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Sample records for requires multiple pathways

  1. Urothelial tumor initiation requires deregulation of multiple signaling pathways: implications in target-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiping; Huang, Hong-ying; Shapiro, Ellen; Lepor, Herbert; Huang, William C.; Mohammadi, Moosa; Mohr, Ian; Tang, Moon-shong; Huang, Chuanshu; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2012-01-01

    Although formation of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) requires multiple steps and proceeds along divergent pathways, the underlying genetic and molecular determinants for each step and pathway remain undefined. By developing transgenic mice expressing single or combinatorial genetic alterations in urothelium, we demonstrated here that overcoming oncogene-induced compensatory tumor barriers was critical for urothelial tumor initiation. Constitutively active Ha-ras (Ras*) elicited urothelial hyperplasia that was persistent and did not progress to tumors over a 10 months period. This resistance to tumorigenesis coincided with increased expression of p53 and all pRb family proteins. Expression of a Simian virus 40 T antigen (SV40T), which disables p53 and pRb family proteins, in urothelial cells expressing Ras* triggered early-onset, rapidly-growing and high-grade papillary UCB that strongly resembled the human counterpart (pTaG3). Urothelial cells expressing both Ras* and SV40T had defective G1/S checkpoint, elevated Ras-GTPase and hyperactivated AKT-mTOR signaling. Inhibition of the AKT-mTOR pathway with rapamycin significantly reduced the size of high-grade papillary UCB but hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of AKT-mTOR, MAPK and STAT3 altogether resulted in much greater tumor reduction and longer survival than did inhibition of AKT-mTOR pathway alone. Our studies provide the first experimental evidence delineating the combinatorial genetic events required for initiating high-grade papillary UCB, a poorly defined and highly challenging clinical entity. Furthermore, they suggest that targeted therapy using a single agent such as rapamycin may not be highly effective in controlling high-grade UCB and that combination therapy employing inhibitors against multiple targets are more likely to achieve desirable therapeutic outcomes. PMID:22287562

  2. Atg6 is required for multiple vesicle trafficking pathways and hematopoiesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shravage, Bhupendra V.; Hill, Jahda H.; Powers, Christine M.; Wu, Louisa; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2013-01-01

    Atg6 (beclin 1 in mammals) is a core component of the Vps34 complex that is required for autophagy. Beclin 1 (Becn1) functions as a tumor suppressor, and Becn1+/- tumors in mice possess elevated cell stress and p62 levels, altered NF-κB signaling and genome instability. The tumor suppressor function of Becn1 has been attributed to its role in autophagy, and the potential functions of Atg6/Becn1 in other vesicle trafficking pathways for tumor development have not been considered. Here, we generate Atg6 mutant Drosophila and demonstrate that Atg6 is essential for autophagy, endocytosis and protein secretion. By contrast, the core autophagy gene Atg1 is required for autophagy and protein secretion, but it is not required for endocytosis. Unlike null mutants of other core autophagy genes, all Atg6 mutant animals possess blood cell masses. Atg6 mutants have enlarged lymph glands (the hematopoietic organ in Drosophila), possess elevated blood cell numbers, and the formation of melanotic blood cell masses in these mutants is not suppressed by mutations in either p62 or NFκB genes. Thus, like mammals, altered Atg6 function in flies causes hematopoietic abnormalities and lethality, and our data indicate that this is due to defects in multiple membrane trafficking processes. PMID:23406899

  3. Rab6 Is Required for Multiple Apical Transport Pathways but Not the Basolateral Transport Pathway in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziguang; Satoh, Akiko K.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized membrane trafficking is essential for the construction and maintenance of multiple plasma membrane domains of cells. Highly polarized Drosophila photoreceptors are an excellent model for studying polarized transport. A single cross-section of Drosophila retina contains many photoreceptors with 3 clearly differentiated plasma membrane domains: a rhabdomere, stalk, and basolateral membrane. Genome-wide high-throughput ethyl methanesulfonate screening followed by precise immunohistochemical analysis identified a mutant with a rare phenotype characterized by a loss of 2 apical transport pathways with normal basolateral transport. Rapid gene identification using whole-genome resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism mapping identified a nonsense mutation of Rab6 responsible for the apical-specific transport deficiency. Detailed analysis of the trafficking of a major rhabdomere protein Rh1 using blue light-induced chromophore supply identified Rab6 as essential for Rh1 to exit the Golgi units. Rab6 is mostly distributed from the trans-Golgi network to a Golgi-associated Rab11-positive compartment that likely recycles endosomes or transport vesicles going to recycling endosomes. Furthermore, the Rab6 effector, Rich, is required for Rab6 recruitment in the trans-Golgi network. Moreover, a Rich null mutation phenocopies the Rab6 null mutant, indicating that Rich functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab6. The results collectively indicate that Rab6 and Rich are essential for the trans-Golgi network–recycling endosome transport of cargoes destined for 2 apical domains. However, basolateral cargos are sorted and exported from the trans-Golgi network in a Rab6-independent manner. PMID:26890939

  4. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  5. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary

  6. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  7. rugose (rg), a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Shamloula, Hoda K; Mbogho, Mkajuma P; Pimentel, Angel C; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zosia M A; Hyatt, Vanneta; Okano, Hideyuki; Venkatesh, Tadmiri R

    2002-01-01

    In the developing Drosophila eye, cell fate determination and pattern formation are directed by cell-cell interactions mediated by signal transduction cascades. Mutations at the rugose locus (rg) result in a rough eye phenotype due to a disorganized retina and aberrant cone cell differentiation, which leads to reduction or complete loss of cone cells. The cone cell phenotype is sensitive to the level of rugose gene function. Molecular analyses show that rugose encodes a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550). Genetic interaction studies show that rugose interacts with the components of the EGFR- and Notch-mediated signaling pathways. Our results suggest that rg is required for correct retinal pattern formation and may function in cell fate determination through its interactions with the EGFR and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:12072466

  8. DNA repair pathways in human multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Sahota, Surinder; Rme, Thierry; Moreaux, Jrme; Bourquard, Pascal; Hose, Dirk; Pasero, Philippe; Constantinou, Angelos; Klein, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Every day, cells are faced with thousands of DNA lesions, which have to be repaired to preserve cell survival and function. DNA repair is more or less accurate and could result in genomic instability and cancer. We review here the current knowledge of the links between molecular features, treatment, and DNA repair in multiple myeloma (MM), a disease characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Genetic instability and abnormalities are two hallmarks of MM cells and aberrant DNA repair pathways are involved in disease onset, primary translocations in MM cells, and MM progression. Two major drugs currently used to treat MM, the alkylating agent Melphalan and the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib act directly on DNA repair pathways, which are involved in response to treatment and resistance. A better knowledge of DNA repair pathways in MM could help to target them, thus improving disease treatment. PMID:23966156

  9. Isoprenoid pathway related cascade in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi kumar; Nair, Rekha A; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the changes in the isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites digoxin, dolichol and ubiquinone in multiple myeloma. The following parameters were assessed: isoprenoid pathway metabolites, tyrosine and tryptophan catabolites, glycoconjugate metabolism, RBC membrane composition and free radical metabolism. There was elevation in plasma HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin and dolichol and a reduction in RBC membrane Na+ - K+ ATPase activity, and serum ubiquinone levels. Serum tryptophan, serotonin, nicotine, strychnine and quinolinic acid were elevated while tyrosine, dopamine, noradrenaline and morphine were decreased. The total serum glycosaminoglycans and glycosaminoglycan fractions, the activity of GAG degrading enzymes and glycohydrolases, carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins and serum glycolipids were elevated. The RBC membrane glycosaminoglycans, hexose and fucose residues of glycoproteins, cholesterol and phospholipids were reduced. The activity of all free radical scavenging enzymes, concentration of glutathione, iron binding capacity and ceruloplasmin decreased significantly while the concentration of lipid peroxidation products and NO increased. Hyperdigoxinemia related altered intracellular Ca++ mediated oncogene activation, dolichol induced altered glycoconjugate metabolism and ubiquinone deficiency related mitochondrial dysfunction can contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. The biochemical findings reported could be the cause or the consequence of multiple myeloma. PMID:12858216

  10. Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency requires MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jianping; Ajibade, Adetola Olalekan; Ye, Fengchun; Kuhne, Kurt; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) promotes the progression of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a dominant malignancy in patients with AIDS. While 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced KSHV reactivation from latency is mediated by the protein kinase C ? and MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, we have recently shown that the MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways modulate KSHV lytic replication during productive primary infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Pan, H.Y., Xie, J.P., Ye, F.C., Gao, S.-J., 2006. J. Virol. 80, 5371-82). Here, we report that, besides the MEK/ERK pathway, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways also mediate TPA-induced KSHV reactivation from latency. The MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways were constitutively activated in latent KSHV-infected BCBL-1 cells. TPA treatment enhanced the levels of activated ERK and p38 but not those of activated JNK. Inhibitors of all three MAPK pathways reduced TPA-induced production of KSHV infectious virions in BCBL-1 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitors blocked KSHV lytic replication at the early stage(s) of reactivation, and reduced the expression of viral lytic genes including RTA, a key immediate-early transactivator of viral lytic replication. Activation of MAPK pathways was necessary and sufficient for activating the promoter of RTA. Furthermore, we showed that the activation of RTA promoter by MAPK pathways was mediated by their downstream target AP-1. Together, these findings suggest that MAPK pathways might have general roles in regulating the life cycle of KSHV by mediating both viral infection and switch from viral latency to lytic replication. PMID:17964626

  11. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced. PMID:25473861

  12. Demonstration of differential quantitative requirements for NSF among multiple vesicle fusion pathways of GLUT4 using a dominant-negative ATPase-deficient NSF

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoli; Matsumoto, Hideko; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Al-Hasani, Hadi; St-Denis, Jean-Francois; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Cushman, Samuel W. . E-mail: sam_cushman@nih.gov

    2005-07-22

    In this study, we investigated the relative participation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) in vivo in a complex multistep vesicle trafficking system, the translocation response of GLUT4 to insulin in rat adipose cells. Transfections of rat adipose cells demonstrate that over-expression of wild-type NSF has no effect on total, or basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface expression of HA-tagged GLUT4. In contrast, a dominant-negative NSF (NSF-D1EQ) can be expressed at a low enough level that it has little effect on total HA-GLUT4, but does reduce both basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface HA-GLUT4 by {approx}50% without affecting the GLUT4 fold-translocation response to insulin. However, high expression levels of NSF-D1EQ decrease total HA-GLUT4. The inhibitory effect of NSF-D1EQ on cell-surface HA-GLUT4 is reversed when endocytosis is inhibited by co-expression of a dominant-negative dynamin (dynamin-K44A). Moreover, NSF-D1EQ does not affect cell-surface levels of constitutively recycling GLUT1 and TfR, suggesting a predominant effect of low-level NSF-D1EQ on the trafficking of GLUT4 from the endocytic recycling compared to the intracellular GLUT4-specific compartment. Thus, our data demonstrate that the multiple fusion steps in GLUT4 trafficking have differential quantitative requirements for NSF activity. This indicates that the rates of plasma and intracellular membrane fusion reactions vary, leading to differential needs for the turnover of the SNARE proteins.

  13. Beyond Tracking: Multiple Pathways to College, Career, and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie, Ed.; Saunders, Marisa, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Beyond Tracking" responds to the a sobering assessment of American high schools by delineating and promoting an innovative and well-defined notion of multiple pathways. The book's authors clearly distinguish their use of the term "multiple pathways" from any updated version of the tracking system that marked so many American high schools during…

  14. Beyond Tracking: Multiple Pathways to College, Career, and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie, Ed.; Saunders, Marisa, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Beyond Tracking" responds to the a sobering assessment of American high schools by delineating and promoting an innovative and well-defined notion of multiple pathways. The book's authors clearly distinguish their use of the term "multiple pathways" from any updated version of the tracking system that marked so many American high schools during

  15. Extreme-Longevity Mutations Orchestrate Silencing of Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shmookler Reis, Robert J.; Bharill, Puneet; Tazearslan, Cagdas; Ayyadevara, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived mutants provide unique insights into the genetic factors that limit lifespan in wild-type animals. Most mutants and RNA-interference targets found to extend life, typically by 1.5- to 2.5-fold, were discovered in C. elegans. Several longevity-assurance pathways are conserved across widely divergent taxa, indicating that mechanisms of lifespan regulation evolved several hundred million years ago. Strong mutations to the C. elegans gene encoding AGE-1/PI3KCS achieve unprecedented longevity by orchestrating the modulation (predominantly silencing) of multiple signaling pathways. This is evident in a profound attenuation of total kinase activity, leading to reduced phosphoprotein content. Mutations to the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) have the potential to modulate all enzymes that depend on its product, PIP3, for membrane tethering or activation by other kinases. Remarkably, strong mutants inactivating PI3K also silence multiple signaling pathways at the transcript level, partially but not entirely mediated by the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Mammals have a relatively large proportion of somatic cells, and survival depends on their replication, whereas somatic cell divisions in nematodes are limited to development and reproductive tissues. Thus, translation of longevity gains from nematodes to mammals requires disentangling the downstream consequences of signaling mutations, to avoid their deleterious consequences. PMID:19465083

  16. Multiple functions of the noncanonical Wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Orte, Eva; Senz-Narciso, Beatriz; Moreno, Sergio; Cabello, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Thirty years after the identification of WNTs, understanding of their signal transduction pathways continues to expand. Here, we review recent advances in characterizing the Wnt-dependent signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans linking polar signals to rearrangements of the cytoskeleton in different developmental processes, such as proper mitotic spindle orientation, cell migration, and engulfment of apoptotic corpses. In addition to the well-described transcriptional outputs of the canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways, new branches regulating nontranscriptional outputs that control RAC (Ras related GTPase) activity are also discussed. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling is a master regulator not only of development, but also of cell polarization. PMID:23846023

  17. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement, and livelihood outcomes; (v) intensive commodity crops may fail to spare land when inducing displacement. We conclude that understanding pathways of commodity crop expansion is essential to improve land use governance.

  18. Multiple Pathways of Commodity Crop Expansion in Tropical Forest Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement, and livelihood outcomes; (v) intensive commodity crops may fail to spare land when inducing displacement. We conclude that understanding pathways of commodity crop expansion is essential to improve land use governance.

  19. Multiple pathways for establishment of poliovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Arita, M; Ohka, S; Sasaki, Y; Nomoto, A

    1999-08-01

    Poliovirus (PV) infects susceptible cells through poliovirus receptor (PVR), which functions to bind virus and to convert its conformation. To study early infection process of PV, infection systems were employed using in vitro cultured cells and in vivo neural pathway of PVR transgenic (Tg) mice. For in vitro study, mouse L cells were established expressing mouse high affinity Fc gamma receptor molecules, and used them as in vitro PV infection system. PV infection was mediated, albeit inefficiently, by mouse anti-PV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; IgG2a subtypes) that did not show an activity to convert PV (160S) to 135S particle. The infection efficiency was enhanced when PVR-IgG2a, a chimera molecule consisting of the extracellular moiety of PVR and the Fc portion of mouse IgG2a, was used for anti-PV mAbs. Virion conformational change to 135S particle was induced by PVR-IgG2a. For in vivo study, intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation of PV into the calves of PV-sensitive Tg mice was employed. PV-related materials recovered from the sciatic nerve, after the i.m. inoculation, were mainly composed of intact 160S virion particle, although this neural pathway appeared to be dependent on PVR. These results suggested that some specific interaction(s) of PVR to PV beyond its binding activity was important to enhance infectivity of PV in in vitro cultured cells, and that PV uncoating occurs after retrograde axonal transport of the virus through the sciatic nerve of Tg mice. Thus, PV infection may be established by any of these several pathways. reserved. PMID:10507320

  20. Multiple Pathways for Protein Transport to Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, P.K.; Hettema, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique among the organelles of the endomembrane system. Unlike other organelles that derive most if not all of their proteins from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), peroxisomes contain dedicated machineries for import of matrix proteins and insertion of membrane proteins. However, peroxisomes are also able to import a subset of their membrane proteins from the ER. One aspect of peroxisome biology that has remained ill defined is the role the various import pathways play in peroxisome maintenance. In this review, we discuss the available data on matrix and membrane protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:25681696

  1. Multiple oxygen entry pathways in globin proteins revealed by intrinsic pathway identification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    Each subunit of human hemoglobin (HbA) stores an oxygen molecule (O2) in the binding site (BS) cavity near the heme group. The BS is buried in the interior of the subunit so that there is a debate over the O2 entry pathways from solvent to the BS; histidine gate or multiple pathways. To elucidate the O2 entry pathways, we executed ensemble molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of T-state tetramer HbA in high concentration O2 solvent to simulate spontaneous O2 entry from solvent into the BS. By analyzing 128 independent 8 ns MD trajectories by intrinsic pathway identification by clustering (IPIC) method, we found 141 and 425 O2 entry events into the BS of the ? and ? subunits, respectively. In both subunits, we found that multiple O2 entry pathways through inside cavities play a significant role for O2 entry process of HbA. The rate constants of O2 entry estimated from the MD trajectories correspond to the experimentally observed values. In addition, by analyzing monomer myoglobin, we verified that the high O2 concentration condition can reproduce the ratios of each multiple pathway in the one-tenth lower O2 concentration condition. These indicate the validity of the multiple pathways obtained in our MD simulations.

  2. Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine quality teachers through teacher leadership development. Using Singapore as an illustrative case, we describe the redefinition of the teaching profession to include deliberate structures and multiple pathways designed to nurture teacher leaders, and the role of teacher leaders in supporting education reform. We go on to

  3. Costs of California Multiple Pathway Programs. Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Plank, David; Stern, David

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that many of California's high schools are doing a poor job of preparing their students for college and careers. The James Irvine Foundation is sponsoring a major initiative to develop "Multiple Pathways"--now called the Linked Learning approach--as a strategy for improving the performance of California high schools.

  4. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  5. Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

  6. Multiple signal transduction pathways alterations during nerve agent toxicity.

    PubMed

    RamaRao, G; Bhattacharya, B K

    2012-01-01

    Nerve agent toxicity is primarily due to the synaptic build up of toxic levels of acetylcholine. The acute lethal effects of the nerve agents are generally attributed to respiratory failure caused by a combination of effects at both central and peripheral levels and are further complicated by copious secretions, muscle fasciculations, and convulsions. In addition to this, a range of non cholinergic effects have been observed. The development of effective treatment to block multiple effects resulting from nerve agent exposure is hampered by a limited understanding of the molecular changes responsible for their persistent effects. Excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to activation nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, these receptors activate diverse kind of cellular responses by distinct signaling pathways. Metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, membrane phospholipids, activation of a multitude of protein kinases and the induction of transcription factors are the key biochemical steps and pathways that have been investigated. This review will focus on the effects of nerve agents on signal transduction pathways; particularly, MAP kinases, protein kinase C isozymes, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and on cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, and certain transcription factors and discusses how such changes may be involved in nerve agent induced neurotoxicity. Alterations in these key brain proteins could explain the neurological impairments following nerve agent exposure. A better understanding of the whole picture may lead to new pharmacological interventions aimed to improve or modulate those signal transduction pathways affected during nerve agent poisoning or associated pathologies that are responsible for neuronal disturbances. PMID:22001750

  7. Reovirus uses multiple endocytic pathways for cell entry.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Wade L; Haj, Amelia K; Schiff, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Entry of reovirus virions has been well studied in several tissue culture systems. After attachment to junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), virions undergo clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by proteolytic disassembly of the capsid and penetration to the cytoplasm. However, during in vivo infection of the intestinal tract, and likely in the tumor microenvironment, capsid proteolysis (uncoating) is initiated extracellularly. We used multiple approaches to determine if uncoated reovirus particles, called intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs), enter cells by directly penetrating the limiting membrane or if they take advantage of endocytic pathways to establish productive infection. We found that entry and infection by reovirus ISVPs was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin-dependent endocytosis, as well as by genistein and dominant-negative caveolin-1, which block caveolar endocytosis. Inhibition of caveolar endocytosis also reduced infection by reovirus virions. Extraction of membrane cholesterol with methyl-?-cyclodextrin inhibited infection by virions but had no effect when infection was initiated with ISVPs. We found this pathway to be independent of both clathrin and caveolin. Together, these data suggest that reovirus virions can use both dynamin-dependent and dynamin-independent endocytic pathways during cell entry, and they reveal that reovirus ISVPs can take advantage of caveolar endocytosis to establish productive infection. PMID:22973022

  8. Multiple pathway asbestos exposure assessment for a Superfund community.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Conway, Kathrene; Landguth, Erin L; McNew, Tracy; Linker, Laura; Pfau, Jean; Black, Brad; Szeinuk, Jaime; Flores, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Libby, MT, USA, was the home to workers at a historical vermiculite mining facility and served as the processing and distribution center for this industrial product that was contaminated with amphibole asbestos. Several pathways of environmental asbestos exposure to the general population have been identified. The local clinic and health screening program collects data from participants on past occupational and environmental exposures to vermiculite and asbestos. Health studies among this population have demonstrated associations between amphibole exposure and health outcomes, but critical questions regarding the nature and level of exposure associated with specific outcomes remain unanswered. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive exposure assessment approach that integrates information on individuals' contact frequency with multiple exposure pathways. For 3031 participants, we describe cumulative exposure metrics for environmental exposures, occupational exposures, and residents' contact with carry-home asbestos from household workers. As expected, cumulative exposures for all three occupational categories were higher among men compared with women, and cumulative exposures for household contact and environmental pathways were higher among women. The comprehensive exposure assessment strategies will advance health studies and risk assessment approaches in this population with a complex history of both occupational and environmental asbestos exposure. PMID:24756101

  9. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE PATHWAYS TO DEUTERIUM ENHANCEMENTS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David J.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.

    2012-04-20

    The distributions of deuterated molecules in protoplanetary disks are expected to depend on the molecular formation pathways. We use observations of spatially resolved DCN emission from the disk around TW Hya, acquired during ALMA science verification with a {approx}3'' synthesized beam, together with comparable DCO{sup +} observations from the Submillimeter Array, to investigate differences in the radial distributions of these species and hence differences in their formation chemistry. In contrast to DCO{sup +}, which shows an increasing column density with radius, DCN is better fit by a model that is centrally peaked. We infer that DCN forms at a smaller radii and thus at higher temperatures than DCO{sup +}. This is consistent with chemical network model predictions of DCO{sup +} formation from H{sub 2}D{sup +} at T < 30 K and DCN formation from additional pathways involving CH{sub 2}D{sup +} at higher temperatures. We estimate a DCN/HCN abundance ratio of {approx}0.017, similar to the DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +} abundance ratio. Deuterium fractionation appears to be efficient at a range of temperatures in this protoplanetary disk. These results suggest caution in interpreting the range of deuterium fractions observed in solar system bodies, as multiple formation pathways should be taken into account.

  10. Reovirus Uses Multiple Endocytic Pathways for Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Wade L.; Haj, Amelia K.

    2012-01-01

    Entry of reovirus virions has been well studied in several tissue culture systems. After attachment to junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), virions undergo clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by proteolytic disassembly of the capsid and penetration to the cytoplasm. However, during in vivo infection of the intestinal tract, and likely in the tumor microenvironment, capsid proteolysis (uncoating) is initiated extracellularly. We used multiple approaches to determine if uncoated reovirus particles, called intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs), enter cells by directly penetrating the limiting membrane or if they take advantage of endocytic pathways to establish productive infection. We found that entry and infection by reovirus ISVPs was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin-dependent endocytosis, as well as by genistein and dominant-negative caveolin-1, which block caveolar endocytosis. Inhibition of caveolar endocytosis also reduced infection by reovirus virions. Extraction of membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited infection by virions but had no effect when infection was initiated with ISVPs. We found this pathway to be independent of both clathrin and caveolin. Together, these data suggest that reovirus virions can use both dynamin-dependent and dynamin-independent endocytic pathways during cell entry, and they reveal that reovirus ISVPs can take advantage of caveolar endocytosis to establish productive infection. PMID:22973022

  11. Development of water requirement factors for biomass conversion pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shikhar; Kumar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Published data were used to develop an integrated spreadsheet-based model to estimate total water requirement for 12 biomass conversion pathways. The water requirement for crop production was attributed only to the grains in the estimates since agricultural residues are produced irrespective of their use for fuel or electricity. Corn stover- and wheat straw-based ethanol production pathways are water efficient, requiring only 0.3 l, whereas biopower production pathways (i.e. direct combustion and bio-oil production) require about 0.8-0.9 l of water per MJ. Wheat- and corn-based ethanol production pathways consume 77 and 108 l of water per MJ, respectively. Utilization of switchgrass for production of ethanol, biopower through the direct combustion, and pyrolysis consume 128, 187 and 229 l of water per MJ, respectively. Biodiesel production from canola seed consumes 124 l of water per MJ. Corn stover- and wheat straw-based conversion pathways are most water efficient. PMID:20888758

  12. Pathway Analysis of Smoking Quantity in Multiple GWAS Identifies Cholinergic and Sensory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Oscar; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bucholz, Kathleen; Edenberg, Howard J.; Heath, Andrew; Martin, Nicholas G.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Montgomery, Grant; Schrage, Andrew; Bierut, Laura J.; Madden, Pamela F.; Goate, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common addiction that increases the risk for many diseases, including lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified and validated several susceptibility loci for nicotine consumption and dependence. However, the trait variance explained by these genes is only a small fraction of the estimated genetic risk. Pathway analysis complements single marker methods by including biological knowledge into the evaluation of GWAS, under the assumption that causal variants lie in functionally related genes, enabling the evaluation of a broad range of signals. Our approach to the identification of pathways enriched for multiple genes associated with smoking quantity includes the analysis of two studies and the replication of common findings in a third dataset. This study identified pathways for the cholinergic receptors, which included SNPs known to be genome-wide significant; as well as novel pathways, such as genes involved in the sensory perception of smell, that do not contain any single SNP that achieves that stringent threshold. PMID:23227220

  13. Multiple Molecular Pathways in Melanomagenesis: Characterization of Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Ombra, MariaNeve; Colombino, Maria; Casula, Milena; Sini, MariaCristina; Manca, Antonella; Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Cossu, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of malignant melanoma have been widely studied and novel therapeutic treatments developed in recent past years. Molecular targets for therapy have mostly been recognized in the RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK and PI3K–AKT signaling pathways; small-molecule inhibitors were drawn to specifically target key kinases. Unfortunately, these targeted drugs may display intrinsic or acquired resistance and various evidences suggest that inhibition of a single effector of the signal transduction cascades involved in melanoma pathogenesis may be ineffective in blocking the tumor growth. In this sense, a wider comprehension of the multiple molecular alterations accounting for either response or resistance to treatments with targeted inhibitors may be helpful in assessing, which is the most effective combination of such therapies. In the present review, we summarize the known molecular mechanisms underlying either intrinsic and acquired drug resistance either alternative roads to melanoma pathogenesis, which may become targets for innovative anticancer approaches. PMID:26322273

  14. Multiple sweet receptors and transduction pathways revealed in knockout mice by temperature dependence and gurmarin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Horio, Nao; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-04-01

    Sweet taste transduction involves taste receptor type 1, member 2 (T1R2), taste receptor type 1, member 3 (T1R3), gustducin, and TRPM5. Because knockout (KO) mice lacking T1R3, gustducin's Galpha subunit (Galphagust), or TRPM5 exhibited greatly reduced, but not abolished responses of the chorda tympani (CT) nerve to sweet compounds, it is likely that multiple sweet transduction pathways exist. That gurmarin (Gur), a sweet taste inhibitor, inhibits some but not all mouse CT responses to sweet compounds supports the existence of multiple sweet pathways. Here, we investigated Gur inhibition of CT responses to sweet compounds as a function of temperature in KO mice lacking T1R3, Galphagust, or TRPM5. In T1R3-KO mice, responses to sucrose and glucose were Gur sensitive (GS) and displayed a temperature-dependent increase (TDI). In Galphagust-KO mice, responses to sucrose and glucose were Gur-insensitive (GI) and showed a TDI. In TRPM5-KO mice, responses to glucose were GS and showed a TDI. All three KO mice exhibited no detectable responses to SC45647, and their responses to saccharin displayed neither GS nor a TDI. For all three KO mice, the lingual application of pronase, another sweet response inhibitor, almost fully abolished responses to sucrose and glucose but did not affect responses to saccharin. These results provide evidence for 1) the existence of multiple transduction pathways underlying responses to sugars: a T1R3-independent GS pathway for sucrose and glucose, and a TRPM5-independent temperature sensitive GS pathway for glucose; 2) the requirement for Galphagust in GS sweet taste responses; and 3) the existence of a sweet independent pathway for saccharin, in mouse taste cells on the anterior tongue. PMID:19211717

  15. Menin represses malignant phenotypes of melanoma through regulating multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Bin; Feng, Zi-Jie; Xu, Bin; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Hong-Hua; Yin, Ping; Hua, Xianxin; Jin, Guang-Hui

    2011-11-01

    Substantial genetic evidence suggests that chromosome 11q is involved in regulating initiation and progression of malignant melanomas. Mutations of the MEN1 gene, located in chromosome 11q13, predispose individuals to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) familial syndrome. MEN1 patients develop primary malignant melanoma, suggesting a potential link between MEN1 syndrome and development of melanomas, but the precise molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that the MEN1 gene suppresses malignant phenotypes of melanoma cells through multiple signalling pathways. Ectopic expression of menin, the product of MEN1 gene, significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition was partly achieved through suppressing expression of growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN) and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) β/ζ, accompanied with the reduced expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pI3K) and decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Interestingly, reduced expression of menin was associated with hypermethylation of the CpG islands of the MEN1 promoter in melanoma cells. Taken together, these findings suggest a previously unappreciated function for menin in suppressing malignant phenotypes of melanomas and unravel a novel mechanism involving in regulating PTN signalling by menin in development and progression of melanomas. PMID:21129151

  16. Pathway-Wide Association Study Implicates Multiple Sterol Transport and Metabolism Genes in HDL Cholesterol Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Edmondson, Andrew C.; Li, Mingyao; Gao, Fan; Qasim, Atif N.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Mooser, Vincent; Grant, Struan F. A.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathway-based association methods have been proposed to be an effective approach in identifying disease genes, when single-marker association tests do not have sufficient power. The analysis of quantitative traits may be benefited from these approaches, by sampling from two extreme tails of the distribution. Here we tested a pathway association approach on a small genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 653 subjects with extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and 784 subjects with low HDL-C levels. We identified 102 genes in the sterol transport and metabolism pathways that collectively associate with HDL-C levels, and replicated these association signals in an independent GWAS. Interestingly, the pathways include 18 genes implicated in previous GWAS on lipid traits, suggesting that genuine HDL-C genes are highly enriched in these pathways. Additionally, multiple biologically relevant loci in the pathways were not detected by previous GWAS, including genes implicated in previous candidate gene association studies (such as LEPR, APOA2, HDLBP, SOAT2), genes that cause Mendelian forms of lipid disorders (such as DHCR24), and genes expressing dyslipidemia phenotypes in knockout mice (such as SOAT1, PON1). Our study suggests that sampling from two extreme tails of a quantitative trait and examining genetic pathways may yield biological insights from smaller samples than are generally required using single-marker analysis in large-scale GWAS. Our results also implicate that functionally related genes work together to regulate complex quantitative traits, and that future large-scale studies may benefit from pathway-association approaches to identify novel pathways regulating HDL-C levels. PMID:22303337

  17. Germline Mutations in Oncogene-Induced Senescence Pathways are Associated with Multiple Sessile Serrated Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Manish K.; Mizukami, Yusuke; Le, Long P.; Moriichi, Kentaro; Austin, Thomas; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Chung, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about the genetic factors that contribute to development of sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs). SSAs contain somatic mutations in BRAF or KRAS early in development. However, evidence from humans and mouse models indicates that these mutations result in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) of intestinal crypt cells. Progression to serrated neoplasia requires cells to escape OIS, via inactivation of tumor suppressor pathways. We investigated whether individuals with multiple SSAs carry germline loss-of-function mutations (nonsense and splice-site) in genes that regulate OIS the p16Rb and ATMATR DNA damage response pathways. Methods Through bioinformatic analysis of the literature, we identified a set of genes that function at main nodes of the p16Rb and ATMATR DNA damage response pathways. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 20 unrelated individuals with multiple SSAs; most had features of serrated polyposis. We compared sequences with those from 4300 individuals, matched for ethnicity (controls). We also used an integrative genomics approach to identify additional genes involved in senescence mechanisms. Results We identified mutations in genes that regulate senescence (ATM, PIF1, TELO2, XAF1, and RBL1) in 5/20 individuals with multiple SSAs (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98.9; P=.04). In 2 individuals, we found nonsense mutations in RNF43, indicating that it is also associated with multiple serrated polyps (OR=460; 95% CI, 23.1 16384; P=6.810?5). In knockdown experiments with pancreatic duct cells exposed to ultraviolet light, RNF43 appeared to function as a regulator of ATMATR DNA damage response. Conclusions We associated germline loss-of-function variants in genes that regulate senescence pathways with the development of multiple SSAs. We identified RNF43 as a regulator of the DNA damage response, and associated nonsense variants in this gene with high risk of developing SSAs. PMID:24512911

  18. Multiple Reaction Pathways during Radiolytic Oxidation of Pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefticariu, L.; Pratt, L.; Laverne, J. A.; Ripley, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    Passage of ionizing radiation through groundwater produces a complex mixture of short-lived ions, free radicals, and excited molecules that participate in a wide range of chemical reactions and accelerate water-rock interaction. Radiolysis of groundwater in contact with sulfide minerals or elemental sulfur can produce plumes of partially to fully oxidized sulfur species, thereby stimulating microbial metabolism in unexpected subsurface environments. In order to study fractionation of sulfur isotopes during radiolysis, initial experiments were performed using sealed quartz tubes that contained pyrite and millimolar solutions of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that were reacted at temperatures from 4 to 150 C over time periods of days to week. Mineralogical, chemical, and stable isotopic date from H2O2 experiments reveal multiple pathways for pyrite oxidation and distinct assemblages of products at difference temperatures. Sulfur isotopic signatures of oxidized products are enriched in 32S by 0.5 to 2 per mil compared to source sulfate. Radiation experiments were carried out using a 60Co gamma sources at the Radiation Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. Sealed quartz tubes that contained pyrite and deoxygenated DI water were irradiated from 1 to 14 hours with a dose rate of 11.3 krad/min (113 Gy/min). Initial experiments produced oxidized sulfur as gaseous (e.g., SO2) and aqueous (e.g, SO4) species at concentrations directly correlated to the volume of water and total irradiation dose. Radiolysis proves to be an effective mechanism for the production of oxidizing species in geologically long-lived oxidizing systems. Iron sulfide minerals are decomposed and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals and sulfate ions are produced. Recognizing geochemical signatures of radiolytic oxidation is particularly important for understanding biotic and abiotic reaction pathways in environments where molecular oxygen is negligible and for assessing potential sources of chemical energy for microbial metabolism in the deep subsurface of Earth and Mars.

  19. Estrogen Signaling Multiple Pathways to Impact Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Maria; Galluzzo, Paola; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Steroid hormones exert profound effects on cell growth, development, differentiation, and homeostasis. Their effects are mediated through specific intracellular steroid receptors that act via multiple mechanisms. Among others, the action mechanism starting upon 17?-estradiol (E2) binds to its receptors (ER) is considered a paradigmatic example of how steroid hormones function. Ligand-activated ER dimerizes and translocates in the nucleus where it recognizes specific hormone response elements located in or near promoter DNA regions of target genes. Behind the classical genomic mechanism shared with other steroid hormones, E2 also modulates gene expression by a second indirect mechanism that involves the interaction of ER with other transcription factors which, in turn, bind their cognate DNA elements. In this case, ER modulates the activities of transcription factors such as the activator protein (AP)-1, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and stimulating protein-1 (Sp-1), by stabilizing DNA-protein complexes and/or recruiting co-activators. In addition, E2 binding to ER may also exert rapid actions that start with the activation of a variety of signal transduction pathways (e.g. ERK/MAPK, p38/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC/PKC). The debate about the contribution of different ER-mediated signaling pathways to coordinate the expression of specific sets of genes is still open. This review will focus on the recent knowledge about the mechanism by which ERs regulate the expression of target genes and the emerging field of integration of membrane and nuclear receptor signaling, giving examples of the ways by which the genomic and non-genomic actions of ERs on target genes converge. PMID:18369406

  20. Dealing with Multiple Requirements in Geometric Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Nieto, Erick; Casaca, Wallace; Motta, Danilo; Hartmann, Ivar; Taubin, Gabriel; Nonato, Luis Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    Existing algorithms for building layouts from geometric primitives are typically designed to cope with requirements such as orthogonal alignment, overlap removal, optimal area usage, hierarchical organization, among others. However, most techniques are able to tackle just a few of those requirements simultaneously, impairing their use and flexibility. In this work we propose a novel methodology for building layouts from geometric primitives that concurrently addresses a wider range of requirements. Relying on multidimensional projection and mixed integer optimization, our approach arranges geometric objects in the visual space so as to generate well structured layouts that preserve the semantic relation among objects while still making an efficient use of display area. Moreover, scalability is handled through a hierarchical representation scheme combined with navigation tools. A comprehensive set of quantitative comparisons against existing geometry-based layouts and applications on text, image, and video data set visualization prove the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26469283

  1. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical Criteria Postclosure Performance Assessment § 63.115 Requirements for multiple...

  2. Ferritin Is Required in Multiple Tissues during Drosophila melanogaster Development

    PubMed Central

    Blowes, Liisa M.; Missirlis, Fanis; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, iron is stored in the cellular endomembrane system inside a protein cage formed by 24 ferritin subunits of two types (Fer1HCH and Fer2LCH) in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In larvae, ferritin accumulates in the midgut, hemolymph, garland, pericardial cells and in the nervous system. Here we present analyses of embryonic phenotypes for mutations in Fer1HCH, Fer2LCH and in both genes simultaneously. Mutations in either gene or deletion of both genes results in a similar set of cuticular embryonic phenotypes, ranging from non-deposition of cuticle to defects associated with germ band retraction, dorsal closure and head involution. A fraction of ferritin mutants have embryonic nervous systems with ventral nerve cord disruptions, misguided axonal projections and brain malformations. Ferritin mutants die with ectopic apoptotic events. Furthermore, we show that ferritin maternal contribution, which varies reflecting the mothers iron stores, is used in early development. We also evaluated phenotypes arising from the blockage of COPII transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, feeding the secretory pathway, plus analysis of ectopically expressed and fluorescently marked Fer1HCH and Fer2LCH. Overall, our results are consistent with insect ferritin combining three functions: iron storage, intercellular iron transport, and protection from iron-induced oxidative stress. These functions are required in multiple tissues during Drosophila embryonic development. PMID:26192321

  3. The Cbln Family of Proteins Interact with Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng; Pattarini, Roberto; Rong, Yongqi; Guo, Hong; Bansal, Parmil K; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Deutch, Ariel Y; Parris, Jennifer; Morgan, James I

    2012-01-01

    Cbln1 is essential for synapse integrity in cerebellum through assembly into complexes that bridge presynaptic ?-neurexins (Nrxn) to postsynaptic GluR?2. However, GluR?2 is largely cerebellum-specific, yet Cbln1 and its little studied family members, Cbln2 and Cbln4, are expressed throughout brain. Therefore, we investigated whether additional proteins mediate Cbln family actions. Whereas Cbln1 and Cbln2 bound to GluR?2 and Nrxns13, Cbln4 bound weakly or not at all, suggesting it has distinct binding partners. In a candidate receptor-screening assay, Cbln4 (but not Cbln1 or Cbln2) bound selectively to the netrin receptor, DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) in a netrin-displaceable fashion. To determine whether Cbln4 had a netrin-like function, Cbln4-null mice were generated. Cbln4-null mice did not phenocopy netrin-null mice. Cbln1 and Cbln4 were likely co-localized in neurons thought to be responsible for synaptic changes in striatum of Cbln1-null mice. Furthermore, complexes containing Cbln1 and Cbln4 had greatly reduced affinity to DCC but increased affinity to Nrxns, suggesting a functional interaction. However, Cbln4-null mice lacked the striatal synaptic changes seen in Cbln1-null mice. Thus Cbln family members interact with multiple receptors/signaling pathways in a subunit composition-dependent manner and have independent functions with Cbln4 potentially involved in the less-well characterized role of netrin/DCC in adult brain. PMID:22220752

  4. Targeting Apoptosis and Multiple Signaling Pathways with Icariside II in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad; Maryam, Amara; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of deaths worldwide. Despite concerted efforts to improve the current therapies, the prognosis of cancer remains dismal. Highly selective or specific blocking of only one of the signaling pathways has been associated with limited or sporadic responses. Using targeted agents to inhibit multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new paradigm for anticancer treatment. Icariside II, a flavonol glycoside, is one of the major components of Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba epimedii and possesses multiple biological and pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporosis, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, and anticancer activities. Recently, the anticancer activity of Icariside II has been extensively investigated. Here, in this review, our aim is to give our perspective on the current status of Icariside II, and discuss its natural sources, anticancer activity, molecular targets and the mechanisms of action with specific emphasis on apoptosis pathways which may help the further design and conduct of preclinical and clinical trials. Icariside II has been found to induce apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines of different origin by targeting multiple signaling pathways including STAT3, PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, COX-2/PGE2 and β-Catenin which are frequently deregulated in cancers, suggesting that this collective activity rather than just a single effect may play an important role in developing Icariside II into a potential lead compound for anticancer therapy. This review suggests that Icariside II provides a novel opportunity for treatment of cancers, but additional investigations and clinical trials are still required to fully understand the mechanism of therapeutic effects to further validate it in anti-tumor therapy. PMID:26221076

  5. Multiple Pathways to Graduation: New Routes to High School Completion. CRPE Working Paper #2010_2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Concerned about the persistently high dropout rates from big-city secondary schools, education leaders are trying a new approach to increasing the graduation rate--multiple pathways to graduation. Multiple pathways initiatives are relatively new and far from proven. Even the most advanced examples face significant issues, i.e., the need to…

  6. Metabolic pathways required for the intracellular survival of Leishmania.

    PubMed

    McConville, Malcolm J; Naderer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are sandfly-transmitted parasitic protozoa that cause a spectrum of important diseases and lifelong chronic infections in humans. In the mammalian host, these parasites proliferate within acidified vacuoles in several phagocytic host cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. In this review, we discuss recent progress that has been made in defining the nutrient composition of the Leishmania parasitophorous vacuole, as well as metabolic pathways required by these parasites for virulence. Analysis of the virulence phenotype of Leishmania mutants has been particularly useful in defining carbon sources and nutrient salvage pathways that are essential for parasite persistence and/or induction of pathology. We also review data suggesting that intracellular parasite stages modulate metabolic processes in their host cells in order to generate a more permissive niche. PMID:21721937

  7. Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

    2014-06-01

    While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution. PMID:24841100

  8. Rho/Rock signal transduction pathway is required for MSC tenogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Maharam, Edward; Yaport, Miguel; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Akinyibi, Takintope; Laudier, Damien; He, Zhiyong; Leong, Daniel J; Sun, Hui B

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatments have shown promise for improving tendon healing and repair. MSCs have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages in response to select chemical and physical stimuli, including into tenocytes. Cell elongation and cytoskeletal tension have been shown to be instrumental to the process of MSC differentiation. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of stress fiber formation leads MSCs to default toward an adipogenic lineage, which suggests that stress fibers are required for MSCs to sense the environmental factors that can induce differentiation into tenocytes. As the Rho/ROCK signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in both stress fiber formation and in cell sensation, we examined whether the activation of this pathway was required when inducing MSC tendon differentiation using rope-like silk scaffolds. To accomplish this, we employed a loss-of-function approach by knocking out ROCK, actin and myosin (two other components of the pathway) using the specific inhibitors Y-27632, Latrunculin A and blebbistatin, respectively. We demonstrated that independently disrupting the cytoskeleton and the Rho/ROCK pathway abolished the expression of tendon differentiation markers and led to a loss of spindle morphology. Together, these studies suggest that the tension that is generated by MSC elongation is essential for MSC teno-differentiation and that the Rho/ROCK pathway is a critical mediator of tendon differentiation on rope-like silk scaffolds. PMID:26509098

  9. Rho/Rock signal transduction pathway is required for MSC tenogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Maharam, Edward; Yaport, Miguel; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Akinyibi, Takintope; Laudier, Damien; He, Zhiyong; Leong, Daniel J; Sun, Hui B

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatments have shown promise for improving tendon healing and repair. MSCs have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages in response to select chemical and physical stimuli, including into tenocytes. Cell elongation and cytoskeletal tension have been shown to be instrumental to the process of MSC differentiation. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of stress fiber formation leads MSCs to default toward an adipogenic lineage, which suggests that stress fibers are required for MSCs to sense the environmental factors that can induce differentiation into tenocytes. As the Rho/ROCK signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in both stress fiber formation and in cell sensation, we examined whether the activation of this pathway was required when inducing MSC tendon differentiation using rope-like silk scaffolds. To accomplish this, we employed a loss-of-function approach by knocking out ROCK, actin and myosin (two other components of the pathway) using the specific inhibitors Y-27632, Latrunculin A and blebbistatin, respectively. We demonstrated that independently disrupting the cytoskeleton and the Rho/ROCK pathway abolished the expression of tendon differentiation markers and led to a loss of spindle morphology. Together, these studies suggest that the tension that is generated by MSC elongation is essential for MSC teno-differentiation and that the Rho/ROCK pathway is a critical mediator of tendon differentiation on rope-like silk scaffolds. PMID:26509098

  10. Multiple product pathways in photodissociation of nitromethane at 213 nm.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masataka; Kohge, Yasunori; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi; Kohguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-02-14

    In this paper, we present a photodissociation dynamics study of nitromethane at 213 nm in the ? ? ?(*) transition. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and ion-imaging were applied to measure the internal state distributions and state-resolved scattering distributions of the CH3, NO(X (2)?, A (2)?(+)), and O((3)PJ) photofragments. The rotationally state-resolved scattering distribution of the CH3 fragment showed two velocity components, of which the slower one decreased the relative intensity as the rotational and vibrational excitations. The translational energy distribution of the faster CH3 fragment indicated the production of the NO2 counter-product in the electronic excited state, wherein 1 (2)B2 was the most probable. The NO(v = 0) fragment exhibited a bimodal translational energy distribution, whereas the NO(v = 1 and 2) fragment exhibited a single translational energy component with a relatively larger internal energy. The translational energy of a portion of the O((3)PJ) photofragment was found to be higher than the one-photon dissociation threshold, indicating the two-photon process involved. The NO(A (2)?(+)) fragment, which was detected by ionization spectroscopy via the Rydberg ?A (2)?(+) transition, also required two-photon energy. These experimental data corroborate the existence of competing photodissociation product pathways, CH3 + NO2,CH3 + NO + O,CH3O + NO, and CH3NO + O, following the ? ? ?(*) transition. The origins of the observed photofragments are discussed in this report along with recent theoretical studies and previous dynamics experiments performed at 193 nm. PMID:26874485

  11. Multiple genetic pathways for restarting DNA replication forks in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, S J

    2000-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the primosome assembly proteins, PriA, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaC, DnaB, and DnaG, are thought to help to restart DNA replication forks at recombinational intermediates. Redundant functions between priB and priC and synthetic lethality between priA2::kan and rep3 mutations raise the possibility that there may be multiple pathways for restarting replication forks in vivo. Herein, it is shown that priA2::kan causes synthetic lethality when placed in combination with either Deltarep::kan or priC303:kan. These determinations were made using a nonselective P1 transduction-based viability assay. Two different priA2::kan suppressors (both dnaC alleles) were tested for their ability to rescue the priA-priC and priA-rep double mutant lethality. Only dnaC809,820 (and not dnaC809) could rescue the lethality in each case. Additionally, it was shown that the absence of the 3'-5' helicase activity of both PriA and Rep is not the critical missing function that causes the synthetic lethality in the rep-priA double mutant. One model proposes that replication restart at recombinational intermediates occurs by both PriA-dependent and PriA-independent pathways. The PriA-dependent pathways require at least priA and priB or priC, and the PriA-independent pathway requires at least priC and rep. It is further hypothesized that the dnaC809 suppression of priA2::kan requires priC and rep, whereas dnaC809,820 suppression of priA2::kan does not. PMID:10835375

  12. Pathway-based network analysis of myeloma tumors: monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Dong, L; Chen, C Y; Ning, B; Xu, D L; Gao, J H; Wang, L L; Yan, S Y; Cheng, S

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been carried out on monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significances (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM), their classification and underlying pathogenesis are far from elucidated. To discover the relationships among MGUS, SMM, and MM at the transcriptome level, differentially expressed genes in MGUS, SMM, and MM were identified by the rank product method, and then co-expression networks were constructed by integrating the data. Finally, a pathway-network was constructed based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis, and the relationships between the pathways were identified. The results indicated that there were 55, 78, and 138 pathways involved in the myeloma tumor developmental stages of MGUS, SMM, and MM, respectively. The biological processes identified therein were found to have a close relationship with the immune system. Processes and pathways related to the abnormal activity of DNA and RNA were also present in SMM and MM. Six common pathways were found in the whole process of myeloma tumor development. Nine pathways were shown to participate in the progression of MGUS to SMM, and prostate cancer was the sole pathway that was involved only in MGUS and MM. Pathway-network analysis might provide a new indicator for the developmental stage diagnosis of myeloma tumors. PMID:26345890

  13. Transition model for ricin-aptamer interactions with multiple pathways and energy barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-02-01

    We develop a transition model to interpret single-molecule ricin-aptamer interactions with multiple unbinding pathways and energy barriers measured by atomic force microscopy dynamic force spectroscopy. Molecular simulations establish the relationship between binding conformations and the corresponding unbinding pathways. Each unbinding pathway follows a Bell-Evans multiple-barrier model. Markov-type transition matrices are developed to analyze the redistribution of unbinding events among the pathways under different loading rates. Our study provides detailed information about complex behaviors in ricin-aptamer unbinding events.

  14. Biochemical Genetic Pathways that Modulate Aging in Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandro; Wang, Adrienne M.; Bennett, Christopher F.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying biological aging have been extensively studied in the past 20 years with the avail of mainly four model organisms: the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, and the domestic mouse Mus musculus. Extensive research in these four model organisms has identified a few conserved genetic pathways that affect longevity as well as metabolism and development. Here, we review how the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), sirtuins, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and mitochondrial stress-signaling pathways influence aging and life span in the aforementioned models and their possible implications for delaying aging in humans. We also draw some connections between these biochemical pathways and comment on what new developments aging research will likely bring in the near future. PMID:26525455

  15. ANGUSTIFOLIA mediates one of the multiple SCRAMBLED signaling pathways regulating cell growth pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Song, Sang-Kee; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2015-09-25

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SCRAMBLED (SCM), is required for multiple developmental processes including root epidermal cell fate determination, silique dehiscence, inflorescence growth, ovule morphogenesis, and tissue morphology. Previous work suggested that SCM regulates these multiple pathways using distinct mechanisms via interactions with specific downstream factors. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is known to regulate cell and tissue morphogenesis by influencing cortical microtubule arrangement, and recently, the AN protein was reported to interact with the SCM protein. Therefore, we examined whether AN might be responsible for mediating some of the SCM-dependent phenotypes. We discovered that both scm and an mutant lines cause an abnormal spiral or twisting growth of roots, but only the scm mutant affected root epidermal patterning. The siliques of the an and scm mutants also exhibited spiral growth, as previously reported, but only the scm mutant altered silique dehiscence. Interestingly, we discovered that the spiral growth of roots and siliques of the scm mutant is rescued by a truncated SCM protein that lacks its kinase domain, and that a juxtamembrane domain of SCM was sufficient for AN binding in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. These results suggest that the AN protein is one of the critical downstream factors of SCM pathways specifically responsible for mediating its effects on cell/tissue morphogenesis through cortical microtubule arrangement. PMID:26296462

  16. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  17. Reliable pre-eclampsia pathways based on multiple independent microarray data sets.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kaoru; Kondoh, Eiji; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Ujita, Mari; Murakami, Ryusuke; Mogami, Haruta; Brown, J B; Okuno, Yasushi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-02-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a multifactorial disorder characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Gene expression profiling of preeclamptic placenta have provided different and even opposite results, partly due to data compromised by various experimental artefacts. Here we aimed to identify reliable pre-eclampsia-specific pathways using multiple independent microarray data sets. Gene expression data of control and preeclamptic placentas were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. Single-sample gene-set enrichment analysis was performed to generate gene-set activation scores of 9707 pathways obtained from the Molecular Signatures Database. Candidate pathways were identified by t-test-based screening using data sets, GSE10588, GSE14722 and GSE25906. Additionally, recursive feature elimination was applied to arrive at a further reduced set of pathways. To assess the validity of the pre-eclampsia pathways, a statistically-validated protocol was executed using five data sets including two independent other validation data sets, GSE30186, GSE44711. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for genes in a panel of potential pre-eclampsia pathways using placentas of 20 women with normal or severe preeclamptic singleton pregnancies (n = 10, respectively). A panel of ten pathways were found to discriminate women with pre-eclampsia from controls with high accuracy. Among these were pathways not previously associated with pre-eclampsia, such as the GABA receptor pathway, as well as pathways that have already been linked to pre-eclampsia, such as the glutathione and CDKN1C pathways. mRNA expression of GABRA3 (GABA receptor pathway), GCLC and GCLM (glutathione metabolic pathway), and CDKN1C was significantly reduced in the preeclamptic placentas. In conclusion, ten accurate and reliable pre-eclampsia pathways were identified based on multiple independent microarray data sets. A pathway-based classification may be a worthwhile approach to elucidate the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. PMID:25323968

  18. MicroRNA-17?92 plays a causative role in lymphomagenesis by coordinating multiple oncogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyun Yong; Oda, Hiroyo; Lai, Maoyi; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Bethel, Kelly; Shepherd, Jovan; Kang, Seung Goo; Liu, Wen-Hsien; Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen; Cullen, Bryan R; Rajewsky, Klaus; Xiao, Changchun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been broadly implicated in cancer, but their exact function and mechanism in carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Elevated miR-17?92 expression is frequently found in human cancers, mainly due to gene amplification and Myc-mediated transcriptional upregulation. Here we show that B cell-specific miR-17?92 transgenic mice developed lymphomas with high penetrance and that, conversely, Myc-driven lymphomagenesis stringently requires two intact alleles of miR-17?92. We experimentally identified miR-17?92 target genes by PAR-CLIP and validated select target genes in miR-17?92 transgenic mice. These analyses demonstrate that miR-17?92 drives lymphomagenesis by suppressing the expression of multiple negative regulators of the PI3K and NF?B pathways and by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Accordingly, miR-17?92-driven lymphoma cells exhibited constitutive activation of the PI3K and NF?B pathways and chemical inhibition of either pathway reduced tumour size and prolonged the survival of lymphoma-bearing mice. These findings establish miR-17?92 as a powerful cancer driver that coordinates the activation of multiple oncogenic pathways, and demonstrate for the first time that chemical inhibition of miRNA downstream pathways has therapeutic value in treating cancers caused by miRNA dysregulation. PMID:23921550

  19. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical Criteria Postclosure Performance Assessment §...

  20. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical Criteria Postclosure Performance Assessment §...

  1. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical Criteria Postclosure Performance Assessment §...

  2. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Technical Criteria Postclosure Performance Assessment §...

  3. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies. PMID:26473529

  4. Molecular Evolution of Multiple-Level Control of Heme Biosynthesis Pathway in Animal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5? untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway. PMID:24489775

  5. Multiple degradation pathways of phenanthrene by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia C6

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shumei; Seo, Jong-Su; Wang, Jun; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Jianqiang; Li, Qing X.

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C6, capable of utilizing phenanthrene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from creosote-contaminated sites at Hilo, Hawaii. Twenty-two metabolites of phenanthrene, covering from dihydrodiol to protocatechuic acid, were isolated and characterized. Phenanthrene was degraded via an initial dioxygenation on 1,2-, 3,4-, and 9,10-C, where the 3,4-dioxygenation and subsequent metabolisms were most dominant. The metabolic pathways were further branched by ortho- and meta-cleavage of phenanthrenediols to produce 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid, and naphthalene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid. These intermediates were then transformed to naphthalene-1,2-diol. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was also degraded via a direct ring cleavage. Naphthalene-1,2-diol underwent primarily ortho-cleavage to produce trans-2-carboxycinnamic acid and then to form phthalic acid, 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid and protocatechuic acid. Accumulation of salicylic acid in prolonged incubation indicated that a limited extent of meta-cleavage of naphthalene-1, 2-diol also occurred. This is the first study of detailed phenanthrene metabolic pathways by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. PMID:23539472

  6. Pseudo-atrial fibrillation, rare manifestation of multiple anterograde atrioventricular nodal pathways.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sergio; Berruezo, Antonio; Mont, Lluis; Boussy, Tim; Sarkozy, Andrea; Brugada, Pedro; Brugada, Josep

    2007-07-01

    In patients with dual or multiple atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathways manifesting nonreentrant tachycardia or unusual forms of AV nodal reentry, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is often misdiagnosed and patients may erroneously be considered for pulmonary vein isolation. Multiple anterograde slow AV nodal pathways, identified by >1 discontinuity in the anterograde AV nodal conduction curve, are not rare in patients with slow-fast AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). However, only 1 slow AV nodal pathway is usually involved in anterograde conduction during tachycardia. It was reported that patients with multiple anterograde slow AV nodal pathways presented with different tachycardia cycle lengths. For the first time, 2 patients with AVNRT in which maintenance of tachycardia was strictly dependent on participation of 3 different anterograde slow AV nodal pathways in an uniquely alternating sequence are reported. In both patients, a single application of radiofrequency energy in the posterior aspect of Koch's triangle eliminated simultaneously all evidence of anterograde slow pathway conduction. These findings implied that functional differences in a determined circuit based on nonuniform anisotropy rather than anatomically distinct pathways form the electrophysiologic basis for this rare variant of AVNRT. In conclusion, particularly in patients with lone atrial fibrillation who are potential candidates for pulmonary vein isolation, careful analysis of the surface electrocardiogram during irregular supraventricular tachycardia and invasive electrophysiologic examination helps identify rare arrhythmia mechanisms that can be cured by slow pathway ablation alone. PMID:17599461

  7. Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Zavaleta, Erika S; Pasari, Jae R; Hulvey, Kristin B; Tilman, G David

    2010-01-26

    Society places value on the multiple functions of ecosystems from soil fertility to erosion control to wildlife-carrying capacity, and these functions are potentially threatened by ongoing biodiversity losses. Recent empirically based models using individual species' traits suggest that higher species richness is required to provide multiple ecosystem functions. However, no study to date has analyzed the observed functionality of communities of interacting species over multiple temporal scales to assess the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality. We use data from the longest-running biodiversity-functioning field experiment to date to test how species diversity affects the ability of grassland ecosystems to provide threshold levels of up to eight ecosystem functions simultaneously. Across years and every combination of ecosystem functions, minimum-required species richness consistently increases with the number of functions considered. Moreover, tradeoffs between functions and variability among years prevent any one community type from providing high levels of multiple functions, regardless of its diversity. Sustained multifunctionality, therefore, likely requires both higher species richness than single ecosystem functionality and a diversity of species assemblages across the landscape. PMID:20080690

  8. Network-Based Identification of Biomarkers Coexpressed with Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Nancy Lan; Wan, Ying-Wooi

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling complex molecular interactions and networks and incorporating clinical information in modeling will present a paradigm shift in molecular medicine. Embedding biological relevance via modeling molecular networks and pathways has become increasingly important for biomarker identification in cancer susceptibility and metastasis studies. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of computational methods used for biomarker identification, and provide a performance comparison of several network models used in studies of cancer susceptibility, disease progression, and prognostication. Specifically, we evaluated implication networks, Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, and Pearsons correlation networks in constructing gene coexpression networks for identifying lung cancer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The results show that implication networks, implemented in Genet package, identified sets of biomarkers that generated an accurate prediction of lung cancer risk and metastases; meanwhile, implication networks revealed more biologically relevant molecular interactions than Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, and Pearsons correlation networks when evaluated with MSigDB database. PMID:25392692

  9. Chronic itch development in sensory neurons requires BRAF signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Jeffry, Joseph; Hampton, Lori; Demehri, Shadmehr; Kim, Seungil; Liu, Xian-Yu; Barry, Devin M; Wan, Li; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Li, Hui; Turkoz, Ahu; Ma, Kaijie; Cornelius, Lynn A; Kopan, Raphael; Battey, James F; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Zhou-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAF(Nav1.8) mice). We found that constitutive BRAF pathway activation in BRAF(Nav1.8) mice results in ectopic and enhanced expression of a cohort of itch-sensing genes, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and MAS-related GPCR member A3 (MRGPRA3), in nociceptors expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). BRAF(Nav1.8) mice showed de novo neuronal responsiveness to pruritogens, enhanced pruriceptor excitability, and heightened evoked and spontaneous scratching behavior. GRP receptor expression was increased in the spinal cord, indicating augmented coding capacity for itch subsequent to amplified pruriceptive inputs. Enhanced GRP expression and sustained ERK phosphorylation were observed in sensory neurons of mice with allergic contact dermatitis or dry skinelicited itch; however, spinal ERK activation was not required for maintaining central sensitization of itch. Inhibition of either BRAF or GRP signaling attenuated itch sensation in chronic itch mouse models. These data uncover RAF/MEK/ERK signaling as a key regulator that confers a subset of nociceptors with pruriceptive properties to initiate and maintain long-lasting itch sensation. PMID:24216512

  10. Chronic itch development in sensory neurons requires BRAF signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Jeffry, Joseph; Hampton, Lori; Demehri, Shadmehr; Kim, Seungil; Liu, Xian-Yu; Barry, Devin M.; Wan, Li; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Li, Hui; Turkoz, Ahu; Ma, Kaijie; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Kopan, Raphael; Battey, James F.; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Zhou-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAFNav1.8 mice). We found that constitutive BRAF pathway activation in BRAFNav1.8 mice results in ectopic and enhanced expression of a cohort of itch-sensing genes, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and MAS-related GPCR member A3 (MRGPRA3), in nociceptors expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). BRAFNav1.8 mice showed de novo neuronal responsiveness to pruritogens, enhanced pruriceptor excitability, and heightened evoked and spontaneous scratching behavior. GRP receptor expression was increased in the spinal cord, indicating augmented coding capacity for itch subsequent to amplified pruriceptive inputs. Enhanced GRP expression and sustained ERK phosphorylation were observed in sensory neurons of mice with allergic contact dermatitis or dry skinelicited itch; however, spinal ERK activation was not required for maintaining central sensitization of itch. Inhibition of either BRAF or GRP signaling attenuated itch sensation in chronic itch mouse models. These data uncover RAF/MEK/ERK signaling as a key regulator that confers a subset of nociceptors with pruriceptive properties to initiate and maintain long-lasting itch sensation. PMID:24216512

  11. Bayesian Joint Selection of Genes and Pathways: Applications in Multiple Myeloma Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Morris, Jeffrey S; Zhang, Jiexin; Orlowski, Robert Z; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2014-01-01

    It is well-established that the development of a disease, especially cancer, is a complex process that results from the joint effects of multiple genes involved in various molecular signaling pathways. In this article, we propose methods to discover genes and molecular pathways significantly associated with clinical outcomes in cancer samples. We exploit the natural hierarchal structure of genes related to a given pathway as a group of interacting genes to conduct selection of both pathways and genes. We posit the problem in a hierarchical structured variable selection (HSVS) framework to analyze the corresponding gene expression data. HSVS methods conduct simultaneous variable selection at the pathway (group level) and the gene (within-group) level. To adapt to the overlapping group structure present in the pathwaygene hierarchy of the data, we developed an overlap-HSVS method that introduces latent partial effect variables that partition the marginal effect of the covariates and corresponding weights for a proportional shrinkage of the partial effects. Combining gene expression data with prior pathway information from the KEGG databases, we identified several genepathway combinations that are significantly associated with clinical outcomes of multiple myeloma. Biological discoveries support this relationship for the pathways and the corresponding genes we identified. PMID:25520554

  12. Microgravity gradiometry measurement schemes with multiple-pathway atom interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwood, E.; Edwards, M.; Clark, C. W.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new atom-interferometric scheme for measuring the value and derivatives of the gravitational field in the microgravity environment found in the Cold-Atom Laboratory to be deployed to the International Space Station. The operation of the proposed atom interferometer consists of splitting a harmonically confined Bose-Einstein condensate into multiple pieces using a sequence of laser pulses. In a perfect harmonic oscillator potential all of the condensate pieces will come to rest at the same time. At this point, the harmonic trap is turned off. The nearly motionless condensate clouds then accumulate different phases due to their respective accelerations at different points in space. The trap is then turned back on bringing all of the clouds together at the same time at which point they are again split producing multiple interference patterns. We have simulated some of these interferometric schemes using a Lagrangian variational approximation to the 3D time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We have used this method to facilitate rapid interferometer design and to understand how these interference patterns can be used to measure the gravitational field and its derivatives. We also compare the sensitivity of the different interferometric schemes. Supported by NSF grants PHY-1068761 and ARO Atomtronics MURI.

