simultaneous measured meteorological data of wind, temperature and humidity. Daily and seasonal variations are shown and discussed.

  10. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-06-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  11. Astronaut operations requirements document for the White Light Coronagraph experiment s-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Information necessary for successful performance of the observer's function in the White Light Coronagraph portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments is presented. The pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the S-052 experiment are described. A discussion of the scientific objectives of the experiment and a description of the hardware are provided.

  12. Long-term and seasonal variability of the aerosol optical depth at Mount Kasprowy Wierch (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of long-term observations (1964-2003) of direct solar radiation, to determine aerosol optical depth (AOD), made with a Linke-Feussner actinometer at the Tatra Mountain Meteorological Observatory on Mount Kasprowy Wierch (1991 m above sea level, 49.233°N, 19.982°E). To this end, broadband direct solar flux (0.29-2.9 µm) and wideband solar radiation measured with OG530 and RG630 filters are used to estimate the broadband and wideband (0.53-0.63 µm) AOD. The inversion algorithm used is based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission) radiative transfer model applied to estimate direct flux for aerosol-free atmosphere. Total water vapor content, which accounts for the largest extinction of clear-sky direct flux, was obtained by radio sounding from the Poprad-Ganovce station (33 km from Mount Kasprowy Wierch) and from water vapor pressure measurements at the Observatory. The almost 900 clear-sky observations, performed close to noon time, found a significant long-term reduction of AOD. AOD decadal trends were -0.006 (-8 ± 4% [2σ]) with a 95% confidence interval of ± 0.003 and -0.014 (-13 ± 4% [2σ]) with a 95% confidence interval of ± 0.004 for broadband and wideband, respectively. Similar trends, but for years with negligible contamination of volcanic aerosol, are -0.012 (-16 ± 6% [2σ]) and -0.018 (-17 ± 6% [2σ]) with a 95% confidence interval of ± 0.003 and ± 0.004. However, positive AOD trends (from 0 to 0.04 per decade) were found between 1964 and 1983 and negative AOD trends (from -0.016 to -0.035 per decade) were found between 1984 and 2003. Changes of the AOD trends between both periods are associated with global dimming and brightening phenomenon, which took place in the second half of the twentieth century and at the beginning of the 21st century. The long-term mean broadband and wideband AOD were 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.02, respectively. Both quantities show a significant annual cycle, with

  13. Evaluation of contrast loss introduced by scattering effects at optical mounts: field dependence in the IR region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, C.; Blanco, P.; Arasa, J.; Cifuentes, A. F.

    2005-09-01

    The reduction of contrast due to scattering by optical mounts and buffers was studied, especially for the systems that must work in the infrared region. When a particular optical system is optimized [1,2] up a specified field value the scattering effects introduced by optical mounts and buffers must be taken into account. The scattering effect plays an important role in the IR region where the influence of off-field effects is important. The contrast reduction due to scattering effects is not uniform with the object position, in other words the influence of scattering effects has field dependence. The scattering model used is based on the classical point of view of the scattering electromagnetic wave and it is adapted for optical evaluation using ray-tracing techniques. In order to test the validity of our scattering model we calculated the distribution of illumination produced for a laser beam in a plane-parallel plate with perfect scattering properties at the back surface. The comparison between the results obtained form our model and the analytical models permit us to extrapolate the use of our model in systems that involve more complex geometry. The model was applied in a four element IR objective with germanium and silicon lenses. In all the situations the contrast as a function of the field value was calculated, with and without the scattering effects. By contemplating the contrast loss, a better choice of materials, geometries and buffer positions can be made possible.

  14. Design and assessment of a wide FOV and high-resolution optical tiled head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Song, Weitao; Cheng, Dewen; Deng, Zhaoyang; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-10-01

    It has always been a challenge to break the resolution/field-of-view (FOV) invariant to design a large FOV and high-resolution optical system, especially for a head-mounted display (HMD) system. In this study, a tiled HMD using two compact rotationally symmetrical eyepieces was designed and developed. Some issues on exit pupil and eye relief were analyzed in detail and taken into consideration during the design procedure. The overall optical system is compact with high performance. The system volume is smaller than 30  mm×35  mm×30  mm. Based on two 0.61 in. microdisplay devices, the overall tiled system demonstrates an FOV of 66°(H)×32°(V) with a 7.5 mm exit pupil diameter and a 15.7 mm eye relief. PMID:26479645

  15. Design, tolerance, and fabrication of an optical see-through head-mounted display with free-form surface elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Hua, Hong; Jin, Guofan

    2013-03-01

    Free-form surfaces (FFSs) provide more freedom to design an optical system with fewer elements and hence to reduce the size and weight of the overall system than rotationally symmetric optical surfaces. In this paper, an optical see-through (OST), head-mounted display (HMD) consisting of a free-form, wedge-shaped prism and a free-form lens is designed and fabricated through the injection molding method. The free-form prism for the projection system is designed with a field-of-view (FOV) of 36°; the free-form lens is cemented to the prism for the see-through system to achieve a FOV of 50°. The free-form prism and lens are expanded at the edge area during the design stage in order to reduce the effects of surface deformation in the working area in molding fabrication process and to improve ergonomic fit with the head of a user. The tolerance analyzes considering the mold design for the free-form optical systems are carried out using the Monte Carlo method. The FFS optical elements are successfully fabricated and the system performance is carefully examined. The results indicate that the performance of the OST-HMD is sufficient for both entertainment and scientific applications. PMID:23458822

  16. Effects of Configuration of Optical Combiner on Near-Field Depth Perception in Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hua, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The ray-shift phenomenon means the apparent distance shift in the display image plane between virtual and physical objects. It is caused by the difference in the refraction of virtual display and see-through optical paths derived from optical combiners that are necessary to provide a see-through capability in optical see-through head-mounted displays. In this work, through a human-subject experiment, we investigated the effects of ray-shift phenomenon induced by the optical combiner on depth perception for near-field distances (40 cm-100 cm). In our experiment, we considered three different configurations of optical combiner: horizontal-tilt and vertical-tilt configurations (using plate beamsplitters horizontally and vertically tilted by 45°, respectively), and non-tilt configuration (using rectangular solid waveguides). Participants' depth perception errors in these configurations were compared with those in an ordinary condition (i.e., the condition where physical objects are directly shown without the displays) and theoretically estimated ones. According to the experimental results, the measured percentage depth perception errors were similar to the theoretically estimated ones, where the amount of estimated percentage depth errors was greater than 0.3%. Furthermore, the participants showed significantly larger depth perception errors in the horizontal-tilt configuration than in an ordinary condition, while no large errors were found in the vertical-tilt configuration. In the non-tilt configuration, the results were dependent on the thickness of optical combiner and target distance. PMID:26780807

  17. 3D optical see-through head-mounted display based augmented reality system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue; Xiang, Li

    2015-07-01

    The combination of health and entertainment becomes possible due to the development of wearable augmented reality equipment and corresponding application software. In this paper, we implemented a fast calibration extended from SPAAM for an optical see-through head-mounted display (OSTHMD) which was made in our lab. During the calibration, the tracking and recognition techniques upon natural targets were used, and the spatial corresponding points had been set in dispersed and well-distributed positions. We evaluated the precision of this calibration, in which the view angle ranged from 0 degree to 70 degrees. Relying on the results above, we calculated the position of human eyes relative to the world coordinate system and rendered 3D objects in real time with arbitrary complexity on OSTHMD, which accurately matched the real world. Finally, we gave the degree of satisfaction about our device in the combination of entertainment and prevention of cervical vertebra diseases through user feedbacks.

  18. Chronic monitoring of cortical hemodynamics in behaving, freely-moving rats using a miniaturized head-mounted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Koletar, Margaret; Ringuette, Dene; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Growing interest within the neurophysiology community in assessing healthy and pathological brain activity in animals that are awake and freely-behaving has triggered the need for optical systems that are suitable for such longitudinal studies. In this work we report label-free multi-modal imaging of cortical hemodynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake, freely-behaving rats, using a novel head-mounted miniature optical microscope. The microscope employs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at three distinct wavelengths (680 nm, 795 nm, and 850 nm) to provide measurements of four hemodynamic markers: blood flow speeds, HbO, HbR, and total Hb concentration, across a > 2 mm field of view. Blood flow speeds are extracted using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), while oxygenation measurements are performed using Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging (IOSI). Longitudinal measurements on the same animal are made possible over the course of > 6 weeks using a chronic window that is surgically implanted into the skull. We use the device to examine changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in superficial cortical blood vessels and tissue in response to drug-induced absence-like seizures, correlating motor behavior with changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain.

  19. An intelligent system and a relational data base for codifying helmet-mounted display symbology design requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Steven P.; Hamilton, David B.

    1994-06-01

    To employ the most readily comprehensible presentation methods and symbology with helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), it is critical to identify the information elements needed to perform each pilot function and to analytically determine the attributes of these elements. The extensive analyses of mission requirements currently performed for pilot-vehicle interface design can be aided and improved by the new capabilities of intelligent systems and relational databases. An intelligent system, named ACIDTEST, has been developed specifically for organizing and applying rules to identify the best display modalities, locations, and formats. The primary objectives of the ACIDTEST system are to provide rapid accessibility to pertinent display research data, to integrate guidelines from many disciplines and identify conflicts among these guidelines, to force a consistent display approach among the design team members, and to serve as an 'audit trail' of design decisions and justifications. A powerful relational database called TAWL ORDIR has been developed to document information requirements and attributes for use by ACIDTEST as well as to greatly augment the applicability of mission analysis data. TAWL ORDIR can be used to rapidly reorganize mission analysis data components for study, perform commonality analyses for groups of tasks, determine the information content requirement for tailored display modes, and identify symbology integration opportunities.

  20. OPTICAL POLARIMETRY OF THE BLAZAR CGRaBS J0211+1051 FROM MOUNT ABU INFRARED OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Baliyan, Kiran S.; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Joshi, Umesh C.

    2012-02-10

    We report the detection of high polarization in the first detailed optical linear polarization measurements on the BL Lac object CGRaBS J0211+1051, which flared in {gamma}-rays on 2011 January 23 as reported by Fermi. The observations were made during 2011 January 30-February 3 using a photo-polarimeter mounted at the 1.2 m telescope of Mount Abu Infrared Observatory. CGRaBS J0211+1051 was detected to have a {approx}21.05% {+-} 0.41% degree of polarization (DP) with a steady position angle (P.A.) at 43 Degree-Sign on 2011 January 30. During January 31 and February 1, while polarization shows some variation, the P.A. remained steady through the night. Several polarization flashes occurred during February 2 and 3 resulting in changes in the DP by more than 4% at short timescales ({approx}17-45 minutes). The intra-night variability shown by the source appears to be related to the turbulence in the relativistic jet. A mild wavelength dependence of polarization is not ruled out during the nights of February 2 and 3. The source exhibited significant inter-night variations in the DP (changing by about 2%-9%) and P.A. (changing by 2 Degree-Sign -22 Degree-Sign ) during the five nights of observations. A sudden change in the P.A. accompanied by a rise in the DP could be indicative of the fresh injection of plasma in the jet. The detection of a high and variable DP suggests that the source is a low-energy peaked blazar.

  1. Scaling laws for light weight optics, studies of light weight mirrors mounting and dynamic mirror stress, and light weight mirror and mount designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Richard, Ralph M.; Valente, Tina M.; Cho, Myung K.

    1990-01-01

    Scaling laws for light-weight optical systems are examined. A cubic relationship between mirror diameter and weight has been suggested and used by many designers of optical systems as the best description for all light-weight mirrors. A survey of existing light-weight systems in the open literature was made to clarify this issue. Fifty existing optical systems were surveyed with all varieties of light-weight mirrors including glass and beryllium structured mirrors, contoured mirrors, and very thin solid mirrors. These mirrors were then categorized and weight to diameter ratio was plotted to find a best curve for each case. A best fitting curve program tests nineteen different equations and ranks a goodness-to-fit for each of these equations. The resulting relationship found for each light-weight mirror category helps to quantify light-weight optical systems and methods of fabrication and provides comparisons between mirror types.

  2. Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display Direct Linear Transformation Calibration Robustness in the Presence of User Alignment Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axholt, Magnus; Skoglund, Martin; Peterson, Stephen D.; Cooper, Matthew D.; Schoen, Thomas B.; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technique by which computer generated signals synthesize impressions that are made to coexist with the surrounding real world as perceived by the user. Human smell, taste, touch and hearing can all be augmented, but most commonly AR refers to the human vision being overlaid with information otherwise not readily available to the user. A correct calibration is important on an application level, ensuring that e.g. data labels are presented at correct locations, but also on a system level to enable display techniques such as stereoscopy to function properly [SOURCE]. Thus, vital to AR, calibration methodology is an important research area. While great achievements already have been made, there are some properties in current calibration methods for augmenting vision which do not translate from its traditional use in automated cameras calibration to its use with a human operator. This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a standard direct linear transformation camera calibration to investigate how user introduced head orientation noise affects the parameter estimation during a calibration procedure of an optical see-through head mounted display.

  3. Subjective Evaluation of a Semi-Automatic Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display Calibration Technique.

    PubMed

    Moser, Kenneth; Itoh, Yuta; Oshima, Kohei; Swan, J Edward; Klinker, Gudrun; Sandor, Christian

    2015-04-01

    With the growing availability of optical see-through (OST) head-mounted displays (HMDs) there is a present need for robust, uncomplicated, and automatic calibration methods suited for non-expert users. This work presents the results of a user study which both objectively and subjectively examines registration accuracy produced by three OST HMD calibration methods: (1) SPAAM, (2) Degraded SPAAM, and (3) Recycled INDICA, a recently developed semi-automatic calibration method. Accuracy metrics used for evaluation include subject provided quality values and error between perceived and absolute registration coordinates. Our results show all three calibration methods produce very accurate registration in the horizontal direction but caused subjects to perceive the distance of virtual objects to be closer than intended. Surprisingly, the semi-automatic calibration method produced more accurate registration vertically and in perceived object distance overall. User assessed quality values were also the highest for Recycled INDICA, particularly when objects were shown at distance. The results of this study confirm that Recycled INDICA is capable of producing equal or superior on-screen registration compared to common OST HMD calibration methods. We also identify a potential hazard in using reprojection error as a quantitative analysis technique to predict registration accuracy. We conclude with discussing the further need for examining INDICA calibration in binocular HMD systems, and the present possibility for creation of a closed-loop continuous calibration method for OST Augmented Reality. PMID:26357099

  4. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  5. Design of infrared astronomical satellite /IRAS/ primary mirror mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreibman, M.; Young, P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an operational mount to rigidly secure the primary mirror to its baseplate without the introduction of figure error always proves to be a major task on diffraction limited optical systems. A summary of the design of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) primary mirror mount is given. The mirror was designed to be alligned and tested at room temperature and operated in a zero 'g' field at temperatures of 2K. To minimize overstressing, a stiffness requirement of greater than 150 Hz was required for cold launch and room temperature vibration acceptance testing. Additional isolation was required to minimize strains, introduced via the mounting base, due to thermal and mechanical distortions.

  6. Full-disk magnetograms obtained with a Na magneto-optical filter at the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Garneau, Glenn; Misch, Tony; Progovac, Dusan; Shieber, Tom; Tomczyk, Steve; Ulrich, Roger K.

    1988-01-01

    The first full-disk magnetograms to be obtained with the Na magneto-optical filter (MOF) which is located at the 60 foot solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory are presented. This MOF was employed as a longitudinal magnetograph on June 18, 19, and July 1, 1987. On those three days the MOF was combined with a large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) virtual phase change coupled device camera and a high-speed data acquisition system. The combined system was used to record both line-of-sight magnetograms and Dopplergrams which covered the entire visible solar hemisphere. The pixel size of these magnetograms and Dopplergrams was 2.3 arcseconds. On each of the three days a time series of nine pairs of magnetograms and Dopplergrams was obtained at the rate of one pair every two minutes. On the same three day longitudinal magnetograms have one arcsecond pixels were obtained with the vacuum telescope at Kitt Peak. The MOF and vacuum tower magnetograms were compared at both the JPL Multi-Mission Image Processing Laboratory and at USC and have found the two sets of images to be well correlated both in spatial distribution and strength of the measured magnetic field. The simultaneously-obtained MOF Dopplergrams to remove the crosstalk which was present between the Doppler and Zeeman shifts of the NaD lines from the magnetograms from all three days and will also describe recent improvements to the system which allowed the obtaining of full-disk magnetograms as rapidly as one every 25 seconds.

  7. Optimization of surface-mount-device light-emitting diode packaging: investigation of effects of component optical properties on light extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwao, Tomoaki; Hiura, Mayu; Lim, Yee Yan; Bahadori, Alireza; Ikeda, Kenji; Deguchi, Mikio

    2016-02-01

    An investigation of the effects of the optical properties of surface-mount-device (SMD) light-emitting diode (LED) (side-view and top-view LEDs) packaging (PKG) components on the light extraction efficiency ηPKG using ray-tracing simulations is presented. In particular, it is found that the optical properties of the PKG resin and the lead-frame (L/F) silver-plating significantly affect ηPKG. Thus, the effects of the surface reflection methods of these components are investigated in order to optimize the optical design of the LED PKG. It is shown that there exists peak extraction efficiency for each PKG, and the cavity angle formed by the cavity wall is important to the optical design. In addition, the effect of phosphor present in the mold resin is examined using a Mie scattering simulation. Finally, an SMD LED PKG optical design method is proposed on the basis of the simulation results.

  8. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  9. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  10. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  11. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  12. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  13. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  14. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  15. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  16. Achieving high levels of color uniformity and optical efficiency for a wedge-shaped waveguide head-mounted display using a photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam

    2014-04-01

    We developed a head-mounted display (HMD) that achieved high levels of color uniformity and optical efficiency. The full-color holographic volume grating (HVG) attached on the specially designed wedge-shaped waveguide HMD system provided a 17° horizontal field of view (FOV). Theoretical analyses showed that the proposed waveguide resolved the problems of thickness and limited FOV. In this system, the HVG was recorded using a special sequential recording process on single photopolymer unit with 633, 532, and 473 nm wavelengths. The results confirm that the designed and fabricated waveguide can be employed in future commercial HMS. PMID:24787179

  17. Perspective on precision machining, polishing, and optical requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.M.

    1981-08-18

    While precision machining has been applied to the manufacture of optical components for a considerable period, the process has, in general, had its thinking restricted to producing only the accurate shapes required. The purpose of this paper is to show how optical components must be considered from an optical (functional) point of view and that the manufacturing process must be selected on that basis. To fill out this perspective, simplistic examples of how optical components are specified with respect to form and finish are given, a comparison between optical polishing and precision machining is made, and some thoughts on which technique should be selected for a specific application are presented. A short discussion of future trends related to accuracy, materials, and tools is included.

  18. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  19. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  20. Disruptive advancement in precision lens mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève

    2015-09-01

    Threaded rings are used to fix lenses in a large portion of opto-mechanical assemblies. This is the case for the low cost drop-in approach in which the lenses are dropped into cavities cut into a barrel and clamped with threaded rings. The walls of a cavity are generally used to constrain the lateral and axial position of the lens within the cavity. In general, the drop-in approach is low cost but imposes fundamental limitations especially on the optical performances. On the other hand, active alignment methods provide a high level of centering accuracy but increase the cost of the optical assembly. This paper first presents a review of the most common lens mounting techniques used to secure and center lenses in optical systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each mounting technique are discussed in terms of precision and cost. Then, the different contributors which affect the centering of a lens when using the drop-in approach, such as the threaded ring, friction, and manufacturing errors, are detailed. Finally, a patent pending lens mounting technique developed at INO that alleviates the drawbacks of the drop-in and the active alignment approaches is introduced. This innovative auto-centering method requires a very low assembly time, does not need tight manufacturing tolerances and offers a very high level of centering accuracy, usually less than 5 μm. Centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are also presented.

  1. Dispersion Compensation Requirements for Optical CDMA Using WDM Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hendandez, V J; Feng, H X C; Heritage, J P; Lennon, W J

    2001-12-10

    Optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) uses very narrow transmission pulses and is thus susceptible to fiber optic link impairments. When the O-CDMA is implemented as wavelength/time (W/T) matrices which use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) sources such as multi-frequency laser transmitters, the susceptibility may be higher due to: (a) the large bandwidth utilized and (b) the requirement that the various wavelength components of the codes be synchronized at the point of modulation and encoding as well as after (optical) correlation. A computer simulation based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, developed to study optical networking on the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON), was modified to characterize the impairments on the propagation and decoding of W/T matrix codes over a link of the NTON. Three critical link impairments were identified by the simulation: group velocity dispersion (GVD); the flatness of the optical amplifier gain; and the slope of the GVD. Subsequently, experiments were carried out on the NTON link to verify and refine the simulations as well as to suggest improvements in the W/T matrix signal processing design. The NTON link measurements quantified the O-CDMA dispersion compensation requirements. Dispersion compensation management is essential to assure the performance of W/T matrix codes.

  2. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  3. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  4. Single-mode fibre optic Bragg grating sensing on the base of birefringence in surface-mounting and embedding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Koo, Bon-Yong

    2007-02-01

    Birefringence effects in the two typical installation techniques of fibre Bragg grating(FBG) sensor are investigated: surface-mounting and embedding configurations. When the FBG is bonded on a host material, the sensitivity loss in ultrasonic measurement caused by glue-induced low-birefringence is first reported. Next, the transverse stress-induced high birefringence when the FBG is embedded into a fabric composite laminate is measured as 3.6×10 -4. Such induced-birefringence effects are experimentally analysed in mechanical applications. Simple and effective solutions with respect to the respective installation configurations for removing the birefringence effect are proposed and the obtained zero-birefringence cases are compared with the birefringent cases.

  5. Silicon Carbide Mounts for Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Etalon mounts for tunable Fabry- Perot interferometers can now be fabricated from reaction-bonded silicon carbide structural components. These mounts are rigid, lightweight, and thermally stable. The fabrication of these mounts involves the exploitation of post-casting capabilities that (1) enable creation of monolithic structures having reduced (in comparison with prior such structures) degrees of material inhomogeneity and (2) reduce the need for fastening hardware and accommodations. Such silicon carbide mounts could be used to make lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometers or could be modified for use as general lightweight optical mounts. Heretofore, tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer structures, including mounting hardware, have been made from the low-thermal-expansion material Invar (a nickel/iron alloy) in order to obtain the thermal stability required for spectroscopic applications for which such interferometers are typically designed. However, the high mass density of Invar structures is disadvantageous in applications in which there are requirements to minimize mass. Silicon carbide etalon mounts have been incorporated into a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer of a prior design that originally called for Invar structural components. The strength, thermal stability, and survivability of the interferometer as thus modified are similar to those of the interferometer as originally designed, but the mass of the modified interferometer is significantly less than the mass of the original version.

  6. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  7. Automatic calibration of an optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality applications in computer-assisted interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Hummel, Johann; Seemann, Rudolf; Bergmann, Helmar

    2004-05-01

    We are developing an optical see through head mounted display in which preoperative planning data provided by a computer aided surgery system is overlaid to the optical image of the patient. In order to cope with head movements of the surgeon the device has to be calibrated for a wide zoom and focus range. For such a calibration accurate and robust localization of a huge amount of calibration points is of utmost importance. Because of the negligible radial distortion of the optics in our device, we were able to use projective invariants for stable detection of the calibration fiducials on a planar grid. The pattern at the planar grid was designed using a different cross ratio for four consecutive points in x respectively y direction. For automated image processing we put a CCD camera behind the eye piece of the device. The resulting image was thresholded and segmented, after deleting the artefacts a Sobel edge detector was applied and the image was Hough transformed to detect the x and y axes. Then the world coordinates of fiducial points on the grid could be detected. A series of six camera calibrations with two zoom settings was done. The mean values of the errors for the two calibrations were 0.08 mm respectively 0.3 mm.

  8. Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Hua, Hong; Talha, M M

    2009-05-10

    It has been a challenge to design an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD) that has a wide field of view (FOV) and low f-number (f/#) while maintaining a compact, lightweight, and nonintrusive form factor. In this paper, we present an OST-HMD design using a wedge-shaped freeform prism cemented with a freeform lens. The prism, consisting of three freeform surfaces (FFSs), serves as the near-eye viewing optics that magnifies the image displayed through a microdisplay, and the freeform lens is an auxiliary element attached to the prism in order to maintain a nondistorted see-through view of a real-world scene. Both the freeform prism and the lens utilize plastic materials to achieve light weight. The overall dimension of the optical system per eye is no larger than 25 mm by 22 mm by 12 mm, and the weight is 8 g. Based on a 0.61 in. microdisplay, our system demonstrates a diagonal FOV of 53.5 degrees and an f/# of 1.875, with an 8 mm exit pupil diameter and an 18.25 mm eye relief. PMID:19424386

  9. Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part I): Stability requirements

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Adie, Steven G.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    As imaging systems become more advanced and acquire data at faster rates, increasingly dynamic samples can be imaged without concern of motion artifacts. For optical interferometric techniques such as optical coherence tomography, it often follows that initially, only amplitude-based data are utilized due to unstable or unreliable phase measurements. As systems progress, stable phase maps can also be acquired, enabling more advanced, phase-dependent post-processing techniques. Here we report an investigation of the stability requirements for a class of phase-dependent post-processing techniques – numerical defocus and aberration correction with further extensions to techniques such as Doppler, phase-variance, and optical coherence elastography. Mathematical analyses and numerical simulations over a variety of instabilities are supported by experimental investigations. PMID:25321004

  10. System requirements for a deep-space optical transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Alexander, James W.; Hemmati, Hamid; Monacos, Steve; Yan, Tsun-Yee; Lee, Sukhan; Lesh, James R.; Zingales, Sam

    1999-04-01

    The functional requirements and design drivers for an Optical Communications subsystem are assessed based on the system requirements imposed by a proposed Europa Orbiter mission. Unlike near-Earth optical communications systems, deep space missions impose a unique set of requirements that drives the subsystem design. Significant challenges on laser efficiency, thermal control, pointing and tracking, stray/scatter light control, and subsystem mass/power need to be addressed for a successful subsystem implementation. The baseline design concept for a lasercom subsystem for the Europa orbiter mission employs a 30-cm diameter, diffraction-limited telescope, and a diode pumped solid state laser operating at 1.06 micrometer to support downlink communications. The baseline pointing and tracking approach is to perform Earth Image Tracking with occasional calibration using the Earth- moon or Earth-star images. At high phase angles when the Earth image does not provide sufficient brightness for high rate tracking, inertial sensors (accelerometers) measurements are used to propagate the knowledge of the optical boresight at a higher rate in between celestial reference updates. Additionally, uplink beacon tracking will be used to support pointing at short range and near solar opposition when Earth image alone does not provide sufficient signal power for tracking.

  11. Effect of cyclone Nilofar on mesospheric wave dynamics as inferred from optical nightglow observations from Mount Abu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2016-06-01

    Mesospheric nightglow intensities at three emissions (O2(0-1), OH(6-2) bands, and Na(589.3 nm)) from a low-latitude location, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6°N, 72.8°E), in India, showed similar wave features on 26 October 2014 with a common periodicity of around 4 h. A convective activity due to the cyclone Nilofar, which had developed in the Arabian Sea during 25-31 October 2014, was found to be the source as this too showed a gravity wave period coherent with that of the mesospheric emissions on the 26th. The periodicities at the source region were obtained using outgoing longwave radiation fluxes (derived from Kalpana-1 satellite) which were used as a tracer of tropospheric activity. Cyclone Nilofar had two centers located at a distance of 1103 and 1665 km from the observational station. From the phase offset in time between residuals of O2 and OH emission intensities and the observed common periodicity the vertical phase speed and wavelength have been found to be 1.13 ms-1 and 16.47 km. From the wavelet analyses it is seen that the travel time of the wave from the convection region to O2 emission height was around 8.1 h. From these observations the horizontal phase speed and wavelength of the wave in the mesosphere were calculated to be 37.8 ms-1 and 553 km. These results thus provide not only unambiguous evidence on the vertical coupling of atmospheres engendered by the tropical cyclone Nilofar but also the characteristics of waves that exist during such cyclonic events.

