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1

Multiple Pathways for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

Stirling, Lee Anna

2012-01-01

2

rugose (rg), a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with multiple signaling pathways.  

PubMed Central

In the developing Drosophila eye, cell fate determination and pattern formation are directed by cell-cell interactions mediated by signal transduction cascades. Mutations at the rugose locus (rg) result in a rough eye phenotype due to a disorganized retina and aberrant cone cell differentiation, which leads to reduction or complete loss of cone cells. The cone cell phenotype is sensitive to the level of rugose gene function. Molecular analyses show that rugose encodes a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550). Genetic interaction studies show that rugose interacts with the components of the EGFR- and Notch-mediated signaling pathways. Our results suggest that rg is required for correct retinal pattern formation and may function in cell fate determination through its interactions with the EGFR and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:12072466

Shamloula, Hoda K; Mbogho, Mkajuma P; Pimentel, Angel C; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zosia M A; Hyatt, Vanneta; Okano, Hideyuki; Venkatesh, Tadmiri R

2002-01-01

3

DNA repair pathways in human multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Every day, cells are faced with thousands of DNA lesions, which have to be repaired to preserve cell survival and function. DNA repair is more or less accurate and could result in genomic instability and cancer. We review here the current knowledge of the links between molecular features, treatment, and DNA repair in multiple myeloma (MM), a disease characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Genetic instability and abnormalities are two hallmarks of MM cells and aberrant DNA repair pathways are involved in disease onset, primary translocations in MM cells, and MM progression. Two major drugs currently used to treat MM, the alkylating agent Melphalan and the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib act directly on DNA repair pathways, which are involved in response to treatment and resistance. A better knowledge of DNA repair pathways in MM could help to target them, thus improving disease treatment. PMID:23966156

Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Sahota, Surinder; Rème, Thierry; Moreaux, Jérôme; Bourquard, Pascal; Hose, Dirk; Pasero, Philippe; Constantinou, Angelos; Klein, Bernard

2013-01-01

4

On the Time Required to Perform Multiplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time required to perform multiplication is investigated. A lower bound on the time required to perform multiplication, as well as multiplication modulo N, is derived and it is shown that these lower bounds can be approached. Then a lower bound on the amount of time required to perform the most significant part of multiplication (⌞xy\\/N⌟) is derived.

Shmuel Winograd; Yorktown Heights

1967-01-01

5

Beyond Tracking: Multiple Pathways to College, Career, and Civic Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Beyond Tracking" responds to the a sobering assessment of American high schools by delineating and promoting an innovative and well-defined notion of multiple pathways. The book's authors clearly distinguish their use of the term "multiple pathways" from any updated version of the tracking system that marked so many American high schools during…

Oakes, Jeannie, Ed.; Saunders, Marisa, Ed.

2008-01-01

6

Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes.  

PubMed

This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism's impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society. PMID:22518195

Harrell, Camara Jules P; Burford, Tanisha I; Cage, Brandi N; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

2011-04-15

7

Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism’s impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society. PMID:22518195

Harrell, Camara Jules P.; Burford, Tanisha I.; Cage, Brandi N.; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

2012-01-01

8

Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein  

E-print Network

Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein Graham S. Jackson , Anthony R. Clarke a , John Collinge aY * a Prion Disease Group, Department of Neurogenetics, Imperial-conformation in free solution. The data we present here shows that the human prion protein can exist in multiple

Hosszu, Laszlo

9

Biasing a transition state search to locate multiple reaction pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of chemical systems exhibit multiple reaction pathways that adjoin to a common reactant state. In fact, any reaction producing side products or proceeding via a stable intermediate involves a species possessing at least two reaction pathways. Despite improvements in ab initio transition-state search algorithms it remains difficult to detect multiple reaction pathways. Typically, multiple reaction pathways can only be detected by intuitively varying the initial point in the transition-state search trajectory. This reliance on intuition limits the ability to discover new and unexpected chemistry using ab initio methods. This paper proposes a systematic and intuition-free method for biasing a transition-state search to identify multiple reaction pathways originating from a common reactant state. The method allows the successive location of transition states, with each successful search contributing to a cumulative bias potential for the following search. The method is applicable to all psuedo-Newton-Raphson-type transition-state searches. The procedure was tested for a model potential energy surface and for the thermal rearrangement of trans-1,4-dimethylcyclobutene. In the latter case, four reaction pathways were discovered: two exothermic conrotatory ring openings leading to hexadienes, an endothermic methyl migration pathway leading to a carbene, and an exothermic rearrangement leading to 3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene. In accordance with experiment, the calculations predict that the conrotatory pathway leading to trans,trans-2,4-hexadiene is the kinetically dominant pathway. The methodology was also used to compute selectivities for competitive pathways producing trans and cis triflouropentadiene products in the thermal rearrangement of 3-triflouromethyl-cyclobutene. Again, results were in accord with experimental observations.

Peters, Baron; Liang, WanZhen; Bell, Alexis T.; Chakraborty, Arup

2003-06-01

10

Multiple pathways for establishment of poliovirus infection.  

PubMed

Poliovirus (PV) infects susceptible cells through poliovirus receptor (PVR), which functions to bind virus and to convert its conformation. To study early infection process of PV, infection systems were employed using in vitro cultured cells and in vivo neural pathway of PVR transgenic (Tg) mice. For in vitro study, mouse L cells were established expressing mouse high affinity Fc gamma receptor molecules, and used them as in vitro PV infection system. PV infection was mediated, albeit inefficiently, by mouse anti-PV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; IgG2a subtypes) that did not show an activity to convert PV (160S) to 135S particle. The infection efficiency was enhanced when PVR-IgG2a, a chimera molecule consisting of the extracellular moiety of PVR and the Fc portion of mouse IgG2a, was used for anti-PV mAbs. Virion conformational change to 135S particle was induced by PVR-IgG2a. For in vivo study, intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation of PV into the calves of PV-sensitive Tg mice was employed. PV-related materials recovered from the sciatic nerve, after the i.m. inoculation, were mainly composed of intact 160S virion particle, although this neural pathway appeared to be dependent on PVR. These results suggested that some specific interaction(s) of PVR to PV beyond its binding activity was important to enhance infectivity of PV in in vitro cultured cells, and that PV uncoating occurs after retrograde axonal transport of the virus through the sciatic nerve of Tg mice. Thus, PV infection may be established by any of these several pathways. reserved. PMID:10507320

Arita, M; Ohka, S; Sasaki, Y; Nomoto, A

1999-08-01

11

Chemotaxis: Navigating by Multiple Signaling Pathways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During chemotaxis, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) accumulates at the leading edge of a eukaryotic cell, where it induces the formation of pseudopodia. PIP3 has been suggested to be the compass of cells navigating in gradients of signaling molecules. Recent observations suggest that chemotaxis is more complex than previously anticipated. Complete inhibition of all PIP3 signaling has little effect, and alternative pathways have been identified. In addition, selective pseudopod growth and retraction are more important in directing cell movement than is the place where new pseudopodia are formed.

Peter J. M. Van Haastert (University of Groningen;Department of Biology REV); Douwe M. Veltman (University of Groningen;Department of Biology REV)

2007-07-24

12

Multiple cholinergic signaling pathways in pituitary gonadotrophs.  

PubMed

Acetylcholine (ACh) has been established as a paracrine factor in the anterior pituitary gland, but the receptors mediating ACh action and the cell types bearing these receptors have not been identified. Our results showed that the expression of the nicotinic subunits mRNAs followed the order ?2 > ?1 = ?9 > ?4 in cultured rat pituitary cells. The expression of the subunits in immortalized L?T2 mouse gonadotrophs followed the order ?2 > ?4 = ?1. M4 > M3 muscarinic receptor mRNA were also identified in pituitary and L?T2 cells. The treatment of cultured pituitary cells with GnRH down-regulated the expression of ?9 and ?4 mRNAs, without affecting the expression of M3 and M4 receptor mRNAs, and ACh did not alter the expression of GnRH receptor mRNA. We also performed double immunostaining to show the expression of ?2-subunit and M4 receptor proteins in gonadotrophs. Functional nicotinic channels capable of generating an inward current, facilitation of electrical activity, and Ca(2+) influx were identified in single gonadotrophs and L?T2 cells. In both cell types, the M3 receptor-mediated, phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization activated an outward apamin-sensitive K(+) current and caused hyperpolarization. The activation of M4 receptors by ACh inhibited cAMP production and GnRH-induced LH release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. We concluded that multiple cholinergic receptors are expressed in gonadotrophs and that the main secretory action of ACh is inhibitory through M4 receptor-mediated down-regulation of cAMP production. The expression of nicotinic receptors in vitro compensates for the lack of regular GnRH stimulation of gonadotrophs. PMID:23161872

Zemkova, Hana; Kucka, Marek; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Tomic, Melanija; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

2013-01-01

13

Multiple Cholinergic Signaling Pathways in Pituitary Gonadotrophs  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) has been established as a paracrine factor in the anterior pituitary gland, but the receptors mediating ACh action and the cell types bearing these receptors have not been identified. Our results showed that the expression of the nicotinic subunits mRNAs followed the order ?2 > ?1 = ?9 > ?4 in cultured rat pituitary cells. The expression of the subunits in immortalized L?T2 mouse gonadotrophs followed the order ?2 > ?4 = ?1. M4 > M3 muscarinic receptor mRNA were also identified in pituitary and L?T2 cells. The treatment of cultured pituitary cells with GnRH down-regulated the expression of ?9 and ?4 mRNAs, without affecting the expression of M3 and M4 receptor mRNAs, and ACh did not alter the expression of GnRH receptor mRNA. We also performed double immunostaining to show the expression of ?2-subunit and M4 receptor proteins in gonadotrophs. Functional nicotinic channels capable of generating an inward current, facilitation of electrical activity, and Ca2+ influx were identified in single gonadotrophs and L?T2 cells. In both cell types, the M3 receptor-mediated, phospholipase C-dependent Ca2+ mobilization activated an outward apamin-sensitive K+ current and caused hyperpolarization. The activation of M4 receptors by ACh inhibited cAMP production and GnRH-induced LH release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. We concluded that multiple cholinergic receptors are expressed in gonadotrophs and that the main secretory action of ACh is inhibitory through M4 receptor-mediated down-regulation of cAMP production. The expression of nicotinic receptors in vitro compensates for the lack of regular GnRH stimulation of gonadotrophs. PMID:23161872

Kucka, Marek; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Tomic, Melanija

2013-01-01

14

Costs of California Multiple Pathway Programs. Policy Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread agreement that many of California's high schools are doing a poor job of preparing their students for college and careers. The James Irvine Foundation is sponsoring a major initiative to develop "Multiple Pathways"--now called the Linked Learning approach--as a strategy for improving the performance of California high schools.…

Parsi, Ace; Plank, David; Stern, David

2010-01-01

15

BMP signaling pathway plays multiple roles during gastrointestinal tract development  

E-print Network

1 BMP signaling pathway plays multiple roles during gastrointestinal tract development Pascal de an essential role during gastrointestinal (GI) tract development in vertebrates. In the present study, we use2008 #12;3 INTRODUCTION The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a remarkably complex, three dimensional

Boyer, Edmond

16

Drug-pathway interaction prediction via multiple feature fusion.  

PubMed

Predicting new drug-pathway interactions from heterogeneous biological data is important not only for the understanding of various drug response and molecular interaction processes, but also for the development of novel drugs and the therapy of human diseases. In this paper, three different learning methods including the Bipartite Local Models method (BLM), Gaussian Interaction Profiles kernels (GIP) method and Graph-based Semi-supervised Learning method (GBSSL) were used to predict drug-pathway interactions. To realize the purpose, drugs were firstly represented by functional groups and chemical structure similarity, and pathways were represented by their related gene expressions and semantic similarity based features. Then, the parameter optimization procedures were further adopted to deal with heterogeneous data sources. As a result, the proposed methods achieved a high ROC curve score (AUC score) over 0.95, which validated the effectiveness of multiple information integration. Moreover, several new potential drug-pathway interactions were identified for further biological function research. PMID:25122125

Song, Meiyue; Yan, Yan; Jiang, Zhenran

2014-09-30

17

PPAR? regulates multiple proinflammatory pathways to suppress atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Lipid homeostasis and inflammation are key determinants in atherogenesis, exemplified by the requirement of lipid-laden, foam cell macrophages for atherosclerotic lesion formation. Although the nuclear receptor PPAR? has been implicated in both systemic lipid metabolism and macrophage inflammation, its role as a therapeutic target in vascular disease is unclear. We show here that orally active PPAR? agonists significantly reduce atherosclerosis in apoE?/? mice. Metabolic and gene expression studies reveal that PPAR? attenuates lesion progression through its HDL-raising effect and anti-inflammatory activity within the vessel wall, where it suppresses chemoattractant signaling by down-regulation of chemokines. Activation of PPAR? also induces the expression of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) genes, which are implicated in blocking the signal transduction of chemokine receptors. Consistent with this, PPAR? ligands repress monocyte transmigration and macrophage inflammatory responses elicited by atherogenic cytokines. These results reveal that PPAR? antagonizes multiple proinflammatory pathways and suggest PPAR?-selective drugs as candidate therapeutics for atherosclerosis. PMID:18337509

Barish, Grant D.; Atkins, Annette R.; Downes, Michael; Olson, Peter; Chong, Ling-Wa; Nelson, Mike; Zou, Yuhua; Hwang, Hoosang; Kang, Heonjoong; Curtiss, Linda; Evans, Ronald M.; Lee, Chih-Hao

2008-01-01

18

REG? is associated with multiple oncogenic pathways in human cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest a role of the proteasome activator, REG?, in cancer progression. Since there are limited numbers of known REG? targets, it is not known which cancers and pathways are associated with REG?. Methods REG? protein expressions in four different cancers were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Following NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database search, microarray platform validation, differential expressions of REG? in corresponding cancers were statistically analyzed. Genes highly correlated with REG? were defined based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Functional links were estimated by Ingenuity Core analysis. Finally, validation was performed by RT-PCR analysis in established cancer cell lines and IHC in human colon cancer tissues Results Here, we demonstrate overexpression of REG? in four different cancer types by micro-tissue array analysis. Using meta-analysis of publicly available microarray databases and biological studies, we verified elevated REG? gene expression in the four types of cancers and identified genes significantly correlated with REG? expression, including genes in p53, Myc pathways, and multiple other cancer-related pathways. The predicted correlations were largely consistent with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions This study provides us novel insights in REG? gene expression profiles and its link to multiple cancer-related pathways in cancers. Our results indicate potentially important pathogenic roles of REG? in multiple cancer types and implicate REG? as a putative cancer marker. PMID:22361172

2012-01-01

19

Electrophysiology of motor pathways for sphincter control in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

The central and peripheral motor pathways serving striated sphincter muscle function were studied using cortical and lumbar transcutaneous electrical stimulation, pudendal nerve stimulation and sphincter electromyography in 23 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and sphincter disturbance, including incontinence of urine or faeces, urinary voiding dysfunction, or constipation. The central motor conduction time was significantly increased in the MS group compared to controls (p less than 0.05). Damage to both the upper and lower motor neuron pathways can contribute to sphincter disturbance in MS. The latter may be due to coexisting pathology or to involvement of the conus medullaris by MS. PMID:2178181

Mathers, S E; Ingram, D A; Swash, M

1990-01-01

20

Electrophysiology of motor pathways for sphincter control in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The central and peripheral motor pathways serving striated sphincter muscle function were studied using cortical and lumbar transcutaneous electrical stimulation, pudendal nerve stimulation and sphincter electromyography in 23 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and sphincter disturbance, including incontinence of urine or faeces, urinary voiding dysfunction, or constipation. The central motor conduction time was significantly increased in the MS group compared to controls (p less than 0.05). Damage to both the upper and lower motor neuron pathways can contribute to sphincter disturbance in MS. The latter may be due to coexisting pathology or to involvement of the conus medullaris by MS. PMID:2178181

Mathers, S E; Ingram, D A; Swash, M

1990-11-01

21

The multiple pathways for itch and their interactions with pain  

PubMed Central

Multiple neural pathways and molecular mechanisms responsible for producing the sensation of itch have recently been identified, including histamine-independent pathways. Physiological, molecular, behavioral and brain imaging studies are converging to describe these pathways and their close association with pain processing. Some conflicting results have arisen, and the precise relationship between itch and pain remains controversial. A better understanding of the generation of itch and of the intrinsic mechanisms that inhibit itch after scratching should facilitate the search for new methods to alleviate clinical pruritus (itch). In this review, we describe the current understanding of the production and inhibition of itch. A model of itch processing within the central nervous system (CNS) is proposed. PMID:21056479

Davidson, Steve; Giesler, Glenn J

2010-01-01

22

Ubiquitin-protein ligases in muscle wasting: multiple parallel pathways?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies in a wide variety of animal models of muscle wasting have led to the concept that increased protein breakdown via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for the loss of muscle mass seen as muscle atrophy. The complexity of the ubiquitination apparatus has hampered our understanding of how this pathway is activated in atrophying muscles and which ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in muscle are responsible. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent experiments have shown that two newly identified ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), atrogin-1/MAFbx and MURF-1, are critical in the development of muscle atrophy. Other in-vitro studies also implicated E2(14k) and E3alpha, of the N-end rule pathway, as playing an important role in the process. SUMMARY: It seems likely that multiple pathways of ubiquitin conjugation are activated in parallel in atrophying muscle, perhaps to target for degradation specific classes of muscle proteins. The emerging challenge will be to define the protein targets for, as well as inhibitors of, these E3s.

Lecker, Stewart H.; Goldberg, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

23

Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

Hosmer, Paul

2007-10-01

24

Reovirus Uses Multiple Endocytic Pathways for Cell Entry  

PubMed Central

Entry of reovirus virions has been well studied in several tissue culture systems. After attachment to junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), virions undergo clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by proteolytic disassembly of the capsid and penetration to the cytoplasm. However, during in vivo infection of the intestinal tract, and likely in the tumor microenvironment, capsid proteolysis (uncoating) is initiated extracellularly. We used multiple approaches to determine if uncoated reovirus particles, called intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs), enter cells by directly penetrating the limiting membrane or if they take advantage of endocytic pathways to establish productive infection. We found that entry and infection by reovirus ISVPs was inhibited by dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin-dependent endocytosis, as well as by genistein and dominant-negative caveolin-1, which block caveolar endocytosis. Inhibition of caveolar endocytosis also reduced infection by reovirus virions. Extraction of membrane cholesterol with methyl-?-cyclodextrin inhibited infection by virions but had no effect when infection was initiated with ISVPs. We found this pathway to be independent of both clathrin and caveolin. Together, these data suggest that reovirus virions can use both dynamin-dependent and dynamin-independent endocytic pathways during cell entry, and they reveal that reovirus ISVPs can take advantage of caveolar endocytosis to establish productive infection. PMID:22973022

Schulz, Wade L.; Haj, Amelia K.

2012-01-01

25

Evidence for Multiple Pathways to Deuterium Enhancements in Protoplanetary Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of deuterated molecules in protoplanetary disks are expected to depend on the molecular formation pathways. We use observations of spatially resolved DCN emission from the disk around TW Hya, acquired during ALMA science verification with a ~3'' synthesized beam, together with comparable DCO+ observations from the Submillimeter Array, to investigate differences in the radial distributions of these species and hence differences in their formation chemistry. In contrast to DCO+, which shows an increasing column density with radius, DCN is better fit by a model that is centrally peaked. We infer that DCN forms at a smaller radii and thus at higher temperatures than DCO+. This is consistent with chemical network model predictions of DCO+ formation from H2D+ at T < 30 K and DCN formation from additional pathways involving CH2D+ at higher temperatures. We estimate a DCN/HCN abundance ratio of ~0.017, similar to the DCO+/HCO+ abundance ratio. Deuterium fractionation appears to be efficient at a range of temperatures in this protoplanetary disk. These results suggest caution in interpreting the range of deuterium fractions observed in solar system bodies, as multiple formation pathways should be taken into account.

Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David J.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.

2012-04-01

26

Multiple Pathways Regulate Minisatellite Stability During Stationary Phase in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Alterations in minisatellite DNA repeat tracts in humans have been correlated with a number of serious disorders, including cancer. Despite their importance for human health, the genetic factors that influence minisatellite stability are not well understood. Previously, we identified mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc homeostasis genes ZRT1 and ZAP1 that significantly increase the frequency of minisatellite alteration specifically during stationary phase. In this work, we identified mutants of END3, PKC1, and RAD27 that increase minisatellite instability during stationary phase. Genetic analysis reveals that these genes, along with ZRT1 and ZAP1, comprise multiple pathways regulating minisatellite stability during stationary phase. Minisatellite alterations generated by perturbation of any of these pathways occur via homologous recombination. We present evidence that suggests formation of ssDNA or ssDNA breaks may play a primary role in stationary phase instability. Finally, we examined the roles of these pathways in the stability of a human minisatellite tract associated with the HRAS1 oncogene and found that loss of RAD27, but not END3 or PKC1, destabilizes the HRAS1 minisatellite in stationary phase yeast. This result indicates that the genetic control of stationary phase minisatellite stability is dependent on the sequence composition of the minisatellite itself. PMID:23050229

Kelly, Maire K.; Brosnan, Laura; Jauert, Peter A.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Kirkpatrick, David T.

2012-01-01

27

Pathway-Wide Association Study Implicates Multiple Sterol Transport and Metabolism Genes in HDL Cholesterol Regulation  

PubMed Central

Pathway-based association methods have been proposed to be an effective approach in identifying disease genes, when single-marker association tests do not have sufficient power. The analysis of quantitative traits may be benefited from these approaches, by sampling from two extreme tails of the distribution. Here we tested a pathway association approach on a small genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 653 subjects with extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and 784 subjects with low HDL-C levels. We identified 102 genes in the sterol transport and metabolism pathways that collectively associate with HDL-C levels, and replicated these association signals in an independent GWAS. Interestingly, the pathways include 18 genes implicated in previous GWAS on lipid traits, suggesting that genuine HDL-C genes are highly enriched in these pathways. Additionally, multiple biologically relevant loci in the pathways were not detected by previous GWAS, including genes implicated in previous candidate gene association studies (such as LEPR, APOA2, HDLBP, SOAT2), genes that cause Mendelian forms of lipid disorders (such as DHCR24), and genes expressing dyslipidemia phenotypes in knockout mice (such as SOAT1, PON1). Our study suggests that sampling from two extreme tails of a quantitative trait and examining genetic pathways may yield biological insights from smaller samples than are generally required using single-marker analysis in large-scale GWAS. Our results also implicate that functionally related genes work together to regulate complex quantitative traits, and that future large-scale studies may benefit from pathway-association approaches to identify novel pathways regulating HDL-C levels. PMID:22303337

Wang, Kai; Edmondson, Andrew C.; Li, Mingyao; Gao, Fan; Qasim, Atif N.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Mooser, Vincent; Grant, Struan F. A.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rader, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

28

A Distributed Computational Architecture for Integrating Multiple Biomolecular Pathways  

E-print Network

Biomolecular pathways are building blocks of cellular biochemical function. Computational biology is in rapid transition from diagrammatic representation of pathways to quantitative and predictive mathematical models, which ...

Ayyadurai, Shiva

29

Multiple pathways for homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The genes in the RAD52 epistasis group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are necessary for most mitotic and meiotic recombination events. Using an intrachromosomal inverted-repeat assay, we previously demonstrated that mitotic recombination of this substrate is dependent upon the RAD52 gene. In the present study the requirement for other genes in this epistasis group for recombination of inverted repeats has been analyzed, and double and triple mutant strains were examined for their epistatic relationships. The majority of recombination events are mediated by a RAD51-dependent pathway, where the RAD54, RAD55 and RAD57 genes function downstream of RAD51. Cells mutated in RAD55 or RAD57 as well as double mutants are cold-sensitive for inverted-repeat recombination, whereas a rad51 rad55 rad57 triple mutant is not. The RAD1 gene is not required for inverted-repeat recombination but is able to process spontaneous DNA lesions to produce recombinant products in the absence of RAD51. Furthermore, there is still considerably more recombination in rad1 rad51 mutants than in rad52 mutants, indicating the presence of another, as yet unidentified, recombination pathway. PMID:7705645

Rattray, A J; Symington, L S

1995-01-01

30

Mycobacterial Esx-3 Requires Multiple Components for Iron Acquisition  

E-print Network

The type VII secretion systems are conserved across mycobacterial species and in many Gram-positive bacteria. While the well-characterized Esx-1 pathway is required for the virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and conjugation ...

Siegrist, M. Sloan

31

Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21808633

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

2011-01-01

32

Multiple pathways for Plasmodium ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut is a crucial step of the parasite life cycle but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Previously, a phage display peptide library screen identified SM1, a peptide that binds to the mosquito midgut epithelium and inhibits ookinete invasion. SM1 was characterized as a mimotope of an ookinete surface enolase and SM1 presumably competes with enolase, the presumed ligand, for binding to a putative midgut receptor. Here we identify a mosquito midgut receptor that binds both SM1 and ookinete surface enolase, termed “enolase-binding protein” (EBP). Moreover, we determined that Plasmodium berghei parasites are heterogeneous for midgut invasion, as some parasite clones are strongly inhibited by SM1 whereas others are not. The SM1-sensitive parasites required the mosquito EBP receptor for midgut invasion whereas the SM1-resistant parasites invaded the mosquito midgut independently of EBP. These experiments provide evidence that Plasmodium ookinetes can invade the mosquito midgut by alternate pathways. Furthermore, another peptide from the original phage display screen, midgut peptide 2 (MP2), strongly inhibited midgut invasion by P. berghei (SM1-sensitive and SM1-resistant) and Plasmodium falciparum ookinetes, suggesting that MP2 binds to a separate, universal receptor for midgut invasion. PMID:24474798

Vega-Rodriguez, Joel; Ghosh, Anil K.; Kanzok, Stefan M.; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.; Wang, Sibao; Bongio, Nicholas J.; Kalume, Dario E.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2014-01-01

33

A novel insertion pathway of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane segments.  

PubMed

The central channel Tom40 of the preprotein translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex is thought to be responsible for the import of virtually all preproteins synthesized outside the mitochondria. In this study, we analyze the topogenesis of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), which integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (TMSs) and functions in cholesterol import into the inner membrane. Analyses of in vitro and in vivo import into TOM component-depleted mitochondria reveal that PBR import (1) depends on the import receptor Tom70 but requires neither the Tom20 and Tom22 import receptors nor the import channel Tom40, (2) shares the post-Tom70 pathway with the C-tail-anchored proteins, and (3) requires factors of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Furthermore, membrane integration of mitofusins and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase, the MOM proteins with two and four TMSs, respectively, proceeds through the same initial pathway. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pathway of the membrane integration of MOM proteins with multiple TMSs. PMID:18158327

Otera, Hidenori; Taira, Yohsuke; Horie, Chika; Suzuki, Yurina; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Kato, Hiroki; Oka, Toshihiko; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

2007-12-31

34

Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.  

PubMed

While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution. PMID:24841100

Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

2014-06-01

35

Pathways of Learning: Teaching Students and Parents about Multiple Intelligences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is concerned with reinventing the learning process from a multiple intelligences perspective and urges explicitly teaching students about multiple intelligences to further their metacognitive understanding. The multiple-intelligence-based curriculum is intended to interface with the regular academic curriculum. An introductory chapter…

Lazear, David

36

Transition model for ricin-aptamer interactions with multiple pathways and energy barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a transition model to interpret single-molecule ricin-aptamer interactions with multiple unbinding pathways and energy barriers measured by atomic force microscopy dynamic force spectroscopy. Molecular simulations establish the relationship between binding conformations and the corresponding unbinding pathways. Each unbinding pathway follows a Bell-Evans multiple-barrier model. Markov-type transition matrices are developed to analyze the redistribution of unbinding events among the pathways under different loading rates. Our study provides detailed information about complex behaviors in ricin-aptamer unbinding events.

Wang, Bin; Xu, Bingqian

2014-02-01

37

Passive Decomposition of Multiple Mechanical Systems under Coordination Requirements  

E-print Network

Passive Decomposition of Multiple Mechanical Systems under Coordination Requirements Dongjun Lee interacting with environments and/or humans under coordination requirements. The key innovation is the passive coordination and energetic passivity of the closed- loop system. It decomposes the system dynamics into shape

Lee, Dongjun

38

Multiple Transmission Pathways and Disease Dynamics in a Waterborne Pathogen Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple transmission pathways exist for many waterborne diseases, including cholera, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Campylobacter. Theoretical work exploring the effects of multiple transmission pathways on disease dynamics is incomplete. Here, we consider\\u000a a simple ODE model that extends the classical SIR framework by adding a compartment (W) that tracks pathogen concentration in the water. Infected individuals shed pathogen into the water compartment,

Joseph H. Tien; David J. D. Earn

2010-01-01

39

Multiple roles for lipids in the Hedgehog signalling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of endogenous sterol derivatives that modulate the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway has begun to suggest testable hypotheses for the cellular biological functions of Patched, and for the lipoprotein association of Hh. Progress in the field of intracellular sterol trafficking has emphasized how tightly the distribution of intracellular sterol is controlled, and suggests that the synthesis of sterol derivatives

Suzanne Eaton

2008-01-01

40

Requirements for innate immune pathways in environmentally induced autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

There is substantial evidence that environmental triggers in combination with genetic and stochastic factors play an important role in spontaneous autoimmune disease. Although the specific environmental agents and how they promote autoimmunity remain largely unknown, in part because of diverse etiologies, environmentally induced autoimmune models can provide insights into potential mechanisms. Studies of idiopathic and environmentally induced systemic autoimmunity show that they are mediated by common adaptive immune response genes. By contrast, although the innate immune system is indispensable for autoimmunity, there are clear differences in the molecular and cellular innate components that mediate specific systemic autoimmune diseases, suggesting distinct autoimmune-promoting pathways. Some of these differences may be related to the bifurcation of toll-like receptor signaling that distinguishes interferon regulatory factor 7-mediated type I interferon production from nuclear factor-?B-driven proinflammatory cytokine expression. Accordingly, idiopathic and pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity require both type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines whereas the less aggressive mercury-induced autoimmunity, although dependent on nucleic acid-binding toll-like receptors, does not require type I interferon but needs proinflammatory cytokines. Scavenger receptors and the inflammasome may contribute to silica-induced autoimmunity. Greater understanding of the innate mechanisms responsible for idiopathic and environmentally induced autoimmunity should yield new information into the processes that instigate and drive systemic autoimmunity. PMID:23557436

2013-01-01

41

Inhibitors of the arachidonic acid cascade: interfering with multiple pathways.  

PubMed

Modulators of the arachidonic acid cascade have been in the focus of research for treatments of inflammation and pain for several decades. Targeting this complex pathway experiences a paradigm change towards the design and development of multi-target inhibitors, exhibiting improved efficacy and less undesired side effects. This minireview summarizes recent developments in the field of designed multi-target ligands of the arachidonic acid cascade. In addition to the well-known dual inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 such as licofelone, very recent developments are discussed. Especially, multi-target inhibitors interfering with the cytochrome P450 pathway via inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase seem to offer a novel opportunity for development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24015667

Meirer, Karin; Steinhilber, Dieter; Proschak, Ewgenij

2014-01-01

42

Hedgehog Pathway Modulation by Multiple Lipid Binding Sites on the Smoothened Effector of Signal Response  

PubMed Central

Summary Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during development and in postembryonic tissues requires activation of the 7TM oncoprotein Smoothened (Smo), by mechanisms that may involve endogenous lipidic modulators. Exogenous Smo ligands previously identified include the plant sterol cyclopamine (and its therapeutically useful synthetic mimics) and hydroxylated cholesterol derivatives (oxysterols); Smo is also highly sensitive to cellular sterol levels. The relationships between these effects are unclear because the relevant Smo structural determinants are unknown. We identify the conserved extracellular cysteine rich domain (CRD) as the site of action for oxysterols on Smo, involving residues structurally analogous to those contacting the Wnt lipid adduct in the homologous Frizzled CRD; this modulatory effect is distinct from that of cyclopamine mimics, from Hh-mediated regulation, and from the permissive action of cellular sterol pools. These results imply that Hh pathway activity is sensitive to lipid binding at several Smo sites, suggesting mechanisms for tuning by multiple physiological inputs. PMID:23954590

Myers, Benjamin R.; Sever, Navdar; Chong, Yong Chun; Kim, James; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott; Bazan, J. Fernando; Beachy, Philip A.

2014-01-01

43

RNAi Induces Innate Immunity through Multiple Cellular Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Our previous results showed that the knockdown of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) by RNA interference (RNAi) led to upregulation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in primary hepatocytes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the cellular signaling pathways recognizing RNA molecules may be involved the ISG stimulation by RNAi. Methods Primary murine hepatocytes (PMHs) from wild type mice and WHV transgenic (Tg) mice were prepared and treated with defined siRNAs. The mRNA levels of target genes and ISGs were detected by real-time RT-PCR. The involvement of the signaling pathways including RIG-I/MDA5, PKR, and TLR3/7/8/9 was examined by specific inhibition and the analysis of their activation by Western blotting. Results In PMHs from WHV Tg mice, specific siRNAs targeting WHV, mouse ?-actin, and GAPDH reduced the levels of targeted mRNAs and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-?, MxA, and IP-10. The enhanced ISG expression by siRNA transfection were abolished by siRNA-specific 2?-O-methyl antisense RNA and the inhibitors 2-AP and chloroquine blocking PKR and other TLR-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, Western blotting revealed that RNAi results in an increase in PKR phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-êB, indicating the possible role of IRF3 in the RNAi-directed induction of ISGs. In contrast, silencing of RIG-I and MDA5 failed to block RNAi-mediated MxA induction. Conclusions RNAi is capable of enhancing innate immune responses through the PKR- and TLR-dependent signaling pathways in primary hepatocytes. The immune stimulation by RNAi may contribute to the antiviral activity of siRNAs in vivo. PMID:23700487

Wu, Jun; Pei, Rongjuan; Xu, Yang; Yang, Dongliang; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji

2013-01-01

44

APL-1, the Alzheimer's Amyloid precursor protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, modulates multiple metabolic pathways throughout development.  

PubMed

Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene or in genes that process APP are correlated with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological function of APP remains unclear. APP is a transmembrane protein that can be sequentially cleaved by different secretases to yield multiple fragments, which can potentially act as signaling molecules. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes one APP-related protein, APL-1, which is essential for viability. Here, we show that APL-1 signaling is dependent on the activity of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 and influences metabolic pathways such as developmental progression, body size, and egg-laying rate. Furthermore, apl-1(yn5) mutants, which produce high levels of the extracellular APL-1 fragment, show an incompletely penetrant temperature-sensitive embryonic lethality. In a genetic screen to isolate mutants in which the apl-1(yn5) lethality rate is modified, we identified a suppressor mutation in MOA-1/R155.2, a receptor-protein tyrosine phosphatase, and an enhancer mutation in MOA-2/B0495.6, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockdown of apl-1 in an apl-1(yn5) background caused lethality and molting defects at all larval stages, suggesting that apl-1 is required for each transitional molt. We suggest that signaling of the released APL-1 fragment modulates multiple metabolic states and that APL-1 is required throughout development. PMID:22466039

Ewald, Collin Y; Raps, Daniel A; Li, Chris

2012-06-01

45

Chronic itch development in sensory neurons requires BRAF signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAFNav1.8 mice). We found that constitutive BRAF pathway activation in BRAFNav1.8 mice results in ectopic and enhanced expression of a cohort of itch-sensing genes, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and MAS-related GPCR member A3 (MRGPRA3), in nociceptors expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). BRAFNav1.8 mice showed de novo neuronal responsiveness to pruritogens, enhanced pruriceptor excitability, and heightened evoked and spontaneous scratching behavior. GRP receptor expression was increased in the spinal cord, indicating augmented coding capacity for itch subsequent to amplified pruriceptive inputs. Enhanced GRP expression and sustained ERK phosphorylation were observed in sensory neurons of mice with allergic contact dermatitis– or dry skin–elicited itch; however, spinal ERK activation was not required for maintaining central sensitization of itch. Inhibition of either BRAF or GRP signaling attenuated itch sensation in chronic itch mouse models. These data uncover RAF/MEK/ERK signaling as a key regulator that confers a subset of nociceptors with pruriceptive properties to initiate and maintain long-lasting itch sensation. PMID:24216512

Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Jeffry, Joseph; Hampton, Lori; Demehri, Shadmehr; Kim, Seungil; Liu, Xian-Yu; Barry, Devin M.; Wan, Li; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Li, Hui; Turkoz, Ahu; Ma, Kaijie; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Kopan, Raphael; Battey, James F.; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Zhou-Feng

2013-01-01

46

Chronic itch development in sensory neurons requires BRAF signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAF(Nav1.8) mice). We found that constitutive BRAF pathway activation in BRAF(Nav1.8) mice results in ectopic and enhanced expression of a cohort of itch-sensing genes, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and MAS-related GPCR member A3 (MRGPRA3), in nociceptors expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). BRAF(Nav1.8) mice showed de novo neuronal responsiveness to pruritogens, enhanced pruriceptor excitability, and heightened evoked and spontaneous scratching behavior. GRP receptor expression was increased in the spinal cord, indicating augmented coding capacity for itch subsequent to amplified pruriceptive inputs. Enhanced GRP expression and sustained ERK phosphorylation were observed in sensory neurons of mice with allergic contact dermatitis– or dry skin–elicited itch; however, spinal ERK activation was not required for maintaining central sensitization of itch. Inhibition of either BRAF or GRP signaling attenuated itch sensation in chronic itch mouse models. These data uncover RAF/MEK/ERK signaling as a key regulator that confers a subset of nociceptors with pruriceptive properties to initiate and maintain long-lasting itch sensation. PMID:24216512

Zhao, Zhong-Qiu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Jeffry, Joseph; Hampton, Lori; Demehri, Shadmehr; Kim, Seungil; Liu, Xian-Yu; Barry, Devin M; Wan, Li; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Li, Hui; Turkoz, Ahu; Ma, Kaijie; Cornelius, Lynn A; Kopan, Raphael; Battey, James F; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Zhou-Feng

2013-11-01

47

Multiple internalization pathways of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are carrier vehicles with great potential for biomedical applications. With the future aim of designing biocompatible, effective therapeutic delivery systems (e.g., for cancer), the pathway of internalization (uptake and fate) of PEM capsules was investigated. In particular the following experiments were performed: (i) the study of capsule co-localization with established endocytic markers, (ii) switching-off endocytotic pathways with pharmaceutical/chemical inhibitors, and (iii) characterization and quantification of capsule uptake with confocal and electron microscopy. As result, capsules co-localized with lipid rafts and with phagolysosomes, but not with other endocytic vesicles. Chemical interference of endocytosis with chemical blockers indicated that PEM capsules enter the investigated cell lines through a mechanism slightly sensitive to electrostatic interactions, independent of clathrin and caveolae, and strongly dependent on cholesterol-rich domains and organelle acidification. Microscopic characterization of cells during capsule uptake showed the formation of phagocytic cups (vesicles) to engulf the capsules, an increased number of mitochondria, and a final localization in the perinuclear cytoplasma. Combining all these indicators we conclude that PEM capsule internalization in general occurs as a combination of different sequential mechanisms. Initially, an adsorptive mechanism due to strong electrostatic interactions governs the stabilization of the capsules at the cell surface. Membrane ruffling and filopodia extensions are responsible for capsule engulfing through the formation of a phagocytic cup. Co-localization with lipid raft domains activates the cell to initiate a lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. Internalization vesicles are very acidic and co-localize only with phagolysosome markers, excluding caveolin-mediated pathways and indicating that upon phagocytosis the capsules are sorted to heterophagolysosomes. PMID:23826767

Kastl, Lena; Sasse, Daniel; Wulf, Verena; Hartmann, Raimo; Mircheski, Josif; Ranke, Christiane; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Martínez-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael; Parak, Wolfgang J; Elsasser, Hans-Peter; Rivera Gil, Pilar

2013-08-27

48

Evidence for Multiple Pathways to Deuterium Enhancements in Protoplanetary Disks  

E-print Network

The distributions of deuterated molecules in protoplanetary disks are expected to depend on the molecular formation pathways. We use observations of spatially resolved DCN emission from the disk around TW Hya, acquired during ALMA Science verification with a ~3" synthesized beam, together with comparable DCO+ observations from the Submillimeter Array, to investigate differences in the radial distributions of these species and hence differences in their formation chemistry. In contrast to DCO+, which shows an increasing column density with radius, DCN is better fit by a model that is centrally peaked. We infer that DCN forms at a smaller radii and thus at higher temperatures than DCO+. This is consistent with chemical network model predictions of DCO+ formation from H2D+ at T<30 K and DCN formation from additional pathways involving CH2D+ at higher temperatures. We estimate a DCN/HCN abundance ratio of ~0.017, similar to the DCO+/HCO+ abundance ratio. Deuterium fractionation appears to be efficient at a ran...

Oberg, Karin I; Wilner, David J; Hogerheijde, Michiel R

2012-01-01

49

Network-Based Identification of Biomarkers Coexpressed with Multiple Pathways  

PubMed Central

Unraveling complex molecular interactions and networks and incorporating clinical information in modeling will present a paradigm shift in molecular medicine. Embedding biological relevance via modeling molecular networks and pathways has become increasingly important for biomarker identification in cancer susceptibility and metastasis studies. Here, we give a comprehensive overview of computational methods used for biomarker identification, and provide a performance comparison of several network models used in studies of cancer susceptibility, disease progression, and prognostication. Specifically, we evaluated implication networks, Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, and Pearson’s correlation networks in constructing gene coexpression networks for identifying lung cancer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. The results show that implication networks, implemented in Genet package, identified sets of biomarkers that generated an accurate prediction of lung cancer risk and metastases; meanwhile, implication networks revealed more biologically relevant molecular interactions than Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, and Pearson’s correlation networks when evaluated with MSigDB database. PMID:25392692

Guo, Nancy Lan; Wan, Ying-Wooi

2014-01-01

50

Screening Reactive Metabolites Bioactivated by Multiple Enzyme Pathways Using a Multiplexed Microfluidic System  

PubMed Central

A multiplexed, microfluidic platform to detect reactive metabolites is described, and its performance is illustrated for compounds metabolized by oxidative and bioconjugation enzymes in multi-enzyme pathways to mimic natural human drug metabolism. The device features four 8-electrode screen printed carbon arrays coated with thin films of DNA, a ruthenium-polyvinylpyridine (RuPVP) catalyst, and multiple enzyme sources including human liver microsomes (HLM), cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) 1B1 supersomes, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH), human S9 liver fractions (Hs9) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Arrays are arranged in parallel to facilitate multiple compound screening, enabling up to 32 enzyme reactions and measurements in 20–30 min. In the first step of the assay, metabolic reactions are achieved under constant flow of oxygenated reactant solutions by electrode driven natural catalytic cycles of cyt P450s and cofactor-supported bioconjugation enzymes. Reactive metabolites formed in the enzyme reactions can react with DNA. Relative DNA damage is measuring in the second assay step using square wave voltammetry (SWV) with RuPVP as catalyst. Studies were done on chemicals known to require metabolic activation to induce genotoxicity, and results reproduced known features of metabolite DNA-reactivity for the test compounds. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) by cyt P450s and epoxide hydrolase showed an enhanced relative DNA damage rate for DNA damage compared to cyt P450s alone. DNA damage rates for arylamines by pathways featuring both oxidative and conjugative enzymes at pH 7.4 gave better correlation with rodent genotoxicity metric TD50. Results illustrate the broad utility of the reactive metabolite screening device. PMID:23095952

Wasalathanthri, Dhanuka P.; Faria, Ronaldo C.; Malla, Spundana; Joshi, Amit A.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

2012-01-01

51

Oct4 links multiple epigenetic pathways to the pluripotency network.  

PubMed

Oct4 is a well-known transcription factor that plays fundamental roles in stem cell self-renewal, pluripotency, and somatic cell reprogramming. However, limited information is available on Oct4-associated protein complexes and their intrinsic protein-protein interactions that dictate Oct4's critical regulatory activities. Here we employed an improved affinity purification approach combined with mass spectrometry to purify Oct4 protein complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), and discovered many novel Oct4 partners important for self-renewal and pluripotency of mESCs. Notably, we found that Oct4 is associated with multiple chromatin-modifying complexes with documented as well as newly proved functional significance in stem cell maintenance and somatic cell reprogramming. Our study establishes a solid biochemical basis for genetic and epigenetic regulation of stem cell pluripotency and provides a framework for exploring alternative factor-based reprogramming strategies. PMID:22083510

Ding, Junjun; Xu, Huilei; Faiola, Francesco; Ma'ayan, Avi; Wang, Jianlong

2012-01-01

52

Patient-Specific Pathway Analysis Using PARADIGM Identifies Key Activities in Multiple Cancers - Josh Stuart, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Patient-Specific Pathway Analysis Using PARADIGM Identifies Key Activities in Cancers - Josh Stuart Patient-Specific Pathway Analysis Using PARADIGM Identifies Key Activities in Multiple Cancers - Josh

53

The Origin of Allosteric Functional Modulation: Multiple Pre-existing Pathways  

PubMed Central

While allostery draws increasing attention, not much is known about allosteric mechanisms. Here we argue that in all proteins, allosteric signals transmit through multiple, pre-existing pathways; which pathways dominate depend on protein topologies, specific binding events, covalent modifications and cellular (environmental) conditions. Further, perturbation events at any site on the protein surface (or in the interior) will not create new pathways but only shift the pre-existing ensemble of pathways. Drugs binding at different sites or mutational events in disease shift the ensemble toward the same conformations; however, the relative populations of the different states will change. Consequently the observed functional, conformational, and dynamic effects will be different. This is the origin of allosteric functional modulation in dynamic proteins: allostery does not necessarily need to invoke conformational rearrangements to control protein activity and pre-existing pathways are always defaulted to during allostery regardless of the stimulant and perturbation site in the protein. PMID:19679084

del Sol, Antonio; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

2009-01-01

54

LEARNING CYCLIC SIGNALING PATHWAY STRUCTURES WHILE MINIMIZING DATA REQUIREMENTS  

PubMed Central

Bayesian network structure learning is a useful tool for elucidation of regulatory structures of biomolecular pathways. The approach however is limited by its acyclicity constraint, a problematic one in the cycle-containing biological domain. Here, we introduce a novel method for modeling cyclic pathways in biology, by employing our newly introduced Generalized Bayesian Networks (GBNs). Our novel algorithm enables cyclic structure learning while employing biologically relevant data, as it extends our cycle-learning algorithm to permit learning with singly perturbed samples. We present theoretical arguments as well as structure learning results from realistic, simulated data of a biological system. We also present results from a real world dataset, involving signaling pathways in T-cells. PMID:19209696

SACHS, K.; ITANI, S.; FITZGERALD, J.; WILLE, L.; SCHOEBERL, B.; DAHLEH, M. A.; NOLAN, G. P.

2014-01-01

55

Retinoic acid activation of the ERK pathway is required for embryonic stem cell commitment into the adipocyte lineage.  

PubMed

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that differentiate into multiple cell lineages. The commitment of ES cells into the adipocyte lineage is dependent on an early 3-day treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we examined the contribution of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Treatment of ES cell-derived embryoid bodies with RA resulted in a prolonged activation of the ERK pathway, but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. To investigate the role of ERK activation, co-treatment of RA with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the ERK signalling pathway, prevented both adipocyte formation and expression of the adipogenic markers, adipocyte lipid-binding protein and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Furthermore, we show that ERK activation is required only during RA treatment. PD98059 does not interfere with the commitment of ES cells into other lineages, such as neurogenesis, myogenesis and cardiomyogenesis. As opposed to the controversial role of the ERK pathway in terminal differentiation, our results clearly demonstrate that this pathway is specifically required at an early stage of adipogenesis, corresponding to the RA-dependent commitment of ES cells. PMID:11802792

Bost, Frédéric; Caron, Leslie; Marchetti, Irène; Dani, Christian; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Binétruy, Bernard

2002-02-01

56

Retinoic acid activation of the ERK pathway is required for embryonic stem cell commitment into the adipocyte lineage.  