  13. Multiple pathways regulating the calorie restriction response in yeast.

    PubMed

    Rahat, Ofer; Maoz, Noam; Cohen, Haim Y

    2011-02-01

    In yeast, SIR2 overexpression or calorie restriction (CR) results in life-span extension. It was previously suggested that CR activates Sir2 by reducing the levels of Sir2 inhibitors, NADH, or nicotinamide. Whereas NADH reduction is associated with an increase in respiration, nicotinamide clearance is induced by the upregulation of PNC1. Here, we show that, consistent with the hormesis hypothesis, PNC1 is part of a transcriptional stress response module consisting of 39 genes that increases under various stresses. Under high CR (0.1% glucose), Pnc1 becomes activated and its levels increase. However, low CR (0.5% glucose) increases yeast life span without PNC1 induction or activation of any transcriptional stress response. Instead, microarray analysis of low CR shows that the messenger RNA levels of iron transport genes increase, suggesting that this mode of CR is regulated by a shift toward respiration and lowering NADH levels. Thus, at least two pathways regulate the CR response in yeast. PMID:21081478

  14. Oct4 links multiple epigenetic pathways to the pluripotency network

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Junjun; Xu, Huilei; Faiola, Francesco; Ma'ayan, Avi; Wang, Jianlong

    2012-01-01

    Oct4 is a well-known transcription factor that plays fundamental roles in stem cell self-renewal, pluripotency, and somatic cell reprogramming. However, limited information is available on Oct4-associated protein complexes and their intrinsic protein-protein interactions that dictate Oct4's critical regulatory activities. Here we employed an improved affinity purification approach combined with mass spectrometry to purify Oct4 protein complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), and discovered many novel Oct4 partners important for self-renewal and pluripotency of mESCs. Notably, we found that Oct4 is associated with multiple chromatin-modifying complexes with documented as well as newly proved functional significance in stem cell maintenance and somatic cell reprogramming. Our study establishes a solid biochemical basis for genetic and epigenetic regulation of stem cell pluripotency and provides a framework for exploring alternative factor-based reprogramming strategies. PMID:22083510

  15. Modulation of the Surface Proteome through Multiple Ubiquitylation Pathways in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Alsford, Sam; Horn, David; Field, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we identified multiple suramin-sensitivity genes with a genome wide screen in Trypanosoma brucei that includes the invariant surface glycoprotein ISG75, the adaptin-1 (AP-1) complex and two deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) orthologous to ScUbp15/HsHAUSP1 and pVHL-interacting DUB1 (type I), designated TbUsp7 and TbVdu1, respectively. Here we have examined the roles of these genes in trafficking of ISG75, which appears key to suramin uptake. We found that, while AP-1 does not influence ISG75 abundance, knockdown of TbUsp7 or TbVdu1 leads to reduced ISG75 abundance. Silencing TbVdu1 also reduced ISG65 abundance. TbVdu1 is a component of an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitylation switch and responsible for rapid receptor modulation, suggesting similar regulation of ISGs in T. brucei. Unexpectedly, TbUsp7 knockdown also blocked endocytosis. To integrate these observations we analysed the impact of TbUsp7 and TbVdu1 knockdown on the global proteome using SILAC. For TbVdu1, ISG65 and ISG75 are the only significantly modulated proteins, but for TbUsp7 a cohort of integral membrane proteins, including the acid phosphatase MBAP1, that is required for endocytosis, and additional ISG-related proteins are down-regulated. Furthermore, we find increased expression of the ESAG6/7 transferrin receptor and ESAG5, likely resulting from decreased endocytic activity. Therefore, multiple ubiquitylation pathways, with a complex interplay with trafficking pathways, control surface proteome expression in trypanosomes. PMID:26492041

  16. Directed evolution of a cellobiose utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneously engineering multiple proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimization of metabolic pathways is critical for efficient and economical production of biofuels and specialty chemicals. One such significant pathway is the cellobiose utilization pathway, identified as a promising route in biomass utilization. Here we describe the optimization of cellobiose consumption and ethanol productivity by simultaneously engineering both proteins of the pathway, the ?-glucosidase (gh1-1) and the cellodextrin transporter (cdt-1), in an example of pathway engineering through directed evolution. Results The improved pathway was assessed based on the strain specific growth rate on cellobiose, with the final mutant exhibiting a 47% increase over the wild-type pathway. Metabolite analysis of the engineered pathway identified a 49% increase in cellobiose consumption (1.78 to 2.65g cellobiose/(L??h)) and a 64% increase in ethanol productivity (0.611 to 1.00g ethanol/(L??h)). Conclusions By simultaneously engineering multiple proteins in the pathway, cellobiose utilization in S. cerevisiae was improved. This optimization can be generally applied to other metabolic pathways, provided a selection/screening method is available for the desired phenotype. The improved in vivo cellobiose utilization demonstrated here could help to decrease the in vitro enzyme load in biomass pretreatment, ultimately contributing to a reduction in the high cost of biofuel production. PMID:23802545

  17. ErbB2-Dependent Chemotaxis Requires Microtubule Capture and Stabilization Coordinated by Distinct Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Benseddik, Khedidja; Sen Nkwe, Nadine; Daou, Pascale; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal; Badache, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase stimulates breast cancer cell migration. Cell migration is a complex process that requires the synchronized reorganization of numerous subcellular structures including cell-to-matrix adhesions, the actin cytoskeleton and microtubules. How the multiple signaling pathways triggered by ErbB2 coordinate, in time and space, the various processes involved in cell motility, is poorly defined. We investigated the mechanism whereby ErbB2 controls microtubules and chemotaxis. We report that activation of ErbB2 increased both cell velocity and directed migration. Impairment of the Cdc42 and RhoA GTPases, but not of Rac1, prevented the chemotactic response. RhoA is a key component of the Memo/ACF7 pathway whereby ErbB2 controls microtubule capture at the leading edge. Upon Memo or ACF7 depletion, microtubules failed to reach the leading edge and cells lost their ability to follow the chemotactic gradient. Constitutive ACF7 targeting to the membrane in Memo-depleted cells reestablished directed migration. ErbB2-mediated activation of phospholipase C gamma (PLC?) also contributed to cell guidance. We further showed that PLC? signaling, via classical protein kinases C, and Memo signaling converged towards a single pathway controlling the microtubule capture complex. Finally, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway did not affect microtubule capture, but disturbed microtubule stability, which also resulted in defective chemotaxis. PI3K/Akt-dependent stabilization of microtubules involved repression of GSK3 activity on the one hand and inhibition of the microtubule destabilizing protein, Stathmin, on the other hand. Thus, ErbB2 triggers distinct and complementary pathways that tightly coordinate microtubule capture and microtubule stability to control chemotaxis. PMID:23383112

  18. The Origin of Allosteric Functional Modulation: Multiple Pre-existing Pathways

    PubMed Central

    del Sol, Antonio; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    While allostery draws increasing attention, not much is known about allosteric mechanisms. Here we argue that in all proteins, allosteric signals transmit through multiple, pre-existing pathways; which pathways dominate depend on protein topologies, specific binding events, covalent modifications and cellular (environmental) conditions. Further, perturbation events at any site on the protein surface (or in the interior) will not create new pathways but only shift the pre-existing ensemble of pathways. Drugs binding at different sites or mutational events in disease shift the ensemble toward the same conformations; however, the relative populations of the different states will change. Consequently the observed functional, conformational, and dynamic effects will be different. This is the origin of allosteric functional modulation in dynamic proteins: allostery does not necessarily need to invoke conformational rearrangements to control protein activity and pre-existing pathways are always defaulted to during allostery regardless of the stimulant and perturbation site in the protein. PMID:19679084

  19. Distinct Signaling Mechanisms in Multiple Developmental Pathways by the SCRAMBLED Receptor of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Woo, Sooah; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    SCRAMBLED (SCM), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for positional signaling in the root epidermis and for tissue/organ development in the shoot. To further understand SCM action, we generated a series of kinase domain variants and analyzed their ability to complement scm mutant defects. We found that the SCM kinase domain, but not kinase activity, is required for its role in root epidermal patterning, supporting the view that SCM is an atypical receptor kinase. We also describe a previously uncharacterized role for SCM in fruit dehiscence, because mature siliques from scm mutants fail to open properly. Interestingly, the kinase domain of SCM appears to be dispensable for this developmental process. Furthermore, we found that most of the SCM kinase domain mutations dramatically inhibit inflorescence development. Because this process is not affected in scm null mutants, it is likely that SCM acts redundantly to regulate inflorescence size. The importance of distinct kinase residues for these three developmental processes provides an explanation for the maintenance of the conserved kinase domain in the SCM protein, and it may generally explain its conservation in other atypical kinases. Furthermore, these results indicate that individual leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases may participate in multiple pathways using distinct signaling mechanisms to mediate diverse cellular communication events. PMID:25136062

  20. Distinct signaling mechanisms in multiple developmental pathways by the SCRAMBLED receptor of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Woo, Sooah; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-10-01

    SCRAMBLED (SCM), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for positional signaling in the root epidermis and for tissue/organ development in the shoot. To further understand SCM action, we generated a series of kinase domain variants and analyzed their ability to complement scm mutant defects. We found that the SCM kinase domain, but not kinase activity, is required for its role in root epidermal patterning, supporting the view that SCM is an atypical receptor kinase. We also describe a previously uncharacterized role for SCM in fruit dehiscence, because mature siliques from scm mutants fail to open properly. Interestingly, the kinase domain of SCM appears to be dispensable for this developmental process. Furthermore, we found that most of the SCM kinase domain mutations dramatically inhibit inflorescence development. Because this process is not affected in scm null mutants, it is likely that SCM acts redundantly to regulate inflorescence size. The importance of distinct kinase residues for these three developmental processes provides an explanation for the maintenance of the conserved kinase domain in the SCM protein, and it may generally explain its conservation in other atypical kinases. Furthermore, these results indicate that individual leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases may participate in multiple pathways using distinct signaling mechanisms to mediate diverse cellular communication events. PMID:25136062

  1. Multiple circuits relaying primate parallel visual pathways to the middle temporal area.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Callaway, Edward M

    2006-12-01

    Parallel pathways in the primate visual system parse the sensory signal into magnocellular (M), parvocellular (P), and koniocellular (K) streams. These pathways remain anatomically separate and distinct from their origination in different retinal ganglion cell types, through distinct layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and into primary visual cortex (V1), with the M pathway terminating primarily in layer 4Calpha, the P pathway in layer 4Cbeta, and the K pathway in the cytochrome oxidase blobs of layer 2/3. Recent studies indicate that outputs from V1 are less compartmental than previously thought, making it difficult to assess the contributions of M and P pathways to areas beyond V1 in the dorsal and ventral streams. Here we use rabies virus as a retrograde transsynaptic tracer to study the contributions of M and P pathways to areas middle temporal (MT), V3, and V2 of macaque monkey. We find that, although disynaptic inputs through layer 4C of V1 to dorsal stream area MT are dominated by the M pathway, within an additional three synapses MT receives a substantial P input. This P input is unlikely to reach MT via V3, which we show also receives disynaptic inputs dominated by the M pathway. We find that disynaptic inputs to V2, however, can be more balanced and may carry convergent M and P input to MT. Our observations provide evidence for multiple pathways from V1 to MT, with varying degrees of M and P convergence. Each pathway likely provides functionally specialized information to MT and dorsal stream visual processing. PMID:17151282

  2. Creating Multiple Pathways in the Arts: A New York City Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Cindy; Mishook, Jacob; Garcia, Ivonne; de Gaillande, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, education policy makers understand the importance of students and families having access to a range of high quality educational opportunities inside and outside of school, 365 days a year. This paper explores the concept of multiple pathways in arts education to further conceptualize and build upon such opportunities, inside and

  3. Language Learning in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Multiple Pathways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Baker, Sharon

    This text on teaching language to students with hearing impairments stresses the use of multiple language learning pathways to meet the individual needs of students. The introductory chapter looks at language issues in the context of history, instruction, technology, culture, and the law. Chapter 2, on language acquisition, discusses the nature of

  4. Preparing Students for College and Career: California Multiple Pathways. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To prepare students for success in life, the twenty-first-century American high school needs to shift its focus from preparing for college or career to achieving college and career readiness for every student. One of the most comprehensive efforts towards this goal is the "multiple pathways" initiative in California, which is a reform model aimed

  5. SUMOylation of ATRIP potentiates DNA damage signaling by boosting multiple protein interactions in the ATR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Ouyang, Jian; Mori, Eiichiro; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Maréchal, Alexandre; Hallet, Alexander; Chen, David J.; Zou, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The ATR (ATM [ataxia telangiectasia-mutated]- and Rad3-related) checkpoint is a crucial DNA damage signaling pathway. While the ATR pathway is known to transmit DNA damage signals through the ATR–Chk1 kinase cascade, whether post-translational modifications other than phosphorylation are important for this pathway remains largely unknown. Here, we show that protein SUMOylation plays a key role in the ATR pathway. ATRIP, the regulatory partner of ATR, is modified by SUMO2/3 at K234 and K289. An ATRIP mutant lacking the SUMOylation sites fails to localize to DNA damage and support ATR activation efficiently. Surprisingly, the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant is compromised in the interaction with a protein group, rather than a single protein, in the ATR pathway. Multiple ATRIP-interacting proteins, including ATR, RPA70, TopBP1, and the MRE11–RAD50–NBS1 complex, exhibit reduced binding to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant in cells and display affinity for SUMO2 chains in vitro, suggesting that they bind not only ATRIP but also SUMO. Fusion of a SUMO2 chain to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant enhances its interaction with the protein group and partially suppresses its localization and functional defects, revealing that ATRIP SUMOylation promotes ATR activation by providing a unique type of protein glue that boosts multiple protein interactions along the ATR pathway. PMID:24990965

  6. Multiple Achievement Goals and Multiple Pathways for Learning: The Agenda and Impact of Paul R. Pintrich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Linnenbrink, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the profound impact that Paul R. Pintrich had on the field of achievement motivation, specifically achievement goal theory. The article highlights Pintrich's groundbreaking research and theorizing, beginning with his early work integrating research on motivation and cognition and ending with his development of a multiple

  7. Thermal comfort requirements: A study of people with multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, L.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Hodder, S.G.

    1999-07-01

    Existing specifications for thermal comfort in built environments are coming under increased criticism for failing to consider the requirements of specific populations. People with physical disabilities are an example of one such population. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort requirements of 32 people with multiple sclerosis. Subjects were exposed to three conditions: 18.5 C, PMV = {minus}1.5, slightly cool to cool; 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral; 29 C, PMV = +1.5, slightly warm to warm. Results indicate that people with multiple sclerosis have a wide range of responses to the three experimental conditions. The actual percentage dissatisfied was much higher than predicted by Fange's (1970) predicted percentage dissatisfied. Their preferred environment is slightly warmer than 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral. A subgroup of the population prefers an environment that is slightly cooler than 23 C. Further work is needed to qualify if their preferred environments match that of PMV+1 and PMV{minus}1 and to identify if any of the factors such as age, duration of disability, and medication affect the actual mean vote.

  8. Mycobacterial Esx-3 Requires Multiple Components for Iron Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist, M. Sloan; Steigedal, Magnus; Ahmad, Rushdy; Mehra, Alka; Dragset, Marte S.; Schuster, Brian M.; Philips, Jennifer A.; Carr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VII secretion systems are conserved across mycobacterial species and in many Gram-positive bacteria. While the well-characterized Esx-1 pathway is required for the virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and conjugation in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, Esx-3 contributes to mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition in these bacteria. Here we show that several Esx-3 components are individually required for function under low-iron conditions but that at least one, the membrane-bound protease MycP3 of M. smegmatis, is partially expendable. All of the esx-3 mutants tested, including the ?mycP3ms mutant, failed to export the native Esx-3 substrates EsxHms and EsxGms to quantifiable levels, as determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Although we were able to restore low-iron growth to the esx-3 mutants by genetic complementation, we found a wide range of complementation levels for protein export. Indeed, minute quantities of extracellular EsxHms and EsxGms were sufficient for iron acquisition under our experimental conditions. The apparent separation of Esx-3 function in iron acquisition from robust EsxGms and EsxHms secretion in the ?mycP3ms mutant and in some of the complemented esx-3 mutants compels reexamination of the structure-function relationships for type VII secretion systems. PMID:24803520

  9. Environmental pathways to autoimmune diseases: the cases of primary biliary cirrhosis and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, Carlo; Maria Papini, Anna; Pugliese, Piera; Claudia Alcaro, Maria; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2011-01-01

    The pathways leading to autoimmunity remain enigmatic despite numerous lines of experimental inquiry and epidemiological evidence. The mechanisms leading to the initiation and perpetuation of specific diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) or multiple sclerosis (MS) remain largely enigmatic, although it is established that a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental stimulation is required. The growing number of genome-wide association studies and the largely incomplete concordance for autoimmune diseases in monozygotic twins concur to support the role of the environment (including infectious agents and chemicals) in the breakdown of tolerance leading to autoimmunity through different mechanisms. In the present article we illustrate the current hypotheses related to an environmental impact on the onset of PBC and MS as two representative conditions investigated with complementary approaches. Indeed, while a role of post-translational antigen modifications has been proposed for MS, this field remain unexplored in PBC where, conversely, most evidence is gathered from geoepidemiology and experimental data on xenobiotics or infectious agents. PMID:22295019

  10. TAF250 is required for multiple developmental events in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wassarman, David A.; Aoyagi, Norikazu; Pile, Lori A.; Schlag, Erin M.

    2000-01-01

    The TFIID transcription initiation complex is composed of TBP and multiple TAFs. Studies in unicellular systems indicate that TAF250 is required for progression through G1/S of the cell cycle and repression of apoptosis. Here we extend these in vivo studies by determining the developmental requirements for TAF250 in a multicellular organism, Drosophila. TAF250 mutants were isolated in a genetic screen that also yielded TAF60 and TAF110 mutants, indicating that TAFs function coordinately to regulate transcription. Null alleles of TAF250 are recessive larval lethal. However, combinations of weak loss-of-function TAF250 alleles survive to adulthood and reveal requirements for TAF250 during ovary, eye, ocelli, wing, bristle, and terminalia development as well as overall growth of the fly. These phenotypes suggest roles for TAF250 in regulating the cell cycle, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell survival. Finally, molecular analysis of TAF250 mutants reveals that the observed phenotypes are caused by mutations in a central region of TAF250 that is conserved among metazoan organisms. This region is contained within the TAF250 histone acetyltransferase domain, but the mutations do not alter the histone acetyltransferase activity of TAF250 in vitro, indicating that some other aspect of TAF250 function is affected. Because this region is not conserved in the yeast TAF250 homologue, TAF145, it may define an activity for TAF250 that is unique to higher eukaryotes. PMID:10655500

  11. Revealing Pathway Dynamics in Heart Diseases by Analyzing Multiple Differential Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoke; Gao, Long; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Gao, Peng; Lee, Chi Fung; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Tian, Rong; Tan, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Development of heart diseases is driven by dynamic changes in both the activity and connectivity of gene pathways. Understanding these dynamic events is critical for understanding pathogenic mechanisms and development of effective treatment. Currently, there is a lack of computational methods that enable analysis of multiple gene networks, each of which exhibits differential activity compared to the network of the baseline/healthy condition. We describe the iMDM algorithm to identify both unique and shared gene modules across multiple differential co-expression networks, termed M-DMs (multiple differential modules). We applied iMDM to a time-course RNA-Seq dataset generated using a murine heart failure model generated on two genotypes. We showed that iMDM achieves higher accuracy in inferring gene modules compared to using single or multiple co-expression networks. We found that condition-specific M-DMs exhibit differential activities, mediate different biological processes, and are enriched for genes with known cardiovascular phenotypes. By analyzing M-DMs that are present in multiple conditions, we revealed dynamic changes in pathway activity and connectivity across heart failure conditions. We further showed that module dynamics were correlated with the dynamics of disease phenotypes during the development of heart failure. Thus, pathway dynamics is a powerful measure for understanding pathogenesis. iMDM provides a principled way to dissect the dynamics of gene pathways and its relationship to the dynamics of disease phenotype. With the exponential growth of omics data, our method can aid in generating systems-level insights into disease progression. PMID:26083688

  12. Multiple Requirements of PLK1 during Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Solc, Petr; Kitajima, Tomoya S.; Yoshida, Shuhei; Brzakova, Adela; Kaido, Masako; Baran, Vladimir; Mayer, Alexandra; Samalova, Pavlina; Motlik, Jan; Ellenberg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) orchestrates multiple events of cell division. Although PLK1 function has been intensively studied in centriole-containing and rapidly cycling somatic cells, much less is known about its function in the meiotic divisions of mammalian oocytes, which arrest for a long period of time in prophase before meiotic resumption and lack centrioles for spindle assembly. Here, using specific small molecule inhibition combined with live mouse oocyte imaging, we comprehensively characterize meiotic PLK1s functions. We show that PLK1 becomes activated at meiotic resumption on microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) and later at kinetochores. PLK1 is required for efficient meiotic resumption by promoting nuclear envelope breakdown. PLK1 is also needed to recruit centrosomal proteins to acentriolar MTOCs to promote normal spindle formation, as well as for stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Consequently, PLK1 inhibition leads to metaphase I arrest with misaligned chromosomes activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Unlike in mitosis, the metaphase I arrest is not bypassed by the inactivation of the SAC. We show that PLK1 is required for the full activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by promoting the degradation of the APC/C inhibitor EMI1 and is therefore essential for entry into anaphase I. Moreover, our data suggest that PLK1 is required for proper chromosome segregation and the maintenance of chromosome condensation during the meiosis I-II transition, independently of the APC/C. Thus, our results define the meiotic roles of PLK1 in oocytes and reveal interesting differential requirements of PLK1 between mitosis and oocyte meiosis in mammals. PMID:25658810

  13. Genome-Wide Pathway Association Studies of Multiple Correlated Quantitative Phenotypes Using Principle Component Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xiong; Wu, Shixun; Han, Jing; Liu, Yongjun; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide pathway association studies provide novel insight into the biological mechanism underlying complex diseases. Current pathway association studies primarily focus on single important disease phenotype, which is sometimes insufficient to characterize the clinical manifestations of complex diseases. We present a multi-phenotypes pathway association study(MPPAS) approach using principle component analysis(PCA). In our approach, PCA is first applied to multiple correlated quantitative phenotypes for extracting a set of orthogonal phenotypic components. The extracted phenotypic components are then used for pathway association analysis instead of original quantitative phenotypes. Four statistics were proposed for PCA-based MPPAS in this study. Simulations using the real data from the HapMap project were conducted to evaluate the power and type I error rates of PCA-based MPPAS under various scenarios considering sample sizes, additive and interactive genetic effects. A real genome-wide association study data set of bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and spine were also analyzed by PCA-based MPPAS. Simulation studies illustrated the performance of PCA-based MPPAS for identifying the causal pathways underlying complex diseases. Genome-wide MPPAS of BMD detected associations between BMD and KENNY_CTNNB1_TARGETS_UP as well as LONGEVITYPATHWAY pathways in this study. We aim to provide a applicable MPPAS approach, which may help to gain deep understanding the potential biological mechanism of association results for complex diseases. PMID:23285279

  14. CSF Proteomics Identifies Specific and Shared Pathways for Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Avsar, Timucin; Duras?, ?lknur Melis; Uyguno?lu, U?ur; Ttnc, Melih; Demirci, Nuri Onat; Saip, Sabahattin; Sezerman, O. U?ur; Siva, Aksel; Tahir Turanl?, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated, neuro-inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with a heterogeneous clinical presentation and course. There is a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity in MS, and the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain unknown. We aimed to investigate further the etiopathogenesis related molecular pathways in subclinical types of MS using proteomic and bioinformatics approaches in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing remitting MS and progressive MS (n=179). Comparison of disease groups with controls revealed a total of 151 proteins that are differentially expressed in clinically different MS subtypes. KEGG analysis using PANOGA tool revealed the disease related pathways including aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption (p=8.02x10-5) which is important in the immune cell migration, renin-angiotensin (p=6.88x10-5) system that induces Th17 dependent immunity, notch signaling (p=1.83x10-10) pathway indicating the activated remyelination and vitamin digestion and absorption pathways (p=1.73x10-5). An emerging theme from our studies is that whilst all MS clinical forms share common biological pathways, there are also clinical subtypes specific and pathophysiology related pathways which may have further therapeutic implications. PMID:25942430

  15. Pathway and network-based analysis of genome-wide association studies in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Baranzini, Sergio E.; Galwey, Nicholas W.; Wang, Joanne; Khankhanian, Pouya; Lindberg, Raija; Pelletier, Daniel; Wu, Wen; Uitdehaag, Bernard M.J.; Kappos, Ludwig; Polman, Chris H.; Matthews, Paul M.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Gibson, Rachel A.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Barnes, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) testing several hundred thousand SNPs have been performed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other complex diseases. Typically, the number of markers in which the evidence for association exceeds the genome-wide significance threshold is very small, and markers that do not exceed this threshold are generally neglected. Classical statistical analysis of these datasets in MS revealed genes with known immunological functions. However, many of the markers showing modest association may represent false negatives. We hypothesize that certain combinations of genes flagged by these markers can be identified if they belong to a common biological pathway. Here we conduct a pathway-oriented analysis of two GWAS in MS that takes into account all SNPs with nominal evidence of association (P < 0.05). Gene-wise P-values were superimposed on a human protein interaction network and searches were conducted to identify sub-networks containing a higher proportion of genes associated with MS than expected by chance. These sub-networks, and others generated at random as a control, were categorized for membership of biological pathways. GWAS from eight other diseases were analyzed to assess the specificity of the pathways identified. In the MS datasets, we identified sub-networks of genes from several immunological pathways including cell adhesion, communication and signaling. Remarkably, neural pathways, namely axon-guidance and synaptic potentiation, were also over-represented in MS. In addition to the immunological pathways previously identified, we report here for the first time the potential involvement of neural pathways in MS susceptibility. PMID:19286671

  16. IFN? and glatiramer acetate trigger different signaling pathways to regulate the IL-1 system in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Rakel; Burger, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance in cytokine homeostasis plays an important part in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is present in the central nervous system, being expressed mainly in infiltrating macrophages and microglial cells. IL-1? activity is inhibited by the secreted form of IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra) whose production is increased in patients' blood and induced in human monocytes by IFN? and glatiramer acetate (GA)-both immunomodulators displaying similar therapeutic efficacy in MS. Because intracellular pathways are currently considered as potential therapeutic targets, identification of specific kinases used by both immunomodulators might lead to more specific therapeutic targeting. We addressed the question of intracellular pathways used by IFN? and GA to induce sIL-1Ra in human monocytes in two recent studies. This addendum to these studies aims at discussing common pathways and different elements used by IFN? and GA to induce sIL-1Ra in human monocytes. This pinpoints PI3K? activation as a requirement to induce sIL-1Ra production downstream monocyte stimulation by either IFN? or GA. However, the immunomodulators differentially use MEK/ERK pathway to induce sIL-1Ra production in human monocytes. Together, our current studies suggest that PI3K? and MEK2 might represent new targets in MS therapy. PMID:21509198

  17. Multiple myeloma acquires resistance to EGFR inhibitor via induction of pentose phosphate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Ruibin; Ding, Jianghua; Ji, Dexiang; Song, Bing; Yuan, Liya; Chang, Hong; Chen, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) was characterized by frequent mutations in KRAS/NRAS/BRAF within the EGFR pathway that could induce resistance to EGFR inhibitors. We here report that EGFR inhibition solely exhibited moderate inhibition in KRAS/NRAS/BRAF wildtype (triple-WT) MM cells, whilst had no effect in myeloma cells with any of the mutated genes. The moderate inhibitory effect was conferred by induction of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) when cells were treated with Gefitinib, the EGFR inhibitor. Combination of Gefitinib with PPP inhibitor 6AN effected synergistically in triple-WT cells. The inhibition could be restored by addition of NADPH. Dual EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor Afatinib also exhibited similar effects. Further genetic silencing of EGFR, ERBB2 and mTOR indicated that major effect conferred by ERBB2 was via convergence to EGFR pathway in MM. Our results contributed to the individualized targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitors in MM. PMID:25894462

  18. DNA repair pathways in human multiple myeloma: role in oncogenesis and potential targets for treatment.

    PubMed

    Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Sahota, Surinder; Rme, Thierry; Moreaux, Jrme; Bourquard, Pascal; Hose, Dirk; Pasero, Philippe; Constantinou, Angelos; Klein, Bernard

    2013-09-01

    Every day, cells are faced with thousands of DNA lesions, which have to be repaired to preserve cell survival and function. DNA repair is more or less accurate and could result in genomic instability and cancer. We review here the current knowledge of the links between molecular features, treatment, and DNA repair in multiple myeloma (MM), a disease characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Genetic instability and abnormalities are two hallmarks of MM cells and aberrant DNA repair pathways are involved in disease onset, primary translocations in MM cells, and MM progression. Two major drugs currently used to treat MM, the alkylating agent Melphalan and the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib act directly on DNA repair pathways, which are involved in response to treatment and resistance. A better knowledge of DNA repair pathways in MM could help to target them, thus improving disease treatment. PMID:23966156

  19. Synergy between Multiple Microtubule-Generating Pathways Confers Robustness to Centrosome-Driven Mitotic Spindle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Daniel; Metz, Jeremy; Pellacani, Claudia; Wakefield, JamesG.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mitotic spindle is defined by its organized, bipolar mass of microtubules, which drive chromosome alignment and segregation. Although different cells have been shown to use different molecular pathways to generate the microtubules required for spindle formation, how these pathways are coordinated within a single cell is poorly understood. We have tested the limits within which the Drosophila embryonic spindle forms, disrupting the inherent temporal control that overlays mitotic microtubule generation, interfering with the molecular mechanism that generates new microtubules from preexisting ones, and disrupting the spatial relationship between microtubule nucleation and the usually dominant centrosome. Our work uncovers the possible routes to spindle formation in embryos and establishes the central role of Augmin in all microtubule-generating pathways. It also demonstrates that the contributions of each pathway to spindle formation are integrated, highlighting the remarkable flexibility with which cells can respond to perturbations that limit their capacity to generate microtubules. PMID:24389063

  20. Targeting the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Circumvents Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Yarde, Danielle N.; Oliveira, Vasco; Mathews, Linda; Wang, Xingyu; Villagra, Alejandro; Boulware, David; Shain, Kenneth H.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Alsina, Melissa; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Beg, Amer A.; Dalton, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The Fanconi Anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA damage repair pathway plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to replicative stress induced by DNA alkylating agents and greatly influences drug response in cancer treatment. We recently reported that FA/BRCA genes are overexpressed and causative for drug resistance in human melphalan-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. However, the transcriptional regulation of the FA/BRCA pathway is not understood. In this report, we describe for the first time a novel function of the NF-?B subunits, RelB/p50, as transcriptional activators of the FA/BRCA pathway. Specifically, our findings point to constitutive phosphorylation of I?B Kinase IKK? and subsequent alterations in FANCD2 expression and function as underlying events leading to melphalan resistance in repeatedly exposed MM cells. Inhibiting NF-?B by siRNA, blocking the IKK complex with BMS-345541, or using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib drastically reduced FA/BRCA gene expression and FANCD2 protein expression in myeloma cells, resulting in diminished DNA damage repair and enhanced melphalan sensitivity. Importantly, we also found that bortezomib decreases FA/BRCA gene expression in multiple myeloma patients. These results show for the first time that NF-?B transcriptionally regulates the FA/BRCA pathway, and provide evidence for targeting FA-mediated DNA repair to enhance chemotherapeutic response and circumvent drug resistance in myeloma patients. PMID:19934314

  1. Differential Requirements for Clathrin Endocytic Pathway Components in Cellular Entry by Ebola and Marburg Glycoprotein Pseudovirions

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J.; Young, John A. T.

    2011-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was previously implicated as one of the cellular pathways involved in filoviral glycoprotein mediated viral entry into target cells. Here we have further dissected the requirements for different components of this pathway in Ebola versus Marburg virus glycoprotein (GP) mediated viral infection. Although a number of these components were involved in both cases; Ebola GP-dependent viral entry specifically required the cargo recognition proteins Eps15 and DAB2 as well as the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. In contrast, Marburg GP-mediated infection was independent of these three proteins and instead required beta-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). These findings have revealed an unexpected difference between the clathrin pathway requirements for Ebola GP- versus Marburg GP pseudovirion infection. Anthrax toxin entry also uses a clathrin-, and ARRB1-dependent pathway for cellular entry, indicating that the mechanism used by Marburg GP pseudovirions may be more generally important for pathogen entry. PMID:21855102

  2. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at ‘Zusanli’ acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation. PMID:26879284

  3. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation. PMID:26879284

  4. Nuclear interactor of ARF and Mdm2 regulates multiple pathways to activate p53

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sara M; Hagen, Jussara; Tompkins, Van S; Thies, Katie; Quelle, Frederick W; Quelle, Dawn E

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is controlled by an interactive network of factors that stimulate or inhibit its transcriptional activity. Within that network, Mdm2 functions as the major antagonist of p53 by promoting its ubiquitylation and degradation. Conversely, Tip60 activates p53 through direct association on target promoters as well as acetylation of p53 at lysine 120 (K120). This study examines the functional relationship between Mdm2 and Tip60 with a novel p53 regulator, NIAM (nuclear interactor of ARF and Mdm2). Previous work showed NIAM can suppress proliferation and activate p53 independently of ARF, indicating that other factors mediate those activities. Here, we demonstrate that NIAM is a chromatin-associated protein that binds Tip60. NIAM can promote p53 K120 acetylation, although that modification is not required for NIAM to inhibit proliferation or induce p53 transactivation of the p21 promoter. Notably, Tip60 silencing showed it contributes to but is not sufficient for NIAM-mediated p53 activation, suggesting other mechanisms are involved. Indeed, growth-inhibitory forms of NIAM also bind to Mdm2, and increased NIAM expression levels disrupt p53Mdm2 association, inhibit p53 polyubiquitylation, and prevent Mdm2-mediated inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity. Importantly, loss of NIAM significantly impairs p53 activation. Together, these results show that NIAM activates p53 through multiple mechanisms involving Tip60 association and Mdm2 inhibition. Thus, NIAM regulates 2 critical pathways that control p53 function and are altered in human cancers, implying an important role for NIAM in tumorigenesis. PMID:24621507

  5. Multiple modes of activation of the stress-responsive MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Samejima, I; Mackie, S; Fantes, P A

    1997-10-15

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe wis1(+) gene is essential for cell survival under stress conditions. The MAPKK homologue Wis1 is required for activation of the MAPK homologue Spc1, and integrity of the Wis1-Spc1 pathway is required for survival in extreme conditions of heat, osmolarity, oxidation or limited nutrition. We show here that Wis4, a protein kinase of a new MAPKKK class, phosphorylates Wis1 in vitro and activates it in vivo. Win1 is also required for full activation of Wis1, and Win1 rather than Wis4 mediates the osmotic stress signal. Surprisingly, the pathway can still be activated by heat or oxidative stress independently of the phosphorylation of two conserved Wis1 residues. Evidence is presented that the Pyp1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, which dephosphorylates Spc1, is central to this alternative activation mechanism. PMID:9321395

  6. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus). Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors. PMID:25473839

  7. The Toll-Dorsal Pathway Is Required for Resistance to Viral Oral Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus). Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors. PMID:25473839

  8. Th17 Cells Pathways in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Passos, Giordani Rodrigues Dos; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Becker, Jefferson; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Several animal and human studies have implicated CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells and their downstream pathways in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), challenging the traditional Th1-Th2 paradigm. Th17 cells can efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier using alternate ways from Th1 cells, promote its disruption, and induce the activation of other inflammatory cells in the CNS. A number of environmental factors modulate the activity of Th17 pathways, so changes in the diet, exposure to infections, and other environmental factors can potentially change the risk of development of autoimmunity. Currently, new drugs targeting specific points of the Th17 pathways are already being tested in clinical trials and provide basis for the development of biomarkers to monitor disease activity. Herein, we review the key findings supporting the relevance of the Th17 pathways in the pathogenesis of MS and NMOSD, as well as their potential role as therapeutic targets in the treatment of immune-mediated CNS disorders. PMID:26941483

  9. Th17 Cells Pathways in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Giordani Rodrigues Dos; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Becker, Jefferson; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Several animal and human studies have implicated CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells and their downstream pathways in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), challenging the traditional Th1-Th2 paradigm. Th17 cells can efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier using alternate ways from Th1 cells, promote its disruption, and induce the activation of other inflammatory cells in the CNS. A number of environmental factors modulate the activity of Th17 pathways, so changes in the diet, exposure to infections, and other environmental factors can potentially change the risk of development of autoimmunity. Currently, new drugs targeting specific points of the Th17 pathways are already being tested in clinical trials and provide basis for the development of biomarkers to monitor disease activity. Herein, we review the key findings supporting the relevance of the Th17 pathways in the pathogenesis of MS and NMOSD, as well as their potential role as therapeutic targets in the treatment of immune-mediated CNS disorders. PMID:26941483

  10. Efficient inhibition of infectious prions multiplication and release by targeting the exosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Vilette, Didier; Laulagnier, Karine; Huor, Alvina; Alais, Sandrine; Simoes, Sabrina; Maryse, Romao; Provansal, Monique; Lehmann, Sylvain; Andreoletti, Olivier; Schaeffer, Laurent; Raposo, Graa; Leblanc, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    Exosomes are secreted membrane vesicles of endosomal origin present in biological fluids. Exosomes may serve as shuttles for amyloidogenic proteins, notably infectious prions, and may participate in their spreading in vivo. To explore the significance of the exosome pathway on prion infectivity and release, we investigated the role of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and the need for ceramide, both involved in exosome biogenesis. Silencing of HRS-ESCRT-0 subunit drastically impairs the formation of cellular infectious prion due to an altered trafficking of cholesterol. Depletion of Tsg101-ESCRT-I subunit or impairment of the production of ceramide significantly strongly decreases infectious prion release. Together, our data reveal that ESCRT-dependent and -independent pathways can concomitantly regulate the exosomal secretion of infectious prion, showing that both pathways operate for the exosomal trafficking of a particular cargo. These data open up a new avenue to regulate prion release and propagation. PMID:26047659

  11. Multiple Pathways of Recombination Induced by Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pques, Frdric; Haber, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the principal organism used in experiments to examine genetic recombination in eukaryotes. Studies over the past decade have shown that meiotic recombination and probably most mitotic recombination arise from the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). There are multiple pathways by which such DSBs can be repaired, including several homologous recombination pathways and still other nonhomologous mechanisms. Our understanding has also been greatly enriched by the characterization of many proteins involved in recombination and by insights that link aspects of DNA repair to chromosome replication. New molecular models of DSB-induced gene conversion are presented. This review encompasses these different aspects of DSB-induced recombination in Saccharomyces and attempts to relate genetic, molecular biological, and biochemical studies of the processes of DNA repair and recombination. PMID:10357855

  12. Evolution of multiple phosphodiesterase isoforms in stickleback involved in cAMP signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yukuto; Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2009-01-01

    Background Duplicate genes are considered to have evolved through the partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicates (subfunctionalization) and/or the acquisition of novel functions from a beneficial mutation (neofunctionalization). Additionally, an increase in gene dosage resulting from duplication may also confer an advantageous effect, as has been suggested for histone, tRNA, and rRNA genes. Currently, there is little understanding of the effect of increased gene dosage on subcellular networks like signal transduction pathways. Addressing this issue may provide further insights into the evolution by gene duplication. Results We analyzed the evolution of multiple stickleback phosphodiesterase (PDE, EC: 3.1.4.17) 1C genes involved in the cyclic nucleotide signaling pathway. Stickleback has 89 copies of this gene, whereas only one or two loci exist in other model vertebrates. Our phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggested that the multiple PDE1C genes in stickleback were generated by repeated duplications of >100-kbp chromosome segments. Sequence evolution analysis did not provide strong evidence for neofunctionalization in the coding sequences of stickleback PDE1C isoforms. On the other hand, gene expression analysis suggested that the derived isoforms acquired expression in new organs, implying their neofunctionalization in terms of expression patterns. In addition, at least seven isoforms of the stickleback PDE1C were co-expressed with olfactory-type G-proteins in the nose, suggesting that PDE1C dosage is increased in the stickleback olfactory transduction (OT) pathway. In silico simulations of OT implied that the increased PDE1C dosage extends the longevity of the depolarization signals of the olfactory receptor neuron. Conclusion The predicted effect of the increase in PDE1C products on the OT pathway may play an important role in stickleback behavior and ecology. However, this possibility should be empirically examined. Our analyses imply that an increase in gene product sometimes has a significant, yet unexpected, effect on the functions of subcellular networks. PMID:19232106

  13. Multiple modes of proepicardial cell migration require heartbeat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The outermost layer of the vertebrate heart, the epicardium, forms from a cluster of progenitor cells termed the proepicardium (PE). PE cells migrate onto the myocardium to give rise to the epicardium. Impaired epicardial development has been associated with defects in valve development, cardiomyocyte proliferation and alignment, cardiac conduction system maturation and adult heart regeneration. Zebrafish are an excellent model for studying cardiac development and regeneration; however, little is known about how the zebrafish epicardium forms. Results We report that PE migration occurs through multiple mechanisms and that the zebrafish epicardium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. Heterogeneity is first observed within the PE and persists through epicardium formation. Using in vivo imaging, histology and confocal microscopy, we show that PE cells migrate through a cellular bridge that forms between the pericardial mesothelium and the heart. We also observed the formation of PE aggregates on the pericardial surface, which were released into the pericardial cavity. It was previously reported that heartbeat-induced pericardiac fluid advections are necessary for PE cluster formation and subsequent epicardium development. We manipulated heartbeat genetically and pharmacologically and found that PE clusters clearly form in the absence of heartbeat. However, when heartbeat was inhibited the PE failed to migrate to the myocardium and the epicardium did not form. We isolated and cultured hearts with only a few epicardial progenitor cells and found a complete epicardial layer formed. However, pharmacologically inhibiting contraction in culture prevented epicardium formation. Furthermore, we isolated control and silent heart (sih) morpholino (MO) injected hearts prior to epicardium formation (60 hpf) and co-cultured these hearts with “donor” hearts that had an epicardium forming (108 hpf). Epicardial cells from donor hearts migrated on to control but not sih MO injected hearts. Conclusions Epicardial cells stem from a heterogeneous population of progenitors, suggesting that the progenitors in the PE have distinct identities. PE cells attach to the heart via a cellular bridge and free-floating cell clusters. Pericardiac fluid advections are not necessary for the development of the PE cluster, however heartbeat is required for epicardium formation. Epicardium formation can occur in culture without normal hydrodynamic and hemodynamic forces, but not without contraction. PMID:24885804

  14. Mutant p53 Drives Cancer by Subverting Multiple Tumor Suppression Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Sue; Raghu, Dinesh; Haupt, Ygal

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 normally acts as a brake to halt damaged cells from perpetrating their genetic errors into future generations. If p53 is disrupted by mutation, it may not only lose these corrective powers, but counterproductively acquire new capacities that drive cancer. A newly emerging manner in which mutant p53 executes its cancer promoting functions is by harnessing key proteins, which normally partner with its wild type, tumor-inhibiting counterpart. In association with the subverted activities of these protein partners, mutant p53 is empowered to act across multiple fundamental cellular pathways (regulating cell division and metabolism) and corrupt them to become cancer promoting. PMID:26858938

  15. Mechanically Untying a Protein Slipknot: Multiple Pathways Revealed by Force Spectroscopy and Steered Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    He, Chengzhi; Genchev, Georgi Z.; Lu, Hui; Li, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure is highly diverse when considering a wide range of protein types, helping to give rise to the multitude of functions that proteins perform. In particular, certain proteins are known to adopt a knotted or slipknotted fold. How such proteins undergo mechanical unfolding was investigated utilizing a combination of single molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM), protein engineering and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to show the mechanical unfolding mechanism of the slipknotted protein AFV3-109. Our results reveal that the mechancial unfolding of AFV3-109 can proceed via multiple parallel unfolding pathways that all cause the protein slipknot to untie, and the polypeptide chain to completely extend. These distinct unfolding pathways proceed either via a two-state or three-state unfolding process involving the formation of a well-defined, stable intermediate state. SMD simulations predict the same contour length increments for different unfolding pathways as single molecule AFM results, thus provding a plausible molecular mechanism for the mechanical unfolding of AFV3-109. These SMD simulations also reveal that two-state unfolding is initiated from both the N- and C-termini, while three-state unfolding is initiated only from the C-terminus. In both pathways, the protein slipknot was untied during unfolding, and no tightened slipknot conformation observed. Detailed analysis revealed that interactions between key structural elements lock the knotting loop in place, preventing it from shrinking and the formation of a tightened slipknot conformation. Our results demonstrate the bifurcation of the mechancial unfolding pathway of AFV3-109, and point to the generality of a kinetic partitioning mechanism for protein folding/unfolding. PMID:22626004

  16. Associations between Proprioceptive Neural Pathway Structural Connectivity and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fling, Brett W.; Dutta, Geetanjali Gera; Schlueter, Heather; Cameron, Michelle H.; Horak, Fay B.

    2014-01-01

    Mobility and balance impairments are a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting nearly half of patients at presentation and resulting in decreased activity and participation, falls, injuries, and reduced quality of life. A growing body of work suggests that balance impairments in people with mild MS are primarily the result of deficits in proprioception, the ability to determine body position in space in the absence of vision. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of balance disturbances in MS is needed to develop evidence-based rehabilitation approaches. The purpose of the current study was to (1) map the cortical proprioceptive pathway in vivo using diffusion-weighted imaging and (2) assess associations between proprioceptive pathway white matter microstructural integrity and performance on clinical and behavioral balance tasks. We hypothesized that people with MS (PwMS) would have reduced integrity of cerebral proprioceptive pathways, and that reduced white matter microstructure within these tracts would be strongly related to proprioceptive-based balance deficits. We found poorer balance control on proprioceptive-based tasks and reduced white matter microstructural integrity of the cortical proprioceptive tracts in PwMS compared with age-matched healthy controls (HC). Microstructural integrity of this pathway in the right hemisphere was also strongly associated with proprioceptive-based balance control in PwMS and controls. Conversely, while white matter integrity of the right hemisphere’s proprioceptive pathway was significantly correlated with overall balance performance in HC, there was no such relationship in PwMS. These results augment existing literature suggesting that balance control in PwMS may become more dependent upon (1) cerebellar-regulated proprioceptive control, (2) the vestibular system, and/or (3) the visual system. PMID:25368564

  17. Cellular uptake of cyclotide MCoTI-I follows multiple endocytic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Janette; Elnagar, Ahmed Y. O.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Camarero, Julio A.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclotides are plant-derived proteins that naturally exhibit various biological activities and whose unique cyclic structure makes them remarkably stable and resistant to denaturation or degradation. These attributes, among others, make them ideally suited for use as drug development tools. This study investigated the cellular uptake of cyclotide, MCoTI-I in live HeLa cells. Using real time confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging, we show that MCoTI-I is readily internalized in live HeLa cells and that its endocytosis is temperature-dependent. Endocytosis of MCoTI-I in HeLa cells is achieved primarily through fluid-phase endocytosis, as evidenced by its significant colocalization with 10K-dextran, but also through other pathways as well, as evidenced by its colocalization with markers for cholesterol-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cholera toxin B and EGF respectively. Uptake does not appear to occur only via macropinocytosis as inhibition of this pathway by Latrunculin B-induced disassembly of actin filaments did not affect MCoTI-I uptake and treatment with EIPA which also seemed to inhibit other pathways collectively inhibited approximately 80% of cellular uptake. As well, a significant amount of MCoTI-I accumulates in late endosomal and lysosomal compartments and MCoTI-I-containing vesicles continue to exhibit directed movements. These findings demonstrate internalization of MCoTI-I through multiple endocytic pathways that are dominant in the cell type investigated, suggesting that this cyclotide has ready access to general endosomal/lysosomal pathways but could readily be re-targeted to specific receptors through addition of targeting ligands. PMID:21906641

  18. Cellular uptake of cyclotide MCoTI-I follows multiple endocytic pathways.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Janette; Elnagar, Ahmed Y O; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Camarero, Julio A

    2011-10-30

    Cyclotides are plant-derived proteins that naturally exhibit various biological activities and whose unique cyclic structure makes them remarkably stable and resistant to denaturation or degradation. These attributes, among others, make them ideally suited for use as drug development tools. This study investigated the cellular uptake of cyclotide, MCoTI-I in live HeLa cells. Using real time confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging, we show that MCoTI-I is readily internalized in live HeLa cells and that its endocytosis is temperature-dependent. Endocytosis of MCoTI-I in HeLa cells is achieved primarily through fluid-phase endocytosis, as evidenced by its significant colocalization with 10K-dextran, but also through other pathways as well, as evidenced by its colocalization with markers for cholesterol-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cholera toxin B and EGF respectively. Uptake does not appear to occur only via macropinocytosis as inhibition of this pathway by Latrunculin B-induced disassembly of actin filaments did not affect MCoTI-I uptake and treatment with EIPA which also seemed to inhibit other pathways collectively inhibited approximately 80% of cellular uptake. As well, a significant amount of MCoTI-I accumulates in late endosomal and lysosomal compartments and MCoTI-I-containing vesicles continue to exhibit directed movements. These findings demonstrate internalization of MCoTI-I through multiple endocytic pathways that are dominant in the cell type investigated, suggesting that this cyclotide has ready access to general endosomal/lysosomal pathways but could readily be re-targeted to specific receptors through addition of targeting ligands. PMID:21906641

  19. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions downregulate multiple immune signaling pathways in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Kiba, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    It was recently reported that ventromedial hypothalamic lesions change the expression of cell proliferation-related genes and metabolism-related genes in rat pancreatic islets. This study has examined how gene families involved in immune responses are regulated in rat pancreatic islets after VMH lesions formation. Total pancreatic islets RNA was extracted, and differences in the gene expression profiles between rats at day 3 after VMH lesioning and sham-VMH-lesioned rats were investigated using DNA microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction. VMH lesions downregulated multiple immune signaling pathways in rat pancreatic islets. Real-time polymerase chain reaction also confirmed that gene expressions of RT1 class II, locus Bb (RT1-Bb) was up-regulated and Spi-B transcription factor (Spib) was downregulated at day 3 after the VMH lesions. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions may change the expression of multiple immune response genes in rat pancreatic islets. PMID:26555798

  20. The Toll and Imd Pathways Are Not Required for Wolbachia-Mediated Dengue Virus Interference

    PubMed Central

    Rancs, Edwige; Johnson, Travis K.; Popovici, Jean; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iaki; Zakir, Tasnim; Warr, Coral G.

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia blocks dengue virus replication in Drosophila melanogaster as well as in Aedes aegypti. Using the Drosophila model and mutations in the Toll and Imd pathways, we showed that neither pathway is required for expression of the dengue virus-blocking phenotype in the Drosophila host. This provides additional evidence that the mechanistic basis of Wolbachia-mediated dengue virus blocking in insects is more complex than simple priming of the host insect innate immune system. PMID:23986574

  1. Curcumin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human biliary cancer cells through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prakobwong, Suksanti; Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Bokyung; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke; Wongkham, Sopit; Sripa, Banchob; Pinlaor, Somchai; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a tumor with poor prognosis that is resistant to all currently available treatments. Whether curcumin, a nutraceutical derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potential therapeutic activity against human CCA was investigated using three CCA cell lines (KKU100, KKU-M156 and KKU-M213). Examination of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, esterase staining, caspase activation and poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase cleavage demonstrated that curcumin inhibited proliferation of and induced apoptosis in these biliary cancer cells. Colony-formation assay confirmed the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin on CCA cells. When examined for the mechanism, curcumin was found to activate multiple cell signaling pathways in these cells. First, all CCA cells exhibited constitutively active nuclear factor (NF)-?B, and treatment with curcumin abolished this activation as indicated by DNA binding, nuclear translocation and p65 phosphorylation. Second, curcumin suppressed activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 as indicated by decreased phosphorylation at both tyrosine(705) and serine(727) and inhibition of janus kinase-1 phosphorylation. Third, curcumin induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Fourth, curcumin upregulated death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Fifth, curcumin suppressed the Akt activation pathway. Sixth, curcumin inhibited expression of cell survival proteins such as B-cell lymphoma-2, B-cell leukemia protein xL, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, c-FLIP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, cIAP-2 and survivin and proteins linked to cell proliferation, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Seventh, the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin was enhanced in the I?B kinase-deficient cells, the enzyme required for nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Overall, our results indicate that curcumin mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through activation of multiple cell signaling pathways, and thus, its activity against CCA should be further investigated. PMID:21325634

  2. Curcumin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human biliary cancer cells through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Prakobwong, Suksanti; Gupta, Subash C.; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Bokyung; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke; Wongkham, Sopit; Sripa, Banchob; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2011-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a tumor with poor prognosis that is resistant to all currently available treatments. Whether curcumin, a nutraceutical derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potential therapeutic activity against human CCA was investigated using three CCA cell lines (KKU100, KKU-M156 and KKU-M213). Examination of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, esterase staining, caspase activation and poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase cleavage demonstrated that curcumin inhibited proliferation of and induced apoptosis in these biliary cancer cells. Colony-formation assay confirmed the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin on CCA cells. When examined for the mechanism, curcumin was found to activate multiple cell signaling pathways in these cells. First, all CCA cells exhibited constitutively active nuclear factor (NF)-?B, and treatment with curcumin abolished this activation as indicated by DNA binding, nuclear translocation and p65 phosphorylation. Second, curcumin suppressed activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 as indicated by decreased phosphorylation at both tyrosine705 and serine727 and inhibition of janus kinase-1 phosphorylation. Third, curcumin induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Fourth, curcumin upregulated death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Fifth, curcumin suppressed the Akt activation pathway. Sixth, curcumin inhibited expression of cell survival proteins such as B-cell lymphoma-2, B-cell leukemia protein xL, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, c-FLIP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, cIAP-2 and survivin and proteins linked to cell proliferation, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Seventh, the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin was enhanced in the I?B kinase-deficient cells, the enzyme required for nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Overall, our results indicate that curcumin mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through activation of multiple cell signaling pathways, and thus, its activity against CCA should be further investigated. PMID:21325634

  3. Targeting TopBP1 at a convergent point of multiple oncogenic pathways for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Pinki; Lin, Gregory E.; Liu, Kang; Song, Yongcheng; Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Lin, Weei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The progression of many solid tumors is driven by de-regulation of multiple common pathways, particularly Rb, PI (3) K/Akt and p53. Prior studies identified TopBP1as a key mediator for the oncogenic gain-of-function activities of mutant p53 (mutp53) in cancer. In Akt-hyperactive cancer, TopBP1 forms oligomers and represses E2F1-dependent apoptosis. Here we perform a molecular docking screening and identify a lead compound, calcein, capable of blocking TopBP1 oligomerization and p53 binding, resulting in re-activation of E2F1-dependent apoptosis and blockade of mutp53 gain-of-function. Calcein AM, the cell permeable derivative of calcein, shows significant anti-tumor activity in a wide-spectrum of cultured cancer cells harboring high TopBP1 levels. These biochemical findings are recapitulated in breast cancer xenograft models. Thus, our study provides proof-of-concept evidence for targeting TopBP1, a convergent point of multiple pathways, as a cancer therapy. PMID:25400145

  4. Toward Multiple Conductance Pathways with Heterocycle-Based Oligo(phenyleneethynylene) Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Delia; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Martín-Lasanta, Ana; Morcillo, Sara P; Zotti, Linda A; Leary, Edmund; Bürkle, Marius; Asai, Yoshihiro; Jurado, Rocío; Cárdenas, Diego J; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Cuerva, Juan M; González, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we have systematically studied how the replacement of a benzene ring by a heterocyclic compound in oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) derivatives affects the conductance of a molecular wire using the scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction technique. We describe for the first time how OPE derivatives with a central pyrimidine ring can efficiently link to the gold electrode by two pathways presenting two different conductance G values. We have demonstrated that this effect is associated with the presence of two efficient conductive pathways of different length: the conventional end-to-end configuration, and another with one of the electrodes linked directly to the central ring. This represents one of the few examples in which two defined conductive states can be set up in a single molecule without the aid of an external stimulus. Moreover, we have observed that the conductance through the full length of the heterocycle-based OPEs is basically unaffected by the presence of the heterocycle. All these results and the simplicity of the proposed molecules push forward the development of compounds with multiple conductance pathways, which would be a breakthrough in the field of molecular electronics. PMID:26452050

  5. Genistein inhibits tumor invasion by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genistein (Gen) exhibits anti-mutagenic and anti-metastatic activities in hepatoma cell lines. Gen has suppressive effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice. Gen suppresses the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; however, the mechanism underlying its anti-invasive activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is unclear. Methods In this study, the possible mechanisms underlying Gen-mediated reduction of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in human hepatoma cells (HepG2, Huh-7, and HA22T) and murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL2) were investigated. Results Gen suppressed MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor-? B (NF-?B) activity. Gen suppressed TPA-induced AP-1 activity through inhibitory phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, and TPA-stimulated inhibition of NF-?B nuclear translocation through I?B inhibitory signaling pathways. Moreover, Gen suppressed TPA-induced activation of ERK/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt upstream of NF-?B and AP-1. Conclusions Gen and its inhibition of multiple signal transduction pathways can control the invasiveness and metastatic potential of HCC. PMID:24433534

  6. Partitioning the effects of an ecosystem engineer: kangaroo rats control community structure via multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R; Brashares, Justin S

    2012-05-01

    1. Ecosystem engineers impact communities by altering habitat conditions, but they can also have strong effects through consumptive, competitive and other non-engineering pathways. 2. Engineering effects can lead to fundamentally different community dynamics than non-engineering effects, but the relative strengths of these interactions are seldom quantified. 3. We combined structural equation modelling and exclosure experiments to partition the effects of a keystone engineer, the giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), on plants, invertebrates and vertebrates in a semi-arid California grassland. 4. We separated the effects of burrow creation from kangaroo rat density and found that kangaroo rats increased the diversity and abundance of other species via both engineering and non-engineering pathways. 5. Engineering was the primary factor structuring plant and small mammal communities, whereas non-engineering effects structured invertebrate communities and increased lizard abundance. 6. These results highlight the importance of the non-engineering effects of ecosystem engineers and shed new light on the multiple pathways by which strong-interactors shape communities. PMID:22098534

  7. A gene pathway analysis highlights the role of cellular adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Damotte, V; Guillot-Noel, L; Patsopoulos, N A; Madireddy, L; El Behi, M; De Jager, P L; Baranzini, S E; Cournu-Rebeix, I; Fontaine, B

    2014-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) perform per-SNP association tests to identify variants involved in disease or trait susceptibility. However, such an approach is not powerful enough to unravel genes that are not individually contributing to the disease/trait, but that may have a role in interaction with other genes as a group. Pathway analysis is an alternative way to highlight such group of genes. Using SNP association P-values from eight multiple sclerosis (MS) GWAS data sets, we performed a candidate pathway analysis for MS susceptibility by considering genes interacting in the cell adhesion molecule (CAMs) biological pathway using Cytoscape software. This network is a strong candidate, as it is involved in the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by the T cells, an early event in MS pathophysiology, and is used as an efficient therapeutic target. We drew up a list of 76 genes belonging to the CAM network. We highlighted 64 networks enriched with CAM genes with low P-values. Filtering by a percentage of CAM genes up to 50% and rejecting enriched signals mainly driven by transcription factors, we highlighted five networks associated with MS susceptibility. One of them, constituted of ITGAL, ICAM1 and ICAM3 genes, could be of interest to develop novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24430173

  8. Simultaneous Reconstruction of Multiple Signaling Pathways via the Prize-Collecting Steiner Forest Problem

    PubMed Central

    Tuncbag, Nurcan; Braunstein, Alfredo; Pagnani, Andrea; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Chayes, Jennifer; Borgs, Christian; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Signaling and regulatory networks are essential for cells to control processes such as growth, differentiation, and response to stimuli. Although many omic data sources are available to probe signaling pathways, these data are typically sparse and noisy. Thus, it has been difficult to use these data to discover the cause of the diseases and to propose new therapeutic strategies. We overcome these problems and use omic data to reconstruct simultaneously multiple pathways that are altered in a particular condition by solving the prize-collecting Steiner forest problem. To evaluate this approach, we use the well-characterized yeast pheromone response. We then apply the method to human glioblastoma data, searching for a forest of trees, each of which is rooted in a different cell-surface receptor. This approach discovers both overlapping and independent signaling pathways that are enriched in functionally and clinically relevant proteins, which could provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Although the algorithm was not provided with any information about the phosphorylation status of receptors, it identifies a small set of clinically relevant receptors among hundreds present in the interactome. PMID:23383998

  9. Serum Metabolomic Profiling in Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis Identifies Multiple Dysregulated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rachakonda, Vikrant; Gabbert, Charles; Raina, Amit; Bell, Lauren N.; Cooper, Sara; Malik, Shahid; Behari, Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives While animal studies have implicated derangements of global energy homeostasis in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), the relevance of these findings to the development of human AAH remains unclear. Using global, unbiased serum metabolomics analysis, we sought to characterize alterations in metabolic pathways associated with severe AAH and identify potential biomarkers for disease prognosis. Methods This prospective, case-control study design included 25 patients with severe AAH and 25 ambulatory patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Serum samples were collected within 24 hours of the index clinical encounter. Global, unbiased metabolomics profiling was performed. Patients were followed for 180 days after enrollment to determine survival. Results Levels of 234 biochemicals were altered in subjects with severe AAH. Random-forest analysis, principal component analysis, and integrated hierarchical clustering methods demonstrated that metabolomics profiles separated the two cohorts with 100% accuracy. Severe AAH was associated with enhanced triglyceride lipolysis, impaired mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation, and upregulated omega oxidation. Low levels of multiple lysolipids and related metabolites suggested decreased plasma membrane remodeling in severe AAH. While most measured bile acids were increased in severe AAH, low deoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate levels indicated intestinal dysbiosis. Several changes in substrate utilization for energy homeostasis were identified in severe AAH, including increased glucose consumption by the pentose phosphate pathway, altered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, and enhanced peptide catabolism. Finally, altered levels of small molecules related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant vitamin depletion were observed in patients with severe AAH. Univariable logistic regression revealed 15 metabolites associated with 180-day survival in severe AAH. Conclusion Severe AAH is characterized by a distinct metabolic phenotype spanning multiple pathways. Metabolomics profiling revealed a panel of biomarkers for disease prognosis, and future studies are planned to validate these findings in larger cohorts of patients with severe AAH. PMID:25461442

  10. Molecular Switching via Multiplicity-Exclusive E/Z Photoisomerization Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawang; Guo, Xin; Katz, Howard E; Bragg, Arthur E

    2015-08-26

    Mutual exclusivity in the nature of forward and reserve isomerization pathways holds promise for predictably controlling responses of photoswitchable materials according to molecular structure or external stimuli. Herein we have characterized the E/Z photoisomerization mechanisms of the visible-light-triggered switch 1,2-dithienyl-1,2-dicyanoethene (4TCE) in chlorobenzene with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that switching mechanisms occur exclusively by relaxation through electronic manifolds of different spin multiplicity: trans-to-cis isomerization only occurs via electronic relaxation within the singlet manifold on a time scale of 40 ps; in contrast, cis-to-trans isomerization is not observed above 440 nm, but occurs via two rapid ISC processes into and out of the triplet manifold on time scales of ∼2 ps and 0.4 ns, respectively, when excited at higher energies (e.g., 420 nm). Observation of ultrafast ISC in cis-4TCE is consistent with photoinduced dynamics of related thiophene-based oligomers. Interpretation of the photophysical pathways underlying these isomerization reactions is supported by the observation that cis-to-trans isomerization occurs efficiently via triplet-sensitized energy transfer, whereas trans-to-cis isomerization does not. Quantum-chemical calculations reveal that the T1 potential energy surface is barrierless along the coordinate of the central ethylene dihedral angle (θ) from the cis Franck-Condon region (θ = 175°) to geometries that are within the region of the trans ground-state well; furthermore, the T1 and S1 surfaces cross with a substantial spin-orbital coupling. In total, we demonstrate that E/Z photoswitching of 4TCE operates by multiplicity-exclusive pathways, enabling additional means for tailoring switch performance by manipulating spin-orbit couplings through variations in molecular structure or physical environment. PMID:26258436

  11. APL-1, the Alzheimers Amyloid Precursor Protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, Modulates Multiple Metabolic Pathways Throughout Development

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Collin Y.; Raps, Daniel A.; Li, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene or in genes that process APP are correlated with familial Alzheimers disease (AD). The biological function of APP remains unclear. APP is a transmembrane protein that can be sequentially cleaved by different secretases to yield multiple fragments, which can potentially act as signaling molecules. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes one APP-related protein, APL-1, which is essential for viability. Here, we show that APL-1 signaling is dependent on the activity of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 and influences metabolic pathways such as developmental progression, body size, and egg-laying rate. Furthermore, apl-1(yn5) mutants, which produce high levels of the extracellular APL-1 fragment, show an incompletely penetrant temperature-sensitive embryonic lethality. In a genetic screen to isolate mutants in which the apl-1(yn5) lethality rate is modified, we identified a suppressor mutation in MOA-1/R155.2, a receptor-protein tyrosine phosphatase, and an enhancer mutation in MOA-2/B0495.6, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockdown of apl-1 in an apl-1(yn5) background caused lethality and molting defects at all larval stages, suggesting that apl-1 is required for each transitional molt. We suggest that signaling of the released APL-1 fragment modulates multiple metabolic states and that APL-1 is required throughout development. PMID:22466039

  12. Multiple pathways in the FGF signaling network are frequently deregulated by gene amplification in oral dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Ivy F.L.; Poh, Catherine F.; Garnis, Cathie; Rosin, Miriam P.; Zhang, Lewei; Lam, Wan L.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic alteration in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs), the precursors of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), may represent key changes in disease initiation and development. We ask if DNA amplification occurs at this early stage of cancer development and which oncogenic pathways are disrupted in OPLs. Here we evaluated 50 high-grade dysplasias and low-grade dysplasias that later progressed to cancer for gene dosage aberrations using tiling-path DNA microarrays. Early occurrences of DNA amplification and homozygous deletion were frequently detected, with 40% (20/50) of these early lesions exhibiting such features. Expression for 88 genes in seven recurrent amplicons were evaluated in five independent head and neck cancer datasets, with 40 candidates found to be overexpressed relative to normal tissues. These genes were significantly enriched in the canonical ERK/MAPK, FGF, p53, PTEN, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways (P = 8.95x10-3--3.1810-2). These identified pathways share interactions in one signaling network, and amplification-mediated deregulation of this network was found in 30.0% of these preinvasive lesions. No such alterations were found in 14 low-grade dysplasias that did not progress, while 43.5% (10/23) of OSCCs were found to have altered genes within the pathways with DNA amplification. Multi-target FISH showed that amplification of EGFR and CCND1 can co-exist in single cells of an oral dysplasia, suggesting the dependence on multiple oncogenes for OPL progression. Taken together, these findings identify a critical biological network that is frequently disrupted in high-risk OPLs, with different specific genes disrupted in different individuals. PMID:19623652

  13. Rofecoxib modulates multiple gene expression pathways in a clinical model of acute inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Min; Wu, Tian-Xia; Hamza, May; Ramsay, Edward S; Wahl, Sharon M; Dionne, Raymond A

    2007-03-01

    New insights into the biological properties of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its response pathway challenge the hypothesis that COX-2 is simply pro-inflammatory and inhibition of COX-2 solely prevents the development of inflammation and ameliorates inflammatory pain. The present study performed a comprehensive analysis of gene/protein expression induced by a selective inhibitor of COX-2, rofecoxib, compared with a non-selective COX inhibitor, ibuprofen, and placebo in a clinical model of acute inflammatory pain (the surgical extraction of impacted third molars) using microarray analysis followed by quantitative RT-PCR verification and Western blotting. Inhibition of COX-2 modulated gene expression related to inflammation and pain, the arachidonic acid pathway, apoptosis/angiogenesis, cell adhesion and signal transduction. Compared to placebo, rofecoxib treatment increased the gene expression of ANXA3 (annexin 3), SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) and IL1RN (IL1 receptor antagonist) which are associated with inhibition of phospholipase A(2) and suppression of cytokine signaling cascades, respectively. Both rofecoxib and ibuprofen treatment increased the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators, IL6 and CCL2 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2), following tissue injury compared to the placebo treatment. These results indicate a complex role for COX-2 in the inflammatory cascade in addition to the well-characterized COX-dependent pathway, as multiple pathways are also involved in rofecoxib-induced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects at the gene expression level. These findings may also suggest an alternative hypothesis for the adverse effects attributed to selective inhibition of COX-2. PMID:17070997

  14. Airborne fine particulate matter induces multiple cell death pathways in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobei; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Lijuan; Rui, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Deliang; Ding, Wenjun

    2014-07-01

    Our group was the first one reporting that autophagy could be triggered by airborne fine particulate matter (PM) with a mean diameter of less than 2.5?m (PM2.5) in human lung epithelial A549 cells, which could potentially lead to cell death. In the present study, we further explored the potential interactions between autophagy and apoptosis because it was well documented that PM2.5 could induce apoptosis in A549 cells. Much to our surprise, we found that PM2.5-exposure caused oxidative stress, resulting in activation of multiple cell death pathways in A549 cells, that is, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced pathway as evidenced by TNF-? secretion and activation of caspase-8 and -3, the intrinsic apoptosis pathway as evidenced by increased expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-9 and -3, and autophagy as evidenced by an increased number of double-membrane vesicles, accompanied by increases of conversion and punctuation of microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) and expression of Beclin 1. It appears that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules for all the three pathways because pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a scavenger of ROS, almost completely abolished TNF-? secretion and significantly reduced the number of apoptotic and autophagic cells. In another aspect, inhibiting autophagy with 3-methyladenine, a specific autophagy inhibitor, enhanced PM2.5-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, neutralization of TNF-? with an anti-TNF-? special antibody not only abolished activation of caspase-8, but also drastically reduced LC3-II conversion. Thus, the present study has provided novel insights into the mechanism of cytotoxicity and even pathogenesis of diseases associated with PM2.5 exposure. PMID:24722831

  15. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Stewart, A Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K

    2013-12-19

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Espaol de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  16. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A. Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P. Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lust, John A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K.