  12. Non-invasive timing of gas gun-launched projectiles using external surface-mounted optical fiber-Bragg grating strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Peter M.; Marshall, Bruce R.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-invasive detection methods for tracking gun-launched projectiles are important not only for assessment of gun performance but are also essential for timing a variety of diagnostics, for example, to investigate plate-impact events for shock compression experiments. Measurement of the time of passage of a projectile moving inside of the gun barrel can be achieved by detection of the transient hoop strain induced in the barrel of a light-gas gun by the passage of the projectile using external, barrel surface-mounted optical fiber-Bragg grating strain gauges. Optical fiber-Bragg gratings have been implemented and their response characterized on single-stage and two-stage light gas guns routinely used for dynamic experimentation at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two approaches, using either broadband or narrowband illumination, were used to monitor changes in the Bragg wavelength of the fiber-Bragg gratings. The second approach, using narrowband laser illumination, offered the highest sensitivity. The feasibility of using these techniques to generate early, pre-event signals useful for triggering high-latency diagnostics was demonstrated.

  13. Non-invasive timing of gas gun-launched projectiles using external surface-mounted optical fiber-Bragg grating strain gauges.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Peter M; Marshall, Bruce R; Stevens, Gerald D; Dattelbaum, Dana M

    2013-03-01

    Non-invasive detection methods for tracking gun-launched projectiles are important not only for assessment of gun performance but are also essential for timing a variety of diagnostics, for example, to investigate plate-impact events for shock compression experiments. Measurement of the time of passage of a projectile moving inside of the gun barrel can be achieved by detection of the transient hoop strain induced in the barrel of a light-gas gun by the passage of the projectile using external, barrel surface-mounted optical fiber-Bragg grating strain gauges. Optical fiber-Bragg gratings have been implemented and their response characterized on single-stage and two-stage light gas guns routinely used for dynamic experimentation at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two approaches, using either broadband or narrowband illumination, were used to monitor changes in the Bragg wavelength of the fiber-Bragg gratings. The second approach, using narrowband laser illumination, offered the highest sensitivity. The feasibility of using these techniques to generate early, pre-event signals useful for triggering high-latency diagnostics was demonstrated. PMID:23556841

  14. The National Ignition Facility Wavefront Requirements and Optical Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W; Whitman, P A; Henesian, M

    2004-01-05

    With the first four of its eventual 192 beams now executing shots, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is already the world's largest and most energetic laser. The optical system performance requirements that are in place for NIF are derived from the goals of the missions it is designed to serve. These missions include inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and the study of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. These mission requirements have led to a design strategy for achieving high quality focusable energy and power from the laser and to specifications on optics that are important for an ICF laser. The design of NIF utilizes a multipass architecture with a single large amplifier type that provides high gain, high extraction efficiency and high packing density. We have taken a systems engineering approach to the practical implementation of this design that specifies the wavefront parameters of individual optics in order to achieve the desired cumulative performance of the laser beamline. This presentation provides a detailed look at the causes and effects of performance degradation in large laser systems and how NIF has been designed to overcome these effects. We will also present results of spot size performance measurements that have validated many of the early design decisions that have been incorporated in the NIF laser architecture.

  15. The National Ignition Facility Wavefront Requirements and Optical Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Whitman, P K; Henesian, M A; Stowers, I F; Honig, J

    2004-06-03

    With the first four of its eventual 192 beams now executing shots and generating more than 100 kilojoules of laser energy at its primary wavelength of 1.06 {micro}m, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is already the world's largest and most energetic laser. The optical system performance requirements that are in place for NIF are derived from the goals of the missions it is designed to serve. These missions include inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and the study of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. These mission requirements have led to a design strategy for achieving high quality focusable energy and power from the laser and to specifications on optics that are important for an ICF laser. The design of NIF utilizes a multipass architecture with a single large amplifier type that provides high gain, high extraction efficiency and high packing density. We have taken a systems engineering approach to the practical implementation of this design that specifies the wavefront parameters of individual optics in order to achieve the desired cumulative performance of the laser beamline. This presentation provides a detailed look at the causes and effects of performance degradation in large laser systems and how NIF has been designed to overcome these effects. We will also present results of spot size performance measurements that have validated many of the early design decisions that have been incorporated in the NIF laser architecture.

  16. Ground based in situ measurements of arctic cloud microphysical and optical properties at Mount Zeppelin (Ny-Alesund Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, Gwennolé; Jourdan, Olivier; Olofson, Frans; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Dupuy, Régis; Bernard, Christophe; Tunved, Peter; Ancellet, Gérard; Law, Kathy; Wobrock, Wolfram; Shcherbakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The high sensitivity of the polar regions to climate perturbation, due to complex feedback mechanisms existing in this region, was shown by many studies (Solomon et al., 2007; Verlinde et al., 2007; IPCC, 2007). In particular, climate simulations suggest that cloud feedback plays an important role in the arctic warming (Vavrus 2004; Hassol, 2005). Moreover, the high seasonal variability of arctic aerosol properties (Engwall et al., 2008; Tunveld et al., 2013) is expected to significantly impact the cloud properties during the winter-summer transition. Field measurements are needed for improved understanding and representation of cloud-aerosol interactions in climate models. Within the CLIMSLIP project (CLimate IMpacts of Short-LIved Pollutants and methane in the arctic), a two months (March-April 2012) ground-based cloud measurement campaign was performed at Mt Zeppelin station, Ny-Alesund, Svalbard. The experimental set-up comprised a wide variety of instruments. A CPI (Cloud Particle Imager) was used for the microphysical and morphological characterization of ice particles. Measurements of sized-resolved liquid cloud parameters were performed by the FSSP-100 (Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe). The Nevzorov Probe measured the bulk properties (LWC and IWC) of clouds. The Polar Nephelometer (PN) was used to assess the single scattering properties of an ensemble of cloud particles. This cloud instrumentation combined with the aerosol properties (size distribution and total concentration) continuously measured at the station allowed us to study the variability of the microphysical and optical properties of low level Mixed Phase Clouds (MPC) as well as the aerosol-cloud interaction in the Arctic. Typical properties of MPC, snow precipitation and blowing snow will be presented. First results suggest that liquid water is ubiquitous in arctic low level clouds. Precipitations are characterized by large (typically 1 mm sized) stellar and pristine shape particles

  17. Non-RF wireless helmet-mounted display and two-way audio connectivity using covert free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, M.; Volfson, L.

    2011-06-01

    Providing the warfighter with Head or Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) while in tracked vehicles provides a means to visually maintain access to systems information while in a high vibration environment. The high vibration and unique environment of military tracked and turreted vehicles impact the ability to distinctly see certain information on an HMD, especially small font size or graphics and information that requires long fixation (staring), rather than a brief or peripheral glance. The military and commercial use of HMDs was compiled from market research, market trends, and user feedback. Lessons learned from previous military and commercial use of HMD products were derived to determine the feasibility of HMDs use in the high vibration and the unique environments of tracked vehicles. The results are summarized into factors that determine HMD features which must be specified for successful implementation.

  18. A hybrid simulated method for analyzing the optical efficiency of a head-mounted display with a quasi-crystal OLED panel.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kao-Der; Li, Chang-Yi; Pan, Jui-Wen; Cheng, Kuei-Yuan

    2014-03-10

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a quasi-crystal (QC) structure are analyzed and applied in a head-mounted display (HMD) system in this study. We adopt a hybrid simulated method to evaluate the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and far-field pattern in the air, and study the relationship between them. The simulation results show that OLEDs implanted with the QC structure can provide a collimated far-field pattern to increase the brightness. Using this 10-fold QC arrangement the maxima LEE of the OLEDs can be increased by 1.20 times. Compared with conventional OLEDs, the viewing angle of the OLED panel decreases from 120 degrees to 26 degrees with an improvement in the optical efficiency of the HMD system by 2.66 times. Moreover, the normalized on-axis intensity in the pupil of the eyepiece can be enlarged up to 3.95 times which suggests that the OLED panel can save 74.68% energy while achieving the same on-axis intensity as conventional OLEDs. PMID:24922267

  19. Launch-rated kinematic mirror mount with six-degree-of-freedom adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Kevin A.; Hurley, Barbara N.; Brindos, Raymond R.; Wong, James

    1999-09-01

    A kinematic, fully adjustable, six degree-of-freedom mirror mount has been developed for a space-based optical system. The optics vary in size from five inches to 10-inches and weigh up to 1.75 Kg. Many of the optics require multiple degrees-of-freedom for alignment and all elements need to be held to micron tolerances during orbit. The mount design described herein provides three-axis linear motions of at least three millimeters and multiple degrees of tilt. Each mount weighs approximately the same as its optic and exhibits gravity deflections less than .0002 radian. Natural frequencies for even the largest mirror mounts in the system are greater than 100 Hz. A unique feature of the mount design is the ability to easily adjust the mirror from behind without the need for complex jigs or tooling. The mirror mount is entirely self contained and is mechanically locked after final adjustments are made. A motion algorithm based on hexapod simulator control laws has been adopted to calculate the leg adjustments required to perform the mirror motions of tip, tilt, yaw, focus, and the two lateral shifts.

  20. Design of bipod flexure mounts for the IRIS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingrod, Isaac; Chou, Catherine Y.; Holmes, Buck; Hom, Craig; Irwin, James Wes; Lindstrom, Obert; Lopez, Frank; Stubbs, David M.; Wüelser, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a NASA SMall Explorer (SMEX) mission launched onboard a Pegasus™ booster on June 27, 2013. The spacecraft and instrument were designed and built at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. The primary mission goal is to learn how the solar atmosphere is energized. IRIS will obtain high-resolution UV spectra and images in space (0.4 arcsec) and time (1s), focusing on the chromosphere and transition region of our sun, which is a complex interface region between the photosphere and corona. The IRIS instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope to feed a dual spectrograph and slit-jaw imager, which operate in the 133-141 nm and 278-283 nm wavelengths, respectively. Within the spectrograph there are sixteen optics, each requiring subtle mounting features to meet exacting surface figure and stability requirements. This paper covers the opto-mechanical design for the most challenging optic mounts, which include the Collimator, UV Fold Mirrors, and UV Gratings. Although all mounts are unique in size and shape, the fundamental design remains the same. The mounts are highly kinematic, thermally matched, and independent of friction. Their development will be described in detail, starting with the driving requirements and an explanation of the underlying design philosophy.

  1. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  2. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  3. Solderability of surface mount devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Nanette S.

    1993-06-01

    As electronic products become much smaller, a limiting factor in the reduction of product size has been the size of the electronic components which make up the product. The leads of the current electronic components are inserted onto a printed circuit board through holes. Due to the use of wire leads, it becomes more difficult to decrease the size of the components. A new method was created to mount components directly to the surface of the printed circuit board. This new technique is surface mount technology. A concern over the use of this is experienced by the military. Since the leads are not inserted through the board and crimped before soldering as conventional components are mounted, there is some regard as to whether the components can be mounted securely to the board. Due to the high forces that many munitions experience when dispensed, it is imperative that the electronic components be soldered to the circuits boards so they will not slip out of place or fall from the board. The military also requires many munitions to lie dormant in storage warehouses for up to 20 years. When the munition is needed, it must perform reliably. Little work has been done to study the effects of this long-term storage on these surface mount devices, particularly on the ability of different soldering techniques used to attach surface mount components to printed circuit boards to withstand damaging effects of long-term storage.

  4. Magnetic core mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  5. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

  6. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  7. Holographic center high-mounted stoplight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald T.

    1991-07-01

    The holographic center high mounted stoplight achieves the required performance of a conventional center high mounted stoplight, but without the obstruction to the driver's view through the rear window. A lamp located in the roof illuminates a transmission image hologram mounted on the inner surface of the automobile rear window. The hologram strongly diffracts the incident light rearward but is transparent to the driver looking in his rearview mirror.

  8. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  9. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  10. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  11. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  12. Flexible pivot mount eliminates friction and hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highman, C. O.

    1970-01-01

    Flexible steel pivot mount, suspended by flat vertical beryllium copper springs, is capable of rotation, free of hysteresis and starting friction. Mount requires no lubrication, is made in varying sizes, and is driven with either dc torque motor or mechanical linkage.

  13. Liner mounting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  18. Helmet-Mounted Visual Display For Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Helmet-mounted visual display system provides pilot with broad range of visual information for flight simulation. Offers nearly unlimited field of regard. Optical fibers transmit wide-angle images in response to motions of head. Two "pancake" lenses mounted on lightweight helmet. Cable of optical fibers carries images to each lens. "Light-valve" projectors deliver computer-generated binocular images to cables.

  19. Optical terminal requirements for aeronautical multi-hop networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karras, Kimon; Marinos, Dimitris; Kouros, Pavlos

    2008-08-01

    High speed free space optical data links are currently finding limited use in military aircraft; however the technology is slowly starting to diffuse to civilian applications, where they could be used to provide a high bandwidth connection. However there are several issues that have to be resolved before the technology is ready for deployment. An important part of these are physical layer issues which deal with the ability to transmit and receive the optical signal reliably, as well as mechanical issues which focus on the construction of high performance, small and lightweight terminals for the optical transceiver. The later in conjunction with the cost of such a terminal create a significant limitation on the number of such equipment that any aircraft might carry on board. This paper attempts to evaluate how various such parameters affect the capability of an aircraft to take part in and help form a mesh network. The study was conducted by modeling the aircraft into a custom built SystemC based simulator tool and evaluating the connectivity achieved for varying several parameters, such as the pointing and acquisition time of the terminal and the number of terminals on board.

  20. Development and manufacture of visor for helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David H.; McNelly, Gregg; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing design and process development for the Visor for the JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System) are discussed. The JHMCS system is a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system currently flying on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18 aircraft. The Visor manufacturing processes are essential to both system performance and economy. The Visor functions both as the system optical combiner and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The Visor material is optical polycarbonate. For a military HMD system, the mechanical and environmental properties of the Visor are as necessary as the optical properties. The visor must meet stringent dimensional requirements to assure adequate system optical performance. Injection molding can provide dimensional fidelity to the requirements, if done properly. Concurrent design of the visor and the tool (i.e., the injection mold) is essential. The concurrent design necessarily considers manufacturing operations and the use environment of the Visor. Computer modeling of the molding process is a necessary input to the mold design. With proper attention to product design and tool development, it is possible to improve upon published standard dimensional tolerances for molded polycarbonate articles.

  1. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mountings to provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting...

  2. Space Flight Requirements for Fiber Optic Components: Qualification Testing and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the qualification testing requirements for Fiber Optic Components used during space flight. Since most components for space flight fiber optic components are now commercial of the shelf (COTS) products, and the changes at Goddard Space Flight Center, such as short term projects, and low budgets and other changes, have made full qualification of Fiber Optic Components not only too expensive also impossible. This presentation reviews the environmental parameters, the testing and or testing requirements of some optical components on board some NASA satellites.

  3. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  4. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  5. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  6. The correct lens mount lightweighting design and thermal stress OPD analysis in Cassegrain telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2013-09-01

    This study is trying to evaluate different lens barrel material, caused lens stress OPD (Optical Path Different) in different temperature condition. The Cassegrain telescope's correct lens assembly are including as correct lens, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel and retainer. The lens barrel initial design is made by invar, but system mass limit is need to lightweighting to meet requirement. Therefore, the lens barrel material is tried to replace to lower density material, such as aluminum and titanium alloy. Meanwhile, the aluminum or titanium alloy material properties CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) are larger then invar. Thus, the high CTE material will introduce larger thermal stress into the optical system in different temperature condition. This article is analysis the correct lens assembly thermal stress and optical performance in different lens mount material. From above conditions, using FEM (Finite Element Method) and optical software, simulation and optimization the lens mount to achieve system mass requirement.

  7. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  8. Quaternary glaciation of Mount Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Robinson, Ruth; Benn, Douglas I.; Finkel, Robert C.; Davis, Nicole K.; Yi, Chaolu; Putkonen, Jaakko; Li, Dewen; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of the Rongbuk valley on the northern slopes of Mount Everest is examined using field mapping, geomorphic and sedimentological methods, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating. Six major sets of moraines are present representing significant glacier advances or still-stands. These date to >330 ka (Tingri moraine), >41 ka (Dzakar moraine), 24-27 ka (Jilong moraine), 14-17 ka (Rongbuk moraine), 8-2 ka (Samdupo moraines) and ˜1.6 ka (Xarlungnama moraine), and each is assigned to a distinct glacial stage named after the moraine. The Samdupo glacial stage is subdivided into Samdupo I (6.8-7.7 ka) and Samdupo II (˜2.4 ka). Comparison with OSL and TCN defined ages on moraines on the southern slopes of Mount Everest in the Khumbu Himal show that glaciations across the Everest massif were broadly synchronous. However, unlike the Khumbu Himal, no early Holocene glacier advance is recognized in the Rongbuk valley. This suggests that the Khumbu Himal may have received increased monsoon precipitation in the early Holocene to help increase positive glacier mass balances, while the Rongbuk valley was too sheltered to receive monsoon moisture during this time and glaciers could not advance. Comparison of equilibrium-line altitude depressions for glacial stages across Mount Everest reveals asymmetric patterns of glacier retreat that likely reflects greater glacier sensitivity to climate change on the northern slopes, possibly due to precipitation starvation.

  9. Structural considerations in designing magnetorheological fluid mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Ciocanel, Constantin; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2010-04-01

    Modern vehicles have been increasingly equipped with advanced technologies such as hybrid and cylinder-on-demand to enhance fuel efficiency. These technologies also come with vibration problems due to the switching between the power sources or the variation of the number of active cylinders. To mitigate these vibrations, a large variety of vibration isolators have been proposed, ranging from passive to active isolators. Semi-active mounts are often preferred to other solutions because of their overall low power requirement in operation as well as relatively simpler configurations. Among the semi-active categories, the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) mounts have been proven to be a viable solution for modern vehicle vibration isolation. These mounts can change their stiffness and damping characteristic without involving moving parts, by controlling the yield stress of the MRF housed inside the mount by means of magnetic field. This study looked into several innovative designs for MRF mounts. The characteristics of the mount depend significantly on the compliances of the rubber, the number and arrangement of the fluid chambers and the number of flow passages connecting the chambers. These parameters provide the designers with various options to design the mounts to function in various conditions and over a wide range of frequencies. Different values of the aforementioned parameters were selected to form specific designs with certain characteristics. Mathematical models have been developed for each design and MATLAB/Simulink was used to simulate the response of each mount to certain excitations. As the hydraulic and magnetorheological (MR) effects are dominant in the mount, the elastomer behavior is considered linear. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each design, based on the simulated response, is presented. The outcomes of this study can be a useful reference for MRF mount designers and leads to the development of a general MRF mount design

  10. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  11. Optical Property Requirements for Glasses, Ceramics and Plastics in Spacecraft Window Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary draft of a standard published by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) that is intended to provide uniform window optical design requirements in support of the development of human-rated spaceflight hardware. The material covered in this standard is based on data from extensive testing by the Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, and compiled into requirements format by the NASA JSC Structural Engineering Division. At the time of this initial document release, a broader technical community has not reviewed this standard. The technical content of this standard is primarily based on the Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Window Optical Properties Requirements, CxP 72407, Baseline. Unlike other optical requirements documents available for human rated spacecraft, this document includes requirements that ensure functionality for windows that contain glass/ceramic and/or plastic window substrate materials. These requirements were derived by measuring the optical properties of fused silica and aluminosilicate glass window assemblies and ensuring that the performance of any window assembly that includes a plastic pane or panes will meet the performance level of the all-glass assemblies. The resulting requirements are based upon the performance and parameter metrology testing of a variety of materials, including glass, transparent ceramics, acrylics, and polycarbonates. In general, these requirements are minimum specifications for each optical parameter in order to achieve the function specified for each functional category, A through D. Because acrylic materials perform at a higher level than polycarbonates in the optics regime, and CxP/Orion is planning to use acrylic in the Orion spacecraft, these requirements are based heavily on metrology from that material. As a result, two of the current Category D requirements for plastics are cited in

  12. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  13. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  14. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  15. How to meet intersatellite links mission requirements by an adequate optical terminal design?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchmann, O.; Planche, G.

    1991-06-01

    The SILEX system involves a large set of advanced techniques and technologies which need to be merged and confronted. A macroscopic approach makes it possible to consider an optical terminal, with reference to common space fields of activities as a combination of a communication payload, an attitude and orbit control system, an optical instrument, and an on-board data handling system. It requires great technical expertise in areas commonly mastered in these techniques, namely, highly sensitive detectors such as coupled charge detector matrices, avalanche photodiodes, accurate and/or high bandwidth pointing and steering mechanisms, high optical quality mirrors and optical coatings, and accurate thermal control. Basic system and engineering tasks are to be mastered to combine them in an optimal way. This calls, among other things, for requirements analysis to derive the main design drivers and specific constraints with respect to each technique involved, and sizing and configuration of the system.

  16. Optical Riblet Sensor: Beam Parameter Requirements for the Probing Laser Source

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Juliane; Hochheim, Sven; Brüning, Hauke; Brune, Kai; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    Beam parameters of a probing laser source in an optical riblet sensor are studied by considering the high demands on a sensors’ precision and reliability for the determination of deviations of the geometrical shape of a riblet. Mandatory requirements, such as minimum intensity and light polarization, are obtained by means of detailed inspection of the optical response of the riblet using ray and wave optics; the impact of wavelength is studied. Novel measures for analyzing the riblet shape without the necessity of a measurement with a reference sample are derived; reference values for an ideal riblet structure obtained with the optical riblet sensor are given. The application of a low-cost, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser pointer sufficient to serve as a reliable laser source in an appropriate optical riblet sensor is discussed. PMID:27043567

  17. Optical Riblet Sensor: Beam Parameter Requirements for the Probing Laser Source.

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, Juliane; Hochheim, Sven; Brüning, Hauke; Brune, Kai; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    Beam parameters of a probing laser source in an optical riblet sensor are studied by considering the high demands on a sensors' precision and reliability for the determination of deviations of the geometrical shape of a riblet. Mandatory requirements, such as minimum intensity and light polarization, are obtained by means of detailed inspection of the optical response of the riblet using ray and wave optics; the impact of wavelength is studied. Novel measures for analyzing the riblet shape without the necessity of a measurement with a reference sample are derived; reference values for an ideal riblet structure obtained with the optical riblet sensor are given. The application of a low-cost, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO₄ laser pointer sufficient to serve as a reliable laser source in an appropriate optical riblet sensor is discussed. PMID:27043567

  18. Transducer-Mounting Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.

    1990-01-01

    Transducer-mounting fixture holds transducer securely against stud. Projects only slightly beyond stud after installation. Flanged transducer fits into fixture when hinged halves open. When halves reclosed, fixture tightened onto threaded stud until stud makes contact with transducer. Knurled area on fixture aids in tightening fixture on stud.

  19. MountPointAttributes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-06-16

    MountPointAttributes is a software component that provides client code with a technique to raise the local namespace of a file to a global namespace. Its abstractions and mechanisms allow the client code to gather global properties of a file and to use them in devising an effective storage access strategy on this file.

  20. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  1. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibañez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad; Willmeroth, Klaus; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chih-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wei, Ta-Shun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lancaster, Katy; Lo, Kwok Yung; Martin, Robert N.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Bob

    2009-04-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components—the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform—and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the deformations in the inner part of the platform are less than 120 μm rms. This is negligible for optical pointing corrections, radio alignment, and radio phase errors for the currently operational seven-element compact configuration. The optical pointing error in azimuth and elevation is successively reduced by a series of corrections to about 0farcm 4 rms which meets our goal for the seven-element target specifications.

  2. Lens-mount stability trade-off: a survey exemplified for DUV wafer inspection objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazzam, Achmed; Erbe, Torsten; Fahr, Stephan; Werschnik, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The position stability of optical elements is an essential part of the tolerance budget of an optical system because its compensation would require an alignment step after the lens has left the factory. In order to achieve a given built performance the stability error contribution needs to be known and accounted for. Given a high-end lens touching the edge of technology not knowing, under- or overestimating this contribution becomes a serious cost and risk factor. If overestimated the remaining parts of the budget need to be tighter. If underestimated the total project might fail. For many mounting principles the stability benchmark is based on previous systems or information gathered by elaborated testing of complete optical systems. This renders the development of a new system into a risky endeavour, because these experiences are not sufficiently precise and tend to be not transferable when scaling of the optical elements is intended. This contribution discusses the influences of different optical mounting concepts on the position stability using the example of high numerical aperture (HNA) inspection lenses working in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) spectrum. A method to investigate the positional stability is presented for selected mounting examples typical for inspection lenses.

  3. In Brief: Mount Wilson centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The 60-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, in southern California, which helped scientists measure the Milky Way and determine our solar system's position within it, celebrates its 100th anniversary in December. ``The 60-inch continued the Copernican Revolution by dethroning the Sun from the center of our galaxy,'' noted observatory director Harold McAlister. The telescope, with its silver-on-glass reflectors, also established the basic design for observatory telescopes on Earth. Capable of operating in several different optical configurations, the telescope was the first one built primarily for photographic and spectrographic use. With its 5-foot-diameter mirror, the telescope was the largest in the world until 1917. The telescope is retired from active science but is made available to groups for viewing astronomical objects. The observatory was founded by astronomer George Ellery Hale under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. For more information, visit http://www.mtwilson.edu.

  4. Selective reinforcement of a 2m-class lightweight mirror for horizontal beam optical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besuner, R. W.; Chow, K. P.; Kendrick, S. E.; Streetman, S.

    2008-07-01

    Optical testing of large mirrors for space telescopes can be challenging and complex. Demanding optical requirements necessitate both precise mirror figure and accurate prediction of zero gravity shape. Mass and packaging constraints require mirrors to be lightweighted and optically fast. Reliability and low mass imply simple mounting schemes, with basic kinematic mounts preferable to active figure control or whiffle trees. Ground testing should introduce as little uncertainty as possible, ideally employing flight mounts without offloaders. Testing mirrors with their optical axes horizontal can result in less distortion than in the vertical orientation, though distortion will increase with mirror speed. Finite element modeling and optimization tools help specify selective reinforcement of the mirror structure to minimize wavefront errors in a one gravity test, while staying within mass budgets and meeting other requirements. While low distortions are necessary, an important additional criterion is that designs are tolerant to imperfect positioning of the mounts relative to the neutral surface of the mirror substrate. In this paper, we explore selective reinforcement of a 2-meter class, f/1.25 primary mirror for the proposed SNAP space telescope. We specify designs optimized for various mount radial locations both with and without backup mount locations. Reinforced designs are predicted to have surface distortions in the horizontal beam test low enough to perform optical testing on the ground, on flight mounts, and without offloaders. Importantly, the required accuracy of mount locations is on the order of millimeters rather than tenths of millimeters.

  5. Proposed SLR Optical Bench Required to Track Debris Using 1550 nm Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coyle, D. B.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Clarke, G.; Hull, S. M.; Skillman, D. R.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has indicated that by using approx.1550 nm wavelengths a laser ranging system can track debris objects in an "eye safe" manner, while increasing the expected return rate by a factor of approx. 2/unit area of the telescope. In this presentation we develop the optical bench required to use approx.1550nm lasers, and integration with a 532nm system. We will use the optical bench configuration for NGSLR as the baseline, and indicate a possible injection point for the 1550 nm laser. The presentation will include what elements may need to be changed for transmitting the required power on the approx.1550nm wavelength, supporting the alignment of the laser to the telescope, and possible concerns for the telescope optics.

  6. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  7. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements final optics assembly subsystem SSDR 1.8.7

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.

    1996-10-20

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Final Optic Assembly (FOA). The FOA (WBS 1.8.7) as part of the Target Experimental System (1.8) includes vacuum windows, frequency conversion crystals, focus lens, debris shields and supporting mechanical equipment.

  8. SAMPLING AND CALIBRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR OPTICAL REFLECTANCE SOIL PROPERTY SENSORS FOR KOREAN PADDY SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical diffuse reflectance sensing has potential for rapid and reliable on-site estimation of soil properties. For good results, proper calibration to measured soil properties is required. One issue is whether it is necessary to develop calibrations using samples from the specific area or areas (e....