PubMed Central

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that differentiate into multiple cell lineages. The commitment of ES cells into the adipocyte lineage is dependent on an early 3-day treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we examined the contribution of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Treatment of ES cell-derived embryoid bodies with RA resulted in a prolonged activation of the ERK pathway, but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. To investigate the role of ERK activation, co-treatment of RA with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the ERK signalling pathway, prevented both adipocyte formation and expression of the adipogenic markers, adipocyte lipid-binding protein and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Furthermore, we show that ERK activation is required only during RA treatment. PD98059 does not interfere with the commitment of ES cells into other lineages, such as neurogenesis, myogenesis and cardiomyogenesis. As opposed to the controversial role of the ERK pathway in terminal differentiation, our results clearly demonstrate that this pathway is specifically required at an early stage of adipogenesis, corresponding to the RA-dependent commitment of ES cells. PMID:11802792

Bost, Frederic; Caron, Leslie; Marchetti, Irene; Dani, Christian; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Binetruy, Bernard

2002-01-01

57

Cytolethal Distending Toxins Require Components of the ER-Associated Degradation Pathway for Host Cell Entry  

PubMed Central

Intracellular acting protein exotoxins produced by bacteria and plants are important molecular determinants that drive numerous human diseases. A subset of these toxins, the cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), are encoded by several Gram-negative pathogens and have been proposed to enhance virulence by allowing evasion of the immune system. CDTs are trafficked in a retrograde manner from the cell surface through the Golgi apparatus and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before ultimately reaching the host cell nucleus. However, the mechanism by which CDTs exit the ER is not known. Here we show that three central components of the host ER associated degradation (ERAD) machinery, Derlin-2 (Derl2), the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Hrd1, and the AAA ATPase p97, are required for intoxication by some CDTs. Complementation of Derl2-deficient cells with Derl2:Derl1 chimeras identified two previously uncharacterized functional domains in Derl2, the N-terminal 88 amino acids and the second ER-luminal loop, as required for intoxication by the CDT encoded by Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT). In contrast, two motifs required for Derlin-dependent retrotranslocation of ERAD substrates, a conserved WR motif and an SHP box that mediates interaction with the AAA ATPase p97, were found to be dispensable for Hd-CDT intoxication. Interestingly, this previously undescribed mechanism is shared with the plant toxin ricin. These data reveal a requirement for multiple components of the ERAD pathway for CDT intoxication and provide insight into a Derl2-dependent pathway exploited by retrograde trafficking toxins. PMID:25078082

Eshraghi, Aria; Dixon, Shandee D.; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Kim, Emily Jin-Kyung; Gargi, Amandeep; Kulik, Julia C.; Damoiseaux, Robert; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

2014-01-01

58

Multiple variants aggregate in the neuregulin signaling pathway in a subset of schizophrenia patients  

PubMed Central

Despite the strongly held view that schizophrenia (SZ) shows substantial genetic heterogeneity, pathway heterogeneity, as seen in cancer where different pathways are affected in similar tumors, has not been explored. We explore this possibility in a case-only study of the neuregulin signaling pathway (NSP), which has been prominently implicated in SZ and for which there is detailed knowledge on the ligand- and receptor-processing steps through ?- and ?-secretase cleavage. We hypothesize that more than one damaging variants in the NSP genes might be necessary to cause disease, leading to an apparent clustering of such variants in only the few patients with affected NSP. We analyze linkage and next-generation sequencing results for the genes encoding components of the pathway, including NRG1, NRG3, ERBB4, ?-secretase and the ?-secretase complex. We find multiple independent examples of supporting evidence for this hypothesis: (i) increased linkage scores over NSP genes, (ii) multiple positive interlocus correlations of linkage scores across families suggesting each family is linked to either many or none of the genes, (iii) aggregation of predicted damaging variants in a subset of individuals and (iv) significant phenotypic differences of the subset of patients carrying such variants. Collectively, our data strongly support the hypothesis that the NSP is affected by multiple damaging variants in a subset of phenotypically distinct patients. On the basis of this, we propose a general model of pathway heterogeneity in SZ, which, in part, may explain its phenotypic variability and genetic complexity. PMID:23715299

Hatzimanolis, A; McGrath, J A; Wang, R; Li, T; Wong, P C; Nestadt, G; Wolyniec, P S; Valle, D; Pulver, A E; Avramopoulos, D

2013-01-01

59

SUMOylation of ATRIP potentiates DNA damage signaling by boosting multiple protein interactions in the ATR pathway.  

PubMed

The ATR (ATM [ataxia telangiectasia-mutated]- and Rad3-related) checkpoint is a crucial DNA damage signaling pathway. While the ATR pathway is known to transmit DNA damage signals through the ATR-Chk1 kinase cascade, whether post-translational modifications other than phosphorylation are important for this pathway remains largely unknown. Here, we show that protein SUMOylation plays a key role in the ATR pathway. ATRIP, the regulatory partner of ATR, is modified by SUMO2/3 at K234 and K289. An ATRIP mutant lacking the SUMOylation sites fails to localize to DNA damage and support ATR activation efficiently. Surprisingly, the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant is compromised in the interaction with a protein group, rather than a single protein, in the ATR pathway. Multiple ATRIP-interacting proteins, including ATR, RPA70, TopBP1, and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex, exhibit reduced binding to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant in cells and display affinity for SUMO2 chains in vitro, suggesting that they bind not only ATRIP but also SUMO. Fusion of a SUMO2 chain to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant enhances its interaction with the protein group and partially suppresses its localization and functional defects, revealing that ATRIP SUMOylation promotes ATR activation by providing a unique type of protein glue that boosts multiple protein interactions along the ATR pathway. PMID:24990965

Wu, Ching-Shyi; Ouyang, Jian; Mori, Eiichiro; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Maréchal, Alexandre; Hallet, Alexander; Chen, David J; Zou, Lee

2014-07-01

60

Pathways Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Adults With Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This prospective study examined symptoms of depression, fatigue, pain, self-efficacy, and social support as possible intermediaries in the pathway between changes in physical activity and quality of life (QOL) across a 6-month period in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Design and Main Outcome Measures: Adults with a definite diagnosis of MS wore an accelerometer for 7 days and then

Robert W. Motl; Edward McAuley

2009-01-01

61

Multiple Folding Pathways of the SH3 Domain Jose M. Borreguero,* Feng Ding,y  

E-print Network

Multiple Folding Pathways of the SH3 Domain Jose M. Borreguero,* Feng Ding,y Sergey V. Buldyrev,* H perform molecular dynamics simulations of a model of the c-Crk SH3 domain over a broad range temperature--the temperature for which the c-Crk SH3 domain undergoes a rapid folding transition with minimal

Buldyrev, Sergey

62

Creating Multiple Pathways in the Arts: A New York City Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, education policy makers understand the importance of students and families having access to a range of high quality educational opportunities inside and outside of school, 365 days a year. This paper explores the concept of multiple pathways in arts education to further conceptualize and build upon such opportunities, inside and…

Maguire, Cindy; Mishook, Jacob; Garcia, Ivonne; de Gaillande, Genevieve

2013-01-01

63

Language Learning in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Multiple Pathways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text on teaching language to students with hearing impairments stresses the use of multiple language learning pathways to meet the individual needs of students. The introductory chapter looks at language issues in the context of history, instruction, technology, culture, and the law. Chapter 2, on language acquisition, discusses the nature of…

Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Baker, Sharon

64

The History and Visions of African American Psychology: Multiple Pathways to Place, Space, and Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development.

Bertha Garrett Holliday

2009-01-01

65

Genetic and Epigenetic Events Generate Multiple Pathways in Colorectal Cancer Progression  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of death, despite decades of research. Initially considered as a disease due to genetic mutations, it is now viewed as a complex malignancy because of the involvement of epigenetic abnormalities. A functional equivalence between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms has been suggested in CRC initiation and progression. A hallmark of CRC is its pathogenetic heterogeneity attained through at least three distinct pathways: a traditional (adenoma-carcinoma sequence), an alternative, and more recently the so-called serrated pathway. While the alternative pathway is more heterogeneous and less characterized, the traditional and serrated pathways appear to be more homogeneous and clearly distinct. One unsolved question in colon cancer biology concerns the cells of origin and from which crypt compartment the different pathways originate. Based on molecular and pathological evidences, we propose that the traditional and serrated pathways originate from different crypt compartments explaining their genetic/epigenetic and clinicopathological differences. In this paper, we will discuss the current knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and, specifically, summarize the role of genetic/epigenetic changes in the origin and progression of the multiple CRC pathways. Elucidation of the link between the molecular and clinico-pathological aspects of CRC would improve our understanding of its etiology and impact both prevention and treatment. PMID:22888469

Pancione, Massimo; Remo, Andrea; Colantuoni, Vittorio

2012-01-01

66

Direct sampling of multiple single-molecular rupture dominant pathways involving a multistep transition.  

PubMed

We report a novel single-molecular rupture mechanism revealed by direct sampling of the dominant pathway using a self-optimized path sampling method. Multiple dominant pathways involving multistep transitions are identified. The rupture may take place via a direct unfolding from the native state to the unfolding state, or through a two-step pathway bypassing a distinct intermediate metastable state (IMS). This scenario facilitates us to propose a three-state kinetic model, which can produce a nonlinear dependence of the rupture time on pulling forces similar to the ones reported in the literature. In particular, molecule conformations in the IMS maintain an elongation of the tail at one terminal, by which external pulling will enhance the relative stability of IMS. Consequently, even though the overall transition rate of the multistep pathway is relatively small, the molecule still has to be ruptured via the multistep pathway rather than the direct pathway. Thus, our work demonstrates an IMS trapping effect induced rupture mechanism involving an abnormal switching from a fast dominant pathway to a slow one. PMID:25347216

Jiang, Huijun; Ding, Huai; Hou, Zhonghuai

2014-12-14

67

Regulation of multiple DNA repair pathways by the Fanconi anemia protein SLX4  

PubMed Central

SLX4, the newly identified Fanconi anemia protein, FANCP, is implicated in repairing DNA damage induced by DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents, topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors, and in Holliday junction resolution. It interacts with and enhances the activity of XPF-ERCC1, MUS81-EME1, and SLX1 nucleases, but the requirement for the specific nucleases in SLX4 function is unclear. Here, by complementing a null FA-P Fanconi anemia cell line with SLX4 mutants that specifically lack the interaction with each of the nucleases, we show that the SLX4-dependent XPF-ERCC1 activity is essential for ICL repair but is dispensable for repairing TOP1 inhibitor-induced DNA lesions. Conversely, MUS81-SLX4 interaction is critical for resistance to TOP1 inhibitors but is less important for ICL repair. Mutation of SLX4 that abrogates interaction with SLX1 results in partial resistance to both cross-linking agents and TOP1 inhibitors. These results demonstrate that SLX4 modulates multiple DNA repair pathways by regulating appropriate nucleases. PMID:23093618

Kim, Yonghwan; Spitz, Gabriella S.; Veturi, Uma; Lach, Francis P.; Auerbach, Arleen D.

2013-01-01

68

Differential requirements for clathrin endocytic pathway components in cellular entry by Ebola and Marburg glycoprotein pseudovirions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was previously implicated as one of the cellular pathways involved in filoviral glycoprotein mediated viral entry into target cells. Here we have further dissected the requirements for different components of this pathway in Ebola versus Marburg virus glycoprotein (GP) mediated viral infection. Although a number of these components were involved in both cases; Ebola GP-dependent viral entry specifically

Suchita Bhattacharyya; Thomas J. Hope; John A. T. Young

2011-01-01

69

Arabidopsis lonely guy (LOG) multiple mutants reveal a central role of the LOG-dependent pathway in cytokinin activation.  

PubMed

Cytokinins are phytohormones that play key roles in the maintenance of stem cell activity in plants. Although alternative single-step and two-step activation pathways for cytokinin have been proposed, the significance of the single-step pathway which is catalyzed by LONELY GUY (LOG), is not fully understood. We analyzed the metabolic flow of cytokinin activation in Arabidopsis log multiple mutants using stable isotope-labeled tracers and characterized the mutants' morphological and developmental phenotypes. In tracer experiments, cytokinin activation was inhibited most pronouncedly by log7, while the other log mutations had cumulative effects. Although sextuple or lower-order mutants did not show drastic phenotypes in vegetative growth, the log1log2log3log4log5log7log8 septuple T-DNA insertion mutant in which the LOG-dependent pathway is impaired, displayed severe retardation of shoot and root growth with defects in the maintenance of the apical meristems. Detailed observation of the mutants showed that LOG7 was required for the maintenance of shoot apical meristem size. LOG7 was also suggested to play a role for normal primary root growth together with LOG3 and LOG4. These results suggest a dominant role of the single-step activation pathway mediated by LOGs for cytokinin production, and overlapping but differentiated functions of the members of the LOG gene family in growth and development. PMID:22059596

Tokunaga, Hiroki; Kojima, Mikiko; Kuroha, Takeshi; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

70

Mycobacterial Esx-3 Requires Multiple Components for Iron Acquisition  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The type VII secretion systems are conserved across mycobacterial species and in many Gram-positive bacteria. While the well-characterized Esx-1 pathway is required for the virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and conjugation in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, Esx-3 contributes to mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition in these bacteria. Here we show that several Esx-3 components are individually required for function under low-iron conditions but that at least one, the membrane-bound protease MycP3 of M. smegmatis, is partially expendable. All of the esx-3 mutants tested, including the ?mycP3ms mutant, failed to export the native Esx-3 substrates EsxHms and EsxGms to quantifiable levels, as determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Although we were able to restore low-iron growth to the esx-3 mutants by genetic complementation, we found a wide range of complementation levels for protein export. Indeed, minute quantities of extracellular EsxHms and EsxGms were sufficient for iron acquisition under our experimental conditions. The apparent separation of Esx-3 function in iron acquisition from robust EsxGms and EsxHms secretion in the ?mycP3ms mutant and in some of the complemented esx-3 mutants compels reexamination of the structure-function relationships for type VII secretion systems. PMID:24803520

Siegrist, M. Sloan; Steigedal, Magnus; Ahmad, Rushdy; Mehra, Alka; Dragset, Marte S.; Schuster, Brian M.; Philips, Jennifer A.; Carr, Steven A.

2014-01-01

71

Differential Requirements for Clathrin Endocytic Pathway Components in Cellular Entry by Ebola and Marburg Glycoprotein Pseudovirions  

PubMed Central

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was previously implicated as one of the cellular pathways involved in filoviral glycoprotein mediated viral entry into target cells. Here we have further dissected the requirements for different components of this pathway in Ebola versus Marburg virus glycoprotein (GP) mediated viral infection. Although a number of these components were involved in both cases; Ebola GP-dependent viral entry specifically required the cargo recognition proteins Eps15 and DAB2 as well as the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. In contrast, Marburg GP-mediated infection was independent of these three proteins and instead required beta-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). These findings have revealed an unexpected difference between the clathrin pathway requirements for Ebola GP- versus Marburg GP pseudovirion infection. Anthrax toxin entry also uses a clathrin-, and ARRB1-dependent pathway for cellular entry, indicating that the mechanism used by Marburg GP pseudovirions may be more generally important for pathogen entry. PMID:21855102

Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J.; Young, John A. T.

2011-01-01

72

Differential requirements for clathrin endocytic pathway components in cellular entry by Ebola and Marburg glycoprotein pseudovirions.  

PubMed

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was previously implicated as one of the cellular pathways involved in filoviral glycoprotein mediated viral entry into target cells. Here we have further dissected the requirements for different components of this pathway in Ebola versus Marburg virus glycoprotein (GP) mediated viral infection. Although a number of these components were involved in both cases; Ebola GP-dependent viral entry specifically required the cargo recognition proteins Eps15 and DAB2 as well as the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. In contrast, Marburg GP-mediated infection was independent of these three proteins and instead required beta-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). These findings have revealed an unexpected difference between the clathrin pathway requirements for Ebola GP versus Marburg GP pseudovirion infection. Anthrax toxin also uses a clathrin-, and ARRB1-dependent pathway for cellular entry, indicating that the mechanism used by Marburg GP pseudovirions may be more generally important for pathogen entry. PMID:21855102

Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J; Young, John A T

2011-10-10

73

Differential Activities of Thalidomide and Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway Inhibitors in Multiple Myeloma Cells  

PubMed Central

Thalidomide has emerged as an effective agent for treating multiple myeloma, however the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Agents known to target the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) can have cytotoxic effects in myeloma cells. The interactions between thalidomide and IBP inhibitors in human multiple myeloma cells were evaluated. Enhanced cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis was observed in RPMI-8226 cells. Examination of intracellular levels of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) revealed a wide variance in basal levels and response to IBP inhibitors. These findings provide a mechanism for the differential sensitivity of myeloma cells to pharmacologic manipulation of the IBP. PMID:19646757

Holstein, Sarah A.; Tong, Huaxiang; Hohl, Raymond J.

2013-01-01

74

Depression's multiple comorbidities explained by (neuro)inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress pathways.  

PubMed

There is now evidence that depression, as characterized by melancholic symptoms, anxiety, and fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms, is the clinical expression of peripheral cell-mediated activation, inflammation and induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways and of central microglial activation, decreased neurogenesis and increased apoptosis. This review gives an explanation for the multiple "co-morbidities" between depression and a large variety of a) brain disorders related to neurodegeneration, e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke; b) medical disorders, such as cardiovascular disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, leaky gut, diabetes type 1 and 2, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and HIV infection; and c) conditions, such as hemodialysis, interferon-?-based immunotherapy, the postnatal period and psychosocial stressors. The common denominator of all those disorders/conditions is the presence of microglial activation and/or activation of peripheral IO&NS pathways. There is evidence that shared peripheral and / or central IO&NS pathways underpin the pathophysiology of depression and the previously mentioned disorders and that activation of these IO&NS pathways contributes to shared risk. The IO&NS pathways function as a smoke sensor that detect threats in the peripheral and central parts of the body and signal these threats as melancholic, anxiety, and fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms. The presence of concomitant depression is strongly associated with a lower quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality in medical disorders. This may be explained since depression contributes to increased (neuro)inflammatory burden and may therefore drive the inflammatory and degenerative progression. It is concluded that the activation of peripheral and / or central IO&NS pathways may explain the co-occurrence of depression with the above disorders. This shows that depression belongs to the spectrum of inflammatory and degenerative disorders. PMID:21407167

Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Obuchowiczwa, Ewa; Goehler, Lisa; Brzeszcz, Joanna

2011-01-01

75

Multiple Genetic Pathways for Restarting DNA Replication Forks in Escherichia coli K-12  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Escherichia coli, the primosome assembly proteins, PriA, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaC, DnaB, and DnaG, are thought to help to restart DNA replication forks at recombinational intermediates. Redundant functions between priB and priC and synthetic lethality between priA2::kan and rep3 mutations raise the possibility that there may be multiple pathways for restarting replication forks in vivo. Herein, it is shown

Steven J. Sandler

76

Multiple transmission pathways and disease dynamics in a waterborne pathogen model.  

PubMed

Multiple transmission pathways exist for many waterborne diseases, including cholera, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Campylobacter. Theoretical work exploring the effects of multiple transmission pathways on disease dynamics is incomplete. Here, we consider a simple ODE model that extends the classical SIR framework by adding a compartment (W) that tracks pathogen concentration in the water. Infected individuals shed pathogen into the water compartment, and new infections arise both through exposure to contaminated water, as well as by the classical SIR person-person transmission pathway. We compute the basic reproductive number ([Symbol: see text](0)), epidemic growth rate, and final outbreak size for the resulting "SIWR" model, and examine how these fundamental quantities depend upon the transmission parameters for the different pathways. We prove that the endemic disease equilibrium for the SIWR model is globally stable. We identify the pathogen decay rate in the water compartment as a key parameter determining when the distinction between the different transmission routes in the SIWR model is important. When the decay rate is slow, using an SIR model rather than the SIWR model can lead to under-estimates of the basic reproductive number and over-estimates of the infectious period. PMID:20143271

Tien, Joseph H; Earn, David J D

2010-08-01

77

Overlapping roles and collective requirement for the co-receptors Gas1, Cdo and Boc in Shh pathway function  

PubMed Central

Summary Secreted Hedgehog (Hh) ligands signal through the canonical receptor Patched (Ptch1). However, recent studies implicate three additional Hh-binding, cell surface proteins, Gas1, Cdo and Boc, as putative co-receptors for Hh ligands. A central question is to what degree these co-receptors function similarly and their collective requirement in Hh signal transduction. Here we provide evidence that Gas1, Cdo, and Boc, play overlapping and essential roles during Hh-mediated ventral neural patterning of the mammalian neural tube. Specifically, we demonstrate two important roles for these molecules: an early role in cell fate specification of multiple neural progenitors, and a later role in motor neuron progenitor maintenance. Most strikingly, genetic loss-of-function experiments indicate an obligatory requirement for Gas1, Cdo and Boc in Hh pathway activity in multiple tissues. PMID:21664576

Allen, Benjamin L.; Song, Jane Y.; Izzi, Luisa; Althaus, Irene W.; Kang, Jong-Sun; Charron, Frederic; Krauss, Robert S.; McMahon, Andrew P.

2011-01-01

78

A New Cruzipain-Mediated Pathway of Human Cell Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi Requires Trypomastigote Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas' disease, a chronic illness associated with cardiomyopathy and digestive disorders. This pathogen invades mammalian cells by signaling them through multiple transduction pathways. We previously showed that cruzipain, the main cysteine protease of T. cruzi, promotes host cell invasion by activating kinin receptors. Here, we report a cruzipain-mediated invasion route that is not blocked

Isabela M. Aparicio; Julio Scharfstein; A. P. C. A. Lima

2004-01-01

79

Nuclear interactor of ARF and Mdm2 regulates multiple pathways to activate p53.  

PubMed

The p53 tumor suppressor is controlled by an interactive network of factors that stimulate or inhibit its transcriptional activity. Within that network, Mdm2 functions as the major antagonist of p53 by promoting its ubiquitylation and degradation. Conversely, Tip60 activates p53 through direct association on target promoters as well as acetylation of p53 at lysine 120 (K120). This study examines the functional relationship between Mdm2 and Tip60 with a novel p53 regulator, NIAM (nuclear interactor of ARF and Mdm2). Previous work showed NIAM can suppress proliferation and activate p53 independently of ARF, indicating that other factors mediate those activities. Here, we demonstrate that NIAM is a chromatin-associated protein that binds Tip60. NIAM can promote p53 K120 acetylation, although that modification is not required for NIAM to inhibit proliferation or induce p53 transactivation of the p21 promoter. Notably, Tip60 silencing showed it contributes to but is not sufficient for NIAM-mediated p53 activation, suggesting other mechanisms are involved. Indeed, growth-inhibitory forms of NIAM also bind to Mdm2, and increased NIAM expression levels disrupt p53-Mdm2 association, inhibit p53 polyubiquitylation, and prevent Mdm2-mediated inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity. Importantly, loss of NIAM significantly impairs p53 activation. Together, these results show that NIAM activates p53 through multiple mechanisms involving Tip60 association and Mdm2 inhibition. Thus, NIAM regulates 2 critical pathways that control p53 function and are altered in human cancers, implying an important role for NIAM in tumorigenesis. PMID:24621507

Reed, Sara M; Hagen, Jussara; Tompkins, Van S; Thies, Katie; Quelle, Frederick W; Quelle, Dawn E

2014-04-15

80

Metabolomics and Proteomics Annotate Therapeutic Properties of Geniposide: Targeting and Regulating Multiple Perturbed Pathways  

PubMed Central

Geniposide is an important constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a famous Chinese medicinal plant, and has displayed bright prospects in prevention and therapy of hepatic injury (HI). Unfortunately, the working mechanisms of this compound are difficult to determine and thus remain unknown. To determine the mechanisms that underlie this compound, we conducted a systematic analysis of the therapeutic effects of geniposide using biochemistry, metabolomics and proteomics. Geniposide significantly intensified the therapeutic efficacy as indicated by our modern biochemical analysis. Metabolomics results indicate 9 ions in the positive mode as differentiating metabolites which were associated with perturbations in primary bile acid biosynthesis, butanoate metabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism. Of note, geniposide has potential pharmacological effect through regulating multiple perturbed pathways to normal state. In an attempt to address the benefits of geniposide based on the proteomics approaches, the protein-interacting networks were constructed to aid identifying the drug targets of geniposide. Six identified differential proteins appear to be involved in antioxidation and signal transduction, energy production, immunity, metabolism, chaperoning. These proteins were closely related in the protein-protein interaction network and the modulation of multiple vital physiological pathways. These data will help to understand the molecular therapeutic mechanisms of geniposide on hepatic damage rats. We also conclude that metabolomics and proteomics are powerful and versatile tools for both biomarker discovery and exploring the complex relationships between biological pathways and drug response, highlighting insights into drug discovery. PMID:23967205

Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Wenjun; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui

2013-01-01

81

Evolutionary study of the isoflavonoid pathway based on multiple copies analysis in soybean  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest that the metabolic pathway structure influences the selection and evolution rates of involved genes. However, most of these studies have exclusively considered a single gene copy encoding each enzyme in the metabolic pathway. Considering multiple-copy encoding enzymes could provide direct evidence of gene evolution and duplication patterns in metabolic pathways. We conducted a detailed analysis of the phylogeny, synteny, evolutionary rate and selection pressure of the genes in the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway of soybeans. Results The results revealed that 1) only the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family most upstream from the pathway preserved all of the ancient and recent segmental duplications and maintained a strongly conserved synteny among these duplicated segments; gene families encoding branch-point enzymes with higher pleiotropy tended to retain more types of duplication; and genes encoding chalcone reductase (CHR) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) specific for legumes retained only recent segmental duplications; 2) downstream genes evolved faster than upstream genes and were subject to positive selection or relaxed selection constraints; 3) gene members encoding enzymes with high pleiotropy at the branching points were more likely to have undergone evolutionary differentiation, which may correspond to their functional divergences. Conclusions We reconciled our results with existing controversies and proposed that gene copies at branch points with higher connectivity might be under stronger selective constraints and that the gene copies controlling metabolic flux allocation underwent positive selection. Our analyses demonstrated that the structure and function of a metabolic pathway shapes gene duplication and the evolutionary constraints of constituent enzymes. PMID:24962214

2014-01-01

82

Durable adoptive immunotherapy for leukemia produced by manipulation of multiple regulatory pathways of CD8+ T-cell tolerance.  

PubMed

Tolerizing mechanisms within the host and tumor microenvironment inhibit T-cell effector functions that can control cancer. These mechanisms blunt adoptive immunotherapy with infused T-cells due to a complex array of signals that determine T-cell tolerance, survival, or deletion. Ligation of the negative regulatory receptors CTLA4, PD-1(PDCD1), or LAG3 on T-cells normally hinders their response to antigen through nonredundant biochemical processes that interfere with stimulatory pathways. In this study, we used an established mouse model of T-cell tolerance to define the roles of these inhibitory receptors in regulating CD8(+) T-cell tolerance during adoptive immunotherapy to treat leukemia. Blocking CTLA4 and PD-1 in vivo combined to promote survival of transferred T-cells despite powerful deletional signals that mediate Bim (BCL2L11)-dependent apoptosis. However, this dual blockade was not optimal for stimulating effector function by responding T-cells, which required the additional blockade of LAG3 to induce full expansion and allow the acquisition of robust cytolytic activity. Thus, the cooperation of multiple distinct regulatory pathways was needed for the survival and effector differentiation of adoptively transferred tumor-reactive CD8(+) T-cells. Our work defines the immune escape pathways in which simultaneous blockade could yield durable immunotherapeutic responses that can eradicate disseminated leukemia. PMID:23188506

Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Jackson, Stephanie R; Meyer, Jennifer M; Rouskey, Craig J; Nguyen, Thanh-Long M; Yagita, Hideo; Greenberg, Philip D; DiPaolo, Richard J; Teague, Ryan M

2013-01-15

83

Multiple kinetic components and the Ca2+ requirements of exocytosis.  

PubMed Central

The use of caged-Ca2+ compounds to stimulate Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis has substantially increased our understanding of this complex process. By this approach, the existence of multiple kinetic components of exocytosis has been established. These components may correspond to a series of sequential steps that lead to a single fusion-ready state (sequential mechanism) or, alternatively, to heterogeneity in secretory vesicles or in fusion-ready states (parallel mechanism). It is suggested that both of these mechanisms can underlie exocytosis of a single type of vesicle (mixed sequential-parallel mechanism). Studies with caged-Ca2+ compounds have also indicated that the Ca2+ requirement for exocytosis is substantially greater than that suggested by conventional methodologies. This discrepancy is mainly attributable to the underestimation, by imaging studies with high-affinity Ca2+ indicators (due to dye saturation), of the local increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration that trigger the exocytosis of individual vesicles. The effects of local saturation of such indicators are explored by means of a simple theory. PMID:10212481

Kasai, H; Takahashi, N

1999-01-01

84

Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.  

PubMed

We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. PMID:24814036

Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

2014-08-01

85

Yessotoxin as a Tool to Study Induction of Multiple Cell Death Pathways  

PubMed Central

This work proposes to use the marine algal toxin yessotoxin (YTX) to establish reference model experiments to explore medically valuable effects from induction of multiple cell death pathways. YTX is one of few toxins reported to make such induction. It is a small molecule compound which at low concentrations can induce apoptosis in primary cultures, many types of cells and cell lines. It can also induce a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death in BC3H1 myoblast cell lines. The present contribution reviews arguments that this type of induction may have principal interest outside this particular example. One principal effect of medical interest may be that cancer cells will not so easily adapt to the synergistic effects from induction of more than one death pathway as compared to induction of only apoptosis. PMID:22852069

Korsnes, Monica Suarez

2012-01-01

86

Yessotoxin as a tool to study induction of multiple cell death pathways.  

PubMed

This work proposes to use the marine algal toxin yessotoxin (YTX) to establish reference model experiments to explore medically valuable effects from induction of multiple cell death pathways. YTX is one of few toxins reported to make such induction. It is a small molecule compound which at low concentrations can induce apoptosis in primary cultures, many types of cells and cell lines. It can also induce a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death in BC3H1 myoblast cell lines. The present contribution reviews arguments that this type of induction may have principal interest outside this particular example. One principal effect of medical interest may be that cancer cells will not so easily adapt to the synergistic effects from induction of more than one death pathway as compared to induction of only apoptosis. PMID:22852069

Korsnes, Mónica Suárez

2012-07-01

87

Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development  

PubMed Central

The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

2014-01-01

88

Multiple Pathways of Recombination Induced by Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the principal organism used in experiments to examine genetic recombination in eukaryotes. Studies over the past decade have shown that meiotic recombination and probably most mitotic recombination arise from the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). There are multiple pathways by which such DSBs can be repaired, including several homologous recombination pathways and still other nonhomologous mechanisms. Our understanding has also been greatly enriched by the characterization of many proteins involved in recombination and by insights that link aspects of DNA repair to chromosome replication. New molecular models of DSB-induced gene conversion are presented. This review encompasses these different aspects of DSB-induced recombination in Saccharomyces and attempts to relate genetic, molecular biological, and biochemical studies of the processes of DNA repair and recombination. PMID:10357855

Paques, Frederic; Haber, James E.

1999-01-01

89

Multiple dynamical pathways in the O+SiH4 reaction studied by the crossed molecular beam method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the O+SiH4 reaction is investigated using crossed molecular beam techniques. Multiple pathways have been observed for this reaction. Angular resolved time-of-flight spectra have been measured for all reaction products in a single set of experiments. Different product angular distributions were measured for various product channels, indicating that multiple reaction pathways with distinctive dynamics are present. An intriguing

Jim J. Lin; Yuan T. Lee; Xueming Yang

2000-01-01

90

TonEBP stimulates multiple cellular pathways for adaptation to hypertonic stress: organic osmolyte-dependent and -independent pathways.  

PubMed

TonEBP (tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that promotes cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes in the hypertonic renal medulla by stimulating expression of its target genes. Genetically modified animals with deficient TonEBP activity in the kidney suffer from severe medullary atrophy in association with cell death, demonstrating that TonEBP is essential for the survival of the renal medullary cells. Using both TonEBP knockout cells and RNA interference of TonEBP, we found that TonEBP promoted cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress. Microarray analyses revealed that the genetic response to hypertonicity was dominated by TonEBP in that expression of totally different sets of genes was increased by hypertonicity in those cells with TonEBP vs. those without TonEBP activity. Of over 100 potentially new TonEBP-regulated genes, we selected seven for further analyses and found that their expressions were all dependent on TonEBP. RNA interference experiments showed that some of these genes, asporin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 and -7, and an extracellular lysophospholipase D, plus heat shock protein 70, a known TonEBP target gene, contributed to the adaptation to hypertonicity without promoting organic osmolyte accumulation. We conclude that TonEBP stimulates multiple cellular pathways for adaptation to hypertonic stress in addition to organic osmolyte accumulation. PMID:21209002

Lee, Sang Do; Choi, Soo Youn; Lim, Sun Woo; Lamitina, S Todd; Ho, Steffan N; Go, William Y; Kwon, H Moo

2011-03-01

91

Humidity sensation requires both mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm's cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans. PMID:24843133

Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andrés G; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

2014-06-01

92

Humidity sensation requires both mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm’s cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans. PMID:24843133

Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andres G.; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

2014-01-01

93

Associations between Proprioceptive Neural Pathway Structural Connectivity and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Mobility and balance impairments are a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting nearly half of patients at presentation and resulting in decreased activity and participation, falls, injuries, and reduced quality of life. A growing body of work suggests that balance impairments in people with mild MS are primarily the result of deficits in proprioception, the ability to determine body position in space in the absence of vision. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of balance disturbances in MS is needed to develop evidence-based rehabilitation approaches. The purpose of the current study was to (1) map the cortical proprioceptive pathway in vivo using diffusion-weighted imaging and (2) assess associations between proprioceptive pathway white matter microstructural integrity and performance on clinical and behavioral balance tasks. We hypothesized that people with MS (PwMS) would have reduced integrity of cerebral proprioceptive pathways, and that reduced white matter microstructure within these tracts would be strongly related to proprioceptive-based balance deficits. We found poorer balance control on proprioceptive-based tasks and reduced white matter microstructural integrity of the cortical proprioceptive tracts in PwMS compared with age-matched healthy controls (HC). Microstructural integrity of this pathway in the right hemisphere was also strongly associated with proprioceptive-based balance control in PwMS and controls. Conversely, while white matter integrity of the right hemisphere’s proprioceptive pathway was significantly correlated with overall balance performance in HC, there was no such relationship in PwMS. These results augment existing literature suggesting that balance control in PwMS may become more dependent upon (1) cerebellar-regulated proprioceptive control, (2) the vestibular system, and/or (3) the visual system. PMID:25368564

Fling, Brett W.; Dutta, Geetanjali Gera; Schlueter, Heather; Cameron, Michelle H.; Horak, Fay B.

2014-01-01

94

Cellular uptake of cyclotide MCoTI-I follows multiple endocytic pathways  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are plant-derived proteins that naturally exhibit various biological activities and whose unique cyclic structure makes them remarkably stable and resistant to denaturation or degradation. These attributes, among others, make them ideally suited for use as drug development tools. This study investigated the cellular uptake of cyclotide, MCoTI-I in live HeLa cells. Using real time confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging, we show that MCoTI-I is readily internalized in live HeLa cells and that its endocytosis is temperature-dependent. Endocytosis of MCoTI-I in HeLa cells is achieved primarily through fluid-phase endocytosis, as evidenced by its significant colocalization with 10K-dextran, but also through other pathways as well, as evidenced by its colocalization with markers for cholesterol-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cholera toxin B and EGF respectively. Uptake does not appear to occur only via macropinocytosis as inhibition of this pathway by Latrunculin B-induced disassembly of actin filaments did not affect MCoTI-I uptake and treatment with EIPA which also seemed to inhibit other pathways collectively inhibited approximately 80% of cellular uptake. As well, a significant amount of MCoTI-I accumulates in late endosomal and lysosomal compartments and MCoTI-I-containing vesicles continue to exhibit directed movements. These findings demonstrate internalization of MCoTI-I through multiple endocytic pathways that are dominant in the cell type investigated, suggesting that this cyclotide has ready access to general endosomal/lysosomal pathways but could readily be re-targeted to specific receptors through addition of targeting ligands. PMID:21906641

Contreras, Janette; Elnagar, Ahmed Y. O.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Camarero, Julio A.

2011-01-01

95

Identification of arachidonic acid pathways required for the invasive and metastatic activity of malignant tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis is a complex process, almost a cascade, involving multiple steps and activities. However, an important factor is that malignant cells are able to penetrate through the multiple basement membrane barriers surrounding tissues, blood vessels, nerves and muscle that would otherwise block their dissemination. Penetration of malignant tumor cells through basement membrane is an active process requiring proteolysis. We report

Reuven Reich; George R. Martin

1996-01-01

96

Genistein inhibits tumor invasion by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Genistein (Gen) exhibits anti-mutagenic and anti-metastatic activities in hepatoma cell lines. Gen has suppressive effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice. Gen suppresses the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; however, the mechanism underlying its anti-invasive activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is unclear. Methods In this study, the possible mechanisms underlying Gen-mediated reduction of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in human hepatoma cells (HepG2, Huh-7, and HA22T) and murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL2) were investigated. Results Gen suppressed MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor-? B (NF-?B) activity. Gen suppressed TPA-induced AP-1 activity through inhibitory phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, and TPA-stimulated inhibition of NF-?B nuclear translocation through I?B inhibitory signaling pathways. Moreover, Gen suppressed TPA-induced activation of ERK/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt upstream of NF-?B and AP-1. Conclusions Gen and its inhibition of multiple signal transduction pathways can control the invasiveness and metastatic potential of HCC. PMID:24433534

2014-01-01

97

?-Tocotrienol suppresses prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion through multiple-signalling pathways  

PubMed Central

Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) has demonstrated antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer (PCa) cells. To elucidate this anticancer property in PCa cells, this study aimed, first, to identify the most potent isomer for eliminating PCa cells; and second, to decipher the molecular pathway responsible for its activity. Results showed that the inhibitory effect of ?-tocotrienol was most potent, which resulted in induction of apoptosis as evidenced by activation of pro-caspases and the presence of sub-G1 cell population. Examination of the pro-survival genes revealed that the ?-tocotrienol-induced cell death was associated with suppression of NF-?B, EGF-R and Id family proteins (Id1 and Id3). Meanwhile, ?-tocotrienol treatment also resulted in the induction of JNK-signalling pathway and inhibition of JNK activity by a specific inhibitor (SP600125) was able to partially block the effect of ?-tocotrienol. Interestingly, ?-tocotrienol treatment led to suppression of mesenchymal markers and the restoration of E-cadherin and ?-catenin expression, which was associated with suppression of cell invasion capability. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed when cells were co-treated with ?-tocotrienol and Docetaxel. Our results suggested that the antiproliferative effect of ?-tocotrienol act through multiple-signalling pathways, and demonstrated for the first time the anti-invasion and chemosensitisation effect of ?-tocotrienol against PCa cells. PMID:19002171

Yap, W N; Chang, P N; Han, H Y; Lee, D T W; Ling, M T; Wong, Y C; Yap, Y L

2008-01-01

98

Multiple pathways for ultrafast transduction of light energy in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides  

PubMed Central

A pathway of electron transfer is described that operates in the wild-type reaction center (RC) of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The pathway does not involve the excited state of the special pair dimer of bacteriochlorophylls (P*), but instead is driven by the excited state of the monomeric bacteriochlorophyll (BA*) present in the active branch of pigments along which electron transfer occurs. Pump-probe experiments were performed at 77 K on membrane-bound RCs by using different excitation wavelengths, to investigate the formation of the charge separated state P+HA?. In experiments in which P or BA was selectively excited at 880 nm or 796 nm, respectively, the formation of P+HA? was associated with similar time constants of 1.5 ps and 1.7 ps. However, the spectral changes associated with the two time constants are very different. Global analysis of the transient spectra shows that a mixture of P+BA? and P* is formed in parallel from BA* on a subpicosecond time scale. In contrast, excitation of the inactive branch monomeric bacteriochlorophyll (BB) and the high exciton component of P (P+) resulted in electron transfer only after relaxation to P*. The multiple pathways for primary electron transfer in the bacterial RC are discussed with regard to the mechanism of charge separation in the RC of photosystem II from higher plants. PMID:10051593

van Brederode, Marion E.; van Mourik, Frank; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Jones, Michael R.; van Grondelle, Rienk

1999-01-01

99

Simultaneous reconstruction of multiple signaling pathways via the prize-collecting steiner forest problem.  

PubMed

Signaling and regulatory networks are essential for cells to control processes such as growth, differentiation, and response to stimuli. Although many "omic" data sources are available to probe signaling pathways, these data are typically sparse and noisy. Thus, it has been difficult to use these data to discover the cause of the diseases and to propose new therapeutic strategies. We overcome these problems and use "omic" data to reconstruct simultaneously multiple pathways that are altered in a particular condition by solving the prize-collecting Steiner forest problem. To evaluate this approach, we use the well-characterized yeast pheromone response. We then apply the method to human glioblastoma data, searching for a forest of trees, each of which is rooted in a different cell-surface receptor. This approach discovers both overlapping and independent signaling pathways that are enriched in functionally and clinically relevant proteins, which could provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Although the algorithm was not provided with any information about the phosphorylation status of receptors, it identifies a small set of clinically relevant receptors among hundreds present in the interactome. PMID:23383998

Tuncbag, Nurcan; Braunstein, Alfredo; Pagnani, Andrea; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Chayes, Jennifer; Borgs, Christian; Zecchina, Riccardo; Fraenkel, Ernest

2013-02-01

100

Multiple pathways for toluene degradation in Burkholderia sp. strain JS150.  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) sp. strain JS150 uses multiple pathways for the metabolism of catechols that result from degradation of aromatic compounds. This suggests that the strain also uses multiple upstream pathways for the initial hydroxylation of aromatic substrates. Two distinct DNA fragments that allowed Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c to grow with benzene as a sole carbon source were cloned from strain JS150. One of the recombinant plasmids containing the initial steps for the degradative pathway contained a 14-kb DNA insert and was designated pRO2016. We have previously shown that the DNA insert originated from a plasmid carried by strain JS150 and contained genes encoding a multicomponent toluene-2-monooxygenase (tbmABCDEF) as well as the cognate regulatory protein (tbmR) that controls expression of the 2-monooxygenase (G. R. Johnson and R. H. Olsen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3336-3346, 1995). Subsequently, we have identified an additional region on this DNA fragment that encodes toluene-4-monooxygenase activity. The toluene-4-monooxygenase activity was also regulated by the tbmR gene product. A second DNA fragment that allowed P. aeruginosa to grow with benzene was obtained as a 20-kb insert on a recombinant plasmid designated pRO2015. The DNA insert contained genes encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase activity but no toluene-2-monooxygenase activity. The pRO2015 insert originated from the chromosome of strain JS150, unlike the region cloned in pRO2016. Southern blots and restriction map comparisons showed that the genes for the individual 4-monooxygenases were distinct from one another. Thus, strain JS150 has been shown to have at least three toluene/benzene monooxygenases to initiate toluene metabolism in addition to the toluene dioxygenase reported previously by others. PMID:9327568

Johnson, G R; Olsen, R H

1997-01-01

101

49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section...SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Except as...

2012-10-01

102

49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section...SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

103

49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section...SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Except as...

2010-10-01

104

49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section...SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Except as...

2013-10-01

105

49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section...SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements...multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Except as...

2014-10-01

106

29 CFR 1926.1432 - Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1432 Multiple-crane/derrick lifts—supplemental...

2012-07-01

107

29 CFR 1926.1432 - Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1432 Multiple-crane/derrick lifts—supplemental...

2013-07-01

108

29 CFR 1926.1432 - Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1432 Multiple-crane/derrick lifts—supplemental...

2014-07-01

109

29 CFR 1926.1432 - Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple-crane/derrick lifts-supplemental requirements...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1432 Multiple-crane/derrick lifts—supplemental...

2011-07-01

110

Multiple modes of proepicardial cell migration require heartbeat  

PubMed Central

Background The outermost layer of the vertebrate heart, the epicardium, forms from a cluster of progenitor cells termed the proepicardium (PE). PE cells migrate onto the myocardium to give rise to the epicardium. Impaired epicardial development has been associated with defects in valve development, cardiomyocyte proliferation and alignment, cardiac conduction system maturation and adult heart regeneration. Zebrafish are an excellent model for studying cardiac development and regeneration; however, little is known about how the zebrafish epicardium forms. Results We report that PE migration occurs through multiple mechanisms and that the zebrafish epicardium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. Heterogeneity is first observed within the PE and persists through epicardium formation. Using in vivo imaging, histology and confocal microscopy, we show that PE cells migrate through a cellular bridge that forms between the pericardial mesothelium and the heart. We also observed the formation of PE aggregates on the pericardial surface, which were released into the pericardial cavity. It was previously reported that heartbeat-induced pericardiac fluid advections are necessary for PE cluster formation and subsequent epicardium development. We manipulated heartbeat genetically and pharmacologically and found that PE clusters clearly form in the absence of heartbeat. However, when heartbeat was inhibited the PE failed to migrate to the myocardium and the epicardium did not form. We isolated and cultured hearts with only a few epicardial progenitor cells and found a complete epicardial layer formed. However, pharmacologically inhibiting contraction in culture prevented epicardium formation. Furthermore, we isolated control and silent heart (sih) morpholino (MO) injected hearts prior to epicardium formation (60 hpf) and co-cultured these hearts with “donor” hearts that had an epicardium forming (108 hpf). Epicardial cells from donor hearts migrated on to control but not sih MO injected hearts. Conclusions Epicardial cells stem from a heterogeneous population of progenitors, suggesting that the progenitors in the PE have distinct identities. PE cells attach to the heart via a cellular bridge and free-floating cell clusters. Pericardiac fluid advections are not necessary for the development of the PE cluster, however heartbeat is required for epicardium formation. Epicardium formation can occur in culture without normal hydrodynamic and hemodynamic forces, but not without contraction. PMID:24885804

2014-01-01

111

Multiple genetic pathways regulate replicative senescence in telomerase-deficient yeast.  

PubMed

Most human tissues express low levels of telomerase and undergo telomere shortening and eventual senescence; the resulting limitation on tissue renewal can lead to a wide range of age-dependent pathophysiologies. Increasing evidence indicates that the decline in cell division capacity in cells that lack telomerase can be influenced by numerous genetic factors. Here, we use telomerase-defective strains of budding yeast to probe whether replicative senescence can be attenuated or accelerated by defects in factors previously implicated in handling of DNA termini. We show that the MRX (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2) complex, as well as negative (Rif2) and positive (Tel1) regulators of this complex, comprise a single pathway that promotes replicative senescence, in a manner that recapitulates how these proteins modulate resection of DNA ends. In contrast, the Rad51 recombinase, which acts downstream of the MRX complex in double-strand break (DSB) repair, regulates replicative senescence through a separate pathway operating in opposition to the MRX-Tel1-Rif2 pathway. Moreover, defects in several additional proteins implicated in DSB repair (Rif1 and Sae2) confer only transient effects during early or late stages of replicative senescence, respectively, further suggesting that a simple analogy between DSBs and eroding telomeres is incomplete. These results indicate that the replicative capacity of telomerase-defective yeast is controlled by a network comprised of multiple pathways. It is likely that telomere shortening in telomerase-depleted human cells is similarly under a complex pattern of genetic control; mechanistic understanding of this process should provide crucial information regarding how human tissues age in response to telomere erosion. PMID:23672410

Ballew, Bari J; Lundblad, Victoria

2013-08-01

112

Multiple genetic pathways regulate replicative senescence in telomerase-deficient yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Most human tissues express low levels of telomerase and undergo telomere shortening and eventual senescence; the resulting limitation on tissue renewal can lead to a wide range of age-dependent pathophysiologies. Increasing evidence indicates that the decline in cell division capacity in cells that lack telomerase can be influenced by numerous genetic factors. Here, we use telomerase-defective strains of budding yeast to probe whether replicative senescence can be attenuated or accelerated by defects in factors previously implicated in handling of DNA termini. We show that the MRX (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2) complex, as well as negative (Rif2) and positive (Tel1) regulators of this complex, comprise a single pathway that promotes replicative senescence, in a manner that recapitulates how these proteins modulate resection of DNA ends. In contrast, the Rad51 recombinase, which acts downstream of the MRX complex in double-strand break (DSB) repair, regulates replicative senescence through a separate pathway operating in opposition to the MRX-Tel1-Rif2 pathway. Moreover, defects in several additional proteins implicated in DSB repair (Rif1 and Sae2) confer only transient effects during early or late stages of replicative senescence, respectively, further suggesting that a simple analogy between DSBs and eroding telomeres is incomplete. These results indicate that the replicative capacity of telomerase-defective yeast is controlled by a network comprised of multiple pathways. It is likely that telomere shortening in telomerase-depleted human cells is similarly under a complex pattern of genetic control; mechanistic understanding of this process should provide crucial information regarding how human tissues age in response to telomere erosion. PMID:23672410

Ballew, Bari J.; Lundblad, Victoria

2013-01-01

113

Multiple Accessory Pathways in the Young: The Impact of Structural Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of multiple accessory pathways (multAP) is described in structural heart disease (SHD) such as Ebstein’s anomaly and cardiomyopathies. Structural defects can impact the tolerability of tachyarrhythmia and can complicate both medical management and ablation. In a large cohort of pediatric patients with and without SHD undergoing invasive electrophysiology study, we examined the prevalence of multAP and the effect of both multAP and SHD on ablation outcomes. Methods Accessory pathway number and location, presence of SHD, ablation success, and recurrence were analyzed in consecutive patients from our center over a 16 year period. Results In 1088 patients, 1228 pathways (36% retrograde only) were mapped to the right side (TV) in 18%, septum(S) in 39%, and left side (MV) in 43%. MultAP were present in 111 pts (10%), involving 250 distinct pathways. SHD tripled the risk of multAP (26% SHD vs 8% no SHD, p<0.001). Multivariable adjusted risk factors for multAP included Ebstein’s(OR 8.7[4.4–17.5],p<0.001) and cardiomyopathy (OR13.3[5.1–34.5], p<0.001). Of 1306 ablation attempts, 94% were acutely successful with an 8% recurrence rate. Ablation success was affected by SHD (85% vs 95% for no SHD, p<0.01) but not by multAP (91% vs. 94% for single, p= 0.24). Recurrence rate was higher for SHD (17% SHD vs 8% no SHD, p<0.05) and multAP (19% multAP vs. 8% single, p<0.001). Conclusions MultAP are found in 10% of pediatric patients, and are more common in SHD compared to those with normal hearts. Both the presence of multAP and SHD negatively influence ablation outcomes. PMID:23237138

Zachariah, Justin P; Walsh, Edward P; Triedman, John K; Berul, Charles I; Cecchin, Frank; Alexander, Mark E; Bevilacqua, Laura M

2012-01-01

114

Localised JAK/STAT Pathway Activation Is Required for Drosophila Wing Hinge Development  

PubMed Central

Extensive morphogenetic remodelling takes place during metamorphosis from a larval to an adult insect body plan. These changes are particularly intricate in the generation of the dipteran wing hinge, a complex structure that is derived from an apparently simple region of the wing imaginal disc. Using the characterisation of original outstretched alleles of the unpaired locus as a starting point, we demonstrate the role of JAK/STAT pathway signalling in the process of wing hinge development. We show that differences in JAK/STAT signalling within the proximal most of three lateral folds present in the wing imaginal disc is required for fold morphology and the subsequent differentiation of the first and second auxiliary sclerites as well as the posterior notal wing process. Changes in these domains are consistent with the established fate map of the wing disc. We show that outstretched wing posture phenotypes arise from the loss of a region of Unpaired expression in the proximal wing fold and demonstrate that this results in a decrease in JAK/STAT pathway activity. Finally we show that reduction of JAK/STAT pathway activity within the proximal wing fold is sufficient to phenocopy the outstretched phenotype. Taken together, we suggest that localised Unpaired expression and hence JAK/STAT pathway activity, is required for the morphogenesis of the adult wing hinge, providing new insights into the link between signal transduction pathways, patterning and development. PMID:23741461

Johnstone, Kirsty; Wells, Richard E.; Strutt, David; Zeidler, Martin P.