    2013-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Espaol de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  17. Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The accessibility of the developing zebrafish pharyngeal dentition makes it an advantageous system in which to study many aspects of tooth development from early initiation to late morphogenesis. In mammals, hedgehog signaling is known to be essential for multiple stages of odontogenesis; however, potential roles for the pathway during initiation of tooth development or in later morphogenesis are incompletely understood. Results We have identified mRNA expression of the hedgehog ligands shha and the receptors ptc1 and ptc2 during zebrafish pharyngeal tooth development. We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development. Supporting this idea, we found that morphological and gene expression evidence of tooth initiation is eliminated in shha mutant embryos, and that morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of shha, but not shhb, function prevents mature tooth formation. Hedgehog pathway inhibition with the antagonist compound cyclopamine affected tooth formation at each stage in which we applied it: arresting development at early stages and disrupting mature tooth morphology when applied later. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required continuously during odontogenesis. In contrast, over-expression of shha had no effect on the developing dentition, possibly because shha is normally extensively expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal region. Conclusion We have identified previously unknown requirements for hedgehog signaling for early tooth initiation and later morphogenesis. The similarity of our results with data from mouse and other vertebrates suggests that despite gene duplication and changes in the location of where teeth form, the roles of hedgehog signaling in tooth development have been largely conserved during evolution. PMID:21118524

  18. Multiple small RNA pathways regulate the silencing of repeated and foreign genes in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sylvia E.J.; Pan, Qi; Breen, Peter C.; Qi, Yan; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. A deep-sequencing map of the small RNA response to repeated transgenes introduced to Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that specific segments are targeted by siRNAs. Silencing of the foreign gene segments depends on an antiviral response that involves changes in active and silent chromatin modifications and altered levels of antisense siRNAs. Distinct Argonaute proteins target foreign genes for silencing or protection against silencing. We used a repeated transgene in a genome-wide screen to identify gene disruptions that enhance silencing of foreign genetic elements and identified 69 genes. These genes cluster in four groups based on overlapping sets of coexpressed genes, including a group of germline-expressed genes that are likely coregulated by the E2F transcription factor. Many of the gene inactivations enhance exogenous RNAi. About half of the 69 genes have roles in endogenous RNAi pathways that regulate diverse processes, including silencing of duplicated genes and transposons and chromosome segregation. Of these newly identified genes, several are required for siRNA biogenesis or stability in the oocyte-specific ERGO-1 pathway, including eri-12, encoding an interactor of the RNAi-defective protein RDE-10, and ntl-9/CNOT9, one of several CCR4/NOT complex genes that we identified. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is required specifically for primary siRNA biogenesis or stability in the sperm-specific ALG-3/4 endogenous RNAi pathway. PMID:24352423

  19. Gene microarray assessment of multiple genes and signal pathways involved in androgen-dependent prostate cancer becoming androgen independent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Bao; Dai, Chun-Mei; Su, Xiao-Yun; Cao, Lu; Qin, Rui; Kong, Qing-Bo

    2014-01-01

    To study the gene expression change and possible signal pathway during androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) becoming androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), an LNCaP cell model of AIPC was established using flutamide in combination with androgen-free environment inducement, and differential expression genes were screened by microarray. Then the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway of differential expression genes are analyzed by Molecule Annotation System (MAS). By comparison of 12,207 expression genes, 347 expression genes were acquired, of which 156 were up-ragulated and 191 down-regulated. After analyzing the biological process and molecule function of differential expression genes, these genes are found to play crucial roles in cell proliferation, differntiation, cell cycle control, protein metabolism and modification and other biological process, serve as signal molecules, enzymes, peptide hormones, cytokines, cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion molecules. The analysis of KEGG show that the relevant genes of AIPC transformation participate in glutathione metabolism, cell cycle, P53 signal pathway, cytochrome P450 metabolism, Hedgehog signal pathway, MAPK signal pathway, adipocytokines signal pathway, PPAR signal pathway, TGF-? signal pathway and JAK-STAT signal pathway. In conclusion, during the process of ADPC becoming AIPC, it is not only one specific gene or pathway, but multiple genes and pathways that change. The findings above lay the foundation for study of AIPC mechanism and development of AIPC targeting drugs. PMID:25520106

  20. The type I BMP receptors, Bmpr1a and Acvr1, activate multiple signaling pathways to regulate lens formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Ramya; Huang, Jie; Dattilo, Lisa K.; Kaartinen, Vesa; Mishina, Yuji; Deng, Chu-Xia; Umans, Lieve; Zwijsen, An; Roberts, Anita B.; Beebe, David C.

    2009-01-01

    BMPs play multiple roles in development and BMP signaling is essential for lens formation. However, the mechanisms by which BMP receptors function in vertebrate development are incompletely understood. To determine the downstream effectors of BMP signaling and their functions in the ectoderm that will form the lens, we deleted the genes encoding the type I BMP receptors, Bmpr1a and Acvr1, and the canonical transducers of BMP signaling, Smad4, Smad1 and Smad5. Bmpr1a and Acvr1 regulated cell survival and proliferation, respectively. Absence of both receptors interfered with the expression of proteins involved in normal lens development and prevented lens formation, demonstrating that BMPs induce lens formation by acting directly on the prospective lens ectoderm. Remarkably, the canonical Smad signaling pathway was not needed for most of these processes. Lens formation, placode cell proliferation, the expression of FoxE3, a lens-specific transcription factor, and the lens protein, ?A-crystallin were regulated by BMP receptors in a Smad-independent manner. Placode cell survival was promoted by R-Smad signaling, but in a manner that did not involve Smad4. Of the responses tested, only maintaining a high level of Sox2 protein, a transcription factor expressed early in placode formation, required the canonical Smad pathway. A key function of Smad-independent BMP receptor signaling may be reorganization of actin cytoskeleton to drive lens invagination. PMID:19733164

  1. The Afferent Visual Pathway: Designing a Structural-Functional Paradigm of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) believed to arise from a dysfunctional immune-mediated response in a genetically susceptible host. The actual cause of MS is not known, and there is ongoing debate about whether this CNS disorder is predominantly an inflammatory versus a degenerative condition. The afferent visual pathway (AVP) is frequently involved in MS, such that one in every five individuals affected presents with acute optic neuritis (ON). As a functionally eloquent system, the AVP is amenable to interrogation with highly reliable and reproducible tests that can be used to define a structural-functional paradigm of CNS injury. The AVP has numerous unique advantages as a clinical model of MS. In this review, the parameters and merits of the AVP model are highlighted. Moreover, the roles the AVP model may play in elucidating mechanisms of brain injury and repair in MS are described. PMID:24288622

  2. Independent sources of condition dependency and multiple pathways determine a composite trait: lessons from carotenoid-based plumage colouration.

    PubMed

    Romero-Diaz, C; Richner, H; Granado-Lorencio, F; Tschirren, B; Fitze, P S

    2013-03-01

    Many colour ornaments are composite traits consisting of at least four components, which themselves may be more complex, determined by independent evolutionary pathways, and potentially being under different environmental control. To date, little evidence exists that several different components of colour elaboration are condition dependent and no direct evidence exists that different ornamental components are affected by different sources of variation. For example, in carotenoid-based plumage colouration, one of the best-known condition-dependent ornaments, colour elaboration stems from both condition-dependent pigment concentration and structural components. Some environmental flexibility of these components has been suggested, but specifically which and how they are affected remains unknown. Here, we tested whether multiple colour components may be condition dependent, by using a comprehensive 3 2 experimental design, in which we carotenoid supplemented and immune challenged great tit nestlings (Parus major) and quantified effects on different components of colouration. Plumage colouration was affected by an interaction between carotenoid availability and immune challenge. Path analyses showed that carotenoid supplementation increased plumage saturation via feather carotenoid concentration and via mechanisms unrelated to carotenoid deposition, while immune challenge affected feather length, but not carotenoid concentration. Thus, independent condition-dependent pathways, affected by different sources of variation, determine colour elaboration. This provides opportunities for the evolution of multiple signals within components of ornamental traits. This finding indicates that the selective forces shaping the evolution of different components of a composite trait and the trait's signal content may be more complex than believed so far, and that holistic approaches are required for drawing comprehensive evolutionary conclusions. PMID:23331336

  3. Identifiability and estimation of multiple transmission pathways in cholera and waterborne disease.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marisa C; Robertson, Suzanne L; Tien, Joseph H

    2013-05-01

    Cholera and many waterborne diseases exhibit multiple characteristic timescales or pathways of infection, which can be modeled as direct and indirect transmission. A major public health issue for waterborne diseases involves understanding the modes of transmission in order to improve control and prevention strategies. An important epidemiological question is: given data for an outbreak, can we determine the role and relative importance of direct vs. environmental/waterborne routes of transmission? We examine whether parameters for a differential equation model of waterborne disease transmission dynamics can be identified, both in the ideal setting of noise-free data (structural identifiability) and in the more realistic setting in the presence of noise (practical identifiability). We used a differential algebra approach together with several numerical approaches, with a particular emphasis on identifiability of the transmission rates. To examine these issues in a practical public health context, we apply the model to a recent cholera outbreak in Angola (2006). Our results show that the model parameters-including both water and person-to-person transmission routes-are globally structurally identifiable, although they become unidentifiable when the environmental transmission timescale is fast. Even for water dynamics within the identifiable range, when noisy data are considered, only a combination of the water transmission parameters can practically be estimated. This makes the waterborne transmission parameters difficult to estimate, leading to inaccurate estimates of important epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0). However, measurements of pathogen persistence time in environmental water sources or measurements of pathogen concentration in the water can improve model identifiability and allow for more accurate estimation of waterborne transmission pathway parameters as well as R0. Parameter estimates for the Angola outbreak suggest that both transmission pathways are needed to explain the observed cholera dynamics. These results highlight the importance of incorporating environmental data when examining waterborne disease. PMID:23333764

  4. Hydrogen generation from alcohols catalyzed by ruthenium-triphenylphosphine complexes: multiple reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Bhl, Michael

    2010-06-16

    We report a comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) study of the mechanism of the methanol dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by [RuH(2)(H(2))(PPh(3))(3)]. Using the B97-D dispersion-corrected functional, four pathways have been fully characterized, which differ in the way the critical beta-hydrogen transfer step is brought about (e.g., by prior dissociation of one PPh(3) ligand). All these pathways are found to be competitive (DeltaG(++) = 27.0-32.1 kcal/mol at 150 degrees C) and strongly interlocked. The reaction can thus follow multiple reaction channels, a feature which is expected to be at the origin of the good kinetics of this system. Our results also point to the active role of PPh(3) ligands, which undergo significant conformational changes as the reaction occurs, and provide insights into the role of the base, which acts as a "co-catalyst" by facilitating proton transfers within active species. Activation barriers decrease on going from methanol to ethanol and 2-propanol substrates, in accord with experiment. PMID:20481632

  5. PARADIGM-SHIFT predicts the function of mutations in multiple cancers using pathway impact analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sam; Collisson, Eric A.; Sokolov, Artem; Goldstein, Theodore; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Benz, Christopher; Haussler, David; Stuart, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: A current challenge in understanding cancer processes is to pinpoint which mutations influence the onset and progression of disease. Toward this goal, we describe a method called PARADIGM-SHIFT that can predict whether a mutational event is neutral, gain-or loss-of-function in a tumor sample. The method uses a belief-propagation algorithm to infer gene activity from gene expression and copy number data in the context of a set of pathway interactions. Results: The method was found to be both sensitive and specific on a set of positive and negative controls for multiple cancers for which pathway information was available. Application to the Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma, ovarian and lung squamous cancer datasets revealed several novel mutations with predicted high impact including several genes mutated at low frequency suggesting the approach will be complementary to current approaches that rely on the prevalence of events to reach statistical significance. Availability: All source code is available at the github repository http:github.org/paradigmshift. Contact: jstuart@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22962493

  6. Estimating human exposure through multiple pathways from air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes a set of multipathway, multimedia models for estimating potential human exposure to environmental contaminants. The models link concentrations of an environmental contaminant in air, water, and soil to human exposure through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal-contact routes. The relationship between concentration of a contaminant in an environmental medium and human exposure is determined with pathway exposure factors (PEFs). A PEF is an algebraic expression that incorporates information on human physiology and lifestyle together with models of environmental partitioning and translates a concentration (i.e., mg/m3 in air, mg/liter in water, or mg/kg in soil) into a lifetime-equivalent chronic daily intake (CDI) in mg/kg-day. Human, animal, and environmental data used in calculating PEFs are presented and discussed. Generalized PEFs are derived for air-inhalation, air-ingesstion, water-inhalation, water-ingestion, water-dermal uptake, soil-inhalation, soil-ingestion, and soil-dermal uptake pathways. To illustrate the application of the PEF expressions, we apply them to soil-based contamination of multiple environmental media by arsenic, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  7. Angiogenic activity of sesamin through the activation of multiple signal pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Division of Food Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon ; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2010-01-01

    The natural product sesamin has been known to act as a potent antioxidant and prevent endothelial dysfunction. We here found that sesamin increased in vitro angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, as well as neovascularization in an animal model. This compound elicited the activation of multiple angiogenic signal modulators, such as ERK, Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NO production, FAK, and p38 MAPK, but not Src. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin specifically inhibited sesamin-induced activation of the ERK and Akt/eNOS pathways. These inhibitors reduced angiogenic events, with high specificity for MEK/ERK-dependent cell proliferation and migration and PI3K/Akt-mediated tube formation. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK effectively inhibited sesamin-induced cell migration. The angiogenic activity of sesamin was not associated with VEGF expression. Furthermore, this compound did not induce vascular permeability and upregulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, which are hallmarks of vascular inflammation. These results suggest that sesamin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of MEK/ERK-, PI3K/Akt/eNOS-, p125{sup FAK}-, and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways, without increasing vascular inflammation, and may be used for treating ischemic diseases and tissue regeneration.

  8. Multiple Signaling Pathways Contribute to the Thrombin-induced Secretory Phenotype in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Young; Son, Younghae; Kim, Bo-Young; Eo, Seong-Kug; Rhim, Byung-Yong; Kim, Koanhoi

    2015-11-01

    We attempted to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by determining signaling molecules involved in chemokine production. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) with thrombin resulted not only in elevated transcription of the (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) gene but also in enhanced secretion of CCL11 protein. Co-treatment of HAoSMCs with GF109230X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, or GW5074, an inhibitor of Raf-1 kinase, caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and significantly attenuated expression of CCL11 at transcriptional and protein levels induced by thrombin. Both Akt phosphorylation and CCL11 expression induced by thrombin were attenuated in the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi protein-coupled receptor, or LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In addition, thrombin-induced production of CCL11 was significantly attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Akt or MEK which phosphorylates ERK1/2. These results indicate that thrombin is likely to promote expression of CCL11 via PKC/Raf-1/ERK1/2 and PTX-sensitive protease-activated receptors/PI3K/Akt pathways in HAoSMCs. We propose that multiple signaling pathways are involved in change of VSMCs to a secretory phenotype. PMID:26557022

  9. Hesx1 enhances pluripotency by working downstream of multiple pluripotency-associated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Lin-Lin; Xue, Hong-Ni; Chen, Xi; Guo, Ze-Kun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-08-28

    Hesx1, a homeobox gene expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), has been implicated in the core transcription factors governing the pluripotent state. However, data about the underlying mechanism of how Hesx1 is involved in maintaining pluripotency is still scarce. In this study, we find Hesx1 responds to multiple pluripotency-related pathway inhibitors as well as LIF stimulation. Particularly, the expression of Hesx1 can be readily induced by dual inhibition (2i) of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Forced expression of Hesx1 can partially compensate for the withdrawal of either LIF or each component of 2i. We also demonstrate that LIF and each inhibitor of 2i can induce Hesx1 independent of one another. We tentatively put forward that Hesx1 is a common downstream target of LIF- and 2i-mediated self-renewal signaling pathways and plays an important role in maintaining ESC identity. Our study extends the methods of identifying the missing crucial factors in establishing ESC pluripotency. PMID:26188092

  10. Mechanisms for autophagy modulation by isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Kaitlyn M.; Allen, Cheryl; Born, Ella J.; Tong, Huaxiang; Holstein, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the production of monoclonal protein (MP). We have shown previously that disruption of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) causes a block in MP secretion through a disruption of Rab GTPase activity, leading to an enhanced unfolded protein response and subsequent apoptosis in MM cells. Autophagy is induced by cellular stressors including nutrient deprivation and ER stress. IBP inhibitors have been shown to have disparate effects on autophagy. Here we define the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of IBP inhibitors on autophagic flux in MM cells utilizing specific pharmacological inhibitors. We demonstrate that IBP inhibition induces a net increase in autophagy as a consequence of disruption of isoprenoid biosynthesis which is not recapitulated by direct geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. IBP inhibitor-induced autophagy is a cellular defense mechanism as treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 enhances the cytotoxic effects of GGPP depletion, but not geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that IBP inhibitors disrupt ER to Golgi trafficking of monoclonal light chain protein and that this protein is not a substrate for alternative degradative pathways such as aggresomes and autophagosomes. These studies support further development of specific GGTase II inhibitors as anti-myeloma agents. PMID:26595805

  11. The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halfon, M. S.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development. Previously, we showed that the zygotic Toll protein is necessary for normal muscle development; in the absence of zygotic Toll, close to 50% of hemisegments have muscle patterning defects consisting of missing, duplicated and misinserted muscle fibers (Halfon, M.S., Hashimoto, C., and Keshishian, H., Dev. Biol. 169, 151-167, 1995). We have now also analyzed the requirements for easter, spatzle, tube, and pelle, all of which function in the Toll-mediated dorsal-ventral patterning pathway. We find that spatzle, tube, and pelle, but not easter, are necessary for muscle development. Mutations in these genes give a phenotype identical to that seen in Toll mutants, suggesting that elements of the same pathway used for Toll signaling in dorsal-ventral development are used during muscle development. By expressing the Toll cDNA under the control of distinct Toll enhancer elements in Toll mutant flies, we have examined the spatial requirements for Toll expression during muscle development. Expression of Toll in a subset of epidermal cells that includes the epidermal muscle attachment cells, but not Toll expression in the musculature, is necessary for proper muscle development. Our results suggest that signals received by the epidermis early during muscle development are an important part of the muscle patterning process.

  12. Two zebrafish G2A homologs activate multiple intracellular signaling pathways in acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Yuta; Mochimaru, Yuta; Azuma, Morio; Satou, Kazuhiro; Negishi, Jun; Nakakura, Takashi; Oshima, Natsuki; Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Matsuda, Kouhei; Okajima, Fumikazu; Tomura, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Human G2A is activated by various stimuli such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), and protons. The receptor is coupled to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs-protein/cAMP/CRE, G12/13-protein/Rho/SRE, and Gq-protein/phospholipase C/NFAT pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebrafish G2A homologs (zG2A-a and zG2A-b) could respond to these stimuli and activate multiple intracellular signaling pathways. We also examined whether histidine residue and basic amino acid residue in the N-terminus of the homologs also play roles similar to those played by human G2A residues if the homologs sense protons. We found that the zG2A-a showed the high CRE, SRE, and NFAT activities, however, zG2A-b showed only the high SRE activity under a pH of 8.0. Extracellular acidification from pH 7.4 to 6.3 ameliorated these activities in zG2A-a-expressing cells. On the other hand, acidification ameliorated the SRE activity but not the CRE and NFAT activities in zG2A-b-expressing cells. LPC or 9-HODE did not modify any activity of either homolog. The substitution of histidine residue at the 174(th) position from the N-terminus of zG2A-a to asparagine residue attenuated proton-induced CRE and NFAT activities but not SRE activity. The substitution of arginine residue at the 32nd position from the N-terminus of zG2A-a to the alanine residue also attenuated its high and the proton-induced CRE and NFAT activities. On the contrary, the substitution did not attenuate SRE activity. The substitution of the arginine residue at the 10th position from the N-terminus of zG2A-b to the alanine residue also did not attenuate its high or the proton-induced SRE activity. These results indicate that zebrafish G2A homologs were activated by protons but not by LPC and 9-HODE, and the activation mechanisms of the homologs were similar to those of human G2A. PMID:26614909

  13. Multiple Episodes of Convergence in Genes of the Dim Light Vision Pathway in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong-Yi; Lim, Burton K.; Liu, He-Qun; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis of the evolution of phenotypic characters is very complex and is poorly understood with few examples documenting the roles of multiple genes. Considering that a single gene cannot fully explain the convergence of phenotypic characters, we choose to study the convergent evolution of rod vision in two divergent bats from a network perspective. The Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are non-echolocating and have binocular vision, whereas the sheath-tailed bats (Emballonuridae) are echolocating and have monocular vision; however, they both have relatively large eyes and rely more on rod vision to find food and navigate in the night. We found that the genes CRX, which plays an essential role in the differentiation of photoreceptor cells, SAG, which is involved in the desensitization of the photoactivated transduction cascade, and the photoreceptor gene RH, which is directly responsible for the perception of dim light, have undergone parallel sequence evolution in two divergent lineages of bats with larger eyes (Pteropodidae and Emballonuroidea). The multiple convergent events in the network of genes essential for rod vision is a rare phenomenon that illustrates the importance of investigating pathways and networks in the evolution of the molecular basis of phenotypic convergence. PMID:22509324

  14. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  15. Transcriptional Activation by NF-?B Requires Multiple Coactivators

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Kelly-Ann; Rose, David W.; Haque, Zaffar K.; Kurokawa, Riki; McInerney, Eileen; Westin, Stefan; Thanos, Dimitris; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Glass, Christopher K.; Collins, Tucker

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in inflammation and cell survival. In this report we demonstrate that NF-?B recruits a coactivator complex that has striking similarities to that recruited by nuclear receptors. Inactivation of either cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), members of the p160 family of coactivators, or the CBP-associated factor (p/CAF) by nuclear antibody microinjection prevents NF-?B-dependent transactivation. Like nuclear receptor-dependent gene expression, NF-?B-dependent gene expression requires specific LXXLL motifs in one of the p160 family members, and enhancement of NF-?B activity requires the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p/CAF but not that of CBP. This coactivator complex is differentially recruited by members of the Rel family. The p50 homodimer fails to recruit coactivators, although the p50-p65 heterodimeric form of the transcription factor assembles the integrator complex. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into how this family of dimeric transcription factors has a differential effect on gene expression. PMID:10454583

  16. The WRKY45-Dependent Signaling Pathway Is Required For Resistance against Striga hermonthica Parasitism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoko; Takahashi, Akira; Seo, Mitsunori

    2015-01-01

    The root hemiparasite witchweed (Striga spp.) is a devastating agricultural pest that causes losses of up to $1 billion US annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of resistant crops is one of the cost-effective ways to address this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance are not well understood. To understand molecular events upon Striga spp. infection, we conducted genome-scale RNA sequencing expression analysis using Striga hermonthica-infected rice (Oryza sativa) roots. We found that transcripts grouped under the Gene Ontology term defense response were significantly enriched in up-regulated differentially expressed genes. In particular, we found that both jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathways were induced, but the induction of the JA pathway preceded that of the SA pathway. Foliar application of JA resulted in higher resistance. The hebiba mutant plants, which lack the JA biosynthesis gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE, exhibited severe S. hermonthica susceptibility. The resistant phenotype was recovered by application of JA. By contrast, the SA-deficient NahG rice plants were resistant against S. hermonthica, indicating that endogenous SA is not required for resistance. However, knocking down WRKY45, a regulator of the SA/benzothiadiazole pathway, resulted in enhanced susceptibility. Interestingly, NahG plants induced the JA pathway, which was down-regulated in WRKY45-knockdown plants, linking the resistant and susceptible phenotypes to the JA pathway. Consistently, the susceptibility phenotype in the WRKY45-knockdown plants was recovered by foliar JA application. These results point to a model in which WRKY45 modulates a cross talk in resistance against S. hermonthica by positively regulating both SA/benzothiadiazole and JA pathways. PMID:26025049

  17. Multiple gustatory receptors required for the caffeine response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngseok; Moon, Seok Jun; Montell, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The ability of insects to detect and avoid ingesting naturally occurring repellents and insecticides is essential for their survival. Nevertheless, the gustatory receptors enabling them to sense toxic botanical compounds are largely unknown. The only insect gustatory receptor shown to be required for avoiding noxious compounds is the Drosophila caffeine receptor, Gr66a. However, this receptor is not sufficient for the caffeine response, suggesting that Gr66a may be a subunit of a larger receptor. Here, we report that mutations in the gene encoding the gustatory receptor, Gr93a, result in a phenotype identical to that caused by mutations in Gr66a. This includes an inability to avoid caffeine or the related methylxanthine present in tea, theophylline. Caffeine-induced action potentials were also eliminated in Gr93a-mutant animals, while the flies displayed normal responses to other aversive compounds or to sugars. The Gr93a protein was coexpressed with Gr66a in avoidance-gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), and functioned in the same GRNs as Gr66a. However, misexpression of both receptors in GRNs that normally do not express either Gr93a or Gr66a does not confer caffeine sensitivity to these GRNs. Because Gr93a- and Gr66a-mutant animals exhibit the identical phenotypes and function in the same cells, we propose that they may be caffeine coreceptors. In contrast to mammalian and Drosophila olfactory receptors and mammalian taste receptors, which are monomeric or dimeric receptors, we propose that Drosophila taste receptors that function in avoidance of bitter compounds are more complex and require additional subunits that remain to be identified. PMID:19246397

  18. Requirements of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Delphine G; Netz, Daili J A; Lagny, Thibaut J; Pierik, Antonio J; Balk, Janneke

    2013-07-19

    The assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters requires dedicated protein factors inside the living cell. Striking similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic assembly proteins suggest that plant cells inherited two different pathways through endosymbiosis: the ISC pathway in mitochondria and the SUF pathway in plastids. Fe-S proteins are also found in the cytosol and nucleus, but little is known about how they are assembled in plant cells. Here, we show that neither plastid assembly proteins nor the cytosolic cysteine desulfurase ABA3 are required for the activity of cytosolic aconitase, which depends on a [4Fe-4S] cluster. In contrast, cytosolic aconitase activity depended on the mitochondrial cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and the mitochondrial transporter ATM3. In addition, we were able to complement a yeast mutant in the cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly pathway, dre2, with the Arabidopsis homologue AtDRE2, but only when expressed together with the diflavin reductase AtTAH18. Spectroscopic characterization showed that purified AtDRE2 could bind up to two Fe-S clusters. Purified AtTAH18 bound one flavin per molecule and was able to accept electrons from NAD(P)H. These results suggest that the proteins involved in cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly are highly conserved, and that dependence on the mitochondria arose before the second endosymbiosis event leading to plastids. PMID:23754812

  19. Requirements of the cytosolic ironsulfur cluster assembly pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Delphine G.; Netz, Daili J. A.; Lagny, Thibaut J.; Pierik, Antonio J.; Balk, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of ironsulfur (FeS) clusters requires dedicated protein factors inside the living cell. Striking similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic assembly proteins suggest that plant cells inherited two different pathways through endosymbiosis: the ISC pathway in mitochondria and the SUF pathway in plastids. FeS proteins are also found in the cytosol and nucleus, but little is known about how they are assembled in plant cells. Here, we show that neither plastid assembly proteins nor the cytosolic cysteine desulfurase ABA3 are required for the activity of cytosolic aconitase, which depends on a [4Fe4S] cluster. In contrast, cytosolic aconitase activity depended on the mitochondrial cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and the mitochondrial transporter ATM3. In addition, we were able to complement a yeast mutant in the cytosolic FeS cluster assembly pathway, dre2, with the Arabidopsis homologue AtDRE2, but only when expressed together with the diflavin reductase AtTAH18. Spectroscopic characterization showed that purified AtDRE2 could bind up to two FeS clusters. Purified AtTAH18 bound one flavin per molecule and was able to accept electrons from NAD(P)H. These results suggest that the proteins involved in cytosolic FeS cluster assembly are highly conserved, and that dependence on the mitochondria arose before the second endosymbiosis event leading to plastids. PMID:23754812

  20. The Drosophila p38 MAPK pathway is required during oogenesis for egg asymmetric development.

    PubMed

    Suzanne, M; Irie, K; Glise, B; Agns, F; Mori, E; Matsumoto, K; Noselli, S

    1999-06-01

    In mammalian cells, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated in response to a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory stimuli. However, the role of p38 MAPK signaling in unchallenged conditions remains largely unknown. We have isolated mutations in a Drosophila p38 MAPKK gene homolog, licorne (lic), and show that during oogenesis, lic is required in the germ line for correct asymmetric development of the egg. In lic mutant egg chambers, oskar mRNA posterior localization is not properly maintained, resulting in anteroposterior patterning defects in the embryo. Furthermore, lic loss-of-function in the germ line leads to reduced EGF receptor activity in dorsal follicle cells and ventralization of the egg shell. Both these defects are associated with a diminution of gurken protein levels in the oocyte. Our phenotypic data argue for a role of lic in a post-transcriptional regulation of the grk gene. Furthermore, they show that in addition to the well-characterized Ras/Raf/ERK MAPK pathway acting in the follicle cells, another related signaling cascade, the p38 MAPK pathway, is required in the germ line for correct axes determination. These results provide the first genetic demonstration of an essential function for a p38 pathway during development. PMID:10364162

  1. The Drosophila p38 MAPK pathway is required during oogenesis for egg asymmetric development

    PubMed Central

    Suzanne, Magali; Irie, Kenji; Glise, Bruno; Agns, Franois; Mori, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Noselli, Stphane

    1999-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated in response to a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory stimuli. However, the role of p38 MAPK signaling in unchallenged conditions remains largely unknown. We have isolated mutations in a Drosophila p38 MAPKK gene homolog, licorne (lic), and show that during oogenesis, lic is required in the germ line for correct asymmetric development of the egg. In lic mutant egg chambers, oskar mRNA posterior localization is not properly maintained, resulting in anteroposterior patterning defects in the embryo. Furthermore, lic loss-of-function in the germ line leads to reduced EGF receptor activity in dorsal follicle cells and ventralization of the egg shell. Both these defects are associated with a diminution of gurken protein levels in the oocyte. Our phenotypic data argue for a role of lic in a post-transcriptional regulation of the grk gene. Furthermore, they show that in addition to the well-characterized Ras/Raf/ERK MAPK pathway acting in the follicle cells, another related signaling cascade, the p38 MAPK pathway, is required in the germ line for correct axes determination. These results provide the first genetic demonstration of an essential function for a p38 pathway during development. PMID:10364162

  2. Pim2 is required for maintaining multiple myeloma cell growth through modulating TSC2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Zavorotinskaya, Tatiana; Dai, Yumin; Niu, Xiao-Hong; Castillo, Joseph; Sim, Janet; Yu, Jianjun; Wang, Yingyun; Langowski, John L.; Holash, Jocelyn; Shannon, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy. Despite recent treatment advances, it remains incurable. Here, we report that Pim2 kinase expression is highly elevated in MM cells and demonstrate that it is required for MM cell proliferation. Functional interference of Pim2 activity either by short hairpin RNAs or by a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor leads to significant inhibition of MM cell proliferation. Pim inhibition results in a significant decrease of mammalian target of rapamycin C1 (mTOR-C1) activity, which is critical for cell proliferation. We identify TSC2, a negative regulator of mTOR-C1, as a novel Pim2 substrate and show that Pim2 directly phosphorylates TSC2 on Ser-1798 and relieves the suppression of TSC2 on mTOR-C1. These findings support Pim2 as a promising therapeutic target for MM and define a novel Pim2-TSC2-mTOR-C1 pathway that drives MM proliferation. PMID:23818547

  3. Multiple Forms of Plant Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Associated with Different Metabolic Pathways 1

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Irwin P.; Osmond, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The physical and kinetic properties of multiple forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were studied in leaves of C4 and C3 species, their F1 and F3 hybrids, in greening maize leaves, in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants, and in nongreen root tissues. Four different forms are suggested: a C4 photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with high Km for phosphoenolpyruvate (?0.59 mm), Km Mg (?0.5 mm), and Vmax (?29 micromoles per minute per milligram of chlorophyll); a C3 photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with low Km for phosphoenolpyruvate (?0.14 mm), Km for Mg (?0.097 mm), and Vmax (1.5); a Crassulacean acid metabolism type with low Km for phosphoenolpyruvate (0.14 mm), and high Vmax (14 micromoles per minute per milligram of chlorophyll); and a nongreen or nonautotrophic type with low Km for phosphoenolpyruvate, Km for Mg, and low Vmax. In closely related species or within species, the types can be differentiated by anion exchange column chromatography. Each of the four forms is associated with a different metabolic pathway: the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of C4 species for malate generation as a photosynthetic intermediate, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of C3 species in malate generation as a photosynthetic product, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Crassulacean acid metabolism species in malate generation as a CO2 donor for photosynthesis during the subsequent light period, and a nongreen or root type producing malate for ionic balance and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate generation. The data in this paper in conjunction with published information support the notion of different molecular forms of a protein functioning in different metabolic pathways which have common enzymic steps. PMID:16658349

  4. Pathways targeted by antidiabetes drugs are enriched for multiple genes associated with type 2 diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Segr, Ayellet V; Wei, Nancy; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered >65 common variants associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, their relevance for drug development is not yet clear. Of note, the first two T2D-associated loci (PPARG and KCNJ11/ABCC8) encode known targets of antidiabetes medications. We therefore tested whether other genes/pathways targeted by antidiabetes drugs are associated with T2D. We compiled a list of 102 genes in pathways targeted by marketed antidiabetic medications and applied Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (MAGENTA [Meta-Analysis Gene-set Enrichment of variaNT Associations]) to this gene set, using available GWAS meta-analyses for T2D and seven quantitative glycemic traits. We detected a strong enrichment of drug target genes associated with T2D (P = 2 10(-5); 14 potential new associations), primarily driven by insulin and thiazolidinedione (TZD) targets, which was replicated in an independent meta-analysis (Metabochip). The glycemic traits yielded no enrichment. The T2D enrichment signal was largely due to multiple genes of modest effects (P = 4 10(-4), after removing known loci), highlighting new associations for follow-up (ACSL1, NFKB1, SLC2A2, incretin targets). Furthermore, we found that TZD targets were enriched for LDL cholesterol associations, illustrating the utility of this approach in identifying potential side effects. These results highlight the potential biomedical relevance of genes revealed by GWAS and may provide new avenues for tailored therapy and T2D treatment design. PMID:25368101

  5. Beclin 1 Is Required for Neuron Viability and Regulates Endosome Pathways via the UVRAG-VPS34 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wold, Mitchell S.; Gong, Shiaoching; Phillips, Greg R.; Dou, Zhixun; Zhao, Yanxiang; Heintz, Nathaniel; Zong, Wei-Xing; Yue, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of autophagy protein beclin 1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Previous studies showed that Beclin 1 coordinates the assembly of multiple VPS34 complexes whose distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase III (PI3K-III) lipid kinase activities regulate autophagy at different steps. Recent evidence suggests a function of beclin 1 in regulating multiple VPS34-mediated trafficking pathways beyond autophagy; however, the precise role of beclin 1 in autophagy-independent cellular functions remains poorly understood. Herein we report that beclin 1 regulates endocytosis, in addition to autophagy, and is required for neuron viability in vivo. We find that neuronal beclin 1 associates with endosomes and regulates EEA1/early endosome localization and late endosome formation. Beclin 1 maintains proper cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) distribution and total levels, and loss of beclin 1 causes a disruption of active Rab5 GTPase-associated endosome formation and impairment of endosome maturation, likely due to a failure of Rab5 to recruit VPS34. Furthermore, we find that Beclin 1 deficiency causes complete loss of the UVRAG-VPS34 complex and associated lipid kinase activity. Interestingly, beclin 1 deficiency impairs p40phox-linked endosome formation, which is rescued by overexpressed UVRAG or beclin 1, but not by a coiled-coil domain-truncated beclin 1 (a UVRAG-binding mutant), Atg14L or RUBICON. Thus, our study reveals the essential role for beclin 1 in neuron survival involving multiple membrane trafficking pathways including endocytosis and autophagy, and suggests that the UVRAG-beclin 1 interaction underlies beclin 1's function in endocytosis. PMID:25275521

  6. Multiple pathways to the same end: Mechanisms of myonuclear apoptosis in sarcopenia of aging

    PubMed Central

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Privitera, Giuseppe; Simili, Vincenzo; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E.; Aulisa, Lorenzo; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass and function, represents a significant health issue due to the high prevalence of frailty and disability associated with this condition. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the loss of muscle mass in old age are still largely unknown. An altered regulation of myocyte apoptosis has recently emerged as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. Studies in animal models have shown that the severity of skeletal muscle apoptosis increases over the course of aging and correlates with the degree of muscle mass and strength decline. Several apoptotic pathways are operative in aged muscles, with the mitochondria- and TNF-?-mediated pathways likely being the most relevant to sarcopenia. However, despite the growing number of studies on the subject, a definite mechanistic link between myocyte apoptosis and age-related muscle atrophy has not yet been established. Furthermore, the evidence on the role played by apoptosis in human sarcopenia is still sparse. Clearly, further research is required to better define the involvement of myocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of muscle loss at advanced age. This knowledge will likely help in the design of more effective therapeutic strategies to preserve muscle mass into old age, thus fostering independence of the elderly population and reducing the socioeconomic burden associated with sarcopenia. PMID:20191247

  7. Defects in the Secretory Pathway and High Ca2+ Induce Multiple P-bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kilchert, Cornelia; Weidner, Julie; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    mRNA is sequestered and turned over in cytoplasmic processing bodies (PBs), which are induced by various cellular stresses. Unexpectedly, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutants of the small GTPase Arf1 and various secretory pathway mutants induced a significant increase in PB number, compared with PB induction by starvation or oxidative stress. Exposure of wild-type cells to osmotic stress or high extracellular Ca2+ mimicked this increase in PB number. Conversely, intracellular Ca2+-depletion strongly reduced PB formation in the secretory mutants. In contrast to PB induction through starvation or osmotic stress, PB formation in secretory mutants and by Ca2+ required the PB components Pat1 and Scd6, and calmodulin, indicating that different stressors act through distinct pathways. Consistent with this hypothesis, when stresses were combined, PB number did not correlate with the strength of the translational block, but rather with the type of stress encountered. Interestingly, independent of the stressor, PBs appear as spheres of ?40100 nm connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consistent with the idea that translation and silencing/degradation occur in a spatially coordinated manner at the ER. We propose that PB assembly in response to stress occurs at the ER and depends on intracellular signals that regulate PB number. PMID:20519435

  8. Genetic Variation in the IL7RA/IL7 Pathway Increases Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zuvich, Rebecca L.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Sawcer, Stephen J.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aubin, Cristin; Cross, Anne H.; Piccio, Laura; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Evans, Denis; Hafler, David A.; Compston, Alastair; Hauser, Stephen L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized as an autoimmune demyelinating disease. Numerous family studies have confirmed a strong genetic component underlying its etiology. After several decades of frustrating research, the advent and application of affordable genotyping of dense SNP maps in large datasets has ushered in a new era in which rapid progress is being made in our understanding of the genetics underlying many complex traits. For MS, one of the first discoveries to emerge in this new era was the association with rs6897932[T244I] in the interleukin-7 receptor alpha chain (IL7RA) gene (Gregory et al. 2007; International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium 2007; Lundmark 2007), a discovery that was accompanied by functional data that suggest this variant is likely to be causative rather than a surrogate proxy (Gregory et al. 2007). We hypothesized that variations in other genes functionally related to IL7RA might also influence MS. We investigated this hypothesis by examining genes in the extended biological pathway related to IL7RA to identify novel associations. We identified 73 genes with putative functional relationships to IL7RA and subsequently genotyped 7,865 SNPs in and around these genes using an Illumina Infinium BeadChip assay. Using 2,961 case-control dataset, two of the gene regions examined, IL7 and SOCS1, had significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that further replicated in an independent case-control dataset (4,831 samples) with joint p-values as high as 8.2910-6 and 3.4810-7, respectively, exceeding the threshold for experiment-wise significance. Our results also implicate two additional novel gene regions that are likely to be associated with MS: PRKCE with p-values reaching 3.4710-4 and BCL2 with p-values reaching 4.3210-4. The TYK2 gene, which also emerged in our analysis, has recently been associated with MS (Ban et al. 2009). These results help to further delineate the genetic architecture of MS and validate our pathway approach as an effective method to identify novel associations in a complex disease. PMID:20112030

  9. Potential role of multiple carbon fixation pathways during lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a unicellular diatom in the class Bacillariophyceae. The full genome has been sequenced (<30?Mb), and approximately 20 to 30% triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation on a dry cell basis has been reported under different growth conditions. To elucidate P. tricornutum gene expression profiles during nutrient-deprivation and lipid-accumulation, cell cultures were grown with a nitrate to phosphate ratio of 20:1 (N:P) and whole-genome transcripts were monitored over time via RNA-sequence determination. Results The specific Nile Red (NR) fluorescence (NR fluorescence per cell) increased over time; however, the increase in NR fluorescence was initiated before external nitrate was completely exhausted. Exogenous phosphate was depleted before nitrate, and these results indicated that the depletion of exogenous phosphate might be an early trigger for lipid accumulation that is magnified upon nitrate depletion. As expected, many of the genes associated with nitrate and phosphate utilization were up-expressed. The diatom-specific cyclins cyc7 and cyc10 were down-expressed during the nutrient-deplete state, and cyclin B1 was up-expressed during lipid-accumulation after growth cessation. While many of the genes associated with the C3 pathway for photosynthetic carbon reduction were not significantly altered, genes involved in a putative C4 pathway for photosynthetic carbon assimilation were up-expressed as the cells depleted nitrate, phosphate, and exogenous dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels. P. tricornutum has multiple, putative carbonic anhydrases, but only two were significantly up-expressed (2-fold and 4-fold) at the last time point when exogenous DIC levels had increased after the cessation of growth. Alternative pathways that could utilize HCO3- were also suggested by the gene expression profiles (e.g., putative propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylases). Conclusions The results indicate that P. tricornutum continued carbon dioxide reduction when population growth was arrested and different carbon-concentrating mechanisms were used dependent upon exogenous DIC levels. Based upon overall low gene expression levels for fatty acid synthesis, the results also suggest that the build-up of precursors to the acetyl-CoA carboxylases may play a more significant role in TAG synthesis rather than the actual enzyme levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylases per se. The presented insights into the types and timing of cellular responses to inorganic carbon will help maximize photoautotrophic carbon flow to lipid accumulation. PMID:22672912

  10. Syk regulates multiple signaling pathways leading to CX3CL1 chemotaxis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Haein; Cox, Dianne

    2011-04-29

    Several studies have clearly established the importance of the interaction between macrophages and CX3CL1 in the progression of disease. A previous study demonstrated that Syk was required for CX3CL1-mediated actin polymerization and chemotaxis. Here, we delineated the signaling cascade of Syk-mediated cell migration in response to CX3CL1. Inhibition of Syk in bone marrow-derived macrophages or reduction of Syk expression using siRNA in RAW/LR5 cells indicated that Syk was required for the activation of PI3K, Cdc42, and Rac1. Also, reduction in WASP or WAVE2 levels, common downstream effectors of Cdc42 or Rac1, resulted in impaired cell migration to CX3CL1. Syk indirectly regulated WASP tyrosine phosphorylation through Cdc42 activation. Altogether, our data identify that Syk mediated chemotaxis toward CX3CL1 by regulating both Rac1/WAVE2 and Cdc42/WASP pathways, whereas Src family kinases were required for proper WASP tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:21388954

  11. The Toll/NF-κB signaling pathway is required for epidermal wound repair in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The Toll/NF-κB pathway, first identified in studies of dorsal-ventral polarity in the early Drosophila embryo, is well known for its role in the innate immune response. Here, we reveal that the Toll/NF-κB pathway is essential for wound closure in late Drosophila embryos. Toll mutants and Dif dorsal (NF-κB) double mutants are unable to repair epidermal gaps. Dorsal is activated on wounding, and Dif and Dorsal are required for the sustained down-regulation of E-cadherin, an obligatory component of the adherens junctions (AJs), at the wound edge. This remodeling of the AJs promotes the assembly of an actin-myosin cable at the wound margin; contraction of the actin cable, in turn, closes the wound. In the absence of Toll or Dif and dorsal (dl), both E-cadherin down-regulation and actin-cable formation fail, thus resulting in open epidermal gaps. Given the conservation of the Toll/NF-κB pathway in mammals and the epithelial expression of many components of the pathway, this function in wound healing is likely to be conserved in vertebrates. PMID:25427801

  12. Effective connectivity during processing of facial affect: evidence for multiple parallel pathways.

    PubMed

    Dima, Danai; Stephan, Klaas E; Roiser, Jonathan P; Friston, Karl J; Frangou, Sophia

    2011-10-01

    The perception of facial affect engages a distributed cortical network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling to characterize effective connectivity during explicit (conscious) categorization of affective stimuli in the human brain. Specifically, we examined the modulation of connectivity from posterior regions of the face-processing network to the lateral ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) during affective categorization and we tested for a potential role of the amygdala (AMG) in mediating this modulation. We found that explicit processing of facial affect led to prominent modulation (increase) in the effective connectivity from the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) to the VPFC, while there was less evidence for modulation of the afferent connections from fusiform gyrus and AMG to VPFC. More specifically, the forward connection from IOG to the VPFC exhibited a selective increase under anger (as opposed to fear or sadness). Furthermore, Bayesian model comparison suggested that the modulation of afferent connections to the VPFC was mediated directly by facial affect, as opposed to an indirect modulation mediated by the AMG. Our results thus suggest that affective information is conveyed to the VPFC along multiple parallel pathways and that AMG activity is not sufficient to account for the gating of information transfer to the VPFC during explicit emotional processing. PMID:21976523

  13. Massive parallel IGHV gene sequencing reveals a germinal center pathway in origins of human multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Dean; Seckinger, Anja; Hose, Dirk; Zojer, Niklas; Sahota, Surinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Human multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by accumulation of malignant terminally differentiated plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM), raising the question when during maturation neoplastic transformation begins. Immunoglobulin IGHV genes carry imprints of clonal tumor history, delineating somatic hypermutation (SHM) events that generally occur in the germinal center (GC). Here, we examine MM-derived IGHV genes using massive parallel deep sequencing, comparing them with profiles in normal BM PCs. In 4/4 presentation IgG MM, monoclonal tumor-derived IGHV sequences revealed significant evidence for intraclonal variation (ICV) in mutation patterns. IGHV sequences of 2/2 normal PC IgG populations revealed dominant oligoclonal expansions, each expansion also displaying mutational ICV. Clonal expansions in MM and in normal BM PCs reveal common IGHV features. In such MM, the data fit a model of tumor origins in which neoplastic transformation is initiated in a GC B-cell committed to terminal differentiation but still targeted by on-going SHM. Strikingly, the data parallel IGHV clonal sequences in some monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) known to display on-going SHM imprints. Since MGUS generally precedes MM, these data suggest origins of MGUS and MM with IGHV gene mutational ICV from the same GC B-cell, arising via a distinctive pathway. PMID:25929340

  14. The G alpha i homologue gna-1 controls multiple differentiation pathways in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, F D; Hodge, P N; Turner, G E; Borkovich, K A

    1996-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are components of principal signaling pathways in eukaryotes. In higher organisms, alpha subunits of G proteins have been divided into four families, Gi, Gs, Gq, and G12. We previously identified a G alpha i homologue gna-1 in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Now we report that deletion of gna-1 leads to multiple phenotypes during the vegetative and sexual cycles in N. crassa. On solid medium, delta gna-1 strains have a slower rate of hyphal apical extension than wild type, a rate that is more pronounced under hyperosmotic conditions or in the presence of a cellophane overlay. delta gna-1 mutants accumulate less mass than wild-type strains, and their mass accumulation is not affected in the same way by exposure to light. delta gna-1 strains are defective in macroconidiation, possessing aerial hyphae that are shorter, contain abnormal swellings, and differentiate adherent macroconidia. During the sexual cycle, delta gna-1 strains are fertile as males. However, the mutants are female-sterile, producing small, aberrant female reproductive structures. After fertilization, delta gna-1 female structures do not enlarge and develop normally, and no sexual spores are produced. Thus, mutation of gna-1 results in sex-specific loss of fertility. Images PMID:8856670

  15. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I.; Kopylov, Alexei M.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Golovin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4?s in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. PMID:21893589

  16. Identification of multiple pathways involved in the malignant transformation of endometriosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HIGASHIURA, YUMI; KAJIHARA, HIROTAKA; SHIGETOMI, HIROSHI; KOBAYASHI, HIROSHI

    2012-01-01

    The association between endometriosis and malignant transformation has often been described in the medical literature. A search was conducted between 1966 and 2010 through the English language literature (online Medline PubMed database) using the keywords endometriosis combined with malignant transformation. The search revealed an increase in reports describing endometriosis and malignancy. Approximately 1.0% of women with endometriosis have lesions that undergo malignant transformation. The malignant processes that are associated with endometriosis may be classified into three groups: i) epithelial ovarian cancers (endometrioid adenocarcinoma and clear cell carcinoma), ii) other Mllerian-type tumors, including Mllerian-type mucinous borderline tumor and serous borderline tumor and iii) sarcomas such as adenosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma in the female pelvic cavity. Persistent oxidative stress induced by endometriosis-dependent hemorrhage may be associated with carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the malignant transformation of endometriosis has multiple pathways of development and may share a common pathogenic mechanism; iron-induced oxidative stress derived from repeated hemorrhage. PMID:22807950

  17. Membrane proteins follow multiple pathways to the basolateral cell surface in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Glen A.; Hull, Michael; Mellman, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized apical and basolateral membrane proteins are sorted from one another in polarized epithelial cells. The trans-Golgi network participates in this sorting process, but some basolateral proteins travel from the Golgi to recycling endosomes (REs) before their surface delivery. Using a novel system for pulsechase microscopy, we have visualized the postsynthetic route pursued by a newly synthesized cohort of Na,K-ATPase. We find that the basolateral delivery of newly synthesized Na,K-ATPase occurs via a pathway distinct from that pursued by the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Na,K-ATPase surface delivery occurs at a faster rate than that observed for VSV-G. The Na,K-ATPase does not pass through the RE compartment en route to the plasma membrane, and Na,K-ATPase trafficking is not regulated by the same small GTPases as other basolateral proteins. Finally, Na,K-ATPase and VSV-G travel in separate post-Golgi transport intermediates, demonstrating directly that multiple routes exist for transport from the Golgi to the basolateral membrane in polarized epithelial cells. PMID:19620635

  18. Multiple signaling pathways regulate the transcriptional activity of the orphan nuclear receptor NURR1

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Paola; Carpentier, Rodolphe; Ségard, Pascaline; Olivé-Cren, Cécile; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor nurr1 (NR4A2) is an essential transcription factor for the acquisition and maintenance of the phenotype of dopamine (DA)-synthesizing neurons in the mesencephalon. Although structurally related to ligand-regulated nuclear receptors, nurr1 is functionally atypical due to its inability to bind a cognate ligand and to activate transcription following canonical nuclear receptor (NR) rules. Importantly, the physiological stimuli that activate this NR and the signaling proteins that regulate its transcriptional activity in mesencephalic neurons are unknown. We used an affinity chromatography approach and CSM14.1 cells of mesencephalic origin to isolate and identify several proteins that interact directly with nurr1 and regulate its transcriptional activity. Notably, we demonstrate that the mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK2 and ERK5, elevate, whereas LIM Kinase 1 inhibits nurr1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, nurr1 recruits ERK5 to a NBRE-containing promoter and is a potential substrate for this kinase. We have identified amino acids in the A/B domain of nurr1 important for mediating the ERK5 activating effects on nurr1 transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that nurr1 acts as a point of convergence for multiple signaling pathways that likely play a critical role in differentiation and phenotypic expression of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. PMID:17020917

  19. Reconciling the role of organic matter pathways in aquatic food webs by measuring multiple tracers in individuals.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Woods, Ryan; Marshall, Jonathan; Fawcetr, James; Lobegeiger, Jaye; Valdez, Dominic; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    Few studies measure multiple ecological tracers in individual organisms, thus limiting our ability to differentiate among organic matter source pathways and understand consequences of dietary variation and the use of external subsidies in complex food webs. We combined two tracers, stable isotope (SI) ratios and fatty acids (FA), to investigate linkages among ecological compartments (water column, benthos, riparian zone) in food webs in waterholes of a dryland river network, the Border Rivers in southwestern Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive analyses of sources (plankton, periphyton, leaf litter, riparian grasses) and animals (benthic insects, mollusks, large crustaceans, fishes) for SI and FA showed that all three zones contribute to animal biomass, depending on species and life stage. Large fishes derived a subsidy from the riparian/floodplain zone, likely through the consumption of terrestrial and semi-aquatic insects and prawns that fed on detritivorous insects. Importantly, post-larval bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) were tightly connected to the water column, as evidenced by 13C-depleted, 15N-enriched isotope ratios and a high content of plankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:53] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6003]). These observations were consistent with expectations from nutritional requirements of fish early life stages and habitat changes associated with maturity. These results highlight the importance of high-quality foods during early development of fishes, and show that attempting to attribute food-web production to a single source pathway overlooks important but often subtle subsidies that maintain viable populations. A complete understanding of food-web dynamics must consider both quantity and quality of different available organic matter sources. This understanding can be achieved with a combined SI and FA approach, but more controlled dietary studies are needed to estimate how FA profiles are modified by animals when consuming a diverse range of diets of variable quality. PMID:26909431

  20. 12 CFR 1010.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisions of 12 CFR 1010.4(b) and (c) and the sales practices and standards in 1011.10 through 1011.28... REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) General Requirements 1010.15 Regulatory exemptionmultiple site...

  1. 76 FR 14548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to Multiple-Award Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to Multiple-Award Contracts AGENCIES... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement section 863 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense... simplified acquisition threshold does not follow the section 863 competitive procedures, section 863...

