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Sample records for rertr reduced enrichment

  1. Progress of the RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program in 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1989-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1988, the major events, findings, and activities of 1989 are reviewed. The scope of the RERTR Program activities was curtailed, in 1989, by an unexpected legislative restriction which limited the ability of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency to adequately fund the program. Nevertheless, the thrust of the major planned program activities was maintained, and meaningful results were obtained in several areas of great significance for future work. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  2. The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program: Progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40% average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission /sup 99/Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U/sub 3/Si-Al with 19.75% enrichment and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al with 45% enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR Program.

  3. The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) program: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1986-11-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1985, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1986 are reviewed. The second miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was expanded and its irradiation continued. Postirradiation examinations of several of these miniplates and of six previously irradiated U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al full-size elements were completed with excellent results. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ is well under way and due for completion before the end of 1987. DOE removed an important barrier to conversions by announcing that the new LEU fuels will be accepted for reprocessing. New DOE prices for enrichment and reprocessing services were calculated to have minimal effect on HEU reactors, and to reduce by about 8 to 10% the total fuel cycle costs of LEU reactors. New program activities include preliminary feasibility studies of LEU use in DOE reactors, evaluation of the feasibility to use LEU targets for the production of fission-product /sup 99/Mo, and responsibility for coordinating safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors, as required by NRC. Achievement of the final program goals is projected for 1990. This progress could not have been achieved without close international cooperation, whose continuation and intensification are essential to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the RERTR Program.

  4. RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor; low-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1983-01-01

    The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm/sup 3/ each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ to the 7.0 g U/cm/sup 3/ which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years.

  5. Irradiation performance of reduced-enrichment fuels tested under the US RERTR program

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable progress in the irradiation testing of high-density, reduced-enrichment fuels has been made during the past year. Miniplates containing UA1, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, U/sub 3/Si/sub 1.5/, U/sub 3/Si, U/sub 3/SiCu, and, U/sub 6/Fe have been irradiated. Postirradiation examinations have revealed that breakway swelling has occurred in 6.4-Mg U/m/sup 3/ U/sub 3/Si plates at approx.2.8 x 10/sup 27/ fissions/m/sup 3/. U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ plates are continuing to show satisfactory performance. The testing of full-sized fuel elements in the ORR and the SILOE reactor have continued with good results. Postirradiation examinations are confirming the satisfactory performance of these elements.

  6. Fuel development activities of the US RERTR Program. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels for use with low-enriched uranium in research and test reactors is reported. Swelling and blister-threshold temperature data obtained from the examination of miniature fuel plates containing UAl/sub x/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, or U/sub 3/Si dispersed in an aluminum matrix are presented. Combined with the results of metallurgical examinations, these data show that these four fuel types will perform adequately to full burnup of the /sup 235/U contained in the low-enriched fuel. The exothermic reaction of the uranium-silicide fuels with aluminum has been found to occur at about the same temperature as the melting of the aluminum matrix and cladding and to be essentially quenched by the melting endotherm. A new series of miniature fuel plate irradiations is also discussed.

  7. The RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1991 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  8. RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  9. RERTR-10 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2011-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-10 was designed to further test the effectiveness of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates. The experiment was conducted in two campaigns: RERTR-10A and RERTR-10B. The fuel plates tested in RERTR-10A were all fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and were designed to evaluate the effect of various Si levels in the interlayer and the thickness of the Zr interlayer (0.001”) using 0.010” and 0.020” nominal foil thicknesses. The fuel plates in RERTR-10B were fabricated by Friction Bonding (FB) with two different thickness Si layers and Nb and Zr diffusion barriers.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-10A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  10. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  11. Status of the RERTR program: overview, progress and plans. [Reduced Enrighment Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1985-01-01

    The status of the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a summary of the accomplishments which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1984 with its many international partners, emphasis is placed on the progress achieved during 1985 and on current plans and schedules. A new miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was fabricated and is well into irradiation. The whole-core ORR demonstration is scheduled to begin in November 1985, with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/. Altogether, 921 full-size test and prototype elements have been ordered for fabrication with reduced enrichment and the new technologies. Qualification of U/sub 3/Si-Al fuel with approx.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ is still projected for 1989. This progress could not have been achieved without the close international cooperation which has existed since the beginning, and whose continuation and intensification will be essential to the achievement of the long-term RERTR goals.

  12. RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  13. The RERTR Program. A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1992-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1991 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  14. Status and progress of the RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1993-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1993 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1992 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  15. The RERTR Program: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1991-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  16. Status and progress of the RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1996-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1996 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1995 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  17. The RERTR Program: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  18. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  19. Using low-enriched uranium in research reactors: The RERTR program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the RERTR program is to minimize and eventually eliminate use of highway enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors. The program has been very successful, and has developed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel materials and designs which can be used effectively in approximately 90 percent of the research and test reactors which used HEU when the program began. This progress would not have been possible without active international cooperation among fuel developers, commercial vendors, and reactor operators. The new tasks which the RERTR program is undertaking at this time include development of new and better fuels that will allow use of LEU fuels in all research and test reactors; cooperation with Russian laboratories, which will make it possible to minimize and eventually eliminate use of HEU in research reactors throughout the world, irrespective of its origin; and development of an LEU-based process for the production of {sup 99}Mo. Continuation and intensification of international cooperation are essential to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the RERTR program.

  20. Overview of reduced enrichment fuels: Development, testing, and specification

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 to provide the technical means to operate research and test reactors with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuels without significant penalty in experiment performance, operation costs, component modifications, or safety characteristics. This paper discusses relevant developments in fuel developments. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Progress of the RERTR program in 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1999-09-29

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during 1999 and discusses planned activities for the coming year.

  2. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Reprocessing RERTR silicide fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G.C.; Gouge, A.P.

    1983-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High-density, low-enrichment, aluminum-clad uranium silicide fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR silicide fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests and solvent extraction processing demonstrations with both unirradiated and irradiated uranium silicide fuels are presented.

  4. Reprocessing RERTR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High density, low enrichment aluminum-clad dispersed uranium compound fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad aluminum-uranium alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests with both unirradiated and irradiated (up to approximately 90% burnup) fuels are presented. 13 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Reduced-Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The principal program objective and principal part of the proposed action is to improve the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuels used in research and test reactors by providing the technical means (through technical development, design, and testing) for reducing the uranium enrichment requirements of these fuels to substantially less than the 90 to 93% enrichment currently used. Operator acceptance of the reduced-enrichment-uranium (REU) fuel alternative will require minimizing of reactor performance reduction, fuel cycle cost increases, the number of new safety and licensing issues raised, and reactor and facility modifications. The other part of the proposed action is to assure the capability for commercial production and supply of REU fuel for use both in the US and abroad. The RERTR Program scope is limited to generic design studies, technical support to reactor operating organizations in preparing for conversions to REU fuels, fuel development, fuel demonstrations, and technical support for commercialization of REU fuels. This environmental assessment addresses the environmental consequences of RERTR Program activities and of specific conversions of typical reactors (the Ford Nuclear Reactor and one or two other to-be-designated demonstrations) to REU-fuel cycles, including domestic and international shipments of enriched uranium pertinent to the conduct of RERTR Program activities.

  6. The RERTR program.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1997-11-14

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) by the Department of Energy (DOE), which continues to fund the program and to manage it in coordination with the Department of State (DOS), the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The primary objective of the program is to develop the technology needed to use Low-Enrichment Uranium (LEU) instead of High-Enrichment Uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors, without significant penalties in experiment performance, economics, or safety. Eliminating the continuing need of HEU supplies for research and test reactors has long been an integral part of US nonproliferation policy. This paper reviews the main accomplishments of the program through the years.

  7. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately.

  8. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The international effort to develop new research reactor fuel materials and designs based on the use of low-enriched uranium, instead of highly-enriched uranium, has made much progress during the eight years since its inception. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialist in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the ninth of a series which began in 1978. All previous meetings of this series are listed on the facing page. The focus of this meeting was on the LEU fuel demonstration which was in progress at the Oak Ridge Research (ORR) reactor, not far from where the meeting was held. The visit to the ORR, where a silicide LEU fuel with 4.8 g A/cm/sup 3/ was by then in routine use, illustrated how far work has progressed.

  9. US RERTR Program: overview, status and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief review of the accomplishments which the RERTR Program, in cooperation with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1983 in the area of LEU research reactor fuels development and application, emphasis is placed on the RERTR Program developments which took place during 1984 and on current plans and schedules. The RERTR progress in 1984 has been significant, with solid accomplishments and few surprises. Most LEU U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al irradiation tests with 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ have been successfully completed, and contract negotiations are under way for the procurement of a whole-core demonstration of this fuel in the ORR. The demonstration is to begin in mid-1985 and to last for approximately eighteen months. Qualification of U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel with 7 g U/cm/sup 3/ is scheduled for 1989. International cooperation among fuel developers, commercial vendors, and reactor operators has been essential to the progress which has been achieved. With continued international cooperation, it will be feasible to significantly reduce HEU usage in research reactors in the next few years.

  10. Status of the US RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1995-02-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1994 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1993 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR Program has moved aggressively to support President Clinton`s nonproliferation policy and his goal {open_quotes}to minimize the use of highly-enriched uranium in civil nuclear programs{close_quotes}. An Environmental Assessment which addresses the urgent-relief acceptance of 409 spent fuel elements was completed, and the first shipment of spent fuel elements is scheduled for this month. An Environmental Impact Statement addressing the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel containing enriched uranium of U.S. origin is scheduled for completion by the end of June 1995. The U.S. administration has decided to resume development of high-density LEU research reactor fuels. DOE funding and guidance are expected to begin soon. A preliminary plan for the resumption of fuel development has been prepared and is ready for implementation. The scope and main technical activities of a plan to develop and demonstrate within the next five years the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels was agreed upon by the RERTR Program and four Russian institutes lead by RDIPE. Both Secretary O`Leary and Minister Michailov have expressed strong support for this initiative. Joint studies have made significant progress, especially in assessing the technical and economic feasibility of using reduced enrichment fuels in the SAFARI-I reactor in South Africa and in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor under design at ORNL. Significant progress was achieved on several aspects of producing {sup 99}Mo from fission targets utilizing LEU instead of HEU to the achievement of the common goal.

  11. The RERTR Program: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Travelli, A.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The past, present and future of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are discussed with an emphasis on some of the reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics codes and modelling required to accommodate research and test reactor analysis, and some of the development work still in progress is described. Some comparisons with physical measurements and Monte Carlo are provided. The efforts in fuels development and the experimental support are summarized. The accomplishments in joint study programs and the transfer of technology are high lighted. The joint study with the Russian reduced enrichment program presents many new challenges.