  9. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mt. St. Helens 20 years ago today (on May 18, 1980), ranks among the most important natural events of the twentieth century in the United States. Because Mt. St. Helens is in a remote area of the Cascades Mountains, only a few people were killed by the eruption, but property damage and destruction totaled in the billions of dollars. Mount St. Helens is an example of a composite or stratovolcano. These are explosive volcanoes that are generally steep-sided, symmetrical cones built up by the accumulation of debris from previous eruptions and consist of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash and cinder. Some of the most photographed mountains in the world are stratovolcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The recently erupting Mount Usu on the island of Hokkaido in Japan is also a stratovolcano. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by having plumbing systems that move magma from a chamber deep within the Earth's crust to vents at the surface. The height of Mt. St. Helens was reduced from about 2950 m (9677 ft) to about 2550 m (8364 ft) as a result of the explosive eruption on the morning of May 18. The eruption sent a column of dust and ash upwards more than 25 km into the atmosphere, and shock waves from the blast knocked down almost every tree within 10 km of the central crater. Massive avalanches and mudflows, generated by the near-instantaneous melting of deep snowpacks on the flanks of the mountain, devastated an area more than 20 km to the north and east of the former summit, and rivers choked with all sorts of debris were flooded more than 100 km away. The area of almost total destruction was about 600 sq. km. Ash from the eruption cloud was rapidly blown to the northeast and east producing lightning which started many small forest fires. An erie darkness caused by the cloud enveloped the landscape more than 200 km from the blast area, and ash

  10. Floating mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, D.E.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a floating mirror mount for a mirror of a laser is described consisting of: a mirror having a front surface and a back surface, a keeper encircling the mirror and having a peripheral flange engaging the front surface of the mirror when the mirror is not installed in a laser, a retainer positioned rearwardly of the back surface of the mirror and connected to the keeper and having a spring seating surface, spring means engageable with the spring seating surface of the retainer for exerting a resilient biasing force on the mirror, and fastening means for connecting the retainer to the mirror positioning structure of the laser on installation of the mirror mount in the laser.

  11. Mount Erebus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An international team of scientists reports that unusually high seismic activity joggled Mount Erebus last fall. However, the Antarctic volcano showed no external signs of an eruption.When scientists from the United States, Japan, and New Zealand returned to the world's southernmost active volcano last November for their annual field expedition, they found that seismic stations recorded 650 small tremors on October 8; prior to that, the number of quakes had averaged between 20 and 80 per day. The October 8 maximum was followed by 140 on October 9 and 120 on October 10. Philip R. Kyle, assistant professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro and leader of the team studying Mount Erebus, noted that some of the strongest earthquakes recorded during the team's 3 years of observations occurred on October 8; these registered less than 2 on the Richter scale.

  12. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  13. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  14. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements optics assembly building (OAB) SSDR 1.2.2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-08-22

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements `for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document. Rather, such information is provided in SDR 001

  15. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  16. Distance Perception of Stereoscopically Presented Virtual Objects Optically Superimposed on Physical Objects by a Head-Mounted See-Through Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Bucher, Urs J.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physically presented background stimuli on the perceived depth of optically overlaid, stereoscopic virtual images has been studied using headmounted stereoscopic, virtual image displays. These displays allow presentation of physically unrealizable stimulus combinations. Positioning of an opaque physical object either at the initial perceived depth of the virtual image or at a position substantially in front of the virtual image, causes the virtual image to perceptually move closer to the observer. In the case of objects positioned substantially in front of the virtual image, subjects often perceive the opaque object to become transparent. Evidence is presented that the apparent change of position caused by interposition of the physical object is not due to occlusion cues. According, it may have an alternative cause such as variation in the binocular vengeance position of the eyes caused by introduction of the physical object. This effect may complicate design of overlaid virtual image displays for near objects and appears to be related to the relative conspicuousness of the overlaid virtual image and the background. Consequently, it may be related to earlier analyses of John Foley which modeled open-loop pointing errors to stereoscopically presented points of light in terms of errors in determination of a reference point for interpretation of observed retinal disparities. Implications for the design of see-through displays for manufacturing will be discussed.

  17. Required technologies for a lunar optical UV-IR synthesis array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A Lunar Optical UV-IR Synthesis Array (LOUISA) proposed to take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. LOUISA needs to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for LOUISA operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  18. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry N.; Patterson, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  19. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation

  20. IGRINS Mirror Mount Design for Three Off-Axis Collimators and One Slit-Viewer Fold Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukdee, Surangkhana; Park, Chan; Kim, Kang-Min; Lee, Sung-Ho; Chun, Moo-Young; Yuk, In-Soo; Oh, Hee-Young; Jung, Hwa-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Uk; Lee, Han-Shin; Rafal, Marc D.; Barnes, Stuart; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2012-06-01

    The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin are developing a near infrared wide-band high resolution spectrograph, immersion grating infrared spectrometer (IGRINS). The compact white-pupil design of the instrument optics uses seven cryogenic mirrors, including three aspherical off-axis collimators and four flat fold mirrors. In this study, we introduce the optomechanical mount designs of three off-axis collimating mirrors and one flat slit-viewer fold mirror. Two of the off-axis collimators are serving as H and K-band pupil transfer mirrors, and are designed as system alignment compensators in combination with the H2RG focal plane array detectors in each channel. For this reason, the mount designs include tip-tilt and parallel translation adjustment mechanisms to properly perform the precision alignment function. This means that the off-axis mirrors' optomechanical mount designs are among the most sensitive tasks in all IGRINS system hardware. The other flat fold mirror is designed within its very limitedly allowed work space. This slit-viewer fold m irror is mounted with its own version of the six-point kinematic optics mount. The design work consists of a computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis (FEA) technique to optimize the structural stability and the thermal behavior of the mount models. From the structural and thermal FEA studies, we conclude that the four IGRINS mirror mounts are well designed to meet all optical stability tolerances and system thermal requirements.

  1. Primary mirror and mount technology for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K.; Chang, L. S.; Mansfield, J. A.; Howard, Steven D.

    1989-01-01

    Candidate technologies for a lightweight primary mirror for the SOFIA telescope are evaluated for both mirror blank fabrication and polishing. Two leading candidates for the type mirror blank are considered: the frit-bonded, structured form, and the thin meniscus form. The feasible mirror is required to be very lightweight with an areal density of approximately 100 kg/sq m, have an f/ratio near 1.0, and have surface quality that permits imaging in the visible as well as the infrared. Also considered are the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility of designing a suitable mounting system for the primary mirror. The requirements for the mount design are given both in terms of the environmental conditions and the expected optical performance. PATRAN and NASTRAN programs are used to model mirror and mounting. The sandwich-type mirror made of ultra low expansion silica with square cells in the core, is modeled using equivalent solid elements for the core. The design study produces primary mirror surface deflections in 1g as a function of mirror elevation angles. The surface is analyzed using an optical analysis program, FRINGE, to give a prediction of the mirror optical performance. Results from this analysis are included.

  2. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  3. Who discovered Mount Everest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, Parke A.

    The discovery that Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world was made by the officers of the Survey of India. This organization measured a network of triangulation across India between 1800 and 1870. In order to reduce the measurements to geodetic coordinates, it was necessary to determine the size and shape of the earth. This was accomplished by measuring the length of an arc of the meridian under the direction of the Surveyor General, Sir George Everest. This measurement disagreed with the observations of the stars for latitude by 5 seconds of arc (530 ft or 162 m). In 1855, Pratt and Airy pointed out that the discrepancy was due to the gravitational effect of the Himalayas. Their work was the first indication that the material of the earth's crust under the mountains is lighter than that under plains. During the course of the survey the officers made observations on the snowy Himalayas. They were excluded from Nepal; observations had to be taken from more than 100 mi (160 km) away in jungles infested by malaria. Mount Everest was observed by three different officers between November 27, 1847, and January 17, 1850. The height of the mountain had to be determined by the (human) computers in the survey headquarters in Dehra Dun. The fact that it is the highest mountain in the Himalayas, and probably in the world, was announced by Surveyor General Andrew Waugh in 1856. It is not clear whether the chief computer who made the calculations was an Indian, Radanath Sikhdar, or an Englishman born in India of an Indian mother, John B. N. Hennesy. The local name for the mountain, if it had any, was unknown, so Waugh named it Mount Everest, in honor of the great scientist who was largely responsible for the accomplishments of the Survey of India.

  4. Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME): CCD Tests and Optical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, K. J.

    2002-12-01

    The FAME project team has pursued several studies in order to resolve technical, schedule, and mission cost concerns and to investigate requirements for future space astrometry missions. Two CCD fabrication runs have been completed with good yields of operating CCDs. The first fabrication run, using a mixture of 37 and 100 ohm cm substrate, produced 100 ohm cm devices with a reduced CTE. Thus, only 37 ohm cm substrate was used in the second run. To mitigate the effects of on-orbit radiation damage, FAME CCDs are designed with charge injection capabilities. The current FAME CCDs have a reduced yield of devices with good operating charge injection. The CCDs are currently being tested for image centroiding accuracy and operating characteristics, both before and after laboratory irradiation. The intent is to learn more about the radiation effects on the CCDs and the methods of mitigating the effects of charge transfer inefficiency. Results of these tests will be given. The requirements for very accurate centroiding of images places strict requirements on the optical design, distortions, and the tolerances on the alignment and thermal variations of the optical components of the instrument. The exact requirements necessary to reach the measurement accuracy have a large effect on the schedule and cost of manufacturing and installing the optics. Therefore, special studies have been conducted to determine the exact requirements for the optical design. The science that would result from the FAME observations remains compelling, which is the reason for the efforts to continue to develop the project. The latest status and future plans for FAME will be included.

  5. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  6. Mounting of SSM's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjonen, Juha

    1993-01-01

    A step by step description of how to mount SSM's (Second Surface Mirrors) on the space instruments is presented. Experiences of the first SSM implementation are described. The Soho satellite has in its payload, an instrument ERNE, which has a radiation wing covered with SSM. SSM's are easy to use and reliable for thermal control design to space instruments. SSM's have a very small alpha(sub s) compared to the epsilon(sub n). The radiation from the Sun is reflected and at the same time the heat generated by the instrument is emitted to the space. This gives a good opportunity to tune the thermal control design according to the temperature.

  7. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  8. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  9. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  10. SXI Prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed from June 1993 to January 1995. The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule.

  11. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 [times] 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V[sub x] ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V[sub x], the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90[degree]. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 [times] 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  12. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 {times} 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V{sub x} ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V{sub x}, the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90{degree}. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 {times} 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  13. Mount control system for the CFGT telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinqi; Dong, Zhiming; Zhou, Wangping

    2006-06-01

    The concept for Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT) with 30-m aperture has been around for several years, although the requirements for control system are still far from completed and conclusive at this stage. Since the project was proposed more study on a number of key issues relevant to the control system has been conducted. In particular the mount control system for the giant telescope has been put forward under exploration. With our ongoing 4-m LAMOST telescope just underwent a successful mount drive test the LAMOST control group has become more knowledgeable with hands on experience that would be quite useful for mount drive design of even large telescope. This paper focuses on the mount control system design for CFGT telescope in general. Particular aspects such as the effect of large moment of inertia with ultra low-speed and multi-disturbance are included. Friction drive is opted for both historical and economical reasons. Drive stiffness and servo control parameters optimization are discussed based on the workshop test with LAMOST mount that could possibly be mapped to CFGT.

  14. REM. Rapid Eye Mount

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, E.; Vergani, S.D.; Zerbi, F. M.; Covino, S.; Chincarini, G.

    2004-09-28

    REM is a robotic fast moving telescope designed to immediately point and observe in optical and IR the GRBs detected by satellites. Its immediate data gathering capabilities and its accurate astrometry will issue early alerts for the VLT.

  15. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  16. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  17. Grism cryogenic mount for the Euclid-NISP mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, Ch.; Grange, R.; Sanchez, P.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Laurent, P.; Dessaux, F.; Ceria, W.

    2014-07-01

    The spectroscopic channel of the Euclid Near Infrared SpectroPhotometer (NISP) relies on four grisms mounted on a wheel via Invar mounts. The mount design was studied to maintain the optical performances and alignment at cryogenic operating temperature (120K), and to survive launch vibrations. We designed two stages of radially compliant blades: one set of 9 blades is bonded to the Silica grism and the second set of 3 blades is located at interface points with the wheel. Severe packaging and mass constraints yielded us to design a ring mount with strong weight relief. In fall 2013 we proceeded to thermal cycling (323K-105K), vibration tests (10.7 g rms) to successfully qualify the grism mount in the Euclid environment. Thanks to detailed finite element analyses, we correlated simulations and tests.

  18. Laser housing having integral mounts and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Michael Alan; Brickeen, Brian Keith

    2004-10-19

    A housing adapted to position, support, and facilitate aligning various components, including an optical path assembly, of a laser. In a preferred embodiment, the housing is constructed from a single piece of material and broadly comprises one or more through-holes; one or more cavities; and one or more integral mounts, wherein the through-holes and the cavities cooperate to define the integral mounts. Securement holes machined into the integral mounts facilitate securing components within the integral mounts using set screws, adhesive, or a combination thereof. In a preferred method of making the housing, the through-holes and cavities are first machined into the single piece of material, with at least some of the remaining material forming the integral mounts.

  19. Camera Mount for a Head-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoge, Wayne; Barnes, Monica; Johnson, Larry; Shelton, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A mounting mechanism was designed and built to satisfy requirements specific to a developmental head-up display (HUD) to be used by pilots in a Boeing 757 airplane. This development was necessitated by the fact that although such mounting mechanisms were commercially available for other airplanes, there were none for the 757. The mounting mechanism supports a miniature electronic camera that provides a forward view. The mechanism was designed to be integrated with the other HUD instrumentation and to position the camera so that what is presented to the pilot is the image acquired by the camera, overlaid with alphanumeric and/or graphical symbols, from a close approximation of the pilot s natural forward perspective. The mounting mechanism includes an L-shaped mounting arm that can be adjusted easily to the pilot s perspective, without prior experience. The mounting mechanism is lightweight and flexible and presents little hazard to the pilot.

  20. Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nadean L.; Patel, Sima; Brzezinski, Joseph; Glaser, Tom

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The vertebrate retina contains seven major neuronal and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal neuron differentiation is thought to require both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, yet few intrinsic gene products have been identified that direct this process. Math5 (Atoh7) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is specifically expressed by mouse retinal progenitors. Math5 is highly homologous to atonal, which is critically required for R8 neuron formation during Drosophila eye development. Like R8 cells in the fly eye, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first neurons in the vertebrate eye. Here we show that Math5 mutant mice are fully viable, yet lack RGCs and optic nerves. Thus, two evolutionarily diverse eye types require atonal gene family function for the earliest stages of retinal neuron formation. At the same time, the abundance of cone photoreceptors is significantly increased in Math5−/− retinae, suggesting a binary change in cell fate from RGCs to cones. A small number of nascent RGCs are detected during embryogenesis, but these fail to develop further, suggesting that committed RGCs may also require Math5 function. PMID:11493566

  1. Optical control of gas-contained liquid dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venedictov, S. V.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Svetlakov, N. E.; Strel'nikov, M. Y.

    1997-09-01

    The comparative analysis of the requirement sensitivity threshold for chromatographic and optical methods of monitoring of gases content of liquid dielectrics was made. There is suggested to use the optical manner for the express- analysis of content of gases in transformer oil. The measurement equipment is mounted immediately on filled by oil electrical apparatus.

  2. Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion Cemetery/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 3D head mount display with single panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuchang; Huang, Junejei

    2014-09-01

    The head mount display for entertainment usually requires light weight. But in the professional application has more requirements. The image quality, field of view (FOV), color gamut, response and life time are considered items, too. A head mount display based on 1-chip TI DMD spatial light modulator is proposed. The multiple light sources and splitting images relay system are the major design tasks. The relay system images the object (DMD) into two image planes to crate binocular vision. The 0.65 inch 1080P DMD is adopted. The relay has a good performance which includes the doublet to reduce the chromatic aberration. Some spaces are reserved for placing the mirror and adjustable mechanism. The mirror splits the rays to the left and right image plane. These planes correspond to the eyepieces objects and image to eyes. A changeable mechanism provides the variable interpupillary distance (IPD). The folding optical path makes sure that the HMD center of gravity is close to the head and prevents the uncomfortable downward force being applied to head or orbit. Two RGB LED assemblies illuminate to the DMD in different angle. The light is highly collimated. The divergence angle is small enough such that one LED ray would only enters to the correct eyepiece. This switching is electronic controlled. There is no moving part to produce vibration and fast switch would be possible. Two LED synchronize with 3D video sync by a driving board which also controls the DMD. When the left eye image is displayed on DMD, the LED for left optical path turns on. Vice versa for right image and 3D scene is accomplished.

  4. Surface Mounted Neutron Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2012-10-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) base reaction pulsed neutron generator packaged in a flat computer chip shape of 1.54 cm (0.600 in) wide by 3.175 cm (1.25 in) length and 0.3 cm (0.120 in) thick has been successfully demonstrated to produce 14 MeV neutrons at a rate of 10^9 neutrons per second. The neutron generator is based on a deuterium ion beam accelerated to impact a tritium loaded target. The accelerating voltage is in the 15 to 20 kV in a 3 mm (0.120 in) gap, the ion beam is shaped by using a lens design to produce a flat ion beam that conforms to the flat rectangular target. The ion source is a simple surface mounted deuterium filled titanium film with a fused gap that operates at a current-voltage design to release the deuterium during a pulse length of about 1 μs. We present the general description of the working prototypes, which we have labeled the ``NEUTRISTOR.''[4pt] Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Work funded by the LDRD office.

  5. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  6. Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest in the tissue in its natural state and environment. PMID:27547786

  7. Requirements to the light sources and photodetectors used for design of optical tomographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khohlov, K. L.; Sokolov, V. K.; Leonov, O. V.

    2007-02-01

    Feasibility of a high-resolution tomography for the analysis of the thyroid gland structure has been already demonstrated. It is based on registration of ballistic photons (BP). To generate BP the method of optic heterodyning is used. A high-resolution tomograph based on this technique is similar to Mach-Zehnder interferometer. An APD is used as a photodetector. The light coming through human tissues experiences both absorption and scattering. A certain amount of optical energy must be generated by the light source in order to provide acceptable SNR at the output of the photodetector. In others words, the number of BPs must be above a certain threshold. Since human tissues have various absorption coefficients, during the design of a tomograph a special attention must be paid to the following parameters: 1. Wavelength of the laser; 2. Coherence length of the laser; 3. Minimum required optical power; 4. Beam diameter and form of the generation area. This article is devoted to following items: 1. Experimental results of measuring the spectral response of thyroid gland tissues, fat cellular tissue, human skin are provided; 2. The model of the light transmission through the glands is described. With the help of this model we definite the approximate amplitude of the absorption and scattering spectral coefficients for both the gland and adjacent tissues.

  8. Polymer optical interconnects: meeting the requirements for datacom and telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklette, Lawrence W.; Norwood, Robert A.; Eldada, Louay A.; Glass, Cathy; Nguyen, Duc; Poga, Constantina; Xu, Baopei; Yin, Shing; Yardley, James T.

    1997-10-01

    An advanced versatile low-cost polymeric waveguide technology has been developed for optoelectronic applications. This technology is based upon new polymeric materials for ultra-low-loss optical interconnection, particularly for the key wavelengths of 0.83, 1 .3, and 1 .55 microns. Development of these materials has required a thorough understanding of fundamental principles of optical absorption due to both vibrational and electronic resonant absorptions. We have thus created materials with measured losses at 830 nm which are in the range ofO.02 dB/cm. At longer wavelengths, the losses can be higher due to the vibrational absorption within the polymer. However through careful selection of chemical structure, polymeric materials with intrinsic loss below 0.08 dB/cm have been demonstrated at 1 .55 micron wavelength. These high-performance organic polymers can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures with controlled numerical aperture (NA) and geometry. We will discuss the use of these materials in a variety of passive photonic devices.

  9. Optical design of adjustable light emitting diode for different lighting requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia-Ning; Yu, Jie; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Yi

    2012-12-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) sources have been widely used for illumination. Optical design, especially freedom compact lens design is necessary to make LED sources applied in lighting industry, such as large-range interior lighting and small-range condensed lighting. For different lighting requirements, the size of target planes should be variable. In our paper we provide a method to design freedom lens according to the energy conservation law and Snell law through establishing energy mapping between the luminous flux emitted by a Lambertian LED source and a certain area of the target plane. The algorithm of our design can easily change the radius of each circular target plane, which makes the size of the target plane adjustable. Ray-tracing software Tracepro is used to validate the illuminance maps and polar-distribution maps. We design lenses for different sizes of target planes to meet specific lighting requirements.

  10. Optics Requirements For The Generation-X X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. .; Elsner, R. F.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zhang, W. W.; Content, D. A.; Petre, R.; Saha, T. T.; Reid, P. B.; Schwartz, D. A.; Brissenden, R. J.; Elvis, M.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Gorenstein, P.; Jerius, D.; Juda, M.; Murray, S. S.; Podgorski, W. A.; Wolk, S. J.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2008-01-01

    US, European, and Japanese space agencies each now operate successful X-ray missions -- NASA s Chandra, ESA s XMM-Newton, and JAXA s Suzaku observatories. Recently these agencies began a collaboration to develop the next major X-ray astrophysics facility -- the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) -- for launch around 2020. IXO will provide an order-of-magnitude increase in effective area, while maintaining good (but not sub-arcsecond) angular resolution. X-ray astronomy beyond IXO will require optics with even larger aperture areas and much better angular resolution. We are currently conducting a NASA strategic mission concept study to identify technology issues and to formulate a technology roadmap for a mission -- Generation-X (Gen-X) -- to provide these capabilities. Achieving large X-ray collecting areas in a space observatory requires extremely lightweight mirrors.

  11. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  12. MUSE: feeding and mounting 24 spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, Harald; Seifert, Walter; Xu, Wenli; Hofmann, Denni; Köhler, Christof; Loupias, Magali

    2008-07-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer MUSE is an integral field device containing 24 spectrographs at the Nasmyth focus of the VLT unit telescope. The total field size of 1'x1' needs to be split and separated into 24 sub-fields which are relayed along a central structure into the entrance aperture of the individual spectrographs. The realization of the optics for field splitting and separation as well as the relay optics to direct the light of the individual fields to the spectrographs is described here. A very tight link exists between the relay optics system layout and the mechanical arrangement of the spectrographs in the common central structure. A compact mounting is essential due to the restricted space for such a large instrument even on the VLT Nasmyth platform. A suitable arrangement of vertical and horizontal stacking of the spectrographs was found enabling their feeding from the unobstructed front side of the instrumental structure. The central instrument mount was designed as a stiff structure absorbing print-through effects due to thermal mismatch with the telescope platform but rigid enough to withstand earthquakes.

  13. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  14. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  15. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  16. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  17. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  18. Maintaining Flatness of a Large Aperture Potassium Bromide Beamsplitter through Mounting and Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James, III; Morell, Armando; Heaney, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument on the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997. The CIRS instrument contains a mid-infrared and a far-infrared interferometer and operates at 170 Kelvin. The mid-infrared interferometer is a Michelson- type Fourier transform spectrometer utilizing a 3 inch diameter potassium bromide beamsplitter/compensator pair. The potassium bromide elements were tested to verify effects of cooldown and vibration prior to integration into the instrument. The instrument was then aligned at ambient temperatures, tested cryogenically and re-verified after vibration. The stringent design optical figure requirements for the beamsplitter and compensator included fabrication errors, mounting stresses and vibration load effects. This paper describes the challenges encountered in mounting the elements to minimize distortion and to survive vibration.

  19. Maintaining Flatness of a Large Aperture Potassium Bromide Beamsplitter Through Mounting and Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James J., III; Morell, Armando; Heaney, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument on the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997. The CIRS instrument contains a mid-infrared (MIR) and a far-infrared interferometer (FIR) and operates at 170 Kelvin. The MIR is a Michelson Fourier transform spectrometer utilizing a 76 mm (3 inch) diameter potassium bromide beamsplitter and compensator pair. The potassium bromide elements were tested to verify effects of cooldown and vibration prior to integration into the instrument. The instrument was then aligned at ambient temperatures, tested cryogenically and re-verified after vibration. 'Me stringent design optical figure requirements for the beamsplitter and compensator included fabrication errors, mounting stresses and vibration load effects. This paper describes the challenges encountered in mounting the elements to minimize distortion and to survive vibration.

  20. Design concepts for the EST mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Süss, Martin; Fischer, David

    2012-09-01

    The EST has unique an optical layout, with an on-axis Gregorian tube system and the altitude axis behind the M1 mirror unit - a great challenge for the mount designer in regard of balancing. Three different structural design concepts and various alternatives for the bearing and drive systems were investigated. Hydrostatic bearings with direct drives are compared with roller bearings and geared drives. The influence of available bearing and drive technology were investigated by FE calculations, dynamic analysis and end-to-end simulations. The finally recommended design concept is based on large-diameter segmented roller bearings and so-called pinion motors in both axes.

  1. Next-generation head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, James P., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) have been utilized by the military for various applications since the 1980's. In the 1990's, this technology migrated to the consumer market. Most of these early systems suffered the major drawback that they were "look-at" versus "see through" systems, which prevented the user from seeing their environment. This reduced the utility of the devices and could potentially lead to safety issues. This presentation discusses the optical design of a novel see-through High Definition display device with a 40 degree field of view.

  2. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R.

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  3. Characterization of Polarizing Splitter Optics in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Ryand; Olson, Matthew; Morelli, Gregg

    2013-01-04

    Development of laser systems capable of surviving extreme conditions experienced in military applications requires mounts and components that are able to survive these conditions. The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies in harsh environments is critical for the development of laser and optical systems for functionality in these extreme conditions. Customized mounts, bonding assemblies and packaging strategies are utilized to develop and field reliable and robust optical subassemblies. Thin film polarizers operating at 45o and polarizing beam splitter cubes were chosen for initial testing based on past experiences, advancements in optical coating and construction technologies and material properties. Shock, vibration, shear strength, tensile strength and temperature testing are performed on mounted polarizing beam splitter cubes and thin film polarizers from two manufacturers. Previous testing showed that polarizing beam splitter cubes constructed using epoxy would become damaged in the laser resonator. The cubes being tested in this report are constructed using epoxy- free direct optical contact bonding. Thin film polarizers operating at 45o are chosen opposed to Brewster’s angle thin film polarizers to reduce the size and simplify design and construction since an optical wedge is not required. The components and mounts are each environmentally tested beyond the manufacturers’ specifications for shock, vibration, and temperature. Component functionality is monitored during and after the environmental testing. Experimental results from the testing will be discussed as will the impact on future laser resonator designs.

  4. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  5. Low-strain laser-based solder joining of mounted lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Thomas; Hornaff, Marcel; Kamm, Andreas; Burkhardt, Diana; Schmidt, Erik; Beckert, Erik; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    A novel laser-based soldering technique - Solderjet Bumping - using liquid solder droplets in a flux-free process with only localized heating is presented. We demonstrate an all inorganic, adhesive free bonding of optical components and support structures suitable for optical assemblies and instruments under harsh environmental conditions. Low strain bonding suitable for a following high-precision adjustment turning process is presented, addressing components and subsystems for objectives for high power and short wavelengths. The discussed case study shows large aperture transmissive optics (diameter approx. 74 mm and 50 mm) made of fused silica and LAK9G15, a radiation resistant glass, bonded to thermally matched metallic mounts. The process chain of Solderjet Bumping - cleaning, solderable metallization, handling, bonding and inspection - is discussed. This multi-material approach requires numerical modelling for dimensioning according to thermal and mechanical loads. The findings of numerical modelling, process parametrization and environmental testing (thermal and vibrational loads) are presented. Stress and strain introduced into optical components as well as deformation of optical surfaces can significantly deteriorate the wave front of passing light and therefore reduce system performance significantly. The optical performance with respect to stress/strain and surface deformation during bonding and environmental testing were evaluated using noncontact and nondestructive optical techniques: polarimetry and interferometry, respectively. Stress induced surface deformation of less than 100 nm and changes in optical path difference below 5 nm were achieved. Bond strengths of about 55 MPa are reported using tin-silver-copper soft solder alloy.