2013-01-01

115

Multiple small RNA pathways regulate the silencing of repeated and foreign genes in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. A deep-sequencing map of the small RNA response to repeated transgenes introduced to Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that specific segments are targeted by siRNAs. Silencing of the foreign gene segments depends on an antiviral response that involves changes in active and silent chromatin modifications and altered levels of antisense siRNAs. Distinct Argonaute proteins target foreign genes for silencing or protection against silencing. We used a repeated transgene in a genome-wide screen to identify gene disruptions that enhance silencing of foreign genetic elements and identified 69 genes. These genes cluster in four groups based on overlapping sets of coexpressed genes, including a group of germline-expressed genes that are likely coregulated by the E2F transcription factor. Many of the gene inactivations enhance exogenous RNAi. About half of the 69 genes have roles in endogenous RNAi pathways that regulate diverse processes, including silencing of duplicated genes and transposons and chromosome segregation. Of these newly identified genes, several are required for siRNA biogenesis or stability in the oocyte-specific ERGO-1 pathway, including eri-12, encoding an interactor of the RNAi-defective protein RDE-10, and ntl-9/CNOT9, one of several CCR4/NOT complex genes that we identified. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is required specifically for primary siRNA biogenesis or stability in the sperm-specific ALG-3/4 endogenous RNAi pathway. PMID:24352423

Fischer, Sylvia E.J.; Pan, Qi; Breen, Peter C.; Qi, Yan; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Ruvkun, Gary

2013-01-01

116

Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development  

PubMed Central

Background The accessibility of the developing zebrafish pharyngeal dentition makes it an advantageous system in which to study many aspects of tooth development from early initiation to late morphogenesis. In mammals, hedgehog signaling is known to be essential for multiple stages of odontogenesis; however, potential roles for the pathway during initiation of tooth development or in later morphogenesis are incompletely understood. Results We have identified mRNA expression of the hedgehog ligands shha and the receptors ptc1 and ptc2 during zebrafish pharyngeal tooth development. We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development. Supporting this idea, we found that morphological and gene expression evidence of tooth initiation is eliminated in shha mutant embryos, and that morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of shha, but not shhb, function prevents mature tooth formation. Hedgehog pathway inhibition with the antagonist compound cyclopamine affected tooth formation at each stage in which we applied it: arresting development at early stages and disrupting mature tooth morphology when applied later. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required continuously during odontogenesis. In contrast, over-expression of shha had no effect on the developing dentition, possibly because shha is normally extensively expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal region. Conclusion We have identified previously unknown requirements for hedgehog signaling for early tooth initiation and later morphogenesis. The similarity of our results with data from mouse and other vertebrates suggests that despite gene duplication and changes in the location of where teeth form, the roles of hedgehog signaling in tooth development have been largely conserved during evolution. PMID:21118524

2010-01-01

117

The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development. Previously, we showed that the zygotic Toll protein is necessary for normal muscle development; in the absence of zygotic Toll, close to 50% of hemisegments have muscle patterning defects consisting of missing, duplicated and misinserted muscle fibers (Halfon, M.S., Hashimoto, C., and Keshishian, H., Dev. Biol. 169, 151-167, 1995). We have now also analyzed the requirements for easter, spatzle, tube, and pelle, all of which function in the Toll-mediated dorsal-ventral patterning pathway. We find that spatzle, tube, and pelle, but not easter, are necessary for muscle development. Mutations in these genes give a phenotype identical to that seen in Toll mutants, suggesting that elements of the same pathway used for Toll signaling in dorsal-ventral development are used during muscle development. By expressing the Toll cDNA under the control of distinct Toll enhancer elements in Toll mutant flies, we have examined the spatial requirements for Toll expression during muscle development. Expression of Toll in a subset of epidermal cells that includes the epidermal muscle attachment cells, but not Toll expression in the musculature, is necessary for proper muscle development. Our results suggest that signals received by the epidermis early during muscle development are an important part of the muscle patterning process.

Halfon, M. S.; Keshishian, H.

1998-01-01

118

Independent sources of condition dependency and multiple pathways determine a composite trait: lessons from carotenoid-based plumage colouration.  

PubMed

Many colour ornaments are composite traits consisting of at least four components, which themselves may be more complex, determined by independent evolutionary pathways, and potentially being under different environmental control. To date, little evidence exists that several different components of colour elaboration are condition dependent and no direct evidence exists that different ornamental components are affected by different sources of variation. For example, in carotenoid-based plumage colouration, one of the best-known condition-dependent ornaments, colour elaboration stems from both condition-dependent pigment concentration and structural components. Some environmental flexibility of these components has been suggested, but specifically which and how they are affected remains unknown. Here, we tested whether multiple colour components may be condition dependent, by using a comprehensive 3 × 2 experimental design, in which we carotenoid supplemented and immune challenged great tit nestlings (Parus major) and quantified effects on different components of colouration. Plumage colouration was affected by an interaction between carotenoid availability and immune challenge. Path analyses showed that carotenoid supplementation increased plumage saturation via feather carotenoid concentration and via mechanisms unrelated to carotenoid deposition, while immune challenge affected feather length, but not carotenoid concentration. Thus, independent condition-dependent pathways, affected by different sources of variation, determine colour elaboration. This provides opportunities for the evolution of multiple signals within components of ornamental traits. This finding indicates that the selective forces shaping the evolution of different components of a composite trait and the trait's signal content may be more complex than believed so far, and that holistic approaches are required for drawing comprehensive evolutionary conclusions. PMID:23331336

Romero-Diaz, C; Richner, H; Granado-Lorencio, F; Tschirren, B; Fitze, P S

2013-03-01

119

Multiple pathways to identification: exploring the multidimensionality of academic identity formation in ethnic minority males.  

PubMed

Empirical trends denote the academic underachievement of ethnic minority males across various academic domains. Identity-based explanations for this persistent phenomenon describe ethnic minority males as disidentified with academics, alienated, and oppositional. The present work interrogates these theoretical explanations and empirically substantiates a multidimensional lens for discussing academic identity formation within 330 African American and Latino early-adolescent males. Both hierarchical and iterative person-centered methods were utilized and reveal 5 distinct profiles derived from 6 dimensions of academic identity. These profiles predict self-reported classroom grades, mastery orientation, and self-handicapping in meaningful and varied ways. The results demonstrate multiple pathways to motivation and achievement, challenging previous oversimplified stereotypes of marginalized males. This exploratory study triangulates unique interpersonal and intrapersonal attributes for promoting healthy identity development and academic achievement among ethnic minority adolescent males. PMID:24447039

Matthews, Jamaal S

2014-04-01

120

Common genetic variants in the plasminogen activation pathway are not associated with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) aetiology. Previously, we identified differential gene expression of plasminogen activation cascade genes in MS patients. Based on our gene expression results, we wanted to identify whether polymorphisms in the genes associated with the plasminogen pathway could predict MS risk. We genotyped 1153 trio families, 727 MS cases and 604 healthy controls for 17 polymorphisms in MMP9, plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), PLAU receptor (PLAUR) and serpin peptidase inhibitor/clade 2/member B2 (SERPINB2) genes. No associations were found between the 17 polymorphisms and MS. Also, gene expression levels were analysed according to genotype: no associations were observed. In conclusion despite the consistent evidence for the role of MMP9 and the plasminogen activation cascade in MS, we found no associations between genotype nor gene expression. This suggested there are other potentially modifiable factors influencing gene expression in MS. PMID:23897640

Cox, Mathew B; Bowden, Nikola A; Scott, Rodney J; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette

2014-04-01

121

The Afferent Visual Pathway: Designing a Structural-Functional Paradigm of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) believed to arise from a dysfunctional immune-mediated response in a genetically susceptible host. The actual cause of MS is not known, and there is ongoing debate about whether this CNS disorder is predominantly an inflammatory versus a degenerative condition. The afferent visual pathway (AVP) is frequently involved in MS, such that one in every five individuals affected presents with acute optic neuritis (ON). As a functionally eloquent system, the AVP is amenable to interrogation with highly reliable and reproducible tests that can be used to define a structural-functional paradigm of CNS injury. The AVP has numerous unique advantages as a clinical model of MS. In this review, the parameters and merits of the AVP model are highlighted. Moreover, the roles the AVP model may play in elucidating mechanisms of brain injury and repair in MS are described. PMID:24288622

Costello, Fiona

2013-01-01

122

Integrity of the Anterior Visual Pathway and Its Association with Ambulatory Performance in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV) represent markers of neuroaxonal degeneration within the anterior visual pathway that might correlate with ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective. This study examined the associations between RNFLT and TMV with ambulatory parameters in MS. Methods. Fifty-eight MS patients underwent a neurological examination for generation of an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score and measurement of RNFLT and TMV using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Participants completed the 6-minute walk (6MW) and the timed 25-foot walk (T25FW). The associations were examined using generalized estimating equation models that accounted for within-patient, inter-eye correlations, and controlled for disease duration, EDSS score, and age. Results. RNFLT was not significantly associated with 6MW (P = 0.99) or T25FW (P = 0.57). TMV was significantly associated with 6MW (P = 0.023) and T25FW (P = 0.005). The coefficients indicated that unit differences in 6MW (100 feet) and T25FW (1 second) were associated with 0.040 and ?0.048 unit differences in TMV (mm3), respectively. Conclusion. Integrity of the anterior visual pathway, particularly TMV, might represent a noninvasive measure of neuroaxonal degeneration that is correlated with ambulatory function in MS. PMID:23864950

Sandroff, Brian M.; Pula, John H.; Motl, Robert W.

2013-01-01

123

Multiple Pudendal Sensory Pathways Reflexly Modulate Bladder and Urethral Activity in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose Electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents can evoke reflex bladder contractions with relaxation of the external urethral sphincter in cats. This voiding reflex is mediated by pudendal sensory fibers innervating the penile and prostatic urethra that engage either a spinal or spinobulbospinal micturition pathway, respectively. However, the clinical translation of this potential therapy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited by the lack of evidence demonstrating analogous reflex mechanisms in humans. Materials and Methods We investigated the presence of excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflexes in seven individuals with chronic SCI. The isovolumetric bladder pressure and perineal electromyogram (EMG) were recorded in response to intraurethral (IU) electrical stimulation at varying amplitudes and frequencies. Results Selective electrical stimulation of the proximal and distal segments of the urethra evoked sustained reflex bladder contractions in different subsets of participants: 24.9 ± 13.9 cmH2O (n = 3) and 23.3 ± 16.1 cmH2O (n = 3), respectively. In contrast, the corresponding reflex perineal EMG exhibited a differential activation pattern between proximal and distal IU stimulation (normalized EMG, p < 0.05): 1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1, respectively. Conclusions This study presents the first clinical evidence of two independent excitatory pudendal-to-bladder reflex pathways that can, in turn, differentially modulate efferent pudendal output. Both reflex mechanisms involve a complex interaction of multiple sensory inputs and may provide a neural substrate for restoring micturition following SCI. PMID:21168860

Yoo, Paul B.; Horvath, Eric E.; Amundsen, Cindy L.; Webster, George D.; Grill, Warren M.

2011-01-01

124

Cell cycle molecules define a pathway required for neuron death in development and disease.  

PubMed

We review here evidence defining a molecular pathway that includes cell cycle-related molecules and that appears to play a required role in neuron death during normal development as well as in disease and trauma. The pathway starts with inappropriate activation of cyclin dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) in neurons which leads to hyper-phosphorylation of the pRb family member p130. This in turn results in dissociation of p130 and its associated chromatin modifiers Suv39H1 and HDAC1 from the transcription factor E2F4. Dissociation of this complex results in de-repression of genes with E2F binding sites including those encoding the transcription factors B- and C-Myb. Once elevated in neurons, B- and C-Myb proteins bind to the promoter for the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim and promote its induction. Bim then interacts with the core cellular apoptotic machinery, leading to caspase activation and apoptotic death. This pathway is supported by a variety of observations and experimental findings that implicate it as a required element for neuron loss in development and in many nervous system traumas and disorders. The components of this pathway appear to represent potential therapeutic targets for prevention of disease-associated neuron death. PMID:17229557

Greene, Lloyd A; Liu, David X; Troy, Carol M; Biswas, Subhas C

2007-04-01

125

Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness  

PubMed Central

This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

2013-01-01

126

Beclin 1 Is Required for Neuron Viability and Regulates Endosome Pathways via the UVRAG-VPS34 Complex.  

PubMed

Deficiency of autophagy protein beclin 1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Previous studies showed that Beclin 1 coordinates the assembly of multiple VPS34 complexes whose distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase III (PI3K-III) lipid kinase activities regulate autophagy at different steps. Recent evidence suggests a function of beclin 1 in regulating multiple VPS34-mediated trafficking pathways beyond autophagy; however, the precise role of beclin 1 in autophagy-independent cellular functions remains poorly understood. Herein we report that beclin 1 regulates endocytosis, in addition to autophagy, and is required for neuron viability in vivo. We find that neuronal beclin 1 associates with endosomes and regulates EEA1/early endosome localization and late endosome formation. Beclin 1 maintains proper cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) distribution and total levels, and loss of beclin 1 causes a disruption of active Rab5 GTPase-associated endosome formation and impairment of endosome maturation, likely due to a failure of Rab5 to recruit VPS34. Furthermore, we find that Beclin 1 deficiency causes complete loss of the UVRAG-VPS34 complex and associated lipid kinase activity. Interestingly, beclin 1 deficiency impairs p40phox-linked endosome formation, which is rescued by overexpressed UVRAG or beclin 1, but not by a coiled-coil domain-truncated beclin 1 (a UVRAG-binding mutant), Atg14L or RUBICON. Thus, our study reveals the essential role for beclin 1 in neuron survival involving multiple membrane trafficking pathways including endocytosis and autophagy, and suggests that the UVRAG-beclin 1 interaction underlies beclin 1's function in endocytosis. PMID:25275521

McKnight, Nicole C; Zhong, Yun; Wold, Mitchell S; Gong, Shiaoching; Phillips, Greg R; Dou, Zhixun; Zhao, Yanxiang; Heintz, Nathaniel; Zong, Wei-Xing; Yue, Zhenyu

2014-10-01

127

Beclin 1 Is Required for Neuron Viability and Regulates Endosome Pathways via the UVRAG-VPS34 Complex  

PubMed Central

Deficiency of autophagy protein beclin 1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Previous studies showed that Beclin 1 coordinates the assembly of multiple VPS34 complexes whose distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase III (PI3K-III) lipid kinase activities regulate autophagy at different steps. Recent evidence suggests a function of beclin 1 in regulating multiple VPS34-mediated trafficking pathways beyond autophagy; however, the precise role of beclin 1 in autophagy-independent cellular functions remains poorly understood. Herein we report that beclin 1 regulates endocytosis, in addition to autophagy, and is required for neuron viability in vivo. We find that neuronal beclin 1 associates with endosomes and regulates EEA1/early endosome localization and late endosome formation. Beclin 1 maintains proper cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) distribution and total levels, and loss of beclin 1 causes a disruption of active Rab5 GTPase-associated endosome formation and impairment of endosome maturation, likely due to a failure of Rab5 to recruit VPS34. Furthermore, we find that Beclin 1 deficiency causes complete loss of the UVRAG-VPS34 complex and associated lipid kinase activity. Interestingly, beclin 1 deficiency impairs p40phox-linked endosome formation, which is rescued by overexpressed UVRAG or beclin 1, but not by a coiled-coil domain-truncated beclin 1 (a UVRAG-binding mutant), Atg14L or RUBICON. Thus, our study reveals the essential role for beclin 1 in neuron survival involving multiple membrane trafficking pathways including endocytosis and autophagy, and suggests that the UVRAG-beclin 1 interaction underlies beclin 1's function in endocytosis. PMID:25275521

Wold, Mitchell S.; Gong, Shiaoching; Phillips, Greg R.; Dou, Zhixun; Zhao, Yanxiang; Heintz, Nathaniel; Zong, Wei-Xing; Yue, Zhenyu

2014-01-01

128

Authorisation using Attributes from Multiple Authorities A Study of Requirements  

E-print Network

, USA Abstract This paper presents the results of a survey of requirements for attribute aggregation to be retrieved from anywhere, in practice the set of attributes will usually be provided by a single entity a single IdP, which limits the technology to receiving just one set of user attributes. This is one

Kent, University of

129

Hyperoxia activates the ATR-Chk1 pathway and phosphorylates p53 at multiple sites.  

PubMed

Hyperoxia has been shown to cause DNA damage resulting in growth arrest of cells in p53-dependent, as well as p53-independent, pathways. Although H2O2 and other peroxides have been shown to induce ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent p53 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage, the signal transduction mechanisms in response to hyperoxia are currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that hyperoxia phosphorylates the Ser15 residue of p53 independently of ATM. Hyperoxia phosphorylated p53 (Ser15) in DNA-dependent protein kinase null (DNA-PK-/-) cells, indicating that it may not depend on DNA-PK for phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15). We show that Ser37 and Ser392 residues of p53 are also phosphorylated in an ATM-independent manner in hyperoxia. In contrast, H2O2 did not phosphorylate Ser37 in either ATM+/+ or ATM-/- cells. Furthermore, H2O2 failed to phosphorylate Ser15 in ATM-/- cells. Additionally, overexpression of kinase-inactive ATM-and-Rad3-related (ATR) in HEK293T cells diminished Ser15, Ser37, and Ser392 phosphorylation compared with vector-only transfected cells. In contrast, wild-type ATR overexpression did not diminish Ser15, Ser37, or Ser392 phosphorylation. We also show that checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is phosphorylated on Ser345 in response to hyperoxia, which could be inhibited by caffeine or wortmannin, potent inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases. Hyperoxia also phosphorylated Chk1 in ATM+/+ as well as in ATM-/- cells, demonstrating an ATM-independent mechanism in Chk1 phosphorylation. Together, our data suggest that hyperoxia activates the ATR-Chk1 pathway and phosphorylates p53 at multiple sites in an ATM-independent manner, which is different from other forms of oxidative stress such as H2O2 or UV light. PMID:12959929

Das, Kumuda C; Dashnamoorthy, Ravi

2004-01-01

130

Potential role of multiple carbon fixation pathways during lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum  

PubMed Central

Background Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a unicellular diatom in the class Bacillariophyceae. The full genome has been sequenced (<30?Mb), and approximately 20 to 30% triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation on a dry cell basis has been reported under different growth conditions. To elucidate P. tricornutum gene expression profiles during nutrient-deprivation and lipid-accumulation, cell cultures were grown with a nitrate to phosphate ratio of 20:1 (N:P) and whole-genome transcripts were monitored over time via RNA-sequence determination. Results The specific Nile Red (NR) fluorescence (NR fluorescence per cell) increased over time; however, the increase in NR fluorescence was initiated before external nitrate was completely exhausted. Exogenous phosphate was depleted before nitrate, and these results indicated that the depletion of exogenous phosphate might be an early trigger for lipid accumulation that is magnified upon nitrate depletion. As expected, many of the genes associated with nitrate and phosphate utilization were up-expressed. The diatom-specific cyclins cyc7 and cyc10 were down-expressed during the nutrient-deplete state, and cyclin B1 was up-expressed during lipid-accumulation after growth cessation. While many of the genes associated with the C3 pathway for photosynthetic carbon reduction were not significantly altered, genes involved in a putative C4 pathway for photosynthetic carbon assimilation were up-expressed as the cells depleted nitrate, phosphate, and exogenous dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels. P. tricornutum has multiple, putative carbonic anhydrases, but only two were significantly up-expressed (2-fold and 4-fold) at the last time point when exogenous DIC levels had increased after the cessation of growth. Alternative pathways that could utilize HCO3- were also suggested by the gene expression profiles (e.g., putative propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylases). Conclusions The results indicate that P. tricornutum continued carbon dioxide reduction when population growth was arrested and different carbon-concentrating mechanisms were used dependent upon exogenous DIC levels. Based upon overall low gene expression levels for fatty acid synthesis, the results also suggest that the build-up of precursors to the acetyl-CoA carboxylases may play a more significant role in TAG synthesis rather than the actual enzyme levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylases per se. The presented insights into the types and timing of cellular responses to inorganic carbon will help maximize photoautotrophic carbon flow to lipid accumulation. PMID:22672912

2012-01-01

131

Activation of Diverse Signaling Pathways by Ex-Vivo Delivery of Multiple Cytokines for Myocardial Repair  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that simultaneous transgenic overexpression of a select quartet of growth factors activates diverse signaling pathways for mobilization and participation of various stem/progenitor cells for cardiogenesis in the infarcted heart. Human insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1a), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plasmids were synthesized and transfected into skeletal myoblasts (SM) from young male wild-type or transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Overexpression of growth factors in transfected SM (TransSM) was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and fluorescence immunostaining. Using our custom-made growth factor array and western blotting, multiple angiogenic and prosurvival factors were detected in TransSM, including secreted frizzled related protein-1,2,4,5, matrix metalloproteinases-3 and 9, connexin-43, netrin-1, Nos-2, Wnt-3, Akt, MAPK42/44, Stat3, nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1?), and protein kinase C (PKC). The conditioned medium (CM) from TransSM was cytoprotective for cardiomyocytes following H2O2 treatment [P<0.01 vs. CM from native SM (NatSM)], promoted a higher transwell migration of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (223.3±1.8, P<0.01) and in vitro tube formation (47.8±1.9, P<0.01). Intramyocardial transplantation of 1.5×106 TransSM (group-3) in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction induced extensive mobilization of cMet+, ckit+, ckit+/GATA4+, CXCR4+, CD44+, CD31+, and CD59+ cells into the infarcted heart on day 7 and improved integration of TransSM in the heart compared to NatSM (group 2) (P<0.05). Extensive neomyogenesis and angiogenesis in group-3 (P<0.01 vs. group-2), with resultant attenuation of infarct size (P<0.01 vs. group-2) and improvement in global heart function (P<0.01 vs. group-2) was observed at 8 weeks. In conclusion, simultaneous activation of diverse signaling pathways by overexpression of multiple growth factors caused massive mobilization and homing of stem/progenitor cells from peripheral circulation, the bone marrow, and the heart for accelerated repair of the infarcted myocardium. PMID:22873203

Konoplyannikov, Mikhail; Haider, Khawaja Husnain; Lai, Vien Khach; Ahmed, Rafeeq P.H.; Jiang, Shujia

2013-01-01

132

Oxygen and Hydroxyl Species Induce Multiple Reaction Pathways for the Partial Oxidation of Allyl Alcohol on Gold  

E-print Network

hazardous and expensive metal oxides as stoichiometric reactants. A "green" alternative for carrying outOxygen and Hydroxyl Species Induce Multiple Reaction Pathways for the Partial Oxidation of Allyl for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology, Texas Materials Institute, and Center for Electrochemistry

Henkelman, Graeme

133

The Major Cellular Sterol Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Andes Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection. PMID:24516383

Riblett, Amber M.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D.; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W.; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

2014-01-01

134

Mycophenolic acid inhibits migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells via multiple molecular pathways.  

PubMed

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the metabolized product and active element of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) that has been widely used for the prevention of acute graft rejection. MPA potently inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) that is up-regulated in many tumors and MPA is known to inhibit cancer cell proliferation as well as fibroblast and endothelial cell migration. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time MPA's antimigratory and anti-invasion abilities of MPA-sensitive AGS (gastric cancer) cells. Genome-wide expression analyses using Illumina whole genome microarrays identified 50 genes with ?2 fold changes and 15 genes with > 4 fold alterations and multiple molecular pathways implicated in cell migration. Real-time RT-PCR analyses of selected genes also confirmed the expression differences. Furthermore, targeted proteomic analyses identified several proteins altered by MPA treatment. Our results indicate that MPA modulates gastric cancer cell migration through down-regulation of a large number of genes (PRKCA, DOCK1, INF2, HSPA5, LRP8 and PDGFRA) and proteins (PRKCA, AKT, SRC, CD147 and MMP1) with promigratory functions as well as up-regulation of a number of genes with antimigratory functions (ATF3, SMAD3, CITED2 and CEAMCAM1). However, a few genes that may promote migration (CYR61 and NOS3) were up-regulated. Therefore, MPA's overall antimigratory role on cancer cells reflects a balance between promigratory and antimigratory signals influenced by MPA treatment. PMID:24260584

Dun, Boying; Sharma, Ashok; Teng, Yong; Liu, Haitao; Purohit, Sharad; Xu, Heng; Zeng, Lingwen; She, Jin-Xiong

2013-01-01

135

TNFR1 and TNFR2 regulate the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in myeloma cells by multiple mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The huge majority of myeloma cell lines express TNFR2 while a substantial subset of them failed to show TNFR1 expression. Stimulation of TNFR1 in the TNFR1-expressing subset of MM cell lines had no or only a very mild effect on cellular viability. Surprisingly, however, TNF stimulation enhanced cell death induction by CD95L and attenuated the apoptotic effect of TRAIL. The contrasting regulation of TRAIL- and CD95L-induced cell death by TNF could be traced back to the concomitant NF?B-mediated upregulation of CD95 and the antiapoptotic FLIP protein. It appeared that CD95 induction, due to its strength, overcompensated a rather moderate upregulation of FLIP so that the net effect of TNF-induced NF?B activation in the context of CD95 signaling is pro-apoptotic. TRAIL-induced cell death, however, was antagonized in response to TNF because in this context only the induction of FLIP is relevant. Stimulation of TNFR2 in myeloma cells leads to TRAF2 depletion. In line with this, we observed cell death induction in TNFR1-TNFR2-costimulated JJN3 cells. Our studies revealed that the TNF-TNF receptor system adjusts the responsiveness of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in myeloma cells by multiple mechanisms that generate a highly context-dependent net effect on myeloma cell survival. PMID:21850048

Rauert, H; Stuhmer, T; Bargou, R; Wajant, H; Siegmund, D

2011-01-01

136

24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.  

...General Requirements § 1710.15 Regulatory exemption—multiple...the contract pursuant to 1710.15(b)(5)(i)). Risk...requirements of 24 CFR 1710.15. I further affirm that the...requirements in the particular case is not in the public...

2014-04-01

137

Brg1 governs distinct pathways to direct multiple aspects of mammalian neural crest cell development  

PubMed Central

Development of the cerebral vessels, pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs). and cardiac outflow tract (OFT) requires multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs) that migrate from the neural tube to target tissue destinations. Little is known about how mammalian NCC development is orchestrated by gene programming at the chromatin level, however. Here we show that Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), an ATPase subunit of the Brg1/Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is required in NCCs to direct cardiovascular development. Mouse embryos lacking Brg1 in NCCs display immature cerebral vessels, aberrant PAA patterning, and shortened OFT. Brg1 suppresses an apoptosis factor, Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (Ask1), and a cell cycle inhibitor, p21cip1, to inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation of NCCs, thereby maintaining a multipotent cell reservoir at the neural crest. Brg1 also supports Myosin heavy chain 11 (Myh11) expression to allow NCCs to develop into mature vascular smooth muscle cells of cerebral vessels. Within NCCs, Brg1 partners with chromatin remodeler Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (Chd7) on the PlexinA2 promoter to activate PlexinA2, which encodes a receptor for semaphorin to guide NCCs into the OFT. Our findings reveal an important role for Brg1 and its downstream pathways in the survival, differentiation, and migration of the multipotent NCCs critical for mammalian cardiovascular development. PMID:23319608

Li, Wei; Xiong, Yiqin; Shang, Ching; Twu, Karen Y.; Hang, Calvin T.; Yang, Jin; Han, Pei; Lin, Chieh-Yu; Lin, Chien-Jung; Tsai, Feng-Chiao; Stankunas, Kryn; Meyer, Tobias; Bernstein, Daniel; Pan, Minggui; Chang, Ching-Pin

2013-01-01

138

Integrating multiple fuzzy expert systems under restricting requirements Integrace mnohonásobných fuzzy expertních systém? za omezujících podmínek  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple, different and specific expertises are often needed in making YES-or-NO (YES\\/NO) decisions for treating a variety of business, economic, and agricultural decision problems. This is due to the nature of such problems in which decisions are influenced by multiple factors, and accordingly multiple corresponding expertises are required. Fuzzy expert systems (FESs) are widely used to model expertise due

S. ALY; I. VRANA

139

A Novel miRNA Processing Pathway Independent of Dicer Requires Argonaute2 Catalytic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dicer is a central enzyme in microRNA (miRNA) processing. We identified a Dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis pathway that uses Argonaute2 (Ago2) slicer catalytic activity. In contrast to other miRNAs, miR-451 levels were refractory to dicer loss of function but were reduced in MZago2 (maternal-zygotic) mutants. We found that pre-miR-451 processing requires Ago2 catalytic activity in vivo. MZago2 mutants showed delayed erythropoiesis

Daniel Cifuentes; Huiling Xue; David W. Taylor; Heather Patnode; Yuichiro Mishima; Sihem Cheloufi; Enbo Ma; Shrikant Mane; Gregory J. Hannon; Nathan D. Lawson; Scot A. Wolfe; Antonio J. Giraldez

2010-01-01

140

Efficient Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Replication Requires Cellular ATR Pathway Proteins  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus of the host cell and is known to interact with several components of the cellular DNA-damage-signaling machinery. We have previously reported that the DNA damage response kinase, ATR, is specifically inactivated in HSV-1-infected cells. On the other hand, we have also shown that ATR and its scaffolding protein, ATRIP, are recruited to viral replication compartments, where they play beneficial roles during HSV-1 replication. In order to better understand this apparent discrepancy, we tested the hypothesis that some of the components of the ATR pathway may exert an antiviral effect on infection. In fact, we learned that all 10 of the canonical ATR pathway proteins are stable in HSV-infected cells and are recruited to viral replication compartments; furthermore, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown shows that several, including ATRIP, RPA70, TopBP1, Claspin, and CINP, are required for efficient HSV-1 replication. We also determined that activation of the ATR kinase prior to infection did not affect virus yield but did result in reduced levels of recombination between coinfecting viruses. Together, these data suggest that ATR pathway proteins are not antiviral per se but that activation of ATR signaling may have negative consequences during viral replication, such as inhibiting recombination. PMID:23097436

Mohni, Kareem N.; Dee, Alexander R.; Smith, Samantha; Schumacher, April J.

2013-01-01

141

Tumor Suppression by PTEN Requires the Activation of the PKR-eIF2? Phosphorylation Pathway  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of protein synthesis by phosphorylation of the a subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) at Ser51 occurs as a result of the activation of a family of kinases in response to various forms of stress. Although some consequences of eIF2? phosphorylation are cytoprotective, phosphorylation of eIF2? by RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is largely proapoptotic and tumor suppressing. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor protein that is mutated or deleted in various human cancers, with functions that are mediated through phosphatase-dependent and -independent pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the eIF2? phosphorylation pathway is downstream of PTEN. Inactivation of PTEN in human melanoma cells reduced eIF2? phosphorylation, whereas reconstitution of PTEN-null human glioblastoma or prostate cancer cells with either wild-type PTEN or phosphatase-defective mutants of PTEN induced PKR activity and eIF2? phosphorylation. The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of PTEN were compromised in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lacked PKR or contained a phosphorylation-defective variant of eIF2?. Induction of the pathway leading to phosphorylation of eIF2? required an intact PDZ-binding motif in PTEN. These findings establish a link between tumor suppression by PTEN and inhibition of protein synthesis that is independent of PTEN's effects on phosphoinositide 3?-kinase signaling. PMID:20029030

Mounir, Zineb; Krishnamoorthy, Jothi Latha; Robertson, Gavin P.; Scheuner, Donalyn; Kaufman, Randal J.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Koromilas, Antonis E.

2013-01-01

142

Kinetic modelling of phospholipid synthesis in Plasmodium knowlesi unravels crucial steps and relative importance of multiple pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium is the causal parasite of malaria, infectious disease responsible for the death of up to one million people each year. Glycerophospholipid and consequently membrane biosynthesis are essential for the survival of the parasite and are targeted by a new class of antimalarial drugs developed in our lab. In order to understand the highly redundant phospholipid synthethic pathways and eventual mechanism of resistance to various drugs, an organism specific kinetic model of these metabolic pathways need to be developed in Plasmodium species. Results Fluxomic data were used to build a quantitative kinetic model of glycerophospholipid pathways in Plasmodium knowlesi. In vitro incorporation dynamics of phospholipids unravels multiple synthetic pathways. A detailed metabolic network with values of the kinetic parameters (maximum rates and Michaelis constants) has been built. In order to obtain a global search in the parameter space, we have designed a hybrid, discrete and continuous, optimization method. Discrete parameters were used to sample the cone of admissible fluxes, whereas the continuous Michaelis and maximum rates constants were obtained by local minimization of an objective function.The model was used to predict the distribution of fluxes within the network of various metabolic precursors. The quantitative analysis was used to understand eventual links between different pathways. The major source of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the CDP-choline Kennedy pathway. In silico knock-out experiments showed comparable importance of phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PMT) and phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) for PC synthesis. The flux values indicate that, major part of serine derived phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is formed via serine decarboxylation, whereas major part of phosphatidylserine (PS) is formed by base-exchange reactions. Sensitivity analysis of CDP-choline pathway shows that the carrier-mediated choline entry into the parasite and the phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase reaction have the largest sensitivity coefficients in this pathway, but does not distinguish a reaction as an unique rate-limiting step. Conclusion We provide a fully parametrized kinetic model for the multiple phospholipid synthetic pathways in P. knowlesi. This model has been used to clarify the relative importance of the various reactions in these metabolic pathways. Future work extensions of this modelling strategy will serve to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms governing the development of Plasmodium during its blood stages, as well as the mechanisms of action of drugs on membrane biosynthetic pathways and eventual mechanisms of resistance. PMID:24209716

2013-01-01

143

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

144

Nuclear Localization of de Novo Thymidylate Biosynthesis Pathway Is Required to Prevent Uracil Accumulation in DNA*  

PubMed Central

Uracil accumulates in DNA as a result of impaired folate-dependent de novo thymidylate biosynthesis, a pathway composed of the enzymes serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), and dihydrofolate reductase. In G1, this pathway is present in the cytoplasm and at S phase undergoes small ubiquitin-like modifier-dependent translocation to the nucleus. It is not known whether this pathway functions in the cytoplasm, nucleus, or both in vivo. SHMT1 generates 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate for de novo thymidylate biosynthesis, a limiting step in the pathway, but also tightly binds 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cytoplasm, a required cofactor for homocysteine remethylation. Overexpression of SHMT1 in cell cultures inhibits folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation and enhances thymidylate biosynthesis. In this study, the impact of increased Shmt1 expression on folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism was determined in mice that overexpress the Shmt1 cDNA (Shmt1tg+ mice). Compared with wild type mice, Shmt1tg+ mice exhibited elevated SHMT1 and TYMS protein levels in tissues and evidence for impaired homocysteine remethylation but surprisingly exhibited depressed levels of nuclear SHMT1 and TYMS, lower rates of nuclear de novo thymidylate biosynthesis, and a nearly 10-fold increase in uracil content in hepatic nuclear DNA when fed a folate- and choline-deficient diet. These results demonstrate that SHMT1 and TYMS localization to the nucleus is essential to prevent uracil accumulation in nuclear DNA and indicate that SHMT1-mediated nuclear de novo thymidylate synthesis is critical for maintaining DNA integrity. PMID:22057276

MacFarlane, Amanda J.; Anderson, Donald D.; Flodby, Per; Perry, Cheryll A.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.; Stover, Patrick J.

2011-01-01

145

Integrated QSAR study for inhibitors of hedgehog signal pathway against multiple cell lines:a collaborative filtering method  

PubMed Central

Background The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway is one of signaling pathways that are very important to embryonic development. The participation of inhibitors in the Hedgehog Signal Pathway can control cell growth and death, and searching novel inhibitors to the functioning of the pathway are in a great demand. As the matter of fact, effective inhibitors could provide efficient therapies for a wide range of malignancies, and targeting such pathway in cells represents a promising new paradigm for cell growth and death control. Current research mainly focuses on the syntheses of the inhibitors of cyclopamine derivatives, which bind specifically to the Smo protein, and can be used for cancer therapy. While quantitatively structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed for these compounds among different cell lines, none of them have achieved acceptable results in the prediction of activity values of new compounds. In this study, we proposed a novel collaborative QSAR model for inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by integration the information from multiple cell lines. Such a model is expected to substantially improve the QSAR ability from single cell lines, and provide useful clues in developing clinically effective inhibitors and modifications of parent lead compounds for target on the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. Results In this study, we have presented: (1) a collaborative QSAR model, which is used to integrate information among multiple cell lines to boost the QSAR results, rather than only a single cell line QSAR modeling. Our experiments have shown that the performance of our model is significantly better than single cell line QSAR methods; and (2) an efficient feature selection strategy under such collaborative environment, which can derive the commonly important features related to the entire given cell lines, while simultaneously showing their specific contributions to a specific cell-line. Based on feature selection results, we have proposed several possible chemical modifications to improve the inhibitor affinity towards multiple targets in the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. Conclusions Our model with the feature selection strategy presented here is efficient, robust, and flexible, and can be easily extended to model large-scale multiple cell line/QSAR data. The data and scripts for collaborative QSAR modeling are available in the Additional file 1. PMID:22849868

2012-01-01

146

Precise lamination of retinal axons generates multiple parallel input pathways in the tectum  

PubMed Central

The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) form topographic connections in the optic tectum, recreating a two-dimensional map of the visual field in the midbrain. RGC axons are also targeted to specific positions along the laminar axis of the tectum. Understanding the sensory transformations performed by the tectum requires identification of the rules that control the formation of synaptic laminae by RGC axons. However, there is little information regarding the spatial relationships between multiple axons as they establish laminar and retinotopic arborization fields within the same region of neuropil. Moreover, the contribution of RGC axon lamination to the processing of visual information is unknown. We have utilized Brainbow genetic labeling to visualize groups of individually identifiable axons during the assembly of a precise laminar map in the tectum. Live imaging of multiple RGCs revealed that axons target specific sublaminar positions during initial innervation and maintain their relative laminar positions throughout early larval development, ruling out a model for lamina selection based on iterative refinements. During this period of laminar stability, RGC arbors undergo structural rearrangements that shift their relative retinotopic positions. Analysis of cell type-specific lamination patterns revealed that distinct combinations of RGCs converge to form each sublamina, and this input heterogeneity correlates with different functional responses to visual stimuli. These findings suggest that lamina-specific sorting of retinal inputs provides an anatomical blueprint for the integration of visual features in the tectum. PMID:23486973

Robles, Estuardo; Filosa, Alessandro; Baier, Herwig

2013-01-01

147

Morbillivirus V Proteins Exhibit Multiple Mechanisms to Block Type 1 and Type 2 Interferon Signalling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV) and measles virus (MeV) have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFN?/?) and type II (IFN?) interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV), measles virus (MeV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action. PMID:23431397

Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Nanda, Sambit K.; Baron, Michael D.

2013-01-01

148

CCAN makes multiple contacts with centromeric DNA to provide distinct pathways to the outer kinetochore.  

PubMed

Kinetochore specification and assembly requires the targeted deposition of specialized nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant CENP-A at centromeres. However, CENP-A is not sufficient to drive full-kinetochore assembly, and it is not clear how centromeric chromatin is established. Here, we identify CENP-W as a component of the DNA-proximal constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) of proteins. We demonstrate that CENP-W forms a DNA-binding complex together with the CCAN component CENP-T. This complex directly associates with nucleosomal DNA and with canonical histone H3, but not with CENP-A, in centromeric regions. CENP-T/CENP-W functions upstream of other CCAN components with the exception of CENP-C, an additional putative DNA-binding protein. Our analysis indicates that CENP-T/CENP-W and CENP-C provide distinct pathways to connect the centromere with outer kinetochore assembly. In total, our results suggest that the CENP-T/CENP-W complex is directly involved in establishment of centromere chromatin structure coordinately with CENP-A. PMID:19070575

Hori, Tetsuya; Amano, Miho; Suzuki, Aussie; Backer, Chelsea B; Welburn, Julie P; Dong, Yimin; McEwen, Bruce F; Shang, Wei-Hao; Suzuki, Emiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Cheeseman, Iain M; Fukagawa, Tatsuo

2008-12-12

149

Rupture of multiple catch-slip bonds: Two-state two-pathway catch-slip bonds.  

PubMed

We performed Monte Carlo simulation of the detachment of a polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte immersed in a Newtonian fluid and adhered to a substrate by multiple catch-slip bonds. We found that at certain loading rates the interplay of multiple catch-slip bonds leads to a bimodal distribution of the bond rupture force. We also found that the low force peak in these bond rupture force distributions switches to a high force peak with a gradual increase in the loading rate. These trends in the bond rupture force distributions are characteristics of two-state systems. Consequently, though individual catch-slip bonds follow one-state two-pathway energy landscape, their interplay mimics a two-state two-pathway energy landscape. PMID:24272665

Gupta, V K

2013-11-01

150

Pien Tze Huang inhibits tumor angiogenesis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer via suppression of multiple cellular pathways.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays an essential role in cancer progression, which therefore has become an attractive target for anticancer treatment. Tumor angiogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways that usually function redundantly; in addition, crosstalk between these pathways forms a complicated network that is regulated by compensatory mechanisms. Given the complexity of pathogenic mechanisms underlying tumor angiogenesis, most currently used angiogenesis inhibitors that only target single pathways may be insufficient and probably generate drug resistance, thus, increasing the necessity for development of novel anticancer agents. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are receiving great interest since they have relatively fewer side-effects and have been used for thousands of years to clinically treat various types of diseases including cancer. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formulation that was first prescribed 450 years ago, has long been used as an alternative remedy for cancers. However, the precise mechanism of PZH's anticancer activity remains to be further elucidated. Using a colorectal cancer mouse xenograft model, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of PZH on tumor angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH inhibited tumor growth since PZH treatment resulted in decrease in both tumor volume and tumor weight in CRC mice. In addition, PZH suppressed the activation of several signaling pathways such as STAT3, Akt and MAPKs. Consequently, the inhibitory effect of PZH on these pathways resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis as demonstrated by the decrease of microvessel density in tumor tissues. Moreover, PZH treatment reduced the expression of angiogenic factors including iNOS, eNOS, VEGF-A, bFGF as well as their specific receptors VEGFR2 and bFGFR. Altogether, our findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of multiple signaling pathways might be one of the mechanisms whereby PZH affects cancers. PMID:23843018

Shen, Aling; Lin, Jiumao; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Wei; Liu, Liya; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

2013-10-01

151

MRI of optic nerve and postchiasmal visual pathways and visual evoked potentials in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationship between abnormalities shown by MRI and functional disturbances in the visual pathway as assessed\\u000a by the visual evoked potential (VEP) in 25 patients with established multiple sclerosis (MS); only 4 of whom had a history\\u000a of acute optic neuritis. Optic nerve MRI was abnormal in 19 (76 %) and is thus useful in detecting subclinical disease.

M. B. Davies; R. Williams; N. Haq; L. Pelosi; C. P. Hawkins

1998-01-01

152

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIPLE DNA LOOP REPAIR PATHWAYS IN HUMAN CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of DNA is a critical factor for several diseases, the most prevalent of which is cancer. Several neurodegenerative and accelerated aging diseases are also characterized by genomic instability. The number and complexity of DNA repair pathways that human cells possess underscores the importance of genomic stability. These pathways ensure that damaged DNA is repaired and that a cells

Scott D. McCulloch

2002-01-01

153

“Here's Your Diploma, Mom!” Family Obligation and Multiple Pathways to Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the different pathways that Haitian students follow to eventual success despite tremendous challenges. The authors give special attention to the notion of pathway and differentiate various avenues to attain success. Constant motivated achievers maintain a strong focus on academic goals and make sacrifices to achieve them. Persistent strivers have not achieved as readily or as highly

Tekla Nicholas; Alex Stepick; Carol Dutton Stepick

2008-01-01

154

Multiple Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Current Conceptualizations and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recent research has uncovered several developmental pathways through which children and adolescents can develop a tendency to display the severe antisocial behavior associated with the diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD). Methods This focused review is designed to briefly outline three different etiological pathways described in the literature. These pathways are distinguished by the age of onset of the antisocial behavior, the presence/absence of significant levels of callous-unemotional traits, and the presence/absence of problems with anger regulation. Results Evidence from developmental psychopathology research (particularly longitudinal studies) that support the different life-course trajectories and putative etiological factors associated with antisocial behavior across these pathways is presented. Conclusions Limitations in the available research on these developmental pathways and implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of children and adolescents with CD are discussed. PMID:23390429

Pardini, Dustin; Frick, Paul J.

2013-01-01

155

TGF-? induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells requires integrated smad3 and MAPK pathways  

PubMed Central

Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) regulates the reactive stroma microenvironment associated with most carcinomas and mediates expression of many stromal derived factors important for tumor progression, including FGF-2 and CTGF. TGF-? is over-expressed in most carcinomas, and FGF-2 action is important in tumor-induced angiogenesis. The signaling mechanisms of how TGF-? regulates FGF-2 expression in the reactive stroma microenvironment are not understood. Accordingly, we have assessed key signaling pathways that mediate TGF-?1-induced FGF-2 expression in prostate stromal fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) null for Smad2 and Smad3. TGF-?1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2, Smad3, p38 and ERK1/2 proteins in both control MEFs and prostate fibroblasts. Of these, Smad3, but not Smad2 was found to be required for TGF-?1 induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells. ChIP analysis revealed a Smad3/Smad4 complex was associated with the -1.9 to -2.3 kb upstream proximal promoter of the FGF-2 gene, further suggesting a Smad3-specific regulation. In addition, chemical inhibition of p38 or ERK1/2 MAPK activity also blocked TGF-?1-induced FGF-2 expression in a Smad3-independent manner. Conversely, inhibition of JNK signaling enhanced FGF-2 expression. Together, these data indicate that expression of FGF-2 in fibroblasts in the tumor stromal cell microenvironment is coordinately dependent on both intact Smad3 and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These pathways and key downstream mediators of TGF-? action in the tumor reactive stroma microenvironment, may evolve as putative targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25374926

Strand, Douglas W; Liang, Yao-Yun; Yang, Feng; Barron, David A; Ressler, Steven J; Schauer, Isaiah G; Feng, Xin-Hua; Rowley, David R

2014-01-01

156

Only a subset of Met-activated pathways are required to sustain oncogene addiction.  

PubMed

Tumor onset and progression require the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic lesions. In some cases, however, cancer cells rely on only one of these lesions to maintain their malignant properties, and this dependence results in tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation ("oncogene addiction"). Determining which nodes of the many networks operative in the transformed phenotype specifically mediate this response to oncogene neutralization is crucial to identifying the vulnerabilities of cancer. Using the Met receptor as the major model system, we combined multiplex phosphoproteomics, genome-wide expression profiling, and functional assays in various cancer cells addicted to oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. We found that Met blockade affected a limited subset of Met downstream signals: Little or no effect was observed for several pathways downstream of Met; instead, only a restricted and pathway-specific signature of transducers and transcriptional effectors downstream of Ras or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) was inactivated. An analogous signature was also generated by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor in a different cellular context, suggesting a stereotyped response that likely is independent of receptor type or tissue origin. Biologically, Met inhibition led to cell-cycle arrest. Inhibition of Ras-dependent signals and PI3K-dependent signals also resulted in cell-cycle arrest, whereas cells in which Met was inhibited proliferated when Ras or PI3K signaling was active. These findings uncover "dominant" and "recessive" nodes among the numerous oncogenic networks regulated by receptor tyrosine kinases and active in cancer, with the Ras and PI3K pathways as determinants of therapeutic response. PMID:20039471

Bertotti, Andrea; Burbridge, Mike F; Gastaldi, Stefania; Galimi, Francesco; Torti, Davide; Medico, Enzo; Giordano, Silvia; Corso, Simona; Rolland-Valognes, Gaëlle; Lockhart, Brian P; Hickman, John A; Comoglio, Paolo M; Trusolino, Livio

2009-01-01

157

A novel miRNA processing pathway independent of Dicer requires Argonaute2 catalytic activity.  