  12. The RERTR Program status and progress

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1995-12-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1995 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1994. The revelation that Iraq was on the verge of developing a nuclear weapon at the time of the Gulf War, and that it was planning to do so by extracting HEU from the fuel of its research reactors, has given new impetus and urgency to the RERTR commitment of eliminating HEU use in research and test reactors worldwide. Development of advanced LEU research reactor fuels is scheduled to begin in October 1995. The Russian RERTR program, which aims to develop and demonstrate within the next five years the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels, is now in operation. A Statement of Intent was signed by high US and Chinese officials, endorsing cooperative activities between the RERTR program and Chinese laboratories involved in similar activities. Joint studies of LEU technical feasibility were completed for the SAFARI-I reactor in South Africa and for the ANS reactor in the US. A new study has been initiated for the FRM-II reactor in Germany. Significant progress was made on several aspects of producing {sup 99}Mo from fission targets utilizing LEU instead of HEU. A cooperation agreements is in place with the Indonesian BATAN. The first prototypical irradiation of an LEU metal-foil target for {sup 99}Mo production was accomplished in Indonesia. The TR-2 reactor, in Turkey, began conversion. SAPHIR, in Switzerland, was shut down. LEU fuel fabrication has begun for the conversion of two more US reactors. Twelve foreign reactors and nine domestic reactors have been fully converted. Approximately 60 % of the work required to eliminate the use of HEU in US-supplied research reactors has been accomplished.

  13. Effect of reduced enrichment on the fuel cycle for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new fuels developed by the RERTR Program and by other international programs for application in research reactors with reduced uranium enrichment (<20% EU) are discussed. It is shown that these fuels, combined with proper fuel-element design and fuel-management strategies, can provide at least the same core residence time as high-enrichment fuels in current use, and can frequently significantly extend it. The effect of enrichment reduction on other components of the research reactor fuel cycle, such as uranium and enrichment requirements, fuel fabrication, fuel shipment, and reprocessing are also briefly discussed with their economic implications. From a systematic comparison of HEU and LEU cores for the same reference research reactor, it is concluded that the new fuels have a potential for reducing the research reactor fuel cycle costs while reducing, at the same time, the uranium enrichment of the fuel.

  14. US RERTR program, its fuel-development activities, and application in the KUHFR

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.; Stahl, D.

    1981-01-01

    The goals, structure, and accomplishments to date of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are described in detail. Plans and schedules for future program activities are outlined with the effect which these activities may potentially have on the research-reactor community. The fuel-development activities of the program are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the new low-enrichment, high-uranium-density fuels which the RERTR Program is developing for application in research reactors in the near future. The results of a joint study program between the RERTR Program and the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), aimed at converting the Kyoto University High-Flux Reactor (KUHFR) to the use of reduced-enrichment uranium, are presented. It is shown that the study has resulted in a positive decision and in a cooperative, well-structured plan for the KUHFR conversion.

  15. Microstructure Characterization of RERTR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B. D. Miller; D. D. Keiser; T. R. Allen; D. M. Wachs

    2008-09-01

    A variety of phases have the potential to develop in the irradiated fuels for the reduced enrichment research test reactor (RERTR) program. To study the radiation stability of these potential phases, three depleted uranium alloys were cast. The phases of interest were identified including U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3, UMo2Al20, UAl4, and U6Mo4Al43. These alloys were irradiated with 2.6 MeV protons at 200ºC up to 3.0 dpa. The microstructure is characterized using SEM and TEM. Microstructural characterization for an archive dispersion fuel plate (U-7Mo fuel particles in Al-2%Si cladding) was also carried out. TEM sample preparation for the irradiated dispersion fuel has been developed.

  16. Recent developments of the US RERTR program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of the RERTR Program objectives, goals and past accomplishments, emphasis is placed on the developments which took place during 1983 and on current program plans and schedules. Most program activities have proceeded as planned and a combination of two silicide fuels (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al) was found to hold excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. A modification of the program plan, including the development and demonstration of those fuels, was prepared and is now being implemented. The uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors is forecasted to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm/sup 3/ each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ to the 7.0 g U/cm/sup 3/ which will be reached in 1988. The technical needs of research reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual and dramatic decline in the coming years.

  17. The U.S. RERTR program status and progress.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1998-01-21

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program since its inception in 1978 is described. A brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1996 in collaboration with its many international partners is followed by a detailed review of the major events, findings, and activities of 1997. Significant progress has been made during the past year. In the area of U.S. acceptance of spent fuel from foreign research reactors, several shipments have taken place and additional are being planned. Intense fuel development activities are in progress, including procurement of equipment, screening of candidate materials, and production of microplates. Irradiation of the first series of microplates began in August 1997 in the Advanced Test Reactor, in Idaho. Progress has been made in the Russian RERTR program, which aims to develop and demonstrate within five years the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels. The study of an alternative LEU core for the FRM-II design has been extended to address, with favorable results, controversial performance issues which were raised at last year's meeting. Progress was also made on several aspects of producing molybdenum-99 from fission targets utilizing LEU instead of HEU. Various types of targets and processes are being pursued, with FDA approval of an LEU process projected to occur within two years. The feasibility of LEU Fuel conversion for three important DOE research reactors (BMRR, HFBR, and HFIR) has been evaluated by the RERTR program. In spite of the many momentous events which have occurred during the intervening years, and the excellent progress achieved, the most important challenges that the RERTR program faces today are not very different in type from those that were faced during the first RERTR meeting. Now, as then, the most important task is to develop new LEU fuels satisfying requirements which cannot be satisfied by any

  18. Post irradiation analysis of RERTR-7A, 7B and RERTR-8 tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, G.L.; Kim, Yeon Soo; Shevlyakov, G.V.; Robinson, A.B.

    2008-07-15

    Addition of 2 wt% or more of silicon in the Al matrix for U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel has proved to be effective in reducing interaction layer growth from the RERTR-7A test to a burnup of {approx}100 at% U-235 (LEU equivalent). The recent RERTR-8 test also showed the consistent results. In this paper, we present the post irradiation analysis results of these tests. A considerable number of monolithic fuel plates were irradiated in the RERTR-7A and RERTR-8 tests. The post irradiation results of these plates are also included. The RERTR-7B test was a lower burnup test with similar power to the RERTR-7A. In this test, dispersion fuel plates with U-7Mo-1Ti and U- 7Mo-2Zr in Al-5Si were irradiated. The post irradiation results of these plates are also covered. (author)

  19. The RERTR Program : a status report.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1998-10-19

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners since its inception in 1978. A brief summary of the results that the program had attained by the end of 1997 is followed by a detailed review of the major events, findings, and activities that took place in 1998. The past year was characterized by exceptionally important accomplishments and events for the RERTR program. Four additional shipments of spent fuel from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. Altogether, 2,231 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors have been received by the U.S. under the acceptance policy. Fuel development activities began to yield solid results. Irradiations of the first two batches of microplates were completed. Preliminary postirradiation examinations of these microplates indicate excellent irradiation behavior of some of the fuel materials that were tested. These materials hold the promise of achieving the pro am goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium density in the 8-9 g /cm{sup 3} range. Progress was made in the Russian RERTR program, which aims to develop and demonstrate the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels. Feasibility studies for converting to LEU fuel four Russian-designed research reactors (IR-8 in Russia, Budapest research reactor in Hungary, MARIA in Poland, and WWR-SM in Uzbekistan) were completed. A new program activity began to study the feasibility of converting three Russian plutonium production reactors to the use of low-enriched U0{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuel, so that they can continue to produce heat and electricity without producing significant amounts of plutonium. The study of an alternative LEU core for the FRM-II design has been extended to address, with favorable results, the transient performance of the core under hypothetical accident conditions. A

  20. Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

  1. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

  2. Development of monolithic nuclear fuels for RERTR by hot isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, J.-F.; Park, Blair; Chapple, Michael; Moore, Glenn; Keiser, Dennis

    2008-07-15

    The RERTR Program (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) is developing advanced nuclear fuels for high power test reactors. Monolithic fuel design provides a higher uranium loading than that of the traditional dispersion fuel design. In order to bond monolithic fuel meat to aluminum cladding, several bonding methods such as roll bonding, friction stir bonding and hot isostatic pressing, have been explored. Hot isostatic pressing is a promising process for low cost, batch fabrication of monolithic RERTR fuel plates. The progress on the development of this process at the Idaho National Laboratory will be presented. Due to the relatively high processing temperature used, the reaction between fuel meat and aluminum cladding to form brittle intermetallic phases may be a concern. The effect of processing temperature and time on the fuel/cladding reaction will be addressed. The influence of chemical composition on the reaction will also be discussed. (author)

  3. High-density reduced-enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels have been conducted by the US RERTR Program in order to provide the technical means to reduce the enrichment of fuels for research and test reactors. The traditional aluminum dispersion fuel technology has been extended to include the highest practical loadings of uranium-aluminide (UAl/sub x/, 2.3 MgU/m/sup 3/), uranium-oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, 3.2 MgU/m/sup 3/), and uranium-silicide (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, 5.5 MgU/m/sup 3/; U/sub 3/Si, 7.0 MgU/m/sup 3/) fuels. A third uranium-silicide alloy, U/sub 3/SiAl (U + 3.5 wt % Si + 1.5 wt % Al) has been found to perform poorly at high burnup. Testing of miniature fuel plates and full-sized fuel elements is at an advanced stage for the highest loadings of the aluminide and oxide fuels and intermediate loadings of the silicide fuels, and good results have been obtained for low-enriched uranium. The data obtained to date are discussed. 1 reference, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. Fabrication of Monolithic RERTR Fuels by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Curtis R. Clark; Glenn A. Moore; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) Program is developing advanced nuclear fuels for high-power test reactors. Monolithic fuel design provides higher uranium loading than that of the traditional dispersion fuel design. Hot isostatic pressing is a promising process for low-cost batch fabrication of monolithic RERTR fuel plates for these high-power reactors. Bonding U Mo fuel foil and 6061 Al cladding by hot isostatic press bonding was successfully developed at Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the relatively high processing temperature, the interaction between fuel meat and aluminum cladding is a concern. Two different methods were employed to mitigate this effect: (1) a diffusion barrier and (2) a doping addition to the interface. Both types of fuel plates have been fabricated by hot isostatic press bonding. Preliminary results show that the direct fuel/cladding interaction during the bonding process was eliminated by introducing a thin zirconium diffusion barrier layer between the fuel and the cladding. Fuel plates were also produced and characterized with a silicon-rich interlayer between fuel and cladding. This paper reports the recent progress of this developmental effort and identifies the areas that need further attention.