  6. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  7. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  8. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  9. Revisiting binary sequence length requirements to accurately emulate optical transmission systems in highly dispersive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellier, Edouard; Antona, Jean-Christophe; Bononi, Alberto; Bigo, Sébastien

    2008-11-01

    When increasing channel bit rate beyond 10Gb/s or when operating over fiber lines with sparse or no in-line dispersion compensation, Kerr-like non-linear effects can be considered as second order with respect to dispersive effects, because pulse broadening can expand over numerous neighbor pulses, before optical non-linear effects imprint their signature noticeably. To accurately emulate the interactions between pulses in this case, a few studies emphasized that Pseudo- Random Binary Sequences (PRBS) should be used, with exponential dependence of the required PRBS length on bit rate and accumulated dispersion. In this paper, we explain our strategy to numerically estimate the required number of random, noisy bits for Monte-Carlo simulations, and show that it weakly increases in presence of pulse to pulse correlations and commonly tolerated levels of non-linearities (i.e. leading to transmission penalties as high as 1.5dB, for reference BERs of 10-2, 10-3 or 10-5) . Then we determine the actual required PRBS length that yields the same (sufficient) BER accuracy as the MC method. We demonstrate its actual dependence on BER, and show that MC theory provides a reliable upper bound in FEC-assisted, highly dispersive systems.

  10. Development of an aviator's helmet-mounted night-vision goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gerry H.; McFarlane, Robert J.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  11. Test program on the contamination of ultraviolet region mirrors by Apollo Telescope Mount materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of testing performed to measure the effects of material outgas products on the reflectances of ultraviolet-region mirrors. These tests were to provide data on changes of ultraviolet reflectances of first-surface mirrors which had been exposed to the outgas products of selected materials under specific time and thermal-vacuum conditions. The requirement for such data was based on the extreme sensitivity of the sophisticated optical instruments in the Skylab mission's Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) to condensed outgas products from materials, and on the desire to insure that no serious hazard of contaminating these instruments existed.

  12. Dry tilt network at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Symonds, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to its primary responsibility of monitoring active Mount St. Helens, the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has been charged with obtaining baseline geodetic and geochemical information at each of the other potentially active Cascade volcanoes. Dry tilt and/or trilateration networks were established during 1975-82 at Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Mount Shasta, Lassen Peak, Crater Lake, and Long Valley caldera; coverage was extended during September 1982 to include Mount Rainier.

  13. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  14. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  15. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  16. Power and length requirements for all-optical switching in semiconductor-doped glass waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayweather, Derek T.; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Pantell, Richard H.; Shaw, H. J.

    1994-10-01

    We present a theoretical model that computes the nonlinear index (n2) of semiconductor- doped glasses (SDG), based on the material's properties, and predicts the power and length requirements, as well as the optimum operating wavelengths, for an all-optical SDG waveguide switch. The main conclusions are that (1) n2 depends strongly on pump intensity, which partly explains the large disparity in reported values of n2, (2) the pump and signal wavelengths should be in specific and different ranges to minimize switching power and signal loss, (3) for CdSSe- and CdTe-doped glasses, n2 is relatively small, and the switching power requirement for these two SDGs is consequently quite high (2 - 16 W). We provide evidence that this weak nonlinearity, compared to that of similar semiconductors in bulk, is due to the strong nonradiative recombination of carriers arising from the small size of the semiconductor microcrystallites. Projections indicate that the switching power would be reduced by up to three orders of magnitude by increasing the microcrystallite size, thus producing a slower (ns) but more power-efficient switch.

  17. Space Flight Requirements for Fiber Optic Components; Qualification Testing and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Jin, Xiaodan Linda; Chuska, Richard; Friedberg, Patricia; Malenab, Mary; Matuszeski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    "Qualification" of fiber optic components holds a very different meaning than it did ten years ago. In the past, qualification meant extensive prolonged testing and screening that led to a programmatic method of reliability assurance. For space flight programs today, the combination of using higher performance commercial technology, with shorter development schedules and tighter mission budgets makes long term testing and reliability characterization unfeasible. In many cases space flight missions will be using technology within years of its development and an example of this is fiber laser technology. Although the technology itself is not a new product the components that comprise a fiber laser system change frequently as processes and packaging changes occur. Once a process or the materials for manufacturing a component change, even the data that existed on its predecessor can no longer provide assurance on the newer version. In order to assure reliability during a space flight mission, the component engineer must understand the requirements of the space flight environment as well as the physics of failure of the components themselves. This can be incorporated into an efficient and effective testing plan that "qualifies" a component to specific criteria defined by the program given the mission requirements and the component limitations. This requires interaction at the very initial stages of design between the system design engineer, mechanical engineer, subsystem engineer and the component hardware engineer. Although this is the desired interaction what typically occurs is that the subsystem engineer asks the components or development engineers to meet difficult requirements without knowledge of the current industry situation or the lack of qualification data. This is then passed on to the vendor who can provide little help with such a harsh set of requirements due to high cost of testing for space flight environments. This presentation is designed to guide the

  18. XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

    1992-07-01

    We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II).

  19. Mount St. Helens related aerosol properties from solar extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Kleckner, E.W.; Stokes, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    The optical extinction due to the introduction of aerosols and aerosol-precursors into the troposphere and stratosphere during the major eruptive phase of Mount St. Helens, Washington, is quantified. The concentration is on the two-week period centered on the major eruption of 22 July 1980. (ACR)

  20. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  1. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  2. Space radar image of Mount Everest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  3. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  4. An improved instrument mounting arm.

    PubMed

    Gendeh, B S; Khalid, B A; Alberti, P W

    2001-02-01

    Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator. PMID:11320829

  5. VIBRATION DAMPING AND SHOCK MOUNT

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, D.J.; Forman, G.W.

    1963-12-10

    A shock absorbing mount in which vibrations are damped by an interference fit between relatively movable parts of the mount is described. A pair of generally cup-shaped parts or members have skirt portions disposed in an oppositely facing nesting relationship with the skirt of one member frictionally engaging the skirt of the other. The outermost skirt may be slotted to provide spring-like segments which embrace the inner skirt for effecting the interference fit. Belleville washers between the members provide yieldable support for a load carried by the mount. When a resonant frequency of vibration forces acting upon the moumt attains a certain level the kinetic energy of these forces is absorbed by sliding friction between the parts. (AEC)

  6. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  7. Optical power distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Lalmond, R.G.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes an apparatus for supplying electrical power to electrical components mounted on a circuit board. It consists of: a printed circuit board; electrical components mounted on the printed circuit board; electrically powered sources of optical energy; photovoltaic cell arrays; each photovoltaic cell array being mounted on a corresponding one of the electrical components to provide electrical power to the electrical component on which it is mounted; and means for coupling the optical energy from the electrically powered sources of optical energy to the photovoltaic cell arrays.

  8. A Few Observations about Mounting Moderately Sized Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, M. I.

    2011-09-01

    Most of the mirror mounting literature has focused on small (less than 0.1 meters) or large (greater than 1 meter) mirrors. We will examine the theory and practice of mounting moderately sized mirrors (between 0.1 and 1 meter). Two examples will be taken from optical diagnostic systems designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In both cases the mirrors were removable (not bonded in place). One of the examples will be for a mirror with a poor aspect ratio (i.e. diameter to thickness ratio greater than 15:1).

  9. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  10. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  11. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  12. 36 Views of Mount Rainier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Look for ways to take students on virtual journeys to faraway places, and then connect the experience to something they can relate to on a more personal level. In this article, the author describes a block-printing unit inspired by Japanese printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), and his series of art prints, "Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji."…

  13. Mount St. Mary's College. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes the efforts of Mount St. Mary's College (California) to extend the benefits of a strong, traditional baccalaureate program to an underserved population of women in an urban region, including substantial numbers of minority and first-generation college students. To help realize its service mission and increase access to…

  14. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  15. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  16. [Water cults on Soratte Mount].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mount Soratte is a limestone ridge that rises on a lonely plateau of Pliocene tuff on the right of the Tiber, about forty kilometers North of Rome. Studies related to human settlements during prehistory in this territory have been sporadic and occasional. The first evidence of prehistoric cults on mount Soratte has been found in the early Fifties when ajar, dating back to Neolithic times, was discovered in the cave of the Meri. The jar was placed in a position to be always filled of water and indicates the existence of ancient practices of worship linked to groundwater. In the Middle Ages, although caves became a step towards the Hell, dripping caves were often associated with the magical-religious and therapeutic aspects of water linked to fertility in the popular imagination. In the cave church of the Saint Romana, on the eastern slope of Mount Soratte close to Meri, there is a small marble basin near the altar and the water drips from the rock above it. This water is taken out for devotion and drunk by mothers who did not get milk from their breasts. Recently, the water of the Saint Romana would have drained as a result of an act of sacrilege, albeit unintentionally, as reported in a oral testimony. Overall, the territory of Mount Soratte is characterized by a sharp and clear karst. This causes the water, that collects on the inside, coming out in many springs all around the valley. This water is collected to supply fountains used years ago by farmers and livestock and nowadays may represent a cultural space of social life with the aim to build a strong link with the territory and a new awareness of the past and history of the countryside around Mount Soratte. PMID:23057207

  17. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  18. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope mount assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Mark; Cho, Myung; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hubbard, Rob; Lee, Joon Pyo; Wagner, Jeremy

    2006-06-01

    When constructed on the summit of Haleakala on the island of Maui, Hawaii, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the world's largest solar telescope. The ATST is a unique design that utilizes a state-of-the-art off-axis Gregorian optical layout with five reflecting mirrors delivering light to a Nasmyth instrument rotator, and nine reflecting mirrors delivering light to an instrument suite located on a large diameter rotating coude lab. The design of the telescope mount structure, which supports and positions the mirrors and scientific instruments, has presented noteworthy challenges to the ATST engineering staff. Several novel design solutions, as well as adaptations of existing telescope technologies to the ATST application, are presented in this paper. Also shown are plans for the control system and drives of the structure.

  19. Review and analysis of avionic helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Guangwei; Qu, Hemeng; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jianping

    2013-11-01

    With the development of new concepts and principles over the past century, helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have been widely applied. This paper presents a review of avionic HMDs and shows some areas of active and intensive research. This review is focused on the optical design aspects and is divided into three sections to explore new optical design methods, which include an off-axis design, design with freeform optical surface, and design with holographic optical waveguide technology. Building on the fundamentals of optical design and engineering, the principles section primarily expounds on the five optical system parameters, which include weight, field of view, modulation transfer function, exit pupil size, and eye relief. We summarized the previous design works using new components to achieve compact and lightweight HMDs. Moreover, the paper presents a partial summary of the more notable experimental, prototype, fielded, and future HMD fixed-wing and rotary-wing programs.

  20. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  1. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-03-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  2. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  3. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  4. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  5. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  6. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  7. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  8. A passive vibration-cancelling isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Alan O.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of an idealized passive vibration-cancelling two-terminal mount with one degree of freedom at each mechanical terminal isolating a nonrigid machine from a nonrigid foundation is presented. To evaluate a vibration-cancelling (VC) mount, its effectiveness as a function of frequency is compared with the effectiveness of both conventional and compound mounts isolating a rigid machine from a nonrigid foundation. The comparisons indicate that a carefully designed and manufactured VC mount should provide substantially greater vibration reduction at its cancellation frequency than either a conventional or compound mount having the same low frequency stiffness, i.e., stiffness at the natural frequency of the machine mount system.

  9. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tapered tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  10. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  11. LDEF (Prelaunch), S0109 : Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment, Tray C12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment (FODTE) on the LDEF. The FODTE occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, four aluminum mounting plates, an aluminum cover plate, ten fiber optic cable samples with connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four optical fiber cables (two black, one blue and one bright orange), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to the thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The four mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint and the exposed surface of the cover plate is painted with Chemglaze II A-276 white to meet thermal control requirements. Six additional coils of optical fiber cable samples, secured with nylon cable ties, are located in the bottom of the tray, four below the mounting plates and two below the cover plate. Each sample terminates in connectors mounted in brackets located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates.

  12. 980-nm, 15-W cw laser diodes on F-mount-type heat sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezotosnyi, V. V.; Krokhin, O. N.; Oleshchenko, V. A.; Pevtsov, V. F.; Popov, Yu M.; Cheshev, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the key optical emission parameters of laser diodes (emission wavelength, 980 nm; stripe contact width, 95 μm) mounted directly on F- and C-mount-type copper heat sinks, without intermediate elements (submounts). When effectively cooled by a thermoelectric microcooler, the lasers on the F-mount operated stably at output powers up to 20 W. The lasers were tested for reliable operation at an output power of 15 W for 100 h, and no decrease in output power was detected to within measurement accuracy. The experimentally determined maximum total efficiency is 71.7% and the efficiency at a nominal output power of 15 W is 61%. We compare parameters of the laser diodes mounted on C- and F-mounts and discuss the advantages of the F-mounts.

  13. MOUNT JEFFERSON PRIMITIVE AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral and reconnaissance geothermal surveys of the Mount Jefferson Primitive Area in the Cascade Range of Oregon indicate little likelihood that metallic or nonmetallic mineral or energy resources exist in the area. Several mining claims, presumably located for gold, are present, but analyses of samples from the claims failed to detect the presence of gold or other valuable metals. Rock for construction purposes is abundantly present, but better and more accessible deposits are available in adjacent areas.

  14. Mount Unzen kills three volcanologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    Three AGU members were among 37 people killed June 3 when Mount Unzen, a volcano in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, erupted. Unzen last erupted in 1792. The first signs of renewed activity appeared in mid-1990, with increases in seismicity and the first volcanic tremor since observations began in 1966. The three volcanologists, Harry Glicken and Maurice and Katia Krafft, had traveled to Mount Unzen to monitor the increased seismic activity. Glicken, 33, was a visiting scientist at Tokyo Metropolitan University and an assistant researcher in geological sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He worked for the U.S. Geological Survey until 1989, and narrowly escaped death in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington.Glicken had been an AGU member since 1980 and was known for his work in debris avalanches. Maurice, 45, and Katia Krafft, 44, of Cernay, France, were professional volcanologists known for their extensive work in publishing books and films on volcanology for the general public. Both Kraffts joined AGU in 1975.

  15. SOAR Telescope: 4-meter high-performance-mount performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael; Krabbendam, Victor; Schumacher, German; Delgadillo, Juan C.

    2004-09-01

    The 4.1-meter SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope mount and drive systems have been commissioned and are in routine operation. The telescope mount, the structure and its full drive systems, was fully erected and tested at the factory prior to reassembly and commissioning at the observatory. This successful approach enabled complete integration, from a concrete pier to a pointing and tracking telescope, on the mountain, in a rapid 3-month period. The telescope mount with its high instrument payload and demanding efficiency requirements is an important component for the success of the SOAR scientific mission. The SOAR mount utilizes rolling element bearings for both azimuth and elevation support, counter torqued sets of gear motors on azimuth and two frameless torque motors built into the elevation axles. Tracking jitter and its associated spectra, pointing errors and their sources, bearing friction and servo performances are critical criteria for this mount concept and are important factors in achieving the mission. This paper addresses the performance results obtained during the integration, commissioning, and first light periods of the telescope mount system.

  16. Design of a {O}94 cm mirror mount for the Petawatt Project on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    The authors have designed a large optical gimbal mount that will be used on the Petawatt Project currently under construction on the Nova laser. These mounts are designed to hold and tilt {O}94 cm mirrors and gratings that will redirect the {O}60 cm beam through the Petawatt vacuum compressor. Lacking the commercial availability to house this size optic, they have engineered a large mirror mount with a high natural frequency (42 Hz), low self-weight deflection of the mirror (< {lambda}/46), and high positioning accuracy characteristics (< 1 {micro}rad using flexures and stepping motors). Analysis details and methodology are presented.

  17. Optical interconnect assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  18. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  19. Bcl6a function is required during optic cup formation to prevent p53-dependent apoptosis and colobomata

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoon; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Gross, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in BCOR (Bcl6 corepressor) are found in patients with oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome, a congenital disorder affecting visual system development, and loss-of-function studies in zebrafish and Xenopus demonstrate a role for Bcor during normal optic cup development in preventing colobomata. The mechanism whereby BCOR functions during eye development to prevent colobomata is not known, but in other contexts it serves as a transcriptional corepressor that potentiates transcriptional repression by B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Here, we have explored the function of the zebrafish ortholog of Bcl6, Bcl6a, during eye development, and our results demonstrate that Bcl6a, like Bcor, is required to prevent colobomata during optic cup formation. Our data demonstrate that Bcl6a acts downstream of Vax1 and Vax2, known regulators of ventral optic cup formation and choroid fissure closure, and that bcl6a is a direct target of Vax2. Together, this regulatory network functions to repress p53 expression and thereby suppress apoptosis in the developing optic cup. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that Bcl6a functions cooperatively with Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 in a common gene regulatory network that acts to repress p53 and prevent colobomata. Together, these data support a model in which p53-dependent apoptosis needs to be tightly regulated for normal optic cup formation and that Bcl6a, Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 activities mediate this regulation. PMID:23669349

  20. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  1. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  2. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  3. Ion accelerator system mounting design and operating characteristics for a 5 kW 30-cm xenon ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to determine the effect of accelerator grid mount geometry on the performance of the J-series ion optics assembly are described. Three mounting schemes, two flexible and one rigid, are compared for their relative ion extraction capability over a range of total accelerating voltages. The largest ion beam current, for the maximum total voltage investigated, is shown to occur using one of the flexible grid mounting geometries. However, at lower total voltages and reduced engine input power levels, the original rigid J-series ion optics accelerator grid mounts result in marginally better grid system performance at the same cold interelectrode gap.

  4. Minimizing Gravity Sag of a Large Mirror with an Inverted Hindle-Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A method of minimizing the optical distortion from gravity sag on a suspended large autocollimating flat mirror has been devised. This method consists of an inverted nine-point Hindle-Mount. A conventional Hindle-mount is located underneath a sky-viewing mirror and is primarily under compression loads from the weight of the mirror. It is not suitable for the situation where the mirror is viewing the ground, since a mirror would tend to fall out of the mount when in an inverted position. The inverted Hindle-Mount design consists of bonded joints on the backside of the mirror that allow the mirror to be held or suspended above an object to be viewed. This ability is useful in optical setups such as a calibration test where a flat mirror is located above a telescope so that the telescope may view a known optic.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of ELT-scale multi-object adaptive optics deformable mirror requirements and tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Bharmal, N. A.; Myers, R. M.; Morris, S. L.; Morris, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) has been demonstrated by the CANARY instrument on the William Herschel Telescope. However, for proposed MOAO systems on the next-generation extremely large telescopes (ELTs), such as ELT Adaptive optics for GaLaxy Evolution (EAGLE), many challenges remain. Here we investigate requirements that MOAO operation places on deformable mirrors (DMs) using a full end-to-end Monte Carlo adaptive optics (AO) simulation code. By taking into consideration a prior global ground-layer (GL) correction, we show that actuator density for the MOAO DMs can be reduced with little performance loss. We note that this reduction is only possible with the addition of a GL DM, whose order is greater than or equal to that of the original MOAO mirrors. The addition of a GL DM of lesser order does not affect system performance (if tip/tilt star sharpening is ignored). We also quantify the maximum mechanical DM stroke requirements (3.5 μm desired) and provide tolerances for the DM alignment accuracy, both lateral (to within an eighth of a sub-aperture) and rotational (to within 0.2°). By presenting results over a range of laser guide star asterism diameters, we ensure that these results are equally applicable for laser tomographic AO systems. We provide the opportunity for significant cost savings to be made in the implementation of MOAO systems, resulting from the lower requirement for DM actuator density.

  6. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  7. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  8. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  9. Report of the facility definition team spacelab UV-Optical Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Scientific requirements for the Spacelab Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope (SUOT) facility are presented. Specific programs involving high angular resolution imagery over wide fields, far ultraviolet spectroscopy, precisely calibrated spectrophotometry and spectropolarimetry over a wide wavelength range, and planetary studies, including high resolution synoptic imagery, are recommended. Specifications for the mounting configuration, instruments for the mounting configuration, instrument mounting system, optical parameters, and the pointing and stabilization system are presented. Concepts for the focal plane instruments are defined. The functional requirements of the direct imaging camera, far ultraviolet spectrograph, and the precisely calibrated spectrophotometer are detailed, and the planetary camera concept is outlined. Operational concepts described in detail are: the makeup and functions of shuttle payload crew, extravehicular activity requirements, telescope control and data management, payload operations control room, orbital constraints, and orbital interfaces (stabilization, maneuvering requirements and attitude control, contamination, utilities, and payload weight considerations).

  10. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, Leslie J.; Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Nielsen, Engward W.; Ridler, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  11. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  12. Liver transplantation at Mount Sinai.

    PubMed

    Kim-Schluger, L; Florman, S S; Gondolesi, G; Emre, S; Sheiner, P A; Fishbein, T M; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 2000 liver transplants have been performed over the past 12 years at Mount Sinai, with a recent exponential growth in living donor surgeries. Living-donor liver transplantation has emerged as an important option for our patients with end-stage liver disease. We are only beginning to recognize fully the advantages that 'scheduled' liver transplantation can offer. In this era of severe cadaver organ shortages, living donation offers patients the option of liver replacement in a timely fashion, before life-threatening complications of hepatic failure and/or carcinoma progression prohibit transplantation. The next era of transplantation at Mount Sinai will bring significant increases in the number of transplants performed with living donors, with projections of over 50% of the total transplants each year expected to involve living donations. We are committed to offering this option while recognizing that donor safety remains paramount and cannot be overemphasized. Proper donor and recipient selection, as well as surgical experience are imperative to success with this technically demanding procedure. Recurrent disease after transplantation, particularly with hepatitis C, remains a challenge clinically. Further investigations into the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of recurrent hepatitis C need to be addressed. Living donor transplantation could be an important option for these patients and would allow timely transplantation and the potential for improved survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11512318

  13. Side mount universal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, D. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    An automobile battery is described of the type having side mounted, threaded bolt hole terminal connectors, battery cables having bored disc shaped terminals with peripheral insulating covers and, an improved terminal connector bolt adapted to accommodate the battery cable terminals and other electrical accessory terminals comprising: an elongated body of electrically conducting material having a longitudinal axis and an inner end and an outer end; a first generally cylindrical threaded stud formed on the inner end of the body. The first stud has a length and diameter disposed to permit thread engagement of the stud with one of the side mounted terminal connectors on the battery in electrical connection therewith, and pass through the bore in one of the battery cable terminals; a central portion on the body adjacent to and outwardly from the first stud, the central portion has a peripheral diameter greater than the first stud portion and has a first shoulder surface generally normal to the longitudinal axis of the body facing toward the inner end of the body and disposed to engage the face surface of one of the battery cable terminals in an electrically conducting relationship.

  14. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  15. Diesel particulate trap mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.R.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes a particulate trap assembly. It comprises an outer housing having a gas inlet and a gas outlet and a passageway interconnecting the gas inlet and the gas outlet; a particulate trapping means located within the passageway of the housing for trapping particles entrained in gas passing through the passageway, the passageway and the particulate trapping means having circumferential extents which fall within relatively large predetermined manufacturing tolerances respectively; tourniquet means surrounding the particulate trapping means for applying a predetermined radial pressure to the trapping means which is substantially independent of the circumferential extents of the passageway and the including an encircling element having a selectably adjustable circumferential extent for permitting the tourniquet means to conform to the circumferential extent of the particulate trapping means when mounted in compressive relationship about the particulate trapping means, and mounting means for retaining the particulate trapping means radially and axially within the passageway in a manner which imposes no further substantial radial compressive force to the particulate trapping means.

  16. Head Mounted Display with a Roof Mirror Array Fold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention includes a head mounted display (HMD) worn by a user. The HMD includes a display projecting an image through an optical lens. The HMD also includes a one-dimensional retro reflective array receiving the image through the optical lens at a first angle with respect to the display and deflecting the image at a second angle different than the first angle with respect to the display. The one-dimensional retro reflective array reflects the image in order to project the image onto an eye of the user.

  17. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Haughney, L. C.; Innis, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20-40-microns on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  18. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, P.M.; Haughney, L.C.; Innis, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20--40-..mu..m on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  19. Hydrothermal alteration in the Mount Hood Area, Oregon. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, K.E.; Keith, T.E.C.; Beeson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrothermal alteration of numerous outcrop samples collected in the vicinity of Mount Hood, as well as drill cuttings from 13 of the geothermal drill holes for which the authors were able to obtain sample splits. The study is also an outgrowth of a geologic and mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness area in compliance with the Wilderness Act which requires that the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluate the mineral resource potential of certain specified parcels of government-owned land.

  20. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  1. What advances in microscopy are required for combined MRI and optical functional brain imaging? (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfeld, David

    2016-03-01

    This overview talk will focus on forward-looking scientific needs and physical limits to images of neuronal processes. The challenge in nervous systems is that the basic unit for "switching" events in the nervous system occurs on the one micrometer scale of synaptic spines, while computations involve communication between individual neurons across the full expanse of cortex, which is ten millimeters for mouse cortex. I will address hoped-for advances in optical microscopy, within the context of existing and proposed contrast mechanisms of neuronal function, that span the four orders of magnitude of length scales for neuronal processing

  2. Mount for a large potassium bromide beamsplitter in a cryogenic space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Gregory L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes an approach to mounting Potassium Bromide (KBr) optical elements that are expected to survive launch vibrations and a cryogenic environment. These KBr optics constitute the beamsplitter and compensator for a high-resolution, infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. This spectrometer is part of the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) instrument which will operate in the 3.2 to 15.4 micrometers spectral range. TES is part of NASA's Earth Observing System initiative to better understand our Earth's environment. TES is designed to obtain data on tropospheric ozone and other gas molecules that lead to ozone formation. These data will be used to create a 3D model describing the global distribution of these gases to better understand global warming and ozone depletion. TES uses a Connes interferometer where the clear aperture (CA) responsible for splitting the science beam is distinct and separated by 108 mm from the CA with recombines the split beams. KBr has a low elastic limit and a high coefficient of thermal expansion, is highly soluble in water and is susceptible to degradation from humidity. These characteristics make it a rather difficult optical material to mount and protect from environments typically resisted by glass optics. The design described here uses a diameter to thickness aspect ratio of 6:1 (based on a 190 mm diameter) resulting in a rather massive element. Due to instrument mass and volume constraints in the interferometer, a pseudo-rectangular shape for the optical elements was devised and a graphite/cyanate ester support structure was designed to minimize the mass of the entire beamsplitter assembly. Vibration isolation of the optical elements was provided by RTV silicone pads, which were also designed to meet thermal stress concerns for the 180 K operating environment. Both structural and thermal analyses were performed to verify the initial design. Further vibration and thermal testing of development units is expected to

  3. Small optical telescopes on the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Problems associated with the design and operation of efficient lunar-based telescopes are discussed. The various types of reflecting telescopes and catadioptric optical systems developed so far are characterized and compared. Requirements concerning mounting of a telescope on the lunar surface are examined. Properties of materials to be used in manufacturing telescopes for a safe operation in the lunar environment are considered. Finally, the telescope size is dealt with.

  4. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  5. Continuous monitoring of Mount St. Helens Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Day by day monitoring of the Mount St. Helens Volcano. These are four scenarios, very different scenarios, that can occur in a average week at Mount St. Helens. Ranging from eruptions of gas and to steam to eruptions of ash and pyroclastic flows to even calm days. This example of monitoring illustrates the differences from day to day volcanic activities at Mount St. Helens. 