PubMed

Dicer is a central enzyme in microRNA (miRNA) processing. We identified a Dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis pathway that uses Argonaute2 (Ago2) slicer catalytic activity. In contrast to other miRNAs, miR-451 levels were refractory to dicer loss of function but were reduced in MZago2 (maternal-zygotic) mutants. We found that pre-miR-451 processing requires Ago2 catalytic activity in vivo. MZago2 mutants showed delayed erythropoiesis that could be rescued by wild-type Ago2 or miR-451-duplex but not by catalytically dead Ago2. Changing the secondary structure of Dicer-dependent miRNAs to mimic that of pre-miR-451 restored miRNA function and rescued developmental defects in MZdicer mutants, indicating that the pre-miRNA secondary structure determines the processing pathway in vivo. We propose that Ago2-mediated cleavage of pre-miRNAs, followed by uridylation and trimming, generates functional miRNAs independently of Dicer. PMID:20448148

Cifuentes, Daniel; Xue, Huiling; Taylor, David W; Patnode, Heather; Mishima, Yuichiro; Cheloufi, Sihem; Ma, Enbo; Mane, Shrikant; Hannon, Gregory J; Lawson, Nathan D; Wolfe, Scot A; Giraldez, Antonio J

2010-06-25

158

The AMPK-PPARGC1A pathway is required for antimicrobial host defense through activation of autophagy.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor and plays a key role in integration of cellular functions to maintain homeostasis. Despite this, it is largely unknown whether targeting the AMPK pathway can be used as a therapeutic strategy for infectious diseases. Herein, we show that AMPK activation robustly induces antibacterial autophagy, which contributes to antimicrobial defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). AMPK activation led to inhibition of Mtb-induced phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) in macrophages. In addition, AMPK activation increased the genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial ATP production, and biogenesis in Mtb-infected macrophages. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, coactivator 1? (PPARGC1A) was required for AMPK-mediated antimicrobial activity, as well as enhancement of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, in macrophages. Further, the AMPK-PPARGC1A pathway was involved in the upregulation of multiple autophagy-related genes via CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), ? (CEBPB). PPARGC1A knockdown inhibited the AMPK-mediated induction of autophagy and impaired the fusion of phagosomes with MAP1LC3B (LC3B) autophagosomes in Mtb-infected macrophages. The link between autophagy, mitochondrial function, and antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by studying LysMCre-mediated knockout of atg7, demonstrating mitochondrial ultrastructural defects and dysfunction, as well as blockade of antimicrobial activity against mycobacteria. Collectively, our results identify the AMPK-PPARGC1A axis as contributing to autophagy activation leading to an antimicrobial response, as a novel host defense mechanism. PMID:24598403

Yang, Chul-Su; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Lee, Hye-Mi; Jin, Hyo Sun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Jin-Man; Han, Yong-Mahn; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Shong, Minho; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

2014-05-01

159

Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the second-generation Canadian earth system model (CanESM2) to historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) natural and anthropogenic forcing is assessed using the newly-developed representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols. Allowable emissions required to achieve the future atmospheric CO2 concentration pathways, are reported for the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. For the historical 1850-2005 period, cumulative land plus ocean carbon uptake and, consequently, cumulative diagnosed emissions compare well with observation-based estimates. The simulated historical carbon uptake is somewhat weaker for the ocean and stronger for the land relative to their observation-based estimates. The simulated historical warming of 0.9°C compares well with the observation-based estimate of 0.76 ± 0.19°C. The RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios respectively yield warmings of 1.4, 2.3, and 4.9°C and cumulative diagnosed fossil fuel emissions of 182, 643 and 1617 Pg C over the 2006-2100 period. The simulated warming of 2.3°C over the 1850-2100 period in the RCP 2.6 scenario, with the lowest concentration of GHGs, is slightly larger than the 2°C warming target set to avoid dangerous climate change by the 2009 UN Copenhagen Accord. The results of this study suggest that limiting warming to roughly 2°C by the end of this century is unlikely since it requires an immediate ramp down of emissions followed by ongoing carbon sequestration in the second half of this century.

Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.; Boer, G. J.; Christian, J. R.; Denman, K. L.; Flato, G. M.; Kharin, V. V.; Lee, W. G.; Merryfield, W. J.

2011-03-01

160

Modular control of multiple pathways using engineered orthogonal T7 polymerases  

E-print Network

Synthetic genetic sensors and circuits enable programmable control over the timing and conditions of gene expression. They are being increasingly incorporated into the control of complex, multigene pathways and cellular ...

Temme, Karsten

161

Determining the elastic properties of aptamer-ricin single molecule multiple pathway interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the elastic properties of ricin and anti-ricin aptamer interactions, which showed three stable binding conformations, each of which has its special elastic properties. These different unbinding pathways were investigated by the dynamic force spectroscopy. A series-spring model combining the worm-like-chain model and Hook's law was used to estimate the apparent spring constants of the aptamer and linker molecule polyethylene glycol. The aptamer in its three different unbinding pathways showed different apparent spring constants. The two reaction barriers in the unbinding pathways also influence the apparent spring constant of the aptamer. This special elastic behavior of aptamer was used to distinguish its three unbinding pathways under different loading rates. This method also offered a way to distinguish and discard the non-specific interactions in single molecule experiments.

Wang, Bin; Park, Bosoon; Kwon, Yongkuk; Xu, Bingqian

2014-05-01

162

Simultaneous Reconstruction of Multiple Signaling Pathways via the Prize-Collecting Steiner Forest Problem  

E-print Network

Signaling networks are essential for cells to control processes such as growth and response to stimuli. Although many “omic” data sources are available to probe signaling pathways, these data are typically sparse and noisy. ...

Tuncbag, Nurcan

163

Multiple Repair Pathways Mediate Tolerance to Chemotherapeutic Cross-linking Agents in Vertebrate Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6\\/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted

Kuniharu Nojima; Helfrid Hochegger; Alihossein Saberi; Toru Fukushima; Koji Kikuchi; Michio Yoshimura; Brian J. Orelli; Douglas K. Bishop; Seiki Hirano; Mioko Ohzeki; Masamichi Ishiai; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Minoru Takata; Hiroshi Arakawa; Jean-Marie Buerstedde; Mitsuyoshi Yamazoe; Takuo Kawamoto; Kasumi Araki; Jun A. Takahashi; Nobuo Hashimoto; Shunichi Takeda; Eiichiro Sonoda

2005-01-01

164

The Root Hair Assay Facilitates the Use of Genetic and Pharmacological Tools in Order to Dissect Multiple Signalling Pathways That Lead to Programmed Cell Death  

PubMed Central

The activation of programmed cell death (PCD) is often a result of complex signalling pathways whose relationship and intersection are not well understood. We recently described a PCD root hair assay and proposed that it could be used to rapidly screen genetic or pharmacological modulators of PCD. To further assess the applicability of the root hair assay for studying multiple signalling pathways leading to PCD activation we have investigated the crosstalk between salicylic acid, autophagy and apoptosis-like PCD (AL-PCD) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The root hair assay was used to determine rates of AL-PCD induced by a panel of cell death inducing treatments in wild type plants treated with chemical modulators of salicylic acid synthesis or autophagy, and in genetic lines defective in autophagy or salicylic acid signalling. The assay demonstrated that PCD induced by exogenous salicylic acid or fumonisin B1 displayed a requirement for salicylic acid signalling and was partially dependent on the salicylic acid signal transducer NPR1. Autophagy deficiency resulted in an increase in the rates of AL-PCD induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1, but not by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase-dependent salicylic acid synthesis pathway contributed only to death induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1. 3-Methyladenine, which is commonly used as an inhibitor of autophagy, appeared to influence PCD induction in all treatments suggesting a possible secondary, non-autophagic, effect on a core component of the plant PCD pathway. The results suggest that salicylic acid signalling is negatively regulated by autophagy during salicylic acid and mycotoxin-induced AL-PCD. However, this crosstalk does not appear to be directly involved in PCD induced by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. This study demonstrates that the root hair assay is an effective tool for relatively rapid investigation of complex signalling pathways leading to the activation of PCD. PMID:24755572

Kacprzyk, Joanna; Devine, Aoife; McCabe, Paul F.

2014-01-01

165

Small-molecule inhibitors reveal multiple strategies for Hedgehog pathway blockade  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in a diverse spectrum of cancers, and its pharmacological blockade has emerged as an anti-tumor strategy. While nearly all known Hh pathway antagonists target the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), small molecules that suppress downstream effectors could more comprehensively remediate Hh pathway-dependent tumors. We report here four Hh pathway antagonists that are epistatic to the nucleocytoplasmic regulator Suppressor of Fused [Su(fu)], including two that can inhibit Hh target gene expression induced by overexpression of the Gli transcription factors. Each inhibitor has a unique mechanism of action, and their phenotypes reveal that Gli processing, Gli activation, and primary cilia formation are pharmacologically targetable. We further establish the ability of certain compounds to block the proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors expressing an oncogenic form of Smo, and we demonstrate that Hh pathway inhibitors can have tissue-specific activities. These antagonists therefore constitute a valuable set of chemical tools for interrogating downstream Hh signaling mechanisms and for developing chemotherapies against Hh pathway-related cancers. PMID:19666565

Hyman, Joel M.; Firestone, Ari J.; Heine, Vivi M.; Zhao, Yun; Ocasio, Cory A.; Han, Kyuho; Sun, Mark; Rack, Paul G.; Sinha, Surajit; Wu, Jason J.; Solow-Cordero, David E.; Jiang, Jin; Rowitch, David H.; Chen, James K.

2009-01-01

166

Modular control of multiple pathways using engineered orthogonal T7 polymerases  

PubMed Central

Synthetic genetic sensors and circuits enable programmable control over the timing and conditions of gene expression. They are being increasingly incorporated into the control of complex, multigene pathways and cellular functions. Here, we propose a design strategy to genetically separate the sensing/circuitry functions from the pathway to be controlled. This separation is achieved by having the output of the circuit drive the expression of a polymerase, which then activates the pathway from polymerase-specific promoters. The sensors, circuits and polymerase are encoded together on a ‘controller’ plasmid. Variants of T7 RNA polymerase that reduce toxicity were constructed and used as scaffolds for the construction of four orthogonal polymerases identified via part mining that bind to unique promoter sequences. This set is highly orthogonal and induces cognate promoters by 8- to 75-fold more than off-target promoters. These orthogonal polymerases enable four independent channels linking the outputs of circuits to the control of different cellular functions. As a demonstration, we constructed a controller plasmid that integrates two inducible systems, implements an AND logic operation and toggles between metabolic pathways that change Escherichia coli green (deoxychromoviridans) and red (lycopene). The advantages of this organization are that (i) the regulation of the pathway can be changed simply by introducing a different controller plasmid, (ii) transcription is orthogonal to host machinery and (iii) the pathway genes are not transcribed in the absence of a controller and are thus more easily carried without invoking evolutionary pressure. PMID:22743271

Temme, Karsten; Hill, Rena; Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H.; Moser, Felix; Voigt, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

167

Yap1, transcription regulator in the Hippo signaling pathway, is required for Xenopus limb bud regeneration.  

PubMed

The Hippo signaling pathway is conserved from insects to mammals and is important for multiple processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and tissue homeostasis. Hippo signaling is also crucial for regeneration, including intercalary regeneration, of the whole body in the flatworm and of the leg in the cricket. However, its role in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is unknown. Therefore, to identify principles of regeneration that are conserved among bilaterians, we investigated the role of Hippo signaling in the limb bud regeneration of an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis. We found that a transcription factor, Yap1, an important downstream effector of Hippo signaling, is upregulated in the regenerating limb bud. To evaluate Yap1?s function in limb bud regeneration, we made transgenic animals that expressed a dominant-negative form of Yap under a heat-shock promoter. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Yap in tadpoles reduced cell proliferation, induced ectopic apoptosis, perturbed the expression domains of limb-patterning genes including hoxa13, hoxa11, and shh in the regenerating limb bud. Transient expression of a dominant-negative Yap in transgenic tadpoles also caused limb bud regeneration defects, and reduced intercalary regeneration. These results indicate that Yap1 has a crucial role in controlling the limb regenerative capacity in Xenopus, and suggest that the involvement of Hippo signaling in regeneration is conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. This finding provides molecular evidence that common principles underlie regeneration across phyla, and may contribute to the development of new therapies in regenerative medicine. PMID:24491818

Hayashi, Shinichi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

2014-04-01

168

Outer Membrane Protein P5 Is Required for Resistance of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to Both the Classical and Alternative Complement Pathways  

PubMed Central

The complement system is an important first line of defense against the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. To survive and propagate in vivo, H. influenzae has evolved mechanisms for subverting this host defense, most of which have been shown to involve outer surface structures, including lipooligosaccharide glycans and outer surface proteins. Bacterial defense against complement acts at multiple steps in the pathway by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Here we identify outer membrane protein P5 as an essential factor in serum resistance of both H. influenzae strain Rd and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) clinical isolate NT127. P5 was essential for resistance of Rd and NT127 to complement in pooled human serum. Further investigation determined that P5 expression decreased cell surface binding of IgM, a potent activator of the classical pathway of complement, to both Rd and NT127. Additionally, P5 expression was required for NT127 to bind factor H (fH), an important inhibitor of alternative pathway (AP) activation. Collectively, the results obtained in this work highlight the ability of H. influenzae to utilize a single protein to perform multiple protective functions for evading host immunity. PMID:24478079

Rosadini, Charles V.; Ram, Sanjay

2014-01-01

169

Wolfberry Water Soluble Phytochemicals Down-Regulate ER Stress Biomarkers and Modulate Multiple Signaling Pathways Leading To Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Jurkat Cells  

PubMed Central

Phytochemicals have received much recent attention in cancer prevention through simultaneous targeting multiple pathways in the disease progression. Here we determined that wolfberry phytochemicals was chemopreventive on the leukemic Jurkat cell. The water soluble wolfberry fractions (i.e., wolfberry phytochemicals) were enriched in carbohydrates (73.4 ± 4.5 % (w/w)), polyphenolics (1555 ± 112 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g freeze dry powder, including 213 mg rutin/100 g freeze dry powder), and had enhanced antioxidant activity (7771 ± 207 ?M Trolox equivalent/100 g freeze dry powder). Wolfberry phytochemicals, but not purified wolfberry polysaccharide fractions, inhibited Jurkat cell proliferation, induced cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner starting at 1 mg/ml for 48 h. Wolfberry phytochemicals eliminated cellular reactive oxygen species, declined expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarkers, including glucose regulated protein 78, inositol-requiring protein 1(IRE1), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), and c/EBP-homologous protein, and induced activation of AMP activated protein kinase, stabilization of ?-catenin, and inhibition of NF?B, and AKT activity. Simultaneous siRNA knockdown of ATF6, IRE1 and PERK caused inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Data suggested that ER stress and multiple survival/apoptosis signaling pathways were modulated by wolfberry phytochemicals during the apoptotic progression. Consumption of wolfberry could be an efficacious dietary strategy for preventing leukemia. PMID:22685690

Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yunong; Wark, Logan; Ortiz, Edlin; Lim, Soyoung; He, Hui; Wang, Weiqun; Medeiros, Denis; Lin, Dingbo

2012-01-01

170

Enzyme activity demonstrates multiple pathways of innate immunity in Indo-Pacific anthozoans.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are threatened by increasing levels of coral disease and the functional loss of obligate algal symbionts (bleaching). Levels of immunity relate directly to susceptibility to these threats; however, our understanding of fundamental aspects of coral immunology is lacking. We show that three melanin-synthesis pathway components (mono-phenoloxidase, ortho-diphenoloxidase (tyrosinase-type pathway) and para-diphenoloxidase (laccase-type pathway)) are present in both their active (phenoloxidase, PO) and inactive (prophenoloxidase, PPO) forms across a diverse range of 22 species of healthy Indo-Pacific anthozoans. We also demonstrate transglutaminase activity of the coagulation cascade for, to our knowledge, the first time in a coral. Melanin-synthesis enzyme activities varied among taxa, although they were generally lowest in the coral family Acroporidae and highest in the Poritidae and Oculinidae. Inactive tyrosinase-type activity (PPO) and active laccase-type activity (PO) correlate with taxonomic patterns in disease resistance, whereas the converse pattern in activity levels correlates with bleaching resistance. Overall, we demonstrate the presence of several melanin-synthesis pathways in Indo-Pacific corals, co-regulation among some pathway components, and highlight their potential roles in coral health. PMID:22810430

Palmer, C V; Bythell, J C; Willis, B L

2012-09-22

171

The Drosophila type II receptor, Wishful thinking, binds BMP and myoglianin to activate multiple TGFbeta family signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Wishful thinking (Wit) is a Drosophila transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily type II receptor most related to the mammalian bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor, BMPRII. To better understand its function, we undertook a biochemical approach to establish the ligand binding repertoire and downstream signaling pathway. We observed that BMP4 and BMP7, bound to receptor complexes comprised of Wit and the type I receptor thickveins and saxophone to activate a BMP-like signaling pathway. Further we demonstrated that both myoglianin and its most closely related mammalian ligand, myostatin, interacted with a Wit and Baboon (Babo) type II-type I receptor complex to activate TGFbeta/activin-like signaling pathways. These results thereby demonstrate that Wit binds multiple ligands to activate both BMP and TGFbeta-like signaling pathways. Given that myoglianin is expressed in muscle and glial-derived cells, these results also suggest that Wit may mediate myoglianin-dependent signals in the nervous system. PMID:16098524

Lee-Hoeflich, Si Tuen; Zhao, Xin; Mehra, Arun; Attisano, Liliana

2005-08-29

172

Integration of multiple signaling pathway activities resolves K-RAS/N-RAS mutation paradox in colon epithelial cell response to inflammatory cytokine stimulation  

E-print Network

Colon tumors frequently harbor mutation in K-RAS and/or N-RAS, members of a GTPase family operating as a central hub for multiple key signaling pathways. While these proteins are strongly homologous, they exhibit diverse ...

Kreeger, Pamela K.

173

Color vision versus pattern visual evoked potentials in the assessment of subclinical optic pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Optic pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis is frequently the initial sign in the disease process. In most clinical applications, pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) is used in the assessment of optic pathway involvement. Objective: To question the value of PVEP against color vision assessment in the diagnosis of subclinical optic pathway involvement. Materials and Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 20 multiple sclerosis patients without a history of optic neuritis, and 20 healthy control subjects. Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-Hue testing and PVEPs to 60-min arc and 15-min arc checks by using Roland-Consult RetiScan® system were performed. P100 amplitude, P100 latency in PVEP and total error scores (TES) in FM 100-Hue test were assessed. Results: Expanded Disability Status Scale score and the time from diagnosis were 2.21 ± 2.53 (ranging from 0 to 7) and 4.1 ± 4.4 years. MS group showed significantly delayed P100 latency for both checks (P < 0.001). Similarly, MS patients had significantly increased total error scores (TES) in FM-100 Hue (P < 0.001). The correlations between TESs and PVEP amplitudes / latencies were insignificant for both checks (P > 0.05 for all). 14 MS patients (70%) had an increased TESs in FM-100 Hue, 11 (55%) MS patients had delayed P100 latency and 9 (45%) had reduced P100 amplitude. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.944 for FM-100 Hue test, 0.753 for P100 latency, and 0.173 for P100 amplitude. Conclusions: Color vision testing seems to be more sensitive than PVEP in detecting subclinical visual pathway involvement in MS. PMID:23514643

Gundogan, Fatih C; Tas, Ahmet; Altun, Salih; Oz, Oguzhan; Erdem, Uzeyir; Sobaci, Gungor

2013-01-01

174

The Fanconi Anemia (FA\\/BRCA DNA damage repair pathway is reglated by NF[kappa]B and mediates drug resistance in multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fanconi Anemia (FA)\\/BRCA DNA damage repair pathway plays a critical role in the cellular response to stress induced by DNA alkylating agents and greatly influences drug response in cancer treatment. We recently reported that FA\\/BRCA DNA damage repair pathway genes are overexpressed and causative for resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines selected for resistance to melphalan. We hypothesized

Danielle N Yarde

2010-01-01

175

Comparison of Investment and Related Requirements for Selected Hydrogen Vehicle System Pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model was developed for production, transmission, delivery, and consumption of hydrogen for large-scale systems ultimately providing shaft-work for hydrogen-based vehicles. (See Glossary, after References). Presently, the supply technologies are limited to solar photovoltaic, wind, nuclear, and nuclear thermochemical sources. Transmission technologies include electric power, hydrogen pipeline, and liquid hydrocarbon pipeline. Delivery technologies include both liquid and gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrocarbon. Storage modes were selected as appropriate for the pathway transmission and delivery modes. Finally, consumption technologies are fuel-cell based, with and without a fuel processor (reformer). Overall, there were 39 separate pathways in this initial analysis. Subsystem efficiencies, capital costs, and capacity factors were derived from a literature search and supported by calculations where necessary. Overall systems efficiency, system peak power capital costs, and systems average power capital costs were calculated to indicate the potential capital investment requirements. The model was exercised to assess the capital cost (and related aspects) requirements to provide the equivalent automobile shaftwork of eleven million barrels of oil per day by the year 2040 (the Administration's objective). These costs range from 650 billion to 11.7 trillion and primarily depend on the selected energy source. The results reveal that nuclear thermochemical systems based on liquid hydrocarbon transmission and delivery lie at the low-cost end of the range, followed by nuclear or wind electric, then nuclear or wind hydrogen pipeline, and finally by solar electric and solar hydrogen pipeline. It is noted that thermochemical systems based on liquid hydrocarbons was the least-cost option for all of the energy sources. One vehicle storage technology, chemical hydride, was determined to be too costly to be included for later analysis. The results were compared against what might be expected of fusion energy. It was found that fusion hydrogen plant capital costs did not compete with Nuclear or Wind (but did with current Solar Photovoltaics) unless fusion plants were very large. The model is planned to be expanded to include coal-based hydrogen production (with CO2 sequestration) and extended to calculate the total cost of energy delivered to the wheels.

Bogart, S. Locke

2002-12-01

176

Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding is a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with a wide range of diseases. Single-molecule approaches offer a powerful tool for deciphering the mechanisms of misfolding by measuring the conformational fluctuations of a protein with high sensitivity. We applied single-molecule force spectroscopy to observe directly the misfolding of the prion protein PrP, a protein notable for having an infectious misfolded state that is able to propagate by recruiting natively folded PrP. By measuring folding trajectories of single PrP molecules held under tension in a high-resolution optical trap, we found that the native folding pathway involves only two states, without evidence for partially folded intermediates that have been proposed to mediate misfolding. Instead, frequent but fleeting transitions were observed into off-pathway intermediates. Three different misfolding pathways were detected, all starting from the unfolded state. Remarkably, the misfolding rate was even higher than the rate for native folding. A mutant PrP with higher aggregation propensity showed increased occupancy of some of the misfolded states, suggesting these states may act as intermediates during aggregation. These measurements of individual misfolding trajectories demonstrate the power of single-molecule approaches for characterizing misfolding directly by mapping out nonnative folding pathways. PMID:22421432

Yu, Hao; Liu, Xia; Neupane, Krishna; Gupta, Amar Nath; Brigley, Angela M.; Solanki, Allison; Sosova, Iveta; Woodside, Michael T.

2012-01-01

177

Multiple phytohormone signalling pathways modulate susceptibility of tomato plants to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL. PMID:23264518

Jia, Chengguo; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Qiaomei

2013-01-01

178

Structural Requirements for Yersinia YopJ Inhibition of MAP Kinase Pathways  

PubMed Central

MAPK signaling cascades are evolutionally conserved. The bacterial effector, YopJ, uses the unique activity of Ser/Thr acetylation to inhibit the activation of the MAPK kinase (MKK) and prevent activation by phosphorylation. YopJ is also able to block yeast MAPK signaling pathways using this mechanism. Based on these observations, we performed a genetic screen to isolate mutants in the yeast MKK, Pbs2, that suppress YopJ inhibition. One suppressor contains a mutation in a conserved tyrosine residue and bypasses YopJ inhibition by increasing the basal activity of Pbs2. Mutations on the hydrophobic face of the conserved G ?-helix in the kinase domain prevent both binding and acetylation by YopJ. Corresponding mutants in human MKKs showed that they are conserved not only structurally, but also functionally. These studies reveal a conserved binding site found on the superfamily of MAPK kinases while providing insight into the molecular interactions required for YopJ inhibition. PMID:18167536

Burdette, Dara; Mukherjee, Sohini; Keitany, Gladys; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Orth, Kim

2008-01-01

179

Adeno-Associated Virus 2 Infection Requires Endocytosis through the CLIC/GEEC Pathway  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are non-pathogenic, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses in development as gene therapy vectors. AAV internalization was postulated to proceed via a dynamin-dependent endocytic mechanism. Revisiting this, we find that infectious endocytosis of the prototypical AAV, AAV2, is independent of clathrin, caveolin and dynamin. AAV2 infection is sensitive to EIPA, a fluid-phase uptake inhibitor, but is unaffected by Rac1 mutants or other macropinocytosis inhibitors. In contrast, AAV2 infection requires actin cytoskeleton remodeling and membrane cholesterol, and is sensitive to inhibition of Cdc42, Arf1 and GRAF1, factors known to be involved in the formation of clathrin-independent carriers (CLIC). AAV2 virions are internalized in the detergent-resistant GPI-anchored-protein-enriched endosomal compartment (GEEC) and translocated to the Golgi apparatus, similarly to the CLIC/GEEC marker cholera toxin B. Our results indicate that —unlike the viral entry mechanisms described so far— AAV2 uses the pleiomorphic CLIC/GEEC pathway as its major endocytic infection route. PMID:22177561

Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; Weber, Thomas

2011-01-01

180

Lipopolysaccharide-induced Activation of NF-?B Non-Canonical Pathway Requires BCL10 Serine 138 and NIK Phosphorylations  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims B-cell lymphoma / leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-?B (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Experiments were performed in human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in components of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalosome, in order to detect mediators of the non-canonical pathway of NF-?B activation, including nuclear RelB and p52 and phospho- and total NF-?B inducing kinase (NIK). BCL10 was silenced by siRNA and effects of mutations of specific phosphorylation sites of BCL10 (Ser138Gly and Ser218Gly) were determined. Results By the non-canonical pathway, LPS exposure increased nuclear RelB and p52, and phospho-NIK, with no change in total NIK. Phosphorylation of BCL10 Serine 138 was required for NIK phosphorylation, since mutation of this residue eliminated the increases in phospho-NIK and nuclear RelB and p52. Mutations of either Serine 138 or Serine 218 reduced RelA, p50, and phospho-I?B? of the canonical pathway. Effects of LPS stimulation and BCL10 silencing on NIK phosphorylation were demonstrated in confocal images. Conclusions LPS-induces activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-?B in human colonic epithelial cells, and the non-canonical pathway requires phosphorylations of BCL10 (Serine 138) and NIK. These findings demonstrate the important role of BCL10 in mediating LPS-induced inflammation in human colonic epithelial cells and may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:20466000

Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

2010-01-01

181

Multispecific Drug Transporter Slc22a8 (Oat3) Regulates Multiple Metabolic and Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Multispecific drug transporters of the solute carrier and ATP-binding cassette families are highly conserved through evolution, but their true physiologic role remains unclear. Analyses of the organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3; encoded by Slc22a8/Oat3, originally Roct) knockout mouse have confirmed its critical role in the renal handling of common drugs (e.g., antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics) and toxins. Previous targeted metabolomics of the knockout of the closely related Oat1 have demonstrated a central metabolic role, but the same approach with Oat3 failed to reveal a similar set of endogenous substrates. Nevertheless, the Oat3 knockout is the only Oat described so far with a physiologically significant phenotype, suggesting the disturbance of metabolic or signaling pathways. Here we analyzed global gene expression in Oat3 knockout tissue, which implicated OAT3 in phase I and phase II metabolism (drug metabolizing enzymes or DMEs), as well as signaling pathways. Metabolic reconstruction with the recently developed “mouse Recon1” supported the involvement of Oat3 in the aforementioned pathways. Untargeted metabolomics were used to determine whether the predicted metabolic alterations could be confirmed. Many significant changes were observed; several metabolites were tested for direct interaction with mOAT3, whereas others were supported by published data. Oat3 thus appears critical for the handling of phase I (hydroxylation) and phase II (glucuronidation) metabolites. Oat3 also plays a role in bioenergetic pathways (e.g., the tricarboxylic acid cycle), as well as those involving vitamins (e.g., folate), steroids, prostaglandins, gut microbiome products, uremic toxins, cyclic nucleotides, amino acids, glycans, and possibly hyaluronic acid. The data seemingly consistent with the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis (Ahn and Nigam, 2009; Wu et al., 2011), also suggests that Oat3 is essential for the handling of dietary flavonoids and antioxidants. PMID:23920220

Wu, Wei; Jamshidi, Neema; Eraly, Satish A.; Liu, Henry C.; Bush, Kevin T.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

2013-01-01

182

Noise-induced quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes with multiple energy transfer pathways  

E-print Network

We theoretically investigate exciton relaxation dynamics in molecular aggregates based on model photosynthetic complexes under various conditions of incoherent excitation. We show that noise-induced quantum coherence is generated between spatially-separated exciton states which belong to the same or different energy transfer pathways, coupled via real and virtual transfer processes. Such quantum coherence effects may be used to improve light-harvesting efficiency and to reveal quantum phenomena in biology.

Dmitri V. Voronine; Konstantin E. Dorfman; Bin Cao; Amitabh Joshi

2013-12-01

183

Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed

Yingchang Lu; M. E. T. Dollé; Sandra Imholz; R. van't Slot; W. M. M. Verschuren; C. Wijmenga; E. J. M. Feskens; J. M. A. Boer

2008-01-01

184

Analysis of Multiple Sarcoma Expression Datasets: Implications for Classification, Oncogenic Pathway Activation and Chemotherapy Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDiagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is challenging. Many remain unclassified (not-otherwise-specified, NOS) or grouped in controversial categories such as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), with unclear therapeutic value. We analyzed several independent microarray datasets, to identify a predictor, use it to classify unclassifiable sarcomas, and assess oncogenic pathway activation and chemotherapy response.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe analyzed 5 independent datasets (325 tumor arrays).

Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos; Elena Fountzilas; Jeffrey D. Goldsmith; Manoj Bhasin; Kamana Pillay; Nancy Francoeur; Towia A. Libermann; Mark C. Gebhardt; Dimitrios Spentzos

2010-01-01

185

The 3-Hydroxy-2-Butanone Pathway Is Required for Pectobacterium carotovorum Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pectobacterium species are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that cause soft rot diseases in potatoes and several other crops worldwide. Gene expression data identified Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB, which encodes the ?-acetolactate synthase enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway, as more highly expressed in potato tubers than potato stems. This pathway is of interest because volatiles produced by the 2,3-butanediol pathway have been shown to act as plant growth promoting molecules, insect attractants, and, in other bacterial species, affect virulence and fitness. Disruption of the 2,3-butanediol pathway reduced virulence of P. c. subsp. carotovorum WPP14 on potato tubers and impaired alkalinization of growth medium and potato tubers under anaerobic conditions. Alkalinization of the milieu via this pathway may aid in plant cell maceration since Pectobacterium pectate lyases are most active at alkaline pH. PMID:21876734

Marquez-Villavicencio, Maria del Pilar; Weber, Brooke; Witherell, R. Andrews; Willis, David K.; Charkowski, Amy O.

2011-01-01

186

Effect of multiple mutations in tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism pathways on Edwardsiella ictaluri pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). We have shown recently that tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and one-carbon (C1) metabolism are involved in E. ictaluri pathogenesis. However, the effect of multiple mutations in these pathways is unknown. Here, we report four novel E. ictaluri mutants carrying double gene mutations in TCA cycle (Ei?mdh?sdhC, Ei?frdA?sdhC), C1 metabolism (Ei?glyA?gcvP), and both TCA and C1 metabolism pathways (Ei?gcvP?sdhC). In-frame gene deletions were constructed by allelic exchange and mutants' virulence and vaccine efficacy were evaluated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as well as end point mortality counts in catfish fingerlings. Results indicated that all the double gene mutants were attenuated compared to wild-type (wt) E. ictaluri. There was a 1.39-fold average reduction in bioluminescence, and hence bacterial numbers, from all the mutants except for Ei?frdA?sdhC at 144 h post-infection. Vaccination with mutants was very effective in protecting channel catfish against subsequent infection with virulent E. ictaluri 93-146 strain. In particular, immersion vaccination resulted in complete protection. Our results provide further evidence on the importance of TCA and C1 metabolism pathways in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24418045

Dahal, N; Abdelhamed, H; Lu, J; Karsi, A; Lawrence, M L

2014-02-21

187

Multiple signaling pathways regulate contractile activity-mediated PGC-1? gene expression and activity in skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract PGC?1? is an important transcriptional coactivator that plays a key role in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis. Within seconds of the onset of contractile activity, a number of rapid cellular events occur that form part of the initial signaling processes involved in PGC?1? gene regulation, such as elevations in cytoplasmic calcium, AMPK and p38 activation, and elevated ROS production. We observed that basal levels of PGC?1? promoter activity were more sensitive to resting Ca2+ levels, compared to ROS, p38 or, AMPK signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGC?1? transcription and post?translational activity on DNA were a result of the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways during contractile activity of myotubes. AMPK, ROS, and Ca2+ appear to be necessary for the regulation of contractile activity?induced PGC?1? gene expression, governed partly through p38 MAPK and CaMKII activity. Whether these signaling pathways are arranged as a linear sequence of events, or as largely independent pathways during contractile activity, remains to be determined. PMID:24843073

Zhang, Yuan; Uguccioni, Giulia; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Irrcher, Isabella; Iqbal, Sobia; Singh, Kaustabh; Ding, Shuzhe; Hood, David A.

2014-01-01

188

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

Ms.roberts

2009-02-24

189

Reconstruction of sediment transport pathways in modern microtidal sand flat by multiple classification analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we statistically classified the grain size distribution of the bottom surface sediment on a microtidal sand flat to analyze the depositional processes of the sediment. Multiple classification analysis revealed that two types of sediment populations exist in the bottom surface sediment. Then, we employed the sediment trend model developed by Gao and Collins (1992) for the estimation

S. Yamashita; T. Nakajo; H. Naruse

2009-01-01

190

Ginseng saponin metabolite 20(S)-protopanaxadiol inhibits tumor growth by targeting multiple cancer signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived active constituents and their semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs have served as major sources of anticancer drugs. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponin of both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). We previously demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3, a glucoside precursor of PPD, exhibits anti-proliferative effects on HCT116 cells and reduces tumor size in a xenograft model. Our subsequent study indicated that PPD has more potent antitumor activity than that of Rg3 in vitro although the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PPD was shown to inhibit growth and induce cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells. The in vivo studies indicate that PPD inhibits xenograft tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing HCT116 cells. The xenograft tumor size was significantly reduced when the animals were treated with PPD (30 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. When the expression of previously identified Rg3 targets, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8 (AKAP8L) and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein ? (PITPNA), was analyzed, PPD was shown to inhibit the expression of PITPNA while upregulating AKAP8L expression in HCT116 cells. Pathway-specific reporter assays indicated that PPD effectively suppressed the NF-?B, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer activity of PPD in colon cancer cells may be mediated through targeting NF-?B, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, although the detailed mechanisms underlying the anticancer mode of PPD action need to be fully elucidated. PMID:23633038

GAO, JIAN-LI; LV, GUI-YUAN; HE, BAI-CHENG; ZHANG, BING-QIANG; ZHANG, HONGYU; WANG, NING; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; DU, WEI; YUAN, CHUN-SU; HE, TONG-CHUAN

2013-01-01

191

Curcumin suppresses multiple DNA damage response pathways and has potency as a sensitizer to PARP inhibitor.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) are promising anticancer drugs, particularly for the treatment of tumors deficient in the DNA damage response (DDR). However, it is challenging to design effective therapeutic strategies for use of these compounds against cancers without DDR deficiencies. In this context, combination therapies in which PARP inhibitors are used alongside DDR inhibitors have elicited a great deal of interest. Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been tested in clinical studies for its chemosensitizing potential; however, the mechanisms of chemosensitization by curcumin have not been fully elucidated. This study demonstrates that curcumin suppresses three major DDR pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR) and the DNA damage checkpoint. Curcumin suppresses the histone acetylation at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites by inhibiting histone acetyltransferase activity, thereby reducing recruitment of the key NHEJ factor KU70/KU80 to DSB sites. Curcumin also suppresses HR by reducing expression of the BRCA1 gene, which regulates HR, by impairing histone acetylation at the BRCA1 promoter. Curcumin also inhibits ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) kinase (IC50 in vitro = 493 nM), resulting in impaired activation of ATR-CHK1 signaling, which is necessary for HR and the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Thus, curcumin suppresses three DDR pathways by inhibiting histone acetyltransferases and ATR. Concordantly, curcumin sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors by enhancing apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe via inhibition of both the DNA damage checkpoint and DSB repair. Our results indicate that curcumin is a promising sensitizer for PARP inhibitor-based therapy. PMID:23825154

Ogiwara, Hideaki; Ui, Ayako; Shiotani, Bunsyo; Zou, Lee; Yasui, Akira; Kohno, Takashi

2013-11-01

192

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal Multiple Pathways of Ligand Dissociation from Thyroid Hormone Receptors  

PubMed Central

Nuclear receptor (NR) ligands occupy a pocket that lies within the core of the NR ligand-binding domain (LBD), and most NR LBDs lack obvious entry/exit routes upon the protein surface. Thus, significant NR conformational rearrangements must accompany ligand binding and release. The precise nature of these processes, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we utilize locally enhanced sampling (LES) molecular dynamics computer simulations to predict molecular motions of x-ray structures of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) LBDs and determine events that permit ligand escape. We find that the natural ligand 3,5,3?-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) dissociates from the TR?1 LBD along three competing pathways generated through i), opening of helix (H) 12; ii), separation of H8 and H11 and the ?-loop between H2 and H3; and iii), opening of H2 and H3, and the intervening ?-strand. Similar pathways are involved in dissociation of T3 and the TR?-selective ligand GC24 from TR?; the TR agonist IH5 from the ?- and ?-TR forms; and Triac from two natural human TR? mutants, A317T and A234T, but are detected with different frequencies in simulations performed with the different structures. Path I was previously suggested to represent a major pathway for NR ligand dissociation. We propose here that Paths II and III are also likely ligand escape routes for TRs and other NRs. We also propose that different escape paths are preferred in different situations, implying that it will be possible to design NR ligands that only associate stably with their cognate receptors in specific cellular contexts. PMID:15980170

Martinez, Leandro; Sonoda, Milton T.; Webb, Paul; Baxter, John D.; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikarpov, Igor

2005-01-01

193

Molecular dynamics simulations reveal multiple pathways of ligand dissociation from thyroid hormone receptors.  

PubMed

Nuclear receptor (NR) ligands occupy a pocket that lies within the core of the NR ligand-binding domain (LBD), and most NR LBDs lack obvious entry/exit routes upon the protein surface. Thus, significant NR conformational rearrangements must accompany ligand binding and release. The precise nature of these processes, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we utilize locally enhanced sampling (LES) molecular dynamics computer simulations to predict molecular motions of x-ray structures of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) LBDs and determine events that permit ligand escape. We find that the natural ligand 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)) dissociates from the TRalpha1 LBD along three competing pathways generated through i), opening of helix (H) 12; ii), separation of H8 and H11 and the Omega-loop between H2 and H3; and iii), opening of H2 and H3, and the intervening beta-strand. Similar pathways are involved in dissociation of T(3) and the TRbeta-selective ligand GC24 from TRbeta; the TR agonist IH5 from the alpha- and beta-TR forms; and Triac from two natural human TRbeta mutants, A317T and A234T, but are detected with different frequencies in simulations performed with the different structures. Path I was previously suggested to represent a major pathway for NR ligand dissociation. We propose here that Paths II and III are also likely ligand escape routes for TRs and other NRs. We also propose that different escape paths are preferred in different situations, implying that it will be possible to design NR ligands that only associate stably with their cognate receptors in specific cellular contexts. PMID:15980170

Martínez, Leandro; Sonoda, Milton T; Webb, Paul; Baxter, John D; Skaf, Munir S; Polikarpov, Igor

2005-09-01

194

Canonical Wnt signalling requires the BMP pathway to inhibit oligodendrocyte maturation.  

PubMed

OLs (oligodendrocytes) are the myelinating cells of the CNS (central nervous system), wrapping axons in conductive sheathes to ensure effective transmission of neural signals. The regulation of OL development, from precursor to mature myelinating cell, is controlled by a variety of inhibitory and inductive signalling factors. The dorsal spinal cord contains signals that inhibit OL development, possibly to prevent premature and ectopic precursor differentiation. The Wnt and BMP (bone morphogenic protein) signalling pathways have been identified as dorsal spinal cord signals with overlapping temporal activity, and both have similar inhibitory effects on OL differentiation. Both these pathways feature prominently in many developmental processes and demyelinating events after injury, and they are known to interact in complex inductive, inhibitive and synergistic manners in many developing systems. The interaction between BMP and Wnt signalling in OL development, however, has not been extensively explored. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways. We use pharmacological and genetic paradigms to show that both Wnt3a and BMP4 will inhibit OL differentiation in vitro. We also show that when the canonical BMP signalling pathway is blocked, neither Wnt3a nor BMP4 have inhibitory effects on OL differentiation. In contrast, abrogating the Wnt signalling pathway does not alter the actions of BMP4 treatment. Our results indicate that the BMP signalling pathway is necessary for the canonical Wnt signalling pathway to exert its effects on OL development, but not vice versa, suggesting that Wnt signals upstream of BMP. PMID:21599637

Feigenson, Keith; Reid, Mary; See, Jill; Crenshaw III, E Bryan; Grinspan, Judith B

2011-01-01

195

Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.  

PubMed

Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ? 0.77), glove-surface (rp ? 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ? 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures. All previously identified high-risk jobs had high air concentrations, dermal mass loading, or both, and none had low dermal and air. We have found that both pathways are relevant. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a file describing the forms of beryllium materials encountered during production and characteristics of the aerosols by process areas.]. PMID:25357184

Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

2014-12-01

196

Induction of osteoblast differentiation indexes by PTHrP in MG-63 cells involves multiple signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) can modulate the proliferation and differentiation of a number of cell types including osteoblasts. PTHrP can activate a G protein-coupled PTH/PTHrP receptor, which can interface with several second-messenger systems. In the current study, we have examined the signaling pathways involved in stimulated type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase expression in the human osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cells, MG-63. By use of Northern blotting and histochemical analysis, maximum induction of these two markers of osteoblast differentiation occurred after 8 h of treatment with 100 nM PTHrP-(1-34). Chemical inhibitors of adenylate cyclase (H-89) or of protein kinase C (chelerythrine chloride) each diminished PTHrP-mediated type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of PTHrP could also be blocked by inhibiting the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway with a Ras farnesylation inhibitor, B1086, or with a MAPK inhibitor, PD-98059. Transient transfection of MG-63 cells with a mutant form of Galpha, which can sequester betagamma-subunits, showed significant downregulation of PTHrP-stimulated type I collagen expression, as did inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) by wortmannin. Consequently, the betagamma-PI 3-kinase pathway may be involved in PTHrP stimulation of Ras. Collectively, these results demonstrate that, acting via its G protein-coupled receptor, PTHrP can induce indexes of osteoblast differentiation by utilizing multiple, perhaps parallel, signaling pathways. PMID:11500304

Carpio, L; Gladu, J; Goltzman, D; Rabbani, S A

2001-09-01

197

NFAT5 regulates the canonical Wnt pathway and is required for cardiomyogenic differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFAT5 protein expression is downregulated during cardiomyogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NFAT5 function suppresses canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NFAT5 function attenuates mesodermal induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFAT5 function is required for cardiomyogenesis. -- Abstract: While nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a transcription factor implicated in osmotic stress response, is suggested to be involved in other processes such as migration and proliferation, its role in cardiomyogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells, and observed that it was abundantly expressed in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells, and its protein expression was significantly downregulated by enhanced proteasomal degradation during DMSO-induced cardiomyogenesis. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of NFAT5 markedly attenuated cardiomyogenesis, which was associated with the inhibition of mesodermal differentiation. TOPflash reporter assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of canonical Wnt signaling was activated prior to mesodermal differentiation, and this activation was markedly attenuated by NFAT5 inhibition. Pharmacological activation of canonical Wnt signaling by [2 Prime Z, 3 Prime E]-6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (BIO) restored Brachyury expression in NFAT5DN-expressing cells. Inhibition of NFAT5 markedly attenuated Wnt3 and Wnt3a induction. Expression of Dkk1 and Cerberus1, which are secreted Wnt antagonists, was also inhibited by NFAT5 inhibition. Thus, endogenous NFAT5 regulates the coordinated expression of Wnt ligands and antagonists, which are essential for cardiomyogenesis through the canonical Wnt pathway. These results demonstrated a novel role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of stem cells.

Adachi, Atsuo [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomosaburo, E-mail: ttaka@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Ogata, Takehiro; Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Ueyama, Tomomi, E-mail: toueyama-circ@umin.ac.jp [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan); Matsubara, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)] [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)

2012-09-28

198

Requirement for the plastidial oxidative pentose phosphate pathway for nitrate assimilation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Sugar metabolism and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) are strongly implicated in N assimilation, although the relationship between them and the roles of the plastidial and cytosolic OPPP have not been established genetically. We studied a knock-down mutant of the plastid-localized OPPP enzyme 6-phosphogluconolactonase 3 (PGL3). pgl3-1 plants exhibited relatively greater resource allocation to roots but were smaller than the wild type. They had a lower content of amino acids and free NO3 - in leaves than the wild type, despite exhibiting comparable photosynthetic rates and efficiency, and normal levels of many other primary metabolites. When N-deprived plants were fed via the roots with 15NO3 -, pgl3-1 exhibited normal induction of OPPP and nitrate assimilation genes in roots, and amino acids in roots and shoots were labeled with (15) N at least as rapidly as in the wild type. However, when N-replete plants were fed via the roots with sucrose, expression of specific OPPP and N assimilation genes in roots increased in the wild type but not in pgl3-1. Thus, sugar-dependent expression of N assimilation genes requires OPPP activity and the specificity of the effect of the pgl3-1 mutation on N assimilation genes establishes that it is not the result of general energy deficiency or accumulation of toxic intermediates. We conclude that expression of specific nitrate assimilation genes in the nucleus of root cells is positively regulated by a signal emanating from OPPP activity in the plastid. PMID:23621281

Bussell, John D; Keech, Olivier; Fenske, Ricarda; Smith, Steven M

2013-08-01

199

Axon regeneration requires coordinate activation of p38 and JNK MAPK pathways.  

PubMed

Signaling pathways essential for axon regeneration, but not for neuron development or function, are particularly well suited targets for therapeutic intervention. We find that the parallel PMK-3(p38) and KGB-1(JNK) MAPK pathways must be coordinately activated to promote axon regeneration. Axon regeneration fails if the activity of either pathway is absent. These two MAPKs are coregulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase RPM-1(Phr1) via targeted degradation of the MAPKKKs DLK-1 and MLK-1 and by the MAPK phosphatase VHP-1(MKP7), which negatively regulates both PMK-3(p38) and KGB-1(JNK). PMID:21670305

Nix, Paola; Hisamoto, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Bastiani, Michael

2011-06-28

200

Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver  

PubMed Central

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver. PMID:21276474

Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Blum, Jason L.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

2011-01-01

201

The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 alters multiple signaling pathways to inhibit natural killer cell death  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18), is a natural killer (NK) cell activator that induces NK cell cytotoxicity and interferon-?? (IFN-??) expression. In this report, we define a novel role for IL-18 as an NK cell protective agent. Specifically, IL-18 prevents NK cell death initiated by different and distinct stress mechanisms. IL-18 reduces NK cell self-destruction during NK-targeted cell killing, and in the presence of staurosporin, a potent apoptotic inducer, IL-18 reduces caspase-3 activity. The critical regulatory step in this process is downstream of the mitochondrion and involves reduced cleavage and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The ability of IL-18 to regulate cell survival is not limited to a caspase death pathway in that IL-18 augments tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, resulting in increased and prolonged mRNA expression of c-apoptosis inhibitor 2 (cIAP2), a prosurvival factor and caspase-3 inhibitor, and TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a prosurvival protein. The cumulative effects of IL-18 define a novel role for this cytokine as a molecular survival switch that functions to both decrease cell death through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and enhance TNF induction of prosurvival factors. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Hodge, D. L.; Subleski, J. J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Buschman, M. D.; Schill, W. B.; Burkett, M. W.; Malyguine, A. M.; Young, H. A.

2006-01-01

202

Thermal, Chemical and pH Induced Denaturation of a Multimeric ?-Galactosidase Reveals Multiple Unfolding Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background In this case study, we analysed the properties of unfolded states and pathways leading to complete denaturation of a multimeric chick pea ?-galactosidase (CpGAL), as obtained from treatment with guanidium hydrochloride, urea, elevated temperature and extreme pH. Methodology/Principal Findings CpGAL, a heterodimeric protein with native molecular mass of 85 kDa, belongs to ?+? class of protein. The conformational stability and thermodynamic parameters of CpGAL unfolding in different states were estimated and interpreted using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. The enzyme was found to be structurally and functionally stable in the entire pH range and upto 50°C temperature. Further increase in temperature induces unfolding followed by aggregation. Chemical induced denaturation was found to be cooperative and transitions were irreversible, non-coincidental and sigmoidal. Free energy of protein unfolding (?G0) and unfolding constant (Kobs) were also calculated for chemically denatured CpGAL. Significance The protein seems to use different pathways for unfolding in different environments and is a classical example of how the environment dictates the path a protein might take to fold while its amino acid sequence only defines its final three-dimensional conformation. The knowledge accumulated could be of immense biotechnological significance as well. PMID:23185611

Kishore, Devesh; Kundu, Suman; Kayastha, Arvind M.