  5. Summary report on fuel development and miniplate fabrication for the RERTR Program, 1978 to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of the Fabrication Technology Section at Argonne National Laboratory in the program of Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The main objective of this program was to reduce the amount of high enriched ({approx}93% {sup 235}U) uranium (HEU) used in nonpower reactors. Conversion from low-density (0.8--1.6 g U/cm{sup 3}) HEU fuel elements to highly loaded (up to 7 g U/cm{sup 3}) low-enrichment (<20% {sup 235}U) uranium (LEU) fuel elements allows the same reactor power levels, core designs and sizes to be retained while greatly reducing the possibility of illicit diversion of HEU nuclear fuel. This document is intended as an overview of the period 1978--1990, during which the Section supported this project by fabricating mainly powder metallurgy uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates. Most of the subjects covered in detail are fabrication-related studies of uranium silicide fuels and fuel plate properties. Some data are included for out-of-pile experiments such as corrosion and compatibility tests. Also briefly covered are most other aspects of the RERTR program such as irradiation tests, full-core demonstrations, and technology transfer. References included are for further information on most aspects of the entire program. A significant portion of the report is devoted to data that were never published in their entirety. The appendices contain a list of previous RERTR reports, ANL fabrication procedures, calculations for phases present in two-phase fuels, chemical analysis of fuels, miniplate characteristics, and a summary of bonding runs made by hot isostatic pressing.

  6. RERTR-9 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2011-05-01

    The RERTR-9 experiment was designed to test the effect of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates and to demonstrate that the addition of Si to the matrix material in dispersion plates continued to be effective at high loading (~8.5 g U/cc). Several monolithic fuel plates were fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB) with thin layers of Si inserted and by HIP with a Zr diffusion barrier between the fuel and cladding. Si was applied to the interface by thermal spray of Al Si mixtures and by the insertion of thin Si-rich Al alloy foil between the fuel/clad interface. The dispersion fuel plates were fabricated by semi-standard rolling techniques (the reduction by rolling was lowered to limit fabrication defects). Matrix materials consisted of Al-Si alloys and mixtures with various levels of Si. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-9A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  7. Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    A K Wertsching

    2012-09-01

    As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to

  8. Microstructure of RERTR DU-Alloys Irradiated with Krypton Ions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; D. Wachs; B. Miller; T. Allen; M. Kirk; J. Rest

    2009-11-01

    Fuel development for reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in many research and test reactors worldwide. Radiation stability of the interaction product formed at fuel-matrix interface has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast that consist of the following 5 phases of interest to be investigated: U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4. Irradiation of TEM disc samples with 500 keV Kr ions at 200?C to high doses up to ~100 dpa were conducted using an intermediate voltage electron microscope equipped with an ion accelerator. The irradiated microstructure of the 5 phases is characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results will be presented and the implication of the observed irradiated microstructure on the fuel performance will be discussed.

  9. Comments on the future activities of the RERTR program - part II

    SciTech Connect

    Krull, W.

    1997-08-01

    At the last RERTR meeting an historical overview was given and the status and consequences of enrichment reduction were discussed. At that time and somewhat more today many doubts are raised that enrichment reduction, as a tool for reducing the proliferation risk, is being done in the most efficient and convincing manner. The informations presented in this report were taken from IAEA, US-DOE, US-GAO publications and from proceedings of the RERTR meetings. The data presented should be compared only on a relative basis. It was not the intention for many reasons to present quantitative exact values as some figures used for developing the conclusions are being confidential. Others are available in the above mentioned publications and proceedings. But nevertheless conclusions drawn and recommendations developed are believed to be worth to be taken into account by research reactor operators, their funding organizations and administrators when they are faced with decisions about the future of their facilities. All of the international effort on reducing the enrichment on research and test reactors has their only justification from the INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation) conclusions to reduce the proliferation risk worldwide to a large extent. Worldwide is important. IAEA and others have to convince operators and organizations upon the necessity in doing so. One of the best way convincing people is giving convincing examples. At present none of the nations having a military nuclear weapons program is giving such a convincing example. Even in cases where the qualified fuel and all other necessary tools for converting specific research reactors are existing only small or no progress can be seen. Only non-weapon states are being pressed today.

  10. RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wachs

    2007-01-01

    In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a report

  11. Investigation of the Cause of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell K Meyer

    2012-06-01

    Blister–threshold testing of fuel plates is a standard method through which the safety margin for operation of plate-type in research and test reactors is assessed. The blister-threshold temperature is indicative of the ability of fuel to operate at high temperatures for short periods of time (transient conditions) without failure. This method of testing was applied to the newly developed U-Mo monolithic fuel system. Blister annealing studies on the U-Mo monolithic fuel plates began in 2007, with the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-6 experiment, and they have continued as the U-Mo fuel system has evolved through the research and development process. Blister anneal threshold temperatures from early irradiation experiments (RERTR-6 through RERTR-10) ranged from 400 to 500°C. These temperatures were projected to be acceptable for NRC-licensed research reactors and the high-power Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) based on current safety-analysis reports (SARs). Initial blister testing results from the RERTR-12 experiment capsules X1 and X2 showed a decrease in the blister-threshold temperatures. Blister threshold temperatures from this experiment ranged from 300 to 400°C. Selected plates from the AFIP-4 experiment, which was fabricated using a process similar to that used to fabricate the RERTR-12 experiment, also underwent blister testing to determine whether results would be similar. The measured blister-threshold temperatures from the AFIP-4 plates fell within the same blister-threshold temperature range measured in the RERTR-12 plates. Investigation of the cause of this decrease in bister threshold temperature is being conducted under the guidance of Idaho National Laboratory PLN-4155, “Analysis of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments,” and is driven by hypotheses. The main focus of the investigation is in the following areas: 1. Fabrication variables 2. Pre

  12. Enrichment and characterization of sulfate reducing, naphthalene degrading microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Kümmel; Florian-Alexander, Herbst; Márcia, Duarte; Dietmar, Pieper; Jana, Seifert; Bergen Martin, von; Hans-Hermann, Richnow; Carsten, Vogt

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PAH are widely distributed in the environment by accidental discharges during the transport, use and disposal of petroleum products, and during forest and grass fires. Caused by their hydrophobic nature, PAH basically accumulate in sediments from where they are slowly released into the groundwater. Although generally limited by the low water solubility of PAH, microbial degradation is one of the major mechanisms leading to the complete clean-up of PAH-contaminated sites. Whereas organisms and biochemical pathways responsible for the aerobic breakdown of PAH are well known, anaerobic PAH biodegradation is less understood; only a few anaerobic PAH degrading cultures have been described. We studied the anaerobic PAH degradation in a microcosm approach to enrich anaerobic PAH degraders. Anoxic groundwater and sediment samples were used as inoculum. Groundwater samples were purchased from the erstwhile gas works facility and a former wood impregnation site. In contrast, sources of sediment samples were a former coal refining area and an old fuel depot. Samples were incubated in anoxic mineral salt medium with naphthalene as sole carbon source and sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Grown cultures were characterized by feeding with 13C-labeled naphthalene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing using an Illumina® approach, and functional proteome analyses. Finally, six enrichment cultures able to degrade naphthalene under anoxic conditions were established. First results point to a dominance of identified sequences affiliated to the freshwater sulfate-reducing strain N47, which is a known anaerobic naphthalene degrader, in four out of the six enrichments. In those enrichments, peptides related to the pathway of anoxic naphthalene degradation in N47 were abundant. Overall the data underlines the importance of Desulfobacteria for natural

  13. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    2000-09-28

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during the year 2000 and discusses the main activities planned for the year 2001. The past year was characterized by important accomplishments and events for the RERTR program. Four additional shipments containing 503 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. Altogether, 3,740 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors have been received by the U.S. under the acceptance policy. Postirradiation examinations of three batches of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-MO dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. h-radiation of two new batches of miniplates of greater sizes is in progress in the ATR to investigate me swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g /cm{sup 3} range. Qualification of the U-MO dispersion fuels is proceeding on schedule. Test fuel elements with 6 gU/cm{sup 3} are being fabricated by BWXT and are scheduled to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten in the spring of 2001, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by the end of 2003. U-Mo with 8-9 gU/cm{sup 3} is planned to be qualified by the end of 2005. Joint LEU conversion feasibility studies were completed for HFR-Petten and for SAFARI-1. Significant improvements were made in the design of LEU metal-foil annular targets that would allow efficient production of fission {sup 99}Mo. Irradiations in the RAS-GAS reactor showed that these targets can formed from aluminum tubes, and that the yield and purity of their product from the acidic process were at least as good as those from the HEU Cintichem targets. Progress was made on irradiation testing of LEU UO{sub 2

  14. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    ). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  15. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki; Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo

    1997-08-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE.

  16. Current status of the US RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the RERTR Program. The main objective is to provide the audience with some orientation and sense of perspective that may assist in viewing the other program presentations as part of an overall effort, rather than as separate and unrelated activities.

  17. Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA): Dimensionally Reduced Multivariate Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Tool

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Neil R.; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jones, Matthew R.; Ma’ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Gene set analysis of differential expression, which identifies collectively differentially expressed gene sets, has become an important tool for biology. The power of this approach lies in its reduction of the dimensionality of the statistical problem and its incorporation of biological interpretation by construction. Many approaches to gene set analysis have been proposed, but benchmarking their performance in the setting of real biological data is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. In a previously published work we proposed a geometrical approach to differential expression which performed highly in benchmarking tests and compared well to the most popular methods of differential gene expression. As reported, this approach has a natural extension to gene set analysis which we call Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA). PAEA employs dimensionality reduction and a multivariate approach for gene set enrichment analysis. However, the performance of this method has not been assessed nor its implementation as a web-based tool. Here we describe new benchmarking protocols for gene set analysis methods and find that PAEA performs highly. The PAEA method is implemented as a user-friendly web-based tool, which contains 70 gene set libraries and is freely available to the community. PMID:26848405

  18. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched. PMID:26515534

  19. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates. PMID:26441876

  20. Enriched Iron(III)-Reducing Bacterial Communities are Shaped by Carbon Substrate and Iron Oxide Mineralogy

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Christopher J.; Wankel, Scott D.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite), which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III) oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate) along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III)-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III) reduction and the well-known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g., Enterobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desulfovibrio spp.). Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III)-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments. PMID

  1. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A.