  6. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  7. Image Quality Analysis and Optical Performance Requirement for Micromirror-Based Lissajous Scanning Displays

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weiqi; Zhang, Gaofei; Ye, Liangchen

    2016-01-01

    Micromirror-based scanning displays have been the focus of a variety of applications. Lissajous scanning displays have advantages in terms of power consumption; however, the image quality is not good enough. The main reason for this is the varying size and the contrast ratio of pixels at different positions of the image. In this paper, the Lissajous scanning trajectory is analyzed and a new method based on the diamond pixel is introduced to Lissajous displays. The optical performance of micromirrors is discussed. A display system demonstrator is built, and tests of resolution and contrast ratio are conducted. The test results show that the new Lissajous scanning method can be used in displays by using diamond pixels and image quality remains stable at different positions. PMID:27187390

  8. Analysis of UV protection requirements and testing of candidate attenuators for the Haloe optical instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.; Goad, W. K.; Heath, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of calculations are presented which simulate photolytic processes occurring in HALOE gas calibration cells exposed to extra-terrestrial solar ultraviolet photons. These calculations indicate that significant photolysis takes place in two of the sapphire-enclosed cells over the exposure periods of the proposed mission. A subsequent laboratory investigation is also described in which a high-voltage discharge hydrogen light source is used in conjunction with a vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph. The UV emission from this lamp was used to expose two candidate UV attenuators (ZnSe and coated Ge) to ascertain their suitability as UV filters while maintaining original infrared optical properties. Both materials were found to be effectively opaque to vacuum UV radiaton and suffered no adverse effects regarding their infrared transmissivity.

  9. The Mount Rainier Lahar Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; Murray, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate the risk of unheralded lahars from Mount Rainier, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County, Washington, installed a lahar-detection system on the Puyallup and Carbon rivers that originate on Mount Rainier's western slopes. The system, installed in 1998, is designed to automatically detect the passage of lahars large enough to potentially affect populated areas downstream (approximate volume threshold 40 million cubic meters), while ignoring small lahars, earthquakes, extreme weather and floods. Along each river valley upstream, arrays of independent lahar-monitoring stations equipped with geophones and short tripwires telemeter data to a pair of redundant computer base stations located in and near Tacoma at existing public safety facilities that are staffed around the clock. Monitored data consist of ground-vibration levels, tripwire status, and transmissions at regular intervals. The base stations automatically evaluate these data to determine if a dangerous lahar is passing through the station array. The detection algorithm requires significant ground vibration to occur at those stations in the array that are above the anticipated level of inundation, while lower level `deadman' stations, inundated by the flow, experience tripwire breakage or are destroyed. Once a base station detects a lahar, it alerts staff who execute a call-down of public-safety officials and schools, initiating evacuation of areas potentially at risk. Because the system's risk-mitigation task imposes high standards of reliability on all components, it has been under test for several years. To date, the system has operated reliably and without false alarms, including during the nearby M6.8 Nisqually Earthquake on February 28, 2001. The system is being turned over to Pierce County, and activated as part of their lahar warning system.

  10. Design and analysis of isostatic mounts on a spaceborne lightweight primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Chang, S. T.; Huang, T. M.; Hsu, M. Y.

    2013-09-01

    The paper is aimed at obtaining the optimum isostatic mount configuration for a ZERODUR® primary mirror with a predesigned lightweight configuration on the back for a space Cassegrain telescope. The finite element analysis and Zernike polynomial fitting based on the Taguchi method are applied to the whole optimization process. Under the integrated optomechanical analysis, three isostatic mounts are bonded to the center of gravity of the mirror. Geometrical control factors and levels have been selected to minimize the optical aberrations under self-weight loading. The optimum isostatic mount with the least induced astigmatism value is finally attained under the Taguchi method.

  11. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  12. Advanced manufacturing methods for chalcogenide molded optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogburn, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    As Chalcogenide glass and Precision Molded Optics (PMO) have developed and matured to a point of being accepted as replacements for Germanium Single Point Diamond Turned (SPDT) optics; technological research is being dedicated to developing infrared PMO that can be used in a broader application base. These include laser arrays, large aperture molded chalcogenide optics, and molded in mount infrared optics. This paper presents applications for infrared laser arrays and the corresponding optics that must be closely mechanically mounted to avoid clipping the beams. Different molding and mounting techniques will be discussed to solve this issue which include; dicing chalcogenide optic lenses, molded in mount chalcogenide optics and stepped optic shape molding for mounting purposes. Accompanying the research and discussion of these techniques will be experiments and molded chalcogenide glass lenses showing the results and application for each lens type.

  13. Sting-Mounted Flow Survey Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Flow survey instrumentation integral part of model support system. Drive motor, limit switches, and position transducer contained within streamlined housing and operable in near vacuum wing-tunnel environment. Sting-mounted system has advantages over conventional wall-mounted flow-field survey equipment, include more efficiently utilized run time, higher position accuracy, and fewer runs to map flow field.

  14. A flexible cruciform journal bearing mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, A. E.; Geiger, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Flexible mount achieves low roll, pitch and yaw stiffnesses while maintaining high radial stiffness by holding bearing pad in fixed relationship to deep web cruciform member and holding this member in fixed relationship to bearing support. This mount has particular application in small, high performance gas turbines.

  15. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  16. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  17. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  18. Adapter plate assembly for adjustable mounting of objects

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, R.S.

    1986-05-02

    An adapter plate and two locking discs are together affixed to an optic table with machine screws or bolts threaded into a fixed array of internally threaded holes provided in the table surface. The adapter plate preferably has two, and preferably parallel, elongated locating slots each freely receiving a portion of one of the locking discs for secure affixation of the adapter plate to the optic table. A plurality of threaded apertures provided in the adapter plate are available to attach optical mounts or other devices onto the adapter plate in an orientation not limited by the disposition of the array of threaded holes in the table surface. An axially aligned but radially offset hole through each locking disc receives a screw that tightens onto the table, such that prior to tightening of the screw the locking disc may rotate and translate within each locating slot of the adapter plate for maximum flexibility of the orientation thereof.

  19. Adapter plate assembly for adjustable mounting of objects

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    An adapter plate and two locking discs are together affixed to an optic table with machine screws or bolts threaded into a fixed array of internally threaded holes provided in the table surface. The adapter plate preferably has two, and preferably parallel, elongated locating slots each freely receiving a portion of one of the locking discs for secure affixation of the adapter plate to the optic table. A plurality of threaded apertures provided in the adapter plate are available to attach optical mounts or other devices onto the adapter plate in an orientation not limited by the disposition of the array of threaded holes in the table surface. An axially aligned but radially offset hole through each locking disc receives a screw that tightens onto the table, such that prior to tightening of the screw the locking disc may rotate and translate within each locating slot of the adapter plate for maximum flexibility of the orientation thereof.

  20. 78 FR 59954 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Michigan State Police... the Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer...

  1. A miniaturized pointing mount for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, C. G.; Howell, T., Jr.; Nicaise, P. D.; Parker, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Miniaturized Pointing Mount (MPM) for Spacelab missions is defined and simulation results are described. This mount is proposed to complement the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It uses the same mount isolator concept as the Spacelab IPS but is much more efficient and economical for the accommodation of small shuttle payloads. The MPM is built from star tracker assemblies left over from the Apollo Telescope Mount program thereby assuring low cost and development risk. Simulation results indicate a high level of instrument stability can be expected. The short development time of the MPM would permit it to serve as a precursor to the Spacelab IPS for verifying critical new concepts such as the mount isolation and hold down mechanisms.

  2. Fiber optics welder

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  3. Primary succession in Mount Pinatubo

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; del Moral, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation structure on the east flank of Mount Pinatubo was investigated to determine the inventory of species at 15 y post-eruption, then to ascertain environmental variables that have influenced the early patterns of primary succession. Unconstrained and constrained ordination methods were used to determine the influence of spatial, elevation, and substrate patterns on vegetation. Vegetation was assigned to one of 3 habitat types. Scours were eroded flat surfaces, terraces were perched flat surfaces, and talus piles were created along the canyon edges as mass waste events. The influence of habitat type on vegetation was multifaceted because they represent different conditions and different histories. The talus piles have preferential access to colonists from the vegetation on the canyon walls above and a more benign microclimate than the exposed terrace and scour sites. Scoured sites on the valley floor exhibited the least vegetation cover, as these substrates had the least mature surfaces and the most restricted capacity for root exploration. Perched terraces exhibited greater plant dominance than did the other habitats in the early stages of succession because of the ubiquitous appearance of Parasponia rugosa as initial colonists on these relatively flat surfaces. Polynomial canonical correspondence analysis was more closely aligned with the pattern of vegetation than linear canonical correspondence analysis, and therefore more closely approximated accurate descriptions of correlations among site ordination positions and measured variables. These results confirm that a variety of statistical approaches can clarify applications for restoration ecology following landslide and volcanic disturbances or agriculture and forestry anthropogenic disturbances in the lowland tropics. PMID:24505499

  4. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  5. Parasitic Interference in Long Baseline Optical Interferometry: Requirements for Hot Jupiter-like Planet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, A.; Lopez, B.; Lagarde, S.; Danchi, W. C.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Petrov, R. G.; Navarro, R.

    2009-12-01

    The observable quantities in optical interferometry, which are the modulus and the phase of the complex visibility, may be corrupted by parasitic fringes superimposed on the genuine fringe pattern. These fringes are due to an interference phenomenon occurring from stray light effects inside an interferometric instrument. We developed an analytical approach to better understand this phenomenon when stray light causes cross talk between beams. We deduced that the parasitic interference significantly affects the interferometric phase and thus the associated observables including the differential phase and the closure phase. The amount of parasitic flux coupled to the piston between beams appears to be very influential in this degradation. For instance, considering a point-like source and a piston ranging from λ/500 to λ/5 in the L band (λ = 3.5 μm), a parasitic flux of about 1% of the total flux produces a parasitic phase reaching at most one-third of the intrinsic phase. The piston, which can have different origins (instrumental stability, atmospheric perturbations, etc.), thus amplifies the effect of parasitic interference. According to the specifications of piston correction in space or at ground level (respectively λ/500 ≈ 2 nm and λ/30 ≈ 100 nm), the detection of hot Jupiter-like planets, one of the most challenging aims for current ground-based interferometers, limits parasitic radiation to about 5% of the incident intensity. This was evaluated by considering different types of hot Jupiter synthetic spectra. Otherwise, if no fringe tracking is used, the detection of a typical hot Jupiter-like system with a solar-like star would admit a maximum level of parasitic intensity of 0.01% for piston errors equal to λ/15. If the fringe tracking specifications are not precisely observed, it thus appears that the allowed level of parasitic intensity dramatically decreases and may prevent the detection. In parallel, the calibration of the parasitic phase by a

  6. PARASITIC INTERFERENCE IN LONG BASELINE OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY: REQUIREMENTS FOR HOT JUPITER-LIKE PLANET DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Matter, A.; Lopez, B.; Lagarde, S.; Danchi, W. C.; Navarro, R.

    2009-12-01

    The observable quantities in optical interferometry, which are the modulus and the phase of the complex visibility, may be corrupted by parasitic fringes superimposed on the genuine fringe pattern. These fringes are due to an interference phenomenon occurring from stray light effects inside an interferometric instrument. We developed an analytical approach to better understand this phenomenon when stray light causes cross talk between beams. We deduced that the parasitic interference significantly affects the interferometric phase and thus the associated observables including the differential phase and the closure phase. The amount of parasitic flux coupled to the piston between beams appears to be very influential in this degradation. For instance, considering a point-like source and a piston ranging from lambda/500 to lambda/5 in the L band (lambda = 3.5 mum), a parasitic flux of about 1% of the total flux produces a parasitic phase reaching at most one-third of the intrinsic phase. The piston, which can have different origins (instrumental stability, atmospheric perturbations, etc.), thus amplifies the effect of parasitic interference. According to the specifications of piston correction in space or at ground level (respectively lambda/500 approx 2 nm and lambda/30 approx 100 nm), the detection of hot Jupiter-like planets, one of the most challenging aims for current ground-based interferometers, limits parasitic radiation to about 5% of the incident intensity. This was evaluated by considering different types of hot Jupiter synthetic spectra. Otherwise, if no fringe tracking is used, the detection of a typical hot Jupiter-like system with a solar-like star would admit a maximum level of parasitic intensity of 0.01% for piston errors equal to lambda/15. If the fringe tracking specifications are not precisely observed, it thus appears that the allowed level of parasitic intensity dramatically decreases and may prevent the detection. In parallel, the calibration

  7. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0004 : Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optics Systems, Tray F08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), M0004 : Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optics Systems, Tray F08 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment on the LDEF. The Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems Experiment occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, an Electronic Power and Data System (EPDS), three aluminum experiment mounting plates, two aluminum cover plates, four operational digital optical data links (lengths of 48 m, 45 m and two 20 m) exposed to the space environment, three passive cabled fiber optic links (each 10 m long) with electronic components and end connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet stainless steel fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four active cabled optical fiber links (one black, one blue, one yellow and one light tan), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The three mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint, the large cover plate is coated with Chemglaze II A-276 white paint and the smaller cover plate is coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint to meet thermal control requirements. The three passive cabled optical fiber links and all emitters, detectors and associated electronics are located in the interior volume of the tray. All cabled optical fibers terminate in connectors mounted in brackets that are located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates.

  8. High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument.

    PubMed

    Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Sauvage, J-F; Petit, C; Beuzit, J-L; Dohlen, K; Mouillet, D; Charton, J; Nicolle, M; Kasper, M; Baudoz, P; Puget, P

    2006-08-21

    The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010. PMID:19529118

  9. Laue optics for nuclear astrophysics: New detector requirements for focused gamma-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, N.; von Ballmoos, P.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Bastie, P.; Camus, T.; Courtois, P.; Jentschel, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Natalucci, L.; Roudil, G.; Rousselle, J.; Wunderer, C. B.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear astrophysics presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. But in order to take full advantage of this potential, telescopes should be at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than present technologies. Today, Laue lenses have demonstrated their capability of focusing gamma-rays in the 100 keV-1 MeV domain, enabling the possibility of building a new generation of instruments for which sensitive area is decoupled from collecting area. Thus we have now the opportunity of dramatically increase the signal/background ratio and hence improve significantly the sensitivity. With a lens, the best detector is no longer the largest possible within a mission envelope. The point spread function of a Laue lens measures a few centimeters in diameter, but the field of view is limited by the detector size. Requirements for a focal plane instrument are presented in the context of the Gamma-Ray Imager mission (proposed to European Space Agency, ESA in the framework of the first Cosmic Vision AO): a 15-20 cm a side finely pixellated detector capable of Compton events reconstruction seems to be optimal, giving polarization and background rejection capabilities and 30 arcsec of angular resolution within a field of view of 5 arc min.

  10. JWST ISIM Primary Structure and Kinematic Mount Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew; Carnahan, Tim; Hendricks, Steve; Kaprielian, Charles; Kuhn, Jonathan; Kunt, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we will review the evolution of the ISIM primary structure tube topology and kinematic mount configuration to the current baseline concept. We will also show optimization procedures used and challenges resulting from complex joints under launch loads. Two additional key ISIM structure challenges of meeting thermal distortion and stability requirements and metal-composite bonded joint survivability at cryogenic temperatures are covered in other presentations.

  11. Decoupling analysis for a powertrain mounting system with a combination of hydraulic mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinfang; Chen, Wuwei; Huang, He

    2013-07-01

    The existing torque roll axis(TRA) decoupling theories for a powertrain mounting system assume that the stiffness and viscous damping properties are constant. However, real-life mounts exhibit considerable spectrally varying stiffness and damping characteristics, and the influence of the spectrally-varying properties of the hydraulic mounts on the powertrain system cannot be ignored. To overcome the deficiency, an analytical quasi-linear model of the hydraulic mount and the coupled properties of the powertrain and hydraulic mounts system are formulated. The influence of the hydraulic mounts on the TRA decoupling of a powertrain system is analytically examined in terms of eigensolutions, frequency, and impulse responses, and then a new analytical axiom is proposed based on the TRA decoupling indices. With the experimental setup of a fixed decoupler hydraulic mount in the context of non-resonant dynamic stiffness testing procedure, the quasi-linear model of the hydraulic mount is verified by comparing the predictions with the measurement. And the quasi-linear formulation of the coupled system is also verified by comparing the frequency responses with the numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method. Finally, the mounting system with a combination of hydraulic mounts is redesigned in terms of the stiffness, damping and mount locations by satisfying the new axiom. The frequency and time domain results of the redesigned system demonstrate that the torque roll axis of the redesigned powertrain mounting system is indeed decoupled in the presence of hydraulic mounts (given oscillating torque or impulsive torque excitation). The proposed research provides an important basis and method for the research on a powertrain system with spectrally-varying mount properties, especially for the TRA decoupling.

  12. Mount Shasta Wilderness study area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Tuchek, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness study area was surveyed in 1975. It lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  13. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  14. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  15. Vibration dissipation mount for motors or the like

    DOEpatents

    Small, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A vibration dissipation mount which permits the mounting of a motor, generator, or the like such that the rotatable shaft thereof passes through the mount and the mount permits the dissipation of self-induced and otherwise induced vibrations wherein the mount comprises a pair of plates having complementary concave and convex surfaces, a semi-resilient material being disposed therebetween.

  16. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Adam P.

    2012-06-01

    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  17. Solar collector mounting and support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, J.A.

    1981-12-22

    A solar collector system is described of the type having a movable surface for receiving solar radiation having improved means for rotatably supporting the movable surface and for rotating the collector surface. A support axle for the collector includes a ball at one end which is carried within a cylindrical sleeve in the solar collector to support the weight of the collector. A torque transmitting arm comprising a flexible flat strip is connected at one end to the axle and at the other end to the collector surface. An improved rotational drive mechanism includes a first sprocket wheel carried on the axle and a second sprocket wheel supported on a support pylon with a drive chain engaging both sprockets. A double acting piston also supported by the pylon is coupled to the chain so that the chain may be driven by a hydraulic control system to rotate the collector surfaces as required. An improved receiver tube support ring is also provided for use with the improved mounting and support apparatus to improve overall efficiency by reducing thermal losses.

  18. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  19. The segmentation of the HMD market: optics for smart glasses, smart eyewear, AR and VR headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Saeedi, Ehsan; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the various optical technologies that have been developed to implement HMDs (Head Mounted Displays), both as AR (Augmented Reality) devices, VR (Virtual Reality) devices and more recently as smart glasses, smart eyewear or connected glasses. We review the typical requirements and optical performances of such devices and categorize them into distinct groups, which are suited for different (and constantly evolving) market segments, and analyze such market segmentation.

  20. Modification of Fixture Mount to be Used as an Impression Coping in Closely Placed Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anoop; K, Cauvery; Kumar, Pawan; Havale, Raghavendra

    2014-01-01

    An implant-level impression is often desired for designing and fabricating an implant-supported fixed restoration. This clinical report describes the use of modified press-fit metal implant fixture mount as an impression coping for making an impression of closely placed implants. The fixture mount is easier to manipulate, time saving and more comfortable for both the clinician and patient because the implant fixture mount is connected to the implant by pressing on instead of screwing. As compared to plastic press fit impression coping, metal fixture mount will not distort when modification of fixture mount are required in convergently or closely placed implants. It has the advantage of both the open-tray and closed-tray implant impression techniques. PMID:24959520

  1. Using wintergreen oil for mounting mosquito larvae: a safer alternative to xylene.

    PubMed

    Koay, J B; Natasya, N N; Nashithatul, Mag; Ihsanuddin, R; Salleh, F M; Azil, A H

    2016-01-01

    Permanent mounting of fourth instar mosquito larvae is essential for identifying Aedes spp. This procedure requires extensive exposure to xylene, a clearing agent in the mounting process. We investigated wintergreen oil as a substitute for xylene. Five hundred larvae were mounted on slides to evaluate shrinkage or expansion of specimens after clearing using xylene or wintergreen oil. We examined the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts for species identification and for preservation of morphological characteristics after clearing specimens in xylene or wintergreen oil. Shrinkage of the length of whole larvae and width of the head, thorax and abdomen after mounting was significantly greater after clearing with xylene than with wintergreen oil. The length of the comb scale nearest the ventral brush was similar for both clearing agents. The clarity of the specimens after mounting was improved by clearing with wintergreen oil, but the integrity of the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts were similar for both clearing agents. PMID:26528914

  2. Strain Gauges Mounted To Retain Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon-based semiconductor strain gauges mounted in such way they retain original calibration for several years instead of few months. Improvement effected by bonding gauges to ceramic substrates with glasses instead of epoxies as adhesives.

  3. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz. PMID:12071247

  4. Microgravity isolation mounts based upon Piezoelectric film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonflotow, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuator; a semi-active soft mount; a 3-axis experiment; low frequency disturbance attenuation; the control problem; and a 6-axis laboratory prototype.

  5. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission. PMID:20168601

  6. Mount Rainier: living with perilous beauty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.

    1998-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano reaching more than 2.7 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level. Its majestic edifice looms over expanding suburbs in the valleys that lead to nearby Puget Sound. USGS research over the last several decades indicates that Mount Rainier has been the source of many volcanic mudflows (lahars) that buried areas now densely populated. Now the USGS is working cooperatively with local communities to help people live more safely with the volcano.

  7. Model mount system for testing flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A wind tunnel model mount system is disclosed for effectively and accurately determining the effects of attack and airstream velocity on a model airfoil or aircraft. The model mount system includes a rigid model attached to a splitter plate which is supported away from the wind tunnel wall several of flexible rods. Conventional instrumentation is employed to effect model rotation through a turntable and to record model flutter data as a function of the angle of attack versus dynamic pressure.

  8. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  9. Compact parallel optical interface built with optical fiber tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Gilbert, Karen; Bernabe, Stéphane; Albert, Blandine

    2006-09-01

    MultiChip Module approach and the use of micro-optics offer determinant solutions to reach the mechanical compactness required by most applications for high rate data communications transmitters and receivers. Such a miniaturization often leads to develop very challenging assembling processes when fiber coupling is needed. In this paper we present an original fabrication process to build very small parallel optical interface with optical fiber tips. This fabrication process is based on common fiber ribbon mounting into wet etched V shaped holder into silicon and a dicing-polishing step to create small pieces with optical quality considering flatness and roughness. The dicing-polishing principle is well-known in integrated waveguides technology. An example of realization is presented to connect a parallel optical subassembly transmitter with a MPO/MTP connector. The results show that the dicing-polishing step allows to obtain a diced-polished face with a roughness about 5 to 10nm onto the fiber. Such an optical quality is as good as a cleaved fiber when measuring light coupling performances. Thus, such micro-optical components offer a new building block for designers to extract the light from their photonic devices. Moreover, the fabrication process appears to be low cost and compatible with mass production.

  10. Zero-Shear, Low-Disturbance Optical Delay Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseas, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    A design concept has been proposed for an optomechanical apparatus that would implement a variable optical delay line with a fixed angle between its input and output light beams. The apparatus would satisfy requirements that emphasize performance in interferometric applications: to contain a minimum number of optical surfaces, each used at low angle-of-incidence, and to be nominally free of shear (transverse motion of the beam) on any optical element. As an additional advantage, the apparatus would afford partial compensation of vibration disturbances associated with adjustment of the optical delay by both reducing the amount of motion required to achieve a desired optical delay and by splitting the total motion between two assemblies. As compared to prior art implementations of delay lines, the only disadvantage of the concept is that the motions of the optical elements must be well coordinated through mechanical linkages or electronic controls. The optical elements would be two flat mirrors -- M1 and M2 -- mounted on linear actuators. The actuation axes of M1 and M2 would be parallel to the incoming and outgoing light beams, respectively. M1 would be mounted on its actuator at a fixed angle required to aim the beam reflected from it to the center of M2. In turn, M2 would be mounted on its actuator at a fixed angle required to aim the outgoing beam in the desired direction. Moreover, the angles of M1 and M2 would be chosen so that the angle between M1 and the incoming beam equals the angle between M2 and the outgoing beam.

  11. Milestone Report for High NA Optics Development International Sematech Project L1TH 112 Milestone4a: Specification Package for the Polished Mirror Substrate M1

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Hale, L.

    1999-10-08

    The key task in initiating the fabrication of mirror substrates for the new High NA Camera is in preparing the specification package that details the substrate geometry and the specifications for the optical surface. This specification package has been completed for substrate M1, and the vendor has begun optical fabrication. In addition, mounting hardware has been designed and fabricated, and substrates have been bonded to the kinematic mounts. The design of the secondary substrate, M2, is underway, but will depend upon details of the PO Box actuation system and space constraints. Sufficient details of the M2 design to enable the vendor to procure material will be determined during October, while the final details of the mounting surfaces will be completed prior to the end of Q4 1999. The geometry of the Ml substrate is compatible with our planned approach for fixturing the optic within the PO Box and within metrology tools. The completion of this specification package required detailed consideration of: the mounting approach within the PO Box, degrees of actuation required for PO Box alignment, space constraints imposed by the vendor's metrology, requirements for LLNL metrology, and datum definitions needed for mechanical assembly of the PO Box. In addition, each of the degrees of freedom of the substrate has been properly constrained, and shown to be sufficiently insensitive to disturbance forces for minimizing deformation. An approach to fixturing has been adopted that extends beyond the approach taken for the Engineering Test Stand (ETS). For the ETS, each substrate, including spares, has dedicated mounting hardware that is used exclusively for each element. In exchange for a reduced risk of mounting-induced deformation, this incurred substantial expense and precluded optics from using interchangeable tooling. For the current High NA camera, we have adopted an approach that employs interchangeable mounting hardware that can be used for any of the substrates

  12. Mount St. Helens related aerosol properties from solar extinction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Kleckner, E. W.; Stokes, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A network of solar radiometers, operated on the North American Continent for an average of 2 years before the first major eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, continues to collect direct solar data through the eruptive phase of this volcano. The radiometers collect spectral data through 12 interference filters spanning the sensitivity of the photodiode used as detector. The data are collected every 5 minutes in seven filters and every 15 minutes in five additional filters. A variant of the classical Langley method has been used to measure the optical depth of the aerosols as a function of wavelength. The network, which is the nearest station, is located some 180 kilometers east of the volcano, well within range of noticeable effects during much of the minor as well as major activity. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol-optical depth before and after the 22 July 1980 major eruption, which was well characterized because of favorable meteorological conditions is discussed.

  13. Design of tracking mount and controller for mobile satellite laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su; Kim, Byung In; Ham, Sang Young; Lee, Sung Whee; Lim, Hyung Chul

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have proposed and implemented a design for the tracking mount and controller of the ARGO-M (Accurate Ranging system for Geodetic Observation - Mobile) which is a mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM). The tracking mount comprises a few core components such as bearings, driving motors and encoders. These components were selected as per the technical specifications for the tracking mount of the ARGO-M. A three-dimensional model of the tracking mount was designed. The frequency analysis of the model predicted that the first natural frequency of the designed tracking mount was high enough. The tracking controller is simulated using MATLAB/xPC Target to achieve the required pointing and tracking accuracy. In order to evaluate the system repeatability and tracking accuracy of the tracking mount, a prototype of the ARGO-M was fabricated, and repeatability tests were carried out using a laser interferometer. Tracking tests were conducted using the trajectories of low earth orbit (LEO) and high earth orbit (HEO) satellites. Based on the test results, it was confirmed that the prototype of the tracking mount and controller of the ARGO-M could achieve the required repeatability along with a tracking accuracy of less than 1 arcsec.

  14. Accurate Orientation of the Polar Axis of an Equatorial Telescope Mounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J. R.; Coates, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a method for determining the orientation of the polar axis of an equatorially mounted optical telescope. The background theory illustrates some important properties of the celestial sphere and gives an insight into the usual "rule of thumb" methods of axis orientation; it also provides a basis for instructors and students to devise their…

  15. Requirements validation testing on the 7 optical fiber array connector/cable assemblies for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Jin, Xiaodan Linda; LaRocca, Frank V.; Matuszeski, Adam; Chuska, Richard F.; MacMurphy, Shawn L.

    2007-09-01

    In the past year, a unique capability has been created by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in support of Lunar Exploration. The photonics group along with support from the Mechanical Systems Division, developed a seven fiber array assembly using a custom Diamond AVIM PM connector for space flight applications. This technology enabled the Laser Ranging Application for the LRO to be possible. Laser pulses at 532 nm will be transmitted from the earth to the LRO stationed at the moon and used to make distance assessments. The pulses will be collected with the Laser Ranging telescope and focused into the array assemblies. The array assemblies span down a boom, through gimbals and across the space craft to the instrument the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Through use of a LOLA detector the distance between the LRO and the Earth will be calculated simultaneously while LOLA is mapping the surface of the moon. The seven fiber array assemblies were designed in partnership with W.L. Gore, Diamond Switzerland, and GSFC, manufactured by the Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and tested for environmental effects there as well. Presented here are the requirements validation testing and results used to insure that these unique assemblies would function adequately during the Laser Ranging 14-month mission. The data and results include in-situ monitoring of the optical assemblies during cold gimbal motion life-testing, radiation, vibration and thermal testing.