2012-01-01

203

The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is centrally located, linking proximal oncogenic cascades to critical downstream pathways that drive tumor growth. mTOR regulates such diverse functions as protein translation, proliferation, viability, autophagy, metabolism homeostasis, monitoring of energy reserves, and induction of angiogenesis. Given its fundamental role in tumorigenesis, it is not surprising that a huge effort is being made to develop mTOR inhibitors. The existence of feedback pathways that become activated subsequent to mTOR inhibition has complicated these efforts. However, the fact that mTOR exists in two separate complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, and rapalogs primarily inhibit only TORC1 and TORC2 is actually a key activator of AKT, has injected new energy into the quest to find inhibitors that can inhibit both complexes. In myeloma models, preclinical studies confirm the activity of rapalogs as well as newer TORC1/TORC2 inhibitors, and early phase clinical trials have begun. In addition, the recent finding of up-regulated myeloma cell expression of DEPTOR, an mTOR binding protein that restricts mTOR activity, suggests an additional future therapeutic target specific to the myeloma tumor model. PMID:21599581

Gera, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alan

2011-10-01

204

Multiple Pathways Suppress Non-Allelic Homologous Recombination during Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Recombination during meiosis in the form of crossover events promotes the segregation of homologous chromosomes by providing the only physical linkage between these chromosomes. Recombination occurs not only between allelic sites but also between non-allelic (ectopic) sites. Ectopic recombination is often suppressed to prevent non-productive linkages. In this study, we examined the effects of various mutations in genes involved in meiotic recombination on ectopic recombination during meiosis. RAD24, a DNA damage checkpoint clamp-loader gene, suppressed ectopic recombination in wild type in the same pathway as RAD51. In the absence of RAD24, a meiosis-specific recA homolog, DMC1, suppressed the recombination. Homology search and strand exchange in ectopic recombination occurred when either the RAD51 or the DMC1 recA homolog was absent, but was promoted by RAD52. Unexpectedly, the zip1 mutant, which is defective in chromosome synapsis, showed a decrease, rather than an increase, in ectopic recombination. Our results provide evidence for two types of ectopic recombination: one that occurs in wild-type cells and a second that occurs predominantly when the checkpoint pathway is inactivated. PMID:23646187

Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira

2013-01-01

205

The Drosophila Nbs Protein Functions in Multiple Pathways for the Maintenance of Genome Stability  

PubMed Central

The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs (MRN) complex and the two protein kinases ATM and ATR play critical roles in the response to DNA damage and telomere maintenance in mammalian systems. It has been previously shown that mutations in the Drosophila mre11 and rad50 genes cause both telomere fusion and chromosome breakage. Here, we have analyzed the role of the Drosophila nbs gene in telomere protection and the maintenance of chromosome integrity. Larval brain cells of nbs mutants display telomeric associations (TAs) but the frequency of these TAs is lower than in either mre11 or rad50 mutants. Consistently, Rad50 accumulates in the nuclei of wild-type cells but not in those of nbs cells, indicating that Nbs mediates transport of the Mre11/Rad50 complex in the nucleus. Moreover, epistasis analysis revealed that rad50 nbs, tefu (ATM) nbs, and mei-41 (ATR) nbs double mutants have significantly higher frequencies of TAs than either of the corresponding single mutants. This suggests that Nbs and the Mre11/Rad50 complex play partially independent roles in telomere protection and that Nbs functions in both ATR- and ATM-controlled telomere protection pathways. In contrast, analysis of chromosome breakage indicated that the three components of the MRN complex function in a single pathway for the repair of the DNA damage leading to chromosome aberrations. PMID:16648644

Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Gatti, Maurizio

2006-01-01

206

The Effect of Multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Folic Acid Pathway Genes on Homocysteine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the joint effects of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in the folic acid pathway on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Methods. Four hundred women with normal pregnancies were enrolled in this study. SNPs were identified by MassARRAY. Serum folic acid and Hcy concentration were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and support vector machine (SVM) regressions were used to analyze the joint effects of SNPs on the Hcy level. Results. SNPs of MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs3733965) were significantly associated with maternal serum Hcy level. In the different genotypes of MTHFR (rs1801133), SNPs of RFC1 (rs1051266), TCN2 (rs9606756), BHMT (rs3733890), and CBS (rs234713 and rs2851391) were linked with the Hcy level adjusted for folic acid concentration. The integrated SNPs scores were significantly associated with the residual Hcy concentration (RHC) (r = 0.247). The Hcy level was significantly higher in the group with high SNP scores than that in other groups with SNP scores of less than 0.2 (P = 0.000). Moreover, this difference was even more significant in moderate and high levels of folic acid. Conclusion. SNPs of genes in the folic acid pathway possibly affect the Hcy metabolism in the presence of moderate and high levels of folic acid. PMID:24524080

Liang, Shuang; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Wang, Huijun; Qian, Yanyan; Ma, Duan; Tian, Weidong; Persaud-Sharma, Vishwani; Yu, Chen; Ren, Yunyun; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

2014-01-01

207

Targeting Cdc37 inhibits multiple signaling pathways and induces growth arrest in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Members of the 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) family are known to bind and stabilize intermediates in a wide variety of cell signaling pathways and contribute to their dysregulation in cancer. An important intracellular cofactor for HSP90 is Cdc37, a protein with a broad role in fostering the activities of protein kinases. By targeting Cdc37 using RNA interference, we have shown that the loss of Cdc37 function induces irreversible growth arrest in androgen receptor-positive and -negative prostate carcinoma cells. In contrast to HSP90-directed agents, Cdc37 targeting seems to affect cancer cells through a distinct mechanism and does not significantly deplete the intracellular levels of most known HSP90 client proteins. Instead, Cdc37 depletion inhibits cellular kinase activity and flux through growth-promoting signal transduction cascades. We show that the loss of Cdc37 leads to reduced activity of the Erk, Akt, mTOR, and androgen-induced pathways. We have also discovered synergistic interactions between Cdc37 inactivation and the HSP90-inhibitory anticancer drug 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG). These interactions involve enhanced degradation of proteins essential for growth and inhibition of 17AAG-induced expression of the antiapoptotic HSP70. Thus, Cdc37 is essential for maintaining prostate tumor cell growth and may represent a novel target in the search for multitargeted therapies based on the HSP90 chaperone system. PMID:18089825

Gray, Phillip J; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Calderwood, Stuart K

2007-12-15

208

Low antioxidant concentrations impact on multiple signalling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana partly through NPR1  

PubMed Central

Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is linked to signalling in both developmental and stress responses. The level of ROS is controlled by both production and removal through various scavengers including ascorbic acid and glutathione. Here, the role of low ascorbic acid or glutathione concentrations was investigated on ozone-induced cell death, defence signalling, and developmental responses. Low ascorbic acid concentrations in vtc1 activated expression of salicylic acid (SA)-regulated genes, a response found to be dependent on the redox-regulated transcriptional co-regulator NPR1. In contrast, low glutathione concentrations in cad2 or pad2 reduced expression of SA-regulated genes. Testing different responses to jasmonic acid (JA) revealed the presence of at least two separate JA signalling pathways. Treatment of the vtc1 mutant with JA led to hyper-induction of MONODEHYDROASCORBATE REDUCTASE3, indicating that low ascorbic acid concentrations prime the response to JA. Furthermore, NPR1 was found to be a positive regulator of JA-induced expression of MDHAR3 and TAT3. The vtc1 and npr1 mutants were sensitive to glucose inhibition of seed germination; an opposite response was found in cad2 and pad2. Overall, low ascorbic acid concentrations mostly led to opposite phenotypes to low glutathione concentrations, and both antioxidants interacted with SA and JA signalling pathways. PMID:22213815

Brosche, Mikael; Kangasjarvi, Jaakko

2012-01-01

209

A randomized algorithm for finding a path subject to multiple QoS requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning in integrated networks is the ability to find a feasible route that satisfies a set of end-to-end QoS requirements (or constraints) while efficiently using network resources. In general, finding a path subject to multiple additive constraints (e.g., delay, delay-jitter) is an NP-complete problem. We propose an efficient randomized heuristic algorithm to this problem.

Turgay Korkmaz; Marwan Krunz

2001-01-01

210

Randomness Requirement on CHSH Bell Test in the Multiple Run Scenario  

E-print Network

The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality test is widely used as a mean of invalidating the local deterministic theories and a tool of device independent quantum cryptographic tasks. There exists a randomness (freewill) loophole in the test, which is widely believed impossible to be closed perfectly. That is, certain random inputs are required for the test. Following a randomness quantification method used in literature, we investigate the randomness required in the test under various assumptions. By comparing the results, one can conclude that the key to make the test result reliable is to rule out correlations between multiple runs.

Xiao Yuan; Zhu Cao; Xiongfeng Ma

2014-09-28

211

The requirement for sodium as a micronutrient by species having the c(4) dicarboxylic photosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

Six species having characteristics of plants with the C(4) dicarboxylic photosynthetic pathway, Echinochloa utilis L. Ohwi et Yabuno (Japanese millet), Cynodon dactylon L. (Bermuda grass), Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb., Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. Early splendour, Kochia childsii Hort., and Portulaca grandiflora Hook (rose moss), responded decisively to 0.1 milliequivalent per liter NaCl supplied to their culture solutions initially containing less than 0.08 microequivalent per liter Na. Chlorosis and necrosis occurred in leaves of plants not receiving sodium. Portulaca failed to set flower in the sodium-deficient cultures. Under similar conditions Poa pratensis L. (Kentucky blue grass) having characteristics of the C(3) photosynthetic pathway made normal growth and did not respond to the addition of sodium. It is concluded from these results and previously reported work that sodium is generally essential for species having the C(4) pathway but not for species with the C(3) pathway. PMID:16658050

Brownell, P F; Crossland, C J

1972-05-01

212

Life Stress, Genes, and Depression: Multiple Pathways Lead to Increased Risk and New Opportunities for Intervention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This STKE Review with 2 figures and 122 references concerns the interaction between stress, genetic factors, and vulnerability to depression. Evidence suggests that the combination of genetics, early life stress, and ongoing stress determine how an individual responds to stress and his vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, such as depression. It is likely that genetic factors and life stress contribute not only to alterations in various neurotransmitter systems, but also to the impairments of cellular plasticity and resilience that are observed in depression. Increased understanding of the specific cellular and neurochemical alterations that contribute to depression, and of the intracellular signaling pathways that underlie cellular plasticity and resilience, may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and, therefore, to the development of novel antidepressant therapies.

Dennis S. Charney (National Institute of Mental Health;Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Program REV); Husseini K. Manji (National Institute of Mental Health;Laboratory of Molecular Pathophysiology REV)

2004-03-23

213

Trafficking of malarial proteins to the host cell cytoplasm and erythrocyte surface membrane involves multiple pathways  

PubMed Central

During the asexual stage of malaria infection, the intracellular parasite exports membranes into the erythrocyte cytoplasm and lipids and proteins to the host cell membrane, essentially "transforming" the erythrocyte. To investigate lipid and protein trafficking pathways within Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, synchronous cultures are temporally analyzed by confocal fluorescence imaging microscopy for the production, location and morphology of exported membranes (vesicles) and parasite proteins. Highly mobile vesicles are observed as early as 4 h postinvasion in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes incubated in vitro with C6-NBD-labeled phospholipids. These vesicles are most prevalent in the trophozoite stage. An immunofluorescence technique is developed to simultaneously determine the morphology and distribution of the fluorescent membranes and a number of parasite proteins within a single parasitized erythrocyte. Parasite proteins are visualized with FITC- or Texas red- labeled monoclonal antibodies. Double-label immunofluorescence reveals that of the five parasite antigens examined, only one was predominantly associated with membranes in the erythrocyte cytoplasm. Two other parasite antigens localized only in part to these vesicles, with the majority of the exported antigens present in lipid-free aggregates in the host cell cytoplasm. Another parasite antigen transported into the erythrocyte cytoplasm is localized exclusively in lipid-free aggregates. A parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and/or parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) antigen which is not exported always colocalizes with fluorescent lipids in the PPM/PVM. Visualization of two parasite proteins simultaneously using FITC- and Texas red-labeled 2 degrees antibodies reveals that some parasite proteins are constitutively transported in the same vesicles, whereas other are segregated before export. Of the four exported antigens, only one appears to cross the barriers of the PPM and PVM through membrane- mediated events, whereas the others are exported across the PPM/PVM to the host cell cytoplasm and surface membrane through lipid (vesicle)- independent pathways. PMID:1469045

1992-01-01

214

Multiple signaling pathways are responsible for prostaglandin E2-induced murine keratinocyte proliferation  

PubMed Central

Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown by pharmacological and genetic studies to be important in skin cancer, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it contributes to tumor growth is not well understood. In this study we investigated the mechanisms by which PGE2 stimulates murine keratinocyte proliferation using in vitro and in vivo models. In primary mouse keratinocyte (PMK) cultures, PGE2 activated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways as well as increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and activated the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). EGFR activation was not significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a c-src inhibitor (PP2), nor by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89). However, PGE2-stimulated extracellularly-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was completely blocked by EGFR, ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway inhibitors. In addition, these inhibitors attenuated the PGE2-induced proliferation, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and CREB binding to the promoter regions of the cyclin D1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF in PMKs. Similarly, in vivo, we found that wild type (WT) mice treated with PGE2 and untreated COX-2 overexpressing transgenic mice had higher levels of cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF, as well as higher levels of activated EGFR, NF-?B, AP-1 and CREB, than vehicle-treated WT mice. Our findings provide evidence for a link between COX-2 overexpression and EGFR-, ERK-, PI3-K-, cAMP-mediated cell proliferation, and the tumor promoting activity of PGE2 in mouse skin. PMID:18567804

Ansari, Kausar M.; Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

2008-01-01

215

Multiple turnovers of the nicotino-enzyme PdxB require ?-keto acids as cosubstrates.  

PubMed

PdxB catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal phosphate by oxidizing 4-phospho-d-erythronate (4PE) to 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoate (OHPB) with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. PdxB is a nicotino-enzyme wherein the NAD(H) cofactor remains tightly bound to PdxB. It has been a mystery how PdxB performs multiple turnovers since addition of free NAD(+) does not reoxidize the enzyme-bound NADH following conversion of 4PE to OHPB. We have solved this mystery by demonstrating that a variety of physiologically available ?-keto acids serve as oxidants of PdxB to sustain multiple turnovers. In a coupled assay using the next two enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway for pyridoxal phosphate (SerC and PdxA), we have found that ?-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetic acid, and pyruvate are equally good substrates for PdxB (k(cat)/K(m) values ~1 × 10(4) M?¹s?¹). The kinetic parameters for the substrate 4PE include a k(cat) of 1.4 s?¹, a K(m) of 2.9 ?M, and a k(cat)/K(m) of 6.7 × 10(6) M?¹s?¹. Additionally, we have characterized the stereochemistry of ?-ketoglutarate reduction by showing that d-2-HGA, but not l-2-HGA, is a competitive inhibitor vs 4PE and a noncompetitive inhibitor vs ?-ketoglutarate. PMID:20831184

Rudolph, Johannes; Kim, Juhan; Copley, Shelley D

2010-11-01

216

Epithelial barrier assembly requires coordinated activity of multiple domains of the tight junction protein ZO-1  

PubMed Central

Summary Tight junctions (TJs) regulate the paracellular movement of ions, macromolecules and immune cells across epithelia. Zonula occludens (ZO)-1 is a multi-domain polypeptide required for the assembly of TJs. MDCK II cells lacking ZO-1, and its homolog ZO-2, have three distinct phenotypes: reduced localization of occludin and some claudins to the TJs, increased epithelial permeability, and expansion of the apical actomyosin contractile array found at the apical junction complex (AJC). However, it is unclear exactly which ZO-1 binding domains are required to coordinate these activities. We addressed this question by examining the ability of ZO-1 domain-deletion transgenes to reverse the effects of ZO depletion. We found that the SH3 domain and the U5 motif are required to recruit ZO-1 to the AJC and that localization is a prerequisite for normal TJ and cytoskeletal organization. The PDZ2 domain is not required for localization of ZO-1 to the AJC, but is necessary to establish the characteristic continuous circumferential band of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-2. PDZ2 is also required to establish normal permeability, but is not required for normal cytoskeletal organization. Finally, our results demonstrate that PDZ1 is crucial for the normal organization of both the TJ and the AJC cytoskeleton. Our results establish that ZO-1 acts as a true scaffolding protein and that the coordinated activity of multiple domains is required for normal TJ structure and function. PMID:23418357

Rodgers, Laurel S.; Beam, M. Tanner; Anderson, James M.; Fanning, Alan S.

2013-01-01

217

M402, a Novel Heparan Sulfate Mimetic, Targets Multiple Pathways Implicated in Tumor Progression and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic, designed to inhibit multiple factors implicated in tumor-host cell interactions, including VEGF, FGF2, SDF-1?, P-selectin, and heparanase. A single s.c. dose of M402 effectively inhibited seeding of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the lung in an experimental metastasis model. Fluorescent-labeled M402 demonstrated selective accumulation in the primary tumor. Immunohistological analyses of the primary tumor revealed a decrease in microvessel density in M402 treated animals, suggesting anti-angiogenesis to be one of the mechanisms involved in-vivo. M402 treatment also normalized circulating levels of myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice. Chronic administration of M402, alone or in combination with cisplatin or docetaxel, inhibited spontaneous metastasis and prolonged survival in an orthotopic 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. These data demonstrate that modulating HSPG biology represents a novel approach to target multiple factors involved in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:21698156

Cochran, Edward; Zouaoui, Radouane; Chu, Chia Lin; Duffner, Jay; Zhao, Ganlin; Smith, Sean; Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Karlgren, Juliane; Dussault, Nancy; Kwan, Rain Y. Q.; Moy, Erick; Barnes, Marishka; Long, Alison; Honan, Chris; Qi, Yi Wei; Shriver, Zachary; Ganguly, Tanmoy; Schultes, Birgit; Venkataraman, Ganesh; Kishimoto, Takashi Kei

2011-01-01

218

Multiple Smaller Missions as a Direct Pathway to Mars Sample Return  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent discoveries by the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft include multiple, tantalizing astrobiological targets representing both past and present environments on Mars. The most desirable path to Mars Sample Return (MSR) would be to collect and return samples from that site which provides the clearest examples of the variety of rock types considered a high priority for sample return (pristine igneous, sedimentary, and hydrothermal). Here we propose an MSR architecture in which the next steps (potentially launched in 2018) would entail a series of smaller missions, including caching, to multiple landing sites to verify the presence of high priority sample return targets through in situ analyses. This alternative architecture to one flagship-class sample caching mission to a single site would preserve a direct path to MSR as stipulated by the Planetary Decadal Survey, while permitting investigation of diverse deposit types and providing comparison of the site of returned samples to other aqueous environments on early Mars

Niles, P. B.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Graham, L. D.; Jones, J. H.; Lederer, S. M.; Ming, D.; Seaman, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bourke, M. C.; Crown, D. A.; Fries, M.; Knudson, A. T.; Michalski, J.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Vaniman, D.; Weitz, C. M.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Knauth, L. P.

2012-01-01

219

Hsp104 targets multiple intermediates on the amyloid pathway and suppresses the seeding capacity of Abeta fibrils and protofibrils.  

PubMed

The heat shock protein Hsp104 has been reported to possess the ability to modulate protein aggregation and toxicity and to "catalyze" the disaggregation and recovery of protein aggregates, including amyloid fibrils, in yeast, Escherichia coli, mammalian cell cultures, and animal models of Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. To provide mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp104 modulates aggregation and fibrillogenesis, the effect of Hsp104 on the fibrillogenesis of amyloid beta (Abeta) was investigated by characterizing its ability to interfere with oligomerization and fibrillogenesis of different species along the amyloid-formation pathway of Abeta. To probe the disaggregation activity of Hsp104, its ability to dissociate preformed protofibrillar and fibrillar aggregates of Abeta was assessed in the presence and in the absence of ATP. Our results show that Hsp104 inhibits the fibrillization of monomeric and protofibrillar forms of Abeta in a concentration-dependent but ATP-independent manner. Inhibition of Abeta fibrillization by Hsp104 is observable up to Hsp104/Abeta stoichiometric ratios of 1:1000, suggesting a preferential interaction of Hsp104 with aggregation intermediates (e.g., oligomers, protofibrils, small fibrils) on the pathway of Abeta amyloid formation. This hypothesis is consistent with our observations that Hsp104 (i) interacts with Abeta protofibrils, (ii) inhibits conversion of protofibrils into amyloid fibrils, (iii) arrests fibril elongation and reassembly, and (iv) abolishes the capacity of protofibrils and sonicated fibrils to seed the fibrillization of monomeric Abeta. Together, these findings suggest that the strong inhibition of Abeta fibrillization by Hsp104 is mediated by its ability to act at different stages and target multiple intermediates on the pathway to amyloid formation. PMID:18851977

Arimon, Muriel; Grimminger, Valerie; Sanz, Fausto; Lashuel, Hilal A

2008-12-31

220

A role for the TIM-3/GAL-9/BAT3 pathway in determining the clinical phenotype of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) ligates galectin-9 (Gal-9); this process, resulting in the inhibition of Th1 responses and in the apoptosis of antigen-specific cells, is hampered by binding of the molecular adaptor human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B)-associated transcript 3 (Bat3) to the intracellular tail of Tim-3. Apoptosis of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T lymphocytes correlates with reduced rates of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). We extensively analyzed the Tim-3/Gal-9/Bat3 pathway in 87 patients with a diagnosis of stable relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), or benign MS (BEMS), as well as in 40 healthy control (HC) subjects. Results showed that MBP-specific CD4(+)Tim-3(+), CD4(+)/Gal-9(+), and CD4(+)/Tim-3(+)/AV(+) (apoptotic) T lymphocytes were augmented in the BEMS group, whereas CD4(+)/Bat3(+) and CD8(+)/Bat3(+) T lymphocytes were increased and CD4(+)/Tim-3(+)/AV(+) T cells were reduced in the PPMS group (>2 fold and P<0.05 in all cases). Blocking the Tim-3/Gal-9 interaction with specific mAb reduced T-lymphocyte apoptosis and augmented production of IFN? and IL-17 in the BEMS, RRMS, and HC groups, but not in the PPMS group. The Tim-3/Gal-9 interaction favors apoptosis of MBP-specific T lymphocytes in BEMS; this process is reduced in PPMS by the up-regulation of Bat3. Therapeutic interventions aimed at silencing Bat3 could be beneficial in MS.-Saresella, M., Piancone, F., Marventano, I., La Rosa, F., Tortorella, P., Caputo, D., Rovaris, M., Clerici, M. A role for the TIM-3/GAL-9/BAT3 pathway in determining the clinical phenotype of multiple sclerosis. PMID:25091272

Saresella, Marina; Piancone, Federica; Marventano, Ivana; La Rosa, Francesca; Tortorella, Paola; Caputo, Domenico; Rovaris, Marco; Clerici, Mario

2014-11-01

221

Compound K, a Ginsenoside Metabolite, Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth via Multiple Pathways Including p53-p21 Interactions.  

PubMed

Compound K (20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC. PMID:23434653

Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Li, Zejuan; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Bissonnette, Marc; Musch, Mark W; Chang, Eugene B; Yuan, Chun-Su

2013-01-01

222

Piper cubeba targets multiple aspects of the androgen-signalling pathway. A potential phytotherapy against prostate cancer growth?  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer (PC) in the Western world, there is a dearth of effective medication. Since the androgen-signalling pathway is very much involved in PC growth and development, we investigated the potential of Piper cubeba L. extract, P9605, in targeting multiple events simultaneously within this pathway. This may be more effective compared to an antiandrogen monotherapy. Our results indicated that P9605 inhibited proliferation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. This antigrowth effect was less pronounced in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. P9605 potently inhibited 5 alpha-reductase II activity, which is responsible for converting testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the prostate. It also acted as an antagonist at recombinant wild-type androgen receptors (AR). P9605 suppressed cell growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion stimulated by physiological concentrations of DHT in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, it down-regulated AR levels. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P9605 may potentially retard the growth of androgen-dependent PC via several mechanisms. PMID:18080233

Yam, Jianying; Kreuter, Matthias; Drewe, Juergen

2008-01-01

223

Multiple pathways are involved in DNA degradation during keratinocyte terminal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. PMID:24743736

Yamamoto-Tanaka, M; Makino, T; Motoyama, A; Miyai, M; Tsuboi, R; Hibino, T

2014-01-01

224

Chemical Modification and Degradation of Atrazine in Medicago sativa through Multiple Pathways.  

PubMed

Atrazine is a member of the triazine herbicide family intensively used to control weeds for crop production. In this study, atrazine residues and its degraded products in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were characterized using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS. Most of atrazine absorbed in plants was found as chemically modified derivatives like deisopropylated atrazine (DIA), dehydrogenated atrazine (DHA), or methylated atrazine (MEA), and some atrazine derivatives were conjugated through different functional groups such as sugar, glutathione, and amino acids. Interestingly, the specific conjugates DHA+hGSH (homoglutathione) and MEA-HCl+hGSH in alfalfa were detected. These results suggest that atrazine in alfalfa can be degraded through different pathways. The increased activities of glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were determined to support the atrazine degradation models. The outcome of the work uncovered the detailed mechanism for the residual atrazine accumulation and degradation in alfalfa and will help to evaluate whether the crop is suitable to be cultivated in the atrazine-polluted soil. PMID:25226578

Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Yang, Hong

2014-10-01

225

The intersections between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation: implications for multiple signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Summary A paradigm-changing discovery in biology came about when it was found that nuclear and cytosolic proteins could be dynamically glycosylated with a single O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety. O-GlcNAcylation is akin to phosphorylation: it occurs on serine and/or threonine side chains of proteins, and cycles rapidly upon cellular activation. O-GlcNAc and phosphate show a complex interplay: they can either competitively occupy a single site or proximal sites, or noncompetitively occupy different sites on a substrate. Phosphorylation regulates O-GlcNAc-cycling enzymes and, conversely, O-GlcNAcylation controls phosphate-cycling enzymes. Such crosstalk is evident in all compartments of the cell, a finding that is congruent with the fundamental role of O-GlcNAc in regulating nutrient- and stress-induced signal transduction. O-GlcNAc transferase is recruited to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and is targeted to substrates by forming transient holoenzyme complexes that have different specificities. Cytosolic O-GlcNAcylation is important for the proper transduction of signaling cascades such as the NF?B pathway, whereas nuclear O-GlcNAc is crucial for regulating the activity of numerous transcription factors. This Commentary focuses on recent findings supporting an emerging concept that continuous crosstalk between phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation is essential for the control of vital cellular processes and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie certain neuropathologies. PMID:20016062

Zeidan, Quira; Hart, Gerald W.

2010-01-01

226

Cell differentiation along multiple pathways accompanied by changes in histone acetylation status.  

PubMed

Post-translational modification of histones is fundamental to the regulation of basic nuclear processes and subsequent cellular events, including differentiation. In this study, we analyzed acetylated forms of histones H2A, H2B, and H4 during induced differentiation in mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) embryonic stem cells and during induced enterocytic differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Endoderm-like differentiation of mESCs induced by retinoic acid and enterocytic differentiation induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate were accompanied by increased mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of histone H2B and a pronounced increase in di- and tri-acetylation of histone H4. In enterocytes, mono-acetylation of histone H2A also increased and tetra-acetylation of histone H4 appeared only after induction of this differentiation pathway. During differentiation of hESCs, we observed increased mono-acetylation and decreased tri-acetylation of H2B. Mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of H4 were reduced, manifested by a significant increase in nonacetylated H4 histones. Levels of acetylated histones increased during induced differentiation in mESCs and during histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced enterocytic differentiation, whereas differentiation of human ESCs was associated with reduced acetylation of histones H2B and H4. PMID:24697692

Legartová, So?a; Kozubek, Stanislav; Franek, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Martinet, Nadine; Bártová, Eva

2014-04-01

227

Simulating multiple merger pathways to the central kinematics of early-type galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional integral field surveys such as ATLAS3D are producing rich observational data sets yielding insights into galaxy formation. These new kinematic observations have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanisms leading to a spectrum of fast rotators and slow rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamical simulations, sampling idealized galaxy merger scenarios constructed from model spiral galaxies. Idealized and controlled simulations of this sort complement the more `realistic' cosmological simulations by isolating and analysing the effects of specific parameters, as we do in this paper. We recreate minor and major binary mergers, binary merger trees with multiple progenitors, and multiple sequential mergers. Within each of these categories of formation history, we correlate progenitor gas fraction, mass ratio, orbital pericentre, orbital ellipticity, and spin with remnant kinematic properties. We create kinematic profiles of these 95 simulations comparable to ATLAS3D data. By constructing remnant profiles of the projected specific angular momentum (? _R= < R|V|rangle / < R ?{V^2+? ^2}rangle), triaxiality, and measuring the incidences of kinematic twists and kinematically decoupled cores, we distinguish between varying formation scenarios. We find that binary mergers nearly always form fast rotators. Slow rotators can be formed from zero initial angular momentum configurations and gas-poor mergers, but are not as round as the ATLAS3D galaxies. Remnants of binary merger trees are triaxial slow rotators. Sequential mergers form round slow rotators that most resemble the ATLAS3D rotators.

Moody, Christopher E.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Novak, G. S.; Primack, Joel R.

2014-10-01

228

Diosgenin inhibits superoxide generation in FMLP-activated mouse neutrophils via multiple pathways.  

PubMed

Abstract Diosgenin possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Activated neutrophils produce high concentrations of the superoxide anion which is involved in the pathophysiology of inflammation-related diseases and cancer. In the present study, the inhibitory effect and possible mechanisms of diosgenin on superoxide generation were investigated in mouse bone marrow neutrophils. Diosgenin potently and concentration-dependently inhibited the extracellular and intracellular superoxide anion generation in Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)- activated neutrophils, with IC50 values of 0.50 ± 0.08 ?M and 0.66 ± 0.13 ?M, respectively. Such inhibition was not mediated by scavenging the superoxide anion or by a cytotoxic effect. Diosgenin inhibited the phosphorylation of p47phox and membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox, and thus blocking the assembly of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Moreover, cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and protein kinase A (PKA) expression were also effectively increased by diosgenin. It attenuated FMLP-induced increase of phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A (cPLA2), p21-activated kinase (PAK), Akt, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our data indicate that diosgenin exhibits inhibitory effects on superoxide anion production through the blockade of cAMP, PKA, cPLA2, PAK, Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways. The results may explain the clinical implications of diosgenin in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. PMID:25246240

Lin, Y; Jia, R; Liu, Y; Gao, Y; Zeng, X; Kou, J; Yu, B

2014-12-01

229

PPAR?2 NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CONTROLS MULTIPLE REGULATORY PATHWAYS OF OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION FROM MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS  

PubMed Central

Rosiglitazone (Rosi), a member of the thiazolidinedione class of drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes, activates the adipocyte-specific transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). This activation causes bone loss in animals and humans, at least in part due to suppression of osteoblast differentiation from marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In order to identify mechanisms by which PPAR?2 suppresses osteoblastogenesis and promotes adipogenesis in MSC, we have analyzed the PPAR?2 transcriptome in response to Rosi. A total of 4,252 transcriptional changes resulted when Rosi (1 ?M) was applied to the U-33 marrow stromal cell line stably transfected with PPAR?2 (U-33/?2) as compared to non-induced U-33/?2 cells. Differences between U-33/?2 and U-33 cells stably transfected with empty vector (U-33/c) comprised 7,928 transcriptional changes, independent of Rosi. Cell type-, time- and treatment-specific gene clustering uncovered distinct patterns of PPAR?2 transcriptional control of MSC lineage commitment. The earliest changes accompanying Rosi activation of PPAR?2 included effects on Wnt, TGF?/BMP and G-protein signaling activities, as well as sustained induction of adipocyte-specific gene expression and lipid metabolism. While suppression of osteoblast phenotype is initiated by a diminished expression of osteoblast-specific signaling pathways, induction of the adipocyte phenotype is initiated by adipocyte-specific transcriptional regulators. This indicates that distinct mechanisms govern the repression of osteogenesis and the stimulation of adipogenesis. The co-expression patterns found here indicate that PPAR?2 has a dominant role in controlling osteoblast differentiation and suggests numerous gene-gene interactions that could lead to the identification of a “master” regulatory scheme directing this process. PMID:19115254

Shockley, Keith R.; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Czernik, Piotr J.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Churchill, Gary A.; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

2009-01-01

230

Human-Gyrovirus-Apoptin Triggers Mitochondrial Death Pathway—Nur77 is Required for Apoptosis Triggering  

PubMed Central

The human gyrovirus derived protein Apoptin (HGV-Apoptin) a homologue of the chicken anemia virus Apoptin (CAV-Apoptin), a protein with high cancer cells selective toxicity, triggers apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. In this paper, we show that HGV-Apoptin acts independently from the death receptor pathway as it induces apoptosis in similar rates in Jurkat cells deficient in either FADD (fas-associated death domain) function or caspase-8 (key players of the extrinsic pathway) and their parental clones. HGV-Apoptin induces apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. It induces both mitochondrial inner and outer membrane permebilization, characterized by the loss of the mitochondrial potential and the release into cytoplasm of the pro-apoptotic molecules including apoptosis inducing factor and cytochrome c. HGV-Apoptin acts via the apoptosome, as lack of expression of apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 in murine embryonic fibroblast strongly protected the cells from HGV-Apoptin–induced apoptosis. Moreover, QVD-oph a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor delayed HGV-Apoptin–induced death. On the other hand, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL confers resistance to HGV-Apoptin–induced cell death. In contrast, cells that lack the expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK are protected from HGV-Apoptin induced apoptosis. Furthermore, HGV-Apoptin acts independently from p53 signal but triggers the cytoplasmic translocation of Nur77. Taking together these data indicate that HGV-Apoptin acts through the mitochondrial pathway, in a caspase-dependent manner but independently from the death receptor pathway. PMID:25246270

Chaabane, Wiem; Cie?lar-Pobuda, Artur; El-Gazzah, Mohamed; Jain, Mayur V.; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Rafat, Mehrdad; Stetefeld, Joerg; Ghavami, Saeid; ?os, Marek J.

2014-01-01

231

Multiple components of eIF4F are required for protein synthesis-dependent hippocampal long-term potentiation  

PubMed Central

Persistent forms of synaptic plasticity are widely thought to require the synthesis of new proteins. This feature of long-lasting forms of plasticity largely has been demonstrated using inhibitors of general protein synthesis, such as either anisomycin or emetine. However, these drugs, which inhibit elongation, cannot address detailed questions about the regulation of translation initiation, where the majority of translational control occurs. Moreover, general protein synthesis inhibitors cannot distinguish between cap-dependent and cap-independent modes of translation initiation. In the present study, we took advantage of two novel compounds, 4EGI-1 and hippuristanol, each of which targets a different component of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4F initiation complex, and investigated their effects on long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. We found that 4EGI-1 and hippuristanol both attenuated long-lasting late-phase LTP induced by two different stimulation paradigms. We also found that 4EGI-1 and hippuristanol each were capable of blocking the expression of newly synthesized proteins immediately after the induction of late-phase LTP. These new pharmacological tools allow for a more precise dissection of the role played by translational control pathways in synaptic plasticity and demonstrate the importance of multiple aspects of eIF4F in processes underlying hippocampal LTP, laying the foundation for future studies investigating the role of eIF4F in hippocampus-dependent memory processes. PMID:23054596

Hoeffer, Charles A.; Santini, Emanuela; Ma, Tao; Arnold, Elizabeth C.; Whelan, Ashley M.; Wong, Helen; Pierre, Philippe; Pelletier, Jerry

2013-01-01

232

Dhx34 and Nbas function in the NMD pathway and are required for embryonic development in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway is a highly conserved surveillance mechanism that is present in all eukaryotes. It prevents the synthesis of truncated proteins by selectively degrading mRNAs harbouring premature termination codons (PTCs). The core NMD effectors were originally identified in genetic screens in Saccharomyces cerevisae and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and subsequently by homology searches in other metazoans. A genome-wide RNAi screen in C. elegans resulted in the identification of two novel NMD genes that are essential for proper embryonic development. Their human orthologues, DHX34 and NAG/NBAS, are required for NMD in human cells. Here, we find that the zebrafish genome encodes orthologues of DHX34 and NAG/NBAS. We show that the morpholino-induced depletion of zebrafish Dhx34 and Nbas proteins results in severe developmental defects and reduced embryonic viability. We also found that Dhx34 and Nbas are required for degradation of PTC-containing mRNAs in zebrafish embryos. The phenotypes observed in both Dhx34 and Nbas morphants are similar to defects in Upf1, Smg-5- or Smg-6- depleted embryos, suggesting that these factors affect the same pathway and confirming that zebrafish embryogenesis requires an active NMD pathway. PMID:21227923

Anastasaki, Corina; Longman, Dasa; Capper, Amy; Patton, E Elizabeth; Cáceres, Javier F

2011-05-01

233

Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF?) Regulates Granulosa Cell Tumor (GCT) Cell Proliferation and Migration through Activation of Multiple Pathways  

PubMed Central

Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGF? is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGF? plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGF? and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGF? might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGF? stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGF? rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGF? treatment. TGF? also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGF? treatment. Whereas TGF? triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGF? resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGF?, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs. PMID:23155381

Wang, Cheng; Lv, Xiangmin; Jiang, Chao; Cordes, Crystal M.; Fu, Lan; Lele, Subodh M.; Davis, John S.

2012-01-01

234

Targeting MAGO proteins with a peptide aptamer reinforces their essential roles in multiple rice developmental pathways.  

PubMed

Peptide aptamers are artificial short peptides that potentially interfere with the biological roles of their target proteins; however, this technology has not yet been applied to plant functional genomics. MAGO and Y14, the two core subunits of the exon junction complex (EJC), form obligate heterodimers in eukaryotes. In Oryza sativa L. (rice), each of the two genes has two homologs, designated OsMAGO1 and OsMAGO2, and OsY14a and OsY14b, respectively. Here, we characterized a 16-amino acida peptide aptamer (PAP) for the rice MAGO proteins. PAP and rice Y14 bound competitively to rice MAGO proteins. Specifically targeting the MAGO proteins by expressing the aptamer in transgenic rice plants did not affect the endogenous synthesis and accumulation of MAGO proteins; however, the phenotypic variations observed in multiple organs phenocopied those of transgenic rice plants harboring RNA interference (RNAi) constructs in which the accumulation of MAGO and/or OsY14a transcripts and MAGO proteins was downregulated severely. Morphologically, the aptamer transgenic plants were short with abnormally developed flowers, and the stamens exhibited reduced degradation and absorption of both the endothecium and tapetum, thus confirming that EJC core heterodimers play essential roles in rice development, growth and reproduction. This study reveals that as a complementary approach of RNAi, peptide aptamers are powerful tools for interfering with the function of proteins in higher plants. PMID:25230811

Gong, Pichang; Quan, Hui; He, Chaoying

2014-12-01

235

Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat (N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium) into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of (/sup 14/C)-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric (/sup 3/H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems.

Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

1987-06-01

236

T cell-specific inhibition of multiple apoptotic pathways blocks negative selection and causes autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

T cell self-tolerance is thought to involve peripheral tolerance and negative selection, involving apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. However, evidence supporting an essential role for negative selection is limited. Loss of Bim, a Bcl-2 BH3-only protein essential for thymocyte apoptosis, rarely results in autoimmunity on the C57BL/6 background. Mice with T cell-specific over-expression of Bcl-2, that blocks multiple BH3-only proteins, are also largely normal. The nuclear receptor Nur77, also implicated in negative selection, might function redundantly to promote apoptosis by associating with Bcl-2 and exposing its potentially pro-apoptotic BH3 domain. Here, we report that T cell-specific expression of a Bcl2 BH3 mutant transgene results in enhanced rescue of thymocytes from negative selection. Concomitantly, Treg development is increased. However, aged BH3 mutant mice progressively accumulate activated, autoreactive T cells, culminating in development of multi-organ autoimmunity and lethality. These data provide strong evidence that negative selection is crucial for establishing T cell tolerance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03468.001 PMID:25182415

Burger, Megan L; Leung, Kenneth K; Bennett, Margaux J; Winoto, Astar

2014-01-01

237

Fast activation of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels of skeletal muscle. Multiple pathways of channel gating  

PubMed Central

Dihydropyridine (DHP) receptors of the transverse tubule membrane play two roles in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: (a) they function as the voltage sensor which undergoes fast transition to control release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum, and (b) they provide the conducting unit of a slowly activating L-type calcium channel. To understand this dual function of the DHP receptor, we studied the effect of depolarizing conditioning pulse on the activation kinetics of the skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive calcium channels reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes. Activation of the incorporated calcium channel was imposed by depolarizing test pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV. The gating kinetics of the channel was studied with ensemble averages of repeated episodes. Based on a first latency analysis, two distinct classes of channel openings occurred after depolarization: most had delayed latencies, distributed with a mode of 70 ms (slow gating); a small number of openings had short first latencies, < 12 ms (fast gating). A depolarizing conditioning pulse to +20 mV placed 200 ms before the test pulse (-10 mV), led to a significant increase in the activation rate of the ensemble averaged-current; the time constant of activation went from tau m = 110 ms (reference) to tau m = 45 ms after conditioning. This enhanced activation by the conditioning pulse was due to the increase in frequency of fast open events, which was a steep function of the intermediate voltage and the interval between the conditioning pulse and the test pulse. Additional analysis demonstrated that fast gating is the property of the same individual channels that normally gate slowly and that the channels adopt this property after a sojourn in the open state. The rapid secondary activation seen after depolarizing prepulses is not compatible with a linear activation model for the calcium channel, but is highly consistent with a cyclical model. A six- state cyclical model is proposed for the DHP-sensitive Ca channel, which pictures the normal pathway of activation of the calcium channel as two voltage-dependent steps in sequence, plus a voltage-independent step which is rate limiting. The model reproduced well the fast and slow gating models of the calcium channel, and the effects of conditioning pulses. It is possible that the voltage-sensitive gating transitions of the DHP receptor, which occur early in the calcium channel activation sequence, could underlie the role of the voltage sensor and yield the rapid excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle, through either electrostatic or allosteric linkage to the ryanodine receptors/calcium release channels. PMID:8882865

1996-01-01

238

Analysis of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat 3) Pathway in Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription molecules (Stats) play key roles in cytokine-induced signal transduction. Recently, it was proposed that constitutively activated Stat 3 (Stat 3 phosphorylated) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) by preventing apoptosis and inducing proliferation. The study aim was to investigate Stat 3 activation in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) cases and its effect on downstream targets such as the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, and the cell-cycle protein cyclin D1. Forty-eight cases of MM were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using antibodies against cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, p21, Stat 3, and Stat 3 phosphorylated (P). Their specificity was corroborated by Western blot analysis using eight human MM cell lines as control. The proliferation rate was assessed with the antibody MiB1. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and Stat 3 were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-embedded microdissected tissue. Three different groups determined by the expression of Stat 3P and cyclin D1 (protein and mRNA) were identified: group 1, Stat 3-activated (23 cases, 48%). All cases revealed nuclear expression of Stat 3P. No elevation of Stat 3 mRNA was identified in any of the cases. Three cases in this group showed intermediate to low cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression. Group 2 included 15 (31%) cases with cyclin D1 staining and lack of Stat 3P. All cases showed intermediate to high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Group 3 included 10 (21%) cases with no expression of either cyclin D1 or Stat 3P. High levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were identified in 89% and 100% of all cases, respectively. In contrast to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, the expression of Bcl-2 showed an inverse correlation with proliferation rate (P: 0.0003). No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of proliferation rate or expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. However, cyclin D1+ cases were always well differentiated and were more likely to show a lymphoplasmocytoid differentiation (chi-square = 9.55). Overall, constitutive activation of Stat 3 was found in almost half (48%) of the investigated MM cases. However, this does not seem to have a major impact on the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and proliferation. We showed that cyclin D1 overexpression and Stat 3 activation are, mutually exclusive events in MM (P = 0.0066). The universal expression of Mcl-1, independent of activated Stat 3, suggests that its expression is constitutive and that it might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MM. PMID:12707028

Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Nathrath, Michaela; Schaich, Robert; Hofler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

2003-01-01

239

DNA methylation analysis of the autistic brain reveals multiple dysregulated biological pathways  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by dysfunction in social interaction, communication and stereotypic behavior. Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of ASD, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are not clear. Epigenetic modifications have been suggested as molecular mechanism that can mediate the interaction between the environment and the genome to produce adaptive or maladaptive behaviors. Here, using the Illumina 450?K methylation array we have determined the existence of many dysregulated CpGs in two cortical regions, Brodmann area 10 (BA10) and Brodmann area 24 (BA24), of individuals who had ASD. In BA10 we found a very significant enrichment for genomic areas responsible for immune functions among the hypomethylated CpGs, whereas genes related to synaptic membrane were enriched among hypermethylated CpGs. By comparing our methylome data with previously published transcriptome data, and by performing real-time PCR on selected genes that were dysregulated in our study, we show that hypomethylated genes are often overexpressed, and that there is an inverse correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation within the individuals. Among these genes there were C1Q, C3, ITGB2 (C3R), TNF-?, IRF8 and SPI1, which have recently been implicated in synaptic pruning and microglial cell specification. Finally, we determined the epigenetic dysregulation of the gene HDAC4, and we confirm that the locus encompassing C11orf21/TSPAN32 has multiple hypomethylated CpGs in the autistic brain, as previously demonstrated. Our data suggest a possible role for epigenetic processes in the etiology of ASD. PMID:25180572

Nardone, S; Sharan Sams, D; Reuveni, E; Getselter, D; Oron, O; Karpuj, M; Elliott, E

2014-01-01

240

DNA methylation analysis of the autistic brain reveals multiple dysregulated biological pathways.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by dysfunction in social interaction, communication and stereotypic behavior. Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of ASD, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are not clear. Epigenetic modifications have been suggested as molecular mechanism that can mediate the interaction between the environment and the genome to produce adaptive or maladaptive behaviors. Here, using the Illumina 450?K methylation array we have determined the existence of many dysregulated CpGs in two cortical regions, Brodmann area 10 (BA10) and Brodmann area 24 (BA24), of individuals who had ASD. In BA10 we found a very significant enrichment for genomic areas responsible for immune functions among the hypomethylated CpGs, whereas genes related to synaptic membrane were enriched among hypermethylated CpGs. By comparing our methylome data with previously published transcriptome data, and by performing real-time PCR on selected genes that were dysregulated in our study, we show that hypomethylated genes are often overexpressed, and that there is an inverse correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation within the individuals. Among these genes there were C1Q, C3, ITGB2 (C3R), TNF-?, IRF8 and SPI1, which have recently been implicated in synaptic pruning and microglial cell specification. Finally, we determined the epigenetic dysregulation of the gene HDAC4, and we confirm that the locus encompassing C11orf21/TSPAN32 has multiple hypomethylated CpGs in the autistic brain, as previously demonstrated. Our data suggest a possible role for epigenetic processes in the etiology of ASD. PMID:25180572

Nardone, S; Sams, D Sharan; Reuveni, E; Getselter, D; Oron, O; Karpuj, M; Elliott, E

2014-01-01

241

Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit multiple myeloma cells via the Fas/Fas ligand pathway  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cell-based therapy represents a new frontier in the treatment of a wide variety of human diseases traditionally associated with morbidity outcomes, including those involving inflammation, autoimmunity, tissue damage, and cancer. However, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease has raised concerns. Specifically, evidence has shown that infused MSCs might support tumor growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we used a standard disseminated MM model in mice to identify the in vivo effects of intravenous MSC infusion. In addition, a series of in vitro co-culture assays were preformed to explore whether Fas/Fas ligand (Fas-L) is involved in the inhibitory effects of MSCs on MM cells. Results In the MM mouse model, treatment of MSCs with highly expressed Fas ligand (Fas-Lhigh MSCs) showed remarkable inhibitory effects on MM indenization in terms of extending the mouse survival rate and inhibiting tumor growth, bone resorption in the lumbus and collum femoris, and MM cell metastasis in the lungs and kidneys. In addition, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MM cells was observed when co-cultured with Fas-Lhigh MSCs in vitro. Furthermore, mechanistically, the binding between Fas and Fas-L significantly induced apoptosis in MM cells, as evidenced through an increase in the expression of apoptosis marker and Fas in MM cells. In contrast, Fas-Lnull MSCs promote MM growth. Conclusions These data suggest that Fas/Fas-L-induced MM apoptosis plays a crucial role in the MSC-based inhibition of MM growth. Although whether MSCs inhibit or promote cancer growth remains controversial, the levels of Fas-L expression in MSCs determine, at least partially, the effects of MSCs on MM cell growth. PMID:24025590

2013-01-01

242

Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein  

SciTech Connect

A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong, E-mail: yerong24@fudan.edu.cn

2012-06-05

243

ATP Requirements and Small Interfering RNA Structure in the RNA Interference Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the role of ATP in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Our data reveal two ATP-dependent steps and suggest that the RNAi reaction comprises at least four sequential steps: ATP-dependent processing of double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), incorporation of siRNAs into an inactive ?360 kDa protein\\/RNA complex, ATP-dependent unwinding of the siRNA duplex to generate an active

Antti Nykänen; Benjamin Haley; Phillip D. Zamore

2001-01-01

244

Multiple Redox-Active Chlorophylls in the Secondary Electron-Transfer Pathways of Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II†  

PubMed Central

Photosystem II (PS II) is unique among photosynthetic reaction centers in having secondary electron donors that compete with the primary electron donors for reduction of P680+. We have characterized the photooxidation and dark decay of the redox-active accessory chlorophylls (Chl) and ?-carotenes (Car) in oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes by near-IR absorbance and EPR spectroscopies at cryogenic temperatures. In contrast to previous results for Mn-depleted PS II, multiple near-IR absorption bands are resolved in the light-minus-dark difference spectra of oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes including two fast-decaying bands at 793 nm and 814 nm and three slow-decaying bands at 810 nm, 825 nm, and 840 nm. We assign these bands to chlorophyll cation radicals (Chl+). The fast-decaying bands observed after illumination at 20 K could be generated again by re-illuminating the sample. Quantization by EPR gives a yield of 0.85 radicals per PS II, and the yield of oxidized cytochrome b559 by optical difference spectroscopy is 0.15 per PS II. Potential locations of Chl+ and Car+ species, and the pathways of secondary electron transfer based on the rates of their formation and decay, are discussed. This is the first evidence that Chls in the light-harvesting proteins CP43 and CP47 are oxidized by P680+ and may have a role in Chl fluorescence quenching. We also suggest that a possible role for negatively charged lipids (phosphatidyldiacylglycerol and sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol identified in the PS II structure) could be to decrease the redox potential of specific Chl and Car cofactors. These results provide new insight into the alternate electron-donation pathways to P680+. PMID:18850718

Tracewell, Cara A.; Brudvig, Gary W.