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  2. Tetrachloroethene transformation to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene by sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, D.M.; Gossett, J.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Tetrachloroethene, also known as perchloroethylene, was reductively dechlorinated to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene by laboratory sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures. The causative organism or group was not identified. However, tetrachloroethene was dechlorinated to trichloroethene in 50 mM bromoethane-sulfonate-inhibited enrichments and to trichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene in 3 mM fluoroacetate-inhibited enrichments. Overall transformation varied from 92% tetrachloroethene removal in 13 days to 22% removal in 65 days, depending on conditions of the inoculum, inhibitor used, and auxilliary substrate used. Neither lactate, acetate, methanol, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, succinic acid, nor hydrogen appeared directly to support tetrachloroethene dechlorination, although lactate-fed inocula demonstrated longer-term dechlorinating capability.

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency support of research reactor highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel conversion projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N.

    2008-07-15

    The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)

  4. Reduced enrichment neutronics evaluation for Texas A and M's TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.J.; Reuscher, J.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center reactor (NSCR) designed by General Atomics (GA) uses a fuel-life improvement program TRIGA fuel element. It is composed of 8.5 wt% uranium in U-ZrH{sub 1.6}-Er fuel with a {sup 235}U enrichment of 70 at.% and 1.5 wt% of erbium. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the enrichment not exceed 20 at.% for the next loading, provided the fuel is available. To meet this requirement GA has developed shrouded four-rod clusters using low-enriched U-ZrH{sub 1.6}-Er fuel for TRIGA cores operating at powers up to 2 MW. This fuel contains 20 wt% of uranium with an enrichment of 20 at.% and 0.5 wt% of erbium and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen moderator. Thermal-hydraulic calculations show the feasibility of operating the NSCR at 2 MW. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of the NSCR to operate at 2 MW using the reduced-enrichment fuel. This study also covers a three-dimensional neutronics analysis of the NSCR core using the new fuel. Results obtained are compared with results obtained with another candidate fuel, BeO-UO{sub 2}-Er.

  5. Irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements and fuel rods under the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is reported. Being tested are UAl/sub x/-Al, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Al, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al, and U/sub 3/Si-Al dispersion fuels and UZrH/sub x/ (TRIGA) fuel at uranium densities in the fuel meat ranging from 1.7 to 6.0 Mg/m/sup 3/. Generally good performance has been experienced to date. Some preliminary results of postirradiation examinations are also included. A whole-core demonstration in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor is planned. Some details of this demonstration are provided.

  6. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important events affecting the RERTR program during the past year was the decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to request the U.S. Congress to significantly increase RERTR program funding. This decision was prompted, at least in part, by the terrible events of September 11, 2001, and by a high-level U.S./Russian Joint Expert Group recommendation to immediately accelerate RERTR program activities in both countries, with the goal of converting all the world's research reactors to low-enriched fuel at the earliest possible time, and including both Soviet-designed and United States-designed research reactors. The U.S. Congress is expected to approve this request very soon, and the RERTR program has prepared itself well for the intense activities that the 'Accelerated RERTR Program' will require. Promising results have been obtained in the development of a fabrication process for monolithic LEU U-Mo fuel. Most existing and future research reactors could be converted to LEU with this fuel, which has a uranium density between 15.4 and 16.4 g/cm{sup 3} and yielded promising irradiation results in 2002. The most promising method hinges on producing the monolithic meat by cold-rolling a thin ingot produced by casting. The aluminum clad and the meat are bonded by friction stir welding and the cladding surface is finished by a light cold roll. This method can be applied to the production of miniplates and appears to be extendable to the production of full-size plates, possibly with intermediate anneals. Other methods planned for investigation include high temperature bonding and hot isostatic pressing. The progress achieved within the Russian RERTR program, both for the traditional tube-type elements and for the new 'universal' LEU U-Mo pin-type elements, promises to enable soon the conversion of many Russian-designed research and test reactors. Irradiation testing of both fuel types with LEU U-Mo dispersion fuels has begun. Detailed studies are in

  7. Reduced-Enrichment, Fast-Spectrum Lunar/Mars Surface Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Sadasivan, Pratap; Amiri, Benjamin W.

    2006-07-01

    This report investigates the potential for reduced-enrichment, un-moderated surface reactors. The potential programmatic advantages of a reduced safeguards classification are discussed, along with design options that could allow a Cat III inventory surface reactor. Two potential reactor Cat III designs are presented, each with a thermal power of 100 kWt and a 5 year life: one is fueled with SS/UO{sub 2} fuel pins and the other with SS/UN fuel pins. The mass and performance parameters of these designs are compared to each other, and to a Cat III UZrH-fueled, moderated-spectrum design. (authors)

  8. Region specific neuron loss in the aged canine hippocampus is reduced by enrichment.

    PubMed

    Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Head, Elizabeth; Muggenburg, Bruce A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2008-01-01

    Neuron loss within the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex occurs as a function of age in humans. We first tested the hypothesis that neuron loss occurs in the aged dog. The total unilateral number of neurons in the canine entorhinal cortex and subdivisions of the hippocampus from the left hemisphere were estimated using the optical fractionator. The brains from 5 old (13.0-15.0 years old) and 5 young (3.4-4.5 years old) beagle dogs were analyzed. The hilus of the hippocampus showed a significant loss of neurons (approximately 30%) in the aged dog brain compared to young. Differences were not detected in the remaining hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex. We further tested the hypothesis that an antioxidant fortified food or behavioral enrichment would reduce the age-related loss of hilar neurons. Behaviorally enriched aged dogs had more neurons in the hilus (approximately 18%) compared to aged controls. These results suggest that the aged canine hippocampus in the left hemisphere shows selective neuron loss and that behavioral enrichment may reduce this loss. PMID:17092609

  9. Diffusion Barrier Selection from Refractory Metals (Zr, Mo and Nb) via Interdiffusion Investigation for U-Mo RERTR Fuel Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    K. Huang; C. Kammerer; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn

    2014-04-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Diffusional interactions between the U-Mo fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding within the monolithic fuel plate construct necessitate incorporation of a barrier layer. Fundamentally, a diffusion barrier candidate must have good thermal conductivity, high melting point, minimal metallurgical interaction, and good irradiation performance. Refractory metals, Zr, Mo, and Nb are considered based on their physical properties, and the diffusion behavior must be carefully examined first with U-Mo fuel alloy. Solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Mo, Zr, or Nb diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and chemical composition were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. For all three systems, the growth rate of interdiffusion zone were calculated at 1000, 900 and 800 degrees C under the assumption of parabolic growth, and calculated for lower temperature of 700, 600 and 500 degrees C according to Arrhenius relationship. The growth rate was determined to be about 10 3 times slower for Zr, 10 5 times slower for Mo and 10 6 times slower for Nb, than the growth rates reported for the interaction between the U-Mo fuel alloy and pure Al or Al-Si cladding alloys. Zr, however was selected as the barrier metal due to a concern for thermo- mechanical behavior of UMo/Nb interface observed from diffusion couples, and for ductile-to-brittle transition of Mo near room temperature.

  10. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  11. Mo enrichment in black shale and reduction of molybdate by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Barton, L. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Lower Cambrian Black shale in Zunyi area of Guizhou Province, Southern China contains significant amount of Mo, As, and sulfide minerals. Additionally, Mo and sulfides are closely associated with organic matter of kerogen. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show pyrite micro-crystals and Mo-As-S-bearing carbon (kerogen). High-resolution TEM image shows that Mo-rich areas are Mo-sulfide (molybdenite) layers that form poorly crystalline structures in organic carbon matrix. X-ray energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) indicate composition from the pyrite and the Mo-rich area. The black shale is very unique because of its high Mo concentration. One possible mechanism for enriching Mo from paleo-seawater is the involvement of SRB. Molybdate is an essential trace element required by biological systems including the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB); however, detrimental consequences may occur if molybdate is present in high concentrations in the environment. We followed the growth of Desulfovibrio gigas ATCC 19364, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, D. desulfuricans DSM 642, and D. desulfuricans DSM 27774 in media containing sub-lethal levels of molybdate and observed a red-brown color in the culture fluid. Spectral analysis of the culture fluid revealed absorption peaks at 467 nm, 395 nm and 314 nm and this color is proposed to be a molybdate-sulfide complex. Reduction of molybdate with the formation of molybdate disulfide occurs in the periplasm D. gigas and D. desulfuricans DSM 642. From these results we suggest that the occurrence of poorly crystalline Mo-sulfides in black shale may be a result from SRB reduction and selective enrichment of Mo in paleo-seawater. We suggest that similar SRB mechanism could cause the Mo enrichment in a ~ 2.5 billion years old late Archean McRae Shale, which is related to the great oxidation event of early earth atmosphere.

  12. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. Such a model was built based on the available description parameters as provided by the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analysis performed with the model constructed was compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel which increases the neutron resonance absorption reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus making LEU fuel a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  13. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Gehin, Jess C

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  14. Enriched environment reduces glioma growth through immune and non-immune mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Stefano; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Chece, Giuseppina; Brau, Frederic; Maggi, Laura; Rosa, Alessandro; Porzia, Alessandra; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauro, Clotilde; Benigni, Giorgia; Bernardini, Giovanni; Santoni, Angela; Limatola, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Mice exposed to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) were transplanted with murine or human glioma cells and differences in tumour development were evaluated. We report that EE exposure affects: (i) tumour size, increasing mice survival; (ii) glioma establishment, proliferation and invasion; (iii) microglia/macrophage (M/Mφ) activation; (iv) natural killer (NK) cell infiltration and activation; and (v) cerebral levels of IL-15 and BDNF. Direct infusion of IL-15 or BDNF in the brain of mice transplanted with glioma significantly reduces tumour growth. We demonstrate that brain infusion of IL-15 increases the frequency of NK cell infiltrating the tumour and that NK cell depletion reduces the efficacy of EE and IL-15 on tumour size and of EE on mice survival. BDNF infusion reduces M/Mφ infiltration and CD68 immunoreactivity in tumour mass and reduces glioma migration inhibiting the small G protein RhoA through the truncated TrkB.T1 receptor. These results suggest alternative approaches for glioma treatment. PMID:25818172

  15. Continuous enrichment culturing of thermophiles under sulfate and nitrate-reducing conditions and at deep-sea hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J L; Seyfried, W E; Banta, A B; Reysenbach, A-L