  2. Polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase enables neurogenesis via multiple DNA repair pathways to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Mikio; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase (PNKP) is a DNA repair factor possessing both 5'-kinase and 3'-phosphatase activities to modify ends of a DNA break prior to ligation. Recently, decreased PNKP levels were identified as the cause of severe neuropathology present in the human microcephaly with seizures (MCSZ) syndrome. Utilizing novel murine Pnkp alleles that attenuate expression and a T424GfsX48 frame-shift allele identified in MCSZ individuals, we determined how PNKP inactivation impacts neurogenesis. Mice with PNKP inactivation in neural progenitors manifest neurodevelopmental abnormalities and postnatal death. This severe phenotype involved defective base excision repair and non-homologous end-joining, pathways required for repair of both DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Although mice homozygous for the T424GfsX48 allele were lethal embryonically, attenuated PNKP levels (akin to MCSZ) showed general neurodevelopmental defects, including microcephaly, indicating a critical developmental PNKP threshold. Directed postnatal neural inactivation of PNKP affected specific subpopulations including oligodendrocytes, indicating a broad requirement for genome maintenance, both during and after neurogenesis. These data illuminate the basis for selective neural vulnerability in DNA repair deficiency disease. PMID:26290337

  3. The Major Cellular Sterol Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Andes Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Riblett, Amber M.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D.; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W.; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection. PMID:24516383

  4. Multiple innate signaling pathways cooperate with CD40 to induce potent, CD70-dependent cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Jennifer A; Sanchez, Phillip J; Haluszczak, Catherine; Gapin, Laurent; Kedl, Ross M

    2010-02-10

    We have previously shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists cooperate with CD40 to generate CD8 T cell responses exponentially larger than the responses generated with traditional vaccine formulations. We have also shown that combined TLR agonist/anti-CD40 immunization uniquely induces the upregulation of CD70 on antigen bearing dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, immunization with either a TLR agonist or a CD40 stimulus alone does not significantly increase CD70 expression on DCs. Furthermore, the CD8(+) T cell response generated by combined TLR agonist/anti-CD40 immunization is dependent on the expression of CD70 by DCs, as CD70 blockade following immunization dramatically decreases the CD8 T cell response. Here we show that other innate pathways, independent of the TLRs, can also cooperate with CD40 to induce potent, CD70 dependent, CD8 T cell responses. These innate stimuli include Type I IFN (IFN) and alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) or aC-GalCer, glycolipids that are presented by a nonclassical class I MHC molecule, CD1d, and are able to activate NKT cells. Furthermore, this combined IFN/anti-CD40 immunization generates protective memory against bacterial challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Together these data indicate the importance of assessing CD70 expression on DCs as a marker for the capacity of a given vaccine formulation to potently activate cellular immunity. Our data indicate that optimal induction of CD70 expression requires a coordinated stimulation of both innate (TLR, IFN, alphaGalCer) and adaptive (CD40) signaling pathways. PMID:19995538

  5. Theoretical Tracking of Resonance-Enhanced Multiple Ionization Pathways in X-ray Free-Electron Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Phay J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Schorb, Sebastian; Young, Linda

    2014-12-01

    We present an extended Monte Carlo rate equation approach to examine the inner-shell ionization dynamics of atoms in an intense x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulse. In addition to photoionization, Auger decay, and fluorescence processes, we include bound-to-bound transitions in the rate equation calculations. Using an efficient computational scheme, we account for "hidden resonances" unveiled during the course of an XFEL pulse. For Ar, the number of possible electron configurations is increased ten-billion-fold over that required under nonresonant conditions. We investigated the complex ionization dynamics of Ar atoms exposed to an 480-eV XFEL pulse, where production of ions above charge state 10 + is not allowed via direct one-photon ionization. We found that resonance-enhanced x-ray multiple ionization pathways play a dominant role in producing these nominally inaccessible charge states. Our calculated results agree with the measured Ar ion yield and pulse-duration dependence. We also predict the surprising ion yields reported earlier for Kr and Xe. The Monte Carlo rate equation method enables theoretical exploration of the complex dynamics of resonant high-intensity x-ray processes.

  6. Applied electro-optics educational and training program with multiple entrance and exit pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Patricia; Zhou, Feng; Zilic, Dorothy

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative hands-on training program designed to create a pipeline of highly-skilled technical workers for today's workforce economy. The 2+2+2 Pennsylvania Integrated Workforce Leadership Program in Electro-Optics prepares students for a career in this new high-tech field. With seamless transition from high school into college, the program offers the versatility of multiple entrance and exit pathways. After completion of each educational level, students can exit the program with various skill levels, including certificates, an associate's degree, or a bachelor's degree. Launched by Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Lenape Vocational School (Lenape), the 2+2+2 educational pathway program was implemented to promote early training of high-school students. During the first level, students in their junior and/or senior year enroll in four Electro-Optics courses at Lenape. Upon completion of these courses and an Advanced Placement Equivalency course with an appropriate exam score, students can earn a certificate from Lenape for the 15+ credits, which also can be articulated into IUP's associate degree program in Electro-Optics. During the second level, students can earn an associate's degree in Electro-Optics, offered only at the IUP Northpointe Campus. After completion of the Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.), students are prepared to enter the workforce as senior technicians. During the third level, students who have completed the Associate of Science (A.S.) in Electro-Optics have the opportunity to matriculate at IUP's Indiana Campus to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Applied Physics with a track in Electro-Optics. Hence, the name 2+2+2 refers to getting started in high school, continuing the educational experience with an associate's degree program, and optionally moving on to a bachelor's degree. Consequently, students move from one educational level to the next with advanced credits toward the next degree. This program was made possible by two grants from the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development (PA DCED). The intent of the grant is to foster partnerships that will develop programs in high-tech fields, such as biotechnology/life sciences, information technology, opto-electronics, and advanced manufacturing and materials. Topics of discussion will include program development, curriculum development, course descriptions, course sequencing, outreach and recruitment efforts, and program challenges.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Uses Multiple Pathways To Acquire Iron during Chronic Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Anna F.; Martin, Lois W.; Sharples, Katrina J.; Roddam, Louise F.; Latham, Roger; Reid, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronically infects the lungs of more than 80% of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is a major contributor to the progression of disease pathology. P. aeruginosa requires iron for growth and has multiple iron uptake systems that have been studied in bacteria grown in laboratory culture. The purpose of this research was to determine which of these are active during infection in CF. RNA was extracted from 149 sputum samples obtained from 23 CF patients. Reverse transcriptionquantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to measure the expression of P. aeruginosa genes encoding transport systems for the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin, for heme, and for ferrous ions. Expression of P. aeruginosa genes could be quantified in 89% of the sputum samples. Expression of genes associated with siderophore-mediated iron uptake was detected in most samples but was at low levels in some samples, indicating that other iron uptake mechanisms are active. Expression of genes encoding heme transport systems was also detected in most samples, indicating that heme uptake occurs during infection in CF. feoB expression was detected in all sputum samples, implying an important role for ferrous ion uptake by P. aeruginosa in CF. Our data show that multiple P. aeruginosa iron uptake mechanisms are active in chronic CF infection and that RT-qPCR of RNA extracted from sputum provides a powerful tool for investigating bacterial physiology during infection in CF. PMID:23690396

  8. Precise lamination of retinal axons generates multiple parallel input pathways in the tectum.

    PubMed

    Robles, Estuardo; Filosa, Alessandro; Baier, Herwig

    2013-03-13

    The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) form topographic connections in the optic tectum, recreating a two-dimensional map of the visual field in the midbrain. RGC axons are also targeted to specific positions along the laminar axis of the tectum. Understanding the sensory transformations performed by the tectum requires identification of the rules that control the formation of synaptic laminae by RGC axons. However, there is little information regarding the spatial relationships between multiple axons as they establish laminar and retinotopic arborization fields within the same region of neuropil. Moreover, the contribution of RGC axon lamination to the processing of visual information is unknown. We used Brainbow genetic labeling to visualize groups of individually identifiable axons during the assembly of a precise laminar map in the larval zebrafish tectum. Live imaging of multiple RGCs revealed that axons target specific sublaminar positions during initial innervation and maintain their relative laminar positions throughout early larval development, ruling out a model for lamina selection based on iterative refinements. During this period of laminar stability, RGC arbors undergo structural rearrangements that shift their relative retinotopic positions. Analysis of cell-type-specific lamination patterns revealed that distinct combinations of RGCs converge to form each sublamina, and this input heterogeneity correlates with different functional responses to visual stimuli. These findings suggest that lamina-specific sorting of retinal inputs provides an anatomical blueprint for the integration of visual features in the tectum. PMID:23486973

  9. Precise lamination of retinal axons generates multiple parallel input pathways in the tectum

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Estuardo; Filosa, Alessandro; Baier, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) form topographic connections in the optic tectum, recreating a two-dimensional map of the visual field in the midbrain. RGC axons are also targeted to specific positions along the laminar axis of the tectum. Understanding the sensory transformations performed by the tectum requires identification of the rules that control the formation of synaptic laminae by RGC axons. However, there is little information regarding the spatial relationships between multiple axons as they establish laminar and retinotopic arborization fields within the same region of neuropil. Moreover, the contribution of RGC axon lamination to the processing of visual information is unknown. We have utilized Brainbow genetic labeling to visualize groups of individually identifiable axons during the assembly of a precise laminar map in the tectum. Live imaging of multiple RGCs revealed that axons target specific sublaminar positions during initial innervation and maintain their relative laminar positions throughout early larval development, ruling out a model for lamina selection based on iterative refinements. During this period of laminar stability, RGC arbors undergo structural rearrangements that shift their relative retinotopic positions. Analysis of cell type-specific lamination patterns revealed that distinct combinations of RGCs converge to form each sublamina, and this input heterogeneity correlates with different functional responses to visual stimuli. These findings suggest that lamina-specific sorting of retinal inputs provides an anatomical blueprint for the integration of visual features in the tectum. PMID:23486973

  10. Multiple β-defensin genes are upregulated by the vitamin D pathway in cattle.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Kathryn E; Kweh, Mercedes F; Powell, Jessica L; Lippolis, John D; Nelson, Corwin D

    2015-11-01

    Experimental models of bacterial and viral infections in cattle have suggested vitamin D has a role in innate immunity of cattle. The intracrine vitamin D pathway of bovine macrophages, however, has only been shown to activate a nitric oxide-mediated defense mechanism, as opposed to cathelicidin and β-defensin antimicrobial peptides in human macrophages. In this study we have investigated the actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) on a cluster of eleven bovine β-defensin genes on the basis of RNAseq data indicating they were targets of 1,25D in cattle. Treatment of bovine monocyte cultures with 1,25D (10 nM, 18 h) in the absence and presence of LPS stimulation increased the expression of bovine β-defensin 3 (BNBD3), BNBD4, BNBD6, BNBD7, and BNBD10 genes 5 to 10-fold compared to control (P<0.05). Treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes with 0-100 ng/mL 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 also increased BNBD3, BNBD4, BNBD7, and BNBD10 in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of monocytes with the protein translation inhibitor, cycloheximide, however, blocked upregulation of the β-defensins in response to 1,25D suggesting the β-defensins in cattle are not direct targets of the vitamin D receptor. Furthermore, preliminary investigation of vitamin D's contribution to β-defensin expression in vivo revealed that intramammary 1,25D treatment of lactating cows increased BNBD7 expression in mammary macrophages. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that multiple β-defensin genes are upregulated by 1,25D in cattle, providing further indication that vitamin D contributes to bovine innate immunity. PMID:26255277

  11. PACAP and its receptors exert pleiotropic effects in the nervous system by activating multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng-Ji; Shioda, Seiji; Yada, Toshihiko; Inagaki, Nobuya; Pleasure, Samuel J; Kikuyama, Sakae

    2002-08-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was originally isolated from the ovine brain in 1989 as a novel hypothalamic hormone that potently activates adenylate cyclase to produce cyclic AMP in pituitary cells. This neuropeptide belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) superfamily, and exists in two amidated forms as PACAP38 (38-amino acid residues) and PACAP27 derived from the same precursor. The primary structure of PACAP has been remarkably conserved throughout evolution among tunicata, ichthyopsida, amphibia and mammalia, and a PACAP-like neuropeptide has also been determined in Drosophila. Both PACAP and its receptors are mainly distributed in the nervous and endocrine systems showing pleiotropic functions with high potency. There are three types of receptors with high PACAP-binding affinity and with different tissue-distribution patterns. All of them belong to G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily with seven transmembrane domains. PAC(1) is the PACAP-specific receptor and exists in at least eight splice variants which couple to different intracellular signal transduction pathways. VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) are the common receptors for both PACAP and VIP, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. This review article presents and discusses an update on PACAP research and its pleiotropic physiological functions based on multiple receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms in both the central and peripheral nervous system, including the regulation of hypothalamic neurosecretion, homeostatic control of circadian clock and behavioral actions, involvement in learning and memory processes, neuroprotective effects such as anti-apoptosis and response to injury and inflammation, and neural ontogenetic functions on proliferation/differentiation processes from early stages. PMID:12370005

  12. A functional 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathway in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris is required for full pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Bo; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Tang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Ji-Liang; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Plants contain significant levels of natural phenolic compounds essential for reproduction and growth, as well as defense mechanisms against pathogens. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of crucifers black rot. Here we showed that genes required for the synthesis, utilization, transportation, and degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) are present in Xcc. Xcc rapidly degrades 4-HBA, but has no effect on 2-hydroxybenzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate when grown in XOLN medium. The genes for 4-HBA degradation are organized in a superoperonic cluster. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic data showed that 4-HBA is hydroxylated by 4-HBA 3-hydroxylase (PobA), which is encoded by Xcc0356, to yield PCA. The resulting PCA is further metabolized via the PCA branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway, including Xcc0364, Xcc0365, and PcaFHGBDCR. Xcc0364 and Xcc0365 encode a new form of β-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase that is required for 4-HBA degradation. pobA expression was induced by 4-HBA via the transcriptional activator, PobR. Radish and cabbage hydrolysates contain 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, and other phenolic compounds. Addition of radish and cabbage hydrolysates to Xcc culture significantly induced the expression of pobA via PobR. The 4-HBA degradation pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Xcc in radish. PMID:26672484

  13. A functional 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathway in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris is required for full pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Bo; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Tang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Ji-Liang; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Plants contain significant levels of natural phenolic compounds essential for reproduction and growth, as well as defense mechanisms against pathogens. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of crucifers black rot. Here we showed that genes required for the synthesis, utilization, transportation, and degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) are present in Xcc. Xcc rapidly degrades 4-HBA, but has no effect on 2-hydroxybenzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate when grown in XOLN medium. The genes for 4-HBA degradation are organized in a superoperonic cluster. Bioinformatics, biochemical, and genetic data showed that 4-HBA is hydroxylated by 4-HBA 3-hydroxylase (PobA), which is encoded by Xcc0356, to yield PCA. The resulting PCA is further metabolized via the PCA branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway, including Xcc0364, Xcc0365, and PcaFHGBDCR. Xcc0364 and Xcc0365 encode a new form of β-ketoadipate succinyl-coenzyme A transferase that is required for 4-HBA degradation. pobA expression was induced by 4-HBA via the transcriptional activator, PobR. Radish and cabbage hydrolysates contain 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, and other phenolic compounds. Addition of radish and cabbage hydrolysates to Xcc culture significantly induced the expression of pobA via PobR. The 4-HBA degradation pathway is required for full pathogenicity of Xcc in radish. PMID:26672484

  14. Integrated QSAR study for inhibitors of hedgehog signal pathway against multiple cell lines:a collaborative filtering method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway is one of signaling pathways that are very important to embryonic development. The participation of inhibitors in the Hedgehog Signal Pathway can control cell growth and death, and searching novel inhibitors to the functioning of the pathway are in a great demand. As the matter of fact, effective inhibitors could provide efficient therapies for a wide range of malignancies, and targeting such pathway in cells represents a promising new paradigm for cell growth and death control. Current research mainly focuses on the syntheses of the inhibitors of cyclopamine derivatives, which bind specifically to the Smo protein, and can be used for cancer therapy. While quantitatively structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed for these compounds among different cell lines, none of them have achieved acceptable results in the prediction of activity values of new compounds. In this study, we proposed a novel collaborative QSAR model for inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by integration the information from multiple cell lines. Such a model is expected to substantially improve the QSAR ability from single cell lines, and provide useful clues in developing clinically effective inhibitors and modifications of parent lead compounds for target on the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. Results In this study, we have presented: (1) a collaborative QSAR model, which is used to integrate information among multiple cell lines to boost the QSAR results, rather than only a single cell line QSAR modeling. Our experiments have shown that the performance of our model is significantly better than single cell line QSAR methods; and (2) an efficient feature selection strategy under such collaborative environment, which can derive the commonly important features related to the entire given cell lines, while simultaneously showing their specific contributions to a specific cell-line. Based on feature selection results, we have proposed several possible chemical modifications to improve the inhibitor affinity towards multiple targets in the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. Conclusions Our model with the feature selection strategy presented here is efficient, robust, and flexible, and can be easily extended to model large-scale multiple cell line/QSAR data. The data and scripts for collaborative QSAR modeling are available in the Additional file 1. PMID:22849868

  15. Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 promote seedling photomorphogenesis in multiple light signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

    2014-02-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

  16. Regeneration of Sensory Hair Cells Requires Localized Interactions between the Notch and Wnt Pathways.

    PubMed

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Navajas Acedo, Joaquín; Jiang, Linjia; Kozlovskaja-Gumbrienė, Agnė; Alexander, Richard; Li, Hua; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2015-08-10

    In vertebrates, mechano-electrical transduction of sound is accomplished by sensory hair cells. Whereas mammalian hair cells are not replaced when lost, in fish they constantly renew and regenerate after injury. In vivo tracking and cell fate analyses of all dividing cells during lateral line hair cell regeneration revealed that support and hair cell progenitors localize to distinct tissue compartments. Importantly, we find that the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in these compartments is controlled by spatially restricted Notch signaling and its inhibition of Wnt-induced proliferation. The ability to simultaneously study and manipulate individual cell behaviors and multiple pathways in vivo transforms the lateral line into a powerful paradigm to mechanistically dissect sensory organ regeneration. The striking similarities to other vertebrate stem cell compartments uniquely place zebrafish to help elucidate why mammals possess such low capacity to regenerate hair cells. PMID:26190147

  17. Differential requirement of unfolded protein response pathway for calreticulin expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dukgyu; Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Park, Byung-Jae; Ahnn, Joohong

    2007-09-14

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, which increases the expression of chaperones to maintain the homeostasis. Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone located in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that in response to a UPR inducing reagent, tunicamycin, the expression of calreticulin (crt-1) is specifically up-regulated in Caenorhabditis elegans. Tunicamycin (TM) induced expression of the crt-1 requires IRE-1 and XBP-1 but is ATF-6 and PEK-1 independent. Analysis of the crt-1 promoter reveals a putative XBP-1 binding site at the -284 to -278 bp region, which was shown to be necessary for TM-mediated induction. Genetic analysis of crt-1 mutants and mutants of UPR pathway genes show various degrees of developmental arrest upon TM treatment. Our results suggest that the TM-induced UPR pathway culminates in the up-regulation of crt-1, which protects the worm from deleterious accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Knockdown of the crt-1, pdi-2, or pdi-3 increased the crt-1 expression, whereas knockdown of the hsp-3 or hsp-4 did not have any effect on crt-1 expression, indicating the existence of complex compensatory networks to cope up with ER stress. PMID:17651753

  18. Bacterial decolorization of textile dyes is an extracellular process requiring a multicomponent electron transfer pathway

    PubMed Central

    Brigé, Ann; Motte, Bart; Borloo, Jimmy; Buysschaert, Géraldine; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many studies have reported microorganisms as efficient biocatalysts for colour removal of dye‐containing industrial wastewaters. We present the first comprehensive study to identify all molecular components involved in decolorization by bacterial cells. Mutants from the model organism Shewanella oneidensis MR‐1, generated by random transposon and targeted insertional mutagenesis, were screened for defects in decolorization of an oxazine and diazo dye. We demonstrate that decolorization is an extracellular reduction process requiring a multicomponent electron transfer pathway that consists of cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic and outer membrane components. The presence of melanin, a redox‐active molecule excreted by S. oneidensis, was shown to enhance the dye reduction rates. Menaquinones and the cytochrome CymA are the crucial cytoplasmic membrane components of the pathway, which then branches off via a network of periplasmic cytochromes to three outer membrane cytochromes. The key proteins of this network are MtrA and OmcB in the periplasm and outer membrane respectively. A model of the complete dye reduction pathway is proposed in which the dye molecules are reduced by the outer membrane cytochromes either directly or indirectly via melanin. PMID:21261820

  19. Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Buchon, Nicolas; Broderick, Nichole A.; Chakrabarti, Sveta; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Gut homeostasis is controlled by both immune and developmental mechanisms, and its disruption can lead to inflammatory disorders or cancerous lesions of the intestine. While the impact of bacteria on the mucosal immune system is beginning to be precisely understood, little is known about the effects of bacteria on gut epithelium renewal. Here, we addressed how both infectious and indigenous bacteria modulate stem cell activity in Drosophila. We show that the increased epithelium renewal observed upon some bacterial infections is a consequence of the oxidative burst, a major defense of the Drosophila gut. Additionally, we provide evidence that the JAKSTAT (Janus kinasesignal transducers and activators of transcription) and JNK (c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase) pathways are both required for bacteria-induced stem cell proliferation. Similarly, we demonstrate that indigenous gut microbiota activate the same, albeit reduced, program at basal levels. Altered control of gut microbiota in immune-deficient or aged flies correlates with increased epithelium renewal. Finally, we show that epithelium renewal is an essential component of Drosophila defense against oral bacterial infection. Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity. PMID:19797770

  20. Ancient and Novel Small RNA Pathways Compensate for the Loss of piRNAs in Multiple Independent Nematode Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Sarkies, Peter; Selkirk, Murray E.; Jones, John T.; Blok, Vivian; Boothby, Thomas; Goldstein, Bob; Hanelt, Ben; Ardila-Garcia, Alex; Fast, Naomi M.; Schiffer, Phillip M.; Kraus, Christopher; Taylor, Mark J.; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L.; Miska, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA pathways act at the front line of defence against transposable elements across the Eukaryota. In animals, Piwi interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) are a crucial arm of this defence. However, the evolutionary relationships among piRNAs and other small RNA pathways targeting transposable elements are poorly resolved. To address this question we sequenced small RNAs from multiple, diverse nematode species, producing the first phylum-wide analysis of how small RNA pathways evolve. Surprisingly, despite their prominence in Caenorhabditis elegans and closely related nematodes, piRNAs are absent in all other nematode lineages. We found that there are at least two evolutionarily distinct mechanisms that compensate for the absence of piRNAs, both involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). Whilst one pathway is unique to nematodes, the second involves Dicer-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, hitherto unknown in animals, and bears striking similarity to transposon-control mechanisms in fungi and plants. Our results highlight the rapid, context-dependent evolution of small RNA pathways and suggest piRNAs in animals may have replaced an ancient eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase pathway to control transposable elements. PMID:25668728

  1. Ancient and novel small RNA pathways compensate for the loss of piRNAs in multiple independent nematode lineages.

    PubMed

    Sarkies, Peter; Selkirk, Murray E; Jones, John T; Blok, Vivian; Boothby, Thomas; Goldstein, Bob; Hanelt, Ben; Ardila-Garcia, Alex; Fast, Naomi M; Schiffer, Phillip M; Kraus, Christopher; Taylor, Mark J; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L; Miska, Eric A

    2015-02-01

    Small RNA pathways act at the front line of defence against transposable elements across the Eukaryota. In animals, Piwi interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) are a crucial arm of this defence. However, the evolutionary relationships among piRNAs and other small RNA pathways targeting transposable elements are poorly resolved. To address this question we sequenced small RNAs from multiple, diverse nematode species, producing the first phylum-wide analysis of how small RNA pathways evolve. Surprisingly, despite their prominence in Caenorhabditis elegans and closely related nematodes, piRNAs are absent in all other nematode lineages. We found that there are at least two evolutionarily distinct mechanisms that compensate for the absence of piRNAs, both involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). Whilst one pathway is unique to nematodes, the second involves Dicer-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, hitherto unknown in animals, and bears striking similarity to transposon-control mechanisms in fungi and plants. Our results highlight the rapid, context-dependent evolution of small RNA pathways and suggest piRNAs in animals may have replaced an ancient eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerase pathway to control transposable elements. PMID:25668728

  2. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  3. TGF-? signaling is required for multiple processes during Xenopus tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Diana M.; Whitman, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus tadpoles can fully regenerate all major tissue types following tail amputation. TGF-? signaling plays essential roles in growth, repair, specification, and differentiation of tissues throughout development and adulthood. We examined the localization of key components of the TGF-? signaling pathway during regeneration and characterized the effects of loss of TGF-? signaling on multiple regenerative events. Phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) is initially restricted to the p63+ basal layer of the regenerative epithelium shortly after amputation, and is later found in multiple tissue types in the regeneration bud. TGF-? ligands are also upregulated throughout regeneration. Treatment of amputated tails with SB-431542, a specific and reversible inhibitor of TGF-? signaling, blocks tail regeneration at multiple points. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling immediately following tail amputation reversibly prevents formation of a wound epithelium over the future regeneration bud. Even brief inhibition immediately following amputation is sufficient, however, to irreversibly block the establishment of structures and cell types that characterize regenerating tissue and to prevent the proper activation of BMP and ERK signaling pathways. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling after regeneration has already commenced blocks cell proliferation in the regeneration bud. These data reveal several spatially and temporally distinct roles for TGF-? signaling during regeneration: 1) wound epithelium formation, 2) establishment of regeneration bud structures and signaling cascades, and 3) regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:18234181

  4. Piwi Is Required in Multiple Cell Types to Control Germline Stem Cell Lineage Development in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:24658126

  5. Multiple pathways for steel regulation suggested by genomic and sequence analysis of the murine Steel gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, M.A.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1996-03-01

    The Steel (Sl) locus encodes mast cell growth factor (Mgf) that is required for the development of germ cells, hematopoietic cells and melanocytes. Although the expression patterns of the Mgf gene are well characterized, little is known of the factors which regulate its expression. Here, we describe the cloning and sequence of the full-length transcription unit and the 5{prime} flanking region of the murine Mgf gene. The full-length Mgf mRNA consists of a short 5{prime} untranslated region (UTR), a 0.8-kb ORF and a long 3{prime} UTR. A single transcription initiation site is used in a number of mouse tissues and is located just downstream of binding sites for several known transcription factors. In the 5{prime} UTR, two ATGs were found upstream of the initiator methionine and are conserved among different species, suggesting that Mgf may be translationally regulated. At least two Mgf mRNAs are produced by alternative use of polyadenylation sites, but numerous other potential polyadenylation sites were found in the 3{prime} UTR. In addition, the 3{prime} UTR contains numerous sequence motifs that may regulate Mgf mRNA stability. These studies suggest multiple ways in which expression of Mgf may be regulated. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Selective inhibitor of endosomal trafficking pathways exploited by multiple toxins and viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Eugene J.; Ho, Chi-Lee C.; Balaji, Kavitha; Clemens, Daniel L.; Deng, Gang; Wang, Yao E.; Elsaesser, Heidi J.; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Gargi, Amandeep; Dixon, Shandee D.; France, Bryan; Chamberlain, Brian T.; Blanke, Steven R.; Cheng, Genhong; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Brooks, David G.; Jung, Michael E.; Colicelli, John; Damoiseaux, Robert; Bradley, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms and toxins have evolved a variety of mechanisms to gain access to the host-cell cytosol and thereby exert virulent effects upon the host. One common mechanism of cellular entry requires trafficking to an acidified endosome, which promotes translocation across the host membrane. To identify small-molecule inhibitors that block this process, a library of 30,000 small molecules was screened for inhibitors of anthrax lethal toxin. Here we report that 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone, the most active compound identified in the screen, inhibits intoxication by lethal toxin and blocks the entry of multiple other acid-dependent bacterial toxins and viruses into mammalian cells. This compound, which we named EGA, also delays lysosomal targeting and degradation of the EGF receptor, indicating that it targets host-membrane trafficking. In contrast, EGA does not block endosomal recycling of transferrin, retrograde trafficking of ricin, phagolysosomal trafficking, or phagosome permeabilization by Franciscella tularensis. Furthermore, EGA does not neutralize acidic organelles, demonstrating that its mechanism of action is distinct from pH-raising agents such as ammonium chloride and bafilomycin A1. EGA is a powerful tool for the study of membrane trafficking and represents a class of host-targeted compounds for therapeutic development to treat infectious disease. PMID:24191014

  7. Multiple Pathways for Steel Regulation Suggested by Genomic and Sequence Analysis of the Murine Steel Gene

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, M. A.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Steel (Sl) locus encodes mast cell growth factor (Mgf) that is required for the development of germ cells, hematopoietic cells and melanocytes. Although the expression patterns of the Mgf gene are well characterized, little is known of the factors which regulate its expression. Here, we describe the cloning and sequence of the full-length transcription unit and the 5' flanking region of the murine Mgf gene. The full-length Mgf mRNA consists of a short 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 0.8-kb ORF and a long 3' UTR. A single transcription initiation site is used in a number of mouse tissues and is located just downstream of binding sites for several known transcription factors. In the 5' UTR, two ATGs were found upstream of the initiator methionine and are conserved among different species, suggesting that Mgf may be translationally regulated. At least two Mgf mRNAs are produced by alternative use of polyadenylation sites, but numerous other potential polyadenylation sites were found in the 3' UTR. In addition, the 3' UTR contains numerous sequence motifs that may regulate Mgf mRNA stability. These studies suggest multiple ways in which expression of Mgf may be regulated. PMID:8849898

  8. Analysis of miRNA in Normal Appearing White Matter to Identify Altered CNS Pathways in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Liu, Yue; Meisen, Walter H; Pitt, David; Racke, Michael K; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies suggest that the immune system is the greatest genetic contributor to multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. Yet, these immune-related genes do not explain why inflammation is limited to the CNS in MS. We hypothesize that there is an underlying dysregulation in the CNS of MS patients that makes them more vulnerable to CNS inflammation. The sparsity of CNS-related genes associated with MS suggests that epigenetic changes in the CNS may play a role. Thus, a miRNA profiling study was performed in NAWM of MS patients and control subjects to determine if specific CNS pathways can be identified that may be altered due to miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional dysregulation. There were 15 differentially expressed miRNAs found in the MS patients’ NAWM. Pathway analysis indicated that the MAPK pathway and pathways associated with the blood-brain barrier were predicted to be significantly affected by these miRNAs. Using target predication and mRNA analysis, an inverse relationship was found between miR-191 and BDNF, SOX4, FZD5 and WSB1. The pathway and target analysis of the MS-associated miRNAs suggests that MS patients’ CNS is more prone to inflammation and less capable of repair, yet enriched in neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:26894232

  9. Determining the elastic properties of aptamer-ricin single molecule multiple pathway interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Park, Bosoon; Kwon, Yongkuk; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-05-01

    We report on the elastic properties of ricin and anti-ricin aptamer interactions, which showed three stable binding conformations, each of which has its special elastic properties. These different unbinding pathways were investigated by the dynamic force spectroscopy. A series-spring model combining the worm-like-chain model and Hook's law was used to estimate the apparent spring constants of the aptamer and linker molecule polyethylene glycol. The aptamer in its three different unbinding pathways showed different apparent spring constants. The two reaction barriers in the unbinding pathways also influence the apparent spring constant of the aptamer. This special elastic behavior of aptamer was used to distinguish its three unbinding pathways under different loading rates. This method also offered a way to distinguish and discard the non-specific interactions in single molecule experiments.

  10. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1HOP1 Receptor Activation Coordinates Multiple Neurotrophic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor; Lutz, Eve; MacKenzie, Christopher; Schutz, Kristin C.; Dozark, Kate; Braas, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK and Akt pathways are predominant mediators of trophic signaling for many neuronal systems. Among the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family of related peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding to specific PAC1 receptor isoforms can engage multiple signaling pathways and promote neuroprotection through mechanisms that are not well understood. Using a primary sympathetic neuronal system, the current studies demonstrate that PACAP activation of PAC1HOP1 receptors engages both MAPK and Akt neurotrophic pathways in an integrated program to facilitate neuronal survival after growth factor withdrawal. PACAP not only stimulated prosurvival ERK1/2 and ERK5 activation but also abrogated SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK signaling in parallel. In contrast to the potent and rapid effects of PACAP in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, PACAP stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a late phase of PAC1HOP1 receptor signaling. From inhibitor and immunoprecipitation analyses, the PACAP/PAC1HOP1 receptor-mediated Akt responses did not represent transactivation mechanisms but appeared to depend on Gαq/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ activity and vesicular internalization pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ-selective inhibitors blocked PACAP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in primary neuronal cultures and in PAC1HOP1-overexpressing cell lines; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the receptor effectors attenuated PACAP-mediated Akt activation. Similarly, perturbation of endocytic pathways also blocked Akt phosphorylation. Between ERK and Akt pathways, PACAP-stimulated Akt signaling was the primary cascade that attenuated cultured neuron apoptosis after growth factor withdrawal. The partitioning of PACAP-mediated Akt signaling in endosomes may be a key mechanism contributing to the high spatial and temporal specificity in signal transduction necessary for survival pathways. PMID:20093365

  11. Dominant-negative mutants of importin-beta block multiple pathways of import and export through the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed Central

    Kutay, U; Izaurralde, E; Bischoff, F R; Mattaj, I W; Görlich, D

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear protein import proceeds through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Importin-beta mediates translocation via direct interaction with NPC components and carries importin-alpha with the NLS substrate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. The import reaction is terminated by the direct binding of nuclear RanGTP to importin-beta which dissociates the importin heterodimer. Here, we analyse the sites of interaction on importin-beta for its multiple partners. Ran and importin-alpha respectively require residues 1-364 and 331-876 of importin-beta for binding. Thus, RanGTP-mediated release of importin-alpha from importin-beta is likely to be an active displacement rather than due to simple competition between Ran and importin-alpha for a common binding site. Importin-beta has at least two non-overlapping sites of interaction with the NPC, which could potentially be used sequentially during translocation. Our data also suggest that termination of import involves a transient release of importin-beta from the NPC. Importin-beta fragments which bind to the NPC, but not to Ran, resist this release mechanism. As would be predicted from this, these importin-beta mutants are very efficient inhibitors of NLS-dependent protein import. Surprisingly, however, they also inhibit M9 signal-mediated nuclear import as well as nuclear export of mRNA, U snRNA, and the NES-containing Rev protein. This suggests that mediators of these various transport events share binding sites on the NPC and/or that mechanisms exist to coordinate translocation through the NPC via different nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways. PMID:9135132

  12. Anode Biofilms of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Exhibit Electrochemical Signatures of Multiple Electron Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yoho, Rachel A; Popat, Sudeep C; Rago, Laura; Guisasola, Albert; Torres, Csar I

    2015-11-17

    Thriving under alkaliphilic conditions, Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus (Glk. ferrihydriticus) provides new applications in treating alkaline waste streams as well as a possible new model organism for microbial electrochemistry. We investigated the electrochemical response of biofilms of the alkaliphilic anode-respiring bacterium (ARB) Glk. ferrihydriticus voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry. We observed there to be at least four dominant electron transfer pathways, with their contribution to the overall current produced dependent on the set anode potential. These pathways appear to be manifested at midpoint potentials of approximately -0.14 V, -0.2 V, -0.24 V, and -0.27 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. The individual contributions of the pathways change upon equilibration from a set anode potential to another anode potential. Additionally, the contribution of each pathway to the overall current produced is reversible when the anode potential is changed back to the original set potential. The pathways involved in anode respiration in Glk. ferrihydriticus biofilms follow a similar, but more complicated, pattern as compared to those in the model ARB, Geobacter sulfurreducens. This greater diversity of electron transport pathways in Glk. ferrihydriticus could be related to its wider metabolic capability (e.g., higher pH and larger set of possible substrates, among others). PMID:26488071

  13. Modular control of multiple pathways using engineered orthogonal T7 polymerases.

    PubMed

    Temme, Karsten; Hill, Rena; Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Moser, Felix; Voigt, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic genetic sensors and circuits enable programmable control over the timing and conditions of gene expression. They are being increasingly incorporated into the control of complex, multigene pathways and cellular functions. Here, we propose a design strategy to genetically separate the sensing/circuitry functions from the pathway to be controlled. This separation is achieved by having the output of the circuit drive the expression of a polymerase, which then activates the pathway from polymerase-specific promoters. The sensors, circuits and polymerase are encoded together on a 'controller' plasmid. Variants of T7 RNA polymerase that reduce toxicity were constructed and used as scaffolds for the construction of four orthogonal polymerases identified via part mining that bind to unique promoter sequences. This set is highly orthogonal and induces cognate promoters by 8- to 75-fold more than off-target promoters. These orthogonal polymerases enable four independent channels linking the outputs of circuits to the control of different cellular functions. As a demonstration, we constructed a controller plasmid that integrates two inducible systems, implements an AND logic operation and toggles between metabolic pathways that change Escherichia coli green (deoxychromoviridans) and red (lycopene). The advantages of this organization are that (i) the regulation of the pathway can be changed simply by introducing a different controller plasmid, (ii) transcription is orthogonal to host machinery and (iii) the pathway genes are not transcribed in the absence of a controller and are thus more easily carried without invoking evolutionary pressure. PMID:22743271

  14. User Interface Requirements for Web-Based Integrated Care Pathways: Evidence from the Evaluation of an Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool.

    PubMed

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Davies, Colin; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-11-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) define a chronological sequence of steps, most commonly diagnostic or treatment, to be followed in providing care for patients. Care pathways help to ensure quality standards are met and to reduce variation in practice. Although research on the computerisation of ICP progresses, there is still little knowledge on what are the requirements for designing user-friendly and usable electronic care pathways, or how users (normally health care professionals) interact with interfaces that support design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to address this gap by evaluating the usability of a novel web-based tool called COCPIT (Collaborative Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool). COCPIT supports the design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs at the population level. In order to address the aim of this study, an evaluation methodology was designed based on heuristic evaluations and a mixed method usability test. The results showed that modular visualisation and direct manipulation of information related to the design and analysis of ICPs is useful for engaging and stimulating users. However, designers should pay attention to issues related to the visibility of the system status and the match between the system and the real world, especially in relation to the display of statistical information about care pathways and the editing of clinical information within a care pathway. The paper concludes with recommendations for interface design. PMID:26446014

  15. mir-30d Regulates multiple genes in the autophagy pathway and impairs autophagy process in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojun; Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 ; Zhong, Xiaomin; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 ; Tanyi, Janos L.; Shen, Jianfeng; Xu, Congjian; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Tim M.; DeMichele, Angela; Zhang, Lin

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Gene set enrichment analysis indicated mir-30d might regulate the autophagy pathway. ► mir-30d represses the expression of BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2. ► BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2 are direct targets of mir-30d. ► mir-30d inhibits autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. ► mir-30d regulates the autophagy process. -- Abstract: In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis, and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, and ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.

  16. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required. 1710.15 Section 1710.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 78 FR 13781 - Filings Required of Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain Other Related Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...This document contains final rules under Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) that implement reporting requirements for multiple employer welfare arrangements (MEWAs) and certain other entities that offer or provide benefits that consist of medical care (within the meaning of section 733(a)(2) of ERISA and 29 CFR 2590.701-2) for employees of two or more employers.......

  18. Caffeic acid exhibits anti-pruritic effects by inhibition of multiple itch transmission pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Pradhananga, Sabindra; Shim, Won-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Itch is an unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch. Although often regarded as a trivial 'alarming' sensation, itch may be debilitating and exhausting, leading to reduction in quality of life. In the current study, the question of whether caffeic acid can be used to alleviate itch sensation induced by various pruritic agents, including histamine, chloroquine, SLIGRL-NH2, and ?-alanine was investigated. It turned out that histamine-induced intracellular calcium increase was significantly blocked by caffeic acid in HEK293T cells that express H1R and TRPV1, molecules required for transmission of histamine-induced itch in sensory neurons. In addition, inhibition of histamine-induced intracellular calcium increase by caffeic acid was demonstrated in primary cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). When chloroquine, an anti-malaria agent known to induce histamine-independent itch - was used, it was also found that caffeic acid inhibits the induced response in both DRG and HEK293T cells that express MRGPRA3 and TRPA1, underlying molecular entities responsible for chloroquine-mediated itch. Likewise, intracellular calcium changes by SLIGRL-NH2 - an itch-inducing agent via PAR2 and MRGPRC11 - were decreased by caffeic acid as well. However, it was found that caffeic acid is not capable of inhibiting ?-alanine-induced responses via its specific receptor MRGPRD. Finally, in vivo scratching behavior tests showed that caffeic acid indeed has anti-scratching effects against histamine, chloroquine, and SLIGRL-NH2 administration but not by ?-alanine. Overall, the current study demonstrated that caffeic acid has anti-itch effects by inhibition of multiple itch mechanisms induced by histamine, chloroquine and SLIGRL-NH2. PMID:26057691

  19. The root hair assay facilitates the use of genetic and pharmacological tools in order to dissect multiple signalling pathways that lead to programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Kacprzyk, Joanna; Devine, Aoife; McCabe, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    The activation of programmed cell death (PCD) is often a result of complex signalling pathways whose relationship and intersection are not well understood. We recently described a PCD root hair assay and proposed that it could be used to rapidly screen genetic or pharmacological modulators of PCD. To further assess the applicability of the root hair assay for studying multiple signalling pathways leading to PCD activation we have investigated the crosstalk between salicylic acid, autophagy and apoptosis-like PCD (AL-PCD) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The root hair assay was used to determine rates of AL-PCD induced by a panel of cell death inducing treatments in wild type plants treated with chemical modulators of salicylic acid synthesis or autophagy, and in genetic lines defective in autophagy or salicylic acid signalling. The assay demonstrated that PCD induced by exogenous salicylic acid or fumonisin B1 displayed a requirement for salicylic acid signalling and was partially dependent on the salicylic acid signal transducer NPR1. Autophagy deficiency resulted in an increase in the rates of AL-PCD induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1, but not by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase-dependent salicylic acid synthesis pathway contributed only to death induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1. 3-Methyladenine, which is commonly used as an inhibitor of autophagy, appeared to influence PCD induction in all treatments suggesting a possible secondary, non-autophagic, effect on a core component of the plant PCD pathway. The results suggest that salicylic acid signalling is negatively regulated by autophagy during salicylic acid and mycotoxin-induced AL-PCD. However, this crosstalk does not appear to be directly involved in PCD induced by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. This study demonstrates that the root hair assay is an effective tool for relatively rapid investigation of complex signalling pathways leading to the activation of PCD. PMID:24755572

  20. An integrative model links multiple inputs and signaling pathways to the onset of DNA synthesis in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Huard, Jrmy; Mueller, Stephanie; Gilles, Ernst D; Klingmller, Ursula; Klamt, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    During liver regeneration, quiescent hepatocytes re-enter the cell cycle to proliferate and compensate for lost tissue. Multiple signals including hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6, insulin and transforming growth factor ? orchestrate these responses and are integrated during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. To investigate how these inputs influence DNA synthesis as a measure for proliferation, we established a large-scale integrated logical model connecting multiple signaling pathways and the cell cycle. We constructed our model based upon established literature knowledge, and successively improved and validated its structure using hepatocyte-specific literature as well as experimental DNA synthesis data. Model analyses showed that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways was sufficient and necessary for triggering DNA synthesis. In addition, we identified key species in these pathways that mediate DNA replication. Our model predicted oncogenic mutations that were compared with the COSMIC database, and proposed intervention targets to block hepatocyte growth factor-induced DNA synthesis, which we validated experimentally. Our integrative approach demonstrates that, despite the complexity and size of the underlying interlaced network, logical modeling enables an integrative understanding of signaling-controlled proliferation at the cellular level, and thus can provide intervention strategies for distinct perturbation scenarios at various regulatory levels. PMID:22443451

  1. Autonomous basin climbing method with sampling of multiple transition pathways: application to anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Yip, Sidney; Yildiz, Bilge

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an extension of the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method, an atomistic activation-relaxation technique for sampling transition-state pathways. The extended algorithm (ABC-E) allows the sampling of multiple transition pathways from a given minimum, with the additional feature of identifying the pathways in the order of increasing activation barriers, thereby prioritizing them according to their importance in the kinetics. Combined with on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo calculations, the method is applied to simulate the anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr. Multiple migration mechanisms are identified for both the interstitials and vacancies, and benchmarked against results from other methods in the literature. The self-interstitial atom (SIA) diffusion kinetics shows a maximum anisotropy at intermediate temperatures (400~700?K), a non-monotonic behavior that we explain to originate from the stabilities and migration mechanisms associated with different SIA sites. The accuracy of the ABC-E calculations is validated, in part, by the existing results in the literature for point defect diffusion in hcp Zr, and by benchmarking against analytical results on a hypothetical rough-energy landscape. Lastly, sampling prioritization and computational efficiency are demonstrated through a direct comparison between the ABC-E and the activation relaxation technique.

  2. Yap1, transcription regulator in the Hippo signaling pathway, is required for Xenopus limb bud regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is conserved from insects to mammals and is important for multiple processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and tissue homeostasis. Hippo signaling is also crucial for regeneration, including intercalary regeneration, of the whole body in the flatworm and of the leg in the cricket. However, its role in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is unknown. Therefore, to identify principles of regeneration that are conserved among bilaterians, we investigated the role of Hippo signaling in the limb bud regeneration of an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis. We found that a transcription factor, Yap1, an important downstream effector of Hippo signaling, is upregulated in the regenerating limb bud. To evaluate Yap1׳s function in limb bud regeneration, we made transgenic animals that expressed a dominant-negative form of Yap under a heat-shock promoter. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Yap in tadpoles reduced cell proliferation, induced ectopic apoptosis, perturbed the expression domains of limb-patterning genes including hoxa13, hoxa11, and shh in the regenerating limb bud. Transient expression of a dominant-negative Yap in transgenic tadpoles also caused limb bud regeneration defects, and reduced intercalary regeneration. These results indicate that Yap1 has a crucial role in controlling the limb regenerative capacity in Xenopus, and suggest that the involvement of Hippo signaling in regeneration is conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. This finding provides molecular evidence that common principles underlie regeneration across phyla, and may contribute to the development of new therapies in regenerative medicine. PMID:24491818

  3. Dissection of the pathway required for generation of vitamin A and for Drosophila phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Jiao, Yuchen; Montell, Craig

    2007-04-23

    Dietary carotenoids are precursors for the production of retinoids, which participate in many essential processes, including the formation of the photopigment rhodopsin. Despite the importance of conversion of carotenoids to vitamin A (all-trans-retinol), many questions remain concerning the mechanisms that promote this process, including the uptake of carotenoids. We use the Drosophila visual system as a genetic model to study retinoid formation from beta-carotene. In a screen for mutations that affect the biosynthesis of rhodopsin, we identified a class B scavenger receptor, SANTA MARIA. We demonstrate that SANTA MARIA functions upstream of vitamin A formation in neurons and glia, which are outside of the retina. The protein is coexpressed and functionally coupled with the beta, beta-carotene-15, 15'-monooxygenase, NINAB, which converts beta-carotene to all-trans-retinal. Another class B scavenger receptor, NINAD, functions upstream of SANTA MARIA in the uptake of carotenoids, enabling us to propose a pathway involving multiple extraretinal cell types and proteins essential for the formation of rhodopsin. PMID:17452532

  4. Concurrent specification and analysis of software quality requirements from multiple perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.F.; Sigman, S.; Zobrist, G.

    1996-12-31

    Requirement analysis from different perspectives to capture design rationale poses two challenges: (1) process and product quality requirements arising from different perspectives usually conflict with each other; and (2) both process and product quality requirements are often vague and imprecise. Existing methodologies are limited in addressing these issues. In this paper a formal framework is developed for an integrated analysis of software process and product quality requirements and evaluation of design issues from multiple perspectives. Requirements are modeled using an ontology and fuzzy sets. A method for analyzing inter-viewpoint and inter-perspective relationships and for analyzing the relationships between design options and the requirements is introduced. The techniques described by the framework are illustrated using a distributed order processing system.

  5. Differential downregulation of telomerase activity by bortezomib in multiple myeloma cells-multiple regulatory pathways in vitro and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, C; Uziel, O; Wolach, O; Nordenberg, J; Beery, E; Bulvick, S; Kanfer, G; Cohen, O; Ram, R; Bakhanashvili, M; Magen-Nativ, H; Shilo, N; Lahav, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The importance of telomerase in multiple myeloma (MM) is well established; however, its response to bortezomib has not been addressed. Methods: The effect of bortezomib on telomerase activity and cell proliferation was evaluated in four MM cell lines and in myeloma cells obtained from eight patients. The mechanism of telomerase regulation on epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-translational levels was further assessed in two selected cell lines: ARP-1 and CAG. Clinical data were correlated with the laboratory findings. Results: Bortezomib downregulated telomerase activity and decreased proliferation in all cell lines and cells obtained from patients, albeit in two different patterns of kinetics. ARP-1 cells demonstrated higher and earlier sensitivity than CAG cells due to differential phosphorylation of hTERT by PKC?. Methylation of hTERT promoter was not affected. Transcription of hTERT was similarly inhibited in both lines by decreased binding of SP-1 and not of C-Myc and NF?B. The ex vivo results confirmed the in vitro findings and suggested existence of clinical relevance. Conclusion: Bortezomib downregulates telomerase activity in MM cells both transcriptionally and post-translationally. MM cells, both in vitro and in patients, exhibit different sensitivity to the drug due to different post-translational response. The effect of bortezomib on telomerase activity may correlate with resistance to bortezomib in patients, suggesting its potential utility as a pre-treatment assessment. PMID:23169337

  6. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guangli; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yingzhi; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at Zusanli acupoint (ST-36) as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture. PMID:24073005

  7. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guangli; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yingzhi; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at "Zusanli" acupoint (ST-36) as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture. PMID:24073005

  8. Multiple Developmental Pathways Leading to a Single Morph: Monosulcate Pollen (Examples From the Asparagales)

    PubMed Central

    PENET, L.; NADOT, S.; RESSAYRE, A.; FORCHIONI, A.; DREYER, L.; GOUYON, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Early developmental events in microsporogenesis are known to play a role in pollen morphology: variation in cytokinesis type, cell wall formation, tetrad shape and aperture polarity are responsible for pollen aperture patterning. Despite the existence of other morphologies, monosulcate pollen is one of the most common aperture types in monocots, and is also considered as the ancestral condition in this group. It is known to occur from either a successive or a simultaneous cytokinesis. In the present study, the developmental sequence of microsporogenesis is investigated in several species of Asparagales that produce such monosulcate pollen, representing most families of this important monocot clade. • Methods The developmental pathway of microsporogenesis was investigated using light transmission and epifluorescence microscopy for all species studied. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm centripetal cell plate formation. • Key Results Microsporogenesis is diverse in Asparagales, and most variation is generally found between families. It is confirmed that the whole higher Asparagales clade has a very conserved microsporogenesis, with a successive cytokinesis and centrifugal cell plate formation. Centripetal cell wall formation is described in Tecophilaeaceae and Iridaceae, a feature that had so far only been reported for eudicots. • Conclusions Monosulcate pollen can be obtained from several developmental pathways, leading thus to homoplasy in the monosulcate character state. Monosulcate pollen should not therefore be considered as the ancestral state unless it is produced through the ancestral developmental pathway. The question about the ancestral developmental pathway leading to monosulcy remains open. PMID:15567807

  9. Multiple-pathways screening-level assessment of a hazardous waste incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Hetrick, D.M.; Dixon, E.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to make a preliminary determination of the relative importance of air, food, and water pathways to human exposure from hazardous materials released from incineration facilities. These results are to be used to determine where more research on food and water pathways may be warranted. Identical 150 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h rotary kiln incinerator facilities burning pesticide-related wastes were assumed to be sited in three different locations in the United States. The locations studied for air and food chain exposures were a southern California site (S-1) at 33/sup 0/ 20' latitude and 115/sup 0/ 30' longitude; a northern Midwest site (S-2) at 44/sup 0/ 55' latitude and 89/sup 0/ 50' longitude, and a central Midwest site (S-3) at 38/sup 0/ 20' latitude and 94/sup 0/ 20' longitude. These sites are in areas that lead the nation in production of leafy vegetables, milk, and beef, respectively, and were chosen to estimate possible worst-case population exposures from these foodstuffs. In the water pathways assessments, screening-level assessments were performed at sites S-1 and S-2. Major conclusions of this report are: for certain organic chemicals the food chain pathway may be an important contributor to total human exposure from incineration of hazardous wastes; for trichloroethylene, the drinking water pathway appears to be a small contributor to total human dose. The present assessment did not determine human exposure from chemicals leached into groundwater after release from a hazardous waste incinerator. 40 references, 19 tables.

  10. Permissivity of the biphenyl-specific aerobic bacterial metabolic pathway towards analogues with various steric requirements.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; Standfu-Gabisch, Christine; Gonzlez, Myriam; Mndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Reichelt, Joachim; Wray, Victor; Hofer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenases do not possess a very high substrate specificity. To gain more insight into this phenomenon, we examined two powerful biphenyl dioxygenases, the well-known wild-type enzyme from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphA-LB400) and a hybrid enzyme, based on a dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. B4-Magdeburg (BphA-B4h), for their abilities to dioxygenate a selection of eight biphenyl analogues in which the second aromatic ring was replaced by aliphatic as well as aliphatic/aromatic moieties, reflecting a variety of steric requirements. Interestingly, both enzymes were able to catalyse transformation of almost all of these compounds. While the products formed were identical, major differences were observed in transformation rates. In most cases, BphA-B4h proved to be a significantly more powerful catalyst than BphA-LB400. NMR characterization of the reaction products showed that the metabolite obtained from biphenylene underwent angular dioxygenation, whereas all other compounds were subject to lateral dioxygenation at ortho and meta carbons. Subsequent growth studies revealed that both dioxygenase source strains were able to utilize several of the biphenyl analogues as sole sources of carbon and energy. Therefore, prototype BphBCD enzymes of the biphenyl degradative pathway were examined for their ability to further catabolize the lateral dioxygenation products. All of the ortho- and meta-hydroxylated compounds were converted to acids, showing that this pathway is quite permissive, enabling catalysis of the turnover of a fairly wide variety of metabolites. PMID:26297047

  11. Ten-m3 Is Required for the Development of Topography in the Ipsilateral Retinocollicular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Nuwan; Glendining, Kelly A.; Young, Timothy R.; Tran, Heidi; Sawatari, Atomu; Leamey, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The alignment of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting retinal axons that view the same part of visual space is fundamental to binocular vision. While much progress has been made regarding the mechanisms which regulate contralateral topography, very little is known of the mechanisms which regulate the mapping of ipsilateral axons such that they align with their contralateral counterparts. Results Using the advantageous model provided by the mouse retinocollicular pathway, we have performed anterograde tracing experiments which demonstrate that ipsilateral retinal axons begin to form terminal zones (TZs) in the superior colliculus (SC), within the first few postnatal days. These appear mature by postnatal day 11. Importantly, TZs formed by ipsilaterally-projecting retinal axons are spatially offset from those of contralaterally-projecting axons arising from the same retinotopic location from the outset. This pattern is consistent with that required for adult visuotopy. We further demonstrate that a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family of homophilic transmembrane glycoproteins, Ten-m3, is an essential regulator of ipsilateral retinocollicular topography. Ten-m3 mRNA is expressed in a high-medial to low-lateral gradient in the developing SC. This corresponds topographically with its high-ventral to low-dorsal retinal gradient. In Ten-m3 knockout mice, contralateral ventrotemporal axons appropriately target rostromedial SC, whereas ipsilateral axons exhibit dramatic targeting errors along both the mediolateral and rostrocaudal axes of the SC, with a caudal shift of the primary TZ, as well as the formation of secondary, caudolaterally displaced TZs. In addition to these dramatic ipsilateral-specific mapping errors, both contralateral and ipsilateral retinocollicular TZs exhibit more subtle changes in morphology. Conclusions We conclude that important aspects of adult visuotopy are established via the differential sensitivity of ipsilateral and contralateral axons to intrinsic guidance cues. Further, we show that Ten-m3 plays a critical role in this process and is particularly important for the mapping of the ipsilateral retinocollicular pathway. PMID:23028443

  12. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kimberly A.; Trembley, Michael; Abd Wahab, Syafiq; Viczian, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT) assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture. PMID:25750435

  13. Annexin II-dependent actin remodelling evoked by hydrogen peroxide requires the metalloproteinase/sphingolipid pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cinq-Frais, Christel; Coatrieux, Christelle; Savary, Aude; D’Angelo, Romina; Bernis, Corinne; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Augé, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Actin remodeling is a dynamic process associated with cell shape modification occurring during cell cycle and proliferation. Oxidative stress plays a role in actin reorganization via various systems including p38MAPK. Beside, the mitogenic response evoked by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMC) involves the metalloproteinase (MMPs)/sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) signaling pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether this system plays a role in actin remodeling induced by H2O2. Low H2O2 dose (5 µM) rapidly triggered a signaling cascade leading to nSMase2 activation, src and annexin 2 (AnxA2) phosphorylation, and actin remodeling, in fibroblasts and SMC. These events were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs (Ro28-2653) and p38MAPK (SB203580), and were lacking in MMP2−/− and in nSMase2-mutant (fro) fibroblasts. Likewise, H2O2 was unable to induce actin remodeling in fro and MMP2−/− fibroblasts or in cells pretreated with p38MAPK, or MMP inhibitors. Finally we show that nSMase2 activation by H2O2, depends on MMP2 and p38MAPK, and is required for the src-dependent phosphorylation of AnxA2, and actin remodeling. Taken together, these findings indicate for the first time that AnxA2 phosphorylation and actin remodeling evoked by oxidative stress depend on the sphingolipid pathway, via MMP2 and p38MAPK. PMID:25574848

  14. Annexin II-dependent actin remodelling evoked by hydrogen peroxide requires the metalloproteinase/sphingolipid pathway.

    PubMed

    Cinq-Frais, Christel; Coatrieux, Christelle; Savary, Aude; D'Angelo, Romina; Bernis, Corinne; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Augé, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Actin remodeling is a dynamic process associated with cell shape modification occurring during cell cycle and proliferation. Oxidative stress plays a role in actin reorganization via various systems including p38MAPK. Beside, the mitogenic response evoked by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMC) involves the metalloproteinase (MMPs)/sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) signaling pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether this system plays a role in actin remodeling induced by H2O2. Low H2O2 dose (5µM) rapidly triggered a signaling cascade leading to nSMase2 activation, src and annexin 2 (AnxA2) phosphorylation, and actin remodeling, in fibroblasts and SMC. These events were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs (Ro28-2653) and p38MAPK (SB203580), and were lacking in MMP2(-/-) and in nSMase2-mutant (fro) fibroblasts. Likewise, H2O2 was unable to induce actin remodeling in fro and MMP2(-/-) fibroblasts or in cells pretreated with p38MAPK, or MMP inhibitors. Finally we show that nSMase2 activation by H2O2, depends on MMP2 and p38MAPK, and is required for the src-dependent phosphorylation of AnxA2, and actin remodeling. Taken together, these findings indicate for the first time that AnxA2 phosphorylation and actin remodeling evoked by oxidative stress depend on the sphingolipid pathway, via MMP2 and p38MAPK. PMID:25574848

  15. Outer Membrane Protein P5 Is Required for Resistance of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to Both the Classical and Alternative Complement Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rosadini, Charles V.; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is an important first line of defense against the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. To survive and propagate in vivo, H. influenzae has evolved mechanisms for subverting this host defense, most of which have been shown to involve outer surface structures, including lipooligosaccharide glycans and outer surface proteins. Bacterial defense against complement acts at multiple steps in the pathway by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Here we identify outer membrane protein P5 as an essential factor in serum resistance of both H. influenzae strain Rd and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) clinical isolate NT127. P5 was essential for resistance of Rd and NT127 to complement in pooled human serum. Further investigation determined that P5 expression decreased cell surface binding of IgM, a potent activator of the classical pathway of complement, to both Rd and NT127. Additionally, P5 expression was required for NT127 to bind factor H (fH), an important inhibitor of alternative pathway (AP) activation. Collectively, the results obtained in this work highlight the ability of H. influenzae to utilize a single protein to perform multiple protective functions for evading host immunity. PMID:24478079

  16. Multiple Genetic Alterations within the PI3K Pathway Are Responsible for AKT Activation in Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Carmela; Rinaldo, Nicola; Bruni, Paola; Malzoni, Carmine; Zullo, Fulvio; Fabiani, Fernanda; Losito, Simona; Scrima, Marianna; Marino, Federica Zito; Franco, Renato; Quintiero, Alfina; Agosti, Valter; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is activated in multiple cancers including ovarian carcinoma (OC). However, the relative contribution of the single components within the PI3K pathway to AKT activation in OC is still unclear. We examined 98 tumor samples from Italian OC patients for alterations in the members of the PI3K pathway. We report that AKT is significantly hyperactive in OC compared to normal tissue (n = 93; p<0.0001) and that AKT activation is preferentially observed in the elderly (>58 years old; n = 93; p<0.05). The most frequent alteration is the overexpression of the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K (63/93, ∼68%); less frequent alterations comprise the loss of PTEN (24/89, 27%) and the overexpression of AKT1 (18/96, 19%) or AKT2 (11/88,12.5%). Mutations in the PIK3CA or KRAS genes were detected at lower frequency (12% and 10%, respectively) whereas mutations in AKT1 or AKT2 genes were absent. Although many tumors presented a single lesion (28/93, of which 23 overexpressed PIK3CA, 1 overexpressed AKT and 4 had lost PTEN), many OC (35/93) presented multiple alterations within the PI3K pathway. Apparently, aberrant PI3K signalling was mediated by activation of the canonical downstream AKT-dependent mTOR/S6K1/4EBP1 pathway and by regulation of expression of oncogenic transcription factors that include HMGA1, JUN-B, FOS and MYC but not by AKT-independent activation of SGK3. FISH analysis indicated that gene amplification of PIK3CA, AKT1 and AKT2 (but not of PI3KR1) and the loss of PTEN are common and may account for changes in the expression of the corresponding proteins. In conclusion, our results indicate that p110α overexpression represents the most frequent alteration within the PI3K/AKT pathway in OC. However, p110α overexpression may not be sufficient to activate AKT signalling and drive ovarian tumorigenesis since many tumors overexpressing PI3K presented at least one additional alteration. PMID:23408974

  17. Microbial effectors target multiple steps in the salicylic acid production and signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Han, Xiaowei; Kahmann, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attempting to colonize plants are recognized through the plant immune surveillance system. This leads to a complex array of global as well as specific defense responses, which are often associated with plant cell death and subsequent arrest of the invader. The responses also entail complex changes in phytohormone signaling pathways. Among these, salicylic acid (SA) signaling is an important pathway because of its ability to trigger plant cell death. As biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens need to invade living plant tissue to cause disease, they have evolved efficient strategies to downregulate SA signaling by virulence effectors, which can be proteins or secondary metabolites. Here we review the strategies prokaryotic pathogens have developed to target SA biosynthesis and signaling, and contrast this with recent insights into how plant pathogenic eukaryotic fungi and oomycetes accomplish the same goal. PMID:26042138

  18. Multiple Transcriptome Data Analysis Reveals Biologically Relevant Atopic Dermatitis Signature Genes and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debajyoti; Ding, Lili; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Geh, Esmond; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Mersha, Tesfaye B.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have identified genes that are differentially expressed in atopic dermatitis (AD) compared to normal skin. However, there is also considerable variation in the list of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) reported by different groups and the exact cause of AD is still not fully understood. Using a rank-based approach, we analyzed gene expression data from five different microarray studies, comprising a total of 127 samples and more than 250,000 transcripts. A total of 89 AD gene expression signatures ‘89ADGES’, including FLG gene, were identified to show dysregulation consistently across these studies. Using a Support Vector Machine, we showed that the ‘89ADGES’ discriminates AD from normal skin with 98% predictive accuracy. Functional annotation of these genes implicated their roles in immune responses (e.g., betadefensin, microseminoprotein), keratinocyte differentiation/epidermal development (e.g., FLG, CORIN, AQP, LOR, KRT16), inflammation (e.g., IL37, IL27RA, CCL18) and lipid metabolism (e.g., AKR1B10, FAD7, FAR2). Subsequently, we validated a subset of signature genes using quantitative PCR in a mouse model. Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified keratinocyte pathway over-represented (P = <0.0006) among the 89 signature genes. Keratinocytes are known to play a major role in barrier function due to their location in the epidermis. Our result suggests that besides immune- mediated pathway, skin barrier pathways such as the keratinocyte differentiation pathway play a key role in AD pathogenesis. A better understanding of the role of keratinocytes in AD will be important for developing novel “barrier therapy” for this disease. PMID:26717000

  19. PEP-1-CAT protects hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through multiple sigaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Catalase (CAT) breaks down H2O2 into H2O and O2 to protects cells from oxidative damage. However, its translational potential is limited because exogenous CAT cannot enter living cells automatically. This study is aimed to investigate if PEP-1-CAT fusion protein can effectively protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress due to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury. Methods H9c2 cardomyocytes were pretreated with catalase (CAT) or PEP-1-CAT fusion protein followed by culturing in a hypoxia and re-oxygenation condition. Cell apoptosis were measured by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow cytometry. Intracellular superoxide anion level was determined, and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, PARP, p38 and phospho-p38 was analyzed by western blotting. Results PEP-1-CAT protected H9c2 from H/R-induced morphological alteration and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde content. Superoxide anion production was also decreased. In addition, PEP-1-CAT inhibited H9c2 apoptosis and blocked the expression of apoptosis stimulator Bax while increased the expression of Bcl-2, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT inhibited p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in blockade of Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Conclusion Our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PEP-1-CAT protects cardiomyocyte from H/R-induced injury. PEP-1-CAT blocks Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:23642335

  20. Evaluations of the trans-sulfuration pathway in multiple liver toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schnackenberg, Laura K. Chen Minjun; Sun, Jinchun; Holland, Ricky D.; Dragan, Yvonne; Tong Weida; Welsh, William; Beger, Richard D.