2009-01-01

245

Inhibition of estrogen-responsive gene activation by the retinoid X receptor beta: evidence for multiple inhibitory pathways.  

PubMed Central

The retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; H-2RIIBP) forms heterodimers with various nuclear hormone receptors and binds multiple hormone response elements, including the estrogen response element (ERE). In this report, we show that endogenous RXR beta contributes to ERE binding activity in nuclear extracts of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. To define a possible regulatory role of RXR beta regarding estrogen-responsive transcription in breast cancer cells, RXR beta and a reporter gene driven by the vitellogenin A2 ERE were transfected into estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. RXR beta inhibited ERE-driven reporter activity in a dose-dependent and element-specific fashion. This inhibition occurred in the absence of the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid. The RXR beta-induced inhibition was specific for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated ERE activation because inhibition was observed in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only following transfection of the estrogen-activated ER. No inhibition of the basal reporter activity was observed. The inhibition was not caused by simple competition of RXR beta with the ER for ERE binding, since deletion mutants retaining DNA binding activity but lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal domain failed to inhibit reporter activity. In addition, cross-linking studies indicated the presence of an auxiliary nuclear factor present in MCF-7 cells that contributed to RXR beta binding of the ERE. Studies using known heterodimerization partners of RXR beta confirmed that RXR beta/triiodothyronine receptor alpha heterodimers avidly bind the ERE but revealed the existence of another triiodothyronine-independent pathway of ERE inhibition. These results indicate that estrogen-responsive genes may be negatively regulated by RXR beta through two distinct pathways. Images PMID:8384307

Segars, J H; Marks, M S; Hirschfeld, S; Driggers, P H; Martinez, E; Grippo, J F; Brown, M; Wahli, W; Ozato, K

1993-01-01

246

Multiple Tumor Suppressor microRNAs Regulate Telomerase and TCF7, an Important Transcriptional Regulator of the Wnt Pathway  

PubMed Central

The human TERT (hTERT) gene encodes the telomerase catalytic subunit which plays a role in telomerase regulation. Telomerase is activated in more than 90% of all human malignancies and understanding how telomerase is regulated is necessary for implementation of successful anti-cancer therapies. microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic cells but evidence of their role in telomerase regulation has not been documented. To determine whether hTERT activity is regulated by multiple miRNAs, eight miRNAs which have putative binding sites in the hTERT 3?UTR together with miR-138-5p were evaluated in luciferase assays with a reporter containing the hTERT 3?UTR. Six miRNAs (let-7g*, miR-133a, miR-138-5p, miR-342-5p, miR-491-5p, and miR-541-3p) specifically inhibited the expression of the reporter luciferase-driven constructs and let-7g*, miR-133a, miR-138-5p, and miR-491-5p also downregulated endogenous telomerase activity in cells. Moreover, all six miRNAs significantly inhibited cell proliferation. miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-138-5p, 342-5p, 491-5p, 541-3p) also have predicted binding sites within the 3?UTR of three genes involved in Wnt signaling (TCF7, MSI1, and PAX5). These miRNAs inhibited the expression of the luciferase reporter constructs containing 3?UTRs of these genes and downregulated protein expression of the TCF7 transcription factor, which mediates the canonical Wnt pathway. Together, these results suggest the existence of a miRNA regulatory network involving the hTERT and Wnt pathway. PMID:24551047

Bargmann, William; Bose, Henry R.

2014-01-01

247

LRP-6 is a coreceptor for multiple fibrogenic signaling pathways in pericytes and myofibroblasts that are inhibited by DKK-1.  

PubMed

Fibrosis of vital organs is a major public health problem with limited therapeutic options. Mesenchymal cells including microvascular mural cells (pericytes) are major progenitors of scar-forming myofibroblasts in kidney and other organs. Here we show pericytes in healthy kidneys have active WNT/?-catenin signaling responses that are markedly up-regulated following kidney injury. Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1), a ligand for the WNT coreceptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP-5 and LRP-6) and an inhibitor of WNT/?-catenin signaling, effectively inhibits pericyte activation, detachment, and transition to myofibroblasts in vivo in response to kidney injury, resulting in attenuated fibrogenesis, capillary rarefaction, and inflammation. DKK-1 blocks activation and proliferation of established myofibroblasts in vitro and blocks pericyte proliferation to PDGF, pericyte migration, gene activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization to TGF-? or connective tissue growth factor. These effects are largely independent of inhibition of downstream ?-catenin signaling. DKK-1 acts predominantly by inhibiting PDGF-, TGF-?-, and connective tissue growth factor-activated MAPK and JNK signaling cascades, acting via LRP-6 with associated WNT ligand. Biochemically, LRP-6 interacts closely with PDGF receptor ? and TGF-? receptor 1 at the cell membrane, suggesting that it may have roles in pathways other than WNT/?-catenin. In summary, DKK-1 blocks many of the changes in pericytes required for myofibroblast transition and attenuates established myofibroblast proliferation/activation by mechanisms dependent on LRP-6 and WNT ligands but not the downstream ?-catenin pathway. PMID:23302695

Ren, Shuyu; Johnson, Bryce G; Kida, Yujiro; Ip, Colin; Davidson, Kathryn C; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Kobayashi, Akio; Lang, Richard A; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Moon, Randall T; Duffield, Jeremy S

2013-01-22

248

Model-Derived Dispersal Pathways from Multiple Source Populations Explain Variability of Invertebrate Larval Supply  

PubMed Central

Background Predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of marine larval dispersal and supply is a challenging task due to the small size of the larvae and the variability of oceanographic processes. Addressing this problem requires the use of novel approaches capable of capturing the inherent variability in the mechanisms involved. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we test whether dispersal and connectivity patterns generated from a bio-physical model of larval dispersal of the crab Carcinus maenas, along the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, can predict the highly variable daily pattern of wind-driven larval supply to an estuary observed during the peak reproductive season (March–June) in 2006 and 2007. Cross-correlations between observed and predicted supply were significant (p<0.05) and strong, ranging from 0.34 to 0.81 at time lags of ?6 to +5 d. Importantly, the model correctly predicted observed cross-shelf distributions (Pearson r?=?0.82, p<0.001, and r?=?0.79, p<0.01, in 2006 and 2007) and indicated that all supply events were comprised of larvae that had been retained within the inner shelf; larvae transported to the outer shelf and beyond never recruited. Estimated average dispersal distances ranged from 57 to 198 km and were only marginally affected by mortality. Conclusions/Significance The high degree of predicted demographic connectivity over relatively large geographic scales is consistent with the lack of genetic structuring in C. maenas along the Iberian Peninsula. These findings indicate that the dynamic nature of larval dispersal can be captured by mechanistic biophysical models, which can be used to provide meaningful predictions of the patterns and causes of fine-scale variability in larval supply to marine populations. PMID:22558225

Domingues, Carla P.; Nolasco, Rita; Dubert, Jesus; Queiroga, Henrique

2012-01-01

249

Multiple Pathways Are Co-regulated by the Protein Kinase Snf1 and the Transcription Factors Adr1 and Cat8*S  

E-print Network

Multiple Pathways Are Co-regulated by the Protein Kinase Snf1 and the Transcription Factors Adr1 shifted to the aerobic oxidation of non-fermentable carbon sources. The Snf1 protein ki- nase complex on the Snf1 protein kinase for derepression. Many more genes are SNF1-de- pendent than are either ADR1

250

A decision analysis approach to climate adaptation: comparing multiple pathways for multi-decadal decision making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policy planners around the world are required to consider the implications of adapting to climatic change across spatial contexts and decadal timeframes. However, local level information for planning is often poorly defined, even though climate adaptation decision-making is made at this scale. This is especially true when considering sea level rise and coastal impacts of climate change. We present a simple approach using sea level rise simulations paired with adaptation scenarios to assess a range of adaptation options available to local councils dealing with issues of beach recession under present and future sea level rise and storm surge. Erosion and beach recession pose a large socioeconomic risk to coastal communities because of the loss of key coastal infrastructure. We examine the well-known adaptation technique of beach nourishment and assess various timings and amounts of beach nourishment at decadal time spans in relation to beach recession impacts. The objective was to identify an adaptation strategy that would allow for a low frequency of management interventions, the maintenance of beach width, and the ability to minimize variation in beach width over the 2010 to 2100 simulation period. 1000 replications of each adaptation option were produced against the 90 year simulation in order to model the ability each adaptation option to achieve the three key objectives. Three sets of adaptation scenarios were identified. Within each scenario, a number of adaptation options were tested. The three scenarios were: 1) Fixed periodic beach replenishment of specific amounts at 20 and 50 year intervals, 2) Beach replenishment to the initial beach width based on trigger levels of recession (5m, 10m, 20m), and 3) Fixed period beach replenishment of a variable amount at decadal intervals (every 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 years). For each adaptation option, we show the effectiveness of each beach replenishment scenario to maintain beach width and consider the implications of more frequent replenishment with that of implementation cost. We determine that a business as usual scenario, where no adaptation is implemented, would lead to an average beach recession of 12.02 meters and a maximum beach recession of 33.23 meters during the period of 2010-2100. The best adaptation option modeled was a fixed replenishment of 5 meters every 20 years leading to 4 replenishment events with an average beach recession of 2.99 meters and a maximum beach recession of 15.02 meters during the period of 2010-2100. The presented simulations explicitly address the uncertainty of future impacts due to sea level rise and storm surge and show a range of options that could be considered by a local council to meet their policy objectives. The simulation runs provide managers the ability to consider the utility of various adaptation options and the timing and costs of implementation. Such information provides an evidence-based practice to decision-making and allows policy makers to transparently make decisions based on best estimates of modeled climate change.

Lin, B. B.; Little, L.

2013-12-01

251

A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

2002-01-01

252

Klf5 Deletion Promotes Pten Deletion–Initiated Luminal-Type Mouse Prostate Tumors through Multiple Oncogenic Signaling Pathways12  

PubMed Central

Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates multiple biologic processes. Its function in tumorigenesis appears contradictory though, showing both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. In this study, we examined whether and how Klf5 functions in prostatic tumorigenesis using mice with prostate-specific deletion of Klf5 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), both of which are frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Histologic analysis demonstrated that when one Pten allele was deleted, which causes mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), Klf5 deletion accelerated the emergence and progression of mPIN. When both Pten alleles were deleted, which causes prostate cancer, Klf5 deletion promoted tumor growth, increased cell proliferation, and caused more severe morphologic and molecular alterations. Homozygous deletion of Klf5 was more effective than hemizygous deletion. Unexpectedly, while Pten deletion alone expanded basal cell population in a tumor as reported, Klf5 deletion in the Pten-null background clearly reduced basal cell population while expanding luminal cell population. Global gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, and experimental validation indicate that multiple mechanisms could mediate the tumor-promoting effect of Klf5 deletion, including the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor and its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK and the inactivation of the p15 cell cycle inhibitor. KLF5 also appears to cooperate with several transcription factors, including CREB1, Sp1, Myc, ER and AR, to regulate gene expression. These findings validate the tumor suppressor function of KLF5. They also yield a mouse model that shares two common genetic alterations with human prostate cancer—mutation/deletion of Pten and deletion of Klf5.

Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqian; Dong, Eric N.; Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Dong, Jin-Tang

2014-01-01

253

Signaling of chloroquine-induced stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Hog1 and Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.  

PubMed

Chloroquine (CQ) has been under clinical use for several decades, and yet little is known about CQ sensing and signaling mechanisms or about their impact on various biological pathways. We employed the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the pathways targeted by CQ. Our screening with yeast mutants revealed that it targets histone proteins and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we also describe the novel role of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 and Slt2, which aid in survival in the presence of CQ. Cells deficient in Hog1 or Slt2 are found to be CQ hypersensitive, and both proteins were phosphorylated in response to CQ exposure. CQ-activated Hog1p is translocated to the nucleus and facilitates the expression of GPD1 (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which is required for the synthesis of glycerol (one of the major osmolytes). Moreover, cells treated with CQ exhibited an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the effects were rescued by addition of reduced glutathione to the medium. The deletion of SOD1, the superoxide dismutase in yeast, resulted in hypersensitivity to CQ. We have also observed P38 as well as P42/44 phosphorylation in HEK293T human cells upon exposure to CQ, indicating that the kinds of responses generated in yeast and human cells are similar. In summary, our findings define the multiple biological pathways targeted by CQ that might be useful for understanding the toxicity modulated by this pharmacologically important molecule. PMID:25022582

Baranwal, Shivani; Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Tomar, Raghuvir S

2014-09-01

254

Proper Actin Ring Formation and Septum Constriction Requires Coordinated Regulation of SIN and MOR Pathways through the Germinal Centre Kinase MST-1  

PubMed Central

Nuclear DBF2p-related (NDR) kinases constitute a functionally conserved protein family of eukaryotic regulators that control cell division and polarity. In fungi, they function as effector kinases of the morphogenesis (MOR) and septation initiation (SIN) networks and are activated by pathway-specific germinal centre (GC) kinases. We characterized a third GC kinase, MST-1, that connects both kinase cascades. Genetic and biochemical interactions with SIN components and life cell imaging identify MST-1 as SIN-associated kinase that functions in parallel with the GC kinase SID-1 to activate the SIN-effector kinase DBF-2. SID-1 and MST-1 are both regulated by the upstream SIN kinase CDC-7, yet in an opposite manner. Aberrant cortical actomyosin rings are formed in ?mst-1, which resulted in mis-positioned septa and irregular spirals, indicating that MST-1-dependent regulation of the SIN is required for proper formation and constriction of the septal actomyosin ring. However, MST-1 also interacts with several components of the MOR network and modulates MOR activity at multiple levels. MST-1 functions as promiscuous enzyme and also activates the MOR effector kinase COT-1 through hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. In addition, MST-1 physically interacts with the MOR kinase POD-6, and dimerization of both proteins inactivates the GC kinase hetero-complex. These data specify an antagonistic relationship between the SIN and MOR during septum formation in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa that is, at least in part, coordinated through the GC kinase MST-1. The similarity of the SIN and MOR pathways to the animal Hippo and Ndr pathways, respectively, suggests that intensive cross-communication between distinct NDR kinase modules may also be relevant for the homologous NDR kinases of higher eukaryotes. PMID:24762679

Heilig, Yvonne; Dettmann, Anne; Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Schmitt, Kerstin; Valerius, Oliver; Seiler, Stephan

2014-01-01

255

Potent activity of carfilzomib, a novel, irreversible inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, against preclinical models of multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

The proteasome has emerged as an important target for cancer therapy with the approval of bortezomib, a first-in-class, reversible proteasome inhibitor, for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, many patients have disease that does not respond to bortezomib, whereas others develop resistance, suggesting the need for other inhibitors with enhanced activity. We therefore evaluated a novel, irreversible, epoxomicin-related proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib. In models of MM, this agent potently bound and specifically inhibited the chymotrypsin-like proteasome and immunoproteasome activities, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated substrates. Carfilzomib induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation, ultimately leading to apoptosis. Programmed cell death was associated with activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, release of cytochrome c, and activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways. This agent also inhibited proliferation and activated apoptosis in patient-derived MM cells and neoplastic cells from patients with other hematologic malignancies. Importantly, carfilzomib showed increased efficacy compared with bortezomib and was active against bortezomib-resistant MM cell lines and samples from patients with clinical bortezomib resistance. Carfilzomib also overcame resistance to other conventional agents and acted synergistically with dexamethasone to enhance cell death. Taken together, these data provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of carfilzomib in MM. PMID:17591945

Kuhn, Deborah J.; Chen, Qing; Voorhees, Peter M.; Strader, John S.; Shenk, Kevin D.; Sun, Congcong M.; Demo, Susan D.; Bennett, Mark K.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.; Chanan-Khan, Asher A.

2007-01-01

256

Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867) with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens. PMID:16972989

Li, Robert W; Li, CongJun

2006-01-01

257

Inferring groundwater contributions and pathways to streamflow during snowmelt over multiple years in a discontinuous permafrost subarctic environment (Yukon, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on large northern rivers suggests that as permafrost thaws, deeper groundwater flowpaths become active, resulting in greater baseflow, increased concentrations of weathering ions and reduced concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the streamflow. In contrast, at the headwater-catchment scale, where understanding of groundwater/surface-water interactions is developed, inter-annual variability in climate and hydrology result in complex hydrological and chemical responses to change. This paper reports on a 4-year runoff investigation in an alpine discontinuous permafrost environment in Yukon, Canada, using stable isotopes, major dissolved ions and hydrometric data, to provide enhanced insight into the inter-annual-variability runoff-generation processes. Stable isotope results suggest that pre-event (old) water stored within the catchment dominates the snowmelt hydrograph, and dissolved ion results reveal that groundwater pathways occur predominantly in the near-surface during freshet. Dissolved organic carbon varies inter-annually, reflecting changing melt patterns, whereas weathering ions generated from deeper flowpaths become diluted. The total snow-water equivalent does not have a major influence on the fraction of snowmelt water reaching the stream or the runoff ratio. Results from multiple years highlight the considerable variability over short time scales, limiting our ability to detect climate-change influences on groundwater at the headwater scale.

Carey, Sean K.; Boucher, Jessica L.; Duarte, Celina M.

2013-02-01

258

49 CFR 234.306 - Multiple dispatching or maintaining railroads with respect to the same highway-rail or pathway...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maintaining railroads with respect to the same highway-rail or pathway grade crossing; appointment...Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings ...maintaining railroads with respect to the same highway-rail or pathway grade crossing;...

2012-10-01

259

49 CFR 234.306 - Multiple dispatching or maintaining railroads with respect to the same highway-rail or pathway...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maintaining railroads with respect to the same highway-rail or pathway grade crossing; appointment...Telephonic Reporting of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings ...maintaining railroads with respect to the same highway-rail or pathway grade crossing;...

2013-10-01

260

Adenovirus RID? uncovers a novel pathway requiring ORP1L for lipid droplet formation independent of NPC1  

PubMed Central

Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC) is caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2, which coordinate egress of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol from late endosomes. We previously reported that the adenovirus-encoded protein RID? rescues the cholesterol storage phenotype in NPC1-mutant fibroblasts. We show here that RID? reconstitutes deficient endosome-to-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transport, allowing excess LDL-cholesterol to be esterified by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase and stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in NPC1-deficient cells. Furthermore, the RID? pathway is regulated by the oxysterol-binding protein ORP1L. Studies have classified ORP1L as a sterol sensor involved in LE positioning downstream of GTP-Rab7. Our data, however, suggest that ORP1L may play a role in transport of LDL-cholesterol to a specific ER pool designated for LD formation. In contrast to NPC1, which is dispensable, the RID?/ORP1L-dependent route requires functional NPC2. Although NPC1/NPC2 constitutes the major pathway, therapies that amplify minor egress routes for LDL-cholesterol could significantly improve clinical management of patients with loss-of-function NPC1 mutations. The molecular identity of putative alternative pathways, however, is poorly characterized. We propose RID? as a model system for understanding physiological egress routes that use ORP1L to activate ER feedback responses involved in LD formation. PMID:24025716

Cianciola, Nicholas L.; Greene, Diane J.; Morton, Richard E.; Carlin, Cathleen R.

2013-01-01

261

Major Histocompatibility Class II Pathway Is Not Required for the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) genes have been associated with an increased risk of drug-induced liver injury. However, it has never been addressed whether the MHC II pathway plays an important role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of liver disease. We used a mouse model that has a complete knockdown of genes in the MHC II pathway (MHCII?/?). Firstly we studied the effect of high-fat diet-induced hepatic inflammation in these mice. Secondly we studied the development of carbon-tetra-chloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic cirrhosis. After the high-fat diet, both groups developed obesity and hepatic steatosis with a similar degree of hepatic inflammation, suggesting no impact of the knockdown of MHC II on high-fat diet-induced inflammation in mice. In the second study, we confirmed that the CCl4 injection significantly upregulated the MHC II genes in wild-type mice. The CCl4 treatment significantly induced genes related to the fibrosis formation in wild-type mice, whereas this was lower in MHCII?/? mice. The liver histology, however, showed no detectable difference between groups, suggesting that the MHC II pathway is not required for the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4. PMID:23710178

Willemin, Gilles; Roger, Catherine; Bauduret, Armelle; Minehira, Kaori

2013-01-01

262

Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

263

Bovine ephemeral fever virus-induced apoptosis requires virus gene expression and activation of Fas and mitochondrial signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Although induction of apoptosis by bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) in several cell lines has been previously demonstrated by our laboratory, less information is available on the process of BEFV-induced apoptosis in terms of cellular pathways and specific proteins involved. In order to determine the step in viral life cycle at which apoptosis of infected cells is triggered, chemical and physical agents were used to block viral infection. Treatment of BHK-21 infected cells with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or cells infected with UV-inactivated BEFV was seen to abrogate virus apoptosis induction, suggesting that virus uncoating and gene expression are required for the induction of apoptosis. Using soluble death receptors Fc:Fas chimera to block Fas signaling, BEFV-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells. BEFV infection of BHK-21 cells results in the Fas-dependent activation of caspase 8 and cleavage of Bid. This initiated the dissipation of the membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c but not AIF or Smac/DIABLO from mitochondrial into cytoplasm leading to activation of caspase 9. Combined activation of the death receptor and mitochondrial pathways results in activation of the downstream effecter caspase 3 leading to cleavage of PARP. Fas-mediated BEFV-induced apoptosis could be suppressed by the overexpression of Bcl-2 or by treatment with caspase inhibitors and soluble death receptors Fc:Fas chimera. Taken together, this study provided first evidence demonstrating that BEFV-induced apoptosis requires viral gene expression and occurs through the activation of Fas and mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent pathways. PMID:19521777

Lin, Chi-Hung; Shih, Wen-Ling; Lin, Feng-Lang; Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Liao, Ming-Huei; Liu, Hung-Jen; Liu, Hung-Jeng

2009-07-01

264

Combinatorial Modulation of Signaling Pathways Reveals Cell-Type-Specific Requirements for Highly Efficient and Synchronous iPSC Reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Summary The differentiated state of somatic cells provides barriers for the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To address why some cell types reprogram more readily than others, we studied the effect of combined modulation of cellular signaling pathways. Surprisingly, inhibition of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) together with activation of Wnt signaling in the presence of ascorbic acid allows >80% of murine fibroblasts to acquire pluripotency after 1 week of reprogramming factor expression. In contrast, hepatic and blood progenitors predominantly required only TGF-? inhibition or canonical Wnt activation, respectively, to reprogram at efficiencies approaching 100%. Strikingly, blood progenitors reactivated endogenous pluripotency loci in a highly synchronous manner, and we demonstrate that expression of specific chromatin-modifying enzymes and reduced TGF-?/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity are intrinsic properties associated with the unique reprogramming response of these cells. Our observations define cell-type-specific requirements for the rapid and synchronous reprogramming of somatic cells. PMID:25358786

Vidal, Simon E.; Amlani, Bhishma; Chen, Taotao; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Stadtfeld, Matthias

2014-01-01

265

Melanomas require HEDGEHOG-GLI signaling regulated by interactions between GLI1 and the RAS-MEK/AKT pathways.  

PubMed

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and its incidence is increasing. These tumors derive from the melanocyte lineage and remain incurable after metastasis. Here we report that SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH)-GLI signaling is active in the matrix of human hair follicles, and that it is required for the normal proliferation of human melanocytes in culture. SHH-GLI signaling also regulates the proliferation and survival of human melanomas: the growth, recurrence, and metastasis of melanoma xenografts in mice are prevented by local or systemic interference of HH-GLI function. Moreover, we show that oncogenic RAS-induced melanomas in transgenic mice express Gli1 and require Hh-Gli signaling in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we provide evidence that endogenous RAS-MEK and AKT signaling regulate the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of GLI1 in melanoma and other cancer cells. Our data uncover an unsuspected role of HH-GLI signaling in melanocytes and melanomas, demonstrate a role for this pathway in RAS-induced tumors, suggest a general integration of the RAS/AKT and HH-GLI pathways, and open a therapeutic approach for human melanomas. PMID:17392427

Stecca, Barbara; Mas, Christophe; Clement, Virginie; Zbinden, Marie; Correa, Rafael; Piguet, Vincent; Beermann, Friedrich; Ruiz I Altaba, Ariel

2007-04-01

266

Melanomas require HEDGEHOG-GLI signaling regulated by interactions between GLI1 and the RAS-MEK/AKT pathways  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and its incidence is increasing. These tumors derive from the melanocyte lineage and remain incurable after metastasis. Here we report that SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH)-GLI signaling is active in the matrix of human hair follicles, and that it is required for the normal proliferation of human melanocytes in culture. SHH-GLI signaling also regulates the proliferation and survival of human melanomas: the growth, recurrence, and metastasis of melanoma xenografts in mice are prevented by local or systemic interference of HH-GLI function. Moreover, we show that oncogenic RAS-induced melanomas in transgenic mice express Gli1 and require Hh-Gli signaling in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we provide evidence that endogenous RAS-MEK and AKT signaling regulate the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of GLI1 in melanoma and other cancer cells. Our data uncover an unsuspected role of HH-GLI signaling in melanocytes and melanomas, demonstrate a role for this pathway in RAS-induced tumors, suggest a general integration of the RAS/AKT and HH-GLI pathways, and open a therapeutic approach for human melanomas. PMID:17392427

Stecca, Barbara; Mas, Christophe; Clement, Virginie; Zbinden, Marie; Correa, Rafael; Piguet, Vincent; Beermann, Friedrich; Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel

2007-01-01

267

Targeted mutations in the ATR pathway define agent-specific requirements for cancer cell growth and survival  

PubMed Central

Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures, and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we employ a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase specific cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a subset of the drugs tested. These results demonstrate that specifically inhibiting the Cdk2/ATR/Chk1 pathway via distinct regulators can differentially sensitize cancer cells to a wide range of therapeutic agents. PMID:22084169

Wilsker, Deborah; Chung, Jon H.; Pradilla, Ivan; Petermann, Eva; Helleday, Thomas; Bunz, Fred

2011-01-01

268

CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells. Although the precise molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain uncertain, insulin initiates its actions by binding to its tyrosine kinase receptor, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular substrates. One such substrate is the Cbl protooncogene product. Cbl is recruited to the insulin receptor by interaction with the adapter protein CAP, through one of three adjacent SH3 domains in the carboxy terminus of CAP. Upon phosphorylation of Cbl, the CAP-Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and moves to a caveolin-enriched, triton-insoluble membrane fraction. Here, to identify a molecular mechanism underlying this subcellular redistribution, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library using the amino-terminal region of CAP and identified the caveolar protein flotillin. Flotillin forms a ternary complex with CAP and Cbl, directing the localization of the CAP-Cbl complex to a lipid raft subdomain of the plasma membrane. Expression of the N-terminal domain of CAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes blocks the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin, without affecting signalling events that depend on phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Thus, localization of the Cbl-CAP complex to lipid rafts generates a pathway that is crucial in the regulation of glucose uptake.

Baumann, Christian A.; Ribon, Vered; Kanzaki, Makoto; Thurmond, Debbie C.; Mora, Silvia; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Bickel, Perry E.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Saltiel, Alan R.

2000-09-01

269

Antigen Processing and Remodeling of the Endosomal Pathway: Requirements for Antigen Cross-Presentation  

PubMed Central

Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation. PMID:22566920

Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

2012-01-01

270

Vessel reconstruction in total coronary occlusions with a long subintimal wire pathway: use of multiple stents under guidance of intravascular ultrasound.  

PubMed

A frequent cause of failure of the recanalization of a total coronary occlusion is a subintimal pathway of the guide wire. Three cases of occluded right coronary arteries are presented in which a distal reentry into the true vessel lumen was achieved. Intravascular ultrasound was used to locate the exit and reentry of the guide wire, and to plan the position of multiple stents for the coverage of this subintimal pathway. In all cases antegrade flow to the distal coronary bed was restored. PMID:8993815

Werner, G S; Diedrich, J; Scholz, K H; Knies, A; Kreuzer, H

1997-01-01

271

Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 Promote Seedling Photomorphogenesis in Multiple Light Signaling Pathways1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

2014-01-01

272

Gossypol induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling and Bcl-2/Mcl-1 pathway  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder affecting the immune system with various systemic symptoms. MM remains incurable even with high dose chemotherapy using conventional drugs, thus necessitating development of novel therapeutic strategies. Gossypol (Gos) is a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from cotton plants, and has been shown to possess anti-neoplastic activity against various tumors. Recent studies have shown that Gos is an inhibitor for Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL acting as BH3 mimetics that interfere interaction between pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and Bcl-2/Bcl-XL. Since most of the patients with MM overexpress Bcl-2 protein, we considered Gos might be a promising therapeutic agent for MM. We herein show that Gos efficiently induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of the OPM2 MM cell line, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gos induced activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, showing mitochondrial dysfunction pathway is operational during apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at serine-70 was attenuated by Gos treatment, while protein levels were not affected. In addition, Mcl-1 was downregulated by Gos. Interestingly, phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK was inhibited by Gos-treatment, indicating that Gos globally suppressed interleukin-6 (IL-6) signals. Moreover, JAK2 inhibition mimicked the effect of Gos in OPM2 cells including Bcl-2 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation. These results demonstrated that Gos induces apoptosis in MM cells not only through displacing BH3-only proteins from Bcl-2, but also through inhibiting IL-6 signaling, which leads to Bcl-2 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation. PMID:25231749

SADAHIRA, KEN; SAGAWA, MORIHIKO; NAKAZATO, TOMONORI; UCHIDA, HIDEO; IKEDA, YASUO; OKAMOTO, SHINICHIRO; NAKAJIMA, HIDEAKI; KIZAKI, MASAHIRO

2014-01-01

273

Multiple-probe analysis of folding and unfolding pathways of human serum albumin. Evidence for a framework mechanism of folding.  

PubMed

The changes in the far-UV CD signal, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and bilirubin absorbance showed that the guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding of a multidomain protein, human serum albumin (HSA), followed a two-state process. However, using environment sensitive Nile red fluorescence, the unfolding and folding pathways of HSA were found to follow a three-state process and an intermediate was detected in the range 0.25-1.5 m GdnHCl. The intermediate state displayed 45% higher fluorescence intensity than that of the native state. The increase in the Nile red fluorescence was found to be due to an increase in the quantum yield of the HSA-bound Nile red. Low concentrations of GdnHCl neither altered the binding affinity of Nile red to HSA nor induced the aggregation of HSA. In addition, the secondary structure of HSA was not perturbed during the first unfolding transition (<1.5 m GdnHCl); however, the secondary structure was completely lost during the second transition. The data together showed that the half maximal loss of the tertiary structure occurred at a lower GdnHCl concentration than the loss of the secondary structure. Further kinetic studies of the refolding process of HSA using multiple spectroscopic techniques showed that the folding occurred in two phases, a burst phase followed by a slow phase. An intermediate with native-like secondary structure but only a partial tertiary structure was found to form in the burst phase of refolding. Then, the intermediate slowly folded into the native state. An analysis of the refolding data suggested that the folding of HSA could be best explained by the framework model. PMID:15096218

Santra, Manas Kumar; Banerjee, Abhijit; Krishnakumar, Shyam Sundar; Rahaman, Obaidur; Panda, Dulal

2004-05-01

274

Gossypol induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling and Bcl-2/Mcl-1 pathway.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder affecting the immune system with various systemic symptoms. MM remains incurable even with high dose chemotherapy using conventional drugs, thus necessitating development of novel therapeutic strategies. Gossypol (Gos) is a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from cotton plants, and has been shown to possess anti-neoplastic activity against various tumors. Recent studies have shown that Gos is an inhibitor for Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL acting as BH3 mimetics that interfere interaction between pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and Bcl-2/Bcl-XL. Since most of the patients with MM overexpress Bcl-2 protein, we considered Gos might be a promising therapeutic agent for MM. We herein show that Gos efficiently induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of the OPM2 MM cell line, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gos induced activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, showing mitochondrial dysfunction pathway is operational during apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at serine-70 was attenuated by Gos treatment, while protein levels were not affected. In addition, Mcl-1 was downregulated by Gos. Interestingly, phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK was inhibited by Gos-treatment, indicating that Gos globally suppressed interleukin-6 (IL-6) signals. Moreover, JAK2 inhibition mimicked the effect of Gos in OPM2 cells including Bcl-2 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation. These results demonstrated that Gos induces apoptosis in MM cells not only through displacing BH3-only proteins from Bcl-2, but also through inhibiting IL-6 signaling, which leads to Bcl-2 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation. PMID:25231749

Sadahira, Ken; Sagawa, Morihiko; Nakazato, Tomonori; Uchida, Hideo; Ikeda, Yasuo; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Hideaki; Kizaki, Masahiro

2014-12-01

275

Aerobic degradation of choline by Proteus mirabilis: enzymatic requirements and pathway.  

PubMed

Cleavage of choline to trimethylamine and acetaldehyde by extracts of Proteus mirabilis requires both particulate and soluble protein fractions, K+, and a bound divalent metal cation. The reaction shows a long lag period, abolished only by preincubation of the particulate fraction in the complete reaction system. The two-carbon fragment produced is acetaldehyde; choline cleavage appears to be tightly coupled to dismutation of the acetaldehyde to ethanol and acetate, as indicated by stimulation by NAD+, ADP, and Fe2+ and inhibition by reagents reacting with acetaldehyde. The system is thus similar to that previously described in anaerobes (Desulfovibrio, Clostridium). Attempts to demonstrate a cobamide coenzyme requirement (as in the similar ethanolamine ammonia-lyase reaction) were unsuccessful; the reaction was carried out by fractions devoid of vitamin B12 activity (not supporting growth of Lactobacillus leichmannii) and insensitive to light. PMID:3536045

Sandhu, S S; Chase, T

1986-09-01

276

Requirement of JNK for Stress Induced Activation of the Cytochrome c-Mediated Death Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated when cells are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, the functional consequence of JNK activation in UV-irradiated cells has not been established. It is shown here that JNK is required for UV-induced apoptosis in primary murine embryonic fibroblasts. Fibroblasts with simultaneous targeted disruptions of all the functional Jnk genes were protected against UV-stimulated

Cathy Tournier; Patricia Hess; Derek D. Yang; Jie Xu; Tod K. Turner; Anjaruwee Nimnual; Dafna Bar-Sagi; Stephen N. Jones; Richard A. Flavell; Roger J. Davis

2000-01-01

277

Optimization of photosynthesis by multiple metabolic pathways involving interorganelle interactions: resource sharing and ROS maintenance as the bases.  

PubMed

The bioenergetic processes of photosynthesis and respiration are mutually beneficial. Their interaction extends to photorespiration, which is linked to optimize photosynthesis. The interplay of these three pathways is facilitated by two major phenomena: sharing of energy/metabolite resources and maintenance of optimal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resource sharing among different compartments of plant cells is based on the production/utilization of reducing equivalents (NADPH, NADH) and ATP as well as on the metabolite exchange. The responsibility of generating the cellular requirements of ATP and NAD(P)H is mostly by the chloroplasts and mitochondria. In turn, besides the chloroplasts, the mitochondria, cytosol and peroxisomes are common sinks for reduced equivalents. Transporters located in membranes ensure the coordinated movement of metabolites across the cellular compartments. The present review emphasizes the beneficial interactions among photosynthesis, dark respiration and photorespiration, in relation to metabolism of C, N and S. Since the bioenergetic reactions tend to generate ROS, the cells modulate chloroplast and mitochondrial reactions, so as to ensure that the ROS levels do not rise to toxic levels. The patterns of minimization of ROS production and scavenging of excess ROS in intracellular compartments are highlighted. Some of the emerging developments are pointed out, such as model plants, orientation/movement of organelles and metabolomics. PMID:23881384

Sunil, Bobba; Talla, Sai K; Aswani, Vetcha; Raghavendra, Agepati S

2013-11-01

278

Fluxes of Ca2+ and K+ Are Required for the Listeriolysin O-Dependent Internalization Pathway of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for the life-threatening food-borne disease listeriosis. This disease mainly affects elderly and immunocompromised individuals, causing bacteremia and meningoencephalitis. In pregnant women, L. monocytogenes infection leads to abortion and severe infection of the fetus or newborn. The L. monocytogenes intracellular life cycle is critical for pathogenesis. Previous studies have established that the major virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), is sufficient to induce L. monocytogenes internalization into human epithelial cell lines. This internalization pathway strictly requires the formation of LLO pores in the plasma membrane and can be stimulated by the heterologous pore-forming toxin pneumolysin, suggesting that LLO acts nonspecifically by forming transmembrane pores. The present work tested the hypothesis that Ca2+ and K+ fluxes subsequent to perforation by LLO control L. monocytogenes internalization. We report that L. monocytogenes perforates the host cell plasma membrane in an LLO-dependent fashion at the early stage of invasion. In response to perforation, host cells undergo Ca2+-dependent but K+-independent resealing of their plasma membrane. In contrast to the plasma membrane resealing process, LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires both Ca2+ and K+ fluxes. Further linking ion fluxes to bacterial internalization, treating cells with a combination of Ca2+ and K+ ionophores but not with individual ionophores is sufficient to induce efficient internalization of large cargoes, such as 1-?m polystyrene beads and bacteria. We propose that LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires a Ca2+- and K+-dependent internalization pathway that is mechanistically distinct from the process of plasma membrane resealing. PMID:24366251

Vadia, Stephen

2014-01-01

279

Genetic dissection of TrkB activated signalling pathways required for specific aspects of the taste system  

PubMed Central

Background Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) bind to the same receptor, Ntrk2/TrkB, but play distinct roles in the development of the rodent gustatory system. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are lacking. Results Here, we demonstrate, in vivo, that single or combined point mutations in major adaptor protein docking sites on TrkB receptor affect specific aspects of the mouse gustatory development, known to be dependent on BDNF or NT-4. In particular, mice with a mutation in the TrkB-SHC docking site had reduced gustatory neuron survival at both early and later stages of development, when survival is dependent on NT-4 and BDNF, respectively. In addition, lingual innervation and taste bud morphology, both BDNF-dependent functions, were altered in these mutants. In contrast, mutation of the TrkB-PLC? docking site alone did not affect gustatory neuron survival. Moreover, innervation to the tongue was delayed in these mutants and taste receptor expression was altered. Conclusions We have genetically dissected pathways activated downstream of the TrkB receptor that are required for specific aspects of the taste system controlled by the two neurotrophins NT-4 and BDNF. In addition, our results indicate that TrkB also regulate the expression of specific taste receptors by distinct signalling pathways. These results advance our knowledge of the biology of the taste system, one of the fundamental sensory systems crucial for an organism to relate to the environment. PMID:25256039

2014-01-01

280

Characterization of multiple fragmentation pathways initiated by collision-induced dissociation of multifunctional anions formed by deprotonation of 2-nitrobenzenesulfonylglycine.  

PubMed

The correlation of anion structure with the fragmentation behavior of deprotonated nitrobenzenesulfonylamino acids was investigated using tandem mass spectrometry, isotopic labeling and computational methods. Four distinct fragmentation pathways resulting from the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of deprotonated 2-nitrobenzenesulfonylglycine (NsGly) were characterized. The unusual loss of the aryl nitro substituent as HONO was the lowest energy process. Subsequent successive losses of CO, HCN and SO2 indicated that an ortho cyclization reaction had accompanied loss of HONO. Other pathways involving rearrangement of the ionized sulfonamide group, dual bond cleavage and intramolecular nucleophilic displacement were proposed to account for the formation of phenoxide, arylsulfinate and arylsulfonamide product ions at higher collision energies. The four distinct fragmentation pathways were consistent with precursor-product relationships established by CID experiments, isotopic labeling results and the formation of analogous product ions from 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonylglycine and the Ns derivatives of alanine and 2-aminoisobutyric acid. The computations confirmed a low barrier for ortho cyclization with loss of HONO and feasible energetics for each reaction step in the four pathways. Computations also indicated that three of the fragmentation pathways started from NsGly ionized at the carboxyl group. Overall, the pathways identified for the fragmentation of the NsGly anion differed from processes reported for anions containing a single functional group, demonstrating the importance of functional group interactions in the fragmentation pathways of multifunctional anions. PMID:24677307

Tovstiga, Tara E; Gillis, Elizabeth A L; Grossert, J Stuart; White, Robert L

2014-02-01

281

Cell-specific coupling of the cloned human 5-HT1F receptor to multiple signal transduction pathways.  

PubMed

We recently described the cloning of a fifth member of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1 (serotonin1) receptor class that inhibits adenylyl cyclase, namely the human 5-HT1F receptor (Adham et al. 1993a). In the present study we have examined in greater detail the functional coupling of the 5-HT1F receptor in two different cell lines, NIH-3T3 and LM(tk-) fibroblasts (receptor densities of 1.7 and 4.4 pmol/mg protein, respectively). The maximal inhibitory response elicited by 5-HT was significantly greater in NIH-3T3 as compared to LM(tk-) cells, whereas the EC50 values were comparable. To investigate the relationship between receptor occupancy and inhibition of cAMP accumulation mediated by 5-HT1F receptors in NIH-3T3 cells (and hence the degree of receptor reserve), we used the irreversible receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ). The half-maximal response required only about 10% receptor occupancy, consistent with a receptor reserve of 90% (88 +/- 2.1%, n = 4) for 5-HT-induced inhibition of FSCA. Despite the presence of such a high degree of receptor reserve, a range of intrinsic activities was displayed by structurally diverse classes of compounds. For example, sumatriptan and lysergol were as efficacious as 5-HT itself and thus acted as full agonists, whereas metergoline and 1-NP behaved as partial agonists and as shown previously (Adham et al. 1993a), methiothepin was a silent antagonist (Kb = 438 nM). We have also investigated activation of additional signal transduction pathways by the 5-HT1F receptor and found that the responses differ in the two cell lines with respect to stimulation of phospholipase C. For example, in NIH-3T3 cells no elevation of inositol phosphates (IP) of [Ca2+]i was observed even at very high agonist concentrations (100 microM). In contrast, in LM(tk-) cells concentrations of 5-HT as low as 10 nM induced stimulation of IP and a rapid increase of [Ca2+]i. The 5-HT1F receptor failed to alter arachidonic acid release in either cell line. The maximal increase in IP accumulation in LM(tk-) cells was modest, averaging about 100% above basal. The increases of IP and [Ca2+]i required 5-HT concentrations less than one order of magnitude greater than those inhibiting FSCA (EC50 = 17, 55 and 8 nM, respectively), and both responses were blocked by 100 microM methiothepin. All three responses (cAMP, IP, and [Ca2+]i) were sensitive to pertussis toxin pre-treatment, suggesting the involvement of Gi/Go protein(s) in these signal transduction pathways.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8133900

Adham, N; Borden, L A; Schechter, L E; Gustafson, E L; Cochran, T L; Vaysse, P J; Weinshank, R L; Branchek, T A

1993-12-01

282

KeyPathwayMiner 4.0: condition-specific pathway analysis by combining multiple omics studies and networks with Cytoscape  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade network enrichment analysis has become popular in computational systems biology to elucidate aberrant network modules. Traditionally, these approaches focus on combining gene expression data with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Nowadays, the so-called omics technologies allow for inclusion of many more data sets, e.g. protein phosphorylation or epigenetic modifications. This creates a need for analysis methods that can combine these various sources of data to obtain a systems-level view on aberrant biological networks. Results We present a new release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape. Conclusion With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app for multi-omics based sub-network extraction. It is available in Cytoscape’s app store http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/keypathwayminer or via http://keypathwayminer.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:25134827

2014-01-01

283

Coexpression of multiple genes reconstitutes two pathways of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

The introduction of novel traits to cells often requires the stable coexpression of multiple genes within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by delta 6-desaturase, an ELOVL5 involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and delta 5-desaturase. The coexpression of McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES encoding the corresponding enzymes, produced docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4 n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3), as well as arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The expression of each gene increased within 24 h, with high transcript levels after induction with 0.5 or 1 % methanol. High levels of the newly expressed VLC-PUFAs occurred after 144 h. This expression system exemplifies the recent progress and future possibilities of the metabolic engineering of VLC-PUFAs in oilseed crops. PMID:24863294

Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

2014-09-01

284

The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice  

SciTech Connect

TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

Hua, Fang, E-mail: fhua2@emory.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)] [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)] [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

2009-12-18

285

Multiple IMU system test plan, volume 4. [subroutines for space shuttle requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating procedures for this redundant system are described. A test plan is developed with two objectives. First, performance of the hardware and software delivered is demonstrated. Second, applicability of multiple IMU systems to the space shuttle mission is shown through detailed experiments with FDI algorithms and other multiple IMU software: gyrocompassing, calibration, and navigation. Gimbal flip is examined in light of its possible detrimental effects on FDI and navigation. For Vol. 3, see N74-10296.

Landey, M.; Vincent, K. T., Jr.; Whittredge, R. S.

1974-01-01

286

Proteomic-based identification of multiple pathways underlying n-butylidenephthalide-induced apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Although numerous studies have shown the cancer-preventive properties of butylidenephthalide (BP), there is little report of BP affecting human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, proteomic-based approaches were used to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of BP in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. BP treatment decreased the viability of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was correlated with G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Increased cell cycle arrest was associated with a decrease in the level of CCND1, CDK2, and PCNA proteins and an increase in the level of CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and SFN proteins. Proteomic studies revealed that among 48 differentially expressed proteins, 25 proteins were down-regulated and 23 proteins were up-regulated and these proteins fall into one large protein protein interaction network. Among these proteins, FAS, AIFM1, BIK, CYCS, SFN, PPP2R1A, CALR, HSPA5, DDIT3, and ERN1 are apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated proteins. Proteomic data suggested that multiple signaling pathways including FAS-dependent pathway, mitochondrial pathway, and ER stress pathway are involved in the apoptosis induced by BP. PMID:23770345

Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Chiu, Sheng-Chun; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Zhai, Wei-Jun; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Yang, Hsueh-Hui

2013-09-01

287

Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-?B non-canonical pathway requires BCL10 serine 138 and NIK phosphorylations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsB-cell lymphoma\\/leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-?B (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease.

Sumit Bhattacharyya; Alip Borthakur; Pradeep K. Dudeja; Joanne K. Tobacman

2010-01-01

288

Delineating the mTOR Kinase Pathway Using a Dual TORC1/2 Inhibitor, AZD8055, in Multiple Myeloma.  

PubMed

Despite promising preclinical results with mTOR kinase inhibitors in multiple myeloma, resistance to these drugs may arise via feedback activation loops. This concern is especially true for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), because IGF1R signaling is downregulated by multiple AKT and mTOR feedback mechanisms. We have tested this hypothesis in multiple myeloma using the novel selective mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055. We evaluated p-mTOR S(2481) as the readout for mTORC2/Akt activity in multiple myeloma cells in the context of mTOR inhibition via AZD8055 or rapamycin. We next validated AZD8055 inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 functions in multiple myeloma cells alone or in culture with bone marrow stroma cells and growth factors. Unlike rapamycin, AZD8055 resulted in apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells. AZD8055 treatment, however, induced upregulation of IGF1R phosphorylation in p-Akt S(473)-expressing multiple myeloma cell lines. Furthermore, exposure of AZD8055-treated cells to IGF1 induced p-Akt S(473) and rescued multiple myeloma cells from apoptosis despite mTOR kinase inhibition and TORC2/Akt blockage. The addition of blocking IGF1R antibody resulted in reversing this effect and increased AZD8055-induced apoptosis. Our study suggests that combination treatment with AZD8055 and IGF1R-blocking agents is a promising strategy in multiple myeloma with potential IGF1R/Akt signaling-mediated survival. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(11); 2489-500. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25172964

Cirstea, Diana; Santo, Loredana; Hideshima, Teru; Eda, Homare; Mishima, Yuko; Nemani, Neeharika; Mahindra, Anuj; Yee, Andrew; Gorgun, Gullu; Hu, Yiguo; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Suzuki, Rikio; Cottini, Francesca; Guichard, Sylvie M; Anderson, Kenneth C; Raje, Noopur

2014-11-01

289

Discovery of chrysoeriol, a PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitor with potent antitumor activity against human multiple myeloma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the impact of chrysoeriol on proliferation and cell cycle progression in the human multiple myeloma cell lines RPMI 8226 and KM3, and its related molecular mechanisms. Chryseoriol was identified by using the phosphorylated AKT-specific cytoblot high throughput assay. CCK-8 assay was employed to examine the growth inhibition rate and IC(50) (48 h) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), RPMI 8226 and KM3 cells treated with chrysoeriol at various concentrations. Cells were labeled with 5-6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and the proliferation dynamics was detected by flow cytometry and analyzed with ModFit software. The cell cycles of RPMI 8226 and KM3 cells were measured by flow cytometry when the IC(50) concentration of chrysoeriol was adopted. The alterations in cell-cycle related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, p21) and proteins in PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway were determined by Western blot analysis. The results showed the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells was significantly inhibited by chrysoeriol, resulting in cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase. Chrysoeriol could significantly reduce the expression of p-AKT (s473) and p-4eBP1 (t37/46) protein, meanwhile enhanced Cyclin B1 and p21 protein expression. Similar effects were not observed in PBMNCs from normal donors. It was concluded that chrysoeriol was a selective PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitor. It restrained the proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells, but didn't affect proliferation of PBMNCs from normal donors. It might exhibit the cell cycle regulatory effect via the inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal pathway. PMID:21181363

Yang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Min; Hong, Zhenya; Gong, Quan; Jiang, Lijun; Zhou, Jianfeng

2010-12-01

290

Male alternative reproductive behaviours in a Mediterranean wrasse, Symphodus ocellatus: Evidence from otoliths for multiple life-history pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although alternative reproductive behaviours have been studied extensively, it has only been possible in a few cases to document the underlying life-history pathways and factors that determine their expression. In Symphodus ocellatus, a Mediterranean wrasse, males adopt a variety of behaviours. Within a season, they may invest in territory defence, nest building and broodcare (nesting males); join nesting males in

Suzanne H. Alonzo; Michael Taborsky; Peter Wirtz

291

SIC1 is ubiquitinated in vitro by a pathway that requires CDC4, CDC34, and cyclin/CDK activities.  