    2007-03-01

    A continuous culture bioreactor was developed to enrich for nitrate and sulfate reducing thermophiles under in situ deep-sea pressures. The ultimate objective of this experimental design was to be able to study microbial activities at chemical and physical conditions relevant to seafloor hydrothermal vents. Sulfide, sulfate and oxide minerals from sampled seafloor vent-chimney structures [East Pacific Rise (9 degrees 46'N)] served as source mineral and microbial inoculum for enrichment culturing using nitrate and sulfate-enriched media at 70 and 90 degrees C and 250 bars. Changes in microbial diversity during the continuous reaction flow were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Time series changes in fluid chemistry were also monitored throughout the experiment to assess the feedback between mineral-fluid reaction and metabolic processes. Data indicate a shift from the dominance of epsilon Proteobacteria in the initial inoculum to the several Aquificales-like phylotypes in nitrate-reducing enrichment media and Thermodesulfobacteriales in the sulfate-reducing enrichment media. Methanogens were detected in the original sulfide sample and grew in selected sulfate-enriched experiments. Microbial interactions with anhydrite and pyrrhotite in the chimney material resulted in measurable changes in fluid chemistry despite a fluid residence time only 75 min in the reactor. Changes in temperature rather than source material resulted in greater differences in microbial enrichments and mediated geochemical reactions. PMID:17221162

  16. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. PMID:26896316

  17. Environmental enrichment does not reduce the rewarding and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Thiriet, Nathalie; Gennequin, Benjamin; Lardeux, Virginie; Chauvet, Claudia; Decressac, Mickael; Janet, Thierry; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine analogues, such as methamphetamine (METH), represents an important health problem because of their powerful addictive and neurotoxic effects. Abuse of METH induces dopamine neuron terminals loss and cell death in the striatum similar to what is found in other neurodegenerative processes. Exposing mice and rats to enriched environments (EE) has been shown to produce significant protective effects against drug-induced reward as well as against neurodegenerative processes. Here, we investigated whether exposure to EE could reduce the METH-induced reward and neurotoxicity. For this, we reared mice for 2 months during early stages of life in standard environments or EE and then, at adulthood, we tested the ability of METH to induce conditioned place preference and neurotoxicity. We found that, contrary to what we found with other drugs such as cocaine and heroin, EE was unable to reduce the rewarding effects of METH. In addition, contrary to what we found with other toxins such as MPTP, EE did not diminish the striatal neurotoxicity induced by METH (4 x 10 mg/kg) as measured by dopamine content, tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels and apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the rewarding and neurotoxic effects of METH are not reduced by EE and highlight the great risks associated with the increased popularity of this drug amongst the young population. PMID:20143198

  18. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOEpatents

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  19. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  20. Stable isotopic studies of n-alkane metabolism by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Davidova, Irene A; Gieg, Lisa M; Nanny, Mark; Kropp, Kevin G; Suflita, Joseph M

    2005-12-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the metabolism of deuterated n-alkanes (C6 to C12) and 1-13C-labeled n-hexane by a highly enriched sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. All substrates were activated via fumarate addition to form the corresponding alkylsuccinic acid derivatives as transient metabolites. Formation of d14-hexylsuccinic acid in cell extracts from exogenously added, fully deuterated n-hexane confirmed that this reaction was the initial step in anaerobic alkane metabolism. Analysis of resting cell suspensions amended with 1-13C-labeled n-hexane confirmed that addition of the fumarate occurred at the C-2 carbon of the parent substrate. Subsequent metabolism of hexylsuccinic acid resulted in the formation of 4-methyloctanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid was tentatively identified. We also found that 13C nuclei from 1-13C-labeled n-hexane became incorporated into the succinyl portion of the initial metabolite in a manner that indicated that 13C-labeled fumarate was formed and recycled during alkane metabolism. Collectively, the findings obtained with a sulfate-reducing culture using isotopically labeled alkanes augment and support the previously proposed pathway (H. Wilkes, R. Rabus, T. Fischer, A. Armstroff, A. Behrends, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 177:235-243, 2002) for metabolism of deuterated n-hexane by a denitrifying bacterium. PMID:16332800

  1. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF FUEL PLATES FOR THE RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; S.C. Taylor; G.A. Moore; D.M. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear fuel is the core component of reactors that is used to produce the neutron flux required for irradiation research purposes as well as commercial power generation. The development of nuclear fuels with low enrichments of uranium is a major endeavor of the RERTR program. In the development of these fuels, the RERTR program uses nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for the purpose of determining the properties of nuclear fuel plate experiments without imparting damage or altering the fuel specimens before they are irradiated in a reactor. The vast range of properties and information about the fuel plates that can be characterized using NDE makes them highly useful for quality assurance and for analyses used in modeling the behavior of the fuel while undergoing irradiation. NDE is also particularly useful for creating a control group for post-irradiation examination comparison. The two major categories of NDE discussed in this paper are X-ray radiography and ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection/evaluation. The radiographic scans are used for the characterization of fuel meat density and homogeneity as well as the determination of fuel location within the cladding. The UT scans are able to characterize indications such as voids, delaminations, inclusions, and other abnormalities in the fuel plates which are generally referred to as debonds as well as to determine the thickness of the cladding using ultrasonic acoustic microscopy methods. Additionally, the UT techniques are now also being applied to in-canal interim examination of fuel experiments undergoing irradiation and the mapping of the fuel plate surface profile to determine fuel swelling. The methods used to carry out these NDE techniques, as well as how they operate and function, are described along with a description of which properties are characterized.

  2. US RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; D. E. Burkes; D. D. Keiser

    2008-10-01

    Post irradiation examinations of irradiated RERTR plate type fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory have led to in depth characterization of fuel behavior and performance. Both destructive and non-destructive examination capabilities at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) as well as recent results obtained are discussed herein. New equipment as well as more advanced techniques are also being developed to further advance the investigation into the performance of the high density U-Mo fuel.

  3. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    PubMed

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA. PMID:27210495

  4. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  5. REDUCED STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) SUSTAINED OVER LONG-TERM CO2 ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over four years (1998-2001), we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on stomatal conductance (gs) of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) grown at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Gas exchange measurements were...

  6. Does environmental enrichment reduce stress? An integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers provides a novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Frey, Matthew D; Reichert, James F; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  7. Biodegradation of munitions compounds by a sulfate reducing bacterial enrichment culture

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of several munitions compounds was studied. The compounds included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. All of the compounds studied were degraded by the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment culture. The SRB culture did not use the munitions compounds as their sole source of carbon. However, all the munitions compounds tested served as the sole source of nitrogen for the SRB culture. Degradation of munitions compounds was achieved by a co-metabolic process. The SRB culture used a variety of carbon sources including pyruvate, ethanol, formate, lactate, and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}. The SRB culture was an incomplete oxidizer, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates to CO{sub 2} as the sole product, and it did not use acetate or methanol as a carbon source. In addition to serving as nitrogen sources, the munitions compounds also served as electron acceptors in the absence of sulfate. A soil slurry experiment with 5% and 10% munitions compounds-contaminated soil showed that the contaminant TNT was metabolized by the SRB culture in the presence of pyruvate as electron donor. This culture may be useful in decontaminating munitions compounds-contaminated soil and water under anaerobic conditions.

  8. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

  9. Chitosan Enriched Three-Dimensional Matrix Reduces Inflammatory and Catabolic Mediators Production by Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oprenyeszk, Frederic; Sanchez, Christelle; Dubuc, Jean-Emile; Maquet, Véronique; Henrist, Catherine; Compère, Philippe; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes encapsulated in a spherical matrix enriched of chitosan. Human OA chondrocytes were encapsulated and cultured for 28 days either in chitosan-alginate beads or in alginate beads. The beads were formed by slowly passing dropwise either the chitosan 0.6%–alginate 1.2% or the alginate 1.2% solution through a syringe into a 102 mM CaCl2 solution. Beads were analyzed histologically after 28 days. Interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, prostaglandin (PG) E2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan and aggrecan were quantified directly in the culture supernatant by specific ELISA and nitric oxide (NO) by using a colorimetric method based on the Griess reaction. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that chitosan was homogeneously distributed through the matrix and was in direct contact with chondrocytes. The production of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-3 by chondrocytes significantly decreased in chitosan-alginate beads compared to alginate beads. PGE2 and NO decreased also significantly but only during the first three days of culture. Hyaluronan and aggrecan production tended to increase in chitosan-alginate beads after 28 days of culture. Chitosan-alginate beads reduced the production of inflammatory and catabolic mediators by OA chondrocytes and tended to stimulate the synthesis of cartilage matrix components. These particular effects indicate that chitosan-alginate beads are an interesting scaffold for chondrocytes encapsulation before transplantation to repair cartilage defects. PMID:26020773

  10. Sulfur Isotope Enrichment during Maintenance Metabolism in the Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum putei▿

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Mark M.; Bisher, M. E.; Pratt, Lisa M.; Fong, Jon; Southam, Gordon; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Reches, Z.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2009-01-01

    Values of Δ34S (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}={\\delta}^{34}S_{HS}-{\\delta}^{34}S_{SO_{4}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}, where δ34SHS and \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\delta}^{34}S_{SO_{4}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} indicate the differences in the isotopic compositions of the HS− and SO42− in the eluent, respectively) for many modern marine sediments are in the range of −55 to −75‰, much greater than the −2 to −46‰ ɛ34S (kinetic isotope enrichment) values commonly observed for microbial sulfate reduction in laboratory batch culture and chemostat experiments. It has been proposed that at extremely low sulfate reduction rates under hypersulfidic conditions with a nonlimited supply of sulfate, isotopic enrichment in laboratory culture experiments should increase to the levels recorded in nature. We examined the effect of extremely low sulfate reduction rates and electron donor limitation on S isotope fractionation by culturing a thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfotomaculum putei, in a biomass-recycling culture vessel, or “retentostat.” The cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction and the specific growth rate decreased progressively from the exponential phase to the maintenance phase, yielding average maintenance coefficients of 10−16 to 10−18 mol of SO4 cell−1 h−1 toward the end of the experiments. Overall S mass and isotopic balance were conserved during the experiment. The differences in the δ34S

  11. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-β oligomers in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  12. Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and o-Xylene in Sediment-Free Iron-Reducing Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Michael K.; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2005-01-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are widespread contaminants in groundwater. We examined the anaerobic degradation of BTEX compounds with amorphous ferric oxide as electron acceptor. Successful enrichment cultures were obtained for all BTEX substrates both in the presence and absence of AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid). The electron balances showed a complete anaerobic oxidation of the aromatic compounds to CO2. This is the first report on the anaerobic degradation of o-xylene and ethylbenzene in sediment-free iron-reducing enrichment cultures. PMID:15933041