    2009-02-15

    Drug-induced liver injury has been associated with the generation of reactive metabolites, which are primarily detoxified via glutathione conjugation. In this study, it was hypothesized that molecules involved in the synthesis of glutathione would be diminished to replenish the glutathione depleted through conjugation reactions. Since S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is the primary source of the sulfur atom in glutathione, UPLC/MS and NMR were used to evaluate metabolites involved with the transulfuration pathway in urine samples collected during studies of eight liver toxic compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary levels of creatine were increased on day 1 or day 2 in 8 high dose liver toxicity studies. Taurine concentration in urine was increased in only 3 of 8 liver toxicity studies while SAMe was found to be reduced in 4 of 5 liver toxicity studies. To further validate the results from the metabonomic studies, microarray data from rat liver samples following treatment with acetaminophen was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Some genes involved in the trans-sulfuration pathway, including guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and cysteine dioxygenase were found to be significantly decreased while methionine adenosyl transferase II, alpha increased at 24 h post-dosing, which is consistent with the SAMe and creatine findings. The metabolic and transcriptomic results show that the trans-sulfuration pathway from SAMe to glutathione was disturbed due to the administration of heptatotoxicants.

  1. The Rab11 Pathway Is Required for Influenza A Virus Budding and Filament Formation?

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Emily A.; Digard, Paul; Stuart, Amanda D.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus buds through the apical plasma membrane, forming enveloped virus particles that can take the shape of pleomorphic spheres or vastly elongated filaments. For either type of virion, the factors responsible for separation of viral and cell membranes are not known. We find that cellular Rab11 (a small GTP-binding protein involved in endocytic recycling) and Rab11-family interacting protein 3 ([FIP3] which plays a role in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin dynamics) are both required to support the formation of filamentous virions, while Rab11 is additionally involved in the final budding step of spherical particles. Cells transfected with Rab11 GTP-cycling mutants or depleted of Rab11 or FIP3 content by small interfering RNA treatment lost the ability to form virus filaments. Depletion of Rab11 resulted in up to a 100-fold decrease in titer of spherical virus released from cells. Scanning electron microscopy of Rab11-depleted cells showed high densities of virus particles apparently stalled in the process of budding. Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections confirmed that Rab11 depletion resulted in significant numbers of abnormally formed virus particles that had failed to pinch off from the plasma membrane. Based on these findings, we see a clear role for a Rab11-mediated pathway in influenza virus morphogenesis and budding. PMID:20357086

  2. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26159695

  3. Lhx9 gene expression during early limb development in mice requires the FGF signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yisheng; Wilson, Megan J

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM-homeodomain gene family necessary for the correct development of many organs including gonads, limbs, heart and the nervous system. In the context of limb development, Lhx9 has been implicated as an integrator for Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling required for proximal-distal (PD) and anterior-posterior (AP) development of the limb. Three splice variants of the Lhx9 transcript are expressed during development, two of which are predicted to act in a dominant negative fashion, competing with the DNA binding version of Lhx9 for binding to cofactors via the LIM-domain. We examined the expression pattern for the three alternative splice forms of Lhx9; Lhx9?, Lhx9? and Lhx9c during early limb development. We have found that of the three Lhx9 isoforms, only Lhx9? and Lhx9c (intact homeodomain) are expressed during early limb development, each with their own distinct expression pattern. Additionally we determined that Lhx9 expression overlaps with FGF10 expression in the developing limb bud mesenchyme. Limb bud explant cultures, in the presence of signalling pathway inhibitors, also indicated that Lhx9 mRNA expression in the limb bud was dependent on FGF signalling. PMID:26220830

  4. A novel piperazine derivative potently induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells via inhibition of multiple cancer signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    She, Edward X; Hao, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Despite rapid progress in anticancer drug development and improvement in clinical outcomes, the survival rate for many types of cancer is still unacceptably low. Therefore, it is crucial to discover novel anticancer drugs to both prevent and treat the disease. In recent years, the advent of combinatorial chemistry allows the design and parallel synthesis of millions of small compounds that have drug-like properties. In vitro high throughput screening of such compound libraries has allowed the identification of many new drug candidates that may be further evaluated for their efficacy and mechanism of action. The overall objective of this study was to identify small molecule compounds as candidates for anti-cancer drug development. We first used cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays to identify compounds exhibiting anti-cancer activity in vitro in a leukemia cell line (K562). Six top compounds selected from the initial screening of a library of 2,560 compounds were further evaluated in multiple cancer cell lines to rank the drug candidates. The top candidate was further investigated to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying its anticancer activity. Our studies suggest that this piperazine derivative effectively (GI50 = 0.06-0.16 μM) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via inhibiting multiple cancer signaling pathways including the PI3K/AKT, the Src family kinases and the BCR-ABL pathways. PMID:24093059

  5. Aberrant over-expression of COX-1 intersects multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Fadare, Oluwole; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Son, Deok-Soo; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Shilin; Saskowski, Jeanette; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Daniel, Cristina; Crews, Brenda; Lehmann, Brian D.; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.; Crispens, Marta A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Khabele, Dineo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is implicated in ovarian cancer. However, patterns of COX expression and function have been unclear and controversial. In this report, patterns of COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression were obtained from RNA-seq data through The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our analysis revealed markedly higher COX-1 mRNA expression than COX-2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) and higher COX-1 expression in HGSOC tumors than 10 other tumor types. High expression of COX-1 in HGSOC tumors was confirmed in an independent tissue microarray. In contrast, lower or similar expression of COX-1 compared to COX-2 was observed in endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors. Stable COX-1 knockdown in HGSOC-representative OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells reduced gene expression in multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways. Functional cell viability, clonogenicity, and migration/invasion assays were consistent with transcriptomic changes. These effects were reversed by stable over-expression of COX-1 in SKOV-3 cells. Our results demonstrate a distinct pattern of COX-1 over-expression in HGSOC tumors and strong association of COX-1 with multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in ovarian cancer cells. These findings provide additional insight into the role of COX-1 in human ovarian cancer and support further development of methods to selectively target COX-1 in the management of HGSOC tumors. PMID:25972361

  6. Cyclophilin A as a downstream effector of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zuo-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Jou; Chen, Jin-An; Lin, Kuo-Chih; Hsu, Jung-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Cyclophilin A (Cyp A), a member of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPI) family, may function as a molecular signalling switch. Comparative proteomic studies have identified Cyp A as a potential downstream target of protein kinase B (Akt). This study confirmed that Cyp A is a downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway. Cyp A was highly phosphorylated in response to interleukin-6 treatment, which was consistent with the accumulation of phosphorylated Akt, suggesting that Cyp A is a phosphorylation target of Akt and downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Cyclosporine A (CsA), a PPI inhibitor, inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells. Moreover, CsA treatment inhibited the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in MM U266 cells. Several Cyp A mutants were generated. Mutants with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites increased the G1 phase arrest in MM U266 cells. The other mutants that mimicked the phosphorylated state of Cyp A decreased the percentage of G1 phase. These results demonstrated that the states of phosphorylation of Cyp A by Akt can influence the progress of the cell cycle in MM U266 cells and that this effect is probably mediated through the Janus-activated kinase 2/STAT3 signalling pathway. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26833980

  7. Antitumor activity of CDA-?, a urinary preparation, on human multiple myeloma cell lines via the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Huang, Jian; Ma, Qiu-Ling; Xu, Gai-Xiang; Jin, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Cell differentiation agent II (CDA?II) is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor isolated from healthy human urine. In the present study, the antitumor activity of CDA?II on human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines via the mitochondrial pathway was first revealed. The human MM cell lines were exposed to CDA?II. Cytotoxicity, caspase activation, apoptosis and the effects on the mitochondrial pathway were assessed. CDA?? was capable of decreasing the depolarized mitochondrial membranes and activating caspase?3 and ?9 and poly (ADP?ribose) polymerase in MM cells treated with CDA?II. CDA?II induced caspase?dependent cell death accompanied by a significant decrease in X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin and Mcl?1 levels. The caspase?3 inhibitor, Z?DEVD?FMK, inhibited CDA?II?induced apoptosis. CDA?II potently increased the Bax levels, decreased the Bcl?2/Bax ratio and decreased the expression of the downstream targets of NF??B. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that CDA?II treatment leads to the inhibition of p65 nuclear localization and potently induces caspase?dependent apoptosis in MM cells mediated through the mitochondrial pathway at low nanomolar concentrations. These results indicate that CDA?II is a novel inhibitor of NF??B activity, with notable antimyeloma efficacy. This study provides a rationale for the clinical investigation of CDA?? in human MM. PMID:24452179

  8. Multiple signaling pathways regulate contractile activity‐mediated PGC‐1α gene expression and activity in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Uguccioni, Giulia; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Irrcher, Isabella; Iqbal, Sobia; Singh, Kaustabh; Ding, Shuzhe; Hood, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PGC‐1α is an important transcriptional coactivator that plays a key role in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis. Within seconds of the onset of contractile activity, a number of rapid cellular events occur that form part of the initial signaling processes involved in PGC‐1α gene regulation, such as elevations in cytoplasmic calcium, AMPK and p38 activation, and elevated ROS production. We observed that basal levels of PGC‐1α promoter activity were more sensitive to resting Ca2+ levels, compared to ROS, p38 or, AMPK signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGC‐1α transcription and post‐translational activity on DNA were a result of the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways during contractile activity of myotubes. AMPK, ROS, and Ca2+ appear to be necessary for the regulation of contractile activity‐induced PGC‐1α gene expression, governed partly through p38 MAPK and CaMKII activity. Whether these signaling pathways are arranged as a linear sequence of events, or as largely independent pathways during contractile activity, remains to be determined. PMID:24843073

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor pathway upregulation in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma is associated with lytic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ida B; Christensen, Jacob H; Lyng, Maria B; Mller, Michael B; Pedersen, Lise; Rasmussen, Lars M; Ditzel, Henrik J; Abildgaard, Niels

    2013-05-01

    Lytic bone disease (LBD) in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by osteoclast hyperactivation and osteoblast inhibition. Based on in vitro studies, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) pathway is thought to be central in osteoblast inhibition. We evaluated the gene expression of the HGF pathway in vivo using bone marrow biopsies (BMBs) of patients with MM and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and healthy volunteers (HV). BMBs (N = 110) obtained at diagnosis were snap-frozen and used to evaluate gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. LBD was evaluated using standard radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on matched bone marrow plasma and immunohistochemistry on matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies. Gene expression of HGF, SDC1, and MET in BMBs were significantly altered in MM versus HV and MGUS, and HGF and MET correlated with the extent of LBD. A significant correlation between gene and protein expression levels was observed for SDC1 (Syndecan-1) and HGF. The HGF bone marrow plasma level was significantly lower in MM patients with no/limited versus advanced LBD. Our novel approach using snap-frozen BMBs seems generally applicable because it allows evaluation of gene expression independent of the extent of MM plasma-cell infiltration. Our study highlights the importance of the HGF pathway in MM LBD. PMID:23431957

  10. Differential gene expression in multiple neurological, inflammatory and connective tissue pathways in a spontaneous model of human small vessel stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Emma L; McBride, Martin W; Beattie, Wendy; McClure, John D; Graham, Delyth; Dominiczak, Anna F; Sudlow, Cathie LM; Smith, Colin; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) causes a fifth of all strokes plus diffuse brain damage leading to cognitive decline, physical disabilities and dementia. The aetiology and pathogenesis of SVD are unknown, but largely attributed to hypertension or microatheroma. Methods We used the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP), the closest spontaneous experimental model of human SVD, and age-matched control rats kept under identical, non-salt-loaded conditions, to perform a blinded analysis of mRNA microarray, qRT-PCR and pathway analysis in two brain regions (frontal and mid-coronal) commonly affected by SVD in the SHRSP at age five, 16 and 21 weeks. Results We found gene expression abnormalities, with fold changes ranging from 2.5 to 59 for the 10 most differentially expressed genes, related to endothelial tight junctions (reduced), nitric oxide bioavailability (reduced), myelination (impaired), glial and microglial activity (increased), matrix proteins (impaired), vascular reactivity (impaired) and albumin (reduced), consistent with protein expression defects in the same rats. All were present at age 5 weeks thus predating blood pressure elevation. Neurological and inflammatory pathways were more affected than vascular functional pathways. Conclusions This set of defects, although individually modest, when acting in combination could explain the SHRSP's susceptibility to microvascular and brain injury, compared with control rats. Similar combined, individually modest, but multiple neurovascular unit defects, could explain susceptibility to spontaneous human SVD. PMID:24417612

  11. Ginseng saponin metabolite 20(S)-protopanaxadiol inhibits tumor growth by targeting multiple cancer signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Li; Lv, Gui-Yuan; He, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Ning; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su; He, Tong-Chuan

    2013-07-01

    Plant-derived active constituents and their semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs have served as major sources of anticancer drugs. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponin of both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). We previously demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3, a glucoside precursor of PPD, exhibits anti-proliferative effects on HCT116 cells and reduces tumor size in a xenograft model. Our subsequent study indicated that PPD has more potent antitumor activity than that of Rg3 in vitro although the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PPD was shown to inhibit growth and induce cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells. The in vivo studies indicate that PPD inhibits xenograft tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing HCT116 cells. The xenograft tumor size was significantly reduced when the animals were treated with PPD (30 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. When the expression of previously identified Rg3 targets, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8 (AKAP8L) and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein ? (PITPNA), was analyzed, PPD was shown to inhibit the expression of PITPNA while upregulating AKAP8L expression in HCT116 cells. Pathway-specific reporter assays indicated that PPD effectively suppressed the NF-?B, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer activity of PPD in colon cancer cells may be mediated through targeting NF-?B, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, although the detailed mechanisms underlying the anticancer mode of PPD action need to be fully elucidated. PMID:23633038

  12. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures. All previously identified high-risk jobs had high air concentrations, dermal mass loading, or both, and none had low dermal and air. We have found that both pathways are relevant. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a file describing the forms of beryllium materials encountered during production and characteristics of the aerosols by process areas.]. PMID:25357184

  13. Multiple signaling pathways involved in the effect of endothelin type B receptor in rat median eminence.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Yaira; del Garrido, Mara Rosario; Israel, Anita

    2007-06-01

    We assessed the possible link between endothelin receptor mediated phosphoinositide breakdown and NO/cGMP signaling pathways in rat arcuate nucleus-median eminence fragments (AN-ME), brain structures known to contain a rich plexus of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing neurons and fibers, together with densely arranged endothelin ETB-receptors-like immunoreactive fibres. Our data show that ET-1, ET-3 and the ETB-receptors agonist, IRL 1620, increased inositol monophosphate (InsP1) accumulation, NOS activity and cGMP formation, in a similar degree. The stimulatory effect of ETs on InsP1 accumulation and cGMP formation was inhibited by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, neomycin, and the absence of extracellular calcium, suggesting that calcium is involved in endothelin receptor-induced PLC activation. The L-arginine analog, L-NAME, inhibited ET-1 or IRL1620-stimulated cGMP formation. The ETA receptor antagonists BQ 123, did not alter, while the ETB receptor antagonists BQ788 inhibited ETs-induced increase in the PI metabolism, NOS activity and cGMP generation. Our data indicate that in AN-ME, ETB receptor signals through receptor-mediated calcium dependent-stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown and activation of NOS/cGMP signaling pathway. PMID:17585504

  14. Peptidoglycan Up-Regulates CXCL8 Expression via Multiple Pathways in Monocytes/Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung Won; Chung, Sung Woon; Bae, Mi Ju; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-pil; Kim, Koanhoi

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), the gram positive bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), is detected in a high proportion in macrophage-rich atheromatous regions, and expression of chemokine CXCL8, which triggers monocyte arrest on early atherosclerotic endothelium, is elevated in monocytes/macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PG induced CXCL8 expression in the cell type and to determine cellular signaling pathways involved in that process. Exposure of THP-1 cell, human monocyte/macrophage cell line, to PG not only enhanced CXCL8 release but also profoundly induced il8 gene transcription. PG-induced release of CXCL8 and induction of il8 gene transcription were blocked by OxPAPC, an inhibitor of TLR-2/4 and TLR4, but not by polymyxin B, an inhibitor of LPS. PG-mediated CXCL8 release was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways. PKC inhibitors, MAPK inhibitors, and ROS quenchers also significantly attenuated expression of CXCL8. The present study proposes that PG contributes to inflammatory reaction and progression of atherosclerosis by inducing CXCL8 expression in monocytes/macrophages, and that TLR-2, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, PKC, ROS, and MAPK are actively involved in the process. PMID:26535082

  15. Multiple pathways regulating the anti-apoptotic protein clusterin in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Melissa K.; Ahmed, Ikhlas S.A.; Potts, Kelly R.; Craven, Rolf J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy inhibits tumor growth, in part, by triggering apoptosis, and anti-apoptotic proteins reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Clusterin, a chaperone-like protein that binds to apoptotic and DNA repair proteins, is induced by chemotherapy and promotes tumor cell survival. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) such as sodium butyrate and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) are pharmacological agents that induce differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells by altering chromatin structure, and we have found that combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin and HDIs efficiently induce apoptosis, even though they paradoxically induce high levels of clusterin. The hyper-expressed form of clusterin localizes to mitochondria, inhibits cytochrome c release, and is inhibited by the proteasome. When HDIs are used as single agents, clusterin suppresses cytochrome c release and apoptosis. However, doxorubicin/HDI-induced apoptosis is not inhibited by clusterin, and clusterin-resistant apoptosis corresponds with markers of the extrinsic/receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. Thus, chemotherapy-HDI combinations are capable of overcoming an innate anti-apoptotic pathway of tumor cells, suggesting that chemotherapy-HDI combinations have potential for treating advanced stage breast cancer. PMID:17689225

  16. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Blum, Jason L.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver. PMID:21276474

  17. The Drosophila Nbs protein functions in multiple pathways for the maintenance of genome stability.

    PubMed

    Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Gatti, Maurizio

    2006-07-01

    The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs (MRN) complex and the two protein kinases ATM and ATR play critical roles in the response to DNA damage and telomere maintenance in mammalian systems. It has been previously shown that mutations in the Drosophila mre11 and rad50 genes cause both telomere fusion and chromosome breakage. Here, we have analyzed the role of the Drosophila nbs gene in telomere protection and the maintenance of chromosome integrity. Larval brain cells of nbs mutants display telomeric associations (TAs) but the frequency of these TAs is lower than in either mre11 or rad50 mutants. Consistently, Rad50 accumulates in the nuclei of wild-type cells but not in those of nbs cells, indicating that Nbs mediates transport of the Mre11/Rad50 complex in the nucleus. Moreover, epistasis analysis revealed that rad50 nbs, tefu (ATM) nbs, and mei-41 (ATR) nbs double mutants have significantly higher frequencies of TAs than either of the corresponding single mutants. This suggests that Nbs and the Mre11/Rad50 complex play partially independent roles in telomere protection and that Nbs functions in both ATR- and ATM-controlled telomere protection pathways. In contrast, analysis of chromosome breakage indicated that the three components of the MRN complex function in a single pathway for the repair of the DNA damage leading to chromosome aberrations. PMID:16648644

  18. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 alters multiple signaling pathways to inhibit natural killer cell death

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, D.L.; Subleski, J.J.; Reynolds, D.A.; Buschman, M.D.; Schill, W.B.; Burkett, M.W.; Malyguine, A.M.; Young, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18), is a natural killer (NK) cell activator that induces NK cell cytotoxicity and interferon-?? (IFN-??) expression. In this report, we define a novel role for IL-18 as an NK cell protective agent. Specifically, IL-18 prevents NK cell death initiated by different and distinct stress mechanisms. IL-18 reduces NK cell self-destruction during NK-targeted cell killing, and in the presence of staurosporin, a potent apoptotic inducer, IL-18 reduces caspase-3 activity. The critical regulatory step in this process is downstream of the mitochondrion and involves reduced cleavage and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The ability of IL-18 to regulate cell survival is not limited to a caspase death pathway in that IL-18 augments tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, resulting in increased and prolonged mRNA expression of c-apoptosis inhibitor 2 (cIAP2), a prosurvival factor and caspase-3 inhibitor, and TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a prosurvival protein. The cumulative effects of IL-18 define a novel role for this cytokine as a molecular survival switch that functions to both decrease cell death through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and enhance TNF induction of prosurvival factors. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. Multiple effects of digoxin on subsets of cancer-associated genes through the alternative splicing pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guan-Yu; Liu, Shu-Ting; Huang, Shih-Ming; Chang, Yung-Lung; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2014-11-01

    The signaling characteristics of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are distinct from its ion pumping activity. Cardiac glycosides modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein complex upon binding, activate downstream signaling pathways and increase [Ca(2+)]i. Recent studies demonstrate that the depletion of p53 and hypoxia-induced factor 1? proteins is caused by cardiac glycosides. However, the detailed mechanisms governing this process are not well known. In this study, we showed that the depletion of p53 proteins by digoxin involved not only inhibition of protein synthesis but also inhibition at the post-transcriptional level. Post-transcriptional regulation occurs via down-regulation of SRSF3, the primary splicing factor responsible for the switch from p53? to the p53? isoform. Digoxin also modulated G2/M arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis through the p53-dependent pathway in HeLa cells. In addition, digoxin was involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition progression via E-cadherin reduction and snail induction. Digoxin had similar effects to caffeine, another SRSF3-reduced agent, on the cell cycle profile and DNA damage of cells. Interestingly, combined digoxin and caffeine treatment blocked cell cycle progression and conferred resistance to cell death via snail induction. These findings demonstrate that down-regulation of splicing factor, such as SRSF3, to alter cell cycle progression, cell death and invasion is a potential target for the drug repositioning of cardiac glycosides. PMID:25193633

  20. The 3-Hydroxy-2-Butanone Pathway Is Required for Pectobacterium carotovorum Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Villavicencio, Maria del Pilar; Weber, Brooke; Witherell, R. Andrews; Willis, David K.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2011-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that cause soft rot diseases in potatoes and several other crops worldwide. Gene expression data identified Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB, which encodes the ?-acetolactate synthase enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway, as more highly expressed in potato tubers than potato stems. This pathway is of interest because volatiles produced by the 2,3-butanediol pathway have been shown to act as plant growth promoting molecules, insect attractants, and, in other bacterial species, affect virulence and fitness. Disruption of the 2,3-butanediol pathway reduced virulence of P. c. subsp. carotovorum WPP14 on potato tubers and impaired alkalinization of growth medium and potato tubers under anaerobic conditions. Alkalinization of the milieu via this pathway may aid in plant cell maceration since Pectobacterium pectate lyases are most active at alkaline pH. PMID:21876734

  1. Targeting multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways with a resorcinol derivative leads to inhibition of advanced stages of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Rumi; Singer, Eric; Pakdel, Arash; Sarma, Pranamee; Judkins, Jonathon; Elwakeel, Eiman; Dayal, Sonali; Martinez-Martinez, Esther; Amere, Mukkanti; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The psychoactive cannabinoid ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can both reduce cancer progression, each through distinct anti-tumour pathways. Our goal was to discover a compound that could efficiently target both cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways. Experimental Approach To measure breast cancer cell proliferation/viability and invasion, MTT and Boyden chamber assays were used. Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein and annexin/propidium iodide, respectively, in combination with cell flow cytometry. Changes in protein levels were evaluated using Western analysis. Orthotopic and i.v. mouse models of breast cancer metastasis were used to test the activity of cannabinoids in vivo. Key Results CBD reduced breast cancer metastasis in advanced stages of the disease as the direct result of down-regulating the transcriptional regulator Id1. However, this was associated with moderate increases in survival. We therefore screened for analogues that could co-target cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways (CBD- and THC-associated) and discovered the compound O-1663. This analogue inhibited Id1, produced a marked stimulation of ROS, up-regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis. Of all the compounds tested, it was the most potent at inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in culture and metastasis in vivo. Conclusions and Implications O-1663 prolonged survival in advanced stages of breast cancer metastasis. Developing compounds that can simultaneously target multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways efficiently may provide a novel approach for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. PMID:24910342

  2. Epithelial barrier assembly requires coordinated activity of multiple domains of the tight junction protein ZO-1

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Laurel S.; Beam, M. Tanner; Anderson, James M.; Fanning, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tight junctions (TJs) regulate the paracellular movement of ions, macromolecules and immune cells across epithelia. Zonula occludens (ZO)-1 is a multi-domain polypeptide required for the assembly of TJs. MDCK II cells lacking ZO-1, and its homolog ZO-2, have three distinct phenotypes: reduced localization of occludin and some claudins to the TJs, increased epithelial permeability, and expansion of the apical actomyosin contractile array found at the apical junction complex (AJC). However, it is unclear exactly which ZO-1 binding domains are required to coordinate these activities. We addressed this question by examining the ability of ZO-1 domain-deletion transgenes to reverse the effects of ZO depletion. We found that the SH3 domain and the U5 motif are required to recruit ZO-1 to the AJC and that localization is a prerequisite for normal TJ and cytoskeletal organization. The PDZ2 domain is not required for localization of ZO-1 to the AJC, but is necessary to establish the characteristic continuous circumferential band of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-2. PDZ2 is also required to establish normal permeability, but is not required for normal cytoskeletal organization. Finally, our results demonstrate that PDZ1 is crucial for the normal organization of both the TJ and the AJC cytoskeleton. Our results establish that ZO-1 acts as a true scaffolding protein and that the coordinated activity of multiple domains is required for normal TJ structure and function. PMID:23418357

  3. Capping protein integrates multiple MAMP signalling pathways to modulate actin dynamics during plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiejie; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L.; Staiger, Benjamin H.; Day, Brad; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals perceive diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors and activate innate immune signalling. The actin cytoskeleton has been suggested as a target for innate immune signalling and a key transducer of cellular responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying actin remodelling and the precise functions of these rearrangements during innate immunity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate rapid actin remodelling in response to several distinct MAMP signalling pathways in plant epidermal cells. The regulation of actin dynamics is a convergence point for basal defence machinery, such as cell wall fortification and transcriptional reprogramming. Our quantitative analyses of actin dynamics and genetic studies reveal that MAMP-stimulated actin remodelling is due to the inhibition of capping protein (CP) by the signalling lipid, phosphatidic acid. In addition, CP promotes resistance against bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. These findings demonstrate that CP is a central target for the plant innate immune response. PMID:26018794

  4. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Larkindale, Jane; Hall, Jennifer D; Knight, Marc R; Vierling, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the importance of different processes to heat stress tolerance, 45 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants and one transgenic line were tested for basal and acquired thermotolerance at different stages of growth. Plants tested were defective in signaling pathways (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and oxidative burst signaling) and in reactive oxygen metabolism (ascorbic acid or glutathione production, catalase) or had previously been found to have temperature-related phenotypes (e.g. fatty acid desaturase mutants, uvh6). Mutants were assessed for thermotolerance defects in seed germination, hypocotyl elongation, root growth, and seedling survival. To assess oxidative damage and alterations in the heat shock response, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, heat shock protein 101, and small heat shock protein levels were determined. Fifteen mutants showed significant phenotypes. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling mutants (abi1 and abi2) and the UV-sensitive mutant, uvh6, showed the strongest defects in acquired thermotolerance of root growth and seedling survival. Mutations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase homolog genes (atrbohB and D), ABA biosynthesis mutants (aba1, aba2, and aba3), and NahG transgenic lines (salicylic acid deficient) showed weaker defects. Ethylene signaling mutants (ein2 and etr1) and reactive oxygen metabolism mutants (vtc1, vtc2, npq1, and cad2) were more defective in basal than acquired thermotolerance, especially under high light. All mutants accumulated wild-type levels of heat shock protein 101 and small heat shock proteins. These data indicate that, separate from heat shock protein induction, ABA, active oxygen species, and salicylic acid pathways are involved in acquired thermotolerance and that UVH6 plays a significant role in temperature responses in addition to its role in UV stress. PMID:15923322

  5. Multiple pathways of Pb(2+) permeation in rat cerebellar granule neurones.

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, M; Traverso, S; Marchetti, C

    2001-10-01

    The pathways of lead (Pb(2+)) uptake were studied in fura-2-loaded cerebellar granule cells from 8-day-old rats. In a nominal Ca-free external bath, Pb(2+) (5-50 microM) determined an increase of the fluorescence emission ratio (R = E(340)/E(380)) even in the absence of any specific stimulus. This rise was dose-dependent, was not significantly affected by mM Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), but it was readily reversed by the membrane-permeant heavy metal chelator tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylene-diamine (TPEN, 100 microM), indicating that it was due to Pb(2+) influx. The rate of rise, dR/dt, was increased up to a factor of 5 by depolarizing high-KCl solution, indicating a sizeable permeation through voltage-dependent channels. This effect was neither antagonized by nimodipine, nor enhanced by BayK8644, but it was slackened by omega-agatoxin IVA (200 nM), suggesting an involvement of non-L-type calcium channels. Pb(2+) influx was also stimulated by glutamic acid or NMDA in the presence of 10-30 microM glycine, but only in Mg-free solution, suggesting that glutamate channels of the NMDA type are an additional pathway of Pb(2+) uptake. Pb(2+) caused a time-, dose- and stimulus-dependent saturation of the dye, whose intracellular concentration is approximately 10 microM, indicating that intracellular Pb(2+) can readily reach a concentration in the micromolar range. These results indicate that the particular vulnerability of neurones to Pb(2+) poisoning is linked to the presence of specific transport systems, which mediate the rapid uptake of Pb(2+) into the neurone. PMID:11677269

  6. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE), which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia [1,2]. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA) skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1) for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1). Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to inhibit Hh-signaling at different developmental stages, show that Hh-signaling is required during gastrulation for normal patterning of CNCC in the first PA, and then during the late pharyngula stage, to promote CNCC chondrogenesis within the posterior arches. Further, loss of disp1 disrupted normal expression of bapx1 and gdf5, markers of jaw joint patterning, thus resulting in jaw joint defects in con/disp1 mutant animals. Conclusion This study reveals novel requirements for Hh-signaling in the zebrafish PA skeleton and highlights the functional diversity and differential sensitivity of craniofacial tissues to Hh-signaling throughout the face, a finding that may help to explain the spectrum of human facial phenotypes characteristic of HPE. PMID:19948063

  7. Modulation of Cell Metabolic Pathways and Oxidative Stress Signaling Contribute to Acquired Melphalan Resistance in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zub, Kamila Anna; de Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal; Sarno, Antonio; Sharma, Animesh; Demirovic, Aida; Rao, Shalini; Young, Clifford; Aas, Per Arne; Ericsson, Ida; Sundan, Anders; Jensen, Ole Nrregaard; Slupphaug, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents are widely used chemotherapeutics in the treatment of many cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, sarcoma, lung, breast and ovarian cancer. Melphalan is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent against multiple myeloma. However, despite a 7080% initial response rate, virtually all patients eventually relapse due to the emergence of drug-resistant tumour cells. By using global proteomic and transcriptomic profiling on melphalan sensitive and resistant RPMI8226 cell lines followed by functional assays, we discovered changes in cellular processes and pathways not previously associated with melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells, including a metabolic switch conforming to the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis), and an elevated oxidative stress response mediated by VEGF/IL8-signaling. In addition, up-regulated aldo-keto reductase levels of the AKR1C family involved in prostaglandin synthesis contribute to the resistant phenotype. Finally, selected metabolic and oxidative stress response enzymes were targeted by inhibitors, several of which displayed a selective cytotoxicity against the melphalan-resistant cells and should be further explored to elucidate their potential to overcome melphalan resistance. PMID:25769101

  8. Modulation of cell metabolic pathways and oxidative stress signaling contribute to acquired melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zub, Kamila Anna; Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal de; Sarno, Antonio; Sharma, Animesh; Demirovic, Aida; Rao, Shalini; Young, Clifford; Aas, Per Arne; Ericsson, Ida; Sundan, Anders; Jensen, Ole Nrregaard; Slupphaug, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents are widely used chemotherapeutics in the treatment of many cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, sarcoma, lung, breast and ovarian cancer. Melphalan is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent against multiple myeloma. However, despite a 70-80% initial response rate, virtually all patients eventually relapse due to the emergence of drug-resistant tumour cells. By using global proteomic and transcriptomic profiling on melphalan sensitive and resistant RPMI8226 cell lines followed by functional assays, we discovered changes in cellular processes and pathways not previously associated with melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells, including a metabolic switch conforming to the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis), and an elevated oxidative stress response mediated by VEGF/IL8-signaling. In addition, up-regulated aldo-keto reductase levels of the AKR1C family involved in prostaglandin synthesis contribute to the resistant phenotype. Finally, selected metabolic and oxidative stress response enzymes were targeted by inhibitors, several of which displayed a selective cytotoxicity against the melphalan-resistant cells and should be further explored to elucidate their potential to overcome melphalan resistance. PMID:25769101

  9. Fungal Morphogenetic Pathways Are Required for the Hallmark Inflammatory Response during Candida albicans Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Glen E.; Nash, Andrea K.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Fidel, Paul L.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused primarily by Candida albicans, presents significant health issues for women of childbearing age. As a polymorphic fungus, the ability of C. albicans to switch between yeast and hyphal morphologies is considered its central virulence attribute. Armed with new criteria for defining vaginitis immunopathology, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the yeast-to-hypha transition is required for the hallmark inflammatory responses previously characterized during murine vaginitis. Kinetic analyses of vaginal infection with C. albicans in C57BL/6 mice demonstrated that fungal burdens remained constant throughout the observation period, while polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), S100A8, and interleukin-1? levels obtained from vaginal lavage fluid increased by day 3 onward. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was also positively correlated with increased effectors of innate immunity. Additionally, immunodepletion of neutrophils in infected mice confirmed a nonprotective role for PMNs during vaginitis. Determination of the importance of fungal morphogenesis during vaginitis was addressed with a two-pronged approach. Intravaginal inoculation of mice with C. albicans strains deleted for key transcriptional regulators (bcr1?/?, efg1?/?, cph1?/?, and efg1?/? cph1?/?) controlling the yeast-to-hypha switch revealed a crucial role for morphogenetic signaling through the Efg1 and, to a lesser extent, the Bcr1 pathways in contributing to vaginitis immunopathology. Furthermore, overexpression of transcription factors NRG1 and UME6, to maintain yeast and hyphal morphologies, respectively, confirmed the importance of morphogenesis in generating innate immune responses in vivo. These results highlight the yeast-to-hypha switch and the associated morphogenetic response as important virulence components for the immunopathogenesis of Candida vaginitis, with implications for transition from benign colonization to symptomatic infection. PMID:24478069

  10. H2AX is required for cell cycle arrest via the p53/p21 pathway.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Michalis; Jurvansuu, Jaana; Beard, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Phosphorylation of H2AX (gammaH2AX) is an early sign of DNA damage induced by replication stalling. However, the role of H2AX in the repair of this type of DNA damage is still unclear. In this study, we used an inactivated adeno-associated virus (AAV) to induce a stalled replication fork signal and investigate the function of gammaH2AX. The cellular response to AAV provides a unique model to study gammaH2AX function, because the infection causes pannuclear H2AX phosphorylation without any signs of damage to the host genome. We found that pannuclear gammaH2AX formation is a result of ATR overactivation and diffusion but is independent of ATM. The inhibition of H2AX with RNA interference or the use of H2AX-deficient cells showed that gammaH2AX is dispensable for the formation and maintenance of DNA repair foci induced by stalled replication. However, in the absence of H2AX, the AAV-containing cells showed proteosome-dependent degradation of p21, followed by caspase-dependent mitotic catastrophe. In contrast, H2AX-proficient cells as well as H2AX-complemented H2AX(-/-) cells reacted by increasing p21 levels and arresting the cell cycle. The results establish a new role for H2AX in the p53/p21 pathway and indicate that H2AX is required for p21-induced cell cycle arrest after replication stalling. PMID:19273588

  11. NFAT5 regulates the canonical Wnt pathway and is required for cardiomyogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Atsuo; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ogata, Takehiro; Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFAT5 protein expression is downregulated during cardiomyogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NFAT5 function suppresses canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NFAT5 function attenuates mesodermal induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFAT5 function is required for cardiomyogenesis. -- Abstract: While nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a transcription factor implicated in osmotic stress response, is suggested to be involved in other processes such as migration and proliferation, its role in cardiomyogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells, and observed that it was abundantly expressed in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells, and its protein expression was significantly downregulated by enhanced proteasomal degradation during DMSO-induced cardiomyogenesis. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of NFAT5 markedly attenuated cardiomyogenesis, which was associated with the inhibition of mesodermal differentiation. TOPflash reporter assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of canonical Wnt signaling was activated prior to mesodermal differentiation, and this activation was markedly attenuated by NFAT5 inhibition. Pharmacological activation of canonical Wnt signaling by [2 Prime Z, 3 Prime E]-6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (BIO) restored Brachyury expression in NFAT5DN-expressing cells. Inhibition of NFAT5 markedly attenuated Wnt3 and Wnt3a induction. Expression of Dkk1 and Cerberus1, which are secreted Wnt antagonists, was also inhibited by NFAT5 inhibition. Thus, endogenous NFAT5 regulates the coordinated expression of Wnt ligands and antagonists, which are essential for cardiomyogenesis through the canonical Wnt pathway. These results demonstrated a novel role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of stem cells.

  12. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yingjie; Yang, Xu; Yang, Wentian; Charbonneau, Cherie; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stress regulates development by modulating cell signaling and gene expression. However, the cytoplasmic components mediating mechanotransduction remain unclear. In this study, elimination of muscle contraction during chicken embryonic development resulted in a reduction in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the cartilaginous growth plate. Inhibition of mTOR activity led to significant inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation, cartilage tissue growth, and expression of chondrogenic genes, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a critical mediator of mechanotransduction. Conversely, cyclic loading (1 Hz, 5% matrix deformation) of embryonic chicken growth plate chondrocytes in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolding induced sustained activation of mTOR. Mechanical activation of mTOR occurred in serum-free medium, indicating that it is independent of growth factor or nutrients. Treatment of chondrocytes with Rapa abolished mechanical activation of cell proliferation and Ihh gene expression. Cyclic loading of chondroprogenitor cells deficient in SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) further enhanced mechanical activation of mTOR, cell proliferation, and chondrogenic gene expression. This result suggests that Shp2 is an antagonist of mechanotransduction through inhibition of mTOR activity. Our data demonstrate that mechanical activation of mTOR is necessary for cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, and cartilage growth during bone development, and that mTOR is an essential mechanotransduction component modulated by Shp2 in the cytoplasm.Guan, Y., Yang, X., Yang, W., Charbonneau, C., Chen, Q. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development. PMID:25002119

  13. Ephrin-B Reverse Signaling is Required for Formation of Strictly Contralateral Auditory Brainstem Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Candace Y.; Nakamura, Paul A.; Luk, Samantha O.; Miko, Ilona J.; Henkemeyer, Mark; Cramer, Karina S.

    2010-01-01

    Specificity in the projections from the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) is essential for sound localization. Globular bushy cells project from the VCN to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) on the contralateral, but not the ipsilateral side of the brainstem, terminating in large synaptic endings known as calyces of Held. The precision in this pathway is critical for the computation of interaural intensity differences, which are used in sound localization. The mechanisms underlying the development of this projection are not completely understood. In this study, we tested the role of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands in limiting the VCN-MNTB projection to the contralateral side. We found that mice with null mutations in EphB2 and EphB3 had normal contralateral VCN-MNTB projections, yet these projections also had significant numbers of aberrant collateral branches in the ipsilateral MNTB. These aberrant branches ended in calyceal terminations in MNTB. Similar ipsilateral projections were seen in mice with mutations in ephrin-B2. In both of these mouse lines, ipsilateral projections formed concurrently with normal contralateral projections, and were not eliminated later in development. However, mice with mutations that affected only the intracellular domain of EphB2 had normal, strictly contralateral VCN-MNTB projections. Expression studies showed that EphB2 is expressed in VCN axons and ephrin-B2 is expressed in MNTB. Together, these data suggest that EphB2-ephrin-B2 reverse signaling is required to prevent the formation of ipsilateral VCN-MNTB projections, and that this signaling operates non-cell autonomously. PMID:20660266

  14. Axon regeneration requires coordinate activation of p38 and JNK MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Nix, Paola; Hisamoto, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Bastiani, Michael

    2011-06-28

    Signaling pathways essential for axon regeneration, but not for neuron development or function, are particularly well suited targets for therapeutic intervention. We find that the parallel PMK-3(p38) and KGB-1(JNK) MAPK pathways must be coordinately activated to promote axon regeneration. Axon regeneration fails if the activity of either pathway is absent. These two MAPKs are coregulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase RPM-1(Phr1) via targeted degradation of the MAPKKKs DLK-1 and MLK-1 and by the MAPK phosphatase VHP-1(MKP7), which negatively regulates both PMK-3(p38) and KGB-1(JNK). PMID:21670305

  15. MicroRNA-145: a potent tumour suppressor that regulates multiple cellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shi-Yun; Wang, Rui; Chen, Long-Bang

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous, small (18–25 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs, which regulate genes expression by directly binding to the 3′-untranslated regions of the target messenger RNAs. Emerging evidence shows that alteration of microRNAs is involved in cancer development. MicroRNA-145 is commonly down-regulated in many types of cancer, regulating various cellular processes, such as the cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and invasion, by targeting multiple oncogenes. This review aims to summarize the recent published literature on the role of microRNA-145 in regulating tumourigenesis and progression, and explore its potential for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. PMID:25124875

  16. TCR ITAM multiplicity is required for the generation of follicular helper T-cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, SuJin; Palin, Amy C; Li, LiQi; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Jan; Herz, Jasmin; Tubo, Noah; Chu, Hamlet; Pepper, Marion; Lesourne, Renaud; Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Pinkhasov, Julia; Jenkins, Marc K; McGavern, Dorian; Love, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex contains 10 copies of a di-tyrosine Immunoreceptor-Tyrosine-based-Activation-Motif (ITAM) that initiates TCR signalling by recruiting protein tyrosine kinases. ITAM multiplicity amplifies TCR signals, but the importance of this capability for T-cell responses remains undefined. Most TCR ITAMs (6 of 10) are contributed by the CD3ζ subunits. We generated 'knock-in' mice that express non-signalling CD3ζ chains in lieu of wild-type CD3ζ. Here we demonstrate that ITAM multiplicity is important for the development of innate-like T-cells and follicular helper T-cells, events that are known to require strong/sustained TCR-ligand interactions, but is not essential for 'general' T-cell responses including proliferation and cytokine production or for the generation of a diverse antigen-reactive TCR repertoire. PMID:25959494

  17. TCR ITAM multiplicity is required for the generation of follicular helper T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, SuJin; Palin, Amy C.; Li, LiQi; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Jan; Herz, Jasmin; Tubo, Noah; Chu, Hamlet; Pepper, Marion; Lesourne, Renaud; Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Pinkhasov, Julia; Jenkins, Marc K.; McGavern, Dorian; Love, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex contains 10 copies of a di-tyrosine Immunoreceptor-Tyrosine-based-Activation-Motif (ITAM) that initiates TCR signalling by recruiting protein tyrosine kinases. ITAM multiplicity amplifies TCR signals, but the importance of this capability for T-cell responses remains undefined. Most TCR ITAMs (6 of 10) are contributed by the CD3? subunits. We generated knock-in' mice that express non-signalling CD3? chains in lieu of wild-type CD3?. Here we demonstrate that ITAM multiplicity is important for the development of innate-like T-cells and follicular helper T-cells, events that are known to require strong/sustained TCRligand interactions, but is not essential for general' T-cell responses including proliferation and cytokine production or for the generation of a diverse antigen-reactive TCR repertoire. PMID:25959494

  18. Multiple Propionyl Coenzyme A-Supplying Pathways for Production of the Bioplastic Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) in Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Hou, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Ai, Guomin; Li, Ming; Cai, Shuangfeng; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zejian; Zhang, Siliang; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Zhou, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Haloferax mediterranei is able to accumulate the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with more than 10 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) from unrelated carbon sources. However, the pathways that produce propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), an important precursor of 3HV monomer, have not yet been determined. Bioinformatic analysis of H. mediterranei genome indicated that this strain uses multiple pathways for propionyl-CoA biosynthesis, including the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the aspartate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and a novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. Cofeeding of pathway intermediates and inactivating pathway-specific genes supported that these four pathways were indeed involved in the biosynthesis of 3HV monomer. The novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway that couples CO2 assimilation with PHBV biosynthesis was further confirmed by analysis of 13C positional enrichment in 3HV. Notably, 13C metabolic flux analysis showed that the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway (53.0% flux) and the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway (30.6% flux) were the two main generators of propionyl-CoA from glucose. In addition, genetic perturbation on the transcriptome of the ΔphaEC mutant (deficient in PHBV accumulation) revealed that a considerable number of genes in the four propionyl-CoA synthetic pathways were significantly downregulated. We determined for the first time four propionyl-CoA-supplying pathways for PHBV production in haloarchaea, particularly including a new 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. These results would provide novel strategies for the production of PHBV with controllable 3HV molar fraction. PMID:23435886

  19. Multiple propionyl coenzyme A-supplying pathways for production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Hou, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Ai, Guomin; Li, Ming; Cai, Shuangfeng; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zejian; Zhang, Siliang; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2013-05-01

    Haloferax mediterranei is able to accumulate the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with more than 10 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) from unrelated carbon sources. However, the pathways that produce propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), an important precursor of 3HV monomer, have not yet been determined. Bioinformatic analysis of H. mediterranei genome indicated that this strain uses multiple pathways for propionyl-CoA biosynthesis, including the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the aspartate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and a novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. Cofeeding of pathway intermediates and inactivating pathway-specific genes supported that these four pathways were indeed involved in the biosynthesis of 3HV monomer. The novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway that couples CO2 assimilation with PHBV biosynthesis was further confirmed by analysis of (13)C positional enrichment in 3HV. Notably, (13)C metabolic flux analysis showed that the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway (53.0% flux) and the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway (30.6% flux) were the two main generators of propionyl-CoA from glucose. In addition, genetic perturbation on the transcriptome of the ΔphaEC mutant (deficient in PHBV accumulation) revealed that a considerable number of genes in the four propionyl-CoA synthetic pathways were significantly downregulated. We determined for the first time four propionyl-CoA-supplying pathways for PHBV production in haloarchaea, particularly including a new 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. These results would provide novel strategies for the production of PHBV with controllable 3HV molar fraction. PMID:23435886

  20. Multiple Smaller Missions as a Direct Pathway to Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Graham, L. D.; Jones, J. H.; Lederer, S. M.; Ming, D.; Seaman, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bourke, M. C.; Crown, D. A.; Fries, M.; Knudson, A. T.; Michalski, J.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Vaniman, D.; Weitz, C. M.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Knauth, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries by the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft include multiple, tantalizing astrobiological targets representing both past and present environments on Mars. The most desirable path to Mars Sample Return (MSR) would be to collect and return samples from that site which provides the clearest examples of the variety of rock types considered a high priority for sample return (pristine igneous, sedimentary, and hydrothermal). Here we propose an MSR architecture in which the next steps (potentially launched in 2018) would entail a series of smaller missions, including caching, to multiple landing sites to verify the presence of high priority sample return targets through in situ analyses. This alternative architecture to one flagship-class sample caching mission to a single site would preserve a direct path to MSR as stipulated by the Planetary Decadal Survey, while permitting investigation of diverse deposit types and providing comparison of the site of returned samples to other aqueous environments on early Mars

  1. The Requirement for Sodium as a Micronutrient by Species Having the C4 Dicarboxylic Photosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, P. F.; Crossland, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Six species having characteristics of plants with the C4 dicarboxylic photosynthetic pathway, Echinochloa utilis L. Ohwi et Yabuno (Japanese millet), Cynodon dactylon L. (Bermuda grass), Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. Early splendour, Kochia childsii Hort., and Portulaca grandiflora Hook (rose moss), responded decisively to 0.1 milliequivalent per liter NaCl supplied to their culture solutions initially containing less than 0.08 microequivalent per liter Na. Chlorosis and necrosis occurred in leaves of plants not receiving sodium. Portulaca failed to set flower in the sodium-deficient cultures. Under similar conditions Poa pratensis L. (Kentucky blue grass) having characteristics of the C3 photosynthetic pathway made normal growth and did not respond to the addition of sodium. It is concluded from these results and previously reported work that sodium is generally essential for species having the C4 pathway but not for species with the C3 pathway. Images PMID:16658050

  2. Novel inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor VX-944 induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells primarily via caspase-independent AIF/Endo G pathway.

    PubMed

    Ishitsuka, Kenji; Hideshima, Teru; Hamasaki, Makoto; Raje, Noopur; Kumar, Shaji; Podar, Klaus; Le Gouill, Steven; Shiraishi, Norihiko; Yasui, Hiroshi; Roccaro, Aldo M; Tai, Yu-Zu; Chauhan, Dharminder; Fram, Robert; Tamura, Kazuo; Jain, Jugnu; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2005-09-01

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a rate-limiting enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides from IMP. VX-944 (Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA, USA) is a small-molecule, selective, noncompetitive inhibitor directed against human IMPDH. In this report, we show that VX-944 inhibits in vitro growth of human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines via induction of apoptosis. Interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1, or co-culture with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) do not protect against VX-944-induced MM cell growth inhibition. VX-944 induced apoptosis in MM cell lines with only modest activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9. Furthermore, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not inhibit VX-944-induced apoptosis and cell death. During VX-944-induced apoptosis, expressions of Bax and Bak were enhanced, and both apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (Endo G) were released from the mitochondria to cytosol, suggesting that VX-944 triggers apoptosis in MM cells primarily via a caspase-independent, Bax/AIF/Endo G pathway. Importantly, VX-944 augments the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and melphalan even in the presence of BMSCs. Taken together, our data demonstrate a primarily non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway triggered by VX-944, thereby providing a rationale to enhance MM cell cytotoxicity by combining this agent with conventional agents which trigger caspase activation. PMID:15940263

  3. Plasma Membrane Abundance of Human Aquaporin 5 Is Dynamically Regulated by Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Philip; Öberg, Fredrik; Sjöhamn, Jennie; Hedfalk, Kristina; Bill, Roslyn M.; Conner, Alex C.; Conner, Matthew T.; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin membrane protein channels mediate cellular water flow. Human aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is highly expressed in the respiratory system and secretory glands where it facilitates the osmotically-driven generation of pulmonary secretions, saliva, sweat and tears. Dysfunctional trafficking of AQP5 has been implicated in several human disease states, including Sjögren’s syndrome, bronchitis and cystic fibrosis. In order to investigate how the plasma membrane expression levels of AQP5 are regulated, we studied real-time translocation of GFP-tagged AQP5 in HEK293 cells. We show that AQP5 plasma membrane abundance in transfected HEK293 cells is rapidly and reversibly regulated by at least three independent mechanisms involving phosphorylation at Ser156, protein kinase A activity and extracellular tonicity. The crystal structure of a Ser156 phosphomimetic mutant indicates that its involvement in regulating AQP5 membrane abundance is not mediated by a conformational change of the carboxy-terminus. We suggest that together these pathways regulate cellular water flow. PMID:26569106

  4. Multiple independent regulatory pathways control UBI4 expression after heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simon, J R; Treger, J M; McEntee, K

    1999-02-01

    Transcription of the polyubiquitin gene UBI4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly induced by a variety of environmental stresses, such as heat shock, nutrient depletion and exposure to DNA-damaging agents. This transcriptional response of UBI4 is likely to be the primary mechanism for increasing the pool of ubiquitin for degradation of stress-damaged proteins. Deletion and promoter fusion studies of the 5' regulatory sequences indicated that two different elements, heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response element (STREs), contributed independently to heat shock regulation of the UBI4 gene. In the absence of HSEs, STRE sequences localized to the intervals -264 to -238 and -215 to -183 were needed for stress control of transcription after heat shock. Site-directed mutagenesis of the STRE (AG4) at -252 to -248 abolished heat shock induction of UBI4 transcription. Northern analysis demonstrated that cells containing either a temperature-sensitive HSF or non-functional Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors induced high levels of UBI4 transcripts after heat shock. In cells deficient in both heat stress pathways, heat-induced UBI4 transcript levels were considerably lower but not abolished, suggesting a role for another factor(s) in stress control of its expression. PMID:10048026

  5. Evidence for multiple pathways of sup 125 I-insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin internalization has been characterized frequently as occurring by the coated pit pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The present study in rat hepatocytes demonstrates that insulin internalization is, in part, receptor-mediated, but also occurs by nonreceptor-mediated or fluid-phase endocytosis. Endocytosis was probed with four perturbations: depletion of metabolic energy with anoxia, inhibition of endocytosis with phenylarsine oxide, disruption of coated pits with hyperosmolar sucrose, and inhibition of receptor recycling or ligand-receptor dissociation with monensin. Internalization of {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor and {sup 125}I-asialofetuin was compared to {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Pretreatment of cells with anoxia or hyperosmolarity inhibited {sup 125}I-insulin internalization by 40%; pretreatment with phenylarsine oxide resulted in inhibition by 54%. Monensin has no effect on uptake or degradation of a high insulin concentration, but inhibited degradation of a low insulin concentration resulting in intracellular accumulation of insulin. In contract, all four perturbations inhibited {sup 125}I-asialofetuin internalization by greater than 90%. Phenylarsine oxide almost completely abolished {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor uptake; the other perturbations caused partial inhibition. Competition studies demonstrated that insulin internalization was receptor-mediated over a wide concentration range.

  6. Multiple pathways are involved in DNA degradation during keratinocyte terminal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Tanaka, M; Makino, T; Motoyama, A; Miyai, M; Tsuboi, R; Hibino, T

    2014-01-01

    Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. PMID:24743736

  7. Multiple Pathways Suppress Telomere Addition to DNA Breaks in the Drosophila Germline

    PubMed Central

    Beaucher, Michelle; Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Amariei, Flavia; Rong, Yikang S.