PubMed Central

Traversal from G1 to S-phase in cycling cells of budding yeast is dependent on the destruction of the S-phase cyclin/CDK inhibitor SIC1. Genetic data suggest that SIC1 proteolysis is mediated by the ubiquitin pathway and requires the action of CDC34, CDC4, CDC53, SKP1, and CLN/CDC28. As a first step in defining the functions of the corresponding gene products, we have reconstituted SIC1 multiubiquitination in DEAE-fractionated yeast extract. Multiubiquitination depends on cyclin/CDC28 protein kinase and the CDC34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin chain formation is abrogated in cdc4ts mutant extracts and assembly restored by the addition of exogenous CDC4, suggesting a direct role for this protein in SIC1 multiubiquitination. Deletion analysis of SIC1 indicates that the N-terminal 160 residues are both necessary and sufficient to serve as substrate for CDC34-dependent ubiquitination. The complementary C-terminal segment of SIC1 binds to the S-phase cyclin CLB5, indicating a modular structure for SIC1. Images PMID:9285816

Verma, R; Feldman, R M; Deshaies, R J

1997-01-01

292

The transcription factor E4BP4 is not required for extramedullary pathways of NK cell development.  

PubMed

NK cells contribute to antitumor and antiviral immunosurveillance. Their development in the bone marrow (BM) requires the transcription factor E4BP4/NFIL3, but requirements in other organs are less well defined. In this study, we show that CD3(-)NK1.1(+)NKp46(+)CD122(+) NK cells of immature phenotype and expressing low eomesodermin levels are found in thymus, spleen, and liver of E4BP4-deficient mice, whereas numbers of mature, eomesodermin(high) conventional NK cells are drastically reduced. E4BP4-deficient CD44(+)CD25(-) double-negative 1 thymocytes efficiently develop in vitro into NK cells with kinetics, phenotype, and functionality similar to wild-type controls, whereas no NK cells develop from E4BP4-deficient BM precursors. In E4BP4/Rag-1 double-deficient (DKO) mice, NK cells resembling those in Rag-1-deficient controls are found in similar numbers in the thymus and liver. However, NK precursors are reduced in DKO BM, and no NK cells develop from DKO BM progenitors in vitro. DKO thymocyte precursors readily develop into NK cells, but DKO BM transfers into nude recipients and NK cells in E4BP4/Rag-1/IL-7 triple-KO mice indicated thymus-independent NK cell development. In the presence of T cells or E4BP4-sufficient NK cells, DKO NK cells have a selective disadvantage, and thymic and hepatic DKO NK cells show reduced survival when adoptively transferred into lymphopenic hosts. This correlates with higher apoptosis rates and lower responsiveness to IL-15 in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrate E4BP4-independent development of NK cells of immature phenotype, reduced fitness, short t1/2, and potential extramedullary origin. Our data identify E4BP4-independent NK cell developmental pathways and a role for E4BP4 in NK cell homeostasis. PMID:24534532

Crotta, Stefania; Gkioka, Annita; Male, Victoria; Duarte, João H; Davidson, Sophia; Nisoli, Ilaria; Brady, Hugh J M; Wack, Andreas

2014-03-15

293

Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B non-canonical pathway requires BCL10 serine 138 and NIK phosphorylations  

SciTech Connect

Background and aims: B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-{kappa}B (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Experiments were performed in human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in components of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalosome, in order to detect mediators of the non-canonical pathway of NF-{kappa}B activation, including nuclear RelB and p52 and phospho- and total NF-{kappa}B inducing kinase (NIK). BCL10 was silenced by siRNA and effects of mutations of specific phosphorylation sites of BCL10 (Ser138Gly and Ser218Gly) were determined. Results: By the non-canonical pathway, LPS exposure increased nuclear RelB and p52, and phospho-NIK, with no change in total NIK. Phosphorylation of BCL10 serine 138 was required for NIK phosphorylation, since mutation of this residue eliminated the increases in phospho-NIK and nuclear RelB and p52. Mutations of either serine 138 or serine 218 reduced RelA, p50, and phospho-I{kappa}B{alpha} of the canonical pathway. Effects of LPS stimulation and BCL10 silencing on NIK phosphorylation were demonstrated in confocal images. Conclusions: LPS induces activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-{kappa}B in human colonic epithelial cells, and the non-canonical pathway requires phosphorylations of BCL10 (serine 138) and NIK. These findings demonstrate the important role of BCL10 in mediating LPS-induced inflammation in human colonic epithelial cells and may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K. [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-7227 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-7227 (United States); Tobacman, Joanne K., E-mail: jkt@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-7227 (United States)

2010-11-15

294

Neurospora crassa Female Development Requires the PACC and Other Signal Transduction Pathways, Transcription Factors, Chromatin Remodeling, Cell-To-Cell Fusion, and Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development. PMID:25333968

Chinnici, Jennifer L.; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M.; Arnold, Jason W.; Free, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

295

Identification of a Legionella pneumophila Locus Required for Intracellular Multiplication in Human Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legionnaires' disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a facultative intracellular parasite. Its interaction with phagocytes has characteristics in common with several other intracellular parasites. Critical aspects of L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication are evasion of lysosomal host cell defenses and the presence of a nutritionally appropriate environment. Following phagocytosis, wild-type L. pneumophila multiply within a specialized phagosome which does not fuse

Andrea Marra; Steven J. Blander; Marcus A. Horwitz; Howard A. Shuman

1992-01-01

296

Identification of a Calcineurin-Independent Pathway Required for Sodium Ion Stress Response inSaccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin plays an essential role in ion homeostasis in yeast. In this study, we identify a parallel ion stress response pathway that is independent of the calcineurin signaling pathway. Cells with null alleles in both STD1 and its homologue, MTH1, manifest numerous phenotypes observed in calcineurin mutants, including sodium, lithium, manganese, and hydroxyl ion sensitivity, as

Raymond W. Ganster; Rhonda R. McCartney; Martin C. Schmidt

297

Risk Factors for Onset of Eating Disorders: Evidence of Multiple Risk Pathways from an 8-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Use classification tree analysis with lagged predictors to determine empirically derived cut-points for identifying adolescent girls at risk for future onset of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders and test for interactions between risk factors that may implicate qualitatively distinct risk pathways. Method Data were drawn from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed diagnostic interviews and surveys annually for 8 years. Results Body dissatisfaction emerged as the most potent predictor; adolescent girls in the upper 24% of body dissatisfaction showed a 4.0-fold increased incidence of eating disorder onset (24% vs. 6%). Among participants in the high body dissatisfaction branch, those in the upper 32% of depressive symptoms showed a 2.9-fold increased incidence of onset (43% vs. 15%). Among participants in the low body dissatisfaction branch, those in the upper 12% of dieting showed a 3.6-fold increased incidence onset (18% vs. 5%). Conclusion This three-way interaction suggests a body dissatisfaction pathway to eating disorder onset that is amplified by depressive symptoms, as well as a pathway characterized by self-reported dieting among young women who are more satisfied with their bodies. It may be possible to increase the effectiveness of prevention programs by targeting each of these qualitatively distinct risk groups, rather than only individuals with a single risk factor. PMID:21764035

Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Durant, Shelley

2014-01-01

298

The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, inhibits gp130/Stat3 pathway and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in multiple myeloma cells  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with current therapy, indicating the need for continued development of novel therapeutic agents. We evaluated the activity of a novel phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, in primary human myeloma cells and cell lines. AR-42 was cytotoxic to MM cells at a mean LC50 of 0.18 ± 0.06 ?mol/l at 48 hr and induced apoptosis with cleavage of caspases 8, 9 and 3, with cell death largely prevented by caspase inhibition. AR-42 downregulated the expression of gp130 and inhibited activation of STAT3, with minimal effects on the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, indicating a predominant effect on the gp130/STAT-3 pathway. AR-42 also inhibited interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation, which could not be overcome by exogenous IL-6. AR-42 also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated targets, including Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Overexpression of Bcl-xL by a lentivirus construct partly protected against cell death induced by AR-42. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21, were also significantly induced by AR-42, which together with a decrease in cyclin D1, resulted in G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, AR-42 has potent cytotoxicity against MM cells mainly through gp130/STAT-3 pathway. The results provide rationale for clinical investigation of AR-42 in MM. PMID:20824695

Zhang, Shuhong; Suvannasankha, Attaya; Crean, Colin D.; White, Valerie L.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Farag, Sherif S.

2014-01-01

299

Transcription factor-pathway co-expression analysis reveals cooperation between SP1 and ESR1 on dysregulating cell cycle arrest in non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a hematological cancer of plasma B-cells and remains incurable. Two major subtypes of myeloma, hyperdiploid (HMM) and non-hyperdiploid myeloma (NHMM), have distinct chromosomal alterations and different survival outcomes. Transcription factors (TrFs) have been implicated in myeloma oncogenesis but their dysregulation in myeloma subtypes are less studied. Here we develop a TrF-pathway co-expression analysis to identify altered co-expression between two sample types. We apply the method to the two myeloma subtypes and the cell cycle arrest pathway, which is significantly differentially expressed between the two subtypes. We find that TrFs MYC, NF-?B and HOXA9 have significantly lower co-expression with cell cycle arrest in HMM, co-occurring with their over-activation in HMM. In contrast, TrFs ESR1, SP1 and E2F1 have significantly lower co-expression with cell cycle arrest in NHMM. SP1 ChIP targets are enriched by cell cycle arrest genes. These results motivate a cooperation model of ESR1 and SP1 in regulating cell cycle arrest, and a hypothesis that their over-activation in NHMM disrupts proper regulation of cell cycle arrest. Co-targeting ESR1 and SP1 shows a synergistic effect on inhibiting myeloma proliferation in NHMM cell lines. Therefore, studying TrF-pathway co-expression dysregulation in human cancers facilitates forming novel hypotheses towards clinical utility. PMID:23925045

Wang, Xujun; Yan, Zhenyu; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Li, Yingxiang; Gkotzamanidou, Maria; Amin, Samir B; Shah, Parantu K; Zhang, Yong

2014-01-01

300

TNF? Mediated IL-6 Secretion Is Regulated by JAK/STAT Pathway but Not by MEK Phosphorylation and AKT Phosphorylation in U266 Multiple Myeloma Cells  

PubMed Central

IL-6 and TNF? were significantly increased in the bone marrow aspirate samples of patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared to those of normal controls. Furthermore, MM patients with advanced aggressive disease had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and TNF? than those with MM in plateau phase. TNF? increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) production from MM cells. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in signaling pathways by which TNF? promotes IL-6 secretion from MM cells are largely unknown. In our study, we found that TNF? treatments induce MEK and AKT phosphorylation. TNF?-stimulated IL-6 production was abolished by inhibition of JAK2 and IKK? or by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TNF receptors (TNFR) but not by MEK, p38, and PI3K inhibitors. Also, TNF? increased phosphorylation of STAT3 (ser727) including c-Myc and cyclin D1. Three different types of JAK inhibitors decreased the activation of the previously mentioned pathways. In conclusion, blockage of JAK/STAT-mediated NF-?B activation was highly effective in controlling the growth of MM cells and, consequently, an inhibitor of TNF?-mediated IL-6 secretion would be a potential new therapeutic agent for patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:24151609

Lee, Chansu; Oh, Jeong-In; Park, Juwon; Choi, Jee-Hye; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Woo June; Lee, Dong Soon; Ahn, Kwang-Sung; Yoon, Sung-Soo

2013-01-01

301

Stress peptide PACAP engages multiple signaling pathways within the carotid body to initiate excitatory responses in respiratory and sympathetic chemosensory afferents.  

PubMed

Consistent with a critical role in respiratory and autonomic stress responses, the carotid bodies are strongly excited by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide implicated in stress responses throughout the sympathetic nervous system. PACAP excites isolated carotid body glomus cells via activation of PAC1 receptors, with one study suggesting PAC1-induced excitation is due entirely to protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of TASK channels. However, in other systems, PAC1 is known to be coupled to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including PKA, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase D (PLD), and protein kinase C (PKC), that trigger multiple downstream effectors including increased Ca²? mobilization, inhibition of various K? channels, and activation of nonselective cation channels. This study tests if non-PKA/TASK channel signaling helps mediate the stimulatory effects of PACAP on the carotid body. Using an ex vivo arterially perfused rat carotid body preparation, we show that PACAP-38 stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity in a biphasic manner (peak response, falling to plateau). PKA blocker H-89 only reduced the plateau response (~41%), whereas the TASK-1-like K? channel blocker/transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel agonist anandamide only inhibited the peak response (~48%), suggesting involvement of additional pathways. The PLD blocker CAY10594 significantly inhibited both peak and plateau responses. The PLC blocker U73122 decimated both peak and plateau responses. Brefeldin A, a blocker of Epac (cAMP-activated guanine exchange factor, reported to link Gs-coupled receptors with PLC/PLD), also reduced both phases of the response, as did blocking signaling downstream of PLC/PLD with the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride and GF109203X. Suggesting the involvement of non-TASK ion channels in the effects of PACAP, the A-type K? channel blocker 4-aminopyridine, and the putative transient receptor potential channel (TRPC)/T-type calcium channel blocker SKF96365 each significantly inhibited the peak and steady-state responses. These data suggest the stimulatory effect of PACAP-38 on carotid body sensory activity is mediated through multiple signaling pathways: the PLC-PKC pathways predominates, with TRPC and/or T-type channel activation and Kv channel inactivation; only partial involvement is attributable to PKA and PLD activation. PMID:23594614

Roy, Arijit; Derakhshan, Fatemeh; Wilson, Richard J A

2013-06-15

302

77 FR 12927 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to Multiple-Award Contracts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...establishing BPAs and allowing flexibility in establishing BPA ordering procedures; (6) BPA requirements and health-care programs; (7) Competition...statement of work is being evaluated when placed under a BPA with hourly rate services. This language is...

2012-03-02

303

pH-Jump-Induced Folding and Unfolding Studies of Barstar: Evidence for Multiple Folding and Unfolding Pathways  

E-print Network

pH-Jump-Induced Folding and Unfolding Studies of Barstar: Evidence for Multiple FoldingVised Manuscript ReceiVed September 26, 2001 ABSTRACT: Equilibrium and kinetic characterization of the high pH-induced unfolding transition of the small protein barstar have been carried out in the pH range 7-12. A mutant form

304

Vegetables' juice influences polyol pathway by multiple mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress and resultant diabetic complications  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hyperglycemia induced generation of free radicals and consequent development of oxidative stress by polyol pathway is one of the crucial mechanisms stirring up development of diabetic complications. We evaluated influence of ten vegetables’ juice on polyol pathway along with their antioxidant and antioxidative stress potentials. Materials and Methods: Aldose reductase activity was determined utilising goat lens and human erythrocytes. In goat lens, utilization of nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and aldose reductase inhibition was assayed. In human erythrocytes, sorbitol formation was measured as an index of aldose reductase activity under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. Ability of juices in inhibiting oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar and calf thymus DNA and inhibitory activity against hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis of erythrocytes was also analysed. Phytochemical contents like total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total protein were measured to find their influence on biological activities. Results: Vegetables’ juice displayed varying degrees of inhibitory potentials in mitigating NADPH dependent catalytic activity of aldose reductase in goat lens, accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes under different glucose concentrations; Fenton-reaction induced oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar, and calf thymus DNA. Substantial variations in vegetables phytochemicals content were also noticed in this study. Conclusions: Vegetables’ juice possesses potent activities in influencing polyol pathway by various mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress independent of their inherent antioxidative properties. Juice of ivy gourd followed by green cucumber and ridge gourd were among the most potent for they displayed strong activities on various parameters analysed in this study. These vegetables’ juice may become part of mechanism-based complementary antioxidant therapy to prevent development of diabetic complications. PMID:24991118

Tiwari, Ashok K.; Kumar, D. Anand; Sweeya, Pisupati S.; Chauhan, H. Anusha; Lavanya, V.; Sireesha, K.; Pavithra, K.; Zehra, Amtul

2014-01-01

305

MicroRNA-155 tunes both the threshold and extent of NK cell activation via targeting of multiple signaling pathways.  

PubMed

NK cells are innate lymphocytes important for host defense against viral infections and malignancy. However, the molecular programs orchestrating NK cell activation are incompletely understood. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is markedly upregulated following cytokine activation of human and mouse NK cells. Surprisingly, mature human and mouse NK cells transduced to overexpress miR-155, NK cells from mice with NK cell-specific miR-155 overexpression, and miR-155(-/-) NK cells all secreted more IFN-? compared with controls. Investigating further, we found that activated NK cells with miR-155 overexpression had increased per-cell IFN-? with normal IFN-?(+) percentages, whereas greater percentages of miR-155(-/-) NK cells were IFN-?(+). In vivo murine CMV-induced IFN-? expression by NK cells in these miR-155 models recapitulated the in vitro phenotypes. We performed unbiased RNA-induced silencing complex sequencing on wild-type and miR-155(-/-) NK cells and found that mRNAs targeted by miR-155 were enriched in NK cell activation signaling pathways. Using specific inhibitors, we confirmed these pathways were mechanistically involved in regulating IFN-? production by miR-155(-/-) NK cells. These data indicate that miR-155 regulation of NK cell activation is complex and that miR-155 functions as a dynamic tuner for NK cell activation via both setting the activation threshold as well as controlling the extent of activation in mature NK cells. In summary, miR-155(-/-) NK cells are more easily activated, through increased expression of proteins in the PI3K, NF-?B, and calcineurin pathways, and miR-155(-/-) and 155-overexpressing NK cells exhibit increased IFN-? production through distinct cellular mechanisms. PMID:24227772

Sullivan, Ryan P; Fogel, Leslie A; Leong, Jeffrey W; Schneider, Stephanie E; Wong, Rachel; Romee, Rizwan; Thai, To-Ha; Sexl, Veronika; Matkovich, Scot J; Dorn, Gerald W; French, Anthony R; Fehniger, Todd A

2013-12-15

306

Cross-sectional relations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct biological pathways to plasma markers of collagen metabolism in the community  

PubMed Central

Objective Hyperhomocysteinemia, neurohormonal activation, inflammation and altered fibrinolysis have been linked to atherothrombosis as well as to myocardial fibrosis and heart failure. Hence, we related a panel of biomarkers representing these pathways to plasma markers of collagen metabolism in a large community-based sample. Methods We related nine biomarkers representing select biologic pathways (independent variables: C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, renin, fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homocysteine) to three plasma markers of collagen turnover [dependent variables, separate models for each: aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (present versus absent)] in 921 Framingham Heart study participants (mean age 57 years; 58% women). Participants were separated apriori into those with left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and wall thickness below sex-specific median values (referent group) and either measure at least 90th sex-specific percentile (‘remodeled’ group). We used stepwise multivariable regression analysis adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors to relate the panel of systemic biomarkers to the three biomarkers of collagen metabolism. Results Plasma homocysteine was positively related to all three markers of collagen metabolism in the remodeled group and to aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in the referent group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was positively related to aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in both groups, whereas the natriuretic peptides were associated positively with these collagen markers in the referent group. Conclusion In our large community-based sample, plasma homocysteine and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were positively related to circulating collagen biomarkers, consistent with experimental studies implicating these pathways in cardiovascular collagen turnover. PMID:19357531

Joseph, Jacob; Pencina, Michael J.; Wang, Thomas J.; Hayes, Laura; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Jacques, Paul; Selhub, Jacob; Levy, Daniel; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

2009-01-01

307

Multiple BiP genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are required for male gametogenesis and pollen competitiveness.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) is a molecular chaperone of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family. BiP is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plays key roles in protein translocation, protein folding and quality control in the ER. The genomes of flowering plants contain multiple BiP genes. Arabidopsis thaliana has three BiP genes. BIP1 and BIP2 are ubiquitously expressed. BIP3 encodes a less well conserved BiP paralog, and it is expressed only under ER stress conditions in the majority of organs. Here, we report that all BiP genes are expressed and functional in pollen and pollen tubes. Although the bip1 bip2 double mutation does not affect pollen viability, the bip1 bip2 bip3 triple mutation is lethal in pollen. This result indicates that lethality of the bip1 bip2 double mutation is rescued by BiP3 expression. A decrease in the copy number of the ubiquitously expressed BiP genes correlates well with a decrease in pollen tube growth, which leads to reduced fitness of mutant pollen during fertilization. Because an increased protein secretion activity is expected to increase the protein folding demand in the ER, the multiple BiP genes probably cooperate with each other to ensure ER homeostasis in cells with active secretion such as rapidly growing pollen tubes. PMID:24486762

Maruyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-Ichi

2014-04-01

308

Knockdown of Human TCF4 Affects Multiple Signaling Pathways Involved in Cell Survival, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Neuronal Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS): a severe form of mental retardation with phenotypic similarities to Angelman, Mowat-Wilson and Rett syndromes. Genome-wide association studies have also found that common variants in TCF4 are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Although TCF4 is transcription factor, little is known about TCF4-regulated processes in the brain. In this study we used genome-wide expression profiling to determine the effects of acute TCF4 knockdown on gene expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We identified 1204 gene expression changes (494 upregulated, 710 downregulated) in TCF4 knockdown cells. Pathway and enrichment analysis on the differentially expressed genes in TCF4-knockdown cells identified an over-representation of genes involved in TGF-? signaling, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis. Among the most significantly differentially expressed genes were the EMT regulators, SNAI2 and DEC1 and the proneural genes, NEUROG2 and ASCL1. Altered expression of several mental retardation genes such as UBE3A (Angelman Syndrome), ZEB2 (Mowat-Wilson Syndrome) and MEF2C was also found in TCF4-depleted cells. These data suggest that TCF4 regulates a number of convergent signaling pathways involved in cell differentiation and survival in addition to a subset of clinically important mental retardation genes. PMID:24058414

Forrest, Marc P.; Waite, Adrian J.; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J.

2013-01-01

309

Whole gene expression profile in blood reveals multiple pathways deregulation in R6/2 mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Huntington Disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder, with pathological manifestations in brain areas and in periphery caused by the ubiquitous expression of mutant Huntingtin protein. Transcriptional dysregulation is considered a key molecular mechanism responsible of HD pathogenesis but, although numerous studies investigated mRNA alterations in HD, so far none evaluated a whole gene expression profile in blood of R6/2 mouse model. Findings To discover novel pathogenic mechanisms and potential peripheral biomarkers useful to monitor disease progression or drug efficacy, a microarray study was performed in blood of R6/2 at manifest stage and wild type littermate mice. This approach allowed to propose new peripheral molecular processes involved in HD and to suggest different panels of candidate biomarkers. Among the discovered deregulated processes, we focused on specific ones: complement and coagulation cascades, PPAR signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, and dilated cardiomyopathy pathways. Selected genes derived from these pathways were additionally investigated in other accessible tissues to validate these matrices as source of biomarkers, and in brain, to link central and peripheral disease manifestations. Conclusions Our findings validated the skeletal muscle as suitable source to investigate peripheral transcriptional alterations in HD and supported the hypothesis that immunological alteration may contribute to neurological degeneration. Moreover, the identification of altered signaling in mouse blood enforce R6/2 transgenic mouse as a powerful HD model while suggesting novel disease biomarkers for pre-clinical investigation. PMID:24252798

2013-01-01

310

The alternative pathway is required, but not alone sufficient, for retinal pathology in mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.  

PubMed

Human genetic studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in different complement proteins can increase the risk for developing AMD. There are three pathways of complement activation, classical (CP), alternative (AP), and lectin (LP), which all activate a final common pathway. Proteins encoded by the AMD risk genes participate in the AP (CFB), CP/LP (C2), or in the AP and final common pathway (C3). Here we tested which pathway is essential in mouse laser-induced CNV. CNV was analyzed using single complement pathway knockouts (i.e., eliminating one complement pathway at a time), followed by a double knockout in which only the AP is present, and the CP and LP are disabled, using molecular, histological and electrophysiological outcomes. First, single-gene knockouts were analyzed and compared to wild type mice; C1q(-/-) (no CP), MBL(-/-) (no LP), and CFB(-/-) (no AP). Six days after the laser-induced lesion, mice without a functional AP had reduced CNV progression (P<0.001) and preserved ERG amplitudes, whereas those without a functional CP or LP were indistinguishable from the wild type controls (P>0.3). Second, AP-only mice (C1q(-/-)MBL(-/-)) were as protected from developing CNV as the CFB(-/-) mice. The degree of pathology in each strain correlated with protein levels of the angiogenic and anti-angiogenic protein VEGF and PEDF, respectively, as well as levels of terminal pathway activation product C5a, and C9. The analysis of complement activation pathways in mouse laser-induced CNV allows for the following conclusions. Comparing the single pathway knockouts with those having only a functional AP showed: (1) that AP activation is necessary, but not alone sufficient for injury; and (2) that initial complement activation proceeds via both the LP and CP. Thus, these data indicate an important role for the AP in the generation of complement-dependent injury in the RPE and choroid via amplification of CP- and LP-initiated complement activation. Improving our understanding of the local regulation of this pathway in the eye is essential for developing improved treatment approaches for AMD. PMID:21257205

Rohrer, Bärbel; Coughlin, Beth; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Long, Qin; Tomlinson, Stephen; Takahashi, Kazue; Holers, V Michael

2011-03-01

311

Celsr1 is required for the generation of polarity at multiple levels of the mouse oviduct.  

PubMed

The oviduct is an important organ in reproduction where fertilization occurs, and through which the fertilized eggs are carried to the uterus in mammals. This organ is highly polarized, where the epithelium forms longitudinal folds along the ovary-uterus axis, and the epithelial multicilia beat towards the uterus to transport the ovulated ova. Here, we analyzed the postnatal development of mouse oviduct and report that multilevel polarities of the oviduct are regulated by a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, Celsr1. In the epithelium, Celsr1 is concentrated in the specific cellular boundaries perpendicular to the ovary-uterus axis from postnatal day 2. We found a new feature of cellular polarity in the oviduct - the apical surface of epithelial cells is elongated along the ovary-uterus axis. In Celsr1-deficient mice, the ciliary motion is not orchestrated along the ovary-uterus axis and the transport ability of beating cilia is impaired. Epithelial cells show less elongation and randomized orientation, and epithelial folds show randomized directionality and ectopic branches in the mutant. Our mosaic analysis suggests that the geometry of epithelial cells is primarily regulated by Celsr1 and as a consequence the epithelial folds are aligned. Taken together, we reveal the characteristics of the multilevel polarity formation processes in the mouse oviduct epithelium and suggest a novel function of the PCP pathway for proper tissue morphogenesis. PMID:25406397

Shi, Dongbo; Komatsu, Kouji; Hirao, Mayumi; Toyooka, Yayoi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tissir, Fadel; Goffinet, André M; Uemura, Tadashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko

2014-12-01

312

FCAT Retakes: Trends in Multiple Attempts at Satisfying FCAT Graduation Requirements. Research Brief. Volume 0805  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Florida Law, students must pass the Grade 10 FCAT, among other academic requirements, in order to receive a standard high school diploma. Specifically, students must achieve a "passing" score of 300 or above on both the FCAT SSS Reading and the FCAT SSS Mathematics tests. Technically, students can retake the FCAT as many times as they…

Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly

2009-01-01

313

An Approach To Conceptual Feedback In Multiple Viewed Software Requirements Modeling  

E-print Network

-6614 fax: (205) 895-6239 Email: delugach@cs.uah.edu WWW: http://www.cs.uah.edu/~delugach 1. INTRODUCTION Software requirements analysis and specification is concerned with the exploratory phases of software development: namely, defining a problem and its domain, followed by the process of identifying what features

Delugach, Harry S.

314

Multiple Amidated Neuropeptides Are Required for Normal Circadian Locomotor Rhythms in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, the amidated neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) is expressed by the ventral subset of lateral pace- maker neurons and is required for circadian locomotor rhythms. Residual rhythmicity in pdf mutants likely reflects the activity of other neurotransmitters. We asked whether other neuropep- tides contribute to such auxiliary mechanisms. We used the gal4\\/UAS system to create mosaics for the

Paul H. Taghert; Randall S. Hewes; Jae H. Park; Martha A. O'Brien; Mei Han; Molly E. Peck

2001-01-01

315

Multiple interactions between regulatory regions are required to stabilize an active chromatin hub  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is required for the maintenance of an open chromatin configuration of the locus. It interacts with the genes and the hypersensitive regions flanking the locus to form an active chromatin hub (ACH) transcribing the genes. Proper developmental control of globin genes is largely determined by gene proximal regulatory sequences. Here, we provide the

G. P. Patrinos; Krom de M; Boer de E; A. Langeveld; A. M. A. Imam; J. Strouboulis; Laat de W. L; F. G. Grosveld

2004-01-01

316

Initiation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signalling pathways: a genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Populations of surface-attached microorganisms com- prising either single or multiple species are commonly referred to as biofilms. Using a simple assay for the initiation of biofilm formation (e.g. attachment to an abiotic surface) by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365, we have shown that: (i) P. fluorescens can form biofilms on an abiotic surface when grown on a range of nutrients;

George A. O'Toole; Roberto Kolter

1998-01-01

317

Menin Missense Mutants Associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Are Rapidly Degraded via the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEN1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and that encodes a 610-amino-acid protein, called menin. While the majority of germ line mutations identified in MEN1 patients are frameshift and nonsense mutations resulting in truncation of the menin protein, various missense mutations have been identified whose effects on menin activity are unclear.

Hiroko Yaguchi; Naganari Ohkura; Maho Takahashi; Yuko Nagamura; Issay Kitabayashi; Toshihiko Tsukada

2004-01-01

318

Sustained Post-Mating Response in Drosophila melanogaster Requires Multiple Seminal Fluid Proteins  

PubMed Central

Successful reproduction is critical to pass genes to the next generation. Seminal proteins contribute to important reproductive processes that lead to fertilization in species ranging from insects to mammals. In Drosophila, the male's accessory gland is a source of seminal fluid proteins that affect the reproductive output of males and females by altering female post-mating behavior and physiology. Protein classes found in the seminal fluid of Drosophila are similar to those of other organisms, including mammals. By using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down levels of individual accessory gland proteins (Acps), we investigated the role of 25 Acps in mediating three post-mating female responses: egg production, receptivity to remating and storage of sperm. We detected roles for five Acps in these post-mating responses. CG33943 is required for full stimulation of egg production on the first day after mating. Four other Acps (CG1652, CG1656, CG17575, and CG9997) appear to modulate the long-term response, which is the maintenance of post-mating behavior and physiological changes. The long-term post-mating response requires presence of sperm in storage and, until now, had been known to require only a single Acp. Here, we discovered several novel Acps together are required which together are required for sustained egg production, reduction in receptivity to remating of the mated female and for promotion of stored sperm release from the seminal receptacle. Our results also show that members of conserved protein classes found in seminal plasma from insects to mammals are essential for important reproductive processes. PMID:18085830

Ram, K. Ravi; Wolfner, Mariana F

2007-01-01

319

Hierarchical binding of the TodT response regulator to its multiple recognition sites at the tod pathway operon promoter.  

PubMed

The TodS and TodT proteins form a highly specific two-component regulatory system that controls the expression of genes involved in the degradation of toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene via the toluene dioxygenase pathway. The catabolic genes of the toluene dioxygenase pathway are transcribed from a single promoter called P(todX) once the response regulator TodT is phosphorylated by the TodS sensor kinase in response to pathway substrates. We show here that TodT is a monomer in solution and that it binds to three specific sites in the P(todX) promoter, centered at -57, -85, and -106 with respect to the transcription start site. The -85 and -106 sites are pseudopalindromic, whereas the -57 site is half a palindrome. TodT binding to its target sites is sequential, as shown by electrophoresis mobility gel shift assays and footprinting. The binding affinity values of TodT, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, are 1.8+/-0.2, 5+/-0.4, and 6.3+/-0.8 microM for the -106, -85, and -57 sites, respectively, and the binding stoichiometry is one monomer per half-palindromic element. Mutational analysis revealed that all three sites contribute to P(todX) strength, although the most relevant site is the distal one with respect to the -10 extended element of the downstream promoter element. The C-TodT [C-terminal TodT fragment (amino acids 154-206)], a truncated variant of TodT that contains the C-terminal half of the protein bearing the DNA binding domain, binds in vitro to all three sites with affinity similar to that of the full-length protein. However, C-TodT, in contrast to the full-length regulator, does not activate in vitro transcription from P(todX). We discuss the consequences of the organization of the binding sites on transcriptional control and propose that the N-terminal domain of TodT is necessary for appropriate interactions with other transcriptional elements. PMID:18166197

Lacal, Jesús; Guazzaroni, María Eugenia; Busch, Andreas; Krell, Tino; Ramos, Juan L

2008-02-15

320

Assessment of groundwater pathways and contaminant transport in Florida and Georgia using multiple chemical and microbiological indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology of Florida, especially in the northern part of the state, and southwestern Georgia is characterized by a predominance of limestone aquifers overlain by varying amounts of sands, silts, and clays. This karstic system of aquifers and their associated springs is particularly vulnerable to contamination from various anthropogenic activities at the land surface. Numerous sinkholes, disappearing streams, and conduit systems or dissolution pathways, often associated with large spring systems, allow rapid movement of contaminants from the land surface to the groundwater system with little or no attenuation or degradation. The fate of contaminants in the groundwater system is not fully understood, but traveltimes from sources are greatly reduced when conduits are intercepted by pumping wells and springs. Contaminant introduction to groundwater systems in Florida and Georgia is not limited to seepage from land surface, but can be associated with passive (drainage wells) and forced subsurface injection (aquifer storage and recovery, waste-water disposal).

Mahon, Gary L.

2011-01-01

321

Genetic Analyses of Interferon Pathway-Related Genes Reveals Multiple New Loci Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)  

PubMed Central

Objective The overexpression of interferon (IFN)-inducible genes is a prominent feature of SLE, serves as a marker for active and more severe disease, and is also observed in other autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The genetic variations responsible for sustained activation of IFN responsive genes are unknown. Methods We systematically evaluated association of SLE with a total of 1,754 IFN-pathway related genes, including IFN-inducible genes known to be differentially expressed in SLE patients and their direct regulators. We performed a three-stage design where two cohorts (total n=939 SLE cases, 3,398 controls) were analyzed independently and jointly for association with SLE, and the results were adjusted for the number of comparisons. Results A total of 16,137 SNPs passed all quality control filters of which 316 demonstrated replicated association with SLE in both cohorts. Nine variants were further genotyped for confirmation in an average of 1,316 independent SLE cases and 3,215 independent controls. Association with SLE was confirmed for several genes, including the transmembrane receptor CD44 (rs507230, P = 3.98×10?12), cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) (rs919581, P = 5.38×10?04), the heat-shock DNAJA1 (rs10971259, P = 6.31×10?03), and the nuclear import protein karyopherin alpha 1 (KPNA1) (rs6810306, P = 4.91×10?02). Conclusion This study expands the number of candidate genes associated with SLE and highlights the potential of pathway-based approaches for gene discovery. Identification of the causal alleles will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for activation of the IFN system in SLE. PMID:21437871

Ramos, Paula S.; Williams, Adrienne H.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Comeau, Mary E.; Guy, Richard T.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Li, He; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Graham, Deborah Cunninghame; Graham, Robert R.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Petri, Michelle A.; Reveille, John D.; McGwin, Gerald; Vila, Luis M.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Jacob, Chaim O.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Tsao, Betty P.; Harley, John B.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Moser, Kathy L.

2011-01-01

322

JC Virus Multiplication in Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Requires the NF-1 Class D Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

JCV, a small DNA virus of the polyomavirus family, has been shown to infect glial cells of the central nervous system, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and immune system lymphocytes. A family of DNA binding proteins called nuclear factor-1 (NF-1) has been linked with site-coding specific transcription of cellular and viral genes and replication of some viruses, including JC virus (JCV). It is unclear which NF-1 gene product must be expressed by cells to promote JCV multiplication. Previously, it was shown that elevated levels of NF-1 class D mRNA were expressed by human brain cells that are highly susceptible to JCV infection but not by JCV nonpermissive HeLa cells. Recently, we reported that CD34+ precursor cells of the KG-1 line, when treated with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), differentiated to cells with macrophage-like characteristics and lost susceptibility to JCV infection. These studies have now been extended by asking whether loss of JCV susceptibility by PMA-treated KG-1 cells is linked with alterations in levels of NF-1 class D expression. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we have found that PMA-treated KG-1 cells express mRNA that codes for all four classes of NF-1 proteins, although different levels of RNA expression were observed in the hematopoietic cells differentiated into macrophages. Northern hybridization confirms that the expression of NF-1 class D gene is lower in JCV nonpermissive PMA-treated KG-1 cells compared with non-PMA-treated cells. Further, using gel mobility shift assays, we were able to show the induction of specific NF-1–DNA complexes in KG-1 cells undergoing PMA treatment. The binding increases in direct relation to the duration of PMA treatment. These results suggest that the binding pattern of NF-1 class members may change in hematopoietic precursor cells, such as KG-1, as they undergo differentiation to macrophage-like cells. Transfection of PMA-treated KG-1 cells with an NF-1 class D expression vector restored the susceptibility of these cells to JCV infection, while the transfection of PMA-treated KG-1 cells with NF-1 class A, B, and C vectors was not able to restore JCV susceptibility. These data collectively suggest that selective expression of NF-1 class D has a regulatory role in JCV multiplication. PMID:11559801

Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Sabath, Bruce F.; Durham, Linda C.; Major, Eugene O.

2001-01-01

323

Activation of the furin endoprotease is a multiple-step process: requirements for acidification and internal propeptide cleavage.  

PubMed Central

Activation of furin requires autoproteolytic cleavage of its 83-amino acid propeptide at the consensus furin site, Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg107/. This RER-localized cleavage is necessary, but not sufficient, for enzyme activation. Rather, full activation of furin requires exposure to, and correct routing within, the TGN/endosomal system. Here, we identify the steps in addition to the initial propeptide cleavage necessary for activation of furin. Exposure of membrane preparations containing an inactive RER-localized soluble furin construct to either: (i) an acidic and calcium-containing environment characteristic of the TGN; or (ii) mild trypsinization at neutral pH, resulted in the activation of the endoprotease. Taken together, these results suggest that the pH drop facilitates the removal of a furin inhibitor. Consistent with these findings, following cleavage in the RER, the furin propeptide remains associated with the enzyme and functions as a potent inhibitor of the endoprotease. Co-immunoprecipitation studies coupled with analysis by mass spectrometry show that release of the propeptide at acidic pH, and hence activation of furin, requires a second cleavage within the autoinhibitory domain at a site containing a P6 arginine (-Arg70-Gly-Val-Thr-Lys-Arg75/-). The significance of this cleavage in regulating the compartment-specific activation of furin, and the relationship of the furin activation pathway to those of other serine endoproteases are discussed. PMID:9130696

Anderson, E D; VanSlyke, J K; Thulin, C D; Jean, F; Thomas, G

1997-01-01

324

Embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs contribute to pluripotency by inhibiting regulators of multiple differentiation pathways  

PubMed Central

The findings that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for early development in many species and that embryonic miRNAs can reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells suggest that these miRNAs act directly on transcriptional and chromatin regulators of pluripotency. To elucidate the transcription regulatory networks immediately downstream of embryonic miRNAs, we extended the motif activity response analysis approach that infers the regulatory impact of both transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs from genome-wide expression states. Applying this approach to multiple experimental data sets generated from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that did or did not express miRNAs of the ESC-specific miR-290-295 cluster, we identified multiple TFs that are direct miRNA targets, some of which are known to be active during cell differentiation. Our results provide new insights into the transcription regulatory network downstream of ESC-specific miRNAs, indicating that these miRNAs act on cell cycle and chromatin regulators at several levels and downregulate TFs that are involved in the innate immune response. PMID:25030899

Gruber, Andreas J.; Grandy, William A.; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Dimitrova, Yoana A.; Pachkov, Mikhail; Ciaudo, Constance; van Nimwegen, Erik; Zavolan, Mihaela

2014-01-01

325

Near-threshold harmonics from a femtosecond enhancement cavity-based EUV source: effects of multiple quantum pathways on spatial profile and yield.  

PubMed

We investigate the photon flux and far-field spatial profiles for near-threshold harmonics produced with a 66 MHz femtosecond enhancement cavity-based EUV source operating in the tight-focus regime. The effects of multiple quantum pathways in the far-field spatial profile and harmonic yield show a strong dependence on gas jet dynamics, particularly nozzle diameter and position. This simple system, consisting of only a 700 mW Ti:Sapphire oscillator and an enhancement cavity produces harmonics up to 20 eV with an estimated 30-100 ?W of power (intracavity) and > 1?W (measured) of power spectrally-resolved and out-coupled from the cavity. While this power is already suitable for applications, a quantum mechanical model of the system indicates substantial improvements should be possible with technical upgrades. PMID:22273880

Hammond, T J; Mills, Arthur K; Jones, David J

2011-12-01

326

Multiple Effects of a Novel Epothilone Analog on Cellular Processes and Signaling Pathways Regulated by Rac1 GTPase in the Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The epothilones are a class of microtubule inhibitors that exhibit a strong antitumor activity. UTD2 is a novel epothilone analog generated by genetic manipulation of the polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster. This study investigated the effects of UTD2 on the actin cytoskeleton and its critical regulators, and the signaling pathways which are essential for cell motility, growth and survival in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that UTD2 inhibited the cellular functions of actin cytoskeleton, such as wound-closure, migration and invasion, as well as adhesion. Our study further demonstrated that UTD2 suppressed Rac1 GTPase activation and reduced the activity of PAK1, which is a downstream effector of Rac1, while the activity of Cdc42 was not affected. Additionally, the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK were significantly inhibited, but the phosphorylation of JNK remained the same after UTD2 treatment. Moreover, UTD2 inhibited the activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2, which plays a key role in cell motility. UTD2 also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an important signaling kinase regulating the cell survival through Rac1. Furthermore, UTD2 interrupted the synergy between Rac1 and Raf in focus formation assays. Taken together, these results indicated that UTD2 exerted multiple effects on the actin cytoskeleton and signaling pathways associated with Rac1. This study provided novel insights into the molecular mechanism of the antineoplastic and antimetastatic activities of epothilones. Our findings also suggest that the signaling pathways regulated by Rac1 may be evaluated as biomarkers for the response to therapy in clinical trials of epothilones. PMID:24757372

Zhang, Hong; An, Fan

2014-01-01

327

Multiple cytokines sharing the common receptor ? chain can induce CD154/CD40 ligand expression by human CD4+ T lymphocytes via a cyclosporin A-resistant pathway  

PubMed Central

Expression of CD154/CD40 ligand (CD154/CD40L), an important molecular component of CD4+ T-cell help, can be triggered by T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Dephosphorylation of the transcriptional element Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells-1 (NFAT1) is a critical activation step in the TCR-initiated signal transduction cascade which promotes CD154/CD40L expression. Cyclosporin A (CsA), which interferes with NFAT1 activation, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of TCR-triggered CD154/CD40L expression by resting T cells. We now report that recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is also capable of inducing CD154/CD40L on CD4+ T lymphoblasts via a pathway triggered independently of the CD3/TCR receptor complex. Recombinant IL-2-mediated CD154/CD40L expression, in contrast to that triggered by CD3/TCR stimulation, is only partially inhibited by CsA. The capacity of rIL-2 to induce CD154/CD40L expression by T lymphoblasts also extends to a restricted number of cytokines sharing the cytokine receptor common ? chain, including IL-15, and, to a lesser extent, IL-7, but not IL-4. A similar CsA-resistant CD154/CD40L induction pathway can be triggered in primary T cells by the combination of anti-CD3 stimulation and recombinant lymphokines. In contrast to T lymphoblasts, the CsA-resistant CD154/CD40L induction in primary lymphocytes can be efficiently triggered by multiple cytokines which bind the common ? chain receptor family. The data outline a novel pathway of CD154/CD40L induction which is, at least in part, independent of NFAT1 and resistant to CsA. A more complete understanding of the mechanisms governing CD154/CD40L expression may facilitate the rational design of specifically targeted immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:11722644

Fayen, John D

2001-01-01

328

Multiple Common Susceptibility Variants near BMP Pathway Loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 Explain Part of the Missing Heritability of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3), BMP4 (14q22.2), and BMP2 (20p12.3) using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P?=?3.93×10?10) and BMP2 (rs4813802, P?=?4.65×10?11). Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P?=?5.33×10?8) and rs11632715 (P?=?2.30×10?10). As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify—owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies—approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases. PMID:21655089

Dobbins, Sara E.; Tenesa, Albert; Jones, Angela M.; Howarth, Kimberley; Palles, Claire; Broderick, Peter; Jaeger, Emma E. M.; Farrington, Susan; Lewis, Annabelle; Prendergast, James G. D.; Pittman, Alan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Olver, Bianca; Walker, Marion; Penegar, Steven; Barclay, Ella; Whiffin, Nicola; Martin, Lynn; Ballereau, Stephane; Lloyd, Amy; Gorman, Maggie; Lubbe, Steven; Howie, Bryan; Marchini, Jonathan; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Duggan, David; Conti, David; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Campbell, Harry; Sieber, Oliver; Lipton, Lara; Gibbs, Peter; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Young, Joanne; Baird, Paul N.; Gallinger, Steven; Newcomb, Polly; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A.; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Kerr, David J.; Cheadle, Jeremy; Pharoah, Paul; Casey, Graham; Houlston, Richard S.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.

2011-01-01

329

Multiple risk pathways for schizophrenia converge in serine racemase knockout mice, a mouse model of NMDA receptor hypofunction  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is characterized by reduced hippocampal volume, decreased dendritic spine density, altered neuroplasticity signaling pathways, and cognitive deficits associated with impaired hippocampal function. We sought to determine whether this diverse pathology could be linked to NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction, and thus used the serine racemase-null mutant mouse (SR?/?), which has less than 10% of normal brain d-serine, an NMDAR coagonist. We found that d-serine was necessary for the maintenance of long-term potentiation in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus and for full NMDAR activity on granule cells. SR?/? mice had reduced dendritic spines and hippocampal volume. These morphological changes were paralleled by diminished BDNF/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and impaired performance on a trace-conditioning memory task. Chronic d-serine treatment normalized the electrophysiological, neurochemical, and cognitive deficits in SR?/? mice. These results demonstrate that NMDAR hypofunction can reproduce the numerous hippocampal deficits associated with schizophrenia, which can be reversed by chronic peripheral d-serine treatment. PMID:23729812

Balu, Darrick T.; Li, Yan; Puhl, Matthew D.; Benneyworth, Michael A.; Basu, Alo C.; Takagi, Shunsuke; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.; Coyle, Joseph T.

2013-01-01

330

Blood pressure-lowering and vascular modulator effects of Acorus calamus extract are mediated through multiple pathways.  

PubMed

This investigation was aimed to provide a pharmacologic basis to the medicinal use of Acorus calamus in cardiovascular disorders. In normotensive anesthetized rats, crude extract of Acorus calamus and its ethylacetate and nHexane fractions caused a fall in mean arterial pressure. In rabbit aorta rings, crude extract was more potent against high K (80 mM), ethylacetate against phenylephrine (1 microM), whereas nHexane fraction was equipotent against both precontractions. Crude extract exhibited a vasoconstrictor effect on baseline. Pretreatment of aortic rings with crude extract and its fractions shifted Ca concentration-response curves to the right, similar to verapamil. Crude extract and ethylacetate fraction suppressed phenylephrine peak formation in Ca-free medium. In rat aorta preparations, crude extract exhibited endothelium-independent relaxation with a vasodilatory effect against high K. nHexane fraction caused an endothelium-dependent Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive vasorelaxant along with ryanodine-sensitive vasoconstrictor effect on baseline tension and partially inhibited high K, although ethylacetate fraction caused an endothelium-independent relaxant and endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude extract possesses a combination of effects, relaxant effects mediated possibly through Ca antagonism in addition to a nitric oxide pathway, although the associated vasoconstrictor effects may be meant by nature to offset excessive vasodilatation, thus providing a pharmacologic rationale to its cardiovascular medi-cinal uses. PMID:19528816

Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

2009-07-01

331

Modelling equilibrium shoreline response: application across multiple sites and minimum data collection requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to predict shoreline variability and trends for a range of potential future climate scenarios is of increasing interest to coastal scientists. Here we introduce a new shoreline equilibrium model driven by cross-shore processes via changes in non-dimensional fall velocity (i.e., sediment characteristics and wave steepness) and offshore wave power (Davidson et al., submitted). The equilibrium shoreline position is modeled based on a weighted time-average of past non-dimensional fall velocity following the work of Wright et al. (1985). When the prevailing wave conditions are steeper than the time varying equilibrium, the shoreline erodes as sand is expected to move offshore and form a breaker bar. Conversely, when waves are flatter, sand moves onshore and the shoreline builds seawards. The model is applied at a number of sites within Australia and the US to quantify model skill, and to examine free parameter sensitivity and generic transferability between differing sites. Further testing using real-world and synthetic data sets is used to determine the minimum data requirements for calibration of the model, providing useful guidance to future coastline monitoring program requirements. Model hindcasts at six locations within Australia indicate this simple cross-shore equilibrium shoreline model is capable of reproducing multi-year shoreline variability with significant skill. Shoreline variance explained by the model (currently driven only by cross-shore processes) is between 40% (downdrift of an Artificial surfing reef on an exposed open coast) to 66% percent (on a central location of a storm-driven embayed beach, Fig. 1).Hindcast results for the Narrabeen embayment at alongshore locations y=2200m (a), 2600m (b) and 3200m (c). R 2 ranged from 0.57 (y=2600m) to 0.66 (y=3200m). The thickness of the data curve (grey) indicates the potential measurement error.