  16. Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisodia, Ashok; Bayer, Michael; Townley-Smith, Paul; Nash, Brian; Little, Jay; Cassarly, William; Gupta, Anurag

    2007-04-01

    Due to significantly increased U.S. military involvement in deterrent, observer, security, peacekeeping and combat roles around the world, the military expects significant future growth in the demand for deployable virtual reality trainers with networked simulation capability of the battle space visualization process. The use of HMD technology in simulated virtual environments has been initiated by the demand for more effective training tools. The AHMD overlays computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) augmented with actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD can be used to support deployable reconfigurable training solutions as well as traditional simulation requirements, UAV augmented reality, air traffic control and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) applications. This paper will describe the design improvements implemented for production of the AHMD System.

  17. LDEF (Flight), S0109 : Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment, Tray C12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment (FODTE) flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on clamp blocks at each end of the experiment tray lower flange appear to be discolored. The FODTE occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, four aluminum mounting plates, an aluminum cover plate, ten fiber optic cable samples with connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four optical fiber cables (two black, one blue and one bright orange), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to the thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The four mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint and the exposed surface of the cover plate is painted with Chemglaze II A-276 white to meet thermal control requirements. Six additional coils of optical fiber cable samples, secured with nylon cable ties, are located in the bottom of the tray, four below the mounting plates and two below the cover plate. Each sample terminates in connectors mounted in brackets located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates. The FODTE appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. A flow pattern of discoloration appears to the right of each fastener used to secure the four mounting plates. Colors of two of the four exposed coils of fiber optic cables have changed significantly. The cable located in the upper right corner, originally a bright orange, appears to be dark blue and the cable in the lower left position has faded from a light blue to a blue-gray color. The color of the silicone-rubber spacers under the coil attach clips appears to have changed from clear to brown. Two brown circular discolorations have appeared, one

  18. Modal analysis of gear housing and mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Teik C.; Singh, RAJ.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic finite element analysis of a real gear housing is presented. The analysis was conducted for the housing without the rotating components (gears, shafts, and bearings). Both rigid and flexible mounting conditions for the gear housing are considered in this analysis. The flexible support simulates the realistic mounting condition on a rotorcraft, and the rigid one is analyzed for comparison purposes. The effect of gear housing stiffeners is also evaluated. The results indicate that the first six natural modes of the flexibly mounted gear housing in the 0 to 200 Hz range correspond to the translational and rotational rigid body vibration modes of the housing. Above this range, the housing plate elastic modes begin to occur. In the case of the rigid mount, only the housing plate elastic modes are observed which are verified by modal analysis experiments. Parametric studies show that the housing plate stiffeners and rigid mounts tend to increase most of the natural frequencies, the lower ones being affected the most.

  19. Aligning and testing non-null optical system with deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weirui; Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2014-09-01

    We present our analysis methodology for a 20.3 cm prototype optical tracker to determine why instabilities occur below 50 Hz and suggest improvements. The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer makes use of six small optical telescope stations spaced along a Y-array to synthesize an equivalent single larger telescope. Piezoelectric-driven optical trackers steer 12.5 cm output beams from each station to an optics laboratory up to 700 m distant. A percentage of this starlight is split off and used in a closed-loop feedback to update the pointing of the telescope and steering of the tracker. Steering stabilizes atmospheric induced beam trajectory deviations, required for fringe generation. Because of closedloop feedback, we require all fundamental frequencies to be at least 3 times the desired operational frequency, or 150 Hz. These trackers are modified commercial aluminum gimbal mounts with flex-pivot axles and very small damping ratio. Steering is tip/tilt mirror rotation by push-only actuators and a return spring. It is critical contact be maintained between actuator, mirror mount and return spring. From our dynamic analysis, the 122 N return spring is 2.9 times that required, and has a natural frequency equal to 238 Hz. The range of steering, 140 microradian, is double that required and the 0.077 microradian precision is 2.6 times that required. The natural frequency of the tracker is 66 Hz and the tuned closed-loop operational frequency is only 22 Hz. We conclude the low fundamental frequency of the mount limits its performance below 50 Hz and stiffening the structure is required.

  20. Alignment and integration of large optical systems based on advanced metrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliverti, M.; Riva, M.; Moschetti, M.; Pariani, G.; Genoni, M.; Zerbi, F. M.

    Optical alignment is a key activity in opto-mechanical system Integration. Traditional techniques require adjustable mounting, driven by optical references that allows the tuning of the optics position along all 6 Degree of Freedom. Nevertheless, the required flexibility imposes reduced stiffness and consequently less stability of the system. The Observatory of Brera (OAB) started few years ago a research activity focused onto the overcoming of this limits exploiting the high metrology performances of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) with the main objectives of relax the manufacturing tolerances and maximize mounting stiffness. Through the T-REX grants, OAB acquired all the instrumentation needed for that activity furthermore considering the ESPRESSO project training and testing also oriented to large scale instrumentation like the E-ELT one. We will present in this paper the definition of the VLTs convergence point and the feasibility study of large mirrors alignment done by mechanical measurements methods. skip=8pt

  1. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H.

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  2. Mount Sinai Hospital's journey into TQM.

    PubMed

    Freedman, T; Mapa, J; Droppo, L

    1994-01-01

    Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital commenced its total quality management journey in the late 1980s as a complement to its extensive experience in quality assurance. This article focuses on Phase I--the process of setting up teams. This phase includes project nomination and selection; team membership selection and education; and the quality improvement process. The authors share the lessons they learned during the course of the journey and present the directions that TQM at Mount Sinai will take in the future. PMID:10133636

  3. Reports from Science Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.

    1981-01-01

    The following reports describe extensive measurements of the properties of the gases and aerosols (particles) in the volcanic clouds produced by the eruptions of Mount St. Helens from March through August 1980. Volcanic material was first injected into the atmosphere on 27 March 1980. This material, as well as that introduced by subsequent eruptions during the next 2 months, was confined to the troposphere. On 18 May the first of several major explosions occurred in which some of the volcanic cloud penetrated well into the stratosphere. The nature of the volcanic activity at Mount St. Helens from the end of March through June was described.

  4. Landsat observations of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, C. G.; Bly, B. G.

    1981-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, and subsequent destruction of approximately 593 square kilometers (229 square miles) of vegetation, clearly provided a unique opportunity for earth-oriented satellite remote sensing systems. Landsat, a relatively high resolution Multispectral Scanner (MSS) system, imaged Mount St. Helens both before and after its major eruption. Digital data have been used to create a damage assessment map and a change detection image. Several classes of timber damage and land cover modification have been developed. Acreages for each class have been tabulated.

  5. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Side load on engine mount. 23.363 Section....363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for a limit load factor in a lateral direction, for the side load on the engine mount, of not less...

  6. Electrical Spreading Code-Based OFDM Optical Access Networks for Budget Enhancement and Reduced System Bandwidth Requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pravindra; Srivastava, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Passive optical networks based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM-PON) give better performance in high-speed optical access networks. For further improvement in performance, a new architecture of OFDM-PON based on spreading code in electrical domain is proposed and analytically analyzed in this paper. This approach is referred as hybrid multi-carrier code division multiple access-passive optical network (MC-CDMA-PON). Analytical results show that at bit error rate (BER) of 10-3, there is 9.4 dB and 14.2 dB improvement in optical power budget for downstream and upstream, respectively, with MC-CDMA-PON system as compared to conventional OFDM-PON system for the same number of optical network units (ONUs).

  7. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  8. Spinal neurosurgery with the head-mounted "Varioscope" microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, J; Simons, P

    2009-05-01

    We present a preliminary report on the intra-operative use of a head-mounted microscope ("Varioscope" Leica HM500) in spinal neurosurgery. The Varioscope is a dynamic microscope mounted on a head-set. It weights 297 g and measures 73 x 120 x 63 mm (length x width x height). It offers an infinitely variable range of magnification from 3.6x to 7.2x. The working distance ranges from 300 to 600 mm. The field of view varies between 30-144 mm, depending on the selected enlargement factor and the working distance. In addition to the zoom function, the device offers a focus function (automatic or on demand). The optical elements for focus and zoom are located in two separate tubes which are mounted on a middle section containing the mechanical components as well as the receiver unit for the focussing elements. The lenses are adjusted by means of motor-driven push/pull cables. The autofocus works well in larger operative fields and a working distance between 30 and 60 cm. Nevertheless, when used in today's "keyhole" approaches, the autofocus is not helpful when operating in deep structures. Based on the satisfactory results achieved in our series, we can recommend the Varioscope, especially when no stationary microscope is available. The portable device can be packed in a suitcase and can travel with the consultant microsurgeon to different hospitals and distant units. The built-in video camera is ideal for patients, staff, assistant surgeons, and student education with real-time video monitoring of procedures from the microsurgeon's perspective. For daily microsurgery, we felt more comfortable with fixed, stationary operating microscopes. PMID:19711265

  9. A new specimen of the Mount Dooling iron meteorite from Mount Manning, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laeter, J. R.

    1980-06-01

    The discovery of an iron meteorite near the Mount Manning Range in Western Australia which has been identified with the Mount Dooling meteorite is reported. The 701-kg iron meteorite was found embedded in the ground at a site 3 km east of the Mount Manning Range and approximately 6 km from the probable discovery site of Mount Dooling. The meteorite has a fan-shaped or delta wing configuration, with one side smooth and slightly concave with a well defined fusion crust and the other side rough, convex and possessing numerous regmaglypts; it is suggested that the meteorite performed a delta-wing-like flight at high angle of attack through much of the atmosphere. A comparison of the chemical composition, surface features, microstructure and location of the present meteorite with those of the Mount Dooling siderite confirms that the find represents a larger specimen of Mount Dooling. In light of the present discovery and that of another Mount Dooling fragment, Gosnells, it is predicted that other specimens may be discovered in the future.

  10. Vibration mounts for noise and vibration control

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1995-04-01

    Isolating noise and vibration is of major importance in engine applications whether on board ship or land. Ulstein Bergen, for instance, has virtually standardized on Metalastik D Series mounts for its range of lean-burn, gas engines used in power generation and cogeneration plants. In the largest engine installations, the Metalastik suspension system can carry as much as 47 tons, total weight. The system is designed to isolate the forces generated by a three megawatt engine able to develop full power within 10 seconds of starting. In setups of this size, as many as 24 mounts are arranged underneath the baseplate of the power unit. Metalastik recently announced an entirely new and innovative mounting for marine applications. The new Cushymount K mounting incorporates four separate rubber/metal spring elements housed between top and bottom iron castings. The design combines three-way control of engine movement with relatively large deflection in the rubber. The new design is claimed to be robust and easy to install by means of four bolt holes on the top and bottom castings. Other recommended applications include compressors, exhaust gas silencers, refrigeration/air-conditioning plant and similar ancillary equipment. 2 figs.

  11. PC board mount corrosion sensitive sensor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L.; Casias, Adrian L.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Laguna, George R.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention relates to surface mount structures including a capacitive element or a resistive element, where the element has a property that is responsive to an environmental condition. In particular examples, the structure can be optionally coupled to a printed circuit board. Other apparatuses, surface mountable structures, and methods of use are described herein.

  12. Shock absorbing mount for electrical components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, R. F., Jr.; Mayne, R. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A shock mount for installing electrical components on circuit boards is described. The shock absorber is made of viscoelastic material which interconnects the electrical components. With this system, shocks imposed on one component of the circuit are not transmitted to other components. A diagram of a typical circuit is provided.

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  14. Mount Everest as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The best, nearly cloud-free Shuttle view yet of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world at 29,028 feet. The peak, on the border between Nepal and China, is almost exactly in the center of the photograph. The challenging North Face is in shadow; valley glaciers radiate in all directions from the central massif.

  15. Earthquake swarms on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada; Baba, Megumi; Ueki, Sadato

    1986-12-01

    Mount Erebus (3794 m), located on Ross Island in McMurdo Sound, is one of the few active volcanoes in Antartica. A high-sensitivity seismic network has been operated by Japanese and US parties on and around the Volcano since December, 1980. The results of these observations show two kinds of seismic activity on Ross Island: activity concentrated near the summit of Mount Erebus associated with Strombolian eruptions, and micro-earthquake activity spread through Mount Erebus and the surrounding area. Seismicity on Mount Erebus has been quite high, usually exceeding 20 volcanic earthquakes per day. They frequently occur in swarms with daily counts exceeding 100 events. Sixteen earthquake swarms with more than 250 events per day were recorded by the seismic network during the three year period 1982-1984, and three notable earthquake swarms out of the sixteen were recognized, in October, 1982 (named 82-C), March-April, 1984 (84-B) and July, 1984 (84-F). Swarms 84-B and 84-F have a large total number of earthquakes and large Ishimoto-Iida's "m"; hence these two swarms are presumed to constitute on one of the precursor phenomena to the new eruption, which took place on 13 September, 1984, and lasted a few months.

  16. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  17. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Larry R.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Thomas, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing.

  18. Implications of Dynamic Pressure Transducer Mounting Variations on Measurements in Pyrotechnic Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibbern, Andreas; Crisafulli, Jeffrey; Hagopia, Michael; McDougle, Stephen H.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are often difficult to make within small pyrotechnic devices, and transducer mounting difficulties can cause data anomalies that lead to erroneous conclusions. Delayed initial pressure response followed by data ringing has been observed when using miniaturized pressure transducer mounting adapters required to interface transducers to small test chambers. This delayed pressure response and ringing, combined with a high data acquisition rate, has complicated data analysis. This paper compares the output signal characteristics from different pressure transducer mounting options, where the passage distance from the transducer face to the pyrotechnic chamber is varied in length and diameter. By analyzing the data and understating the associated system dynamics, a more realistic understanding of the actual dynamic pressure variations is achieved. Three pressure transducer mounting configurations (elongated, standard, and face/flush mount) were simultaneously tested using NASA standard initiators in closed volume pressure bombs. This paper also presents results of these pressure transducer mounting configurations as a result of a larger NASA Engineering and Safety Center pyrovalve test project. Results from these tests indicate the improved performance of using face/flush mounted pressure transducers in this application. This type of mounting improved initial pressure measurement response time by approximately 19 s over standard adapter mounting, eliminating most of the lag time; provided a near step-function type initial pressure increase; and greatly reduced data ringing in high data acquisition rate systems. The paper goes on to discuss other issues associated with the firing and instrumentation that are important for the tester to understand.

  19. Development of X-Ray Optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.; Bolognese, J.; Byron, G.; Caldwell, D.; Chan, K.; Content, D. A.; Gubarev, M.; Davis, W.; Freeman, M.; Hadjimichael, T. J.; He, C.; Hong, M.; Kolos, L.; Jones, W. D.; Lehan, . P.; Lozipone, L.; Mazzarella, J.; McClelland, R.; Nguyen, D. T.; Olsen, L.; Petre, R.; Podgorski, W.; Robinson, D.; Russell, R.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory requires mirror assemblies with unprecedented characteristics that cannot be provided by existing optical technologies. In the past several years, the project has supported a vigorous mirror technology development program. This program includes the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets, the support and mounting of these thin mirror segments for accurate metrology, the mounting and attachment of these mirror segments for the purpose of X-ray tests, and development of methods for aligning and integrating these mirror segments into mirror assemblies. This paper describes our efforts and developments in these areas.

  20. Design and analysis of an innovative combined magneto-rheological damper-mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Chung, Jye Ung; Choi, Seung Bok

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new innovative modified high-loaded magneto-rheological fluid (MR in short) damper-mount is presented. The proposed damper-mount is designed based on two modes of MR fluid such as flow mode and shear mode, and it includes two separated electric coil for establishing magnetic field. The damping force of the damper-mount is analyzed based on the difference pressure between upper chamber and lower chamber. After analyzing the mathematical function of damping force, the proposed mount is optimized following the maximal damping force by using ANSYS software. Besides, there is a laboratorial MR fluid using in this optimization such as plate-like fluid MRF140. Results of optimization show that the requirement of damping force is obtain and the saturation of materials is in range of limitation.

  1. Automated sample mounting and alignment system for biological crystallography at a synchrotron source.

    PubMed

    Snell, Gyorgy; Cork, Carl; Nordmeyer, Robert; Cornell, Earl; Meigs, George; Yegian, Derek; Jaklevic, Joseph; Jin, Jian; Stevens, Raymond C; Earnest, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    High-throughput data collection for macromolecular crystallography requires an automated sample mounting and alignment system for cryo-protected crystals that functions reliably when integrated into protein-crystallography beamlines at synchrotrons. Rapid mounting and dismounting of the samples increases the efficiency of the crystal screening and data collection processes, where many crystals can be tested for the quality of diffraction. The sample-mounting subsystem has random access to 112 samples, stored under liquid nitrogen. Results of extensive tests regarding the performance and reliability of the system are presented. To further increase throughput, we have also developed a sample transport/storage system based on "puck-shaped" cassettes, which can hold sixteen samples each. Seven cassettes fit into a standard dry shipping Dewar. The capabilities of a robotic crystal mounting and alignment system with instrumentation control software and a relational database allows for automated screening and data collection to be developed. PMID:15062077

  2. Automated sample mounting and technical advance alignment system for biological crystallography at a synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Gyorgy; Cork, Carl; Nordmeyer, Robert; Cornell, Earl; Meigs, George; Yegian, Derek; Jaklevic, Joseph; Jin, Jian; Stevens, Raymond C.; Earnest, Thomas

    2004-01-07

    High-throughput data collection for macromolecular crystallography requires an automated sample mounting system for cryo-protected crystals that functions reliably when integrated into protein-crystallography beamlines at synchrotrons. Rapid mounting and dismounting of the samples increases the efficiency of the crystal screening and data collection processes, where many crystals can be tested for the quality of diffraction. The sample-mounting subsystem has random access to 112 samples, stored under liquid nitrogen. Results of extensive tests regarding the performance and reliability of the system are presented. To further increase throughput, we have also developed a sample transport/storage system based on ''puck-shaped'' cassettes, which can hold sixteen samples each. Seven cassettes fit into a standard dry shipping Dewar. The capabilities of a robotic crystal mounting and alignment system with instrumentation control software and a relational database allows for automated screening and data collection to be developed.

  3. The Large Binocular Telescope mount control system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David S.; McKenna, Dan; Brynnel, Joar G.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Little, John; Powell, Keith; Holmberg, Gene

    2006-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) features dual 8.4 m diameter mirrors in a common elevation-over-azimuth mount. The LBT moves in elevation on two large crescent-shaped C-rings that are supported by radial hydrostatic bearing pads located near the four corners of the rectangular azimuth frame. The azimuth frame, in turn, is supported by four hydrostatic bearing pads and uses hydrodynamic roller bearings for centering. Each axis is gear driven by four large electric motors. In addition to precision optical motor encoders, each axis is equipped with Farrand Inductosyn strip encoders which yield 0.005 arcsecond resolution. The telescope weighs 580 metric tons and is designed to track with 0.03 arcsecond or better servo precision under wind speeds as high as 24 km/hr. Though the telescope is still under construction, the Mount Control System (MCS) has been routinely exercised to achieve First Light. The authors present a description of the unique, DSP-based synchronous architecture of the MCS and its capabilities.

  4. Whole Mount Dissection and Immunofluorescence of the Adult Mouse Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Scott C; Cox, Brandon C

    2016-01-01

    The organ of Corti, housed in the cochlea of the inner ear, contains mechanosensory hair cells and surrounding supporting cells which are organized in a spiral shape and have a tonotopic gradient for sound detection. The mouse cochlea is approximately 6 mm long and often divided into three turns (apex, middle, and base) for analysis. To investigate cell loss, cell division, or mosaic gene expression, the whole mount or surface preparation of the cochlea is useful. This dissection method allows visualization of all cells within the organ of Corti when combined with immunostaining and confocal microscopy to image cells at different planes in the z-axis. Multiple optical cross-sections can also be obtained from these z-stack images. In addition, the whole mount dissection method can be used for scanning electron microscopy, although a different fixation method is needed. Here, we present a method to isolate the organ of Corti as three intact cochlear turns (apex, middle, and base). This method can be used for mice ranging from one week of age through adulthood and differs from the technique used for neonatal samples where calcification of the cochlea is incomplete. A slightly modified version can be used for dissection of the rat cochlea. We also demonstrate a procedure for immunostaining with fluorescently tagged antibodies. PMID:26779585

  5. Design of the magnetorheological mount with high damping force for medium speed diesel generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, O.-H.; Kim, W.-H.; Joo, W. H.; Park, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the controllable magnetorheological (MR) mount for the marine diesel-generator (D/G) sets. Sometimes, significant vibrations over the allowable limit are observed on the D/G sets due to their huge excitation forces. Because the severe vibration can lead to structural damages to the D/G sets, it should be reduced to below the limit. Although passive mounts with rubber isolators are usually used, the vibration reduction performance is not always sufficient. In addition, expecting that the vibration levels required by customers will get more severe, semi-active vibration isolation system needs to be developed. To the aim, the valve (flow) mode type of MR mount has been designed. Especially, the annular-radial configuration was adopted to enhance the damping force within the restricted space. The geometry of the mount has been optimized to obtain the required damping force and the magnetic field analysis has been carried out using ANSYS APDL. To verify the performance of the developed MR mount, excitation test was conducted and the dynamic characteristics were identified. Since damping property of the MR fluid is changed by the applied magnetic field strength and excitation frequency, responses to changing applied currents and frequencies were obtained. From the results, damping performance of the MR mount was evaluated.

  6. Field expedient repair of fiber optic cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, J. G.

    1982-05-01

    This Interim Report describes the design of a field expedient fiber optics cable splicing system. The field splice kit will include a manually operated splicing machine which has all of the tools for making the cable repair mounted on a single platform, transportable in a hand-carried or back-packed case. The splice consists of glass four-rod alignment guides pre-mounted in a splice housing. Means are provided for fiber and cable retention in the housing to effect a rugged cable repair. The procedure for making the cable repair is outlined and described with the aid of a series of photographs of a wooden model of the splicing machine. The manipulations required to make the splice are designed to be simple and performable under adverse field conditions.

  7. Concomitant requirement for Notch and Jak/Stat signaling during neuro-epithelial differentiation in the Drosophila optic lobe.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Kathy T; Wang, Jay; Junker, Markus; Kriz, Steve; Vo, Gloria; Asem, Bobby; Olson, John M; Banerjee, Utpal; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-10-15

    The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, neuroepithelial cells (NE) convert into neuroblasts (NB) in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia and gradually move towards its centers. Neuroblasts divide at a much faster pace in an asymmetric mode, producing lineages of neurons that populate the different parts of the optic lobe. In this paper we have reconstructed the complex morphogenesis of the optic lobe during the larval period, and established a role for the Notch and Jak/Stat signaling pathways during the NE-NB conversion. After an early phase of complete overlap in the OOA, signaling activities sort out such that Jak/Stat is active in the lateral OOA which gives rise to the lamina, and Notch remains in the medial cells that form the medulla. During the third instar, a wave front of enhanced Notch activity progressing over the OOA from medial to lateral controls the gradual NE-NB conversion. Neuroepithelial cells at the medial edge of the OOA, shortly prior to becoming neuroblasts, express high levels of Delta, which activates the Notch pathway and thereby maintains the OOA in an epithelial state. Loss of Notch signaling, as well as Jak/Stat signaling, results in a premature NE-NB conversion of the OOA, which in turn has severe effects on optic lobe patterning. Our findings present the Drosophila optic lobe as a useful model to analyze the key signaling mechanisms controlling transitions of progenitor cells from symmetric (growth) to asymmetric (differentiative) divisions. PMID:20692248

  8. Concomitant requirement for Notch and Jak/Stat signaling during neuro-epithelial differentiation in the Drosophila optic lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kathy T.; Wang, Jay; Junker, Markus; Kriz, Steve; Vo, Gloria; Asem, Bobby; Olson, John M.; Banerjee, Utpal; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The optic lobe forms a prominent compartment of the Drosophila adult brain that processes visual input from the compound eye. Neurons of the optic lobe are produced during the larval period from two neuroepithelial layers called the outer and inner optic anlage (OOA, IOA). In the early larva, the optic anlagen grow as epithelia by symmetric cell division. Subsequently, neuroepithelial cells (NE) convert into neuroblasts (NB) in a tightly regulated spatio-temporal progression that starts at the edges of the epithelia and gradually move towards its centers. Neuroblasts divide at a much faster pace in an asymmetric mode, producing lineages of neurons that populate the different parts of the optic lobe. In this paper we have reconstructed the complex morphogenesis of the optic lobe during the larval period, and established a role for the Notch and Jak/Stat signaling pathways during the NE-NB conversion. After an early phase of complete overlap in the OOA, signaling activities sort out such that Jak/Stat is active in the lateral OOA which gives rise to the lamina, and Notch remains in the medial cells that form the medulla. During the third instar, a wave front of enhanced Notch activity progressing over the OOA from medial to lateral controls the gradual NE-NB conversion. Neuroepithelial cells at the medial edge of the OOA, shortly prior to becoming neuroblasts, express high levels of Delta, which activates the Notch pathway and thereby maintains the OOA in an epithelial state. Loss of Notch signaling, as well as Jak/Stat signaling, results in a premature NE-NB conversion of the OOA, which in turn has severe effects on optic lobe patterning. Our findings present the Drosophila optic lobe as a useful model to analyze the key signaling mechanisms controlling transitions of progenitor cells from symmetric (growth) to asymmetric (differentiative) divisions. PMID:20692248

  9. Analysis of aircraft wing-mounted antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marhefka, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    High frequency radiation patterns of aircraft wing mounted antennas are analyzed. Basic antenna types using ray optical techniques are studied. The aircraft is modelled in its most basic form so that this study is applicable to general type aircraft. The fuselage is modelled as a perfectly conducting finite elliptic cylinder. The wings and horizontal and vertical stabilizers are modelled as perfectly conducting "n" sided flat plates that can be arbitrarily attached to the fuselage or to themselves. The antenna locations are assumed to be on the surfaces of the wings at locations removed from engines and stores such that these effects are negligible. Volumetric patterns are calculated for several aircraft. The validity of the solution is shown by comparing the results against scale model measurements. The application of this solution to practical airborne antenna problems has shown its versatility in designing antennas and predicting their radiation patterns in an accurate and efficient manner.

  10. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  11. Nonmechanical beam steering using optical phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Thomas E.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Curt, Petersen F.; Bonnett, James; Prather, Dennis W.

    2011-11-01

    Beam steering is an enabling technology for establishment of ad hoc communication links, directed energy for infrared countermeasures, and other in-theater defense applications. The development of nonmechanical beam steering techniques is driven by requirements for low size, weight, and power, and high slew rate, among others. The predominant beam steering technology currently in use relies on gimbal mounts, which are relatively large, heavy, and slow, and furthermore create drag on the airframes to which they are mounted. Nonmechanical techniques for beam steering are currently being introduced or refined, such as those based on liquid crystal spatial light modulators; however, drawbacks inherent to some of these approaches include narrow field of regard, low speed operation, and low optical efficiency. An attractive method that we explore is based on optical phased arrays, which has the potential to overcome the aforementioned issues associated with other mechanical and nonmechanical beam steering techniques. The optical array phase locks a number of coherent optical emitters in addition to applying arbitrary phase profiles across the array, thereby synthesizing beam shapes that can be steered and utilized for a diverse range of applications.

  12. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, D. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Schneider, S. L.

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8 mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described.