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being repaired as double-strand breaks (DSBs). Just as DSB repair is suppressed at telomeres, de novo telomere addition is suppressed at the site of DSBs. To identify factors responsible for this suppression, we developed an assay to monitor de novo telomere formation in Drosophila, an organism in which telomeres can be established on chromosome ends with essentially any sequence. Germline expression of the I-SceI endonuclease resulted in precise telomere formation at its cut site with high efficiency. Using this assay, we quantified the frequency of telomere formation in different genetic backgrounds with known or possible defects in DNA damage repair. We showed that disruption of DSB repair factors (Rad51 or DNA ligase IV) or DSB sensing factors (ATRIP or MDC1) resulted in more efficient telomere formation. Interestingly, partial disruption of factors that normally regulate telomere protection (ATM or NBS) also led to higher frequencies of telomere formation, suggesting that these proteins have opposing roles in telomere maintenance vs. establishment. In the ku70 mutant background, telomere establishment was preceded by excessive degradation of DSB ends, which were stabilized upon telomere formation. Most strikingly, the removal of ATRIP caused a dramatic increase in telomeric retrotransposon attachment to broken ends. Our study identifies several pathways thatsuppress telomere addition at DSBs, paving the way for future mechanistic studies. PMID:22446318

  8. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor: Multiple Anticoagulant Activities for a Single Protein.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is an anticoagulant protein that inhibits early phases of the procoagulant response. Alternatively spliced isoforms of TFPI are differentially expressed by endothelial cells and human platelets and plasma. The TFPI? isoform localizes to the endothelium surface where it is a potent inhibitor of TF-factor VIIa complexes that initiate blood coagulation. The TFPI? isoform is present in platelets. TFPI? contains a stretch of 9 amino acids nearly identical to those found in the B-domain of factor V that are well conserved in mammals. These amino acids provide exosite binding to activated factor V, which allows for TFPI? to inhibit prothrombinase during the initiation phase of blood coagulation. Endogenous inhibition at this point in the coagulation cascade was only recently recognized and has provided a biochemical rationale to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying several clinical disorders. These include the east Texas bleeding disorder that is caused by production of an altered form of factor V with high affinity for TFPI and a paradoxical procoagulant effect of heparins. In addition, these findings have led to ideas for pharmacological targeting of TFPI that may reduce bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:26603155

  9. Crizotinib induces autophagy through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway in multiple lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Danchen; Jiang, Liming; Jing, Zhao; Yao, Junlin; Li, Hongsen; Xie, Jiansheng; Wang, Zhanggui; Pan, Qin; Pan, Hongming; Huang, Wendong; Han, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved survival pathway in eukaryote and is frequently upregulated in cancer cells after chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Thus induction of autophagy has emerged as a drug resistance mechanism. In this study, we found that crizotinib induced a high level of autophagy in lung cancer cells through inhibition of STAT3. Ectopic expression of wild-type or constitutive activated STAT3 significantly suppressed the effect of crizotinib on autophagy. Interestingly, crizotinib-mediated inhibition of STAT3 is in a step-wise manner. Firstly it inhibited cytoplasmic STAT3, which leads to the phosphorylation of EIF2A, then inhibited nuclear STAT3, which leads to the downregulation of BCL-2. Cell death induced by crizotinib was greatly enhanced after the inhibition of autophagy by the pharmacological inhibitors or shRNAs against Beclin-1. Moreover, the autophagy inhibitor HCQ significantly augmented the anti-tumor effect of crizotinib in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, crizotinib can induce cytoprotective autophagy by suppression of STAT3 in lung cancer cells. Thus, autophagy inhibition represents a promising approach to improve the efficacy of crizotinib in the treatment of targeted lung cancer patients. PMID:26384345

  10. Cell differentiation along multiple pathways accompanied by changes in histone acetylation status.

    PubMed

    Legartov, So?a; Kozubek, Stanislav; Franek, Michal; Zdrhal, Zbyn?k; Lochmanov, Gabriela; Martinet, Nadine; Brtov, Eva

    2014-04-01

    Post-translational modification of histones is fundamental to the regulation of basic nuclear processes and subsequent cellular events, including differentiation. In this study, we analyzed acetylated forms of histones H2A, H2B, and H4 during induced differentiation in mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) embryonic stem cells and during induced enterocytic differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Endoderm-like differentiation of mESCs induced by retinoic acid and enterocytic differentiation induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate were accompanied by increased mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of histone H2B and a pronounced increase in di- and tri-acetylation of histone H4. In enterocytes, mono-acetylation of histone H2A also increased and tetra-acetylation of histone H4 appeared only after induction of this differentiation pathway. During differentiation of hESCs, we observed increased mono-acetylation and decreased tri-acetylation of H2B. Mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of H4 were reduced, manifested by a significant increase in nonacetylated H4 histones. Levels of acetylated histones increased during induced differentiation in mESCs and during histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced enterocytic differentiation, whereas differentiation of human ESCs was associated with reduced acetylation of histones H2B and H4. PMID:24697692

  11. A Hybrid Drug Limits Resistance by Evading the Action of the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kathy K; Stone, Laura K; Lieberman, Tami D; Shavit, Michal; Baasov, Timor; Kishony, Roy

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid drugs are a promising strategy to address the growing problem of drug resistance, but the mechanism by which they modulate the evolution of resistance is poorly understood. Integrating high-throughput resistance measurements and genomic sequencing, we compared Escherichia coli populations evolved in a hybrid antibiotic that links ciprofloxacin and neomycin B with populations evolved in combinations of the component drugs. We find that populations evolved in the hybrid gain less resistance than those evolved in an equimolar mixture of the hybrid's components, in part because the hybrid evades resistance mediated by the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon. Furthermore, we find that the ciprofloxacin moiety of the hybrid inhibits bacterial growth whereas the neomycin B moiety diminishes the effectiveness of mar activation. More generally, comparing the phenotypic and genotypic paths to resistance across different drug treatments can pinpoint unique properties of new compounds that limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:26538141

  12. Yeast Pescadillo is required for multiple activities during 60S ribosomal subunit synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Oeffinger, Marlene; Leung, Anthony; Lamond, Angus; Tollervey, David; Lueng, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    The Pescadillo protein was identified via a developmental defect and implicated in cell cycle progression. Here we report that human Pescadillo and its yeast homolog (Yph1p or Nop7p) are localized to the nucleolus. Depletion of Nop7p leads to nuclear accumulation of pre-60S particles, indicating a defect in subunit export, and it interacts genetically with a tagged form of the ribosomal protein Rpl25p, consistent with a role in subunit assembly. Two pre-rRNA processing pathways generate alternative forms of the 5.8S rRNA, designated 5.8S(L) and 5.8Ss. In cells depleted for Nop7p, the 27SA3 pre-rRNA accumulated, whereas later processing intermediates and the mature 5.8Ss rRNA were depleted. Less depletion was seen for the 5.8S(L) pathway. TAP-tagged Nop7p coprecipitated precursors to both 5.8S(L) and 5.8Ss but not the mature rRNAs. We conclude that Nop7p is required for efficient exonucleolytic processing of the 27SA3 pre-rRNA and has additional functions in 60S subunit assembly and transport. Nop7p is a component of at least three different pre-60S particles, and we propose that it carries out distinct functions in each of these complexes. PMID:12022229

  13. Multiple early victimization experiences as a pathway to explain physical health disparities among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Judith P; Zou, Christopher; Blosnich, John

    2015-05-01

    Prior research shows that health disparities exist between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. We extend the literature by testing if the higher prevalence of childhood victimization experienced by sexual minority individuals accounts for lifetime health disparities. Heterosexual (n=422) and sexual minority (n=681) participants were recruited on-line in North America. Respondents completed surveys about their childhood victimization experiences (i.e., maltreatment by adults and peer victimization) and lifetime physician-diagnosed physical health conditions. Results showed that sexual minority individuals experienced higher prevalence of childhood victimization and lifetime physical health problems than heterosexuals. Mediation analyses indicated that maltreatment by adults and peer bullying explained the health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals. This study is the first to show that multiple childhood victimization experiences may be one pathway to explain lifetime physical health disparities. Intervention programs reducing the perpetration of violence against sexual minority individuals are critical to reduce health care needs related to victimization experiences. PMID:25864147

  14. Inflammatory Proprotein Convertase-Matrix Metalloproteinase Proteolytic Pathway in Antigen-presenting Cells as a Step to Autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis*

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Remacle, Albert G.; Savinov, Alexei Y.; Chernov, Andrei V.; Cieplak, Piotr; Radichev, Ilian A.; Williams, Roy; Shiryaeva, Tatiana N.; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Postnova, Tatiana I.; Ratnikov, Boris I.; Eroshkin, Alexei M.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system with autoimmune etiology. Susceptibility to MS is linked to viral and bacterial infections. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role in the fragmentation of myelin basic protein (MBP) and demyelination. The splice variants of the single MBP gene are expressed in the oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system (classic MBP) and in the immune cells (Golli-MBPs). Our data suggest that persistent inflammation caused by environmental risk factors is a step to MS. We have discovered biochemical evidence suggesting the presence of the inflammatory proteolytic pathway leading to MS. The pathway involves the self-activated furin and PC2 proprotein convertases and membrane type-6 MMP (MT6-MMP/MMP-25) that is activated by furin/PC2. These events are followed by MMP-25 proteolysis of the Golli-MBP isoforms in the immune system cells and stimulation of the specific autoimmune T cell clones. It is likely that the passage of these autoimmune T cell clones through the disrupted blood-brain barrier to the brain and the recognition of neuronal, classic MBP causes inflammation leading to the further up-regulation of the activity of the multiple individual MMPs, the massive cleavage of MBP in the brain, demyelination, and MS. In addition to the cleavage of Golli-MBPs, MMP-25 proteolysis readily inactivates crystallin ?B that is a suppressor of MS. These data suggest that MMP-25 plays an important role in MS pathology and that MMP-25, especially because of its restricted cell/tissue expression pattern and cell surface/lipid raft localization, is a promising drug target in MS. PMID:19726693

  15. Compound K, a Ginsenoside Metabolite, Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth via Multiple Pathways Including p53-p21 Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Li, Zejuan; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Bissonnette, Marc; Musch, Mark W; Chang, Eugene B; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-01-01

    Compound K (20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC. PMID:23434653

  16. The Anthelmintic Drug Niclosamide Inhibits the Proliferative Activity of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Targeting Multiple Signal Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhan; Nan, Guoxin; Yan, Zhengjian; Zeng, Liyi; Deng, Youlin; Ye, Jixing; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya; Wang, Jing; Wei, Qiang; Geng, Nisha; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Guolin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Wang, Zhongliang

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone with a high propensity for lung metastasis. Despite significant advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapeutic regimens over the past few decades, there has been minimal improvement in OS patient survival. There is an urgent need to identify novel antitumor agents to treat human OS. Repurposing the clinically-used drugs represents a rapid and effective approach to the development of new anticancer agents. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide has recently been identified as a potential anticancer agent in human cancers. Here, we investigate if niclosamide can be developed as an anti-OS drug. We find that niclosamide can effectively inhibit OS cell proliferation and survival at low micromolar concentrations. Cell migration and wounding closure are significantly inhibited by niclosamide. Niclosamide induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell cycle progression in OS cells. Analysis of niclosamide's effect on 11 cancer-related signal pathway reporters reveals that three of them, the E2F1, AP1, and c-Myc-responsive reporters, are significantly inhibited. To a lesser extent, the HIF1?, TCF/LEF, CREB, NF?B, Smad/TGF?, and Rbpj/Notch pathway reporters are also inhibited, while the NFAT and Wnt/?-catenin reporters are not significantly affected by niclosamide treatment. We demonstrate that the expression of c-Fos, c-Jun. E2F1, and c-Myc in OS cells is effectively inhibited by niclosamide. Furthermore, niclosamide is shown to effectively inhibit tumor growth in a mouse xenograft tumor model of human osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that niclosamide may exert its anticancer activity in OS cells by targeting multiple signaling pathways. Future investigations should be directed to exploring the antitumor activity in clinically relevant OS models and ultimately in clinical trials. PMID:26118906

  17. Thalidomide decreases gelatinase production by malignant B lymphoid cell lines through disruption of multiple integrin-mediated signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Marta; Lozano, Ester; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; Vilardell, Carme; Cibeira, Maria-Teresa; Esparza, Jordi; Izco, Nora; Blad, Joan; Cid, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Thalidomide and its analogs are effective agents in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Since gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9) play a crucial role in tumor progression, we explored the effect of thalidomide on gelatinase production by malignant B lymphoid cell lines. Design and Methods We investigated the effect of therapeutic doses of thalidomide on integrin-mediated production of gelatinases by malignant B lymphoid cell lines by gelatin zymography, western-blot, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and invasive capacity through Matrigel-coated Boyden chambers. We also explored the effect of thalidomide on the activation status of the main signaling pathways involved in this process. Results Thalidomide strongly inhibited gelatinase production by B-cell lines and primary myeloma cells in response to fibronectin, the most efficient gelatinase inducer identified in lymphoid cells. Thalidomide disrupted integrin-mediated signaling pathways involved in gelatinase induction and release, such as Src and MAP-kinase ERK activation, resulting in decreased cell motility and invasiveness. Unexpectedly, treatment with thalidomide elicited an increase in fibronectin-induced Akt phosphorylation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase-independent pathways since thalidomide decreased fibronectin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase phosphorylation and reversed the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation achieved by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Conclusions Disruption of integrin-mediated signaling may be an important mechanism through which thalidomide and its analogs impair tumor cell interactions with the microenvironment. The unexpected effects of thalidomide on Akt activation indicate the need for further studies to elucidate whether the interference with Akt downstream effects would synergize with the anti-tumor activity of thalidomide. PMID:19815837

  18. Multiple pathways for l-methionine transport in brush-border membrane vesicles from chicken jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-García, Juan F; Torras-Llort, Mònica; Ferrer, Ruth; Moretó, Miquel

    1998-01-01

    The intestinal transport of L-methionine has been investigated in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from the jejunum of 6-week-old chickens. L-Methionine influx is mediated by passive diffusion and by Na+-dependent and Na+-independent carrier-mediated mechanisms. In the absence of Na+, cis-inhibition experiments with neutral and cationic amino acids indicate that two transport components are involved in L-methionine influx: one sensitive to L-lysine and the other sensitive to 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). The L-lysine-sensitive flux is strongly inhibited by L-phenylalanine and can be broken down into two pathways, one sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and the other to L-glutamine and L-cystine. The kinetics of L-methionine influx in Na+-free conditions is described by a model involving three transport systems, here called a,b and c: systems a and b are able to interact with cationic amino acids but differ in their kinetic characteristics (system a: Km= 2.2 ± 0.3 μM and Vmax= 0.13 ± 0.005 pmol (mg protein)−1 (2 s)−1; system b: Km= 3.0 ± 0.3 mM and Vmax= 465 ± 4.3 pmol (mg protein)−1 (2 s)−1); system c is specific for neutral amino acids, has a Km of 1.29 ± 0.08 mM and a Vmax of 229 ± 5.0 pmol (mg protein)−1 (2 s)−1 and is sensitive to BCH inhibition. The Na+-dependent component can be inhibited by BCH and L-phenylalanine but cannot interact either with cationic amino acids or with α-(methylamino)isobutyrate (MeAIB). The kinetic analysis of L-methionine influx under a Na+ gradient confirms the activity of the above described transport systems a and b. System a is not affected by the presence of Na+ while system b shows a 3-fold decrease in the Michaelis constant and a 1.4-fold increase in Vmax. In the presence of Na+, the BCH-sensitive component can be subdivided into two pathways: one corresponds to system c and the other is Na+ dependent and has a Km of 0.64 ± 0.013 mM and a Vmax of 391 ± 2.3 pmol (mg protein)−1 (2 s)−1. It is concluded that L-methionine is transported in the chicken jejunum by four transport systems, one with functional characteristics similar to those of system bo, + (system a); a second (system b) similar to system y+, which we suggest naming y+m to account for its high Vmax for L-methionine transport in the absence of Na+; a third (system c) which is Na+ independent and has similar properties to system L; and a fourth showing Na+ dependence and tentatively identified with system B. PMID:9575301

  19. Methanolic Extract of Pien Tze Huang Induces Apoptosis Signaling in Human Osteosarcoma MG63 Cells via Multiple Pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Zhang, Li; Hong, Zhenqiang; Zheng, Haiyin; Li, Nan; Gao, Hongjian; Chen, Boyi; Zhao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Pien Tze Huang (PZH) is a well-known traditional Chinese formulation and has long been used as an alternative remedy for cancers in China and Southeast Asia. Recently, antitumor activity of PZH on several tumors have been increasingly reported, but its antitumor activity and the possible action mechanism on osteosarcoma remains unclear. After treatment with PZH, cell viability of MG-63 cells was dose-dependently inhibited compared to control cells. Moreover, a DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis was observed in the cells treated with PZH, especially 500 μg/mL, 750 μg/mL. Further investigation showed that PZH treatments led to activation of caspase cascades and changes of apoptotic mediators Bcl2, Bax, and Bcl-xL expression. In addition, our results suggested that PZH activated PI3K/Akt signal pathway, and the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 were associated with the induction of apoptotic signaling. These results revealed that PZH possesses antitumoral activity on human osteosarcoma MG63 cells by manipulating apoptotic signaling and multiple pathways. It is suggested that PZH alone or combined with regular antitumor drugs may be beneficial as osteosarcoma treatments. PMID:26938521

  20. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H.; Salomon, Christine E.; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer. PMID:26975752

  1. Hypoxia-induced MIR155 is a potent autophagy inducer by targeting multiple players in the MTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Gang; Xie, Weidong; Liu, Zhenyan; Xu, Wei; Lao, Yuanzhi; Huang, Nunu; Cui, Kai; Liao, Meijian; He, Jie; Jiang, Yuyang; Yang, Burton B; Xu, Hongxi; Xu, Naihan; Zhang, Yaou

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia activates autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular catabolic process. Dysfunction in the autophagy pathway has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases, including cancer. Hypoxia induces upregulation of a specific set of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cell types. Here, we describe hypoxia-induced MIR155 as a potent inducer of autophagy. Enforced expression of MIR155 increases autophagic activity in human nasopharyngeal cancer and cervical cancer cells. Knocking down endogenous MIR155 inhibits hypoxia-induced autophagy. We demonstrated that MIR155 targets multiple players in MTOR signaling, including RHEB, RICTOR, and RPS6KB2. MIR155 suppresses target-gene expression by directly interacting with their 3? untranslated regions (UTRs), mutations of the binding sites abolish their MIR155 responsiveness. Furthermore, by downregulating MTOR signaling, MIR155 also attenuates cell proliferation and induces G1/S cell cycle arrest. Collectively, these data present a new role for MIR155 as a key regulator of autophagy via dysregulation of MTOR pathway. PMID:24262949

  2. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  3. Contact-dependent growth inhibition toxins exploit multiple independent cell-entry pathways.

    PubMed

    Willett, Julia L E; Gucinski, Grant C; Fatherree, Jackson P; Low, David A; Hayes, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems function to deliver toxins into neighboring bacterial cells. CDI+ bacteria export filamentous CdiA effector proteins, which extend from the inhibitor-cell surface to interact with receptors on neighboring target bacteria. Upon binding its receptor, CdiA delivers a toxin derived from its C-terminal region. CdiA C-terminal (CdiA-CT) sequences are highly variable between bacteria, reflecting the multitude of CDI toxin activities. Here, we show that several CdiA-CT regions are composed of two domains, each with a distinct function during CDI. The C-terminal domain typically possesses toxic nuclease activity, whereas the N-terminal domain appears to control toxin transport into target bacteria. Using genetic approaches, we identified ptsG, metI, rbsC, gltK/gltJ, yciB, and ftsH mutations that confer resistance to specific CdiA-CTs. The resistance mutations all disrupt expression of inner-membrane proteins, suggesting that these proteins are exploited for toxin entry into target cells. Moreover, each mutation only protects against inhibition by a subset of CdiA-CTs that share similar N-terminal domains. We propose that, following delivery of CdiA-CTs into the periplasm, the N-terminal domains bind specific inner-membrane receptors for subsequent translocation into the cytoplasm. In accord with this model, we find that CDI nuclease domains are modular payloads that can be redirected through different import pathways when fused to heterologous N-terminal "translocation domains." These results highlight the plasticity of CDI toxin delivery and suggest that the underlying translocation mechanisms could be harnessed to deliver other antimicrobial agents into Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26305955

  4. Multiple pathways are involved in drug resistance to doxorubicin in an osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Yamuna, Manoharan

    2008-03-01

    Drug resistance continues to be a stumbling block in achieving a better cure rate in several cancers, including osteosarcoma. To understand this, we developed a doxorubicin drug-resistant osteosarcoma cell line (143B-DR-DOX). This cell line had an IC50 of 75 micromol/l compared with the parental 143B cell line's IC50 of 0.4 micromol/l. Using a 22000 70-mer oligomicroarray, gene expression studies were performed in four replicates. Data analysis was done using the TIGR Microarray suite. Seventy-four genes were found to be either upregulated (21) or downregulated (53). Real time quantitative-PCR was done on 21 genes, which confirmed the gene expression data for 11 genes. Choosing the significant fold change criteria of greater than 2-fold upregulation or downregulation, four genes including multidrug resistance 1, interleukin-8, Krüppel-like factor 2 and MGC4175 were found to be upregulated and seven genes including epidermal growth factor receptor-coamplified and overexpressed protein, uridine phosphorylase 1, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 19, cytochrome C1, SEC, S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase and p53 were found to be downregulated. The data suggest that apart from the known gene alterations in doxorubicin resistance (multidrug resistance 1, topoisomerase IIbeta), others can also contribute to the drug-resistance phenotype. The involvement of interleukin-8 and Krüppel-like factor 2 suggests that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma pathway may also be involved in doxorubicin drug resistance in the 143B-DR-DOX cell line. PMID:18510171

  5. Diosgenin inhibits superoxide generation in FMLP-activated mouse neutrophils via multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Jia, R; Liu, Y; Gao, Y; Zeng, X; Kou, J; Yu, B

    2014-12-01

    Diosgenin possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Activated neutrophils produce high concentrations of the superoxide anion which is involved in the pathophysiology of inflammation-related diseases and cancer. In the present study, the inhibitory effect and possible mechanisms of diosgenin on superoxide generation were investigated in mouse bone marrow neutrophils. Diosgenin potently and concentration-dependently inhibited the extracellular and intracellular superoxide anion generation in Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)- activated neutrophils, with IC50 values of 0.50 0.08 ?M and 0.66 0.13 ?M, respectively. Such inhibition was not mediated by scavenging the superoxide anion or by a cytotoxic effect. Diosgenin inhibited the phosphorylation of p47phox and membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox, and thus blocking the assembly of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Moreover, cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and protein kinase A (PKA) expression were also effectively increased by diosgenin. It attenuated FMLP-induced increase of phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A (cPLA2), p21-activated kinase (PAK), Akt, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our data indicate that diosgenin exhibits inhibitory effects on superoxide anion production through the blockade of cAMP, PKA, cPLA2, PAK, Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways. The results may explain the clinical implications of diosgenin in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. PMID:25246240

  6. Visual Pathway Axonal Loss in Benign Multiple Sclerosis: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Galetta, Kristin M.; Graves, Jennifer; Talman, Lauren S.; Lile, Deacon J.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Galetta, Steven L.; Balcer, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Benign MS, traditionally defined as EDSS ≤3 and ≥15 years’ disease duration, is thought to follow a milder course. We determined the extent of visual pathway axonal loss by optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in a benign MS cohort, and examined the relation to vision and quality of life (QOL). Methods In this longitudinal study of vision in MS at three academic centers, a subset of patients with EDSS, visual function, OCT, and QOL assessments was analyzed. Low- and high-contrast letter acuity were performed to assess visual function. RNFL thickness was determined using OCT-3. QOL scales included the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and SF-36. Results Among 68 patients (135 eyes) studied longitudinally, 13 (26 eyes) had benign MS using criteria of EDSS ≤3 and ≥15 years disease duration. Benign MS eyes had as much RNFL thinning (-3.6 μm, P=0.0008 vs. baseline, paired t-test) as typical MS eyes (-3.3 μm, P<0.0001). Both groups had significant low-contrast acuity loss. Prior history of optic neuritis (ON) was more frequent in benign MS (69% vs. 33% of eyes). History of ON distinguished benign vs. typical MS (P=0.002) and correlated with RNFL thickness at baseline (P=0.002) and disease duration (P=0.03), but not EDSS (P=0.32, logistic regression). NEI-VFQ-25 scores were also worse for benign MS, accounting for age (75±21 vs. 88±11, P=0.005). Conclusions Patients with benign MS have RNFL axonal loss that is as marked as that of typical MS, and have reduced vision and QOL. While overall neurologic impairment is mild, visual dysfunction, not well-captured by the EDSS, accounts for a substantial degree of disability in benign MS. PMID:22269944

  7. Multiple Requirements of the Focal Dermal Hypoplasia Gene Porcupine during Ocular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bankhead, Elizabeth J.; Colasanto, Mary P.; Dyorich, Kayla M.; Jamrich, Milan; Murtaugh, L. Charles; Fuhrmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Wnt glycoproteins control key processes during development and disease by activating various downstream pathways. Wnt secretion requires post-translational modification mediated by the O-acyltransferase encoded by the Drosophila porcupine homolog gene (PORCN). In humans, PORCN mutations cause focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, or Goltz syndrome), an X-linked dominant multisystem birth defect that is frequently accompanied by ocular abnormalities such as coloboma, microphthalmia, or even anophthalmia. Although genetic ablation of Porcn in mouse has provided insight into the etiology of defects caused by ectomesodermal dysplasia in FDH, the requirement for Porcn and the actual Wnt ligands during eye development have been unknown. In this study, Porcn hemizygosity occasionally caused ocular defects reminiscent of FDH. Conditional inactivation of Porcn in periocular mesenchyme led to defects in mid- and hindbrain and in craniofacial development, but was insufficient to cause ocular abnormalities. However, a combination of conditional Porcn depletion in optic vesicle neuroectoderm, lens, and neural crestderived periocular mesenchyme induced severe eye abnormalities with high penetrance. In particular, we observed coloboma, transdifferentiation of the dorsal and ventral retinal pigment epithelium, defective optic cup periphery, and closure defects of the eyelid, as well as defective corneal morphogenesis. Thus, Porcn is required in both extraocular and neuroectodermal tissues to regulate distinct Wnt-dependent processes during morphogenesis of the posterior and anterior segments of the eye. PMID:25451153

  8. Tumefactive multiple sclerosis requiring emergency craniotomy: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Castao-Leon, Ana M; Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hernandez-Lain, Aurelio; Ramos, Ana; Lagares, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by focal neurological dysfunction with a relapsing and remitting course. Tumor-like presentation of MS (or "tumefactive"/"pseudotumoral" presentation) has been described before with a certain frequency; it consists of a large single plaque (>2cm) with presence of edema and mass effect and it is hard to distinguish from a brain tumor. However, we present a very rare case of a 53-year-old woman with a right temporal mass that turned out to be a MS plaque, who deteriorated within hours (brain herniation with loss of consciousness and unilateral mydriasis) and required an emergency craniotomy. We also present a review of the literature. It appears that only 4 cases of emergency craniotomy/craniectomy required in a patient with a tumor-like MS plaque have been reported before. PMID:23582489

  9. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  10. Ectodysplasin and Wnt pathways are required for salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hr, Otso; Fujimori, Sayumi; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Hartmann, Christine; Thesleff, Irma; Mikkola, Marja L

    2011-07-01

    The developing submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is a well-studied model for tissue interactions and branching morphogenesis. Its development shares similar features with other ectodermal appendages such as hair and tooth. The ectodysplasin (Eda) pathway is essential for the formation and function of several ectodermal organs. Mutations in the signaling components of the Eda pathway lead to a human syndrome known as hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), which is characterized by missing and malformed teeth, sparse hair and reduced sweating. Individuals with HED suffer also from dry mouth because of reduced saliva flow. In order to understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed salivary gland development in mouse models with altered Eda pathway activities. We have found that Eda regulates growth and branching of the SMG via transcription factor NF-?B in the epithelium, and that the hedgehog pathway is an important mediator of Eda/NF-?B. We also sought to determine whether a similar reciprocal interplay between the Eda and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, which are known to operate in other skin appendages, functions in developing SMG. Surprisingly and unlike in developing hair follicles and teeth, canonical Wnt signaling activity did not colocalize with Edar/NF-?B in salivary gland epithelium. Instead, we observed high mesenchymal Wnt activity and show that ablation of mesenchymal Wnt signaling either in vitro or in vivo compromised branching morphogenesis. We also provide evidence suggesting that the effects of mesenchymal Wnt/?-catenin signaling are mediated, at least in part, through regulation of Eda expression. PMID:21652647

  11. Endocannabinoid pathways and their role in multiple sclerosis-related muscular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2011-04-01

    Endocannabinoids are endogenous agonists of the mammalian cannabinoid receptors CB(1) and CB(2), and they appear to be produced in tissues as an adaptive reaction to re-establish normal homeostasis when this is acutely altered. However, the production of endocannabinoids can be altered pathologically. The two most widely studied endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. The levels of these endogenous modulators are regulated in different and sometimes opposing ways, and alterations in cerebrospinal fluid and/or spinal cord levels have been documented in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases and in samples from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown to have therapeutic potential in a number of disease states. Sativex() (nabiximols, USAN name) contains the two main phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 ratio, and it acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator. In an experimental mouse model of MS-related spasticity, Sativex dose-dependently improved hind limb flexion/stiffness and a dosage of 10 mg/kg was shown to be as effective as the most widely established anti-spasticity treatment baclofen (5 mg/kg). These findings with Sativex are very promising and offer encouragement for MS patients, the majority of whom will develop spasticity-related disabling and recalcitrant symptoms. Furthermore, research into the endocannabinoid system may offer potential in other neurodegenerative, inflammatory and pain disorders. PMID:21449854

  12. Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase regulates major cytotoxicity pathways of proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Fink, E E; Mannava, S; Bagati, A; Bianchi-Smiraglia, A; Nair, J R; Moparthy, K; Lipchick, B C; Drokov, M; Utley, A; Ross, J; Mendeleeva, L P; Savchenko, V G; Lee, K P; Nikiforov, M A

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that intracellular oxidative stress induced by proteasome inhibitors is a byproduct of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we report a mechanism underlying the ability of proteasome inhibitors bortezomib (BTZ) and carfilzomib (CFZ) to directly induce oxidative and ER stresses in multiple myeloma (MM) cells via transcriptional repression of a gene encoding mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD2). TXNRD2 is critical for maintenance of intracellular red-ox status and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Depletion of TXNRD2 to the levels detected in BTZ- or CFZ-treated cells causes oxidative stress, ER stress and death similar to those induced by proteasome inhibitors. Reciprocally, restoration of near-wildtype TXNRD2 amounts in MM cells treated with proteasome inhibitors reduces oxidative stress, ER stress and cell death by ~46%, ~35% and ~50%, respectively, compared with cells with unrestored TXNRD2 levels. Moreover, cells from three MM cell lines selected for resistance to BTZ demonstrate elevated levels of TXNRD2, indirectly confirming its functional role in BTZ resistance. Accordingly, ectopic expression of TXNRD2 in MM cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice blunts therapeutic effects of BTZ. Our data identify TXNRD2 as a potentially clinically relevant target, inhibition of which is critical for proteasome inhibitor-dependent cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and ER stress. PMID:26205085

  13. RNA binding activity of the recessive parkinsonism protein DJ-1 supports involvement in multiple cellular pathways.

    PubMed

    van der Brug, Marcel P; Blackinton, Jeff; Chandran, Jayanth; Hao, Ling-Yang; Lal, Ashish; Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Martindale, Jennifer; Xie, Chengsong; Ahmad, Rili; Thomas, Kelly J; Beilina, Alexandra; Gibbs, J Raphael; Ding, Jinhui; Myers, Amanda J; Zhan, Ming; Cai, Huaibin; Bonini, Nancy M; Gorospe, Myriam; Cookson, Mark R

    2008-07-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative condition with several rare Mendelian forms. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD but the molecular mechanisms involved in the degeneration of neurons remain unclear. DJ-1 mutations are one cause of recessive parkinsonism, but this gene is also reported to be involved in cancer by promoting Ras signaling and suppressing PTEN-induced apoptosis. The specific function of DJ-1 is unknown, although it is responsive to oxidative stress and may play a role in the maintenance of mitochondria. Here, we show, using four independent methods, that DJ-1 associates with RNA targets in cells and the brain, including mitochondrial genes, genes involved in glutathione metabolism, and members of the PTEN/PI3K cascade. Pathogenic recessive mutants are deficient in this activity. We show that DJ-1 is sufficient for RNA binding at nanomolar concentrations. Further, we show that DJ-1 binds RNA but dissociates after oxidative stress. These data implicate a single mechanism for the pleiotropic effects of DJ-1 in different model systems, namely that the protein binds multiple RNA targets in an oxidation-dependent manner. PMID:18626009

  14. T cell-specific inhibition of multiple apoptotic pathways blocks negative selection and causes autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Megan L; Leung, Kenneth K; Bennett, Margaux J; Winoto, Astar

    2014-01-01

    T cell self-tolerance is thought to involve peripheral tolerance and negative selection, involving apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. However, evidence supporting an essential role for negative selection is limited. Loss of Bim, a Bcl-2 BH3-only protein essential for thymocyte apoptosis, rarely results in autoimmunity on the C57BL/6 background. Mice with T cell-specific over-expression of Bcl-2, that blocks multiple BH3-only proteins, are also largely normal. The nuclear receptor Nur77, also implicated in negative selection, might function redundantly to promote apoptosis by associating with Bcl-2 and exposing its potentially pro-apoptotic BH3 domain. Here, we report that T cell-specific expression of a Bcl2 BH3 mutant transgene results in enhanced rescue of thymocytes from negative selection. Concomitantly, Treg development is increased. However, aged BH3 mutant mice progressively accumulate activated, autoreactive T cells, culminating in development of multi-organ autoimmunity and lethality. These data provide strong evidence that negative selection is crucial for establishing T cell tolerance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03468.001 PMID:25182415

  15. Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat (N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium) into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of (/sup 14/C)-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric (/sup 3/H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems.

  16. Understanding the role of adjunctive nonpharmacological therapies in management of the multiple pathways to depression.

    PubMed

    Velehorschi, Corina; Bleau, Pierre; Vermani, Monica; Furtado, Melissa; Klassen, Larry J

    2014-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 16.2% and the fourth highest cause of disability globally. It is hypothesized to be a syndromatic manifestation of multiple pathological processes leading to similar clinical manifestation. MDD is associated with at least three categories of peripheral hormone-type factors including neurotrophic factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and processes that impair regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Neuroimaging studies have identified functional abnormalities including subcortical systems associated with reward and emotion processing, medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortical regions and the lateral prefrontal cortical systems involved in cognitive control and voluntary emotion regulation. Studies investigating the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional brain measures show normalization of brain function with return to euthymia. Nevertheless, approximately 50% of patients with MDD will not respond sufficiently and 60 to 70% will not achieve full remission with first-line pharmacotherapy, therefore clinicians strive to improve patient responses through the use of adjunct therapies. This review discusses recent research in the various biological processes associated with MDD as well as recent data in support of the use of adjunctive non-pharmacological therapies including psychotherapy, bibliotherapy, Internet therapy, "natural" or herbal approaches, exercise therapy, and somatic therapies. PMID:25539873

  17. MicroRNA regulate immune pathways in T-cells in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNA are small noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in the control of gene expression. To investigate the role of microRNA in multiple sclerosis (MS), we performed genome-wide expression analyses of mRNA and microRNA in T-cells from MS patients and controls. Methods Heparin-anticoagulated peripheral blood was collected from MS-patients and healthy controls followed by isolation of T-cells. MicroRNA and RNA from T-cells was prepared and hybridized to Affymetrix miR 2.0 array and Affymetrix U133Plus 2.0 Human Genome array (Santa Clara, CA), respectively. Verifications were performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results We identified 2,452 differentially expressed genes and 21 differentially expressed microRNA between MS patients and controls. By Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 20 of 21 differentially expressed microRNA were shown to affect the expression of their target genes, many of which were involved in the immune system. Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14) was a microRNA target gene significantly decreased in MS. The differential expression of mir-494, mir-197 and the predicted microRNA target gene TNFSF14 was verified by real-time PCR and ELISA. Conclusion These findings indicate that microRNA may be important regulatory molecules in T-cells in MS. PMID:23895517

  18. A Deployment Strategy for Multiple Types of Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuxun

    2015-10-01

    Node deployment is one of the most crucial issues in wireless sensor networks, and it is of realistic significance to complete the deployment task with multiple types of application requirements. In this paper, we propose a deployment strategy for multiple types of requirements to solve the problem of deterministic and grid-based deployment. This deployment strategy consists of three deployment algorithms, which are for different deployment objectives. First, instead of general random search, we put forward a deterministic search mechanism and the related cost-based deployment algorithm, in which nodes are assigned to different groups which are connected by near-shortest paths, and realize significant reduction of path length and deployment cost. Second, rather than ordinary nondirection deployment, we present a notion of counterflow and the related delay-based deployment algorithm, in which the profit of deployment cost and loss of transmission delay are evaluated, and achieve much diminishing of transmission path length and transmission delay. Third, instead of conventional uneven deployment based on the distances to the sink, we propose a concept of node load level and the related lifetime-based deployment algorithm, in which node distribution is determined by the actual load levels and extra nodes are deployed only where really necessary. This contributes to great improvement of network lifetime. Last, extensive simulations are used to test and verify the effectiveness and superiority of our findings. PMID:26390178

  19. A simple procedure eliminating multiple optimization steps required in developing multiplex PCR reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, V.; Roskey, M.; Klinger, K.; Shuber, T.

    1994-09-01

    The PCR technique is one of the most powerful tools in modern molecular genetics and has achieved widespread use in the analysis of genetic diseases. Typically, a region of interest is amplified from genomic DNA or cDNA and examined by various methods of analysis for mutations or polymorphisms. In cases of small genes and transcripts, amplification of single, small regions of DNA are sufficient for analysis. However, when analyzing large genes and transcripts, multiple PCRs may be required to identify the specific mutation or polymorphism of interest. Ever since it has been shown that PCR could simultaneously amplify multiple loci in the human dystrophin gene, multiplex PCR has been established as a general technique. The properities of multiplex PCR make it a useful tool and preferable to simultaneous uniplex PCR in many instances. However, the steps for developing a multiplex PCR can be laborious, with significant difficulty in achieving equimolar amounts of several different amplicons. We have developed a simple method of primer design that has enabled us to eliminate a number of the standard optimization steps required in developing a multiplex PCR. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide pairs were synthesized for the simultaneous amplification of multiple exons within the CFTR gene. A common non-complementary 20 nucleotide sequence was attached to each primer, thus creating a mixture of primer pairs all containing a universal primer sequence. Multiplex PCR reactions were carried out containing target DNA, a mixture of several chimeric primer pairs and primers complementary to only the universal portion of the chimeric primers. Following optimization of conditions for the universal primer, limited optimization was needed for successful multiplex PCR. In contrast, significant optimization of the PCR conditions were needed when pairs of sequence specific primers were used together without the universal sequence.

  20. PRMT5 is required for lymphomagenesis triggered by multiple oncogenic drivers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Chitnis, Nilesh; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kita, Yoshiaki; Natsugoe, Shoji; Yang, Yi; Li, Zihai; Wasik, Mariusz; Klein-Szanto, Andres J. P.; Rustgi, Anil K.; Diehl, J. Alan

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine transferase 5(PRMT5) has been implicated as a key modulator of lymphomagenesis. Whether PRMT5 has overt oncogenic function in the context of leukemia/lymphoma and whether it represents a therapeutic target remains to be established. We demonstrate that inactivation of PRMT5 inhibits colony-forming activity by multiple oncogenic-drivers including cyclin D1, c-MYC, NOTCH1 and MLL-AF9. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PRMT5 overexpression specifically cooperates with cyclin D1 to drive lymphomagenesis in a mouse model revealing inherent neoplastic activity. Molecular analysis of lymphomas, revealed that arginine methylation of p53 selectively suppresses expression of crucial proapoptotic and anti-proliferative target genes thereby sustaining tumor cell self-renewal and proliferation and bypassing the need for the acquisition of inactivating p53 mutations. Critically, analysis of human tumor specimen reveal a strong correlation between cyclin D1 overexpression and p53 methylation supporting the biomedical relevance of this pathway. PMID:25582697

  1. Analysis of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat 3) Pathway in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Nathrath, Michaela; Schaich, Robert; Hfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2003-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription molecules (Stats) play key roles in cytokine-induced signal transduction. Recently, it was proposed that constitutively activated Stat 3 (Stat 3 phosphorylated) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) by preventing apoptosis and inducing proliferation. The study aim was to investigate Stat 3 activation in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) cases and its effect on downstream targets such as the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, and the cell-cycle protein cyclin D1. Forty-eight cases of MM were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using antibodies against cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, p21, Stat 3, and Stat 3 phosphorylated (P). Their specificity was corroborated by Western blot analysis using eight human MM cell lines as control. The proliferation rate was assessed with the antibody MiB1. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and Stat 3 were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-embedded microdissected tissue. Three different groups determined by the expression of Stat 3P and cyclin D1 (protein and mRNA) were identified: group 1, Stat 3-activated (23 cases, 48%). All cases revealed nuclear expression of Stat 3P. No elevation of Stat 3 mRNA was identified in any of the cases. Three cases in this group showed intermediate to low cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression. Group 2 included 15 (31%) cases with cyclin D1 staining and lack of Stat 3P. All cases showed intermediate to high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Group 3 included 10 (21%) cases with no expression of either cyclin D1 or Stat 3P. High levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were identified in 89% and 100% of all cases, respectively. In contrast to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, the expression of Bcl-2 showed an inverse correlation with proliferation rate (P: 0.0003). No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of proliferation rate or expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. However, cyclin D1+ cases were always well differentiated and were more likely to show a lymphoplasmocytoid differentiation (chi-square = 9.55). Overall, constitutive activation of Stat 3 was found in almost half (48%) of the investigated MM cases. However, this does not seem to have a major impact on the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and proliferation. We showed that cyclin D1 overexpression and Stat 3 activation are, mutually exclusive events in MM (P = 0.0066). The universal expression of Mcl-1, independent of activated Stat 3, suggests that its expression is constitutive and that it might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MM. PMID:12707028

  2. DNA methylation analysis of the autistic brain reveals multiple dysregulated biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, S; Sharan Sams, D; Reuveni, E; Getselter, D; Oron, O; Karpuj, M; Elliott, E

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by dysfunction in social interaction, communication and stereotypic behavior. Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of ASD, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are not clear. Epigenetic modifications have been suggested as molecular mechanism that can mediate the interaction between the environment and the genome to produce adaptive or maladaptive behaviors. Here, using the Illumina 450?K methylation array we have determined the existence of many dysregulated CpGs in two cortical regions, Brodmann area 10 (BA10) and Brodmann area 24 (BA24), of individuals who had ASD. In BA10 we found a very significant enrichment for genomic areas responsible for immune functions among the hypomethylated CpGs, whereas genes related to synaptic membrane were enriched among hypermethylated CpGs. By comparing our methylome data with previously published transcriptome data, and by performing real-time PCR on selected genes that were dysregulated in our study, we show that hypomethylated genes are often overexpressed, and that there is an inverse correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation within the individuals. Among these genes there were C1Q, C3, ITGB2 (C3R), TNF-?, IRF8 and SPI1, which have recently been implicated in synaptic pruning and microglial cell specification. Finally, we determined the epigenetic dysregulation of the gene HDAC4, and we confirm that the locus encompassing C11orf21/TSPAN32 has multiple hypomethylated CpGs in the autistic brain, as previously demonstrated. Our data suggest a possible role for epigenetic processes in the etiology of ASD. PMID:25180572

  3. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1? (SDF-1?) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1?/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MMcells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1?-induced chemotaxis of MMcells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MMcells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MMcells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MMcells. PMID:25034231

  4. Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF?) Regulates Granulosa Cell Tumor (GCT) Cell Proliferation and Migration through Activation of Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Lv, Xiangmin; Jiang, Chao; Cordes, Crystal M.; Fu, Lan; Lele, Subodh M.; Davis, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGF? is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGF? plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGF? and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGF? might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGF? stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGF? rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGF? treatment. TGF? also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGF? treatment. Whereas TGF? triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGF? resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGF?, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs. PMID:23155381

  5. Medicago truncatula IPD3 is a member of the common symbiotic signaling pathway required for rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses.

    PubMed

    Horvth, Beatrix; Yeun, Li Huey; Domonkos, Agota; Halsz, Gbor; Gobbato, Enrico; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Mir, Krisztina; Hirsch, Sibylle; Sun, Jongho; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S; An, Jean-Michel; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Kal, Pter

    2011-11-01

    Legumes form endosymbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi which facilitate nutrient uptake. Both symbiotic interactions require a molecular signal exchange between the plant and the symbiont, and this involves a conserved symbiosis (Sym) signaling pathway. In order to identify plant genes required for intracellular accommodation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and AM fungi, we characterized Medicago truncatula symbiotic mutants defective for rhizobial infection of nodule cells and colonization of root cells by AM hyphae. Here, we describe mutants impaired in the interacting protein of DMI3 (IPD3) gene, which has been identified earlier as an interacting partner of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein, a member of the Sym pathway. The ipd3 mutants are impaired in both rhizobial and mycorrhizal colonization and we show that IPD3 is necessary for appropriate Nod-factor-induced gene expression. This indicates that IPD3 is a member of the common Sym pathway. We observed differences in the severity of ipd3 mutants that appear to be the result of the genetic background. This supports the hypothesis that IPD3 function is partially redundant and, thus, additional genetic components must exist that have analogous functions to IPD3. This explains why mutations in an essential component of the Sym pathway have defects at late stages of the symbiotic interactions. PMID:21692638

  6. Evidence for Multiple Export Pathways of Mercury from the Inoperative New Idria Hg Mine, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jew, A. D.; Luong, P. N.; Kim, C. S.; Rytuba, J. J.; Gustin, M. S.; Brown, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding mercury transport from inoperative Hg mines is important for California because of the presence of nearly 2,000 abandoned Hg mines in the California Coast Range. Since its closure in 1972, the New Idria Hg mine has developed an extensive acid mine drainage (AMD) system (pH 3) that drains into the San Carlos Creek (pH 9) about 100m downstream of a mine tailings pile. Sediment samples along the AMD system were analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ?-X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and sequential chemical extractions (SCE). It was determined by XRF mapping that Hg within the AMD settling pond sediments occurs mostly as colloids ranging in size from 1-10 ?m. Hg speciation of the colloids, determined by ?-XANES and EXAFS, consisted of 80% ?-HgS and 20% ?-HgS. SCE analysis of sediments along the entire AMD system resulted in the HgS fraction comprising >95% of the total Hg, suggesting minor Hg adsorption. Even though liquid Hg(0) can be panned in the stream it was not detected by SCE, suggesting that liquid Hg(0) settles into deeper portions of the sediments than were sampled. Mercury volatilization to the atmosphere is the other main pathway for Hg release from the New Idria mine site. Analysis of three size fractions of calcine waste material exhibited an increase in Hg volatilization when exposed to light (>500 nm) over dark controls. Calcine size fractions of 500-2000 ?m, 75-125 ?m, and <45 ?m exhibited light:dark ratios of 1.7 0.05, 3.7 0.05, and 4.3 0.1, respectively. A new low-temperature EXAFS technique to directly detect liquid Hg(0) within Hg-contaminated soils was used to determine that mercury speciation in the three size fractions consisted of ?-HgS, ?-HgS, Eglestonite, Montroydite, and liquid Hg(0). The samples with light:dark ratios of 3.7 and 4.3 contained 10% and 9% Hg(0), respectively, while the sample with the lowest ratio had no detectable liquid Hg(0). A plot of light:dark Hg flux ratios vs. % liquid Hg(0) of waste material from other Hg mine sites shows a linear relationship, suggesting that the light:dark ratio of gaseous Hg release from Hg mine sites is strongly influenced by the presence of elemental Hg in the sediments. Based on our results, Hg is being exported from the site as colloidal HgS in the AMD system and by volatilization of liquid Hg(0) present in waste material.

  7. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    SciTech Connect

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients` needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL`s Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs.

  8. Multiple regulation pathways and pivotal biological functions of STAT3 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is both a transcription activator and an oncogene that is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions. However, abundant evidence indicates that STAT3 is persistently activated in several cancers, with a crucial position in tumor onset and progression. In addition to its traditional role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, STAT3 also promotes cancer through altering gene expression via epigenetic modification, inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in cancer cells, regulating the tumor microenvironment, and promoting cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal and differentiation. STAT3 is regulated not only by the canonical cytokines and growth factors, but also by the G-protein-coupled receptors, cadherin engagement, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and microRNA (miRNA). Despite the presence of diverse regulators and pivotal biological functions in cancer, no effective therapeutic inventions are available for inhibiting STAT3 and acquiring potent antitumor effects in the clinic. An improved understanding of the complex roles of STAT3 in cancer is required to achieve optimal therapeutic effects. PMID:26631279

  9. Multiple regulation pathways and pivotal biological functions of STAT3 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is both a transcription activator and an oncogene that is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions. However, abundant evidence indicates that STAT3 is persistently activated in several cancers, with a crucial position in tumor onset and progression. In addition to its traditional role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, STAT3 also promotes cancer through altering gene expression via epigenetic modification, inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in cancer cells, regulating the tumor microenvironment, and promoting cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal and differentiation. STAT3 is regulated not only by the canonical cytokines and growth factors, but also by the G-protein-coupled receptors, cadherin engagement, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and microRNA (miRNA). Despite the presence of diverse regulators and pivotal biological functions in cancer, no effective therapeutic inventions are available for inhibiting STAT3 and acquiring potent antitumor effects in the clinic. An improved understanding of the complex roles of STAT3 in cancer is required to achieve optimal therapeutic effects. PMID:26631279

  10. MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1) maintains multiple KRAS-driven pro-malignant pathways.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Burton, D G A; Halvorsen, K; Balkan, W; Reiner, T; Perez-Stable, C; Cohen, A; Munoz, A; Giribaldi, M G; Singh, S; Robbins, D J; Nguyen, D M; Rai, P

    2015-05-14

    Oncogenic RAS promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate pro-malignant signaling but can also trigger DNA damage-induced tumor suppression. Thus RAS-driven tumor cells require redox-protective mechanisms to mitigate the damaging aspects of ROS. Here, we show that MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1), the mammalian 8-oxodGTPase that sanitizes oxidative damage in the nucleotide pool, is important for maintaining several KRAS-driven pro-malignant traits in a nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) model. MTH1 suppression in KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells impairs proliferation and xenograft tumor formation. Furthermore, MTH1 levels modulate KRAS-induced transformation of immortalized lung epithelial cells. MTH1 expression is upregulated by oncogenic KRAS and correlates positively with high KRAS levels in NSCLC human tumors. At a molecular level, in p53-competent KRAS-mutant cells, MTH1 loss provokes DNA damage and induction of oncogene-induced senescence. In p53-nonfunctional KRAS-mutant cells, MTH1 suppression does not produce DNA damage but reduces proliferation and leads to an adaptive decrease in KRAS expression levels. Thus, MTH1 not only enables evasion of oxidative DNA damage and its consequences, but can also function as a molecular rheostat for maintaining oncogene expression at optimal levels. Accordingly, our results indicate MTH1 is a novel and critical component of oncogenic KRAS-associated malignancy and its inhibition is likely to yield significant tumor-suppressive outcomes in KRAS-driven tumors. PMID:25023700

  11. Twin Promotes the Maintenance and Differentiation of Germline Stem Cell Lineage through Modulation of Multiple Pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ziwen; Geng, Cuiyun; Wang, Hui; Yang, Zhihao; Weng, Changjiang; Li, Hua; Deng, Lamei; Liu, Luping; Liu, Nan; Ni, Jianquan; Xie, Ting

    2015-11-17

    The central question in stem cell regulation is how the balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled at the molecular level. This study uses germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila ovary to demonstrate that the Drosophila CCR4 homolog Twin is required intrinsically to promote both GSC self-renewal and progeny differentiation. Twin/CCR4 is one of the two catalytic subunits in the highly conserved CCR4-NOT mRNA deadenylase complex. Twin works within the CCR4-NOT complex to intrinsically maintain GSC self-renewal, at least partly by sustaining E-cadherin-mediated GSC-niche interaction and preventing transposable element-induced DNA damage. It promotes GSC progeny differentiation by forming protein complexes with differentiation factors Bam and Bgcn independently of other CCR4-NOT components. Interestingly, Bam can competitively inhibit the association of Twin with Pop2 in the CCR4-NOT complex. Therefore, this study demonstrates that Twin has important intrinsic roles in promoting GSC self-renewal and progeny differentiation by functioning in different protein complexes. PMID:26549449

  12. Pathways of Methylmercury Transfer to the Water Column Across Multiple Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartup, A. T.; Balcom, P. H.; Mason, R. P.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Estuarine water column methylmercury (MeHg) is an important driver of bioaccumulation in pelagic organisms so it is important to understand the sources and cycling of MeHg. As MeHg biomagnifies in food webs, increased water column concentrations can be transferred to fish consumed by humans. Few studies have taken a multi-estuary approach to look at MeHg cycling in the water column of these important MeHg producing areas. We examined the distributions and partitioning of sediment and water column MeHg across a geographic range of estuaries. In 2008 we sampled 10 shallow-water estuarine sites from Maine to New Jersey, sampled 11 sites in 4 estuaries in 2009, and sampled at 3 estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) sites in 1 estuary in 2012. Sediment measurements included both solid phase and pore water MeHg and total mercury (HgT). Water column parameters included dissolved and particulate MeHg and HgT, total suspended solids, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon. Average suspended particle MeHg was highest at Wells (ME; 6 to 11.5 pmol/g; 4.5 to 7% of HgT) and lowest at Portsmouth (NH) and in Long Island Sound (CT-NY; 0.2 to 5.5 pmol/g; 0.25 to 3.75% of HgT). Average water column dissolved MeHg was highest in the Delaware River ETM (0.5 to 0.7 pM; 16 to 24% of HgT) and lowest at Portsmouth (0.06 to 0.12 pM; 1 to 2% of HgT). Significant positive correlations were found between MeHg and HgT across multiple estuaries in both sediment and the water column in 2008 and 2009. In contrast, water column dissolved and suspended particle MeHg do not correlate well with sediment MeHg or HgT, pore water MeHg or methylation rates in sediment across estuaries, indicating that sediment is often not a good predictor of water MeHg levels. However, ratios of average dissolved:pore water MeHg and suspended particle:sediment MeHg are close to 1 in the Delaware River ETM, suggesting that sediment supplies MeHg to the water column in this turbulent region, but average pore water MeHg was uniformly elevated above water dissolved MeHg in the other estuaries studied. Several estuaries had higher MeHg at low tide suggesting input as water was delivered from the watersheds. We conclude that the relative importance of sources is dependent on the physical (water residence time, water depth) and chemical characteristics (sediment organic carbon content) of the estuary.

  13. Model-Derived Dispersal Pathways from Multiple Source Populations Explain Variability of Invertebrate Larval Supply

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Carla P.; Nolasco, Rita; Dubert, Jesus; Queiroga, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Background Predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of marine larval dispersal and supply is a challenging task due to the small size of the larvae and the variability of oceanographic processes. Addressing this problem requires the use of novel approaches capable of capturing the inherent variability in the mechanisms involved. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we test whether dispersal and connectivity patterns generated from a bio-physical model of larval dispersal of the crab Carcinus maenas, along the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, can predict the highly variable daily pattern of wind-driven larval supply to an estuary observed during the peak reproductive season (MarchJune) in 2006 and 2007. Cross-correlations between observed and predicted supply were significant (p<0.05) and strong, ranging from 0.34 to 0.81 at time lags of ?6 to +5 d. Importantly, the model correctly predicted observed cross-shelf distributions (Pearson r?=?0.82, p<0.001, and r?=?0.79, p<0.01, in 2006 and 2007) and indicated that all supply events were comprised of larvae that had been retained within the inner shelf; larvae transported to the outer shelf and beyond never recruited. Estimated average dispersal distances ranged from 57 to 198 km and were only marginally affected by mortality. Conclusions/Significance The high degree of predicted demographic connectivity over relatively large geographic scales is consistent with the lack of genetic structuring in C. maenas along the Iberian Peninsula. These findings indicate that the dynamic nature of larval dispersal can be captured by mechanistic biophysical models, which can be used to provide meaningful predictions of the patterns and causes of fine-scale variability in larval supply to marine populations. PMID:22558225

  14. MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1) maintains multiple KRAS-driven pro-malignant pathways

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Asmita; Burton, Dominick G. A.; Halvorsen, Katherine; Balkan, Wayne; Reiner, Teresita; Perez-Stable, Carlos; Cohen, Alexander; Munoz, Anisleidys; Giribaldi, Maria G.; Singh, Samer; Robbins, David J.; Nguyen, Dao M.; Rai, Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic RAS promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate pro-malignant signaling but can also trigger DNA damage-induced tumor suppression. Thus RAS-driven tumor cells require redox-protective mechanisms to mitigate the damaging aspects of ROS. Here we show that MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1), the mammalian 8-oxodGTPase that sanitizes oxidative damage in the nucleotide pool, is important for maintaining several KRAS-driven pro-malignant traits in a nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) model. MTH1 suppression in KRAS-mutant NSCLC cells impairs proliferation and xenograft tumor formation. Furthermore, MTH1 levels modulate KRAS-induced transformation of immortalized lung epithelial cells. MTH1 expression is upregulated by oncogenic KRAS and correlates positively with high KRAS levels in NSCLC human tumors. At a molecular level, in p53-competent KRAS-mutant cells, MTH1 loss provokes DNA damage and induction of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). In p53-nonfunctional KRAS-mutant cells, MTH1 suppression does not produce DNA damage but induces a reduced proliferative rate and an adaptive decrease in KRAS expression levels. Thus, MTH1 not only enables evasion of oxidative DNA damage and its consequences but can also function as a molecular rheostat for maintaining oncogene expression at optimal levels. Accordingly, our results indicate MTH1 is a novel and critical component of oncogenic KRAS-associated malignancy and its inhibition is likely to yield significant tumor-suppressive outcomes in KRAS-driven tumors. PMID:25023700

  15. Mesenchymal Tumorigenesis Driven by TSC2 Haploinsufficiency Requires HMGA2 and Is Independent of mTOR Pathway Activation.

    PubMed

    D'Armiento, Jeanine; Shiomi, Takayuki; Marks, Sarah; Geraghty, Patrick; Sankarasharma, Devipriya; Chada, Kiran

    2016-02-15

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a tumor suppressor gene syndrome that is associated with the widespread development of mesenchymal tumor types. Genetically, TSC is said to occur through a classical biallelic inactivation of either TSC genes (TSC1, hamartin or TSC2, tuberin), an event that is implicated in the induction of the mTOR pathway and subsequent tumorigenesis. High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2), an architectural transcription factor, is known to regulate mesenchymal differentiation and drive mesenchymal tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we investigated the role of HMGA2 in the pathogenesis of TSC using the TSC2(+/-) mouse model that similarly mirrors human disease and human tumor samples. We show that HMGA2 expression was detected in 100% of human and mouse TSC tumors and that HMGA2 activation was required for TSC mesenchymal tumorigenesis in genetically engineered mouse models. In contrast to the current dogma, the mTOR pathway was not activated in all TSC2(+/-) tumors and was elevated in only 50% of human mesenchymal tumors. Moreover, except for a subset of kidney tumors, tuberin was expressed in both human and mouse tumors. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of one TSC tumor suppressor gene was required for tumor initiation, but further tumorigenesis did not require the second hit, as previously postulated. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that tissue-specific genetic mechanisms are employed to promote tumor pathogenesis in TSC and identify a novel, critical pathway for potential therapeutic targeting. Cancer Res; 76(4); 844-54. 2016 AACR. PMID:26837766

  16. Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Christine; Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, the organ or the route of inoculation. Depending on the cell type, different cellular proteins, for example Hexim1 and Rbbp4, were found to be associated with oriLyt DNA. Overexpression or downregulation of these proteins differentially affected the growth of mutants lacking either the left or the right oriLyt. Thus, multiple oriLyts are required to ensure optimal fitness in different cell types and tissues. PMID:27007137

  17. Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Christine; Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, the organ or the route of inoculation. Depending on the cell type, different cellular proteins, for example Hexim1 and Rbbp4, were found to be associated with oriLyt DNA. Overexpression or downregulation of these proteins differentially affected the growth of mutants lacking either the left or the right oriLyt. Thus, multiple oriLyts are required to ensure optimal fitness in different cell types and tissues. PMID:27007137

  18. Multiple tumor suppressor microRNAs regulate telomerase and TCF7, an important transcriptional regulator of the Wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Hrdli?kov, Radmila; Nehyba, Ji?; Bargmann, William; Bose, Henry R

    2014-01-01

    The human TERT (hTERT) gene encodes the telomerase catalytic subunit which plays a role in telomerase regulation. Telomerase is activated in more than 90% of all human malignancies and understanding how telomerase is regulated is necessary for implementation of successful anti-cancer therapies. microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic cells but evidence of their role in telomerase regulation has not been documented. To determine whether hTERT activity is regulated by multiple miRNAs, eight miRNAs which have putative binding sites in the hTERT 3'UTR together with miR-138-5p were evaluated in luciferase assays with a reporter containing the hTERT 3'UTR. Six miRNAs (let-7g*, miR-133a, miR-138-5p, miR-342-5p, miR-491-5p, and miR-541-3p) specifically inhibited the expression of the reporter luciferase-driven constructs and let-7g*, miR-133a, miR-138-5p, and miR-491-5p also downregulated endogenous telomerase activity in cells. Moreover, all six miRNAs significantly inhibited cell proliferation. miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-138-5p, 342-5p, 491-5p, 541-3p) also have predicted binding sites within the 3'UTR of three genes involved in Wnt signaling (TCF7, MSI1, and PAX5). These miRNAs inhibited the expression of the luciferase reporter constructs containing 3'UTRs of these genes and downregulated protein expression of the TCF7 transcription factor, which mediates the canonical Wnt pathway. Together, these results suggest the existence of a miRNA regulatory network involving the hTERT and Wnt pathway. PMID:24551047

  19. Transcriptome analysis of grain-filling caryopses reveals involvement of multiple regulatory pathways in chalky grain formation in rice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Grain endosperm chalkiness of rice is a varietal characteristic that negatively affects not only the appearance and milling properties but also the cooking texture and palatability of cooked rice. However, grain chalkiness is a complex quantitative genetic trait and the molecular mechanisms underlying its formation are poorly understood. Results A near-isogenic line CSSL50-1 with high chalkiness was compared with its normal parental line Asominori for grain endosperm chalkiness. Physico-biochemical analyses of ripened grains showed that, compared with Asominori, CSSL50-1 contains higher levels of amylose and 8 DP (degree of polymerization) short-chain amylopectin, but lower medium length 12 DP amylopectin. Transcriptome analysis of 15 DAF (day after flowering) caryopses of the isogenic lines identified 623 differential expressed genes (P < 0.01), among which 324 genes are up-regulated and 299 down-regulated. These genes were classified into 18 major categories, with 65.3% of them belong to six major functional groups: signal transduction, cell rescue/defense, transcription, protein degradation, carbohydrate metabolism and redox homeostasis. Detailed pathway dissection demonstrated that genes involved in sucrose and starch synthesis are up-regulated, whereas those involved in non-starch polysaccharides are down regulated. Several genes involved in oxidoreductive homeostasis were found to have higher expression levels in CSSL50-1 as well, suggesting potential roles of ROS in grain chalkiness formation. Conclusion Extensive gene expression changes were detected during rice grain chalkiness formation. Over half of these differentially expressed genes are implicated in several important categories of genes, including signal transduction, transcription, carbohydrate metabolism and redox homeostasis, suggesting that chalkiness formation involves multiple metabolic and regulatory pathways. PMID:21192807

  20. Bmi-1 cooperates with H-Ras to transform human mammary epithelial cells via dysregulation of multiple growth regulatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sonal; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Bommi, Prashant; Sainger, Rachana; Guo, Wei-Jian; Dimri, Manjari; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla; Green, Jeffrey E.; Dimri, Goberdhan P.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated expression of Bmi-1 is associated with many cancers including breast cancer. Here we examined the oncogenic potential of Bmi-1 in MCF10A cells, a spontaneously immortalized, nontransformed strain of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Bmi-1 overexpression alone in MCF10A cells did not result in oncogenic transformation. However, Bmi-1 co-overexpression with activated H-Ras (RasG12V) resulted in efficient transformation of MCF10A cells in vitro. Although early passage H-Ras expressing MCF10A cells were not transformed, late passage H-Ras expressing cells exhibited features of transformation in vitro. Early and late passage H-Ras expressing cells also differed in levels of expression of H-Ras, and Ki-67, a marker of proliferation. Subsets of early passage H-Ras expressing cells exhibited high Ras expression and were negative for Ki-67, whereas most late passage H-Ras expressing cells expressed low levels of Ras and were Ki-67 positive. Injection of late passage H-Ras expressing cells in SCID mice formed carcinomas with leiomatous, hemangiomatous, and mast cell components; these tumors were quite distinct from those induced by late passage cells co-overexpressing Bmi-1 and H-Ras, which formed poorly differentiated carcinomas with spindle cell features. Bmi-1 and H-Ras co-overexpression in MCF10A cells also induced features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, Bmi-1 inhibited senescence and permitted proliferation of cells expressing high levels of Ras. Examination of various growth regulatory pathways suggested that Bmi-1 overexpression together with H-Ras promotes HMEC transformation and breast oncogenesis by deregulation of multiple growth regulatory pathways by p16INK4a-independent mechanisms. PMID:17974970

  1. Multiple Redox-Active Chlorophylls in the Secondary Electron-Transfer Pathways of Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Tracewell, Cara A.; Brudvig, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) is unique among photosynthetic reaction centers in having secondary electron donors that compete with the primary electron donors for reduction of P680+. We have characterized the photooxidation and dark decay of the redox-active accessory chlorophylls (Chl) and ?-carotenes (Car) in oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes by near-IR absorbance and EPR spectroscopies at cryogenic temperatures. In contrast to previous results for Mn-depleted PS II, multiple near-IR absorption bands are resolved in the light-minus-dark difference spectra of oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes including two fast-decaying bands at 793 nm and 814 nm and three slow-decaying bands at 810 nm, 825 nm, and 840 nm. We assign these bands to chlorophyll cation radicals (Chl+). The fast-decaying bands observed after illumination at 20 K could be generated again by re-illuminating the sample. Quantization by EPR gives a yield of 0.85 radicals per PS II, and the yield of oxidized cytochrome b559 by optical difference spectroscopy is 0.15 per PS II. Potential locations of Chl+ and Car+ species, and the pathways of secondary electron transfer based on the rates of their formation and decay, are discussed. This is the first evidence that Chls in the light-harvesting proteins CP43 and CP47 are oxidized by P680+ and may have a role in Chl fluorescence quenching. We also suggest that a possible role for negatively charged lipids (phosphatidyldiacylglycerol and sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol identified in the PS II structure) could be to decrease the redox potential of specific Chl and Car cofactors. These results provide new insight into the alternate electron-donation pathways to P680+. PMID:18850718

  2. Fanconi DNA repair pathway is required for survival and long-term maintenance of neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Sii-Felice, Karine; Etienne, Olivier; Hoffschir, Franoise; Mathieu, Cline; Riou, Lydia; Barroca, Vilma; Haton, Cline; Arwert, Fr; Fouchet, Pierre; Boussin, Franois D; Mouthon, Marc-Andr

    2008-01-01

    Although brain development abnormalities and brain cancer predisposition have been reported in some Fanconi patients, the possible role of Fanconi DNA repair pathway during neurogenesis is unclear. We thus addressed the role of fanca and fancg, which are involved in the activation of Fanconi pathway, in neural stem and progenitor cells during brain development and adult neurogenesis. Fanca?/? and fancg?/? mice presented with microcephalies and a decreased neuronal production in developing cortex and adult brain. Apoptosis of embryonic neural progenitors, but not that of postmitotic neurons, was increased in the neocortex of fanca?/? and fancg?/? mice and was correlated with chromosomal instability. In adult Fanconi mice, we showed a reduced proliferation of neural progenitor cells related to apoptosis and accentuated neural stem cells exhaustion with ageing. In addition, embryonic and adult Fanconi neural stem cells showed a reduced capacity to self-renew in vitro. Our study demonstrates a critical role for Fanconi pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells during developmental and adult neurogenesis. PMID:18239686

  3. A decision analysis approach to climate adaptation: comparing multiple pathways for multi-decadal decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B. B.; Little, L.

    2013-12-01

    Policy planners around the world are required to consider the implications of adapting to climatic change across spatial contexts and decadal timeframes. However, local level information for planning is often poorly defined, even though climate adaptation decision-making is made at this scale. This is especially true when considering sea level rise and coastal impacts of climate change. We present a simple approach using sea level rise simulations paired with adaptation scenarios to assess a range of adaptation options available to local councils dealing with issues of beach recession under present and future sea level rise and storm surge. Erosion and beach recession pose a large socioeconomic risk to coastal communities because of the loss of key coastal infrastructure. We examine the well-known adaptation technique of beach nourishment and assess various timings and amounts of beach nourishment at decadal time spans in relation to beach recession impacts. The objective was to identify an adaptation strategy that would allow for a low frequency of management interventions, the maintenance of beach width, and the ability to minimize variation in beach width over the 2010 to 2100 simulation period. 1000 replications of each adaptation option were produced against the 90 year simulation in order to model the ability each adaptation option to achieve the three key objectives. Three sets of adaptation scenarios were identified. Within each scenario, a number of adaptation options were tested. The three scenarios were: 1) Fixed periodic beach replenishment of specific amounts at 20 and 50 year intervals, 2) Beach replenishment to the initial beach width based on trigger levels of recession (5m, 10m, 20m), and 3) Fixed period beach replenishment of a variable amount at decadal intervals (every 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 years). For each adaptation option, we show the effectiveness of each beach replenishment scenario to maintain beach width and consider the implications of more frequent replenishment with that of implementation cost. We determine that a business as usual scenario, where no adaptation is implemented, would lead to an average beach recession of 12.02 meters and a maximum beach recession of 33.23 meters during the period of 2010-2100. The best adaptation option modeled was a fixed replenishment of 5 meters every 20 years leading to 4 replenishment events with an average beach recession of 2.99 meters and a maximum beach recession of 15.02 meters during the period of 2010-2100. The presented simulations explicitly address the uncertainty of future impacts due to sea level rise and storm surge and show a range of options that could be considered by a local council to meet their policy objectives. The simulation runs provide managers the ability to consider the utility of various adaptation options and the timing and costs of implementation. Such information provides an evidence-based practice to decision-making and allows policy makers to transparently make decisions based on best estimates of modeled climate change.