Splinter, K.; Davidson, M. A.; Turner, I. L.

2012-12-01

332

Extended pausing by humans on multiple fixed-ratio schedules with varied reinforcer magnitude and response requirements.  

PubMed

We conducted three experiments to reproduce and extend Perone and Courtney's (1992) study of pausing at the beginning of fixed-ratio schedules. In a multiple schedule with unequal amounts of food across two components, they found that pigeons paused longest in the component associated with the smaller amount of food (the lean component), but only when it was preceded by the rich component. In our studies, adults with mild intellectual disabilities responded on a touch-sensitive computer monitor to produce money. In Experiment 1, the multiple-schedule components differed in both response requirement and reinforcer magnitude (i.e., the rich component required fewer responses and produced more money than the lean component). Effects shown with pigeons were reproduced in all 7 participants. In Experiment 2, we removed the stimuli that signaled the two schedule components, and participants' extended pausing was eliminated. In Experiment 3, to assess sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude versus fixed-ratio size, we presented conditions with equal ratio sizes but disparate magnitudes and conditions with equal magnitudes but disparate ratio sizes. Sensitivity to these manipulations was idiosyncratic. The present experiments obtained schedule control in verbally competent human participants and, despite procedural differences, we reproduced findings with animal participants. We showed that pausing is jointly determined by past conditions of reinforcement and stimuli correlated with upcoming conditions. PMID:21541121

Williams, Dean C; Saunders, Kathryn J; Perone, Michael

2011-03-01

333

Coupling of a signal response domain in I kappa B alpha to multiple pathways for NF-kappa B activation.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappa B plays a central role in the induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and in many aspects of the genetic program mediating normal T-cell activation and growth. The nuclear activity of NF-kappa B is tightly regulated from the cytoplasmic compartment by an inhibitory subunit called I kappa B alpha. This cytoplasmic inhibitor is rapidly phosphorylated and degraded in response to a diverse set of NF-kappa B-inducing agents, including T-cell mitogens, proinflammatory cytokines, and viral transactivators such as the Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. To explore these I kappa B alpha-dependent mechanisms for NF-kappa B induction, we identified novel mutants of I kappa B alpha that uncouple its inhibitory and signal-transducing functions in human T lymphocytes. Specifically, removal of the N-terminal 36 amino acids of I kappa B alpha failed to disrupt its ability to form latent complexes with NF-kappa B in the cytoplasm. However, this deletion mutation prevented the induced phosphorylation, degradative loss, and functional release of I kappa B alpha from NF-kappa B in Tax-expressing cells. Alanine substitutions introduced at two serine residues positioned within this N-terminal regulatory region of I kappa B alpha also yielded constitutive repressors that escaped from Tax-induced turnover and that potently inhibited immune activation pathways for NF-kappa B induction, including those initiated from antigen and cytokine receptors. In contrast, introduction of a phosphoserine mimetic at these sites rectified this functional defect, a finding consistent with a causal linkage between the phosphorylation status and proteolytic stability of this cytoplasmic inhibitor. Together, these in vivo studies define a critical signal response domain in I kappa B alpha that coordinately controls the biologic activities of I kappa B alpha and NF-kappa B in response to viral and immune stimuli. PMID:7739562

Brockman, J A; Scherer, D C; McKinsey, T A; Hall, S M; Qi, X; Lee, W Y; Ballard, D W

1995-05-01

334

C. elegans ISWI and NURF301 antagonize an Rb-like pathway in the determination of multiple cell fates.  

PubMed

The class A, B and C synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes act redundantly to negatively regulate the expression of vulval cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. The class B and C synMuv proteins include homologs of proteins that modulate chromatin and influence transcription in other organisms similar to members of the Myb-MuvB/dREAM, NuRD and Tip60/NuA4 complexes. To determine how these chromatin-remodeling activities negatively regulate the vulval cell-fate decision, we isolated a suppressor of the synMuv phenotype and found that the suppressor gene encodes the C. elegans homolog of Drosophila melanogaster ISWI. The C. elegans ISW-1 protein likely acts as part of a Nucleosome Remodeling Factor (NURF) complex with NURF-1, a nematode ortholog of NURF301, to promote the synMuv phenotype. isw-1 and nurf-1 mutations suppress both the synMuv phenotype and the multivulva phenotype caused by overactivation of the Ras pathway. Our data suggest that a NURF-like complex promotes the expression of vulval cell fates by antagonizing the transcriptional and chromatin-remodeling activities of complexes similar to Myb-MuvB/dREAM, NuRD and Tip60/NuA4. Because the phenotypes caused by a null mutation in the tumor-suppressor and class B synMuv gene lin-35 Rb and a gain-of-function mutation in let-60 Ras are suppressed by reduction of isw-1 function, NURF complex proteins might be effective targets for cancer therapy. PMID:16774993

Andersen, Erik C; Lu, Xiaowei; Horvitz, H Robert

2006-07-01

335

Turnover of Phosphatidic Acid through Distinct Signaling Pathways Affects Multiple Aspects of Pollen Tube Growth in Tobacco.  

PubMed

Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important intermediate in membrane lipid metabolism that acts as a key component of signaling networks, regulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of the endomembrane system and the cytoskeleton. Using tobacco pollen tubes as a model, we addressed the signaling effects of PA by probing the functions of three most relevant enzymes that regulate the production and degradation of PA, namely, phospholipases D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), and lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a highly dynamic evolution of all three lipid-modifying enzymes in land plants, with many clade-specific duplications or losses and massive diversification of the C2-PLD family. In silico transcriptomic survey revealed increased levels of expression of all three PA-regulatory genes in pollen development (particularly the DGKs). Using specific inhibitors we were able to distinguish the contributions of PLDs, DGKs, and LPPs into PA-regulated processes. Thus, suppressing PA production by inhibiting either PLD or DGK activity compromised membrane trafficking except early endocytosis, disrupted tip-localized deposition of cell wall material, especially pectins, and inhibited pollen tube growth. Conversely, suppressing PA degradation by inhibiting LPP activity using any of three different inhibitors significantly stimulated pollen tube growth, and similar effect was achieved by suppressing the expression of tobacco pollen LPP4 using antisense knock-down. Interestingly, inhibiting specifically DGK changed vacuolar dynamics and the morphology of pollen tubes, whereas inhibiting specifically PLD disrupted the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, our results demonstrate the critical importance of all three types of enzymes involved in PA production and degradation, with strikingly different roles of PA produced by the PLD and DGK pathways, in pollen tube growth. PMID:22639652

Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, P?emysl; Bezvoda, Radek; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Marc, Jan; Zárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

2012-01-01

336

Turnover of Phosphatidic Acid through Distinct Signaling Pathways Affects Multiple Aspects of Pollen Tube Growth in Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important intermediate in membrane lipid metabolism that acts as a key component of signaling networks, regulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of the endomembrane system and the cytoskeleton. Using tobacco pollen tubes as a model, we addressed the signaling effects of PA by probing the functions of three most relevant enzymes that regulate the production and degradation of PA, namely, phospholipases D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), and lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a highly dynamic evolution of all three lipid-modifying enzymes in land plants, with many clade-specific duplications or losses and massive diversification of the C2-PLD family. In silico transcriptomic survey revealed increased levels of expression of all three PA-regulatory genes in pollen development (particularly the DGKs). Using specific inhibitors we were able to distinguish the contributions of PLDs, DGKs, and LPPs into PA-regulated processes. Thus, suppressing PA production by inhibiting either PLD or DGK activity compromised membrane trafficking except early endocytosis, disrupted tip-localized deposition of cell wall material, especially pectins, and inhibited pollen tube growth. Conversely, suppressing PA degradation by inhibiting LPP activity using any of three different inhibitors significantly stimulated pollen tube growth, and similar effect was achieved by suppressing the expression of tobacco pollen LPP4 using antisense knock-down. Interestingly, inhibiting specifically DGK changed vacuolar dynamics and the morphology of pollen tubes, whereas inhibiting specifically PLD disrupted the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, our results demonstrate the critical importance of all three types of enzymes involved in PA production and degradation, with strikingly different roles of PA produced by the PLD and DGK pathways, in pollen tube growth. PMID:22639652

Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Premysl; Bezvoda, Radek; Lichtscheidl, Irene K.; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Marc, Jan; Zarsky, Viktor; Potocky, Martin

2012-01-01

337

Pharmacological Evidence That Multiple Phospholipid Signaling Pathways Link Rhizobium Nodulation Factor Perception in Medicago truncatula Root Hairs to Intracellular Responses, Including Ca2+ Spiking and Specific ENOD Gene Expression1  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium nodulation (Nod) factors are specific lipochito-oligosaccharide signals essential for initiating in root hairs of the host legume developmental responses that are required for controlled entry of the microsymbiont. In this article, we focus on the Nod factor signal transduction pathway leading to specific and cell autonomous gene activation in Medicago truncatula cv Jemalong in a study making use of the Nod factor-inducible MtENOD11 gene. First, we show that pharmacological antagonists that interfere with intracellular ion channel and Ca2+ pump activities are efficient blockers of Nod factor-elicited pMtENOD11-?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in root hairs of transgenic M. truncatula. These results indicate that intracellular Ca2+ release and recycling activities, essential for Ca2+ spiking, are also required for specific gene activation. Second, pharmacological effectors that inhibit phospholipase D and phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C activities are also able to block pMtENOD11-GUS activation, thus underlining a central role for multiple phospholipid signaling pathways in Nod factor signal transduction. Finally, pMtENOD11-GUS was introduced into all three Nod?/Myc? dmi M. truncatula mutant backgrounds, and gene expression was evaluated in response to the mastoparan peptide agonist Mas7. We found that Mas7 elicits root hair MtENOD11 expression in dmi1 and dmi2 mutants, but not in the dmi3 mutant, suggesting that the agonist acts downstream of DMI1/DMI2 and upstream of DMI3. In light of these results and the recently discovered identities of the DMI gene products, we propose an integrated cellular model for Nod factor signaling in legume root hairs in which phospholipids play a key role in linking the Nod factor perception apparatus to downstream components such as Ca2+ spiking and ENOD gene expression. PMID:15489277

Charron, Dorothee; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Chabaud, Mireille; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Barker, David G.

2004-01-01

338

IL-17A Induces MIP-1? Expression in Primary Astrocytes via Src/MAPK/PI3K/NF-kB Pathways: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation plays critical roles in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to the part played by the lymphocytes, the underlying mechanisms could, in part, be also attributed to activation mediated by astrocytes. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, specifically attributable to its potent chemottractant effects. Its modulation by IL-17, however, has received very little attention. In the present study, we demonstrated IL-17-mediated induction of MIP-1? in rat primary astroctyes through its binding to the cognate IL-17RA. Furthermore, this effect was mediated via the activation of Src, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), PI3K/Akt and NF-kB pathways, culminating ultimately into increased expression of MIP-1?. Exposure of primary mouse astrocytes to IL-17 resulted in increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and, this effect was abrogated in cells cultured in presence of the MIP-1? neutralizing antibody, thus underscoring its role in the activation of astrocytes. In vivo relevance of these findings was further corroborated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice that demonstrated significantly increased activation of astrocytes with concomitant increased expression of MIP-1? in the corpus callosum compared with control group. Understanding the regulation of MIP-1? expression may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for neuroinflammation associated with multiple sclerosis. PMID:24989845

Yi, Hongwei; Bai, Ying; Zhu, Xinjian; Lin, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Xiaodong; Buch, Shilpa; Wang, Longxin; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

2014-12-01

339

A novel vasculo-angiogenic effect of cilostazol mediated by cross-talk between multiple signalling pathways including the ERK/p38 MAPK signalling transduction cascade.  

PubMed

Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent with vasodilatory activity that acts by increasing intracellular concentrations of cAMP. Recent reports have suggested that cilostazol may promote angiogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of cilostazol in promoting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in a hindlimb ischaemia model and have also examined its potential mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. We found that cilostazol treatment significantly increased colony formation by human early EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) through a mechanism involving the activation of cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt/eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)/p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathways. Cilostazol also enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, NO production and vascular tube formation in HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) through activation of multiple signalling pathways downstream of PI3K/Akt/eNOS. Cilostazol up-regulated VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A165 expression and secretion of VEGF-A in HUVECs through activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. In a mouse hindlimb ischaemia model, recovery of blood flow ratio (ipsilateral/contralateral) 14 days after surgery was significantly improved in cilostazol-treated mice (10 mg/kg of body weight) compared with vehicle-treated controls (0.63±0.07 and 0.43±0.05 respectively, P<0.05). Circulating CD34+ cells were also increased in cilostazol-treated mice (3614±670 compared with 2151±608 cells/ml, P<0.05). Expression of VEGF and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and ERK/p38 MAPK in ischaemic muscles were significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Our data suggest that cilostazol produces a vasculo-angiogenic effect by up-regulating a broad signalling network that includes the ERK/p38 MAPK, VEGF-A165, PI3K/Akt/eNOS and cAMP/PKA pathways. PMID:22339730

Chao, Ting-Hsing; Tseng, Shih-Ya; Li, Yi-Heng; Liu, Ping-Yen; Cho, Chung-Lung; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin; Chen, Jyh-Hong

2012-08-01

340

Multiple Neural Oscillators and Muscle Feedback Are Required for the Intestinal Fed State Motor Program  

PubMed Central

After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40–60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40–200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle. PMID:21573176

Chambers, Jordan D.; Bornstein, Joel C.; Thomas, Evan A.

2011-01-01

341

Multiple neural oscillators and muscle feedback are required for the intestinal fed state motor program.  

PubMed

After a meal, the gastrointestinal tract exhibits a set of behaviours known as the fed state. A major feature of the fed state is a little understood motor pattern known as segmentation, which is essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Segmentation manifests as rhythmic local constrictions that do not propagate along the intestine. In guinea-pig jejunum in vitro segmentation constrictions occur in short bursts together with other motor patterns in episodes of activity lasting 40-60 s and separated by quiescent episodes lasting 40-200 s. This activity is induced by luminal nutrients and abolished by blocking activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We investigated the enteric circuits that regulate segmentation focusing on a central feature of the ENS: a recurrent excitatory network of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) which are characterized by prolonged after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs) following their action potentials. We first examined the effects of depressing AHPs with blockers of the underlying channels (TRAM-34 and clotrimazole) on motor patterns induced in guinea-pig jejunum, in vitro, by luminal decanoic acid. Contractile episode durations increased markedly, but the frequency and number of constrictions within segmenting bursts and quiescent period durations were unaffected. We used these observations to develop a computational model of activity in ISNs, excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and the muscle. The model predicted that: i) feedback to ISNs from contractions in the circular muscle is required to produce alternating activity and quiescence with the right durations; ii) transmission from ISNs to excitatory motor neurons is via fast excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and to inhibitory motor neurons via slow EPSPs. We conclude that two rhythm generators regulate segmentation: one drives contractions within segmentation bursts, the other the occurrence of bursts. The latter depends on AHPs in ISNs and feedback to these neurons from contraction of the circular muscle. PMID:21573176

Chambers, Jordan D; Bornstein, Joel C; Thomas, Evan A

2011-01-01

342

Adenosine is required for sustained inflammasome activation via the A2A receptor and the HIF-1? pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammasome pathways are important in chronic diseases; however, it is not known how the signalling is sustained after initiation. Inflammasome activation is dependent on stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP that provide two distinct signals resulting in rapid production of interleukin (IL)-1?, with the lack of response to repeat stimulation. Here we report that adenosine is a key regulator of inflammasome activity, increasing the duration of the inflammatory response via the A2A receptor. Adenosine does not replace signals provided by stimuli such as LPS or ATP but sustains inflammasome activity via a cAMP/PKA/CREB/HIF-1? pathway. In the setting of the lack of IL-1? responses after previous exposure to LPS, adenosine can supersede this tolerogenic state and drive IL-1? production. These data reveal that inflammasome activity is sustained, after initial activation, by A2A receptor-mediated signalling.

Ouyang, Xinshou; Ghani, Ayaz; Malik, Ahsan; Wilder, Tuere; Colegio, Oscar Rene; Flavell, Richard Anthony; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

2013-12-01

343

Differential Effects of TR Ligands on Hormone Dissociation Rates: Evidence for Multiple Ligand Entry/Exit Pathways  

PubMed Central

Some nuclear receptor (NR) ligands promote dissociation of radiolabeled bound hormone from the buried ligand binding cavity (LBC) more rapidly than excess unlabeled hormone itself. This result was interpreted to mean that challenger ligands bind allosteric sites on the LBD to induce hormone dissociation, and recent findings indicate that ligands bind weakly to multiple sites on the LBD surface. Here, we show that a large fraction of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) ligands promote rapid dissociation (T1/2 <2 hours) of radiolabeled T3 versus T3 (T1/2 ?5–7 hours). We cannot discern relationships between this effect and ligand size, activity or affinity for TR?. One ligand, GC-24, binds the TR LBC and (weakly) to the TR?-LBD surface that mediates dimer/heterodimer interaction, but we cannot link this interaction to rapid T3 dissociation. Instead, several lines of evidence suggest that the challenger ligand must interact with the buried LBC to promote rapid T3 release. Since previous molecular dynamics simulations suggest that TR ligands leave the LBC by several routes, we propose that a subset of challenger ligands binds and stabilizes a partially unfolded intermediate state of TR that arises during T3 release and that this effect enhances hormone dissociation. PMID:19729063

Lima, Suzana T. Cunha; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Togashi, Marie; Apriletti, James W.; Nguyen, Phuong; Polikarpov, Igor; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Baxter, John D.; Webb, Paul

2009-01-01

344

Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms. PMID:24523959

Bellavista, Elena; Santoro, Aurelia; Galimberti, Daniela; Comi, Cristoforo; Luciani, Fabio; Mishto, Michele

2014-01-01

345

Bovine ephemeral fever virus-induced apoptosis requires virus gene expression and activation of Fas and mitochondrial signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although induction of apoptosis by bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) in several cell lines has been previously demonstrated\\u000a by our laboratory, less information is available on the process of BEFV-induced apoptosis in terms of cellular pathways and\\u000a specific proteins involved. In order to determine the step in viral life cycle at which apoptosis of infected cells is triggered,\\u000a chemical and

Chi-Hung Lin; Wen-Ling Shih; Feng-Lang Lin; Yao-Ching Hsieh; Yur-Ren Kuo; Ming-Huei Liao; Hung-Jeng Liu

2009-01-01

346

Pathophysiological processes in multiple sclerosis: focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and emerging pathways.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by the demyelination of neuronal axons. Four different patterns of demyelination have been described, showing the heterogeneity in the immunopathologic processes involved in the demyelination. This review will focus on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related inflammation in MS. Special emphasis will be placed on the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as it regulates the transcription of ROS-protective genes. In the cytosol, Nrf2 binds to Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), and together they are degraded by the 26S proteasome after ubiquitination. If challenged by ROS Nrf2, binding to Keap1 is abrogated, and it translocates into the nucleus. Here it binds to the antioxidant response element and to a small protein termed Maf (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog). This leads to an enhanced transcription of ROS protective genes and represents the physiological answer against ROS challenge. It has been shown that dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has the same effect and leads to an enhanced transcription of ROS-protective genes. This response is mediated through a reduced binding of Nrf2 to Keap1, thus resulting in a higher level of free Nrf2 in the cytosol. Consequently, more Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, promoting transcription of its target genes. DMF has been used for the treatment of psoriasis for many years in Germany without the occurrence of major side effects. In psoriasis, DMF reduces ROS-related inflammation in skin. A DMF analog, BG-12, was recently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by the European Union and the US Food and Drug Administration. As an oral formulation, it gives patients a convenient and effective alternative to the injectable immune modulators in the long-term treatment of MS. PMID:24591852

Arnold, Philipp; Mojumder, Deb; Detoledo, John; Lucius, Ralph; Wilms, Henrik

2014-01-01

347

Pathophysiological processes in multiple sclerosis: focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and emerging pathways  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by the demyelination of neuronal axons. Four different patterns of demyelination have been described, showing the heterogeneity in the immunopathologic processes involved in the demyelination. This review will focus on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related inflammation in MS. Special emphasis will be placed on the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as it regulates the transcription of ROS-protective genes. In the cytosol, Nrf2 binds to Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), and together they are degraded by the 26S proteasome after ubiquitination. If challenged by ROS Nrf2, binding to Keap1 is abrogated, and it translocates into the nucleus. Here it binds to the antioxidant response element and to a small protein termed Maf (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog). This leads to an enhanced transcription of ROS protective genes and represents the physiological answer against ROS challenge. It has been shown that dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has the same effect and leads to an enhanced transcription of ROS-protective genes. This response is mediated through a reduced binding of Nrf2 to Keap1, thus resulting in a higher level of free Nrf2 in the cytosol. Consequently, more Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, promoting transcription of its target genes. DMF has been used for the treatment of psoriasis for many years in Germany without the occurrence of major side effects. In psoriasis, DMF reduces ROS-related inflammation in skin. A DMF analog, BG-12, was recently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by the European Union and the US Food and Drug Administration. As an oral formulation, it gives patients a convenient and effective alternative to the injectable immune modulators in the long-term treatment of MS. PMID:24591852

Arnold, Philipp; Mojumder, Deb; DeToledo, John; Lucius, Ralph; Wilms, Henrik

2014-01-01

348

Multiple effector pathways regulate the insulin secretory response to the imidazoline RX871024 in isolated rat pancreatic islets  

PubMed Central

When isolated rat islets were cultured for 18?h prior to use, the putative imidazoline binding site ligand, RX871024 caused a dose-dependent increase in insulin secretion at both 6?mM and 20?mM glucose. By contrast, a second ligand, efaroxan, was ineffective at 20?mM glucose whereas it did stimulate insulin secretion in response to 6?mM glucose. Exposure of islets to RX871024 (50??M) for 18?h, resulted in loss of responsiveness to this reagent upon subsequent re-exposure. However, islets that were unresponsive to RX871024 still responded normally to efaroxan. The imidazoline antagonist, KU14R, blocked the insulin secretory response to efaroxan, but failed to prevent the stimulatory response to RX871024. By contrast with its effects in cultured islets, RX871024 inhibited glucose-induced insulin release from freshly isolated islets. Efaroxan did not inhibit insulin secretion under any conditions studied. In freshly isolated islets, the effects of RX871024 on insulin secretion could be converted from inhibitory to stimulatory, by starvation of the animals. Inhibition of insulin secretion by RX871024 in freshly isolated islets was prevented by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or flurbiprofen. Consistent with this, RX871024 caused a marked increase in islet PGE2 formation. Efaroxan did not alter islet PGE2 levels. The results suggest that RX871024 exerts multiple effects in the pancreatic ?-cell and that its effects on insulin secretion cannot be ascribed only to interaction with a putative imidazoline binding site. PMID:10455276

Mourtada, Mirna; Chan, Sue L F; Smith, Stephen A; Morgan, Noel G

1999-01-01

349

Sub-Lethal Irradiation of Human Colorectal Tumor Cells Imparts Enhanced and Sustained Susceptibility to Multiple Death Receptor Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Death receptors (DR) of the TNF family function as anti-tumor immune effector molecules. Tumor cells, however, often exhibit DR-signaling resistance. Previous studies indicate that radiation can modify gene expression within tumor cells and increase tumor cell sensitivity to immune attack. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic effect of sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation in sensitizing colorectal carcinoma cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings The ability of radiation to modulate the expression of multiple death receptors (Fas/CD95, TRAILR1/DR4, TRAILR2/DR5, TNF-R1 and LT?R) was examined in colorectal tumor cells. The functional significance of sub-lethal doses of radiation in enhancing tumor cell susceptibility to DR-induced apoptosis was determined by in vitro functional sensitivity assays. The longevity of these changes and the underlying molecular mechanism of irradiation in sensitizing diverse colorectal carcinoma cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis were also examined. We found that radiation increased surface expression of Fas, DR4 and DR5 but not LT?R or TNF-R1 in these cells. Increased expression of DRs was observed 2 days post-irradiation and remained elevated 7-days post irradiation. Sub-lethal tumor cell irradiation alone exhibited minimal cell death, but effectively sensitized three of three colorectal carcinoma cells to both TRAIL and Fas-induced apoptosis, but not LT?R-induced death. Furthermore, radiation-enhanced Fas and TRAIL-induced cell death lasted as long as 5-days post-irradiation. Specific analysis of intracellular sensitizers to apoptosis indicated that while radiation did reduce Bcl-XL and c-FLIP protein expression, this reduction did not correlate with the radiation-enhanced sensitivity to Fas and/or TRAIL mediated apoptosis among the three cell types. Conclusions/Significance Irradiation of tumor cells can overcome Fas and TRAIL resistance that is long lasting. Overall, results of these investigations suggest that non-lethal doses of radiation can be used to make human tumors more amenable to attack by anti-tumor effector molecules and cells. PMID:22389673

Ifeadi, Victoria; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

2012-01-01

350

IGF-I stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes requires activation of the PI 3-kinase pathway but not ERK MAPK.  

PubMed

The IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I) signalling pathway responsible for regulation of proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes has not been defined and is the focus of the present study. Chondrocytes isolated from normal human articular cartilage were stimulated with IGF-I in monolayer culture or in suspension in alginate. IGF-I activated members of both the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway and the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. The PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin blocked IGF-I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation without blocking ERK phosphorylation and this was associated with complete inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis. A decrease in IGF-I-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was also observed upon inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and p70S6 kinase, both of which are downstream of Akt. The MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 blocked IGF-I-stimulated ERK phosphorylation but did not block the phosphorylation of Akt and did not decrease proteoglycan synthesis. Instead, in alginate- cultured chondrocytes, the MEK inhibitors increased IGF-I-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis when compared with cells treated with IGF-I alone. This is the first study to demonstrate that IGF-I stimulation of the PI3K signalling pathway is responsible for the ability of IGF-I to increase proteoglycan synthesis. Although IGF-I also activates the ERK/MAPK pathway, ERK activity is not required for proteoglycan synthesis and may serve as a negative regulator. PMID:15801908

Starkman, Bela G; Cravero, John D; Delcarlo, Marcello; Loeser, Richard F

2005-08-01

351

Panobinostat synergizes with zoledronic acid in prostate cancer and multiple myeloma models by increasing ROS and modulating mevalonate and p38-MAPK pathways  

PubMed Central

Patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and multiple myeloma (MM) have limited long-term responses to available therapies. The histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat has shown significant preclinical and clinical anticancer activity in both hematological and solid malignancies and is currently in phase III trials for relapsed MM. Bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid (ZOL), inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and are indicated for the treatment of bone metastasis. BPs, including ZOL, have also shown anticancer activity in several preclinical and clinical studies. In the present report, we found a potent synergistic antiproliferative effect of panobinostat/ZOL treatment in three PCa and three MM cell lines as well as in a PCa ZOL-resistant subline, independently of p53/KRAS status, androgen dependency, or the schedule of administration. The synergistic effect was also observed in an anchorage-independent agar assay in both ZOL-sensitive and ZOL-resistant cells and was confirmed in vivo in a PCa xenograft model. The co-administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine blocked the increased reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis observed in the combination setting compared with control or single-agent treatments, suggesting that oxidative injury plays a functional role in the synergism. Proapoptotic synergy was also partially antagonized by the addition of geranyl-geraniol, which bypasses the inhibition of farnesylpyrophosphate synthase by ZOL in the mevalonate pathway, supporting the involvement of this pathway in the synergy. Finally, at the molecular level, the inhibition of basal and ZOL-induced activation of p38-MAPK by panobinostat in sensitive and ZOL-resistant cells and in tumor xenografts could explain, at least in part, the observed synergism. PMID:24157872

Bruzzese, F; Pucci, B; Milone, M R; Ciardiello, C; Franco, R; Chianese, M I; Rocco, M; Di Gennaro, E; Leone, A; Luciano, A; Arra, C; Santini, D; Caraglia, M; Budillon, A

2013-01-01

352

MULTIPLE PROTEIN KINASE PATHWAYS MEDIATE AMPLIFIED IL-6 RELEASE BY HUMAN LUNG FIBROBLASTS CO-EXPOSED TO NICKEL AND TLR-2 AGONIST, MALP-2  

PubMed Central

Microbial stimuli and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) interact to amplify the release of inflammatory and immune-modulating cytokines. The basis of this interaction, however, is not known. Cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were used to determine whether various protein kinase pathways were involved in the release of IL-6 following combined exposure to the PM-derived metal, Ni, and M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2), a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. Synergistic release of IL-6 by MALP-2 and NiSO4 was obvious after 8 h of co-stimulation and correlated with a late phase accumulation of IL-6 mRNA. Ni and MALP-2, alone or together, all lead to rapid and transient phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK of similar magnitude. p38 phosphorylation, however, was observed only after prolonged treatment of cells with both stimuli together. A constitutive level of PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation remained unchanged by Ni and/or MALP-2 exposure. IL-6 induced by Ni/MALP-2 co-exposure was partially dependent on activity of HIF-1? and COX-2 as shown by targeted knockdown using siRNA. IL-6 release in response to Ni/MALP-2 was partially sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2, p38, and PI3K signaling. The protein kinase inhibitors had minimal or no effects on Ni/MALP-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1? protein, however, COX-2 expression and, more markedly PGE2 production, were suppressed by LY294002, SB203580, and U0126. Thus, Ni/MALP-2 interactions involve multiple protein kinase pathways (ERK1/2, p38, and PI3K) that modulate events downstream from the early accumulation of HIF-1? to promote IL-6 gene expression directly or secondarily, through COX-2-derived autocrine products like PGE2. PMID:20600219

Gao, Fei; Brant, Kelly A.; Ward, Rachel M.; Cattley, Richard T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Fabisiak, James P.

2010-01-01

353

Deletion of Atbf1/Zfhx3 In Mouse Prostate Causes Neoplastic Lesions, Likely by Attenuation of Membrane and Secretory Proteins and Multiple Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

The ATBF1/ZFHX3 gene at 16q22 is the second most frequently mutated gene in human prostate cancer and has reduced expression or mislocalization in several types of human tumors. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ATBF1 has a tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer has not been tested. In this study, we examined the role of ATBF1 in prostatic carcinogenesis by specifically deleting Atbf1 in mouse prostatic epithelial cells. We also examined the effect of Atbf1 deletion on gene expression and signaling pathways in mouse prostates. Histopathologic analyses showed that Atbf1 deficiency caused hyperplasia and mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) primarily in the dorsal prostate but also in other lobes. Hemizygous deletion of Atbf1 also increased the development of hyperplasia and mPIN, indicating a haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. The mPIN lesions expressed luminal cell markers and harbored molecular changes similar to those in human PIN and prostate cancer, including weaker expression of basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 (Ck5), cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, and the smooth muscle layer marker Sma; elevated expression of the oncoproteins phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Akt and Muc1; and aberrant protein glycosylation. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number of genes that were dysregulated by Atbf1 deletion, particularly those that encode for secretory and cell membrane proteins. The four signaling networks that were most affected by Atbf1 deletion included those centered on Erk1/2 and IGF1, Akt and FSH, NF-?B and progesterone and ?-estradiol. These findings provide in vivo evidence that ATBF1 is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, suggest that loss of Atbf1 contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways, and provide a new animal model for prostate cancer. PMID:24934715

Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Li, Jie; Xing, Changsheng; Frierson, Henry F.; Wu, Hao; Ding, Xiaokun; Ju, Tongzhong; Cummings, Richard D.; Dong, Jin-Tang

2014-01-01

354

Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF  

SciTech Connect

Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells.

Belakavadi, Madesh [Department of Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)]. E-mail: belakama@umdnj.edu; Prabhakar, B.T. [Department of Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India); Salimath, Bharathi P. [Department of Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

2005-10-07

355

A requirement for the rac1 GTPase in the signal transduction pathway leading to cardiac myocyte hypertrophy.  

PubMed Central

We have used adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of a constitutively active (V12rac1) and dominant negative (N17rac1) isoform of rac1 to assess the role of this small GTPase in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Expression of V12rac1 in neonatal cardiac myocytes results in sarcomeric reorganization and an increase in cell size that is indistinguishable from ligand-stimulated hypertrophy. In addition, V12rac1 expression leads to an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide secretion. In contrast, expression of N17rac1, but not a truncated form of Raf-1, attenuated the morphological hypertrophy associated with phenylephrine stimulation. Consistent with the observed effects on morphology, expression of V12rac1 resulted in an increase in new protein synthesis, while N17rac1 expression inhibited phenylephrine-induced leucine incorporation. These results suggest rac1 is an essential element of the signaling pathway leading to cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. PMID:9727061

Pracyk, J B; Tanaka, K; Hegland, D D; Kim, K S; Sethi, R; Rovira, I I; Blazina, D R; Lee, L; Bruder, J T; Kovesdi, I; Goldshmidt-Clermont, P J; Irani, K; Finkel, T

1998-01-01

356

Erythropoietin activates two distinct signaling pathways required for the initiation and the elongation of c-myc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Erythropoietin (Epo) stimulation of erythroid cells results in the activation of several kinases and a rapid induction of c-myc expression. Protein kinase C is necessary for Epo up-regulation of c-myc by promoting elongation at the 3'-end of exon 1. PKCepsilon mediates this signal. We now show that Epo triggers two signaling pathways to c-myc. Epo rapidly up-regulated Myc protein in BaF3-EpoR cells. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked Myc up-regulation in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on the Epo-induced phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2. LY294002 also had no effect on Epo up-regulation of c-fos. MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 blocked both the c-myc and the c-fos responses to Epo. PD98059 and the PKC inhibitor H7 also blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2. PD98059 but not LY294002 inhibited Epo induction of ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in normal erythroid cells. LY294002 blocked transcription of c-myc at exon 1. PD98059 had no effect on transcription from exon 1 but, rather, blocked Epo-induced c-myc elongation at the 3'-end of exon 1. These results identify two Epo signaling pathways to c-myc, one of which is PI3K-dependent operating on transcriptional initiation, whereas the other is mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent operating on elongation.

Chen, C.; Sytkowski, A. J.

2001-01-01

357

Pathway Commons, a web resource for biological pathway data.  

PubMed

Pathway Commons (http://www.pathwaycommons.org) is a collection of publicly available pathway data from multiple organisms. Pathway Commons provides a web-based interface that enables biologists to browse and search a comprehensive collection of pathways from multiple sources represented in a common language, a download site that provides integrated bulk sets of pathway information in standard or convenient formats and a web service that software developers can use to conveniently query and access all data. Database providers can share their pathway data via a common repository. Pathways include biochemical reactions, complex assembly, transport and catalysis events and physical interactions involving proteins, DNA, RNA, small molecules and complexes. Pathway Commons aims to collect and integrate all public pathway data available in standard formats. Pathway Commons currently contains data from nine databases with over 1400 pathways and 687,000 interactions and will be continually expanded and updated. PMID:21071392

Cerami, Ethan G; Gross, Benjamin E; Demir, Emek; Rodchenkov, Igor; Babur, Ozgün; Anwar, Nadia; Schultz, Nikolaus; Bader, Gary D; Sander, Chris

2011-01-01

358

Delphinid systematics and biogeography with a focus on the current genus Lagenorhynchus: Multiple pathways for antitropical and trans-oceanic radiation.  

PubMed

The six species currently classified within the genus Lagenorhynchus exhibit a pattern of antitropical distribution common among marine taxa. In spite of their morphological similarities they are now considered an artificial grouping, and include both recent and the oldest representatives of the Delphinidae radiation. They are, therefore, a good model for studying questions about the evolutionary processes that have driven dolphin speciation, dispersion and distribution. Here we used two different approaches. First we constructed a multigenic phylogeny with a minimum amount of missing data (based on 9 genes, 11,030bp, using the 6 species of the genus and their closest relatives) to infer their relationships. Second, we built a supermatrix phylogeny (based on 33 species and 27 genes) to test the effect of taxon sampling on the phylogeny of the genus, to provide inference on biogeographic history, and provide inference on the main events shaping the dispersion and radiation of delphinids. Our analyses suggested an early evolutionary history of marine dolphins in the North Atlantic Ocean and revealed multiple pathways of migration and radiation, probably guided by paleoceanographic changes during the Miocene and Pliocene. L. acutus and L. albirostris likely shared a common ancestor that arose in the North Atlantic around the Middle Miocene, predating the radiation of subfamilies Delphininae, Globicephalinae and Lissodelphininae. PMID:25130419

Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Hayano, Azusa; Crespo, Enrique; Hoelzel, A Rus

2014-11-01

359

TRIM13 (RFP2) downregulation decreases tumour cell growth in multiple myeloma through inhibition of NF Kappa B pathway and proteasome activity  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable neoplasm caused by proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM is characterized frequently by a complete or partial deletion of chromosome 13q14, seen in more than 50% of patients at diagnosis. Within this deleted region the tripartite motif containing 13 (TRIM13, also termed RFP2) gene product has been proposed to be a tumour suppressor gene (TSG). Here, we show that low expression levels of TRIM13 in MM are associated with chromosome 13q deletion and poor clinical outcome. We present a functional analysis of TRIM13 using a loss-of-function approach, and demonstrate that TRIM13 downregulation decreases tumour cell survival as well as cell cycle progression and proliferation of MM cells. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of TRIM13 downregulation in inhibiting the NF kappa B pathway and the activity of the 20S proteasome. Although this data does not support a role of TRIM13 as a TSG, it substantiates important roles of TRIM13 in MM tumour survival and proliferation, underscoring its potential role as a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23647456

Gatt, Moshe E; Takada, Kohichi; Mani, Mala; Lerner, Mikael; Pick, Marjorie; Hideshima, Teru; Carrasco, Daniel E.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ivanova, Elena; Sangfelt, Olle; Grander, Dan; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Carrasco, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

360

TRIM13 (RFP2) downregulation decreases tumour cell growth in multiple myeloma through inhibition of NF Kappa B pathway and proteasome activity.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable neoplasm caused by proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM is characterized frequently by a complete or partial deletion of chromosome 13q14, seen in more than 50% of patients at diagnosis. Within this deleted region the tripartite motif containing 13 (TRIM13, also termed RFP2) gene product has been proposed to be a tumour suppressor gene (TSG). Here, we show that low expression levels of TRIM13 in MM are associated with chromosome 13q deletion and poor clinical outcome. We present a functional analysis of TRIM13 using a loss-of-function approach, and demonstrate that TRIM13 downregulation decreases tumour cell survival as well as cell cycle progression and proliferation of MM cells. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of TRIM13 downregulation in inhibiting the NF kappa B pathway and the activity of the 20S proteasome. Although this data does not support a role of TRIM13 as a TSG, it substantiates important roles of TRIM13 in MM tumour survival and proliferation, underscoring its potential role as a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23647456

Gatt, Moshe E; Takada, Kohichi; Mani, Mala; Lerner, Mikael; Pick, Marjorie; Hideshima, Teru; Carrasco, Daniel E; Protopopov, Alexei; Ivanova, Elena; Sangfelt, Olle; Grandér, Dan; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D; Anderson, Kenneth C; Carrasco, Daniel R

2013-07-01

361

Cooperation between Shh and IGF-I in Promoting Myogenic Proliferation and Differentiation via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways Requires Smo Activity  

PubMed Central

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to promote adult myoblast proliferation and differentiation and affect Akt phosphorylation via its effector Smoothened (Smo). Here, the relationship between Shh and IGF-I was examined with regard to myogenic differentiation via signaling pathways which regulate this process. Each factor enhanced Akt and MAPK/ERK (p42/44) phosphorylation and myogenic factor expression levels in a dose-responsive manner, while combinations of Shh and IGF-I showed additive effects. Blockage of the IGF-I effects by neutralizing antibody partially reduced Shh’s effects on signaling pathways, suggesting that IGF-I enhances, but is not essential for Shh effects. Addition of cyclopamine, a Smo inhibitor, reduced Shh- and IGF-I-induced Akt phosphorylation in a similar manner, implying that Shh affects gain of the IGF-I signaling pathway. This implication was also examined via a genetic approach. In cultures derived from Smomut (MCre;Smoflox/flox) mice lacking Smo expression specifically in hindlimb muscles, IGF-I-induced Akt and p42/44 phosphorylation was significantly reduced compared to IGF-I’s effect on Smocont cells. Moreover, remarkable inhibition of the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on myogenic differentiation was observed in Smomut cultures, implying that intact Smo is required for IGF-I effects in myoblasts. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that p-Tyr proteins, including the regulatory unit of PI3K (p85), are recruited to Smo in response to Shh. Moreover, IGF-IR was found to associate with Smo in response to Shh and to IGF-I, suggesting that Shh and IGF-I are already integrated at the receptor level, a mechanism by which their signaling pathways interact in augmenting their effects on adult myoblasts. PMID:21618536

Madhala-Levy, D; Williams, VC; Hughes, SM; Reshef, R; O, Halevy

2012-01-01

362

Caveolin-1 is required for TGF-?-induced transactivation of the EGF receptor pathway in hepatocytes through the activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) plays a dual role in hepatocytes, inducing both pro- and anti-apoptotic responses, whose balance decides cell fate. Survival signals are mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, which is activated by TGF-? in these cells. Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a structural protein of caveolae linked to TGF-? receptors trafficking and signaling. Previous results have indicated that in hepatocytes, Cav1 is required for TGF-?-induced anti-apoptotic signals, but the molecular mechanism is not fully understood yet. In this work, we show that immortalized Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects induced by TGF-?, showing a higher activation of caspase-3, higher decrease in cell viability and prolonged increase through time of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results were coincident with attenuation of TGF-?-induced survival signals in Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes, such as AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF?-B activation. Transactivation of the EGFR pathway by TGF-? was impaired in Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes, which correlated with lack of activation of TACE/ADAM17, the metalloprotease responsible for the shedding of EGFR ligands. Reconstitution of Cav1 in Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes rescued wild-type phenotype features, both in terms of EGFR transactivation and TACE/ADAM17 activation. TACE/ADAM17 was localized in detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions in Cav1(+/+) cells, which was not the case in Cav1(-/-) cells. Disorganization of lipid rafts after treatment with cholesterol-binding agents caused loss of TACE/ADAM17 activation after TGF-? treatment. In conclusion, in hepatocytes, Cav1 is required for TGF-?-mediated activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 that is responsible for shedding of EGFR ligands and activation of the EGFR pathway, which counteracts the TGF-? pro-apoptotic effects. Therefore, Cav1 contributes to the pro-tumorigenic effects of TGF-? in liver cancer cells. PMID:25032849

Moreno-Càceres, J; Caja, L; Mainez, J; Mayoral, R; Martín-Sanz, P; Moreno-Vicente, R; Del Pozo, M Á; Dooley, S; Egea, G; Fabregat, I

2014-01-01

363

The Cpc1 regulator of the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis is required for pathogenicity of the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum is a causal agent of early senescence and ripening in cruciferous crops like Brassica napus. Verticillium wilts have become serious agricultural threats in recent decades. Verticillium species infect host plants through the roots and colonize xylem vessels of the host plant. The xylem fluid provides an environment with limited carbon sources and unbalanced amino acid supply, which requires V. longisporum to induce the cross-pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis. RNA-mediated gene silencing reduced the expression of the two CPC1 isogenes (VlCPC1-1 and VlCPC1-2) of the allodiploid V. longisporum up to 85%. VlCPC1 encodes the conserved transcription factor of the cross-pathway control. The silenced mutants were highly sensitive to amino-acid starvation, and the infected plants showed significantly fewer symptoms such as stunting or early senescence in oilseed rape plant infection assays. Consistently, deletion of single CPC1 of the haploid V. dahliae resulted in strains that are sensitive to amino-acid starvation and cause strongly reduced symptoms in the plant-host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The allodiploid V. longisporum and the haploid V. dahliae are the first phytopathogenic fungi that were shown to require CPC1 for infection and colonization of their respective host plants, oilseed rape and tomato. PMID:23883358

Timpner, Christian; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Tran, Van Tuan; Braus, Gerhard H

2013-11-01

364

Clathrin light chains are required for the gyrating-clathrin recycling pathway and thereby promote cell migration.  

PubMed

The clathrin light chain (CLC) subunits participate in several membrane traffic pathways involving both clathrin and actin, through binding the actin-organizing huntingtin-interacting proteins (Hip). However, CLCs are dispensable for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of many cargoes. Here we observe that CLC depletion affects cell migration through Hip binding and reduces surface expression of ?1-integrin by interference with recycling following normal endocytosis of inactive ?1-integrin. CLC depletion and expression of a modified CLC also inhibit the appearance of gyrating (G)-clathrin structures, known mediators of rapid recycling of transferrin receptor from endosomes. Expression of the modified CLC reduces ?1-integrin and transferrin receptor recycling, as well as cell migration, implicating G-clathrin in these processes. Supporting a physiological role for CLC in migration, the CLCb isoform of CLC is upregulated in migratory human trophoblast cells during uterine invasion. Together, these studies establish CLCs as mediating clathrin-actin interactions needed for recycling by G-clathrin during migration. PMID:24852344

Majeed, Sophia R; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Chen, Chih-Ying; Luo, Yi; Torres, Jorge A; Evans, Timothy M; Sharkey, Andrew; Foraker, Amy B; Wong, Nicole M L; Esk, Christopher; Freeman, Theresa A; Moffett, Ashley; Keen, James H; Brodsky, Frances M

2014-01-01

365

TNF induces c-fos via a novel pathway requiring conversion of arachidonic acid to a lipoxygenase metabolite.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a lymphokine released by activated macrophages, has diverse effects on a wide variety of cell types. TNF exerts these effects via specific cell surface receptors; however little is known of the biochemical events that ensue. We have shown that TNF rapidly induces the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun in the adipogenic TA1 cell line and have used these responses to characterize the intracellular mediators of TNF action. We find that arachidonic acid, which is released in response to TNF, induces c-fos, but not c-jun mRNA in quiescent TA1 cells. Pretreatment of the cells with lipoxygenase inhibitors abolishes the induction of c-fos by TNF, while the induction of c-jun is unaffected; in contrast, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor has no effect on either response. Finally, we have demonstrated that TNF stimulates production of lipoxygenase metabolites in TA1 cells and that one of these, 5-HPETE, induces c-fos, but not c-jun. These data suggest that TNF activates two second messenger pathways, one of which is dependent on release of arachidonic acid and its subsequent conversion to a lipoxygenase metabolite. PMID:1899225

Haliday, E M; Ramesha, C S; Ringold, G

1991-01-01

366

Multiple protein kinase pathways mediate amplified IL-6 release by human lung fibroblasts co-exposed to nickel and TLR-2 agonist, MALP-2  

SciTech Connect

Microbial stimuli and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) interact to amplify the release of inflammatory and immune-modulating cytokines. The basis of this interaction, however, is not known. Cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were used to determine whether various protein kinase pathways were involved in the release of IL-6 following combined exposure to the PM-derived metal, Ni, and M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2), a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. Synergistic release of IL-6 by MALP-2 and NiSO{sub 4} was obvious after 8 h of co-stimulation and correlated with a late phase accumulation of IL-6 mRNA. Ni and MALP-2, alone or together, all led to rapid and transient phosphorylations of ERK{sub 1/2} and JNK/SAPK of similar magnitude. p38 phosphorylation, however, was observed only after prolonged treatment of cells with both stimuli together. A constitutive level of PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation remained unchanged by Ni and/or MALP-2 exposure. IL-6 induced by Ni/MALP-2 co-exposure was partially dependent on activity of HIF-1{alpha} and COX-2 as shown by targeted knockdown using siRNA. IL-6 release in response to Ni/MALP-2 was partially sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of ERK{sub 1/2}, p38, and PI3K signaling. The protein kinase inhibitors had minimal or no effects on Ni/MALP-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} protein, however, COX-2 expression and, more markedly PGE{sub 2} production, were suppressed by LY294002, SB203580, and U0126. Thus, Ni/MALP-2 interactions involve multiple protein kinase pathways (ERK{sub 1/2}, p38, and PI3K) that modulate events downstream from the early accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} to promote IL-6 gene expression directly or secondarily, through COX-2-derived autocrine products like PGE{sub 2}.

Gao Fei; Brant, Kelly A.; Ward, Rachel M.; Cattley, Richard T.; Barchowsky, Aaron [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Fabisiak, James P., E-mail: fabs@pitt.ed [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

2010-09-01

367

Multiple Ribosomal Proteins Are Expressed at High Levels in Developing Zebrafish Endoderm and Are Required for Normal Exocrine Pancreas Development  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ribosomal protein L (rpl) genes are essential for assembly of the 60S subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome and may also carry out additional extra-ribosomal functions. We have identified a common expression pattern for rpl genes in developing zebrafish larvae. After initially widespread expression in