  13. Development of a mast or robotic arm-mounted infrared AOTF spectrometer for surface Moon and Mars probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Andrey; Fedorova, Anna; Kalinnikov, Yurii K.; Shapkin, Alexei; Mantsevich, Sergey; Viazovetsky, Nikita; Evdokimova, Nadezhda; Kiselev, Alexander V.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a pencil-beam infrared AOTF spectrometer for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of a planetary probe or a rover analyzing the reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range. One application is the ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) instrument to be deployed on the mast of ExoMars Rover planned for launch in 2018. A very similar instrument LIS (Lunar Infrared Spectrometer) is planned to be flown on Russian Luna-25 (Luna Globe Lander) and Luna-27 (Luna Resource Lander) missions in 2018 and 2021 respectively. On the lunar landers the instrument will be mounted at a robotic arm (Luna-25) or at a dedicated mast (Luna-27). The instrument covers the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm with the spectral resolution of ~25 cm-1 and is intended to study mineralogical and petrographic composition of the uppermost layer of the regolith. Both the Mars and the Moon instruments target waterbearing minerals, phyllosilicates, sulfates, carbonates in the vicinity of the Mars rover, and H2O ice and hydroxyl in the vicinity of lunar lander. The optical scheme includes entry optics, the TeO2 AOTF, and a Peltier-cooled InAs detector. To cover the extended spectral range the AOTF is equipped with two piezotransducers. At present the qualification prototype of the instrument is being characterized. The requirements, instrument optics, and different aspects of its characterization, including low-temperature survival validation is described.

  14. The research on a novel type of the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shun-long

    2011-08-01

    Ultraviolet technology of detecting is playing a more and more important role in the field of civil application, especially in the corona discharge detection, in modern society. Now the UV imaging detector is one of the most important equipments in power equipment flaws detection. And the modern head-mounted displays (HMDs) have shown the applications in the fields of military, industry production, medical treatment, entertainment, 3D visualization, education and training. We applied the system of head-mounted displays to the UV image detection, and a novel type of head-mounted displays is presented: the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays. And the structure is given. By the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays, a real-time, isometric and visible image of the corona discharge is correctly displayed upon the background scene where it exists. The user will see the visible image of the corona discharge on the real scene rather than on a small screen. Then the user can easily find out the power equipment flaws and repair them. Compared with the traditional UV imaging detector, the introducing of the HMDs simplifies the structure of the whole system. The original visible spectrum optical system is replaced by the eye in the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays. And the optical image fusion technology would be used rather than the digital image fusion system which is necessary in traditional UV imaging detector. That means the visible spectrum optical system and digital image fusion system are not necessary. This makes the whole system cheaper than the traditional UV imaging detector. Another advantage of the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays is that the two hands of user will be free. So while observing the corona discharge the user can do some things about it. Therefore the solar-blind UV head-mounted displays can make the corona discharge expose itself to the user in a better way, and it will play an important role in corona detection in the future.

  15. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  16. Head-mounted spatial instruments: Synthetic reality or impossible dream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur; Velger, Mordekhai

    1988-01-01

    A spatial instrument is defined as a display device which has been either geometrically or symbolically enhanced to better enable a user to accomplish a particular task. Research conducted over the past several years on 3-D spatial instruments has shown that perspective displays, even when viewed from the correct viewpoint, are subject to systematic viewer biases. These biases interfere with correct spatial judgements of the presented pictorial information. It is also found that deliberate, appropriate geometric distortion of the perspective projection of an image can improve user performance. These two findings raise intriguing questions concerning the design of head-mounted spatial instruments. The design of such instruments may not only require the introduction of compensatory distortions to remove the neutrally occurring biases but also may significantly benefit from the introduction of artificial distortions which enhance performance. These image manipulations, however, can cause a loss of visual-vestibular coordination and induce motion sickness. Additionally, adaptation to these manipulations is apt to be impaired by computational delays in the image display. Consequently, the design of head-mounted spatial instruments will require an understanding of the tolerable limits of visual-vestibular discord.

  17. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    DOEpatents

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  18. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-01-01

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. PMID:26989121

  19. The Geologic Story of Mount Rainier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Ice-clad Mount Rainier, towering over the landscape of western Washington, ranks with Fuji-yama in Japan, Popocatepeti in Mexico, and Vesuvius in Italy among the great volcanoes of the world. At Mount Rainier, as at other inactive volcanoes, the ever-present possibility of renewed eruptions gives viewers a sense of anticipation, excitement, and apprehension not equaled by most other mountains. Even so, many of us cannot imagine the cataclysmic scale of the eruptions that were responsible for building the giant cone which now stands in silence. We accept the volcano as if it had always been there, and we appreciate only the beauty of its stark expanses of rock and ice, its flower-strewn alpine meadows, and its bordering evergreen forests. Mount Rainier owes its scenic beauty to many features. The broad cone spreads out on top of a major mountain range - the Cascades. The volcano rises about 7,000 feet above its 7,000-foot foundation, and stands in solitary splendor - the highest peak in the entire Cascade Range. Its rocky ice-mantled slopes above timberline contrast with the dense green forests and give Mount Rainier the appearance of an arctic island in a temperate sea, an island so large that you can see its full size and shape only from the air. The mountain is highly photogenic because of the contrasts it offers among bare rock, snowfields, blue sky, and the incomparable flower fields that color its lower slopes, shadows cast by the multitude of cliffs, ridges, canyons, and pinnacles change constantly from sunrise to sunset, endlessly varying the texture and mood of the mountain. The face of the mountain also varies from day to day as its broad snowfields melt during the summer. The melting of these frozen reservoirs makes Mount Rainier a natural resource in a practical as well as in an esthetic sense, for it ensures steady flows of water for hydroelectric power in the region, regardless of season. Seen from the Puget Sound country to the west, Mount Rainier has

  20. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  1. Mount Everest snow plume: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W. K.

    2004-11-01

    A plume of snow blowing from the summit of Mount Everest is one of the most iconic images of the world's highest mountain. Its presence provides evidence of the strong jet stream winds that can buffet the mountain. In January 2004, astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) observed a 15 to 20 km long snow plume emanating from the summit of Mount Everest. Remarkably little is known about these plumes and the role that they play in the redistribution of snow in the high Himalaya. In this paper we use a variety of meteorological datasets to show that the observed plume was the combination of high winds associated with the East Asian Jet Stream (EAJS) and a heavy snowfall that had occurred over the Himalaya during the preceding week. A simple model of a blown snow plume is shown to be consistent with the observations made from the ISS.

  2. MOUNT ZIRKEL WILDERNESS AND VICINITY, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, George L.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified.

  3. Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

  4. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, L.R.; Gomez, V.M.; Thomas, M.H.

    1990-05-29

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components is disclosed. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing. 5 figs.

  5. Mounts For Selective Rotation And Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Blade-in-groove bearings stacked to obtain necessary degrees of freedom. Mounting system allows panels to be tilted, rotated, and translated selectively. Developed for large solar reflectors or antennas composed of hexagonal panels about 6 ft. wide and 6 in. thick. With system, each panel tilted around two axes to focus antenna. At same time, each panel translates along these axes to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction without affecting focus.

  6. Machine-mounted scrubber helps ventilate face

    SciTech Connect

    Volkwein, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    The authors describe work carried out under contract for US Bureau of Mines on a machine-mounted scrubber system for ventilating the face during an extended advance. Underground tests showed that a suitable scrubber system can adequately ventilate the face at brattice setbacks up to 15m. Face methane levels were effectively controlled at large setbacks, but respirable dust levels increased by as much as 33% at the operator's cab at setbacks greater than 7.5m.

  7. Dynamics of the Mount Nyiragongo lava lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, P.-Y.; Darrah, T. H.; Tedesco, D.; Eymold, W. K.

    2014-05-01

    The permanent and presently rising lava lake at Mount Nyiragongo constitutes a major potential geological hazard to the inhabitants of the Virunga volcanic region in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda. Based on two field campaigns in June 2010 and 2011, we estimate the lava lake level from the southeastern crater rim (~400 m diameter) and lava lake area (~46,550 m2), which constrains, respectively, the lava lake volume (~9 × 106 m3) and volume flow rate needed to keep the magma in a molten state (0.6 to 3.5 m3 s-1). A bidirectional magma flow model, which includes the characterization of the conduit diameter and funnel-shaped lava lake geometry, is developed to constrain the amount of magma intruded/emplaced within the magmatic chamber and rift-related structures that extend between Mount Nyiragongo's volcanic center and the city of Goma, DRC, since Mount Nyiragongo's last eruption (17 January 2002). Besides matching field data of the lava lake level covering the period 1977 to 2002, numerical solutions of the model indicate that by 2022, 20 years after the January 2002 eruption, between 300 and 1700 × 106 m3 (0.3 to 1.7 km3) of magma could have intruded/emplaced underneath the edifice, and the lava lake volume could exceed 15 × 106 m3.

  8. A method of mounting multiple otoliths for beam-based microchemical analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donohoe, C.J.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Beam-based analytical methods are widely used to measure the concentrations of elements and isotopes in otoliths. These methods usually require that otoliths be individually mounted and prepared to properly expose the desired growth region to the analytical beam. Most analytical instruments, such as LA-ICPMS and ion and electron microprobes, have sample holders that will accept only one to six slides or mounts at a time. We describe a method of mounting otoliths that allows for easy transfer of many otoliths to a single mount after they have been prepared. Such an approach increases the number of otoliths that can be analyzed in a single session by reducing the need open the sample chamber to exchange slides-a particularly time consuming step on instruments that operate under vacuum. For ion and electron microprobes, the method also greatly reduces the number of slides that must be coated with an electrical conductor prior to analysis. In this method, a narrow strip of cover glass is first glued at one end to a standard microscope slide. The otolith is then mounted in thermoplastic resin on the opposite, free end of the strip. The otolith can then be ground and flipped, if needed, by reheating the mounting medium. After otolith preparation is complete, the cover glass is cut with a scribe to free the otolith and up to 20 small otoliths can be arranged on a single petrographic slide. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  9. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  10. 1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing the slight rise upon which the building was constructed. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  11. Adhesive-backed terminal board eliminates mounting screws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Low-profile terminal board is used in dense electronic circuits where mounting and working space is limited. The board has a thin layer of pressure-sensitive adhesive backing which eliminates the need for mounting screws.

  12. 4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note cliff erosion under foundation at left center. Looking 297° W. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph 1961. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Mount of Victory Plot Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  14. High-efficiency side diode pumped breech mount laser ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Christopher R.; Guo, Baoping; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.

    2007-09-01

    Breech Mounted Lasers (BMLs) have been successfully used to demonstrate laser ignition of howitzer propellant charges including bag, stick, and the Modular Artillery Charge System (MACS). BMLs have been integrated and tested on many artillery systems, including the US Army's M109A6 Paladin, M198, M777 Light Weight, Crusader, and Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C). Until now, these lasers have been relatively large and inefficient systems based on a flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser design. Modern vehicle platforms will require smaller, more efficient lasers that can operate under increased shock and vibration loads. Kigre's new DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) lasers appear to meet these requirements. In this work we provide an evaluation of HESP (High Efficiency Side Pumped) DPSS laser design and performance with regard to its application as a practical artillery laser ignition system.

  15. Practical low-cost stereo head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Randy; Dwivedi, Pramod; Long, Allan C., Jr.

    1991-08-01

    A high-resolution head-mounted display has been developed from substantially cheaper components than previous systems. Monochrome displays provide 720 by 280 monochrome pixels to each eye in a one-inch-square region positioned approximately one inch from each eye. The display hardware is the Private Eye, manufactured by Reflection Technologies, Inc. The tracking system uses the Polhemus Isotrak, providing (x,y,z, azimuth, elevation and roll) information on the user''s head position and orientation 60 times per second. In combination with a modified Nintendo Power Glove, this system provides a full-functionality virtual reality/simulation system. Using two host 80386 computers, real-time wire frame images can be produced. Other virtual reality systems require roughly 250,000 in hardware, while this one requires only 5,000. Stereo is particularly useful for this system because shading or occlusion cannot be used as depth cues.

  16. Simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kiho; Lee, Yongseok; Jeong, Taikyeong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simultaneous intrinsic and extrinsic parameter identification of a hand-mounted laser-vision sensor (HMLVS). A laser-vision sensor (LVS), consisting of a camera and a laser stripe projector, is used as a sensor component of the robotic measurement system, and it measures the range data with respect to the robot base frame using the robot forward kinematics and the optical triangulation principle. For the optimal estimation of the model parameters, we applied two optimization techniques: a nonlinear least square optimizer and a particle swarm optimizer. Best-fit parameters, including both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the HMLVS, are simultaneously obtained based on the least-squares criterion. From the simulation and experimental results, it is shown that the parameter identification problem considered was characterized by a highly multimodal landscape; thus, the global optimization technique such as a particle swarm optimization can be a promising tool to identify the model parameters for a HMLVS, while the nonlinear least square optimizer often failed to find an optimal solution even when the initial candidate solutions were selected close to the true optimum. The proposed optimization method does not require good initial guesses of the system parameters to converge at a very stable solution and it could be applied to a kinematically dissimilar robot system without loss of generality. PMID:22164104

  17. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-09-12

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components. 8 figs.

  18. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components.

  19. Integral Flexure Mounts for Metal Mirrors for Cryogenic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewari, S. Wahid; Hylan, Jason E.; Irish, Sandra M.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Conkey, Shelly B.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-kinematic, six-degree-of-freedom flexure mounts have been incorporated as integral parts of metal mirrors designed to be used under cryogenic conditions as parts of an astronomical instrument. The design of the mirrors and their integral flexure mounts can also be adapted to other instruments and other operating temperatures. In comparison with prior kinematic cryogenic mirror mounts, the present mounts are more compact and can be fabricated easily using Ram-EDM (electrical discharge machining) process

  20. Miniature MT optical assembly (MMTOA)

    DOEpatents

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    An optical assembly (10) includes a rigid mount (12) with a recess (26) proximate a first side thereof, a substrate (14), and an optical die (16) flip-chip bonded to the substrate (14). The substrate (14) is secured to the first side of the mount and includes a plurality of die bonding elements (40), a plurality of optical apertures (32), and a plurality of external bonding elements (42). A plurality of traces (44) interconnect the die bonding elements (40) and the external bonding elements (42). The optical die (16) includes a plurality of optical elements, each element including an optical signal interface (48), the die being bonded to the plurality of die bonding elements (40) such that the optical signal interface (48) of each element is in registry with an optical aperture (32) of the substrate (14) and the die (16) is at least partially enclosed by the recess (26).

  1. Mount mechanisms for the Saturn 5/Apollo mobile launcher at John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balke, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    A support system was designed to resist hurricane wind loads at the launch pad and to allow the supported structural frame to expand and contract freely under wide ranges of temperature. This system consists of six mount mechanisms devised to meet the previously stated requirements plus a load-carrying capacity for each of 3.2-million kilograms (7-million pounds) downward and 1.6-million kilograms (3.5-million pounds) upward. A similar but lighter system of six mount mechanisms was designed for use in the sheltered environment of the vehicle assembly building. Each requirement and design result is discussed, and each mount mechanism is defined by location and type with references to visual presentations.

  2. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  3. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  4. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  5. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  6. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  7. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.23 Engine mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and...

  8. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  9. Study of bonding positions of isostatic mounts on a lightweight primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Chang, S. T.; Huang, T. M.; Hsu, M. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The bonding positions of three isostatic mounts on the primary mirror of a Cassegrain telescope under self-weight loading have both been studied in the paper. Finite element method and Zernike polynomial fitting are complementarily applied to the ZERODUR® primary mirror with a pre-designed lightweight configuration on the back. Eight bonding positions of isostatic mounts with respect to the center of gravity of the mirror have been chosen to investigate the mirror surface deforms as well as the induced optical aberrations. It is found that astigmatism becomes remarkably higher than other optical aberrations under self-weight loading. The optimum bonding position with the least astigmatism value has also been obtained.

  10. Design of a new MR brake mount system considering vertical and horizontal vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Xuan Phu; Quoc Hung, Nguyen; Park, Joon Hee; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a new type of magnetorheological fluid (MRF) mount is proposed. This design is based on the well-known of two modes of MRF such as flow mode and shear mode. These modes are applied in the design which includes two components: MR mount for controlling vertical vibrations, and MR brake for controlling horizontal vibrations. The structure of MR valve is applied in design mount part, while the disk type of structure is employed in design brake part. These structures contribute to the initial requirements such as small structure, high damping force and high braking force. The theoretical analysis for the design is undertaken followed by design optimization using ANSYS ADPL software. The objective functions are concentrated on maximal damping force for MR mount and maximum braking force for MR brake. As traditional design, rubber mount is used in the proposed design for suffering static loads. It has been shown through computer simulation that the initial requirements with high damping force and high braking force have been successfully achieved.

  11. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  12. Assessment of a head-mounted miniature monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, J. P., II

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Private Eye, a miniature, head-mounted monitor. The first experiment compared the Private Eye with a cathode ray tube (CRT) and hard copy in both a constrained and unconstrained work envelope. The task was a simulated maintenance and assembly task that required frequent reference to the displayed information. A main effect of presentation media indicated faster placement times using the CRT as compared with hard copy. There were no significant differences between the Private Eye and either the CRT or hard copy for identification, placement, or total task times. The goal of the second experiment was to determine the effects of various local visual parameters on the ability of the user to accurately perceive the information of the Private Eye. The task was an interactive video game. No significant performance differences were found under either bright or dark ambient illumination environments nor with either visually simple or complex task backgrounds. Glare reflected off of the bezel surrounding the monitor did degrade performance. It was concluded that this head-mounted, miniature monitor could serve a useful role for in situ operations, especially in microgravity environments.

  13. Optical cavity and electron beam requirements for the operation of a 1.5 {angstrom} LCLS in a regenerative amplifier mode

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, R.

    1995-12-31

    Current conceptual designs for Linac Coherent Light Sources (LCLSs) in the 100-1 {angstrom} wavelength range are based on Free Electron Lasers (FELs) that are designed to saturate in a single pass of the electron beam through the undulator. This, in practice, leads to insertion devices several tens of meters in length, which greatly dominates the component costs of the overall LCLS system. Although it is well known that amplification within a cavity would enable much shorter and more economical undulators to be employed, two major practical problems are currently adduced to discount the use of such configurations in the sub-100 {angstrom} wavelength regime: (1) the temporal jitter of the (sub-picosecond) electron bunches required for such FELs can be comparable to or larger that the durations of the bunches themselves, rendering reliable synchronization extremely difficult, and (2) the lack of optical elements of sufficient reflectivity and bandwidth out of which adequately efficient optical cavities can be constructed. In this paper we reasssess the requirements associated with these two aspects of x-ray optics as a possible approach to resolving or making more tractable the resolution of some of the basic problems involved.

  14. Sub-nm accuracy metrology for ultra-precise reflective X-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, F.; Buchheim, J.; Zeschke, T.; Brenner, G.; Kapitzki, S.; Tiedtke, K.

    2011-04-01

    The transport and monochromatization of synchrotron light from a high brilliant laser-like source to the experimental station without significant loss of brilliance and coherence is a challenging task in X-ray optics and requires optical elements of utmost accuracy. These are wave-front preserving plane mirrors with lengths of up to 1 m characterized by residual slope errors in the range of 0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for micro-roughness. In the case of focusing optical elements like elliptical cylinders the required residual slope error is in the range of 0.25 μrad rms and better. In addition the alignment of optical elements is a critical and beamline performance limiting topic. Thus the characterization of ultra-precise reflective optical elements for FEL-beamline application in the free and mounted states is of significant importance. We will discuss recent results in the field of metrology achieved at the BESSY-II Optics Laboratory (BOL) of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) by use of the Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM). Different types of mirror have been inspected by line-scan and slope mapping in the free and mounted states. Based on these results the mirror clamping of a combined mirror/grating set-up for the BL-beamlines at FLASH was improved.

  15. Design of refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Fu, Ru-Lian; Sun, Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Wu

    A refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle was designed. This objective consists of six elements, including one binary surface and two hyperboloids. It has a 40[degree sign] field of view, a 1.25 f-number, and a 18 mm image diameter, with a compact structure and a light weight. All optical specifications reach proposed designing targets. Besides, we considered fabrication issues about special surfaces of the system.

  16. Transputer-based system for the visual inspection of surface mount assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netherwood, Paul; Barnwell, Peter; Forte, Peter

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes a project, the aim of which is to develop a low-cost machine vision system for the inspection of surface mount electronic assemblies and solder joints. The system uses a simple optical system connected to sophisticated machine vision software running on a transputer network. This allows high-speed inspection at a lower cost than existing x-ray or laser techniques.

  17. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2008-10-14

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, for use with a photovoltaic assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending generally perpendicular to the central portion. Each arm has an outer portion with each outer portion having an outer end. At least one frame surface-disrupting element is at each outer end. The central portion defines a plane with the frame surface-disrupting elements pointing towards the plane. In some examples each arm extends from the central portion at an acute angle to the plane.

  18. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  19. Mount St. Helens Volcano, WA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mount St. Helens Volcano (46.0N, 122.0W) and its blast zone can be seen in this northeast looking infrared view. Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams can also be seen in the near area. The Columbia River can be seen at the bottom of the view. When Mt. St. Helens erupted on 18 May 80, the top 1300 ft. disappeared within minutes. The blast area covered an area of more than 150 sq. miles and sent thousands of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere.

  20. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Stone, W.J.

    1983-06-30

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument.

  1. Monitoring Arctic landscape variation by pole and kite mounted cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, Ruşen; Dafflon, Baptiste; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2015-02-01

    Optic surveillance is an important part of monitoring environmental changes in various ecological settings. Although remote sensing provides extensive data, its resolution is yet not sufficient for scientific research focusing on small spatial scale landscape variations. We are interested in exploiting high resolution image data to observe and investigate the landscape variations at a small spatial scale arctic corridor in Barrow, AK, as part of the DOE Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic). A 35 m transect is continuously imaged by two separate pole mounted consumer grade stationary cameras, one capturing in NIR and the other capturing in visible range, starting from June to August in 2014. Surface and subsurface features along this 35 m transect are also sampled by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), temperature loggers and water content reflectometers. We track the behavioral change along this transect by collecting samples from the pole images and look for a relation between the image features and electrical conductivity. Results show that the correlation coefficient between inferred vegetation indices and soil electrical resistivity (closely related to water content) increased during the growing season, reaching a correlation of 0.89 at the peak of the vegetation. To extrapolate such results to a larger scale, we use a high resolution RGB map of a 500x40 m corridor at this site, which is occasionally obtained using a low-altitude kite mounted consumer grade (RGB) camera. We introduce a segmentation algorithm that operates on the mosaic generated from the kite images to classify the landscape features of the corridor.

  2. Analysis of adaptive laser scanning optical system with focus-tunable components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, P.; Mikš, A.; Novák, J.; Novák, P.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a primary analysis of an adaptive laser scanner based on two-mirror beam-steering device and focustunable components (lenses with tunable focal length). It is proposed an optical scheme of an adaptive laser scanner, which can focus the laser beam in a continuous way to a required spatial position using the lens with tunable focal length. This work focuses on a detailed analysis of the active optical or opto-mechanical components (e.g. focus-tunable lenses) mounted in the optical systems of laser scanners. The algebraic formulas are derived for ray tracing through different configurations of the scanning optical system and one can calculate angles of scanner mirrors and required focal length of the tunable-focus component provided that the position of the focused beam in 3D space is given with a required tolerance. Computer simulations of the proposed system are performed using MATLAB.

  3. Stiffening an off-axis beam compressor mount for improved performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penado, F. Ernesto; Clark, James H., III; Cornelius, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) near Flagstaff, Arizona, makes use of separate smaller optical elements spaced along a Y-array and used simultaneously to simulate an equivalent single large telescope. The instrument is useful in generating and upgrading existing astronomical catalogues and investigating synthetic aperture optical imaging techniques. The NPOI is a joint collaboration between the US Naval Observatory and Naval Research Laboratory in collaboration with the Lowell Observatory. Stellar radiation (visible light) reflects off 35 cm diameter flat mirrors, also known as siderostats, toward a tilt-tip mirror, which reflects a 12 cm diameter beam through a multi-reflection relay transport system. To maximize the reflective area of the siderostat optics and achieve an increase by a factor of 8.5 in light collecting area, a beam compressor is to be installed between the siderostat and fast tip/tilt mirror. However, the present configuration of a prototype beam compressor mount (BCM) vibrates at unacceptable amplitudes, which makes it nearly impossible to optically align the mirrors. This paper presents the results of finite element analyses conducted to quantify the design limitations of the prototype beam compressor mount. The analyses indicated that the current configuration is too soft, with very low fundamental frequencies, which verified the difficulties encountered during alignment tests. Based on these results, design modifications have been proposed to increase the overall structural stiffness of the mount and increase its fundamental frequency of vibration. These modifications will mechanically stabilize the structure for the alignment of the optics, and allow integration of the compressor into the interferometer. The interferometer will then have the capability to capture more light from each siderostat and allow observations of fainter stellar targets. More generally, the results can be useful as a guide for engineers and scientists

  4. Evaluation of shear mounted elastomeric damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E.; Walton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Viton-70 elastomeric shear mounted damper was built and tested on a T-55 power turbine spool in the rotor's high speed balancing rig. This application of a shear mounted elastomeric damper demonstrated for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear damper design was selected because it was compatible with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, could accommodate both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and was capable of controlled axial preload. The shear damper was interchangeable with the production T-55 power turbine roller bearing support so that a direct comparison between the shear damper and the production support structure could be made. Test results show that the Viton-70 elastomer damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing up to the maximum rotor speed of 16,000 rpm. Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  5. Experience with HEP analysis on mounted filesystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Patrick; Gasthuber, Martin; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitry

    2012-12-01

    We present results on different approaches on mounted filesystems in use or under investigation at DESY. dCache, established since long as a storage system for physics data has implemented the NFS v4.1/pNFS protocol. New performance results will be shown with the most current version of the dCache server. In addition to the native usage of the mounted filesystem in a LAN environment, the results are given for the performance of the dCache NFS v4.1/pNFS in WAN case. Several commercial vendors are currently in alpha or beta phase of adding the NFS v4.1/pNFS protocol to their storage appliances. We will test some of these vendor solutions for their readiness for HEP analysis. DESY has recently purchased an IBM Sonas system. We will present the result of a thorough performance evaluation using the native protocols NFS (v3 or v4) and GPFS. As the emphasis is on the usability for end user analysis, we will use latest ROOT versions and current end user analysis code for benchmark scenarios.

  6. Analysis methodology for a piezoelectric-driven optical tracker for ground-based interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto

    2014-09-01

    We present our analysis methodology for a 20.3 cm prototype optical tracker to determine why instabilities occur below 50 Hz and suggest improvements. The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer makes use of six small optical telescope stations spaced along a Y-array to synthesize an equivalent single larger telescope. Piezoelectric-driven optical trackers steer 12.5 cm output beams from each station to an optics laboratory up to 700 m distant. A percentage of this starlight is split off and used in a closed-loop feedback to update the pointing of the telescope and steering of the tracker. Steering stabilizes atmospheric induced beam trajectory deviations, required for fringe generation. Because of closedloop feedback, we require all fundamental frequencies to be at least 3 times the desired operational frequency, or 150 Hz. These trackers are modified commercial aluminum gimbal mounts with flex-pivot axles and very small damping ratio. Steering is tip/tilt mirror rotation by push-only actuators and a return spring. It is critical contact be maintained between actuator, mirror mount and return spring. From our dynamic analysis, the 122 N return spring is 2.9 times that required, and has a natural frequency equal to 238 Hz. The range of steering, 140 microradian, is double that required and the 0.077 microradian precision is 2.6 times that required. The natural frequency of the tracker is 66 Hz and the tuned closed-loop operational frequency is only 22 Hz. We conclude the low fundamental frequency of the mount limits its performance below 50 Hz and stiffening the structure is required.

  7. Optical to optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Vohl, P.; Nisenson, P.

    1972-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and testing of a preliminary model of an optical-to-optical (noncoherent-to-coherent) interface device for use in coherent optical parallel processing systems are described. The developed device demonstrates a capability for accepting as an input a scene illuminated by a noncoherent radiation source and providing as an output a coherent light beam spatially modulated to represent the original noncoherent scene. The converter device developed under this contract employs a Pockels readout optical modulator (PROM). This is a photosensitive electro-optic element which can sense and electrostatically store optical images. The stored images can be simultaneously or subsequently readout optically by utilizing the electrostatic storage pattern to control an electro-optic light modulating property of the PROM. The readout process is parallel as no scanning mechanism is required. The PROM provides the functions of optical image sensing, modulation, and storage in a single active material.