  13. Anaerobic degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene in sediment-free iron-reducing enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Michael K; Haderlein, Stefan B; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2005-06-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are widespread contaminants in groundwater. We examined the anaerobic degradation of BTEX compounds with amorphous ferric oxide as electron acceptor. Successful enrichment cultures were obtained for all BTEX substrates both in the presence and absence of AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid). The electron balances showed a complete anaerobic oxidation of the aromatic compounds to CO2. This is the first report on the anaerobic degradation of o-xylene and ethylbenzene in sediment-free iron-reducing enrichment cultures. PMID:15933041

  14. Anaerobic Cometabolic Conversion of Benzothiophene by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment Culture and in a Tar-Oil-Contaminated Aquifer†

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic cometabolic conversion of benzothiophene was studied with a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture growing with naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The sulfate-reducing bacteria were not able to grow with benzothiophene as the primary substrate. Metabolite analysis was performed with culture supernatants obtained by cometabolization experiments and revealed the formation of three isomeric carboxybenzothiophenes. Two isomers were identified as 2-carboxybenzothiophene and 5-carboxybenzothiophene. In some experiments, further reduced dihydrocarboxybenzothiophene was identified. No other products of benzothiophene degradation could be determined. In isotope-labeling experiments with a [13C]bicarbonate-buffered culture medium, carboxybenzothiophenes which were significantly enriched in the 13C content of the carboxyl group were formed, indicating the addition of a C1 unit from bicarbonate to benzothiophene as the initial activation reaction. This finding was consistent with the results of earlier studies on anaerobic naphthalene degradation with the same culture, and we therefore propose that benzothiophene was cometabolically converted by the same enzyme system. Groundwater analyses of the tar-oil-contaminated aquifer from which the naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture was isolated exhibited the same carboxybenzothiophene isomers as the culture supernatants. In addition, the benzothiophene degradation products, in particular, dihydrocarboxybenzothiophene, were significantly enriched in the contaminated groundwater to concentrations almost the same as those of the parent compound, benzothiophene. The identification of identical metabolites of benzothiophene conversion in the sulfate-reducing enrichment culture and in the contaminated aquifer indicated that the same enzymatic reactions were responsible for the conversion of benzothiophene in situ. PMID:11679329

  15. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps

    PubMed Central

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-01-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with 13C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in 13C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture. PMID:23254512

  16. RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED RERTR FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B.D. Miller; D.D. Keiser Jr.; A.B. Robinson; J.W. Madden; P.G. Medvedev; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The recent development on TEM work of irradiated RERTR fuels includes microstructural characterization of the irradiated U-10Mo/alloy-6061 monolithic fuel plate, the RERTR-7 U-7Mo/Al-2Si and U-7Mo/Al-5Si dispersion fuel plates. It is the first time that a TEM sample of an irradiated nuclear fuel was prepared using the focused-ion-beam (FIB) lift-out technical at the Idaho National Laboratory. Multiple FIB TEM samples were prepared from the areas of interest in a SEM sample. The characterization was carried out using a 200kV TEM with a LaB6 filament. The three dimensional orderings of nanometer-sized fission gas bubbles are observed in the crystalline region of the U-Mo fuel. The co-existence of bubble superlattice and dislocations is evident. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of these fuels are discussed.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of p-Xylene by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Morasch, Barbara; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2005-08-01

    A strictly anaerobic enrichment culture was obtained with p-xylene as organic substrate and sulfate as electron acceptor from an aquifer at a former gasworks plant contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. p-Xylene was completely oxidized to CO(2). The enrichment culture depended on Fe(II) in the medium as a scavenger of the produced sulfide. 4-Methylbenzylsuccinic acid and 4-methylphenylitaconic acid were identified in supernatants of cultures indicating that degradation of p-xylene was initiated by fumarate addition to one of the methyl groups. Therefore, p-xylene degradation probably proceeds analogously to toluene degradation by Thauera aromatica or anaerobic degradation pathways for o- and m-xylene. PMID:16049661

  18. Maternal methyl-enriched diet in rat reduced the audiogenic seizure proneness in progeny.

    PubMed

    Poletaeva, I I; Surina, N M; Ashapkin, V V; Fedotova, I B; Merzalov, I B; Perepelkina, O V; Pavlova, G V

    2014-12-01

    Audiogenic epilepsy proneness was analyzed in the progeny of rats from two strains (audiogenic seizure prone-strain "4"-and audiogenic seizure non-prone, strain "0"). Females were fed by a diet which contained substances enriched with methyl-groups during 1week before mating (MED), during pregnancy period and 1week after the delivery. This MED treatment resulted in a decrease of audiogenic seizure fit intensity, which was more evident in rats of strain "0". Control rats of strain "4" displayed intense seizures (tonic seizure, 3.85 arbitrary units). Med "4" rats seizures were less intense (3.23, tonic seizure of lower intensity), control "0" strain rats demonstrated the seizure with mean 3.09 arbitrary units, "0" MED rats only 2.03 arbitrary unit intensity (only clonic seizures, significantly, p<0.05, different from controls). Methyl-enriched diet resulted in the significant changes in methylation status of several genes (Cpne6, Gtf2i, Sctr,1 Sfmbt, Phe2). These genes among others were chosen for analysis as their expression was analyzed in other methylation study. These genes were hypermethylated after "epileptic tolerance". Due to this procedure, the intensity of status epilepticus, produced by kainate in mice, decreased (Miller-Delaney et al., 2012). The modulation of audiogenic seizure intensity as the result of methyl-enriched diet during prenatal and early postnatal ontogeny was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25285618

  19. Cardamonin reduces chemotherapy-enriched breast cancer stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Deyong; Tan, Yuan; Liu, Huijuan; Ooi, Sarah; Li, Li; Wright, Kathryn; Bennett, Steffany; Addison, Christina L.; Wang, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    The failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancers has been closely associated with the presence of drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, screening for small molecules that selectively inhibit growth of CSCs may offer great promise for cancer control, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. In this report, we provide the first demonstration that cardamonin, a small molecule, selectively inhibits breast CSCs that have been enriched by chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, cardamonin also sufficiently prevents the enrichment of CSCs when simultaneously used with chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, cardamonin effectively abolishes chemotherapeutic drug-induced up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 and activation of NF-κB/IKBα and Stat3. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model, co-administration of cardamonin and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin significantly retards tumor growth and simultaneously decreases CSC pools in vivo. Since cardamonin has been found in some herbs, this work suggests a potential new approach for the effective treatment of breast CSCs by administration of cardamonin either concurrent with or after chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26506421

  20. Cardamonin reduces chemotherapy-enriched breast cancer stem-like cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Deyong; Tan, Yuan; Liu, Huijuan; Ooi, Sarah; Li, Li; Wright, Kathryn; Bennett, Steffany; Addison, Christina L; Wang, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    The failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancers has been closely associated with the presence of drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, screening for small molecules that selectively inhibit growth of CSCs may offer great promise for cancer control, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. In this report, we provide the first demonstration that cardamonin, a small molecule, selectively inhibits breast CSCs that have been enriched by chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, cardamonin also sufficiently prevents the enrichment of CSCs when simultaneously used with chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, cardamonin effectively abolishes chemotherapeutic drug-induced up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 and activation of NF-κB/IKBα and Stat3. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model, co-administration of cardamonin and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin significantly retards tumor growth and simultaneously decreases CSC pools in vivo. Since cardamonin has been found in some herbs, this work suggests a potential new approach for the effective treatment of breast CSCs by administration of cardamonin either concurrent with or after chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26506421

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  2. Metagenomic Analyses of the Autotrophic Fe(II)-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture KS.

    PubMed

    He, Shaomei; Tominski, Claudia; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian; Roden, Eric E

    2016-05-01

    Nitrate-dependent ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation (NDFO) is a well-recognized chemolithotrophic pathway in anoxic sediments. The neutrophilic chemolithoautotrophic enrichment culture KS originally obtained from a freshwater sediment (K. L. Straub, M. Benz, B. Schink, and F. Widdel, Appl Environ Microbiol 62:1458-1460, 1996) has been used as a model system to study NDFO. However, the primary Fe(II) oxidizer in this culture has not been isolated, despite extensive efforts to do so. Here, we present a metagenomic analysis of this enrichment culture in order to gain insight into electron transfer pathways and the roles of different bacteria in the culture. We obtained a near-complete genome of the primary Fe(II) oxidizer, a species in the familyGallionellaceae, and draft genomes from its flanking community members. A search of the putative extracellular electron transfer pathways in these genomes led to the identification of a homolog of the MtoAB complex [a porin-multiheme cytochromecsystem identified in neutrophilic microaerobic Fe(II)-oxidizingSideroxydans lithotrophicusES-1] in aGallionellaceaesp., and findings of other putative genes involving cytochromecand multicopper oxidases, such as Cyc2 and OmpB. Genome-enabled metabolic reconstruction revealed that thisGallionellaceaesp. lacks nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reductase genes and may partner with flanking populations capable of complete denitrification to avoid toxic metabolite accumulation, which may explain its resistance to growth in pure culture. This and other revealed interspecies interactions and metabolic interdependencies in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms may allow these organisms to cooperate effectively to achieve robust chemolithoautotrophic NDFO. Overall, the results significantly expand our knowledge of NDFO and suggest a range of genetic targets for further exploration. PMID:26896135

  3. Comparison of Sulphate-reducing Bacterial Communities in Japanese Fish Farm Sediments with Different Levels of Organic Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Ryuji; Mori, Yumi; Sakami, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Fish farm sediments receive a large amount of organic matter from uneaten food and fecal material. This nutrient enrichment, or organic pollution, causes the accumulation of sulphide in the sediment from the action of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We investigated the effect of organic enrichment around coastal fish farms comparing the SRB community structure in these sediments. Sediment samples with different levels of organic pollution classified based upon the contents of acid-volatile sulphide and chemical oxygen demand were collected at three stations on the coast of western Japan. The SRB community composition was assessed using PCR amplification, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the dissimilatory sulphite reductase β-subunit gene (dsrB) fragments using directly extracted sediment DNA. Sequencing of the cloned PCR products of dsrB showed the existence of different SRB groups in the sediments. The majority of dsrB sequences were associated with the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae. Clones related to the phylum Firmicutes were also detected from all sediment samples. Statistical comparison of sequences revealed that community compositions of SRB from polluted sediments significantly differed from those of moderately polluted sediments and unpolluted sediments (LIBSHUFF, p<0.05), showing a different distribution of SRB in the fish farm sediments. There is evidence showing that the organic enrichment of sediments influences the composition of SRB communities in sediments at marine fish farms. PMID:22791053

  4. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

  5. U-Mo Foil/Cladding Interactions in Friction Stir Welded Monolithic RERTR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D.D. Keiser; J.F. Jue; C.R. Clark

    2006-10-01

    Interaction between U-Mo fuel and Al has proven to dramatically impact the overall irradiation performance of RERTR dispersion fuels. It is of interest to better understand how similar interactions may affect the performance of monolithic fuel plates, where a uranium alloy fuel is sandwiched between aluminum alloy cladding. The monolithic fuel plate removes the fuel matrix entirely, which reduces the total surface area of the fuel that is available to react with the aluminum and moves the interface between the fuel and cladding to a colder region of the fuel plate. One of the major fabrication techniques for producing monolithic fuel plates is friction stir welding. This paper will discuss the interactions that can occur between the U-Mo foil and 6061 Al cladding when applying this fabrication technique. It has been determined that the time at high temperatures should be limited as much as is possible during fabrication or any post-fabrication treatment to reduce as much as possible the interactions between the foil and cladding. Without careful control of the fabrication process, significant interaction between the U-Mo foil and Al alloy cladding can result. The reaction layers produced from such interactions can exhibit notably different morphologies vis-à-vis those typically observed for dispersion fuels.