  4. Zfrp8/PDCD2 is required in ovarian stem cells and interacts with the piRNA pathway machinery.

    PubMed

    Minakhina, Svetlana; Changela, Neha; Steward, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of stem cells is central to generating diverse cell populations in many tissues throughout the life of an animal. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in how stem cells are formed and maintained is crucial to understanding both normal developmental processes and the growth of many cancers. Previously, we showed that Zfrp8/PDCD2 is essential for the maintenance of Drosophila hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we show that Zfrp8/PDCD2 is also required in both germline and follicle stem cells in the Drosophila ovary. Expression of human PDCD2 fully rescues the Zfrp8 phenotype, underlining the functional conservation of Zfrp8/PDCD2. The piRNA pathway is essential in early oogenesis, and we find that nuclear localization of Zfrp8 in germline stem cells and their offspring is regulated by some piRNA pathway genes. We also show that Zfrp8 forms a complex with the piRNA pathway protein Maelstrom and controls the accumulation of Maelstrom in the nuage. Furthermore, Zfrp8 regulates the activity of specific transposable elements also controlled by Maelstrom and Piwi. Our results suggest that Zfrp8/PDCD2 is not an integral member of the piRNA pathway, but has an overlapping function, possibly competing with Maelstrom and Piwi. PMID:24381196

  5. Concomitant activation of jasmonate and ethylene response pathways is required for induction of a plant defensin gene in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Penninckx, I A; Thomma, B P; Buchala, A; Mtraux, J P; Broekaert, W F

    1998-01-01

    Activation of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 in Arabidopsis by pathogens has been shown previously to be blocked in the ethylene response mutant ein2-1 and the jasmonate response mutant coi1-1. In this work, we have further investigated the interactions between the ethylene and jasmonate signal pathways for the induction of this defense response. Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola led to a marked increase in production of jasmonic acid, and this response was not blocked in the ein2-1 mutant. Likewise, A. brassicicola infection caused stimulated emission of ethylene both in wild-type plants and in coi1-1 mutants. However, treatment of either ein2-1 or coi1-1 mutants with methyl jasmonate or ethylene did not induce PDF1.2, as it did in wild-type plants. We conclude from these experiments that both the ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways need to be triggered concomitantly, and not sequentially, to activate PDF1.2 upon pathogen infection. In support of this idea, we observed a marked synergy between ethylene and methyl jasmonate for the induction of PDF1.2 in plants grown under sterile conditions. In contrast to the clear interdependence of the ethylene and jasmonate pathways for pathogen-induced activation of PDF1.2, functional ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways are not required for growth responses induced by jasmonate and ethylene, respectively. PMID:9836748

  6. The wheat resistance gene Lr34 results in the constitutive induction of multiple defense pathways in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Harsh; Boni, Rainer; Bucher, Rahel; Kuhn, Benjamin; Buchmann, Gabriele; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Bigler, Laurent; Glauser, Gatan; Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2015-10-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 encodes an ABCG-type transporter which provides durable resistance against multiple pathogens. Lr34 is functional as a transgene in barley, but its mode of action has remained largely unknown both in wheat and barley. Here we studied gene expression in uninfected barley lines transgenic for Lr34. Genes from multiple defense pathways contributing to basal and inducible disease resistance were constitutively active in seedlings and mature leaves. In addition, the hormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were induced to high levels, and increased levels of lignin as well as hordatines were observed. These results demonstrate a strong, constitutive re-programming of metabolism by Lr34. The resistant Lr34 allele (Lr34res) encodes a protein that differs by two amino acid polymorphisms from the susceptible Lr34sus allele. The deletion of a single phenylalanine residue in Lr34sus was sufficient to induce the characteristic Lr34-based responses. Combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus in the same plant resulted in a reduction of Lr34res expression by 8- to 20-fold when the low-expressing Lr34res line BG8 was used as a parent. Crosses with the high-expressing Lr34res line BG9 resulted in an increase of Lr34sus expression by 13- to 16-fold in progenies that inherited both alleles. These results indicate an interaction of the two Lr34 alleles on the transcriptional level. Reduction of Lr34res expression in BG8 crosses reduced the negative pleiotropic effects of Lr34res on barley growth and vigor without compromising disease resistance, suggesting that transgenic combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus can result in agronomically useful resistance. PMID:26315512

  7. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  8. The Housekeeping Gene Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Regulates Multiple Developmental and Metabolic Pathways of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Joel S.; Friedmann, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mutations of the purinergic housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) cause the severe neurodevelopmental Lesch Nyhan Disease (LND) are poorly understood. The best recognized neural consequences of HPRT deficiency are defective basal ganglia expression of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and aberrant DA neuronal function. We have reported that HPRT deficiency leads to dysregulated expression of multiple DA-related developmental functions and cellular signaling defects in a variety of HPRT-deficient cells, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We now describe results of gene expression studies during neuronal differentiation of HPRT-deficient murine ESD3 embryonic stem cells and report that HPRT knockdown causes a marked switch from neuronal to glial gene expression and dysregulates expression of Sox2 and its regulator, genes vital for stem cell pluripotency and for the neuronal/glial cell fate decision. In addition, HPRT deficiency dysregulates many cellular functions controlling cell cycle and proliferation mechanisms, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, replication stress, lysosome function, membrane trafficking, signaling pathway for platelet activation (SPPA) multiple neurotransmission systems and sphingolipid, sulfur and glycan metabolism. We propose that the neural aberrations of HPRT deficiency result from combinatorial effects of these multi-system metabolic errors. Since some of these aberrations are also found in forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, we predict that some of these systems defects play similar neuropathogenic roles in diverse neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in common and may therefore provide new experimental opportunities for clarifying pathogenesis and for devising new potential therapeutic targets in developmental and genetic disease. PMID:24130677

  9. The housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) regulates multiple developmental and metabolic pathways of murine embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hyuk; Park, Yongjin; Bader, Joel S; Friedmann, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mutations of the purinergic housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) cause the severe neurodevelopmental Lesch Nyhan Disease (LND) are poorly understood. The best recognized neural consequences of HPRT deficiency are defective basal ganglia expression of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and aberrant DA neuronal function. We have reported that HPRT deficiency leads to dysregulated expression of multiple DA-related developmental functions and cellular signaling defects in a variety of HPRT-deficient cells, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We now describe results of gene expression studies during neuronal differentiation of HPRT-deficient murine ESD3 embryonic stem cells and report that HPRT knockdown causes a marked switch from neuronal to glial gene expression and dysregulates expression of Sox2 and its regulator, genes vital for stem cell pluripotency and for the neuronal/glial cell fate decision. In addition, HPRT deficiency dysregulates many cellular functions controlling cell cycle and proliferation mechanisms, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, replication stress, lysosome function, membrane trafficking, signaling pathway for platelet activation (SPPA) multiple neurotransmission systems and sphingolipid, sulfur and glycan metabolism. We propose that the neural aberrations of HPRT deficiency result from combinatorial effects of these multi-system metabolic errors. Since some of these aberrations are also found in forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, we predict that some of these systems defects play similar neuropathogenic roles in diverse neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in common and may therefore provide new experimental opportunities for clarifying pathogenesis and for devising new potential therapeutic targets in developmental and genetic disease. PMID:24130677

  10. Ablation of Vacuole Protein Sorting 18 (Vps18) Gene Leads to Neurodegeneration and Impaired Neuronal Migration by Disrupting Multiple Vesicle Transport Pathways to Lysosomes*?

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chao; Ye, Jian; Yan, Shunfei; Kong, Shanshan; Shen, Ye; Li, Chenyu; Li, Qinyu; Zheng, Yufang; Deng, Kejing; Xu, Tian; Tao, Wufan

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular vesicle transport pathways are critical for neuronal survival and central nervous system development. The Vps-C complex regulates multiple vesicle transport pathways to the lysosome in lower organisms. However, little is known regarding its physiological function in mammals. We deleted Vps18, a central member of Vps-C core complex, in neural cells by generating Vps18F/F; Nestin-Cre mice (Vps18 conditional knock-out mice). These mice displayed severe neurodegeneration and neuronal migration defects. Mechanistic studies revealed that Vps18 deficiency caused neurodegeneration by blocking multiple vesicle transport pathways to the lysosome, including autophagy, endocytosis, and biosynthetic pathways. Our study also showed that ablation of Vps18 resulted in up-regulation of ?1 integrin in mouse brain probably due to lysosome dysfunction but had no effects on the reelin pathway, expression of N-cadherin, or activation of JNK, which are implicated in the regulation of neuronal migration. Finally, we demonstrated that knocking down ?1 integrin partially rescued the migration defects, suggesting that Vps18 deficiency-mediated up-regulation of ?1 integrin may contribute to the defect of neuronal migration in the Vps18-deficient brain. Our results demonstrate important roles of Vps18 in neuron survival and migration, which are disrupted in multiple neural disorders. PMID:22854957

  11. The p38 MAPK signalling pathway is required for glucose metabolism, lineage specification and embryo survival during mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Sozen, Berna; Ozturk, Saffet; Yaba, Aylin; Demir, Necdet

    2015-11-01

    Preimplantation embryo development is an important and unique period and is strictly controlled. This period includes a series of critical events that are regulated by multiple signal-transduction pathways, all of which are crucial in the establishment of a viable pregnancy. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway is one of these pathways, and inhibition of its activity during preimplantation development has a deleterious effect. The molecular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of p38 MAPK suppression in early embryo development remain unknown. To investigate of the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on late preimplantation stages in detail, we cultured 2-cell stage embryos in the presence of SB203580 for 48h and analysed the 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. We determined that prolonged inhibition of the p38 MAPK altered the expression levels of Glut1 and Glut4, decreased glucose uptake during the 8-cell to blastocyst transition, changed the expression levels of transcripts which will be important to lineage commitment, including Oct4/Pou5f1, Nanog, Sox2, and Gata6, and increased cell death in 8-16 cell stage embryos onwards. Strikingly, while the expression levels of Nanog, Gata6 and Oct4/Pou5f1 mRNAs were significantly decreased, Sox2 mRNA was increased in SB203580-treated blastocysts. Taken together, our results provide important insight into the biological processes controlled by the p38 MAPK pathway and its critical role during preimplantation development. PMID:26025760

  12. Higher biodiversity is required to sustain multiple ecosystem processes across temperature regimes

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Daniel M; Bailey, R A; Dossena, Matteo; Gamfeldt, Lars; Reiss, Julia; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity loss is occurring rapidly worldwide, yet it is uncertain whether few or many species are required to sustain ecosystem functioning in the face of environmental change. The importance of biodiversity might be enhanced when multiple ecosystem processes (termed multifunctionality) and environmental contexts are considered, yet no studies have quantified this explicitly to date. We measured five key processes and their combined multifunctionality at three temperatures (5, 10 and 15 °C) in freshwater aquaria containing different animal assemblages (1–4 benthic macroinvertebrate species). For single processes, biodiversity effects were weak and were best predicted by additive-based models, i.e. polyculture performances represented the sum of their monoculture parts. There were, however, significant effects of biodiversity on multifunctionality at the low and the high (but not the intermediate) temperature. Variation in the contribution of species to processes across temperatures meant that greater biodiversity was required to sustain multifunctionality across different temperatures than was the case for single processes. This suggests that previous studies might have underestimated the importance of biodiversity in sustaining ecosystem functioning in a changing environment. PMID:25131335

  13. Interpretation and applicability of empirical tissue enhancement metrics in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI based on a multiple pathway model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, T. S.; Shi, W.; Thng, C. H.; Kwek, J. W.; Bisdas, S.; Khoo, J. B. K.

    2012-08-01

    Computer simulations based on a physiologically realistic tracer kinetic model with multiple pathways was used to provide insights on the applicability and interpretation of tissue enhancement metrics such as the maximum slope, peak enhancement and area under curve, commonly used in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Results show that physiological conditions of the tissue that could affect the accuracy of the maximal slope method include a high blood flow, increased variability of flow within the vasculature or a low vascular volume. Interestingly, changes in permeability and interstitial volume might not affect the accuracy of the maximal slope method. Time-to-peak and peak value of the tissue enhancement curve are not strictly properties of the tissue alone, and they cannot be linearly related to intrinsic tissue parameters such as blood flow, blood volume, capillary permeability, interstitial volume and mean transit time. Similar to the normalized initial area under tissue concentration curve, an alternative estimate of the total tracer distribution volume can be simply given by the ratio of tracer concentration in the tissue and artery sampled at the final DCE scan.

  14. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W; Li, CongJun

    2006-01-01

    Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867) with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens. PMID:16972989

  15. Inferring groundwater contributions and pathways to streamflow during snowmelt over multiple years in a discontinuous permafrost subarctic environment (Yukon, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean K.; Boucher, Jessica L.; Duarte, Celina M.

    2013-02-01

    Research on large northern rivers suggests that as permafrost thaws, deeper groundwater flowpaths become active, resulting in greater baseflow, increased concentrations of weathering ions and reduced concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the streamflow. In contrast, at the headwater-catchment scale, where understanding of groundwater/surface-water interactions is developed, inter-annual variability in climate and hydrology result in complex hydrological and chemical responses to change. This paper reports on a 4-year runoff investigation in an alpine discontinuous permafrost environment in Yukon, Canada, using stable isotopes, major dissolved ions and hydrometric data, to provide enhanced insight into the inter-annual-variability runoff-generation processes. Stable isotope results suggest that pre-event (old) water stored within the catchment dominates the snowmelt hydrograph, and dissolved ion results reveal that groundwater pathways occur predominantly in the near-surface during freshet. Dissolved organic carbon varies inter-annually, reflecting changing melt patterns, whereas weathering ions generated from deeper flowpaths become diluted. The total snow-water equivalent does not have a major influence on the fraction of snowmelt water reaching the stream or the runoff ratio. Results from multiple years highlight the considerable variability over short time scales, limiting our ability to detect climate-change influences on groundwater at the headwater scale.

  16. Multiple motifs regulate the trafficking of GABA(B) receptors at distinct checkpoints within the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Restituito, Sophie; Couve, Andrés; Bawagan, Hinayana; Jourdain, Sabine; Pangalos, Menelas N; Calver, Andrew R; Freeman, Katie B; Moss, Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B receptors (GABA(B)) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate GABAergic inhibition in the brain. Their functional expression is dependent upon the formation of heterodimers between GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits, a process that occurs within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the mechanisms that regulate receptor surface expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that access to the cell surface for GABA(B)R1 is sequentially controlled by an RSR(R) motif and a LL motif within its cytoplasmic domain. In addition, we reveal that msec7-1, a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of GTPases, critical regulators of vesicular membrane trafficking, interacts with GABA(B)R1 via the LL motif in this subunit. Finally, we establish that msec7-1 modulates the cell surface expression of GABA(B) receptors, a process that is dependent upon the integrity of the LL motif in GABA(B)R1. Together, our results demonstrate that the cell surface expression of the GABA(B)R1 subunit is regulated by multiple motifs, which act at distinct checkpoints in the secretory pathway, and also suggest a novel role for msec7-1 in regulating the membrane trafficking of GABA(B)R1 subunits. PMID:15797721

  17. Reciprocal requirements for Eda/Edar/NF-?B and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhang; Tomann, Philip; Andl, Thomas; Gallant, Natalie M.; Huelsken, Joerg; Jerchow, Boris; Birchmeier, Walter; Paus, Ralf; Piccolo, Stefano; Mikkola, Marja L.; Morrisey, Edward E.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Scheidereit, Claus; Millar, Sarah E.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt/?-catenin and NF-?B signaling mechanisms provide central controls in development and disease, but how these pathways intersect is unclear. Using hair follicle induction as a model system, we show that patterning of dermal Wnt/?-catenin signaling requires epithelial ?-catenin activity. We find that Wnt/?-catenin signaling is absolutely required for NF-?B activation, and that Edar is a direct Wnt target gene. Wnt/?-catenin signaling is initially activated independently of Eda/Edar/NF-?B activity in primary hair follicle primordia. However, Eda/Edar/NF-?B signaling is required to refine the pattern of Wnt/?-catenin activity, and to maintain this activity at later stages of placode development. We show that maintenance of localized expression of Wnt10b and Wnt10a requires NF-?B signaling, providing a molecular explanation for the latter observation, and identify Wnt10b as a direct NF-?B target. These data reveal a complex interplay and inter-dependence of Wnt/?-catenin and Eda/Edar/NF-?B signaling pathways in initiation and maintenance of primary hair follicle placodes. PMID:19619491

  18. NAViGaTing the Micronome Using Multiple MicroRNA Prediction Databases to Identify Signalling Pathway-Associated MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Elize A.; Xie, Wing; Mak, Tak W.; Jurisica, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs known to regulate gene expression at the transcript level, the protein level, or both. Since microRNA binding is sequence-based but possibly structure-specific, work in this area has resulted in multiple databases storing predicted microRNA:target relationships computed using diverse algorithms. We integrate prediction databases, compare predictions to in vitro data, and use cross-database predictions to model the microRNA:transcript interactome referred to as the micronome to study microRNA involvement in well-known signalling pathways as well as associations with disease. We make this data freely available with a flexible user interface as our microRNA Data Integration Portal mirDIP (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/mirDIP). Results mirDIP integrates prediction databases to elucidate accurate microRNA:target relationships. Using NAViGaTOR to produce interaction networks implicating microRNAs in literature-based, KEGG-based and Reactome-based pathways, we find these signalling pathway networks have significantly more microRNA involvement compared to chance (p<0.05), suggesting microRNAs co-target many genes in a given pathway. Further examination of the micronome shows two distinct classes of microRNAs; universe microRNAs, which are involved in many signalling pathways; and intra-pathway microRNAs, which target multiple genes within one signalling pathway. We find universe microRNAs to have more targets (p<0.0001), to be more studied (p<0.0002), and to have higher degree in the KEGG cancer pathway (p<0.0001), compared to intra-pathway microRNAs. Conclusions Our pathway-based analysis of mirDIP data suggests microRNAs are involved in intra-pathway signalling. We identify two distinct classes of microRNAs, suggesting a hierarchical organization of microRNAs co-targeting genes both within and between pathways, and implying differential involvement of universe and intra-pathway microRNAs at the disease level. PMID:21364759

  19. Efficacy and safety concerns are important reasons why the FDA requires multiple reviews before approval of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph S; Dzara, Kristina; Downing, Nicholas S

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory approval of new drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a long and complex process and often requires multiple cycles of review, potentially delaying patients' access to new and effective therapeutics. We used qualitative methods to characterize the safety and efficacy reasons why applications for novel therapeutics approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2011 required multiple review cycles prior to approval. Among ninety-six applications approved between 2001 and 2011 that required multiple review cycles, safety concerns contributed to seventy-four (77.1 percent) and efficacy concerns to forty-three (44.8 percent). Our study suggests that multiple review cycles appear to play an important role in allowing the FDA to protect public health and in ensuring adequate understanding of clinical benefits and risks prior to approval. PMID:25847652

  20. VdNUC-2, the Key Regulator of Phosphate Responsive Signaling Pathway, Is Required for Verticillium dahliae Infection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Sheng; Wang, Cai-Yue; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qing; Lin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    In fungal cells, a phosphate (Pi) responsive signaling and metabolism (PHO) pathway regulates Pi-homeostasis. NUC-2/PHO81 and its homologs are one of the most important components in the regulation pathway. In soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae, we identified a Neurospora crassa nuc-2 homolog gene VdNUC-2. VdNUC-2 is composed of 1,018 amino acids, and is highly conserved in tested filamentous fungi. Under conditions of Pi-starvation, compared with the wild-type strain and ectopic complementation strains, the VdNUC-2 knocked out mutants exhibited reduced radial growth, decreased production of conidia and microsclerotia, and were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide stress. The virulence of VdNUC-2 defective mutants was significantly compromised, and that was unable to be restored by exogenous application of extra Pi. Additionally, the deletion mutants of VdNUC-1, a key transcription factor gene positively controlled by VdNUC-2 in the PHO pathway, showed the similar cultural phenotypes as VdNUC-2 mutants when both of them grew in Pi-limited conditions. However, the virulence of VdNUC-1 mutants was comparable to the wild-type strain. These evidences indicated that the virulence reduction in VdNUC-2 mutants is not due to the interruptions in the PHO pathway or the disturbance of Pi-homeostasis in V. dahliae cytoplasm. VdNUC-2 is not only a crucial gene in the PHO pathway in V. dahliae, but also is required for the full virulence during host-infection. PMID:26670613

  1. VdNUC-2, the Key Regulator of Phosphate Responsive Signaling Pathway, Is Required for Verticillium dahliae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Sheng; Wang, Cai-yue; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qing; Lin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    In fungal cells, a phosphate (Pi) responsive signaling and metabolism (PHO) pathway regulates Pi-homeostasis. NUC-2/PHO81 and its homologs are one of the most important components in the regulation pathway. In soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae, we identified a Neurospora crassa nuc-2 homolog gene VdNUC-2. VdNUC-2 is composed of 1,018 amino acids, and is highly conserved in tested filamentous fungi. Under conditions of Pi-starvation, compared with the wild-type strain and ectopic complementation strains, the VdNUC-2 knocked out mutants exhibited reduced radial growth, decreased production of conidia and microsclerotia, and were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide stress. The virulence of VdNUC-2 defective mutants was significantly compromised, and that was unable to be restored by exogenous application of extra Pi. Additionally, the deletion mutants of VdNUC-1, a key transcription factor gene positively controlled by VdNUC-2 in the PHO pathway, showed the similar cultural phenotypes as VdNUC-2 mutants when both of them grew in Pi-limited conditions. However, the virulence of VdNUC-1 mutants was comparable to the wild-type strain. These evidences indicated that the virulence reduction in VdNUC-2 mutants is not due to the interruptions in the PHO pathway or the disturbance of Pi-homeostasis in V. dahliae cytoplasm. VdNUC-2 is not only a crucial gene in the PHO pathway in V. dahliae, but also is required for the full virulence during host-infection. PMID:26670613

  2. Maternal and Perinatal Outcome of Life Threatening Obstetrical Complications Requiring Multiple Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Khatuja, Ritu; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Radhika, AG; Juneja, Atul; Singh, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstetrical haemorrhage is the direct cause of maternal mortality, which can be prevented by timely recognition followed by quick and adequate treatment. Aim To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcome of life threatening obstetric complications requiring multiple transfusions. Materials and Methods It is an observational study conducted on 112 antenatal and postnatal women admitted in a tertiary level hospital, requiring blood and blood products transfusion of >1.5 liters in 24 hours, over a period of 15 months (Aug 2011 to Oct 2012). The demographic and obstetrical profile, amount transfused, mode of delivery, duration of hospital stay, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality was evaluated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis of the data was performed using chi-squared test. Results There were 95 women who presented in antepartum period and 17 in the postpartum. Multigravidas comprised of 70 women, 81 had unsupervised pregnancies and 33 women presented in shock. At admission, 76 peripartum women had severe anaemia and 62 had coagulopathy. Obstetrical hysterectomy was done for 33 women and total 17 women expired. Haemorrhage was the most common indication for transfusion. The mean blood transfusion and volume replacement in 24 hours was 4.2 units & 2.25 liters respectively. The mean hospital stay was 10-15 days. Intra-uterine death at the time of admission was present in 40 women and 72 had live births. After birth, 21 babies required neonatal intensive care, of which 6 expired. Conclusion Antenatal care is important to prevent complications though pregnancy is always unpredictable. Patients condition at admission is single most important factor often influencing the maternal and perinatal outcome. PMID:26673661

  3. Requirements of peptidoglycan structure that allow detection by the Drosophila Toll pathway.

    PubMed

    Filipe, Sergio R; Tomasz, Alexander; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2005-04-01

    The Drosophila immune system is able to discriminate between classes of bacteria. Detection of Gram-positive bacteria involves a complex of two pattern recognition receptors: peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) and Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1). These activate the Toll signalling pathway. To define the cell wall components sensed by the host, we used highly purified peptidoglycan fragments of two principal Gram-positive bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. We report that in both peptidoglycans, the minimal structure needed to activate the Toll pathway is a muropeptide dimer and that the free reducing end of the N-acetyl muramic acid residues of the muropeptides is essential for activity. Monomeric muropeptides were inactive and inhibitory in combination with dimers. Finally, peptidoglycan was degraded by the haemolymph of wild-type but not GNBP1 mutant flies. We suggest a model whereby GNBP1 is involved in the hydrolysis of Gram-positive peptidoglycan producing new glycan reducing ends, which are subsequently detected by PGRP-SA. PMID:15791270

  4. The Base Excision Repair Pathway Is Required for Efficient Lentivirus Integration

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Kristine E.; Espeseth, Amy; Wang, Xiao-hong; Fang, Qingming; Russo, Maria Teresa; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Hazuda, Daria; Sobol, Robert W.; Fishel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An siRNA screen has identified several proteins throughout the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage as important for efficient HIV infection. The proteins identified included early repair factors such as the base damage recognition glycosylases OGG1 and MYH and the late repair factor POL, implicating the entire BER pathway. Murine cells with deletions of the genes Ogg1, Myh, Neil1 and Pol recapitulate the defect of HIV infection in the absence of BER. Defective infection in the absence of BER proteins was also seen with the lentivirus FIV, but not the gammaretrovirus MMLV. BER proteins do not affect HIV infection through its accessory genes nor the central polypurine tract. HIV reverse transcription and nuclear entry appear unaffected by the absence of BER proteins. However, HIV integration to the host chromosome is reduced in the absence of BER proteins. Pre-integration complexes from BER deficient cell lines show reduced integration activity in vitro. Integration activity is restored by addition of recombinant BER protein POL. Lentiviral infection and integration efficiency appears to depend on the presence of BER proteins. PMID:21448280

  5. Tip60 Is Required for DNA Interstrand Cross-link Repair in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Hejna, James; Holtorf, Megan; Hines, Jennie; Mathewson, Lauren; Hemphill, Aaron; Al-Dhalimy, Muhsen; Olson, Susan B.; Moses, Robb E.

    2008-01-01

    The disease Fanconi anemia is a genome instability syndrome characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking agents, manifest by decreased cellular survival and chromosomal aberrations after such treatment. There are at least 13 proteins acting in the pathway, with the FANCD2 protein apparently functioning as a late term effecter in the maintenance of genome stability. We find that the chromatin remodeling protein, Tip60, interacts directly with the FANCD2 protein in a yeast two-hybrid system. This interaction has been confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization using both endogenous and epitope-tagged FANCD2 and Tip60 from human cells. The observation of decreased cellular survival after exposure to mitomycin C in normal fibroblasts depleted for Tip60 indicates a direct function in interstrand cross-link repair. The coincident function of Tip60 and FANCD2 in one pathway is supported by the finding that depletion of Tip60 in Fanconi anemia cells does not increase sensitivity to DNA cross-links. However, depletion of Tip60 did not reduce monoubiquitination of FANCD2 or its localization to nuclear foci following DNA damage. The observations indicate that Fanconi anemia proteins act in concert with chromatin remodeling functions to maintain genome stability after DNA cross-link damage. PMID:18263878

  6. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA–Dependent Tel1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M.; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-01-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  7. Sumoylation Pathway Is Required to Maintain the Basal Breast Cancer Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Bogachek, Maria V.; Chen, Yizhen; Kulak, Mikhail V.; Woodfield, George W.; Cyr, Anthony R.; Park, Jung Min; Spanheimer, Philip M.; Li, Yingyue; Li, Tiandao; Weigel, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The TFAP2C/AP-2? transcription factor regulates luminal breast cancer genes and loss of TFAP2C induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. By contrast, the highly homologous family member, TFAP2A, lacks transcriptional activity at luminal gene promoters. A detailed structure-function analysis identified that sumoylation of TFAP2A blocks its ability to induce the expression of luminal genes. Disruption of the sumoylation pathway by knockdown of sumoylation enzymes, mutation of the SUMO-target lysine of TFAP2A, or treatment with sumoylation inhibitors induced a basal to luminal transition, which was dependent upon TFAP2A. Sumoylation inhibitors cleared the CD44+/hi/CD24?/low cell population characterizing basal cancers and inhibited tumor outgrowth of basal cancer xenografts. These findings establish a critical role for sumoylation in regulating the transcriptional mechanisms that maintain the basal cancer phenotype. PMID:24835590

  8. Sumoylation pathway is required to maintain the basal breast cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Bogachek, Maria V; Chen, Yizhen; Kulak, Mikhail V; Woodfield, George W; Cyr, Anthony R; Park, Jung M; Spanheimer, Philip M; Li, Yingyue; Li, Tiandao; Weigel, Ronald J

    2014-06-16

    The TFAP2C/AP-2? transcription factor regulates luminal breast cancer genes, and loss of TFAP2C induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. By contrast, the highly homologous family member, TFAP2A, lacks transcriptional activity at luminal gene promoters. A detailed structure-function analysis identified that sumoylation of TFAP2A blocks its ability to induce the expression of luminal genes. Disruption of the sumoylation pathway by knockdown of sumoylation enzymes, mutation of the SUMO-target lysine of TFAP2A, or treatment with sumoylation inhibitors induced a basal-to-luminal transition, which was dependent on TFAP2A. Sumoylation inhibitors cleared the CD44(+/hi)/CD24(-/low) cell population characterizing basal cancers and inhibited tumor outgrowth of basal cancer xenografts. These findings establish a critical role for sumoylation in regulating the transcriptional mechanisms that maintain the basal cancer phenotype. PMID:24835590

  9. LRP-6 is a coreceptor for multiple fibrogenic signaling pathways in pericytes and myofibroblasts that are inhibited by DKK-1

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shuyu; Johnson, Bryce G.; Kida, Yujiro; Ip, Colin; Davidson, Kathryn C.; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Kobayashi, Akio; Lang, Richard A.; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Moon, Randall T.; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of vital organs is a major public health problem with limited therapeutic options. Mesenchymal cells including microvascular mural cells (pericytes) are major progenitors of scar-forming myofibroblasts in kidney and other organs. Here we show pericytes in healthy kidneys have active WNT/β-catenin signaling responses that are markedly up-regulated following kidney injury. Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1), a ligand for the WNT coreceptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP-5 and LRP-6) and an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling, effectively inhibits pericyte activation, detachment, and transition to myofibroblasts in vivo in response to kidney injury, resulting in attenuated fibrogenesis, capillary rarefaction, and inflammation. DKK-1 blocks activation and proliferation of established myofibroblasts in vitro and blocks pericyte proliferation to PDGF, pericyte migration, gene activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization to TGF-β or connective tissue growth factor. These effects are largely independent of inhibition of downstream β-catenin signaling. DKK-1 acts predominantly by inhibiting PDGF-, TGF-β–, and connective tissue growth factor-activated MAPK and JNK signaling cascades, acting via LRP-6 with associated WNT ligand. Biochemically, LRP-6 interacts closely with PDGF receptor β and TGF-β receptor 1 at the cell membrane, suggesting that it may have roles in pathways other than WNT/β-catenin. In summary, DKK-1 blocks many of the changes in pericytes required for myofibroblast transition and attenuates established myofibroblast proliferation/activation by mechanisms dependent on LRP-6 and WNT ligands but not the downstream β-catenin pathway. PMID:23302695

  10. Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

  11. Proper Actin Ring Formation and Septum Constriction Requires Coordinated Regulation of SIN and MOR Pathways through the Germinal Centre Kinase MST-1

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, Yvonne; Dettmann, Anne; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R.; Schmitt, Kerstin; Valerius, Oliver; Seiler, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DBF2p-related (NDR) kinases constitute a functionally conserved protein family of eukaryotic regulators that control cell division and polarity. In fungi, they function as effector kinases of the morphogenesis (MOR) and septation initiation (SIN) networks and are activated by pathway-specific germinal centre (GC) kinases. We characterized a third GC kinase, MST-1, that connects both kinase cascades. Genetic and biochemical interactions with SIN components and life cell imaging identify MST-1 as SIN-associated kinase that functions in parallel with the GC kinase SID-1 to activate the SIN-effector kinase DBF-2. SID-1 and MST-1 are both regulated by the upstream SIN kinase CDC-7, yet in an opposite manner. Aberrant cortical actomyosin rings are formed in Δmst-1, which resulted in mis-positioned septa and irregular spirals, indicating that MST-1-dependent regulation of the SIN is required for proper formation and constriction of the septal actomyosin ring. However, MST-1 also interacts with several components of the MOR network and modulates MOR activity at multiple levels. MST-1 functions as promiscuous enzyme and also activates the MOR effector kinase COT-1 through hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. In addition, MST-1 physically interacts with the MOR kinase POD-6, and dimerization of both proteins inactivates the GC kinase hetero-complex. These data specify an antagonistic relationship between the SIN and MOR during septum formation in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa that is, at least in part, coordinated through the GC kinase MST-1. The similarity of the SIN and MOR pathways to the animal Hippo and Ndr pathways, respectively, suggests that intensive cross-communication between distinct NDR kinase modules may also be relevant for the homologous NDR kinases of higher eukaryotes. PMID:24762679

  12. Proper actin ring formation and septum constriction requires coordinated regulation of SIN and MOR pathways through the germinal centre kinase MST-1.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Yvonne; Dettmann, Anne; Mourio-Prez, Rosa R; Schmitt, Kerstin; Valerius, Oliver; Seiler, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear DBF2p-related (NDR) kinases constitute a functionally conserved protein family of eukaryotic regulators that control cell division and polarity. In fungi, they function as effector kinases of the morphogenesis (MOR) and septation initiation (SIN) networks and are activated by pathway-specific germinal centre (GC) kinases. We characterized a third GC kinase, MST-1, that connects both kinase cascades. Genetic and biochemical interactions with SIN components and life cell imaging identify MST-1 as SIN-associated kinase that functions in parallel with the GC kinase SID-1 to activate the SIN-effector kinase DBF-2. SID-1 and MST-1 are both regulated by the upstream SIN kinase CDC-7, yet in an opposite manner. Aberrant cortical actomyosin rings are formed in ?mst-1, which resulted in mis-positioned septa and irregular spirals, indicating that MST-1-dependent regulation of the SIN is required for proper formation and constriction of the septal actomyosin ring. However, MST-1 also interacts with several components of the MOR network and modulates MOR activity at multiple levels. MST-1 functions as promiscuous enzyme and also activates the MOR effector kinase COT-1 through hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. In addition, MST-1 physically interacts with the MOR kinase POD-6, and dimerization of both proteins inactivates the GC kinase hetero-complex. These data specify an antagonistic relationship between the SIN and MOR during septum formation in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa that is, at least in part, coordinated through the GC kinase MST-1. The similarity of the SIN and MOR pathways to the animal Hippo and Ndr pathways, respectively, suggests that intensive cross-communication between distinct NDR kinase modules may also be relevant for the homologous NDR kinases of higher eukaryotes. PMID:24762679

  13. Optimization-based manufacturing scheduling with multiple resources and setup requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Luh, Peter B.; Thakur, Lakshman S.; Moreno, Jack, Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The increasing demand for on-time delivery and low price forces manufacturer to seek effective schedules to improve coordination of multiple resources and to reduce product internal costs associated with labor, setup and inventory. This study describes the design and implementation of a scheduling system for J. M. Product Inc. whose manufacturing is characterized by the need to simultaneously consider machines and operators while an operator may attend several operations at the same time, and the presence of machines requiring significant setup times. The scheduling problem with these characteristics are typical for many manufacturers, very difficult to be handled, and have not been adequately addressed in the literature. In this study, both machine and operators are modeled as resources with finite capacities to obtain efficient coordination between them, and an operator's time can be shared by several operations at the same time to make full use of the operator. Setups are explicitly modeled following our previous work, with additional penalties on excessive setups to reduce setup costs and avoid possible scraps. An integer formulation with a separable structure is developed to maximize on-time delivery of products, low inventory and small number of setups. Within the Lagrangian relaxation framework, the problem is decomposed into individual subproblems that are effectively solved by using dynamic programming with additional penalties embedded in state transitions. Heuristics is then developed to obtain a feasible schedule following on our previous work with new mechanism to satisfy operator capacity constraints. The method has been implemented using the object-oriented programming language C++ with a user-friendly interface, and numerical testing shows that the method generates high quality schedules in a timely fashion. Through simultaneous consideration of machines and operators, machines and operators are well coordinated to facilitate the smooth flow of parts through the system. The explicit modeling of setups and the associated penalties let parts with same setup requirements clustered together to avoid excessive setups.

  14. Drosophila p53-related protein kinase is required for PI3K/TOR pathway-dependent growth.

    PubMed

    Ibar, Consuelo; Cataldo, Vicente F; Vsquez-Doorman, Constanza; Olgun, Patricio; Glavic, Alvaro

    2013-03-01

    Cell growth and proliferation are pivotal for final organ and body size definition. p53-related protein kinase (Bud32/PRPK) has been identified as a protein involved in proliferation through its effects on transcription in yeast and p53 stabilization in human cell culture. However, the physiological function of Bud32/PRPK in metazoans is not well understood. In this work, we have analyzed the role of PRPK in Drosophila development. Drosophila PRPK is expressed in every tissue analyzed and is required to support proliferation and cell growth. The Prpk knockdown animals show phenotypes similar to those found in mutants for positive regulators of the PI3K/TOR pathway. This pathway has been shown to be fundamental for animal growth, transducing the hormonal and nutritional status into the protein translation machinery. Functional interactions have established that Prpk operates as a transducer of the PI3K/TOR pathway, being essential for TOR kinase activation and for the regulation of its targets (S6K and 4E-BP, autophagy and bulk endocytosis). This suggests that Prpk is crucial for stimulating the basal protein biosynthetic machinery in response to insulin signaling and to changes in nutrient availability. PMID:23444356

  15. Adenovirus RID? uncovers a novel pathway requiring ORP1L for lipid droplet formation independent of NPC1

    PubMed Central

    Cianciola, Nicholas L.; Greene, Diane J.; Morton, Richard E.; Carlin, Cathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    NiemannPick disease type C (NPC) is caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2, which coordinate egress of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol from late endosomes. We previously reported that the adenovirus-encoded protein RID? rescues the cholesterol storage phenotype in NPC1-mutant fibroblasts. We show here that RID? reconstitutes deficient endosome-to-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transport, allowing excess LDL-cholesterol to be esterified by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase and stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in NPC1-deficient cells. Furthermore, the RID? pathway is regulated by the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. Studies have classified ORP1L as a sterol sensor involved in LE positioning downstream of GTP-Rab7. Our data, however, suggest that ORP1L may play a role in transport of LDL-cholesterol to a specific ER pool designated for LD formation. In contrast to NPC1, which is dispensable, the RID?/ORP1L-dependent route requires functional NPC2. Although NPC1/NPC2 constitutes the major pathway, therapies that amplify minor egress routes for LDL-cholesterol could significantly improve clinical management of patients with loss-of-function NPC1 mutations. The molecular identity of putative alternative pathways, however, is poorly characterized. We propose RID? as a model system for understanding physiological egress routes that use ORP1L to activate ER feedback responses involved in LD formation. PMID:24025716

  16. ASIC-dependent LTP at multiple glutamatergic synapses in amygdala network is required for fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Po-Han; Chien, Ta-Chun; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Lien, Cheng-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants in the human ortholog of acid-sensing ion channel-1a subunit (ASIC1a) gene are associated with panic disorder and amygdala dysfunction. Both fear learning and activity-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortico-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synapses are impaired in ASIC1a-null mice, suggesting a critical role of ASICs in fear memory formation. In this study, we found that ASICs were differentially expressed within the amygdala neuronal population, and the extent of LTP at various glutamatergic synapses correlated with the level of ASIC expression in postsynaptic neurons. Importantly, selective deletion of ASIC1a in GABAergic cells, including amygdala output neurons, eliminated LTP in these cells and reduced fear learning to the same extent as that found when ASIC1a was selectively abolished in BLA glutamatergic neurons. Thus, fear learning requires ASIC-dependent LTP at multiple amygdala synapses, including both cortico-BLA input synapses and intra-amygdala synapses on output neurons. PMID:25988357

  17. Dengue-induced autophagy, virus replication and protection from cell death require ER stress (PERK) pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Datan, E; Roy, S G; Germain, G; Zali, N; McLean, J E; Golshan, G; Harbajan, S; Lockshin, R A; Zakeri, Z

    2016-01-01

    A virus that reproduces in a host without killing cells can easily establish a successful infection. Previously, we showed that dengue-2, a virus that threatens 40% of the world, induces autophagy, enabling dengue to reproduce in cells without triggering cell death. Autophagy further protects the virus-laden cells from further insults. In this study, we evaluate how it does so; we show that dengue upregulates host pathways that increase autophagy, namely endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling followed by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of ER stress or ATM signaling abrogates the dengue-conferred protection against other cell stressors. Direct inhibition of ER stress response in infected cells decreases autophagosome turnover, reduces ROS production and limits reproduction of dengue virus. Blocking ATM activation, which is an early response to infection, decreases transcription of ER stress response proteins, but ATM has limited impact on production of ROS and virus titers. Production of ROS determines only late-onset autophagy in infected cells and is not necessary for dengue-induced protection from stressors. Collectively, these results demonstrate that among the multiple autophagy-inducing pathways during infection, ER stress signaling is more important to viral replication and protection of cells than either ATM or ROS-mediated signaling. To limit virus production and survival of dengue-infected cells, one must address the earliest phase of autophagy, induced by ER stress. PMID:26938301

  18. The Hippo signaling pathway is required for salivary gland development and its dysregulation is associated with Sjogren's-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Berge; Samad-Zadeh, Arman; Bouchie, Meghan; Skarstein, Kathrine; Galtung, Hilde Kanli; Mera, Toshiyuki; Walker, Janice; Menko, A. Sue; Varelas, Xaralabos; Faustman, Denise L.; Jensen, Janicke Liaaen; Kukuruzinska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a complex autoimmune disease that primarily affects salivary and lacrimal glands and is associated with high morbidity. Although the prevailing dogma is that immune system pathology drives SS, increasing evidence points to structural defects, including defective E-cadherin adhesion, to be involved in its etiology. We have shown that E-cadherin plays pivotal roles in the development of the mouse salivary submandibular gland (SMG) by organizing apical-basal polarity in acinar and ductal progenitors and by signaling survival for differentiating duct cells. Recently, E-cadherin junctions have been shown to interact with effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, a core pathway regulating organ size, cell proliferation and differentiation. We now show that Hippo signaling is required for SMG branching morphogenesis and is involved in the pathophysiology of SS. During SMG development, a Hippo pathway effector, TAZ, becomes increasingly phosphorylated and associated with E-cadherin and ?-catenin, consistent with the activation of Hippo signaling. Inhibition of Lats2, an upstream kinase that promotes TAZ phosphorylation, results in dysmorphogenesis of the SMG and impaired duct formation. SMGs from NOD mice, a mouse model for SS, phenocopy the Lats2-inhibited SMGs and exhibit a reduction in E-cadherin junctional components, including TAZ. Importantly, labial specimens from human SS patients display mislocalization of TAZ from junctional regions to the nucleus, coincident with accumulation of extracellular matrix components, fibronectin and CTGF, known downstream targets of TAZ. Our studies show that Hippo signaling plays a crucial role in SMG branching morphogenesis and provide evidence that defects in this pathway are associated with SS in humans. PMID:24080911

  19. Zinc-ion binding and cytokine activity regulation pathways predicts outcome in relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Achiron, A; Gurevich, M; Snir, Y; Segal, E; Mandel, M

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by an unpredictable clinical course with intermittent relapses that lead over time to significant neurological disability. Clinical and radiological variables are limited in the ability to predict disease course. Peripheral blood genome scale analyses were used to characterize MS patients with different disease types, but not for prediction of outcome. Using complementary-DNA microarrays we studied peripheral-blood gene expression patterns in 53 relapsingremitting MS patients. Patients were classified into good, intermediate and poor clinical outcome established after 2-year follow-up. A training set of 26 samples was used to identify clinical outcome differentiating gene-expression signature. Supervised learning and feature selection algorithms were applied to identify a predictive signature that was validated in an independent group of 27 patients. Key genes within the predictive signature were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction in an additional 10 patients. The analysis identified 431 differentiating genes between patients with good and poor clinical outcome (change in neurological disability by the expanded disability status scale was ?033 024 and 16 035, P = 00002, total number of relapses were 0 and 180 035, P = 000009, respectively). An optimal set of 29 genes was depicted as a clinical outcome predictive gene expression signature and classified appropriately 889% of patients. This predictive signature was enriched by genes related biologically to zinc-ion binding and cytokine activity regulation pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a basis for monitoring patients by prediction of disease outcome and can be incorporated into clinical decision-making in relapsingremitting MS. PMID:17488294

  20. Gossypol induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling and Bcl-2/Mcl-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    SADAHIRA, KEN; SAGAWA, MORIHIKO; NAKAZATO, TOMONORI; UCHIDA, HIDEO; IKEDA, YASUO; OKAMOTO, SHINICHIRO; NAKAJIMA, HIDEAKI; KIZAKI, MASAHIRO

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder affecting the immune system with various systemic symptoms. MM remains incurable even with high dose chemotherapy using conventional drugs, thus necessitating development of novel therapeutic strategies. Gossypol (Gos) is a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from cotton plants, and has been shown to possess anti-neoplastic activity against various tumors. Recent studies have shown that Gos is an inhibitor for Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL acting as BH3 mimetics that interfere interaction between pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and Bcl-2/Bcl-XL. Since most of the patients with MM overexpress Bcl-2 protein, we considered Gos might be a promising therapeutic agent for MM. We herein show that Gos efficiently induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of the OPM2 MM cell line, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gos induced activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, showing mitochondrial dysfunction pathway is operational during apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at serine-70 was attenuated by Gos treatment, while protein levels were not affected. In addition, Mcl-1 was downregulated by Gos. Interestingly, phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK was inhibited by Gos-treatment, indicating that Gos globally suppressed interleukin-6 (IL-6) signals. Moreover, JAK2 inhibition mimicked the effect of Gos in OPM2 cells including Bcl-2 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation. These results demonstrated that Gos induces apoptosis in MM cells not only through displacing BH3-only proteins from Bcl-2, but also through inhibiting IL-6 signaling, which leads to Bcl-2 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation. PMID:25231749

  1. Insulin combined with Chinese medicine improves glycemic outcome through multiple pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxia; Liu, Ya; Xiong, Daqian; Xie, Chunguang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Aims Insufficient insulin secretion or inefficient insulin response are responsible for the clinical outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Administration of insulin alone is prone to cause secondary effects, resulting in an unsatisfactory outcome. Shen-Qi-Formula (SQF), a well-known Chinese medicinal formula, has been used for diabetic treatment for a long time. The present study was designed to investigate whether SQF in combination with insulin improved the clinical outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and what mechanisms were possibly involved in the treatment. Materials and Methods A total of 219 patients were included in the study. Of these, 110 patients were treated with insulin monotherapy, and 109 with the combination therapy of SQF and insulin. Before and after 12-week treatment, the fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, β-cell function, insulin resistance and blood lipids were measured. Results The 12 weeks of SQF treatment in combination with insulin significantly decreased the fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. Insulin secretion was not increased after the treatment, but β-cell function and insulin resistance were obviously improved. Furthermore, 12 weeks of treatment with SQF and insulin improved the levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, oxidative stress, blood lipids, coagulation function and bodyweight. Conclusion The results from our study showed that the combination therapy of SQF and insulin significantly improved the clinical outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with insulin monotherapy. The mechanism of improvement was possibly involved in the multiple pathways. PMID:26543546

  2. CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Christian A.; Ribon, Vered; Kanzaki, Makoto; Thurmond, Debbie C.; Mora, Silvia; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Bickel, Perry E.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2000-09-01

    Insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells. Although the precise molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain uncertain, insulin initiates its actions by binding to its tyrosine kinase receptor, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular substrates. One such substrate is the Cbl protooncogene product. Cbl is recruited to the insulin receptor by interaction with the adapter protein CAP, through one of three adjacent SH3 domains in the carboxy terminus of CAP. Upon phosphorylation of Cbl, the CAP-Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and moves to a caveolin-enriched, triton-insoluble membrane fraction. Here, to identify a molecular mechanism underlying this subcellular redistribution, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library using the amino-terminal region of CAP and identified the caveolar protein flotillin. Flotillin forms a ternary complex with CAP and Cbl, directing the localization of the CAP-Cbl complex to a lipid raft subdomain of the plasma membrane. Expression of the N-terminal domain of CAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes blocks the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin, without affecting signalling events that depend on phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Thus, localization of the Cbl-CAP complex to lipid rafts generates a pathway that is crucial in the regulation of glucose uptake.

  3. Nuclear Import of the Yeast Hexokinase 2 Protein Requires ?/?-Importin-dependent Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Pelez, Rafael; Fernndez-Garca, Paula; Herrero, Pilar; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Hexokinase 2 (Hxk2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was one of the first metabolic enzymes described as a multifunctional protein. Hxk2 has a double subcellular localization and role, it functions as a glycolytic enzyme in the cytoplasm and as a regulator of gene transcription of several Mig1-regulated genes in the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which Hxk2 enters in the nucleus was unknown until now. Here, we report that the Hxk2 protein is an import substrate of the carriers ?-importin (Kap60 in yeast) and ?-importin (Kap95 in yeast). We also show that the Hxk2 nuclear import and the binding of Hxk2 with Kap60 are glucose-dependent and involve one lysine-rich nuclear localization sequence (NLS), located between lysine 6 and lysine 12. Moreover, Kap95 facilitates the recognition of the Hxk2 NLS1 motif by Kap60 and both importins are essential for Hxk2 nuclear import. It is also demonstrated that Hxk2 nuclear import and its binding to Kap95 and Kap60 depend on the Gsp1-GTP/GDP protein levels. Thus, our study uncovers Hxk2 as a new cargo for the ?/?-importin pathway of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22157003

  4. Characterization of an ERAD pathway for non-glycosylated BiP substrates which requires Herp

    PubMed Central

    Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Hendershot, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY To investigate the disposal of non-glycosylated BiP substrates, we used a non-secreted ? LC, which exists in a partially (ox1) and completely (ox2) oxidized state. The ox2 form is partially reduced in order to be degraded and only the ox1 form is ubiquitinated and associates with both Herp, and Derlin-1. Herp is in a complex with ubiquitinated proteins and with the 26S proteasome, suggesting that it plays a role in linking substrates with the proteasome. Over-expressed Herp also interacts with two other BiP substrates but not with two calnexin substrates. Either expression of p97 or Hrd1 mutants, which are in a complex with Herp and Derlin-1, or reducing Herp levels inhibited the degradation of the BiP substrates, whereas the latter had no effect on the degradation of the calnexin substrates. This suggests that there is some distinction in the pathways used to dispose of these two types of ERAD substrates. PMID:18042451

  5. JNK pathway is required for TNCB-induced IL-18 expression in murine keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Wang; Li, Chunfeng

    2010-06-01

    The epidermal tissue of the skin is the first line of defense against exposure to microbial, chemical, and physical agents that cause cutaneous immune responses. Epidermal epithelial cells (keratinocytes) produce pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) potentially relevant for the skin immune responses. Expression of IL-18 was investigated after exposure of murine keratinocytes PAM212 to pro-inflammatory stimuli, allergen TNCB (Trinitrichlorobenzen), LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or PMA (phorbol myristate acetate). IL-18 mRNA transcription and IL-18 secretion were detected by real time-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that TNCB-induced IL-18 expression in cultured murine keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and it significantly stimulated IL-18 mRNA and protein expression at 10 microM. In addition, both LPS and PMA could increase the expression of IL-18 in murine keratinocytes. To determine the molecular mechanism involved, keratinocytes were pretreated with JNK, p38 or ERK MAPK inhibitors SP600125, SB203580, PD98059. We found that JNK inhibitors could significantly suppress IL-18 expression enhanced by TNCB. Western blot results showed that TNCB could induce the phosphorylation of JNK, but not p38 or ERK1/2. These results suggest that TNCB has an up-regulation effect on IL-18 production in murine keratinocyte cell line PAM212, and that the activation of the JNK signal pathway is the mechanism responsible for TNCB-induced IL-18 gene expression in murine keratinocytes. PMID:20381601

  6. LHT7, a chemically modified heparin, inhibits multiple stages of angiogenesis by blocking VEGF, FGF2 and PDGF-B signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Woo; Bae, Sang Mun; Lee, Myungjin; Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Lee, Chang Kyung; Kim, Jeong Kon; Kim, In-San; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2015-01-01

    Despite the therapeutic benefits of the angiogenesis inhibitors shown in the clinics, they have encountered an unexpected limitation by the occurrence of acquired resistance. Although the mechanism of the resistance is not clear so far, the upregulation of alternative angiogenic pathways and stabilization of endothelium by mural cells were reported to be responsible. Therefore, blocking multiple angiogenic pathways that are crucial in tumor angiogenesis has been highlighted to overcome such limitations. To develop an angiogenesis inhibitor that could block multiple angiogenic factors, heparin is an excellent lead compound since wide array of angiogenic factors are heparin-binding proteins. In previous study, we reported a heparin-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, LHT7, as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and showed that it blocked VEGF signaling pathway. Here we show that LHT7 could block the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) in addition to VEGF. Simultaneous blockade of these angiogenic factors resulted in inhibition of multiple stages of the angiogenic process, including initial angiogenic response to maturation of the endothelium by pericyte coverage in vitro. In addition, the treatment of LHT7 in vivo did not show any sign of vascular normalization and directly led to decreased blood perfusion throughout the tumor. Our findings show that LHT7 could effectively inhibit tumor angiogenesis by blocking multiple stages of the angiogenesis, and could potentially be used to overcome the resistance. PMID:25453957

  7. Early onset of deafening-induced song deterioration and differential requirements of the pallial-basal ganglia vocal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Haruhito; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2010-01-01

    Similar to humans, songbirds rely on auditory feedback to maintain the acoustic and sequence structure of adult learned vocalizations. When songbirds are deafened, the learned features of song, such as syllable structure and sequencing, eventually deteriorate. However, the time-course and initial phases of song deterioration have not been well studied, particularly in the most commonly studied songbird, the zebra finch. Here, we observed previously uncharacterized subtle but significant changes to learned song within a few days following deafening. Syllable structure became detectably noisier and silent intervals between song motifs increased. Although song motif sequences remained stable at 2 weeks, as previously reported, pronounced changes occurred in longer stretches of song bout sequences. These included deletions of syllables between song motifs, changes in the frequency at which specific chunks of song were produced and stuttering for birds that had some repetitions of syllables before deafening. Changes in syllable structure and song bout sequence occurred at different rates, indicating different mechanisms for their deterioration. The changes in syllable structure required an intact lateral part but not the medial part of the pallial-basal ganglia vocal pathway, whereas changes in the song bout sequence did not require lateral or medial portions of the pathway. These findings indicate that deafening-induced song changes in zebra finches can be detected rapidly after deafening, that acoustic and sequence changes can occur independently, and that, within this time period, the pallial-basal ganglia vocal pathway controls the acoustic structure changes but not the song bout sequence changes. PMID:19087177

  8. Degradation of proteins from the ER of S. cerevisiae requires an intact unfolded protein response pathway.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, R; Stern, P; Diehn, M; Shamu, C; Osario, M; Ziga, M; Brown, P O; Ploegh, H

    2000-04-01

    To dissect the requirements of membrane protein degradation from the ER, we expressed the mouse major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chain H-2K(b) in yeast. Like other proteins degraded from the ER, unassembled H-2K(b) heavy chains are not transported to the Golgi but are degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. The overexpression of H-2K(b) heavy chains induces the unfolded protein response (UPR). In yeast mutants unable to mount the UPR, H-2K(b) heavy chains are greatly stabilized. This defect in degradation is suppressed by the expression of the active form of Hac1p, the transcription factor that upregulates UPR-induced genes. These results indicate that induction of the UPR is required for the degradation of protein substrates from the ER. PMID:10882108

  9. Source-pathway separation of multiple contaminants during a rainfall-runoff event in an artificially drained agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A watershed’s water quality is influenced by contaminant-transport pathways unique to each landscape. Accurate information on contaminant-pathways could provide a basis for mitigation through well-targeted approaches. This study determined dynamics of nitrate, total P, Escherichia (E.) coli, and sed...

  10. Fluxes of Ca2+ and K+ are required for the listeriolysin O-dependent internalization pathway of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Vadia, Stephen; Seveau, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for the life-threatening food-borne disease listeriosis. This disease mainly affects elderly and immunocompromised individuals, causing bacteremia and meningoencephalitis. In pregnant women, L. monocytogenes infection leads to abortion and severe infection of the fetus or newborn. The L. monocytogenes intracellular life cycle is critical for pathogenesis. Previous studies have established that the major virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), is sufficient to induce L. monocytogenes internalization into human epithelial cell lines. This internalization pathway strictly requires the formation of LLO pores in the plasma membrane and can be stimulated by the heterologous pore-forming toxin pneumolysin, suggesting that LLO acts nonspecifically by forming transmembrane pores. The present work tested the hypothesis that Ca2+ and K+ fluxes subsequent to perforation by LLO control L. monocytogenes internalization. We report that L. monocytogenes perforates the host cell plasma membrane in an LLO-dependent fashion at the early stage of invasion. In response to perforation, host cells undergo Ca2+ -dependent but K+ -independent resealing of their plasma membrane. In contrast to the plasma membrane resealing process, LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires both Ca2+ and K+ fluxes. Further linking ion fluxes to bacterial internalization, treating cells with a combination of Ca2+ and K+ ionophores but not with individual ionophores is sufficient to induce efficient internalization of large cargoes, such as 1-?m polystyrene beads and bacteria. We propose that LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires a Ca2+ - and K+ -dependent internalization pathway that is mechanistically distinct from the process of plasma membrane resealing. PMID:24366251

  11. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jia-Shiuan; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins. PMID:26751215

  12. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jia-Shiuan; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins. PMID:26751215

  13. Multiple IMU system test plan, volume 4. [subroutines for space shuttle requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landey, M.; Vincent, K. T., Jr.; Whittredge, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Operating procedures for this redundant system are described. A test plan is developed with two objectives. First, performance of the hardware and software delivered is demonstrated. Second, applicability of multiple IMU systems to the space shuttle mission is shown through detailed experiments with FDI algorithms and other multiple IMU software: gyrocompassing, calibration, and navigation. Gimbal flip is examined in light of its possible detrimental effects on FDI and navigation. For Vol. 3, see N74-10296.

  14. Identification of a gene required for membrane protein retention in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, S; Nakano, A

    1993-01-01

    The yeast SEC12 gene product (Sec12p) is an integral membrane protein required for the protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. Although this protein is almost exclusively localized in the ER, a significant fraction of Sec12p is modified by an enzyme that resides in the early compartment of the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that Sec12p is cycling between the ER and the early Golgi. We have taken a genetic approach to investigate the retention mechanism of Sec12p. Analysis of mutants that are defective in the retention of the Sec12-Mf alpha 1 fusion protein in the early secretory compartments has identified a gene, RER1. A recessive mutation in RER1 causes mislocalization of the authentic Sec12p as well as two different Sec12 fusion proteins to the late Golgi apparatus and even to the cell surface. However, the rer1 mutant is not defective in the retention of an ER-resident soluble protein, BiP, suggesting that soluble and membrane proteins are retained in the ER by distinct mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8367481

  15. Rab3D Regulates a Novel Vesicular Trafficking Pathway That Is Required for Osteoclastic Bone Resorption†

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Nathan J.; Xu, Jiake; Riedel, Dietmar; Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; Teitelbaum, Steven L.; Papadimitriou, John M.; Jahn, Reinhard; Ross, F. Patrick; Zheng, Ming H.

    2005-01-01

    Rab3 proteins are a subfamily of GTPases, known to mediate membrane transport in eukaryotic cells and play a role in exocytosis. Our data indicate that Rab3D is the major Rab3 species expressed in osteoclasts. To investigate the role of Rab3D in osteoclast physiology we examined the skeletal architecture of Rab3D-deficient mice and found an osteosclerotic phenotype. Although basal osteoclast number in null animals is normal the total eroded surface is significantly reduced, suggesting that the resorptive defect is due to attenuated osteoclast activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, ultrastructural analysis reveals that Rab3D−/− osteoclasts exhibit irregular ruffled borders. Furthermore, while overexpression of wild-type, constitutively active, or prenylation-deficient Rab3D has no significant effects, overexpression of GTP-binding-deficient Rab3D impairs bone resorption in vitro. Finally, subcellular localization studies reveal that, unlike wild-type or constitutively active Rab3D, which associate with a nonendosomal/lysosomal subset of post-trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles, inactive Rab3D localizes to the TGN and inhibits biogenesis of Rab3D-bearing vesicles. Collectively, our data suggest that Rab3D modulates a post-TGN trafficking step that is required for osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:15923639

  16. Cell entry of Borna disease virus follows a clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway that requires Rab5 and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Roberto; de la Torre, Juan C

    2009-10-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV), the prototypic member of the Bornaviridae family within the order Mononegavirales, exhibits high neurotropism and provides an important and unique experimental model system for studying virus-cell interactions within the central nervous system. BDV surface glycoprotein (G) plays a critical role in virus cell entry via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and therefore, G is a critical determinant of virus tissue and cell tropism. However, the specific cell pathways involved in BDV cell entry have not been determined. Here, we provide evidence that BDV uses a clathrin-mediated, caveola-independent cell entry pathway. We also show that BDV G-mediated fusion takes place at an optimal pH of 6.0 to 6.2, corresponding to an early-endosome compartment. Consistent with this finding, BDV cell entry was Rab5 dependent but Rab7 independent and exhibited rapid fusion kinetics. Our results also uncovered a key role for microtubules in BDV cell entry, whereas the integrity and dynamics of actin cytoskeleton were not required for efficient cell entry of BDV. PMID:19656886

  17. Oncogenic NRAS, required for pathogenesis of embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, relies upon the HMGA2-IGF2BP2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhizhong; Zhang, Yunyu; Ramanujan, Krishnan; Ma, Yan; Kirsch, David G; Glass, David J

    2013-05-15

    Embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is the most common soft-tissue tumor in children. Here, we report the identification of the minor groove DNA-binding factor high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) as a driver of ERMS development. HMGA2 was highly expressed in normal myoblasts and ERMS cells, where its expression was essential to maintain cell proliferation, survival in vitro, and tumor outgrowth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that upregulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) mRNA-binding protein IGF2BP2 was critical for HMGA2 action. In particular, IGF2BP2 was essential for mRNA and protein stability of NRAS, a frequently mutated gene in ERMS. shRNA-mediated attenuation of NRAS or pharmacologic inhibition of the MAP-ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) effector pathway showed that NRAS and NRAS-mediated signaling was required for tumor maintenance. Taken together, these findings implicate the HMGA2-IGFBP2-NRAS signaling pathway as a critical oncogenic driver in ERMS. PMID:23536553

  18. P38 AND EGF RECEPTOR KINASE-MEDIATED ACTIVATION OF THE PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE/AKT PATHWAY IS REQUIRED FOR ZN2+INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is induced by physiological and inflammatory stimuli. Regulation of COX-2 expression is stimulus- and cell type-specific. Exposure to Zn2+ has been associated with activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways as well as the induction...