  8. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to each repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting, the cargo tank motor vehicle must be emptied of any hazardous material lading. In addition, cargo tank motor vehicles used to... not required. When a repair is made of defects revealed by the wet fluorescent magnetic...

  9. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to each repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting, the cargo tank motor vehicle must be emptied of any hazardous material lading. In addition, cargo tank motor vehicles used to... not required. When a repair is made of defects revealed by the wet fluorescent magnetic...

  10. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  11. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to each repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting, the cargo tank motor vehicle must be emptied of any hazardous material lading. In addition, cargo tank motor vehicles used to... not required. When a repair is made of defects revealed by the wet fluorescent magnetic...

  12. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  13. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  14. Deposits of large volcanic debris avalanches at Mount St. Helens and Mount Shasta volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large volcanic debris avalanches are among the world's largest mass movements. The rockslide-debris avalanche of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a 2.8 km/sup 3/ deposit and is the largest historic mass movement. A Pleistocene debris avalanche at Mount Shasta produced a 26 km/sup 3/ deposit that may be the largest Quaternary mass movement. The hummocky deposits at both volcanoes consist of rubble divided into (1) block facies that comprises unconsolidated pieces of the old edifice transported relatively intact, and (2) matrix facies that comprises a mixture of rocks from the old mountain and material picked up from the surrounding terrain. At Mount St. Helens, the juvenile dacite is found in the matrix facies, indicating that matrix facies formed from explosions of the erupting magma as well as from disaggregation and mixing of blocks. The block facies forms both hummocks and interhummock areas in the proximal part of the St. Helens avalanche deposit. At Mount St. Helens, the density of the old cone is 21% greater than the density of the avalanche deposit. Block size decreases with distance. Clast size, measured in the field and by sieving, coverages about a mean with distance, which suggests that blocks disaggregated and mixed together during transport.

  15. Space simulators for laser optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Frank H.

    1988-01-01

    Different approaches that are being utilized to test laser optical systems are described. One of the most crucial areas in the testing phase is the stability of the laser optics mounted inside the space simulator. The thermal vacuum system, the refrigeration system, and the space simulator are discussed.

  16. LSST Camera Optics Design

    SciTech Connect

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

    2012-05-24

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  17. Head-mounted display (HMD) assessment for tracked vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Gail

    2011-06-01

    Providing the warfighter with Head or Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) while in tracked vehicles provides a means to visually maintain access to systems information while in a high vibration environment. The high vibration and unique environment of military tracked and turreted vehicles impact the ability to distinctly see certain information on an HMD, especially small font size or graphics and information that requires long fixation (staring), rather than a brief or peripheral glance. The military and commercial use of HMDs was compiled from market research, market trends, and user feedback. Lessons learned from previous military and commercial use of HMD products were derived to determine the feasibility of HMDs use in the high vibration and the unique environments of tracked vehicles. The results are summarized into factors that determine HMD features which must be specified for successful implementation.

  18. Human system integration considerations for tactical head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Gregory M.; Hoover, Jeffery L.; Racine, Matthew S.; Sedillo, Michael R.

    2010-04-01

    As computer-use propagates across the battlefield, the necessity to effectively integrate such system components challenges the system developer to find a balance between added functionality and system usability. The most significant challenge is ruggedizing and integrating these technologies in an acceptable manner that does not impede the users' combat capability, but instead significantly enhances it . In this paper, researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Battlespace Acoustics Branch explored alternative Head Mounted Display (HMD) concepts, investigating field of view as well as ease of use concerns. Special Operations personnel prosecute mission objectives in dynamic environments requiring an agile integration solution that is equally accommodating. This report describes the research process as well as the unique concerns and results of integrating tactical HMDs for special operation forces. Issues involving variable use-cases, as well as cable management are also addressed.

  19. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  20. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  1. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

    2008-12-01

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for

  2. Nonlinear adaptive observer-based sliding mode control for LAMOST mount driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang-Ping; Zheng, Yi; Guo, Wei; Yu, Li; Yang, Chang-Song

    2010-01-01

    Heavy disturbances caused mainly by wind and friction in the mount drive system greatly impair the pointing accuracy of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). To overcome this negative effect, a third order Higher Order Sliding Mode (HOSM) controller is proposed. The key part of this approach is to design an appropriate observer which obtains the acceleration state. A nonlinear adaptive observer is proposed in which a novel polynomial model is applied to estimate the internal disturbances of the mount drive system. Theoretical analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed observer. Simulation results show that this nonlinear adaptive observer can obtain a high precision acceleration signal which completes the HOSM controller. Furthermore, the HOSM approach can easily satisfy the position tracking requirements of the LAMOST mount drive system.

  3. Effectiveness estimates for center high mounted stop lamps: a six-year study.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C M

    1996-03-01

    The center high mounted stop lamp is a supplemental brake light mounted at the height of the rear window that has been required on all new cars sold in the U.S. starting with the 1986 model year. It was intended to reduce the number of rear-end collisions by improving the braking signal recognition of following drivers. Insurance claims for vehicle damage were used to compare the rear-end collision rates of model year 1985 and model year 1986 cars over calendar years 1986-91. After adjusting for the difference in vehicle ages, model year 1986 cars were found to have experienced 5% fewer rear-end collisions than would have been expected without the center high mounted stop lamps. PMID:8703278

  4. A helmet mounted display demonstration unit for a Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernux, Carolyn G.; Blaser, Robert W.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    Under NASA guidance an advanced development helmet mounted display (HMD) has been designed and fabricated. Delivery has been made of an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) HMD demonstration unit as an alternative to the current low-resolution, chest-mounted display, and cuff-mounted checklists. Important design goals achieved with this HMD include the use of transmissive liquid display image sources with fairly high resolution (text, graphics, and video compatible), binocular viewing with total image overlap, virtual image projection, low profile packaging, low power design, and demonstration of voice control of the HMD data. Test results showed that the HMD program successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and operated as designed, meeting the necessary program requirements.

  5. Avoiding the requirement for pre-existing optical contact during picosecond laser glass-to-glass welding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianyong; Carter, Richard M; Thomson, Robert R; Hand, Duncan P

    2015-07-13

    Previous reports of ultrafast laser welding of glass-to-glass have indicated that a pre-existing optical contact (or very close to) between the parts to be joined is essential. In this paper, the capability of picosecond laser welding to bridge micron-scale gaps is investigated, and successful welding, without cracking, of two glasses with a pre-existing gap of 3 µm is demonstrated. It is shown that the maximum gap that can be welded is not significantly affected by welding speeds, but is strongly dependent on the laser power and focal position relative to the interface between the materials. Five distinct types of material modification were observed over a range of different powers and surface separations, and a mechanism is proposed to explain the observations. PMID:26191923

  6. Off-axis reflective optical apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Lawrence L. (Inventor); Leary, David F. (Inventor); Mammini, Paul V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to a simple apparatus and a convenient and accurate method of mounting the components to form an off-axis reflective optical apparatus such as a collimator. In one embodiment, an off-axis reflective optical apparatus comprises a mounting block having a ferrule holder support surface and an off-axis reflector support surface which is generally perpendicular to the ferrule holder support surface. An optical reflector is mounted on the off-axis reflector support surface and has a reflected beam centerline. The optical reflector has a conic reflective surface and a conic center. A ferrule holder is mounted on the ferrule holder support surface. The ferrule holder provides a ferrule for coupling to an optical fiber and orienting a fiber tip of the optical fiber along a fiber axis toward the optical reflector. The fiber axis is nonparallel to the reflected beam centerline. Prior to mounting the optical reflector to the off-axis reflector support surface and prior to mounting the ferrule holder to the ferrule holder support surface, the optical reflector is movable on the off-axis reflector surface and the ferrule holder is movable on the ferrule holder support surface to align the conic center of the optical reflector with respect to the fiber tip of the optical fiber, and the apparatus has at least one of the following features: (1) the optical reflector is movable on the off-axis reflector support surface to adjust a focus of the fiber tip with respect to the optical reflector, and (2) the ferrule holder is movable on the ferrule holder support surface to adjust the focus of the fiber tip with respect to the optical reflector.

  7. Integration and test of a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg; Lasnier, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the integration and proposed flight test of the Simulation Program for Improved Rotorcraft Integration Technology (SPIRIT) II helmet-mounted display on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. The helmet-mounted display is a wide field-of-view (80 degrees H X 41 degrees V with a 30 degree binocular overlap) high resolution display (1280 X 960 pixels in each eye). Colors are displayed using a field sequential process, whereby green and red laser light is pulsed and directed onto the surface of a reflective ferro-electric liquid crystal display. The prototype helmet-mounted display overlays red, amber, or green symbology on monochrome green imagery obtained from high resolution daylight cameras. The optical design of the display does not form an exit pupil. This allows the wearer greater freedom in movement and comfort due to looser helmet fit tolerances. The helmet-mounted display was integrated with a head tracker and camera platform to form a visually coupled system on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205. The integration process and flight test plan will be discussed.

  8. In the blink of an eye: head mounted displays development within BAE Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2015-05-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in head worn displays in recent years, particularly for consumer applications with an attendant ramping up of investment into key enabling technologies to provide what is essence a mobile computer display. However, head mounted system have been around for over 40 years and today's consumer products are building on a legacy of knowledge and technology created by companies such as BAE Systems who have been designing and fielding helmet mounted displays (HMD) for a wide range of specialist applications. Although the dominant application area has been military aviation, solutions have been fielded for solider, ground vehicle, simulation, medical, racing car and even subsea navigation applications. What sets these HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the users real world view where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This paper therefore provides a personal summary of BAE Systems 40 year's journey in developing and fielding Head Mounted systems, their applications.

  9. Optical and mechanical design advantages using polymer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doushkina, Valentina; Fleming, Erik

    2009-08-01

    Precision diamond-turned or molded polymer optics are utilized in a wide range of commercial markets and applications including; medical disposables, bar code scan/recognition, security and fingerprint scanners, motion and presence sensors, CCD cameras, laser collimation and others.. The use of polymer optics was previously relegated to less technically challenging applications. Current advancements in polymer technology and injection molding capabilities have increased the manufacturability and precision of polymer optics. Polymer materials with optical properties are being thrust to the design forefront for new, sophisticated electro-optical applications. Designing and manufacturing optics and optical systems using polymers alone or hybrid polymer/glass applications provides complete custom capability and offers new optical and opto-mechanical solutions for a variety of optical and opto-mechanical modules, assemblies and components. Integrated mounting offers configuration flexibility, considerable design freedom, simplified optical alignment, mechanical design, assembly and packaging. The system is assembled, aligned, optically spaced, and sealed in a single manufacturing step.

  10. Space Station body mounted radiator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.; Duschatko, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration has been given to utilizing the external area of the Space Station common modules or resource nodes to provide heat rejection. A program was undertaken to define the best body mounted radiator design, to define and build a full size test article and to conduct testing to verify performance. Trade studies were conducted and a preferred design selected. The selected design employed high performance grooved heat pipes of an off-the-shelf design. Twenty panels, each about 1.2 m wide by 5.6 m long are installed on each module rejecting a total of about 12 kW. The radiators are interfaced with the module thermal control loop by use of a refrigerant 21 loop with an on-orbit operable disconnect at each panel. A one-panel test article has been designed and is currently being fabricated. Testing is scheduled to be conducted in June of 1987.

  11. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2012-09-04

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures to be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  12. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2014-06-10

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  13. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  14. Temperature compensated sleeve type mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The primary mirror of a large (26-inch diameter aperture) solar telescope was made of glass ceramic and designed with an integral hub on the back of the center of the mirror. This permits heat from the mirror to radiate off its back to a nearby cold plate. To permit mounting without high stresses, the hub was ground down to a smooth cylindrical surface 3.5 inch in diameter. The ground surface was then acid-etched to remove 0.007 inch (on the diameter) by immersion for five minutes in a mixture of four parts 92% sulfuric acid and three parts 50% hydrofluoric acid. The acid etching removes microcracks from the ground Cer-Vit surface. An Invar sleeve was fabricated to fit over the hub with about 0.010 inch radial (0.020 inch diametral) clearance.

  15. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Craig N.

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and holds it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  16. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  17. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  18. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  19. Lidar measurements of Mount St. Helens effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Lidar measurements of the worldwide movement of stratospheric aerosols produced by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are described. Ground-based and airborne measurements show that the layers below 20 km produced by this eruption moved in an easterly direction while those above 20 km moved in a westerly direction. The effluent at jet stream altitudes of 10 to 12 km circled the globe in about 16 days and the effluent at 23 km (the highest altitude recorded) circled the globe in about 56 days. Mass calculations, using backscatter-to-mass conversion models, indicate that approximately half a million metric tons of new stratospheric material were produced by this eruption. Even though this represents a 200% increase in Northern Hemispheric aerosol, no significant long-term atmospheric temperature change should occur.

  20. In the wake of Mount St Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Nania, J.; Bruya, T.E.

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  1. Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash: hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, V; Mentnech, M S; Stettler, L E; Dollberg, D D; Green, F H

    1983-04-01

    Volcanic ash samples from four Mount St. Helens' volcanic eruptions were subjected to mineralogical, analytical, and hemolytic studies in order to evaluate their potential for cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity. Plagioclase minerals constituted the major component of the ash with free crystalline silica concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 7.2%. The in vitro hemolytic activity of the volcanic ash was compared to similar concentrations of cytotoxic and inert minerals. The ash was markedly hemolytic, exhibiting an activity similar to chrysotile asbestos, a known fibrogenic agent. The hemolysis of the different ash samples varied with particle size but not with crystalline silica concentration. The results of these studies taken in conjunction with the results of our animal studies indicate a fibrogenic potential of volcanic ash in heavily exposed humans. PMID:6832120

  2. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  3. In the wake of Mount St Helens.

    PubMed

    Nania, J; Bruya, T E

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash. PMID:7073033

  4. Mount Unzen dome continues to grow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcanic activity on Japan's Mount Unzen, which erupted on June 3 killing 41 people, continues to build, according to latest reports. Dome extrusion and pyroclastic-flow formation continued at Unzen as of June 24. On June 14, the dome was 100 m wide and 50 m high; it grew another 20 m in height by June 16. Cracks in the dome emitted gas to 200-300 m height, and periodic explosions produced 1-km-high ash columns. The evacuation area was expanded on June 17, bringing the total number of evacuees to more than 10,000. The following report on recent activity at Unzen was provided by the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. All times are local (= UT + 9 hours).

  5. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  6. Environmental evaluation of Surface Mounted Devices (SMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, V.C.; Andrade, A.D.

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the comparative reliability of solder interconnections used for Leadless Chip Carriers (LCCs), Meaded, and flat-pack hybrid microcircuits mounted on FR-4 glass epoxy printed wiring boards (PWBs). The board assemblies, with solder attached microcircuits, were repeatedly thermal cycled from - 65 to +125{degrees}C. We recognize that this temperature range far exceeds most testing of assemblies. The purposes of these tests were to evaluate worst-case conditions and to obtain comparative information. Identical PWB assemblies, using these three component types, were subjected to both thermal shock testing (1 cycle every 42 minutes) and temperature cycle testing (1 cycle every 3 hours). The double testing evaluated the differences in stress application and evaluated the potential of replacing slow transition, expensive temperature cycle testing (which has been an industry standard for years) with the much more rapid thermal shock testing.

  7. Overview Of Mount St. Helens Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, Robert I.

    Dormant since 1857, Mount St. Helens Volcano in southwestern Washington stirred from its repose to erupt on March 27, 1980, following a week of premonitory earthquake activity. The eruption was the first in the conterminous United States since the 1914-1921 activity of Lassen Peak, California. The eruptive activity through May 17 was intermittent and relatively mild, but the accompanying seismic activity remained intense. On May 18, a catastrophic eruption, triggered by a magnitude 5.0 earthquake, produced a massive landslide/debris avalanche, a devastating lateral "blast," pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and an ash column that rose more than 20 km into the stratosphere. Winds carried the ash easterly, and more than 7 cm of ash was deposited locally in parts of eastern Washington. The landslide/debris avalanche and associated mudflows caused flooding of the Toutle and Cowlitz River valleys, which carried sediment as far as the confluence with the Columbia, where it choked off the channel to navigation. Smaller but significant explosive eruptions followed in May, June, July, August, and October, 1980, with lava domes being extruded in the crater following the June, August, and October eruptions. Subsequently in December 1980 and February 1981, lava domes were extruded without significant preceding explosive activity. Except for the latter two, each dome was partly or wholly destroyed by succeeding explosive events. Scientists expect similar activity to continue for months or years--possibly even decades. The Mount St. Helens eruptions severely tested the ability of scientists to respond swiftly and effectively in assisting public officials during a geologic disaster. At the same time, they shall continue to provide an unprecedented opportunity for the systematic investigation of volcanic phenomena, and hopefully, the insight to meet possible future eruptions there and elsewhere in the Cascade Range with equal success.

  8. Hydrothermal processes at Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Field studies and thermal-infrared mapping at Mount Rainier indicate areas of active hydrothermal alteration where excess surface heat flux is about 9 megawatts. Three representative settings include: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82/sup 0/C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit; (2) A small area (less than 500 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60/sup 0/C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver, and other probably similar areas at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls; (3) Sulfate and carbon dioxide enriched thermal springs at 9-24/sup 0/C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers where maximum spring temperatures are 19-25/sup 0/C, respectively, and where extensive travertine deposits have developed. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration products indicate that a narrow, central hydrothermal system exists within Mount Rainier forming steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 kilometers of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is limited in that only sparse, neutral sulfate-enriched thermal water issues from the lower flank of the cone. Simulations of geochemical mass transfer suggest that the thermal springs may be derived from an acid sulfate-chloride parent fluid which has been neutralized by reaction with andesite and highly diluted with shallow ground water.

  9. Physically-based Methods for the Estimation of Crop Water Requirements from E.O. Optical Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) represent the basic information for the evaluation of crop water requirements. A widely used method to compute ET is based on the so-called "crop coefficient" (Kc), defined as the ratio of total evapotranspiration by reference evapotranspiration ET0. The val...

  10. Design considerations for a compact infrared airborne imager to meet alignment and assembly requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Harvey

    2002-09-01

    Helicopter mounted optical systems require compact packaging, good image performance (approaching the diffraction-limit), and must survive and operate in a rugged shock and thermal environment. The always-present requirement for low weight in an airborne sensor is paramount when considering the optical configuration. In addition, the usual list of optical requirements which must be satisfied within narrow tolerances, including field-of-view, vignetting, boresight, stray light rejection, and transmittance drive the optical design. It must be determined early in the engineering process which internal optical alignment adjustment provisions must be included, which may be included, and which will have to be omitted, since adding alignment features often conflicts with the requirement for optical component stability during operation and of course adds weight. When the system is to be modular and mates with another optical system, a telescope designed by different contractor in this case, additional alignment requirements between the two systems must be specified and agreed upon. Final delivered cost is certainly critical and "touch labor" assembly time must be determined and controlled. A clear plan for the alignment and assembly steps must be devised before the optical design can even begin to ensure that an arrangement of optical components amenable to adjustment is reached. The optical specification document should be written contemporaneously with the alignment plan to insure compatibility. The optics decisions that led to the success of this project are described and the final optical design is presented. A description of some unique pupil alignment adjustments, never performed by us in the infrared, is described.

  11. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    DOEpatents

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  12. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  13. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  14. Precise Alignment and Permanent Mounting of Thin and Lightweight X-ray Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Hong, Melinda N.; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Norman, Michael J.; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    To provide observations to support current research efforts in high energy astrophysics. future X-ray telescope designs must provide matching or better angular resolution while significantly increasing the total collecting area. In such a design the permanent mounting of thin and lightweight segments is critical to the overall performance of the complete X-ray optic assembly. The thin and lightweight segments used in the assemhly of the modules are desigued to maintain and/or exceed the resolution of existing X-ray telescopes while providing a substantial increase in collecting area. Such thin and delicate X-ray segments are easily distorted and yet must be aligned to the arcsecond level and retain accurate alignment for many years. The Next Generation X-ray Optic (NGXO) group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has designed, assembled. and implemented new hardware and procedures mth the short term goal of aligning three pairs of X-ray segments in a technology demonstration module while maintaining 10 arcsec alignment through environmental testing as part of the eventual design and construction of a full sized module capable of housing hundreds of X-ray segments. The recent attempts at multiple segment pair alignment and permanent mounting is described along with an overview of the procedure used. A look into what the next year mll bring for the alignment and permanent segment mounting effort illustrates some of the challenges left to overcome before an attempt to populate a full sized module can begin.

  15. SAGE measurements of Mount St. Helens volcanic aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The SAGE satellite system was used to make measurements on the optical extinction produced by stratospheric aerosols from the Mount St. Helens eruption. Two periods of observation were analyzed. In the first period (May 21 to 31, 1980), SAGE moved southward from latitude 60 N, and crossed the United States approximately one week after the May 18th eruption. Enhancements in stratospheric extinction were confined to latitudes between about 55 N and 25 N and longitudes between 10 W and 140 W. Individual layers were observed up to altitudes of 23 km. The geographical location of these layers corresponded closely to that expected on the basis of high-altitude meteorological data. During June and much of July, SAGE was, by reason of its geographical position and other orbital characteristics, unable to make further measurements on the northern hemisphere. Between July 19th and August 12th a second southward pass over the northern hemisphere occurred and further observations were made. The volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere was now found to be widely distributed over the hemisphere, the maximum concentrations being north of 50 N. The aerosol showed considerable inhomogeneity and had reached as far south as 15 N but little, if any, had crossed the equator into the southern hemisphere. Individual layers at different heights were still distinguishable. The total stratospheric aerosol loading on this occasion appeared to be greater than in May and corresponded to an increase in global stratospheric mass of between 50 and 100 percent.

  16. LDEF (Postflight), S0109 : Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment, Tray C12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Data Transmission Experiment (FODTE) postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The experiment trays lower flange has a light tan discoloration that is visible in areas not protected by the tray clamp blocks. Dark brown discolorations can be seen near the center of the tray left flange and on the upper and lower flanges near the corners of the white cover plate. The tray sidewalls appear to be heavily stained in corners, along the three areas adjacent to the white cover plate and at the intersection of the sidewalls with the experiment sup- port structure. The FODTE occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray and consist of an aluminum internal support structure, four aluminum mounting plates, an aluminum cover plate, ten fiber optic cable samples with connectors, aluminum brackets and non-magnet fasteners required to assemble the experiment. Four optical fiber cables (two black, one blue and one bright orange), each configured in the form of a planar, helix coil, are attached to the thermally isolated mounting plates with black anodized aluminum clips cushioned with silicone-rubber spacers. The four mounting plates are coated with a Catalac off-white thermal control paint and the exposed surface of the cover plate is painted with Chemglaze II A-276 white to meet thermal control requirements. Six additional coils of optical fiber cable samples, secured with nylon cable ties, are located in the bottom of the tray, four below the mounting plates and two below the cover plate. Each sample terminates in connectors mounted in brackets located in the tray bottom or on the backside of the thermally isolated mounting plates. The FODTE appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. A flow pattern of discoloration appears to flow in a downward direction from fasteners used to secure the four mounting plates. The colors of two coils of the externally mounted fiber optic cables have

  17. Conservation value of Mount Rushmore National Memorial's forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, A.J.; Bynum, M.

    2007-01-01

    Justifying the maintenance of small natural areas requires understanding their contribution to the conservation of specific natural resources. Mount Rushmore National Memorial (MORU) is a small portion of the Black Hills of western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming. Because it has been protected from logging since the late 1930s, it may serve as an important part of the Black Hills forest as a whole. To understand this role, we investigated the extent and degree of logging activities in the memorial and compared the current structure of the MORU forest to that in the rest of the Black Hills today and before Euro-American settlement. Our results suggest that approximately 29% of the park has had no tree harvesting activity, 18% of the park has had only selective cutting of trees, and 66% (344 ha) of the park's area is covered by old-growth forest. Based on current estimates of similar forest in the remainder of the Black Hills, the forest at MORU constitutes the second-largest area of old-growth ponderosa pine forest in the Black Hills. Although the current structure of the forest does not appear to be outside the range of natural variability for this ecosystem, some components of the forest are near the edge of this range. Conservation of this important natural resource will most likely require more active management than has occurred in the past, but this management will require careful consideration because of the rarity of this resource in the region.

  18. Multisensor vehicle-mounted teleoperated mine detector with data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Aitken, Victor C.; Chesney, Robert; Das, Yogadhish; Russell, Kevin L.

    1998-09-01

    The Improved Landmine Detector Project (ILDP) was initiated in Autumn 1994 to develop a prototype teleoperated vehicle mounted mine detector for low metal content and nonmetallic mines to meet the Canadian requirements for rear area mine clearance in combat situations and peacekeeping on roads and tracks. The relatively relaxed requirements, such as low speed and reduced detectability of completely nonmetallic mines, greatly increase the likelihood of success. The ILDP system consists of a unique teleoperated vehicle carrying a forward looking infrared imager, a 3 m wide down-looking highly sensitive electromagnetic induction detector and a 3 m wide down-looking ground probing radar, which all scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Scanning sensor information is combined using a suite of navigation sensors and custom designed navigation, spatial correspondence and data fusion algorithms. Suspect targets are then confirmed by a thermal neutron analysis detector. A key element to the success of the system is the combination of sensor information. This requires coordinated communication between the sensors and navigation system and well designed sensor co-registration, spatial correspondence and data fusion methodologies. These complex tasks are discussed in detail. The advanced development model was completed in October 1997 and testing and improvements are ongoing. Results of system performance during extensive field trials are presented. A follow-on project has been initiated to build four to six production units for the Canadian Forces by the year 2000.

  19. Helmet-mounted displays on the modern battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    1999-07-01

    The increasing need for information being demanded by the battlefield commander in order to increase and maintain overall situational awareness in execution of the battle plan has caused a proliferation of devices and methods to be evaluated in Army Warfighting Experiments (AWEs). The results are often technology driving requirements without sufficient consideration given to the requirements of the soldier in battle. We are witnessing an overload of information being imposed on both the commander and the individual soldier, employing equipment capable of providing information from numerous sources across multiple, non-compatible platforms. Displays for this information range from large, power-hungry, big screen TVs to small, rugged computers and head-mounted displays (HMDs) for the individual combat soldier. The former requires large power supplies and is not suitable for a mobile army; the latter offers poor resolution and interferes with the duties of a soldier in combat. While we must continue to explore technology to solve some of the problems on the modern battlefield, we, as developers of technology, cannot lose sight of the purpose of the combat soldier: To wage war on a highly complex and mobile battlefield, whether it be in a country or urban environment; to seek out the enemy, engage him, destroy his ability to fight.

  20. Highly precise and robust packaging of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leers, Michael; Winzen, Matthias; Liermann, Erik; Faidel, Heinrich; Westphalen, Thomas; Miesner, Jörn; Luttmann, Jörg; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we present the development of a compact, thermo-optically stable and vibration and mechanical shock resistant mounting technique by soldering of optical components. Based on this technique a new generation of laser sources for aerospace applications is designed. In these laser systems solder technique replaces the glued and bolted connections between optical component, mount and base plate. Alignment precision in the arc second range and realization of long term stability of every single part in the laser system is the main challenge. At the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT a soldering and mounting technique has been developed for high precision packaging. The specified environmental boundary conditions (e.g. a temperature range of -40 °C to +50 °C) and the required degrees of freedom for the alignment of the components have been taken into account for this technique. In general the advantage of soldering compared to gluing is that there is no outgassing. In addition no flux is needed in our special process. The joining process allows multiple alignments by remelting the solder. The alignment is done in the liquid phase of the solder by a 6 axis manipulator with a step width in the nm range and a tilt in the arc second range. In a next step the optical components have to pass the environmental tests. The total misalignment of the component to its adapter after the thermal cycle tests is less than 10 arc seconds. The mechanical stability tests regarding shear, vibration and shock behavior are well within the requirements.