  6. Diverse metal reduction and nano- mineral formation by metal-reducing bacteria enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Park, B.; Seo, H.; Roh, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria utilize diverse metal oxides as electron acceptors and couple this microbial metal reduciton to growth. However, the microbe-metal interactions playing important roles in the metal geochemistry and organic matter degradation in the tidal flat sediments have not been uncovered enough to employ in various environmental and industrial applications. The objective of this study was to examine biomineralization and bioremediation by the facultative metal-reducing bacteria isolated from the inter-tidal flat sediments in southwestern of Korea. 16S-rRNA analysis showed bacterial consortium mainly consists of genus of Clostridium sp. The enriched bacteria were capable of reducing diverse metals such as iron oxide, maganese oxide, Cr(VI) and Se(VI) during glucose fermentation process at room temperature. The bacteria reduced highly toxic and reactive elements such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) to Cr(III) and Se(0). The results showed that microbial processes induced transformation from toxic states of heavy metals to less toxic and mobile states in natural environments. Andthe bacteria also reduced iron oxyhydroxide such as ferrihydrite and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and formed nanometer-sized magnetite (Fe3O4). This study indicates microbial processes not only can be used for bioremediation of inorganic contaminants existing in the marine environments, but also form the magnetite nanoparticles which are exhibit superparamagnetic properties that can be useful for relevant medical and industrial applications.

  7. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  8. Postirradiation examination of high-U-loaded low-enriched U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, UAl/sub 2/, and U/sub 3/Si test fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.; Morando, R.; Perez, E.E.; Giorsetti, D.R.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofmann, G.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this work is to present an evaluation of the postirradiation examination of the second set of high-U-loaded low-enriched U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, UAl/sub 2/ and U/sub 3/Si miniature plates manufactured by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina, and irradiated and examinated, within the framework of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory. This paper includes fabrication details of the plates, their irradiation history and the results of postirradiation examination which are compared to those of the previous test and to present results from other laboratories participating in the RERTR Program. Postirradiation examination of these plates showed satisfactory poerformance for the oxides, aluminides and silicides (except for the highest-loaded U/sub 3/Si plate) with the only indication of detrimental behavior during the slight bowing of some plates at about 80% burnup.

  9. Metatranscriptome of an Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture Reveals Involvement of Carboxylation in Benzene Ring Activation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E.; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

  10. Degradation of Trimethylbenzene Isomers by an Enrichment Culture under N(inf2)O-Reducing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Haner, A.; Hohener, P.; Zeyer, J.

    1997-01-01

    A microbial culture enriched from a diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer was able to grow on 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB) and 1,2,4-TMB under N(inf2)O-reducing conditions, but it did not degrade 1,2,3-TMB. The oxidation of 1,3,5-TMB to CO(inf2) was coupled to the production of biomass and the reduction of N(inf2)O. N(inf2)O was used to avoid toxic effects caused by NO(inf2)(sup-) accumulation during growth with NO(inf3)(sup-) as the electron acceptor. In addition to 1,3,5-TMB and 1,2,4-TMB, the culture degraded toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 3-ethyltoluene, and 4-ethyltoluene. PMID:16535546

  11. Maize and resistant starch enriched breads reduce postprandial glycemic responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carla M; Trigo, Maria J; Carrapiço, Belmira; Alviña, Marcela; Bessa, Rui J

    2011-04-01

    White wheat bread is a poor source of dietary fiber, typically containing less than 2%. A demand exists for the development of breads with starch that is slowly digestible or partially resistant to the digestive process. The utilization of maize flour and resistant starch is expected to reduce the release and absorption of glucose and, hence, lower the glycemic index of bread. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a diet of maize bread, as produced and consumed in Portugal, would have beneficial metabolic effects on rats compared to white wheat bread. We also hypothesized that the effect of resistant starch on glycemic response could be altered by the use of different formulations and breadmaking processes for wheat and maize breads. Resistant starch (RS) was incorporated into formulations of breads at 20% of the inclusion rate of wheat and maize flours. Assays were conducted with male Wistar rats (n = 36), divided into four groups and fed either wheat bread, RS-wheat bread, maize bread, and RS-maize bread to evaluate feed intake, body weight gain, fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response (glycemic response). Blood triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, and liver weights were also determined. The maize bread group presented higher body weight gain and cholesterol level, lower fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response than the wheat bread group. The RS-wheat bread group showed significant reductions in feed intake, fecal pH, postprandial blood glucose response, and total cholesterol. The RS-maize group displayed significant reductions of body weight gain, fecal pH, and total cholesterol levels; however, for the glycemic response, only a reduction in fasting level was observed. These results suggest that maize bread has a lower glycemic index than wheat bread, and the magnitude of the effect of RS on glycemic response depends of type of bread. PMID:21530804

  12. RERTR-12 Post-irradiation Examination Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Francine; Williams, Walter; Robinson, Adam; Harp, Jason; Meyer, Mitch; Rabin, Barry

    2015-02-01

    The following report contains the results and conclusions for the post irradiation examinations performed on RERTR-12 Insertion 2 experiment plates. These exams include eddy-current testing to measure oxide growth; neutron radiography for evaluating the condition of the fuel prior to sectioning and determination of fuel relocation and geometry changes; gamma scanning to provide relative measurements for burnup and indication of fuel- and fission-product relocation; profilometry to measure dimensional changes of the fuel plate; analytical chemistry to benchmark the physics burnup calculations; metallography to examine the microstructural changes in the fuel, interlayer and cladding; and microhardness testing to determine the material-property changes of the fuel and cladding. These characterization activities are tailored specifically to define: • The mechanical response of fuel meat, cladding, and interlayers, including diffusion barrier integrity • Whether geometry is stable and predictable; that changes in channel gap do not compromise ability to cool fuel • That fuel performance is known and predictable • A limited set of physical properties that are important for the analysis of fuel burnup limits • Whether swelling is stable and predictable.

  13. RERTR progress in MO-99 production from LEU.

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Conner, C.; Aase, S.; Bakel, A.; Bowers, D.; Freiberg, E.; Gelis, A.; Quigley, K. J.; Snelgrove, J. L.

    2002-02-13

    The ANL RERTR program is performing R and D supporting conversion of {sup 99}Mo production from HEU to LEU targets. Irradiation and processing of LEU targets were demonstrated at the Argentine Ezeiza Atomic Center. Target irradiation and disassembly were flawless, but the processing is not fully developed. In addition to preparing for, assisting in, and analyzing results of the demonstration, they performed other R and D related to LEU conversion: (1) designing a prototype production dissolver for digesting irradiated LEU foils in alkaline solutions and developing means to simplify digestion, (2) modifying ion-exchange columns used in the CNEA recovery and purification of {sup 99}Mo to deal with the lower volumes generated from LEU-foil digestion, (3) measuring the performance of new inorganic sorbents that outperform alumina for recovering Mo(VI) from nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of uranium nitrate, and (4) developing means to facilitate the concentration and calcination of waste nitric-acid/LEU-nitrate solutions from {sup 99}Mo production.

  14. Microbial characterization of anode-respiring bacteria within biofilms developed from cultures previously enriched in dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pierra, Mélanie; Carmona-Martínez, Alessandro A; Trably, Eric; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bernet, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    This work evaluated the use of a culture enriched in DMRB as a strategy to enrich ARB on anodes. DMRB were enriched with Fe(III) as final electron acceptor and then transferred to a potentiostatically-controlled system with an anode as sole final electron acceptor. Three successive iron-enrichment cultures were carried out. The first step of enrichment revealed a successful selection of the high current-producing ARB Geoalkalibacter subterraneus. After few successive enrichment steps, the microbial community analysis in electroactive biofilms showed a significant divergence with an impact on the biofilm electroactivity. Enrichment of ARB in electroactive biofilms through the pre-selection of DMRB should therefore be carefully considered. PMID:26182995

  15. Metabolic enrichment of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce the onset of idiopathic knee osteoarthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Angela; Hutchison, Erin; Hudson, Joanna; Kawashima, Yusuke; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Brush, Richard S.; Anderson, Robert E.; Sonntag, William E.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Griffin, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of a reduction in the systemic ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on changes in inflammation, glucose metabolism, and the idiopathic development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in mice. We hypothesized that a lower ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs would protect against OA markers in cartilage and synovium, but not bone. Design Male and female fat-1 transgenic mice (Fat-1), which convert dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs endogenously, and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed an n-6 PUFA enriched diet for 9-14 months. The effect of gender and genotype on serum PUFAs, IL-6, TNF-α, and glucose tolerance was tested by 2-factor analysis of variance. Cortical and trabecular subchondral bone changes were documented by micro-focal computed tomography, and knee OA was assessed by semi-quantitative histomorphometry grading. Results The n-6:n-3 ratio was reduced 12-fold and 7-fold in male and female Fat-1 mice, respectively, compared to WT littermates. IL-6 and TNF-α levels were reduced modestly in Fat-1 mice. However, these systemic changes did not reduce osteophyte development, synovial hyperplasia, or cartilage degeneration. Also the fat-1 transgene did not alter subchondral cortical or trabecular bone morphology or bone mineral density. Conclusions Reducing the systemic n-6:n-3 ratio does not slow idiopathic changes in cartilage, synovium, or bone associated with early-stage knee OA in mice. The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of n-3 PUFAs previously reported for cartilage may be more evident at later stages of disease or in post-traumatic and other inflammatory models of OA. PMID:25008209