  19. Coexpression of multiple genes reconstitutes two pathways of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2014-09-01

    The introduction of novel traits to cells often requires the stable coexpression of multiple genes within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by delta 6-desaturase, an ELOVL5 involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and delta 5-desaturase. The coexpression of McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES encoding the corresponding enzymes, produced docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3), as well as arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The expression of each gene increased within 24h, with high transcript levels after induction with 0.5 or 1% methanol. High levels of the newly expressed VLC-PUFAs occurred after 144h. This expression system exemplifies the recent progress and future possibilities of the metabolic engineering of VLC-PUFAs in oilseed crops. PMID:24863294

  20. AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting these signaling pathways in the management of asbestos-induced lung disease. PMID:24735948

  1. Dual inhibition of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways demonstrates significant anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Claire; Mimura, Naoya; Bobb, Kathryn; Kong, Sun-Young; Gorgun, Güllü; Cirstea, Diana; Hu, Yiguo; Minami, Jiro; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Zhang, Jie; Meshulam, Jeffrey; Carrasco, Ruben D.; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G.; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose NF-κB transcription factor plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the context of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Both canonical and non-canonical pathways contribute to total NF-κB activity. Recent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the non-canonical pathway: selective inhibitors of the canonical pathway present a limited activity, mutations of the non-canonical pathway are frequent, and bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity cannot be fully attributed to inhibition of canonical NF-κB activity. Experimental design MM cell lines, primary patient cells, and the human MM xenograft murine model were used to examine the biologic impact of dual inhibition of both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways. Results We show that PBS-1086 induces potent cytotoxicity in MM cells, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PBS-1086 overcomes the proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of the BM milieu, associated with inhibition of NF-κB activity. Moreover, PBS-1086 strongly enhances the cytotoxicity of bortezomib in bortezomib-resistant MM cell lines and patient MM cells. PBS-1086 also inhibits osteoclastogenesis through an inhibition of RANKL-induced NF-κB activation. Finally, in a xenograft model of human MM in the BM milieu, PBS-1086 shows significant in vivo anti-MM activity and prolongs host survival, associated with apoptosis and inhibition of both NF-κB pathways in tumor cells. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that PBS-1086 is a promising dual inhibitor of the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways. Our preclinical study therefore provides the framework for clinical evaluation of PBS-1086 in combination with bortezomib for the treatment of MM and related bone lesions. PMID:22806876

  2. Activation of the mTOR signalling pathway is required for pancreatic growth in protease-inhibitor-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Stephen J; Sans, M Dolors; Guo, LiLi; D'Alecy, Louis G; Williams, John A

    2006-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced pancreatic growth in mice involves parallel increases in DNA and protein. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway regulates mRNA translation and its activation is implicated in growth of various tissues. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether mTOR activation is required for pancreatic growth in a mouse model of increased endogenous CCK release. In mice fed chow containing the synthetic protease inhibitor camostat, protein synthetic rates and phosphorylation of two downstream targets of mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and the ribosomal protein S6 (S6), increased in comparison with fasted controls. The camostat-induced increases in protein synthesis and 4E-BP1 and S6 phosphorylation were almost totally abolished by administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin 1 h prior to camostat feeding. In contrast, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK and the expression of the early response genes c-jun, c-fos, ATF3 and egr-1 induced by camostat feeding were not affected by rapamycin. In mice fed camostat for 7 days, the ratio of pancreatic to body weight increased by 143%, but when rapamycin was administered daily this was reduced to a 22% increase. Changes in pancreatic mass were paralleled by protein and DNA content following camostat feeding and rapamycin administration. Moreover, while BrdU incorporation, an indicator of DNA synthesis, was increased to 448% of control values after 2 days of camostat feeding, rapamycin administration completely inhibited this increase. We conclude that the mTOR signalling pathway is required for CCK-induced cell division and pancreatic growth. PMID:16613881

  3. A melanin-independent interaction between Mc1r and Met signaling pathways is required for HGF-dependent melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wolnicka-Glubisz, Agnieszka; Strickland, Faith M; Wielgus, Albert; Anver, Miriam; Merlino, Glenn; De Fabo, Edward C; Noonan, Frances P

    2015-02-15

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) signaling stimulates black eumelanin production through a cAMP-dependent pathway. MC1R polymorphisms can impair this process, resulting in a predominance of red phaeomelanin. The red hair, fair skin and UV sensitive phenotype is a well-described melanoma risk factor. MC1R polymorphisms also confer melanoma risk independent of pigment. We investigated the effect of Mc1r deficiency in a mouse model of UV-induced melanoma. C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF transgenic mice have a characteristic hyperpigmented black phenotype with extra-follicular dermal melanocytes located at the dermal/epidermal junction. UVB induces melanoma, independent of melanin pigmentation, but UVA-induced and spontaneous melanomas are dependent on black eumelanin. We crossed these mice with yellow C57BL/6-Mc1re/e animals which have a non-functional Mc1r and produce predominantly yellow phaeomelanin. Yellow C57BL/6-Mc1re/e-HGF mice produced no melanoma in response to UVR or spontaneously even though the HGF transgene and its receptor Met were expressed. Total melanin was less than in C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF mice, hyperpigmentation was not observed and there were few extra-follicular melanocytes. Thus, functional Mc1r was required for expression of the transgenic HGF phenotype. Heterozygous C57BL/6-Mc1re/+-HGF mice were black and hyperpigmented and, although extra-follicular melanocytes and skin melanin content were similar to C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF animals, they developed UV-induced and spontaneous melanomas with significantly less efficiency by all criteria. Thus, heterozygosity for Mc1r was sufficient to restore the transgenic HGF phenotype but insufficient to fully restore melanoma. We conclude that a previously unsuspected melanin-independent interaction between Mc1r and Met signaling pathways is required for HGF-dependent melanoma and postulate that this pathway is involved in human melanoma. PMID:24975581

  4. A melanin-independent interaction between Mc1r and Met signalling pathways is required for HGF-dependent melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wolnicka-Glubisz, Agnieszka; Strickland, Faith M.; Wielgus, Albert; Anver, Miriam; Merlino, Glenn; De Fabo, Edward C.; Noonan, Frances P.

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) signaling stimulates black eumelanin production through a cAMP dependent pathway. MC1R polymorphisms can impair this process, resulting in a predominance of red phaeomelanin. The red hair, fair skin and UV sensitive phenotype is a well-described melanoma risk factor. MC1R polymorphisms also confer melanoma risk independent of pigment. We investigated the effect of Mc1r deficiency in a mouse model of UV-induced melanoma. C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF transgenic mice have a characteristic hyperpigmented black phenotype with extra-follicular dermal melanocytes located at the dermal/epidermal junction. UVB induces melanoma, independent of melanin pigmentation, but UVA-induced and spontaneous melanomas are dependent on black eumelanin. We crossed these mice with yellow C57BL/6-Mc1re/e animals which have a non-functional Mc1r and produce predominantly yellow phaeomelanin. Yellow C57BL/6-Mc1re/e-HGF mice produced no melanoma in response to UVR or spontaneously even though the HGF transgene and its receptor Met were expressed. Total melanin was less than in C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF mice, hyperpigmentation was not observed and there were few extra-follicular melanocytes. Thus, functional Mc1r was required for expression of the transgenic HGF phenotype. Heterozygous C57BL/6-Mc1re/+-HGF mice were black and hyperpigmented and, although extra-follicular melanocytes and skin melanin content were similar to C57BL/6-Mc1r+/+-HGF animals, they developed UV-induced and spontaneous melanomas with significantly less efficiency by all criteria. Thus, heterozygosity for Mc1r was sufficient to restore the transgenic HGF phenotype but insufficient to fully restore melanoma. We conclude that a previously unsuspected melanin-independent interaction between Mc1r and Met signaling pathways is required for HGF-dependent melanoma and postulate that this pathway is involved in human melanoma. PMID:24975581

  5. Requirement for Both Shc and Phosphatidylinositol 3? Kinase Signaling Pathways in Polyomavirus Middle T-Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Marc A.; Hutchinson, John N.; Rauh, Michael J.; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Anton, Martina; Tortorice, Christopher G.; Cardiff, Robert D.; Graham, Frank L.; Hassell, John A.; Muller, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the polyomavirus (PyV) middle T antigen (MT) develop multifocal mammary tumors which frequently metastasize to the lung. The potent transforming activity of PyV MT is correlated with its capacity to activate and associate with a number of signaling molecules, including the Src family tyrosine kinases, the 85-kDa Src homology 2 subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3? (PI-3?) kinase, and the Shc adapter protein. To uncover the role of these signaling proteins in MT-mediated mammary tumorigenesis, we have generated transgenic mice that express mutant PyV MT antigens decoupled from either the Shc or the PI-3? kinase signaling pathway. In contrast to the rapid induction of metastatic mammary tumors observed in the strains expressing wild-type PyV MT, mammary epithelial cell-specific expression of either mutant PyV MT resulted in the induction of extensive mammary epithelial hyperplasias. The mammary epithelial hyperplasias expressing the mutant PyV MT defective in recruiting the PI-3? kinase were highly apoptotic, suggesting that recruitment of PI-3? kinase by MT affects cell survival. Whereas the initial phenotypes observed in both strains were global mammary epithelial hyperplasias, focal mammary tumors eventually arose in all female transgenic mice. Genetic and biochemical analyses of tumorigenesis in the transgenic strains expressing the PyV MT mutant lacking the Shc binding site revealed that a proportion of the metastatic tumors arising in these mice displayed evidence of reversion of the mutant Shc binding site. In contrast, no evidence of reversion of the PI-3? kinase binding site was noted in tumors derived from the strains expressing the PI-3? kinase binding site MT mutant. Tumor progression in both mutant strains was further correlated with upregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor family members which are known to couple to the PI-3? kinase and Shc signaling pathways. Taken together, these observations suggest that PyV MT-mediated tumorigenesis requires activation of both Shc and PI-3? kinase, which appear to be required for stimulation of cell proliferation and survival signaling pathways, respectively. PMID:9528804

  6. The Aids' Requirements of Children with Severe Multiple Handicaps and the People Looking after Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anden, Gerd

    The report presents findings from interviews with 10 families with children (4-19 years old) with severe mental retardation and multiple disabilities regarding the need for technical aids and adaptations in their homes. The following areas are addressed and examples of solutions proposed: hygienic aids (hot water adaptations, travel adaptations,

  7. Gamete fusion is required to block multiple pollen tubes from entering an Arabidopsis ovule.

    PubMed

    Beale, Kristin M; Leydon, Alexander R; Johnson, Mark A

    2012-06-19

    In double fertilization, a reproductive system unique to flowering plants, two immotile sperm are delivered to an ovule by a pollen tube. One sperm fuses with the egg to generate a zygote, the other with the central cell to produce endosperm. A mechanism preventing multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule would ensure that only two sperm are delivered to female gametes. We use live-cell imaging and a novel mixed-pollination assay that can detect multiple pollen tubes and multiple sets of sperm within a single ovule to show that Arabidopsis efficiently prevents multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule. However, when gamete-fusion defective hap2(gcs1) or duo1 sperm are delivered to ovules, as many as three additional pollen tubes are attracted. When gamete fusion fails, one of two pollen tube-attracting synergid cells persists, enabling the ovule to attract more pollen tubes for successful fertilization. This mechanism prevents the delivery of more than one pair of sperm to an ovule, provides a means of salvaging fertilization in ovules that have received defective sperm, and ensures maximum reproductive success by distributing pollen tubes to all ovules. PMID:22608506

  8. Gamete fusion is required to block multiple pollen tubes from entering an Arabidopsis ovule

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Kristin M.; Leydon, Alexander R.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In double fertilization, a reproductive system unique to flowering plants, two immotile sperm are delivered to an ovule by a pollen tube. One sperm fuses with the egg to generate a zygote, the other with the central cell to produce endosperm[1]. A mechanism preventing multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule would ensure that only two sperm are delivered to female gametes. We use live-cell imaging[1, 2] and a novel mixed-pollination assay that can detect multiple pollen tubes and multiple sets of sperm within a single ovule to show that Arabidopsis efficiently prevents multiple pollen tubes from entering an ovule. However, when gamete-fusion defective hap2(gcs1) or duo1 sperm are delivered to ovules as many as three additional pollen tubes are attracted. When gamete fusion fails, one of two pollen tube-attracting synergid cells persists, enabling the ovule to attract more pollen tubes for successful fertilization. This mechanism prevents the delivery of more than one pair of sperm to an ovule, provides a means of salvaging fertilization in ovules that have received defective sperm, and ensures maximum reproductive success by distributing pollen tubes to all ovules. PMID:22608506

  9. A Polyadenylation-Dependent 3' End Maturation Pathway Is Required for the Synthesis of the Human Telomerase RNA.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; Grenier St-Sauveur, Valrie; Bergeron, Danny; Dupuis-Sandoval, Fabien; Scott, Michelle S; Bachand, Franois

    2015-12-15

    Telomere maintenance by the telomerase reverse transcriptase requires a noncoding RNA subunit that acts as a template for the synthesis of telomeric repeats. In humans, the telomerase RNA (hTR) is a non-polyadenylated transcript produced from an independent transcriptional unit. As yet, the mechanism and factors responsible for hTR 3' end processing have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that hTR is matured via a polyadenylation-dependent pathway that relies on the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein PABPN1 and the poly(A)-specific RNase PARN. Depletion of PABPN1 and PARN results in telomerase RNA deficiency and the accumulation ofpolyadenylated precursors. Accordingly, a deficiency in PABPN1 leads to impaired telomerase activity and telomere shortening. In contrast, we find that hTRAMP-dependent polyadenylation and exosome-mediated degradation function antagonistically to hTR maturation, thereby limiting telomerase RNA accumulation. Our findings unveil a critical requirement for RNA polyadenylation in telomerase RNA biogenesis, providing alternative approaches for telomerase inhibition in cancer. PMID:26628368

  10. The Ess1 prolyl isomerase is required for transcription termination of small noncoding RNAs via the Nrd1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navjot; Ma, Zhuo; Gemmill, Trent; Wu, Xiaoyun; Defiglio, Holland; Rossettini, Anne; Rabeler, Christina; Beane, Olivia; Morse, Randall H; Palumbo, Michael J; Hanes, Steven D

    2009-10-23

    Genome-wide studies have identified abundant small, noncoding RNAs, including small nuclear RNAs, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs), and upstream regulatory RNAs (uRNAs), that are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and terminated by an Nrd1-dependent pathway. Here, we show that the prolyl isomerase Ess1 is required for Nrd1-dependent termination of noncoding RNAs. Ess1 binds the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of pol II and is thought to regulate transcription by conformational isomerization of Ser-Pro bonds within the CTD. In ess1 mutants, expression of approximately 10% of the genome was altered, due primarily to defects in termination of snoRNAs, CUTs, stable unannotated transcripts, and uRNAs. Ess1 promoted dephosphorylation of Ser5 (but not Ser2) within the CTD, most likely by the Ssu72 phosphatase. We also provide evidence for a competition between Nrd1 and Pcf11 for CTD binding that is regulated by Ess1. These data indicate that a prolyl isomerase is required for specifying the "CTD code." PMID:19854134

  11. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution of the Ovalbumin Serpin PI-9 Requires a Nonconventional Nuclear Import Pathway and the Export Factor Crm1

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Catherina H.; Blink, Elizabeth J.; Hirst, Claire E.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Steele, Pauline M.; Sun, Jiuru; Jans, David A.; Bird, Phillip I.

    2001-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9) is a human serpin present in the cytoplasm of cytotoxic lymphocytes and epithelial cells. It inhibits the cytotoxic lymphocyte granule proteinase granzyme B (graB) and is thought to protect cytotoxic lymphocytes and bystander cells from graB-mediated apoptosis. Following uptake into cells, graB promotes DNA degradation, rapidly translocating to the nucleus, where it binds a nuclear component. PI-9 should therefore be found in cytotoxic lymphocyte and bystander cell nuclei to ensure complete protection against graB. Here we demonstrate by microscopy and subcellular fractionation experiments that PI-9 is present in the nuclei of human cytotoxic cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells. We also show that the related serpins, PI-6, monocyte neutrophil elastase inhibitor (MNEI), PI-8, plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2), and the viral serpin CrmA exhibit similar nucleocytoplasmic distributions. Because these serpins lack classical nuclear localization signals and are small enough to diffuse through nuclear pores, we investigated whether import occurs actively or passively. Large (?70 kDa) chimeric proteins comprising PI-9, PI-6, PI-8, MNEI, or PAI-2 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) show similar nucleocytoplasmic distributions to the parent proteins, indicating that nuclear import is active. By contrast, CrmA-GFP is excluded from nuclei, indicating that CrmA is not actively imported. In vitro nuclear transport assays show that PI-9 accumulates at a rate above that of passive diffusion, that it requires cytosolic factors but not ATP, and that it does not bind an intranuclear component. Furthermore, PI-9 is exported from nuclei via a leptomycin B-sensitive pathway, implying involvement of the export factor Crm1p. We conclude that the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of PI-9 and related serpins involves a nonconventional nuclear import pathway and Crm1p. PMID:11463822

  13. Proteomic-based identification of multiple pathways underlying n-butylidenephthalide-induced apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Chiu, Sheng-Chun; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Zhai, Wei-Jun; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Yang, Hsueh-Hui

    2013-09-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the cancer-preventive properties of butylidenephthalide (BP), there is little report of BP affecting human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, proteomic-based approaches were used to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of BP in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. BP treatment decreased the viability of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was correlated with G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Increased cell cycle arrest was associated with a decrease in the level of CCND1, CDK2, and PCNA proteins and an increase in the level of CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and SFN proteins. Proteomic studies revealed that among 48 differentially expressed proteins, 25 proteins were down-regulated and 23 proteins were up-regulated and these proteins fall into one large protein protein interaction network. Among these proteins, FAS, AIFM1, BIK, CYCS, SFN, PPP2R1A, CALR, HSPA5, DDIT3, and ERN1 are apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated proteins. Proteomic data suggested that multiple signaling pathways including FAS-dependent pathway, mitochondrial pathway, and ER stress pathway are involved in the apoptosis induced by BP. PMID:23770345

  14. Binding of B-cell maturation antigen to B-cell activating factor induces survival of multiple myeloma cells by activating Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjuan; Guo, Yuehua; Qi, Jing; Shi, Wei; Wu, Xinhua; Ju, Shaoqing

    2016-03-01

    B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells and represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the protein kinase B (Akt) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways and BCMA interactions in regulating multiple myeloma (MM) cell survival. It was found that the expression levels of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and BCMA were increased in MM cells as compared with those in normal controls. The proliferation of U266 cells was induced by recombinant human BAFF (rhBAFF) and could also be decreased by BCMA siRNA. The expression of Bcl-2 protein was up-regulated, and Bax protein was down-regulated after rhBAFF treatment, which could be reversed by BCMA siRNA. Similarly, the protein p-JNK and p-Akt were activated by rhBAFF and could be changed by BCMA siRNA. In addition, the BCMA mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased after treatment with Akt and JNK pathway inhibitors. These results suggest that Akt and JNK pathways are involved in the regulation of BCMA. A novel BAFF/BCMA signalling pathway in MM may be a new therapeutic target for MM. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26914861

  15. Morphological and Proteomic Analyses Reveal that Unsaturated Guluronate Oligosaccharide Modulates Multiple Functional Pathways in Murine Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu; Bi, De-Cheng; Li, Chao; Fang, Wei-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Li, Shui-Ming; Chi, Lian-Li; Wan, Min; Shen, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Alginate is a natural polysaccharide extracted from various species of marine brown algae. Alginate-derived guluronate oligosaccharide (GOS) obtained by enzymatic depolymerization has various pharmacological functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that GOS can trigger the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by macrophages and that it is involved in the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. To expand upon the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with the GOS-induced immune response in macrophages, comparative proteomic analysis was employed together with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) and Western blot verification. Proteins showing significant differences in expression in GOS-treated cells were categorized into multiple functional pathways, including the NF-κB signaling pathway and pathways involved in inflammation, antioxidant activity, glycolysis, cytoskeletal processes and translational elongation. Moreover, GOS-stimulated changes in the morphologies and actin cytoskeleton organization of RAW264.7 cells were also investigated as possible adaptations to GOS. This study is the first to reveal GOS as a promising agent that can modulate the proper balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses, and it provides new insights into pharmaceutical applications of polysaccharides. PMID:25830683

  16. Renal Protective Role of Xiexin Decoction with Multiple Active Ingredients Involves Inhibition of Inflammation through Downregulation of the Nuclear Factor-?B Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-sheng; Shi, Rong; Zhong, Jie; Lu, Xiong; Ma, Bing-liang; Wang, Tian-ming; Zan, Bin; Ma, Yue-ming; Cheng, Neng-neng; Qiu, Fu-rong

    2013-01-01

    In Chinese medicine, Xiexin decoction (XXD) has been used for the clinical treatment of diabetes for at least 1700 years. The present study was conducted to investigate the effective ingredients of XXD and their molecular mechanisms of antidiabetic nephropathy in rats. Rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin were treated with XXD extract for 12 weeks. XXD significantly improved the glucolipid metabolism disorder, attenuated albuminuria and renal pathological changes, reduced renal advanced glycation end-products, inhibited receptor for advanced glycation end-product and inflammation factors expression, suppressed renal nuclear factor-?B pathway activity, and downregulated renal transforming growth factor-?1. The concentrations of multiple components in plasma from XXD were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis using partial least square regression revealed that 8 ingredients of XXD were responsible for renal protective effects via actions on multiple molecular targets. Our study suggests that the renal protective role of XXD with multiple effective ingredients involves inhibition of inflammation through downregulation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway, reducing renal advanced glycation end-products and receptor for advanced glycation end-product in diabetic rats. PMID:23935673

  17. From a Subtractive to Multiplicative Approach: A Concept-Driven Interactive Pathway on the Selective Absorption of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, Laurence; de Hosson, Ccile

    2015-01-01

    This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment on how the absorption of light depends on the thickness of the absorbing medium. This teaching experiment is more specifically characterized as bringing to bear a "concept-driven interactive pathway". It is designed to make students analyse the absorption of light

  18. From a Subtractive to Multiplicative Approach: A Concept-Driven Interactive Pathway on the Selective Absorption of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, Laurence; de Hosson, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment on how the absorption of light depends on the thickness of the absorbing medium. This teaching experiment is more specifically characterized as bringing to bear a "concept-driven interactive pathway". It is designed to make students analyse the absorption of light…

  19. Randomness requirement on the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell test in the multiple-run scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2015-03-01

    The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality test is widely used as a means of invalidating the local deterministic theories and a tool of device-independent quantum cryptographic tasks. There exists a randomness (free will) loophole in the test, which is widely believed impossible to be closed perfectly, that is, certain random inputs are required for the test. Following a randomness quantification method used in literature, we investigate the randomness required in the test under various assumptions. By comparing the results, we conclude that, in order to make the test result reliable, it is more important to rule out the correlation between multiple runs than the correlation between two parties.

  20. Roles of multiple-proton transfer pathways and proton-coupled electron transfer in the reactivity of the bis-FeIV state of MauG.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongxin; Williamson, Heather R; Davidson, Victor L

    2015-09-01

    The high-valent state of the diheme enzyme MauG exhibits charge-resonance (CR) stabilization in which the major species is a bis-Fe(IV) state with one heme present as Fe(IV)=O and the other as Fe(IV) with axial heme ligands provided by His and Tyr side chains. In the absence of its substrate, the high-valent state is relatively stable and returns to the diferric state over several minutes. It is shown that this process occurs in two phases. The first phase is redistribution of the resonance species that support the CR. The second phase is the loss of CR and reduction to the diferric state. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the rates of the two phases exhibited different temperature dependencies and activation energies of 8.9 and 19.6 kcal/mol. The two phases exhibited kinetic solvent isotope effects of 2.5 and 2.3. Proton inventory plots of each reaction phase exhibited extreme curvature that could not be fit to models for one- or multiple-proton transfers in the transition state. Each did fit well to a model for two alternative pathways for proton transfer, each involving multiple protons. In each case the experimentally determined fractionation factors were consistent with one of the pathways involving tunneling. The percent of the reaction that involved the tunneling pathway differed for the two reaction phases. Using the crystal structure of MauG it was possible to propose proton-transfer pathways consistent with the experimental data using water molecules and amino acid side chains in the distal pocket of the high-spin heme. PMID:26283395

  1. MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Sugawara, Shigeki; Fujii, Yuki; Koide, Yasuhiro; Terada, Daiki; Iimura, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Keisuke G; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Kanaly, Robert A; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujita, Hideaki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type) lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis) and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase) and caspase-3 (activator caspase). Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt's lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation) based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface. PMID:26694420

  2. MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Sugawara, Shigeki; Fujii, Yuki; Koide, Yasuhiro; Terada, Daiki; Iimura, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Keisuke G.; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M. A.; Kanaly, Robert A.; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujita, Hideaki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type) lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis) and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase) and caspase-3 (activator caspase). Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt’s lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation) based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface. PMID:26694420

  3. Multiple Wnt genes are required for segmentation in the short-germ embryo of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Renata; Farzana, Laila; Fischer, Tamara D; Brown, Susan J

    2008-10-28

    wingless (wg)/Wnt family are essential to development in virtually all metazoans. In short-germ insects, including the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), the segment-polarity function of wg is conserved [1]. Wnt signaling is also implicated in posterior patterning and germband elongation [2-4], but despite its expression in the posterior growth zone, Wnt1/wg alone is not responsible for these functions [1-3]. Tribolium contains additional Wnt family genes that are also expressed in the growth zone [5]. After depleting Tc-WntD/8 we found a small percentage of embryos lacking abdominal segments. Additional removal of Tc-Wnt1 significantly enhanced the penetrance of this phenotype. Seeking alternative methods to deplete Wnt signal, we performed RNAi with other components of the Wnt pathway including wntless (wls), porcupine (porc), and pangolin (pan). Tc-wls RNAi caused segmentation defects similar to Tc-Wnt1 RNAi, but not Tc-WntD/8 RNAi, indicating that Tc-WntD/8 function is Tc-wls independent. Depletion of Tc-porc and Tc-pan produced embryos resembling double Tc-Wnt1,Tc-WntD/8 RNAi embryos, suggesting that Tc-porc is essential for the function of both ligands, which signal through the canonical pathway. This is the first evidence of functional redundancy between Wnt ligands in posterior patterning in short-germ insects. This Wnt function appears to be conserved in other arthropods [6] and vertebrates [7-9]. PMID:18926702

  4. Molecular mechanism of anticancer effect of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin in HT29 cells involves differential expression of genes associated with multiple signaling pathways: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkeer, Srikanth; Guha, Nilanjan; Hothpet, Vishwanathreddy; Saligrama Adavigowda, Deepak; Hegde, Prajna; Padmanaban, Arunkumar; Yu, Lu-Gang; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is a lectin isolated from fungus S. rolfsii and has high binding specificity toward the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich carbohydrate antigen (Gal?1-3GalNAc-?-O-Ser/Thr, T or TF), which is expressed in more than 90% of human cancers. Our previous studies have shown that binding of SRL to human colon, breast and ovarian cancer cells induces cell apoptosis in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo. This study investigated the SRL-mediated cell signaling in human colon cancer HT29 cells by mRNA and miRNA microarrays. It was found that SRL treatment results in altered expression of several hundred molecules including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-JUN-associated, apoptosis-associated and cell cycle and DNA replication-associated signaling molecules. Pathway analysis using GeneSpring 12.6.1 revealed that SRL treatment induces changes of MAPK and c-JUN-associated signaling pathways as early as 2 h while changes of cell cycle, DNA replication and apoptosis pathways were significantly affected only after 24 h. A significant change of cell miRNA expression was also observed after 12 h treatment of the cells with SRL. These changes were further validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. This study thus suggests that the presence of SRL affects multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells with early effects on cell proliferation pathways associated with MAPK and c-JUN, followed by miRNA-associated cell activity and apoptosis. This provides insight information into the molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of this fungal lectin. PMID:26347523

  5. Complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a chlorophyll-deficient tea plant cultivar reveal multiple metabolic pathway changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Hongli; Chen, Changsong; Yue, Chuan; Hao, Xinyuan; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao

    2016-01-01

    To uncover the mechanisms that underlie the chlorina phenotype of the tea plant, this study employs morphological, biochemical, transcriptomic, and iTRAQ-based proteomic analyses to compare the green tea cultivar LJ43 and the yellow-leaf tea cultivar ZH1. ZH1 exhibited the chlorina phenotype, with significantly decreased chlorophyll content and abnormal chloroplast development compared with LJ43. ZH1 also displayed higher theanine and free amino acid content and lower carotenoid and catechin content. Microarray and iTRAQ analyses indicated that the differentially expressed genes and proteins could be mapped to the following pathways: 'phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,' 'glutathione metabolism,' 'phenylalanine metabolism,' 'photosynthesis,' and 'flavonoid biosynthesis.' Altered gene and protein levels in these pathways may account for the increased amino acid content and reduced chlorophyll and flavonoid content of ZH1. Altogether, this study combines transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the chlorina phenotype. PMID:26344129

  6. Interleukin-1? promotes the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human aorta smooth muscle cells via multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hee; Um, Hee Jung; Park, Jong-Wook; Lee, In-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) plays a key role in monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the sub-endothelial space of the blood vessel wall, which is a critical initial step in atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the intracellular signaling pathway of IL-1?-induced MCP1 expression using various chemical inhibitors. The pretreatment of a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific PLC (PC-PLC) inhibitor (D609), PKC inhibitors, or an NF-?B inhibitor completely suppressed the IL-1?-induced MCP1 expression through blocking NF-?B translocation to the nucleus. Pretreatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinase or PLD partially suppressed MCP1 expression and failed to block nuclear NF-?B translocation. These results suggest that IL-1? induces MCP1 expression through activation of NF-?B via the PC-PLC/PKC signaling pathway. PMID:19561397

  7. Multiple BiP genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are required for male gametogenesis and pollen competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-Ichi

    2014-04-01

    Immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) is a molecular chaperone of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family. BiP is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plays key roles in protein translocation, protein folding and quality control in the ER. The genomes of flowering plants contain multiple BiP genes. Arabidopsis thaliana has three BiP genes. BIP1 and BIP2 are ubiquitously expressed. BIP3 encodes a less well conserved BiP paralog, and it is expressed only under ER stress conditions in the majority of organs. Here, we report that all BiP genes are expressed and functional in pollen and pollen tubes. Although the bip1 bip2 double mutation does not affect pollen viability, the bip1 bip2 bip3 triple mutation is lethal in pollen. This result indicates that lethality of the bip1 bip2 double mutation is rescued by BiP3 expression. A decrease in the copy number of the ubiquitously expressed BiP genes correlates well with a decrease in pollen tube growth, which leads to reduced fitness of mutant pollen during fertilization. Because an increased protein secretion activity is expected to increase the protein folding demand in the ER, the multiple BiP genes probably cooperate with each other to ensure ER homeostasis in cells with active secretion such as rapidly growing pollen tubes. PMID:24486762

  8. Source-pathway separation of multiple contaminants during a rainfall-runoff event in an artificially drained agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Tomer, M D; Wilson, C G; Moorman, T B; Cole, K J; Heer, D; Isenhart, T M

    2010-01-01

    A watershed's water quality is influenced by contaminant-transport pathways unique to each landscape. Accurate information on contaminant-pathways could provide a basis for mitigation through well-targeted approaches. This study determined dynamics of nitrate-N, total P, Escherichia coli, and sediment during a runoff event in Tipton Creek, Iowa. The watershed, under crop and livestock production, has extensive tile drainage discharging through an alluvial valley. A September 2006 storm yielded 5.9 mm of discharge during the ensuing 7 d, which was monitored at the outlet (19,850 ha), two tile-drainage outfalls (total 1856 ha), and a runoff flume (11 ha) within the sloped valley. Hydrograph separations indicated 13% of tile discharge was from surface intakes. Tile and outlet nitrate-N loads were similar, verifying subsurface tiles dominate nitrate delivery. On a unit-area basis, tile total P and E. coli loads, respectively, were about half and 30% of the outlet's; their rapid, synchronous timing showed surface intakes are an important pathway for both contaminants. Flume results indicated field runoff was a significant source of total P and E. coli loads, but not the dominant one. At the outlet, sediment, P, and E. coli were reasonably synchronous. Radionuclide activities of (7)Be and (210)Pb in suspended sediments showed sheet-and-rill erosion sourced only 22% of sediment contributions; therefore, channel sources dominated and were an important source of P and E. coli. The contaminants followed unique pathways, necessitating separate mitigation strategies. To comprehensively address water quality, erosion-control and nitrogen-management practices currently encouraged could be complemented by buffering surface intakes and stabilizing stream banks. PMID:20400584

  9. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α is required for hepatic outgrowth via the p53 pathway in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hao; Wen, Bin; Liu, Xiaohui; Gao, Ce; Yang, Ruimeng; Wang, Luxiang; Chen, Saijuan; Chen, Zhu; de The, Hugues; Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) is a transcription factor that plays important roles in the regulation of hepatogenesis, adipogenesis and hematopoiesis. Disruption of the C/EBPα gene in mice leads to disturbed liver architecture and neonatal death due to hypoglycemia. However, the precise stages of liver development affected by C/ebpα loss are poorly studied. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model organism, we show that inactivation of the cebpa gene by TALENs results in a small liver phenotype. Further studies reveal that C/ebpα is distinctively required for hepatic outgrowth but not for hepatoblast specification. Lack of C/ebpα leads to enhanced hepatic cell proliferation and subsequent increased cell apoptosis. Additional loss of p53 can largely rescue the hepatic defect in cebpa mutants, suggesting that C/ebpα plays a role in liver growth regulation via the p53 pathway. Thus, our findings for the first time demonstrate a stage-specific role for C/ebpα during liver organogenesis. PMID:26511037

  10. The PLC/IP3R/PKC Pathway is Required for Ethanol-enhanced GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, M. Katherine; Weinberg, Richard J.; Criswell, Hugh E.; Breese, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Research on the actions of ethanol at the GABAergic synapse has traditionally focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, but recent data demonstrate that ethanol also increases both evoked and spontaneous GABA release in many brain regions. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings, we previously showed that ethanol increases spontaneous GABA release at the rat interneuron-Purkinje cell synapse. This presynaptic ethanol effect is dependent on calcium release from internal stores, possibly through activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). After confirming that ethanol targets vesicular GABA release, in the present study we used electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that IP3Rs are located in presynaptic terminals of cerebellar interneurons. Activation of IP3Rs requires binding of IP3, generated through activation of phospholipase C (PLC). We find that the PLC antagonist edelfosine prevents ethanol from increasing spontaneous GABA release. Diacylglycerol generated by PLC and calcium released by activation of the IP3R activate protein kinase C (PKC). Ethanol-enhanced GABA release was blocked by two PKC antagonists, chelerythrine and calphostin C. When a membrane impermeable PKC antagonist, PKC (19-36), was delivered intracellularly to the postsynaptic neuron, ethanol continued to increase spontaneous GABA release. Overall, these results suggest that activation of the PLC/IP3R/PKC pathway is necessary for ethanol to increase spontaneous GABA release from presynaptic terminals onto Purkinje cells. PMID:20206640

  11. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α is required for hepatic outgrowth via the p53 pathway in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hao; Wen, Bin; Liu, Xiaohui; Gao, Ce; Yang, Ruimeng; Wang, Luxiang; Chen, Saijuan; Chen, Zhu; de The, Hugues; Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) is a transcription factor that plays important roles in the regulation of hepatogenesis, adipogenesis and hematopoiesis. Disruption of the C/EBPα gene in mice leads to disturbed liver architecture and neonatal death due to hypoglycemia. However, the precise stages of liver development affected by C/ebpα loss are poorly studied. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model organism, we show that inactivation of the cebpa gene by TALENs results in a small liver phenotype. Further studies reveal that C/ebpα is distinctively required for hepatic outgrowth but not for hepatoblast specification. Lack of C/ebpα leads to enhanced hepatic cell proliferation and subsequent increased cell apoptosis. Additional loss of p53 can largely rescue the hepatic defect in cebpa mutants, suggesting that C/ebpα plays a role in liver growth regulation via the p53 pathway. Thus, our findings for the first time demonstrate a stage-specific role for C/ebpα during liver organogenesis. PMID:26511037

  12. Osteoblast-induced osteoclast apoptosis by fas ligand/FAS pathway is required for maintenance of bone mass.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Liu, S; Zhao, Y; Liu, D; Liu, Y; Chen, C; Karray, S; Shi, S; Jin, Y

    2015-10-01

    The interplay between osteoblasts and osteoclasts has a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis. In this study, we reveal that osteoblasts are capable of inducing osteoclast apoptosis by FAS ligand (FASL)/FAS signaling. Conditional knockout of FASL in osteoblasts results in elevated osteoclast numbers and activity, along with reduced bone mass, suggesting that osteoblast-produced FASL is required to maintain physiological bone mass. More interestingly, we show that osteoblasts from ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic mice exhibit decreased FASL expression that results from the IFN-?- and TNF-?-activated NF-?B pathway, leading to reduced osteoclast apoptosis and increased bone resorption. Systemic administration of either IFN-? or TNF-? ameliorates the osteoporotic phenotype in OVX mice and rescues FASL expression in osteoblasts. In addition, ovariectomy induces more significant bone loss in FASL conditional knockout mice than in control group with increased osteoclast activity in which the levels of RANKL and OPG remain unchanged. Taken together, this study suggests that osteoblast-induced osteoclast apoptosis via FASL/FAS signaling is a previously unrecognized mechanism that has an important role in the maintenance of bone mass in both physiological conditions and OVX osteoporosis. PMID:25744024

  13. Contents of therapeutic metabolites in Swertia chirayita correlate with the expression profiles of multiple genes in corresponding biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Padhan, Jibesh Kumar; Kumar, Varun; Sood, Hemant; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-08-01

    Swertia chirayita, an endangered medicinal herb, contains three major secondary metabolites swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin, exhibiting valuable therapeutic traits. No information exists as of today on the biosynthesis of these metabolites in S. chirayita. The current study reports the expression profiling of swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin biosynthesis pathway genes and their correlation with the respective metabolites content in different tissues of S. chirayita. Root tissues of greenhouse grown plants contained the maximum amount of secoiridoids (swertiamarin, 2.8% of fr. wt and amarogentin, 0.1% of fr. wt), whereas maximum accumulation of mangiferin (1.0% of fr. wt) was observed in floral organs. Differential gene expression analysis and their subsequent principal component analysis unveiled ten genes (encoding HMGR, PMK, MVK, ISPD, ISPE, GES, G10H, 8HGO, IS and 7DLGT) of the secoiridoids biosynthesis pathway and five genes (encoding EPSPS, PAL, ADT, CM and CS) of mangiferin biosynthesis with elevated transcript amounts in relation to corresponding metabolite contents. Three genes of the secoiridoids biosynthesis pathway (encoding PMK, ISPD and IS) showed elevated levels (∼57-104 fold increase in roots), and EPSPS of mangiferin biosynthesis showed an about 117 fold increase in transcripts in leaf tissues of the greenhouse grown plants. The study does provide leads on potential candidate genes correlating with the metabolites biosynthesis in S. chirayita as an initiative towards its genetic improvement. PMID:26028519

  14. The yeast prion [SWI+] abolishes multicellular growth by triggering conformational changes of multiple regulators required for flocculin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Summary While transcription factors are prevalent among yeast prion proteins, the role of prion-mediated transcriptional regulation remains elusive. We show here that the yeast prion [SWI+] abolishes flocculin (FLO) gene expression and results in a complete loss of multicellularity. Further investigation demonstrates that besides Swi1, multiple other proteins essential for FLO expression, including Mss11, Sap30, and Msn1 also undergo conformational changes, and become inactivated in [SWI+] cells. Moreover, the asparagine-rich region of Mss11 can exist as prion-like aggregates specifically in [SWI+] cells, which are SDS-resistant, heritable, and curable, but become metastable after separation from [SWI+]. Our findings thus reveal a prion-mediated mechanism through which multiple regulators in a biological pathway can be inactivated. In combination with the partial loss-of-function phenotypes of [SWI+] cells on non-glucose sugar utilization, our data therefore demonstrate that a prion can influence differently on distinct traits through multi-level regulations, providing insights into the biological roles of prions. PMID:26711350

  15. The Yeast Prion [SWI(+)] Abolishes Multicellular Growth by Triggering Conformational Changes of Multiple Regulators Required for Flocculin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Liming

    2015-12-29

    Although transcription factors are prevalent among yeast prion proteins, the role of prion-mediated transcriptional regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that the yeast prion [SWI(+)] abolishes flocculin (FLO) gene expression and results in a complete loss of multicellularity. Further investigation demonstrates that besides Swi1, multiple other proteins essential for FLO expression, including Mss11, Sap30, and Msn1 also undergo conformational changes and become inactivated in [SWI(+)] cells. Moreover, the asparagine-rich region of Mss11 can exist as prion-like aggregates specifically in [SWI(+)] cells, which are SDS resistant, heritable, and curable, but become metastable after separation from [SWI(+)]. Our findings thus reveal a prion-mediated mechanism through which multiple regulators in a biological pathway can be inactivated. In combination with the partial loss-of-function phenotypes of [SWI(+)] cells on non-glucose sugar utilization, our data therefore demonstrate that a prion can influence distinct traits differently through multi-level regulations, providing insights into the biological roles of prions. PMID:26711350

  16. Multiple PLDs required for high salinity and water deficit tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Laxalt, Ana M; ter Riet, Bas; van Schooten, Bas; Merquiol, Emmanuelle; Testerink, Christa; Haring, Michel A; Bartels, Dorothea; Munnik, Teun

    2009-01-01

    High salinity and drought have received much attention because they severely affect crop production worldwide. Analysis and comprehension of the plant's response to excessive salt and dehydration will aid in the development of stress-tolerant crop varieties. Signal transduction lies at the basis of the response to these stresses, and numerous signaling pathways have been implicated. Here, we provide further evidence for the involvement of phospholipase D (PLD) in the plant's response to high salinity and dehydration. A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) alpha-class PLD, LePLDalpha1, is transcriptionally up-regulated and activated in cell suspension cultures treated with salt. Gene silencing revealed that this PLD is indeed involved in the salt-induced phosphatidic acid production, but not exclusively. Genetically modified tomato plants with reduced LePLDalpha1 protein levels did not reveal altered salt tolerance. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), both AtPLDalpha1 and AtPLDdelta were found to be activated in response to salt stress. Moreover, pldalpha1 and plddelta single and double knock-out mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to high salinity stress in a plate assay. Furthermore, we show that both PLDs are activated upon dehydration and the knock-out mutants are hypersensitive to hyperosmotic stress, displaying strongly reduced growth. PMID:19017627

  17. Celsr1 is required for the generation of polarity at multiple levels of the mouse oviduct.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongbo; Komatsu, Kouji; Hirao, Mayumi; Toyooka, Yayoi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tissir, Fadel; Goffinet, Andr M; Uemura, Tadashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The oviduct is an important organ in reproduction where fertilization occurs, and through which the fertilized eggs are carried to the uterus in mammals. This organ is highly polarized, where the epithelium forms longitudinal folds along the ovary-uterus axis, and the epithelial multicilia beat towards the uterus to transport the ovulated ova. Here, we analyzed the postnatal development of mouse oviduct and report that multilevel polarities of the oviduct are regulated by a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, Celsr1. In the epithelium, Celsr1 is concentrated in the specific cellular boundaries perpendicular to the ovary-uterus axis from postnatal day 2. We found a new feature of cellular polarity in the oviduct - the apical surface of epithelial cells is elongated along the ovary-uterus axis. In Celsr1-deficient mice, the ciliary motion is not orchestrated along the ovary-uterus axis and the transport ability of beating cilia is impaired. Epithelial cells show less elongation and randomized orientation, and epithelial folds show randomized directionality and ectopic branches in the mutant. Our mosaic analysis suggests that the geometry of epithelial cells is primarily regulated by Celsr1 and as a consequence the epithelial folds are aligned. Taken together, we reveal the characteristics of the multilevel polarity formation processes in the mouse oviduct epithelium and suggest a novel function of the PCP pathway for proper tissue morphogenesis. PMID:25406397

  18. FCAT Retakes: Trends in Multiple Attempts at Satisfying FCAT Graduation Requirements. Research Brief. Volume 0805

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    According to Florida Law, students must pass the Grade 10 FCAT, among other academic requirements, in order to receive a standard high school diploma. Specifically, students must achieve a "passing" score of 300 or above on both the FCAT SSS Reading and the FCAT SSS Mathematics tests. Technically, students can retake the FCAT as many times as they…

  19. Evaluating Multiple Indices from a Canopy Reflectance Sensor to Estimate Corn N Requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing cost of fertilizer N, there is a renewed emphasis on developing new technologies for quantifying in-season N requirements for corn. The objectives of this research are (i) to evaluate different vegetative indices derived from an active reflectance sensor in estimating in-season N...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... comply with the anti-fraud provisions of 24 CFR 1710.4 (b) and (c) and the sales practices and standards in 24 CFR 1715.10 through 1715.28. (11) A written Lot Information Statement must be delivered to, and... all of the requirements of 24 CFR 1710.15. I further affirm that the statements contained in...

  1. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... comply with the anti-fraud provisions of 24 CFR 1710.4 (b) and (c) and the sales practices and standards in 24 CFR 1715.10 through 1715.28. (11) A written Lot Information Statement must be delivered to, and... all of the requirements of 24 CFR 1710.15. I further affirm that the statements contained in...

  2. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comply with the anti-fraud provisions of 24 CFR 1710.4 (b) and (c) and the sales practices and standards in 24 CFR 1715.10 through 1715.28. (11) A written Lot Information Statement must be delivered to, and... all of the requirements of 24 CFR 1710.15. I further affirm that the statements contained in...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... comply with the anti-fraud provisions of 24 CFR 1710.4 (b) and (c) and the sales practices and standards in 24 CFR 1715.10 through 1715.28. (11) A written Lot Information Statement must be delivered to, and... all of the requirements of 24 CFR 1710.15. I further affirm that the statements contained in...

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B non-canonical pathway requires BCL10 serine 138 and NIK phosphorylations

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2010-11-15

    Background and aims: B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-{kappa}B (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Experiments were performed in human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in components of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalosome, in order to detect mediators of the non-canonical pathway of NF-{kappa}B activation, including nuclear RelB and p52 and phospho- and total NF-{kappa}B inducing kinase (NIK). BCL10 was silenced by siRNA and effects of mutations of specific phosphorylation sites of BCL10 (Ser138Gly and Ser218Gly) were determined. Results: By the non-canonical pathway, LPS exposure increased nuclear RelB and p52, and phospho-NIK, with no change in total NIK. Phosphorylation of BCL10 serine 138 was required for NIK phosphorylation, since mutation of this residue eliminated the increases in phospho-NIK and nuclear RelB and p52. Mutations of either serine 138 or serine 218 reduced RelA, p50, and phospho-I{kappa}B{alpha} of the canonical pathway. Effects of LPS stimulation and BCL10 silencing on NIK phosphorylation were demonstrated in confocal images. Conclusions: LPS induces activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-{kappa}B in human colonic epithelial cells, and the non-canonical pathway requires phosphorylations of BCL10 (serine 138) and NIK. These findings demonstrate the important role of BCL10 in mediating LPS-induced inflammation in human colonic epithelial cells and may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Policy, Service Pathways and Mortality: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, James; Juhlberg, K.; Lambe, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: One hundred and forty-two children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities were identified in 1993 in a single Scottish region on whom detailed information was collected via a postal questionnaire survey. Methods: They were followed up in 2003. The time spanned represented a period of significant policy change

  6. Neurospora crassa Female Development Requires the PACC and Other Signal Transduction Pathways, Transcription Factors, Chromatin Remodeling, Cell-To-Cell Fusion, and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Chinnici, Jennifer L.; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M.; Arnold, Jason W.; Free, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development. PMID:25333968

  7. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chinnici, Jennifer L; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M; Arnold, Jason W; Free, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development. PMID:25333968

  8. Multiple driving forces required for efficient secretion of autotransporter virulence proteins.

    PubMed

    Drobnak, Igor; Braselmann, Esther; Clark, Patricia L

    2015-04-17

    Autotransporter (AT) proteins are a broad class of virulence proteins from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that require their own C-terminal transmembrane domain to translocate their N-terminal passenger across the bacterial outer membrane (OM). But given the unavailability of ATP or a proton gradient across the OM, it is unknown what energy source(s) drives this process. Here we used a combination of computational and experimental approaches to quantitatively compare proposed AT OM translocation mechanisms. We show directly for the first time that when translocation was blocked an AT passenger remained unfolded in the periplasm. We demonstrate that AT secretion is a kinetically controlled, non-equilibrium process coupled to folding of the passenger and propose a model connecting passenger conformation to secretion kinetics. These results reconcile seemingly contradictory reports regarding the importance of passenger folding as a driving force for OM translocation but also reveal that another energy source is required to initiate translocation. PMID:25670852

  9. The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, inhibits gp130/Stat3 pathway and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhong; Suvannasankha, Attaya; Crean, Colin D; White, Valerie L; Chen, Ching-Shih; Farag, Sherif S

    2011-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with current therapy, indicating the need for continued development of novel therapeutic agents. We evaluated the activity of a novel phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, in primary human myeloma cells and cell lines. AR-42 was cytotoxic to MM cells at a mean LC(50) of 0.18 ± 0.06 μmol/l at 48 hr and induced apoptosis with cleavage of caspases 8, 9 and 3, with cell death largely prevented by caspase inhibition. AR-42 downregulated the expression of gp130 and inhibited activation of STAT3, with minimal effects on the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, indicating a predominant effect on the gp130/STAT-3 pathway. AR-42 also inhibited interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation, which could not be overcome by exogenous IL-6. AR-42 also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated targets, including Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Overexpression of Bcl-xL by a lentivirus construct partly protected against cell death induced by AR-42. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21, were also significantly induced by AR-42, which together with a decrease in cyclin D1, resulted in G(1) and G(2) cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, AR-42 has potent cytotoxicity against MM cells mainly through gp130/STAT-3 pathway. The results provide rationale for clinical investigation of AR-42 in MM. PMID:20824695

  10. Cross-sectional relations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct biological pathways to plasma markers of collagen metabolism in the community

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jacob; Pencina, Michael J.; Wang, Thomas J.; Hayes, Laura; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Jacques, Paul; Selhub, Jacob; Levy, Daniel; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Hyperhomocysteinemia, neurohormonal activation, inflammation and altered fibrinolysis have been linked to atherothrombosis as well as to myocardial fibrosis and heart failure. Hence, we related a panel of biomarkers representing these pathways to plasma markers of collagen metabolism in a large community-based sample. Methods We related nine biomarkers representing select biologic pathways (independent variables: C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, renin, fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homocysteine) to three plasma markers of collagen turnover [dependent variables, separate models for each: aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (present versus absent)] in 921 Framingham Heart study participants (mean age 57 years; 58% women). Participants were separated apriori into those with left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and wall thickness below sex-specific median values (referent group) and either measure at least 90th sex-specific percentile (‘remodeled’ group). We used stepwise multivariable regression analysis adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors to relate the panel of systemic biomarkers to the three biomarkers of collagen metabolism. Results Plasma homocysteine was positively related to all three markers of collagen metabolism in the remodeled group and to aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in the referent group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was positively related to aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in both groups, whereas the natriuretic peptides were associated positively with these collagen markers in the referent group. Conclusion In our large community-based sample, plasma homocysteine and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were positively related to circulating collagen biomarkers, consistent with experimental studies implicating these pathways in cardiovascular collagen turnover. PMID:19357531

  11. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L.; Rider, Lisa G.; Chiorini, John A.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups—probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls—using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID. PMID:26556803

  12. MicroRNA-155 tunes both the threshold and extent of NK cell activation via targeting of multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ryan P; Fogel, Leslie A; Leong, Jeffrey W; Schneider, Stephanie E; Wong, Rachel; Romee, Rizwan; Thai, To-Ha; Sexl, Veronika; Matkovich, Scot J; Dorn, Gerald W; French, Anthony R; Fehniger, Todd A

    2013-12-15

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes important for host defense against viral infections and malignancy. However, the molecular programs orchestrating NK cell activation are incompletely understood. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is markedly upregulated following cytokine activation of human and mouse NK cells. Surprisingly, mature human and mouse NK cells transduced to overexpress miR-155, NK cells from mice with NK cell-specific miR-155 overexpression, and miR-155(-/-) NK cells all secreted more IFN-? compared with controls. Investigating further, we found that activated NK cells with miR-155 overexpression had increased per-cell IFN-? with normal IFN-?(+) percentages, whereas greater percentages of miR-155(-/-) NK cells were IFN-?(+). In vivo murine CMV-induced IFN-? expression by NK cells in these miR-155 models recapitulated the in vitro phenotypes. We performed unbiased RNA-induced silencing complex sequencing on wild-type and miR-155(-/-) NK cells and found that mRNAs targeted by miR-155 were enriched in NK cell activation signaling pathways. Using specific inhibitors, we confirmed these pathways were mechanistically involved in regulating IFN-? production by miR-155(-/-) NK cells. These data indicate that miR-155 regulation of NK cell activation is complex and that miR-155 functions as a dynamic tuner for NK cell activation via both setting the activation threshold as well as controlling the extent of activation in mature NK cells. In summary, miR-155(-/-) NK cells are more easily activated, through increased expression of proteins in the PI3K, NF-?B, and calcineurin pathways, and miR-155(-/-) and 155-overexpressing NK cells exhibit increased IFN-? production through distinct cellular mechanisms. PMID:24227772

  13. miR-155 tunes both the threshold and extent of NK cell activation via targeting of multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Ryan P.; Fogel, Leslie A.; Leong, Jeffrey W.; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Wong, Rachel; Romee, Rizwan; Thai, To-Ha; Sexl, Veronika; Matkovich, Scot J.; Dorn, Gerald W.; French, Anthony R.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes important for host defense against viral infections and malignancy. However, the molecular programs orchestrating NK cell activation are incompletely understood. miR-155 is markedly upregulated following cytokine activation of human and mouse NK cells. Surprisingly, mature human and mouse NK cells transduced to overexpress miR-155, NK cells from mice with NK cell-specific miR-155 overexpression, and miR-155?/? NK cells all secreted more IFN-? compared to controls. Investigating further, we found that activated NK cells with miR-155 overexpression had increased per cell IFN-? with normal IFN-?+ percentages, whereas greater percentages of miR-155?/? NK cells were IFN-?+. In vivo MCMV-induced IFN-? expression by NK cells in these miR-155 models recapitulated the in vitro phenotypes. We performed unbiased RISC-Seq on WT and miR-155?/? NK cells, and found that mRNAs targeted by miR-155 were enriched in NK cell activation signaling pathways. Using specific inhibitors, we confirmed these pathways were mechanistically involved in regulating IFN? production by miR-155?/? NK cells. These data indicate that miR-155 regulation of NK cell activation is complex, and that miR-155 functions as a dynamic tuner for NK cell activation via both setting the activation threshold as well as controlling the extent of activation in mature NK cells. In summary, miR-155?/? NK cells are more easily activated, through increased expression of proteins in the PI3K, NF-?B, and calcineurin pathways, and miR-155?/? and 155-overexpressing NK cells exhibit increased IFN-? production through distinct cellular mechanisms. PMID:24227772

  14. Bacteria-Free Solution Derived from Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Multiple NF-KappaB Pathways and Inhibits Proteasome Function

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Elaine O.; Claud, Erika C.; Sun, Jun; Abramova, Tatiana; Guo, Yuee; Waypa, Tonya S.; He, Shu-Mei; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Chang, Eugene B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacteria play a role in inflammatory bowel disease and other forms of intestinal inflammation. Although much attention has focused on the search for a pathogen or inciting inflammatory bacteria, another possibility is a lack of beneficial bacteria that normally confer anti-inflammatory properties in the gut. The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal commensal bacteria could inhibit inflammatory pathways important in intestinal inflammation. Methods Conditioned media from Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp-CM) and other gut bacteria was used to treat intestinal epithelial cell (YAMC) and macrophage (RAW 264.7) or primary culture murine dendritic cells. NF-?B was activated through TNF-Receptor, MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways and effects of Lp-CM on the NF-?B pathway were assessed. NF-?B binding activity was measured using ELISA and EMSA. 1?B expression was assessed by Western blot analysis, and proteasome activity determined using fluorescence-based proteasome assays. MCP-1 release was determined by ELISA. Results Lp-CM inhibited NF-?B binding activity, degradation of I?B? and the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Moreover, Lp-CM directly inhibited the activity of purified mouse proteasomes. This effect was specific, since conditioned media from other bacteria had no inhibitory effect. Unlike other proteasome inhibitors, Lp-CM was not toxic in cell death assays. Lp-CM inhibited MCP-1 release in all cell types tested. Conclusions These studies confirm, and provide a mechanism for, the anti-inflammatory effects of the probiotic and commensal bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of bacteria-free Lp-CM provides a novel strategy for treatment of intestinal inflammation which would eliminate the risk of bacteremia reported with conventional probiotics. PMID:19373789

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) inhibits the slow afterhyperpolarizing current sIAHP in CA1 pyramidal neurons by activating multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ruth DT; Madsen, Marita Grnning; Krause, Michael; Sampedro-Castaeda, Marisol; Stocker, Martin; Pedarzani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarizing current (sIAHP) is a calcium-dependent potassium current that underlies the late phase of spike frequency adaptation in hippocampal and neocortical neurons. sIAHP is a well-known target of modulation by several neurotransmitters acting via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present in the hippocampal formation. In this study we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the sIAHP and the signal transduction pathway used to modulate intrinsic excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We show that PACAP inhibits the sIAHP, resulting in a decrease of spike frequency adaptation, in rat CA1 pyramidal cells. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP is mediated by PAC1 and VPAC1 receptors. Inhibition of PKA reduced the effect of PACAP on sIAHP, suggesting that PACAP exerts part of its inhibitory effect on sIAHP by increasing cAMP and activating PKA. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP was also strongly hindered by the inhibition of p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK). Concomitant inhibition of PKA and p38 MAPK indicates that these two kinases act in a sequential manner in the same pathway leading to the suppression of sIAHP. Conversely, protein kinase C is not part of the signal transduction pathway used by PACAP to inhibit sIAHP in CA1 neurons. Our results show that PACAP enhances the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by inhibiting the sIAHP through the activation of multiple signaling pathways, most prominently cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK. Our findings disclose a novel modulatory action of p38 MAPK on intrinsic excitability and the sIAHP, underscoring the role of this current as a neuromodulatory hub regulated by multiple protein kinases in cortical neurons. 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23996525

  16. p53 amplifies Toll-like receptor 5 response in human primary and cancer cells through interaction with multiple signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shatz, Maria; Shats, Igor; Menendez, Daniel; Resnick, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor regulates transcription of genes associated with diverse cellular functions including apoptosis, growth arrest, DNA repair and differentiation. Recently, we established that p53 can modulate expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) innate immunity genes but the degree of cross-talk between p53 and TLR pathways remained unclear. Here, using gene expression profiling we characterize the global effect of p53 on the TLR5-mediated transcription in MCF7 cells. We found that combined activation of p53 and TLR5 pathways synergistically increases expression of over 200 genes, mostly associated with immunity and inflammation. The synergy was observed in several human cancer cells and primary lymphocytes. The p53-dependent amplification of transcriptional response to TLR5 activation required expression of NFκB subunit p65 and was mediated by several molecular mechanisms including increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, PI3K and STAT3 signaling. Additionally, p53 induction increased cytokine expression in response to TNFα, another activator of NFκB and MAP kinase pathways, suggesting a broad interaction between p53 and these signaling pathways. The expression of many synergistically induced genes is elevated in breast cancer patients responsive to chemotherapy. We suggest that p53's capacity to enhance immune response could be exploited to increase antitumor immunity and to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26220208

  17. Requirement for safety monitoring for approved multiple sclerosis therapies: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rommer, P S; Zettl, U K; Kieseier, B; Hartung, H-P; Menge, T; Frohman, E; Greenberg, B M; Hemmer, B; Stve, O

    2014-03-01

    During the last two decades, treatment options for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have broadened tremendously. All agents that are currently approved for clinical use have potential side effects, and a careful risk-benefit evaluation is part of a decision algorithm to identify the optimal treatment choice for an individual patient. Whereas glatiramer acetate and interferon beta preparations have been used in MS for decades and have a proven safety record, more recently approved drugs appear to be more effective, but potential risks might be more severe. The potential complications of some novel therapies might not even have been identified to their full extent. This review is aimed at the clinical neurologist in that it offers insights into potential adverse events of each of the approved MS therapeutics: interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod and teriflunomide, as well as recently approved therapeutics such as dimethyl fumarate and alemtuzumab. It also provides recommendations for monitoring the different drugs during therapy in order to avoid common side effects. PMID:24102425

  18. UCHL1 is a biomarker of aggressive multiple myeloma required for disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sajjad; Bedekovics, Tibor; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Galardy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The success of proteasome inhibition in multiple myeloma highlights the critical role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in this disease. However, there has been little progress in finding more specific targets within the UPS involved in myeloma pathogenesis. We previously found the ubiquitin hydrolase UCH-L1 to be frequently over-expressed in B-cell malignancies, including myeloma, and showed it to be a potent oncogene in mice. Here we show that UCH-L1 is a poor prognostic factor that is essential for the progression of myeloma. We found high levels of UCHL1 to predict early progression in newly diagnosed patients; a finding reversed by the inclusion of bortezomib. We also found high UCHL1 levels to be a critical factor in the superiority of bortezomib over high-dose dexamethasone in relapsed patients. High UCHL1 partially overlaps with, but is distinct from, known genetic risks including 4p16 rearrangement and 1q21 amplification. Using an orthotopic mouse model, we found UCH-L1 depletion delays myeloma dissemination and causes regression of established disease. We conclude that UCH-L1 is a biomarker of aggressive myeloma that may be an important marker of bortezomib response, and may itself be an effective target in disseminated disease. PMID:26513019

  19. Knockdown of Human TCF4 Affects Multiple Signaling Pathways Involved in Cell Survival, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Marc P.; Waite, Adrian J.; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS): a severe form of mental retardation with phenotypic similarities to Angelman, Mowat-Wilson and Rett syndromes. Genome-wide association studies have also found that common variants in TCF4 are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Although TCF4 is transcription factor, little is known about TCF4-regulated processes in the brain. In this study we used genome-wide expression profiling to determine the effects of acute TCF4 knockdown on gene expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We identified 1204 gene expression changes (494 upregulated, 710 downregulated) in TCF4 knockdown cells. Pathway and enrichment analysis on the differentially expressed genes in TCF4-knockdown cells identified an over-representation of genes involved in TGF-? signaling, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis. Among the most significantly differentially expressed genes were th