  16. Characterization of prominent nitrate-reducing and amino acid-utilizing bacteria from nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  17. Stearidonic acid-enriched flax oil reduces the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Subedi, K; Yu, H-M; Newell, M; Weselake, R J; Meesapyodsuk, D; Qiu, X; Shah, S; Field, C J

    2015-01-01

    The 20 and 22 carbon n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit the growth of tumors in vitro and in animal models, but less is known about the 18 carbon n-3, stearidonic acid (SDA). This study aimed to establish and determine a mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of SDA-enriched oil (SO). SO (26 % of lipid) was produced by genetically engineering flax and used to treat human tumorigenic (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-12A) breast cells. Nu/nu mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor were fed SO (SDA, 4 % of fat). Cell/tumor growth, phospholipid (PL) composition, apoptosis, CD95, and pro-apoptotic molecules were determined in SO-treated cells/tumors. Compared to a control lipid mixture, SO reduced (p < 0.05) the number of tumorigenic, but not MCF-12A cells, and resulted in higher concentration of most of the n-3 fatty acids in PL of all cells (p < 0.05). However, docosapentaenoic acid increased only in tumorigenic cells (p < 0.05). SO diet decreased tumor growth and resulted in more n-3 LCPUFA, including DPA and less arachidonic acid (AA) levels in major tumor PL (p < 0.05). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells/tumors with SO resulted in more apoptotic cells (in tumors) and in vivo and in vitro, more CD95+ positive cells and a higher expression of apoptotic molecules caspase-10, Bad, or Bid (p < 0.05). Supplementing SO alters total PL and PL classes by increasing membrane content of n-3 LCPUFA and lowering AA (in vivo), which is associated with increased CD95-mediated apoptosis, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism for reduce tumor survival. PMID:25417173

  18. A More Reduced Mantle Source for Enriched Shergottites; Insights from the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Lar 06319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hnatyshin, D.; Herd, C. D. K.; Walton, E. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed petrographic study of melt inclusions and Cr-Fe-Ti oxides of LAR 06319 leads to two main conclusions: 1) this enriched oxidized olivine- phyric shergottite represents nearly continuous crystallization of a basaltic shergottite melt, 2) the melt became more oxidized during differentiation. The first crystallized mineral assemblages record the oxygen fugacity which is closest to that of the melt s mantle source, and which is lower than generally attributed to the enriched shergottite group.

  19. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-, M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, or p-cresol. C/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds by the initial oxidation of the ...

  20. THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-,M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, m-, orp-cresol. GC/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds ...

  1. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co

  2. Characterization of an Irradiated RERTR-7 Fuel Plate Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; B. D. Miller; A. B. Robinson; P. Medvedev

    2010-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to characterize an irradiated fuel plate with Al-2Si matrix from the RERTR-7 experiment that was irradiated under moderate reactor conditions. The results of this work showed the presence of a bubble superlattice within the U-7Mo grains that accommodated fission gases (e.g., Xe). The presence of this structure helps the U-7Mo exhibit a stable swelling behaviour during irradiation. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed that the Si-rich interaction layers that develop around the fuel particles at the U-7Mo/matrix interface during fuel plate fabrication and irradiation become amorphous during irradiation, and in regions of the interaction layer that have relatively high Si concentrations the fission gas bubbles remain small and contained within the layer but in areas with lower Si concentrations the bubbles grow in size. An important question that remains to be answered about the irradiation behaviour of U-Mo dispersion fuels, is how do more aggressive irradiation conditions affect the behaviour of fission gases within the U-7Mo fuel particles and in the amorphous interaction layers on the microstructural scale that can be characterized using TEM? This paper discusses the results of TEM analysis that was performed on a sample taken from an irradiated RERTR-7 fuel plate with Al-2Si matrix. This plate was exposed to more aggressive irradiation conditions than was the sample taken from the RERTR-6 plate. The microstructural features present within the U-7Mo and the amorphous interaction layers will be discussed. The results of this analysis will be compared to what was observed in the earlier RERTR-6 fuel plate characterization.

  3. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  4. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  5. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Low Temperature under Aerobic and Nitrate-Reducing Conditions in Enrichment Cultures from Northern Soils

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Mikael; Sodersten, Erik; Yu, Zhongtang; Dalhammar, Gunnel; Mohn, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at low temperature and under anaerobic conditions is not well understood, but such biodegradation would be very useful for remediation of polluted sites. Biodegradation of a mixture of 11 different PAHs with two to five aromatic rings, each at a concentration of 10 μg/ml, was studied in enrichment cultures inoculated with samples of four northern soils. Under aerobic conditions, low temperature severely limited PAH biodegradation. After 90 days, aerobic cultures at 20°C removed 52 to 88% of the PAHs. The most extensive PAH degradation under aerobic conditions at 7°C, 53% removal, occurred in a culture from creosote-contaminated soil. Low temperature did not substantially limit PAH biodegradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene were degraded. The most extensive PAH degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions at 7°C, 39% removal, occurred in a culture from fuel-contaminated Arctic soil. In separate transfer cultures from the above Arctic soil, incubated anaerobically at 7°C, removal of 2-methylnaphthalene and fluorene was stoichiometrically coupled to nitrate removal. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis suggested that enrichment resulted in a few predominant bacterial populations, including members of the genera Acidovorax, Bordetella, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, and Variovorax. Predominant populations from different soils often included phylotypes with nearly identical partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (i.e., same genus) but never included phylotypes with identical ribosomal intergenic spacers (i.e., different species or subspecies). The composition of the enriched communities appeared to be more affected by presence of oxygen, than by temperature or source of the inoculum. PMID:12514005

  6. Vitamin E-enriched diet reduces adaptive responses to training determining respiratory capacity and redox homeostasis in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pervito, Emanuela; Di Meo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in heart adaptive responses administering a vitamin E-enriched diet to trained rats. Using the homogenates and/or mitochondria from rat hearts we determined the aerobic capacity, tissue level of mitochondrial proteins, and expression of cytochrome c and factors (PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2) involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. We also determined the oxidative damage, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and reductase activities, glutathione content, mitochondrial ROS release rate, and susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Glutathione (GSH) content was not affected by both training and antioxidant supplementation. Conversely, antioxidant supplementation prevented metabolic adaptations to training, such as the increases in oxidative capacity, tissue content of mitochondrial proteins, and cytochrome c expression, attenuated some protective adaptations, such as the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, and did not modify the decrease in ROS release by succinate supplemented mitochondria. Moreover, vitamin E prevented the training-linked increase in tissue capacity to oppose an oxidative attach. The antioxidant effects were associated with decreased levels of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression. Our results support the idea that some heart adaptive responses to training depend on ROS produced during the exercise sessions and are mediated by the increase in PGC-1 expression which is involved in both the regulation of respiratory capacity and antioxidant protection. However, vitamin inability to prevent some adaptations suggests that other signaling pathways impinging on PGC-1 can modify the response to the antioxidant integration. PMID:26467971

  7. The effect of intraoral suction on oxygen-enriched surgical environments: a mechanism for reducing the risk of surgical fires.

    PubMed

    VanCleave, Andrea M; Jones, James E; McGlothlin, James D; Saxen, Mark A; Sanders, Brian J; Vinson, LaQuia A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was applied in order to replicate potential surgical fire conditions in an oxygen-enriched environment with and without high-volume suction typical for dental surgical applications. During 41 trials, 3 combustion events were measured: an audible pop, a visible flash of light, and full ignition. In at least 11 of 21 trials without suction, all 3 conditions were observed, sometimes with an extent of fire that required early termination of the experimental trial. By contrast, in 18 of 20 with-suction trials, ignition did not occur at all, and in the 2 cases where ignition did occur, the fire was qualitatively a much smaller, candle-like flame. Statistically comparing these 3 combustion events in the no-suction versus with-suction trials, ignition (P = .0005), audible pop (P = .0211), and flash (P = .0092) were all significantly more likely in the no-suction condition. These results suggest a possible significant and new element to be added to existing surgical fire safety protocols toward making surgical fires the "never-events" they should be. PMID:25517551

  8. Comparison of traditional nondestructive analysis of RERTR fuel plates with digital radiographic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsmeier, T.; Koehl, R.; Lanham, R.; O'Hare, E.; Wiencek, T

    2008-07-15

    The current design and fabrication process for RERTR fuel plates utilizes film radiography during the nondestructive testing and characterization. Digital radiographic methods offer a potential increases in efficiency and accuracy. The traditional and digital radiographic methods are described and demonstrated on a fuel plate constructed with and average of 51% by volume fuel using the dispersion method. Fuel loading data from each method is analyzed and compared to a third baseline method to assess accuracy. The new digital method is shown to be more accurate, save hours of work, and provide additional information not easily available in the traditional method. Additional possible improvements suggested by the new digital method are also raised. (author)

  9. Anaerobic Oxidation of n-Dodecane by an Addition Reaction in a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Kevin G.; Davidova, Irene A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    We identified trace metabolites produced during the anaerobic biodegradation of H26- and D26-n-dodecane by an enrichment culture that mineralizes these compounds in a sulfate-dependent fashion. The metabolites are dodecylsuccinic acids that, in the case of the perdeuterated substrate, retain all of the deuterium atoms. The deuterium retention and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns of the derivatized metabolites suggest that they are formed by C—H or C—D addition across the double bond of fumarate. As trimethylsilyl esters, two nearly coeluting metabolites of equal abundance with nearly identical mass spectra were detected from each of H26- and D26-dodecane, but as methyl esters, only a single metabolite peak was detected for each parent substrate. An authentic standard of protonated n-dodecylsuccinic acid that was synthesized and derivatized by the two methods had the same fragmentation patterns as the metabolites of H26-dodecane. However, the standard gave only a single peak for each ester type and gas chromatographic retention times different from those of the derivatized metabolites. This suggests that the succinyl moiety in the dodecylsuccinic acid metabolites is attached not at the terminal methyl group of the alkane but at a subterminal position. The detection of two equally abundant trimethylsilyl-esterified metabolites in culture extracts suggests that the analysis is resolving diastereomers which have the succinyl moiety located at the same subterminal carbon in two different absolute configurations. Alternatively, there may be more than one methylene group in the alkane that undergoes the proposed fumarate addition reaction, giving at least two structural isomers in equal amounts. PMID:11097919

  10. Selenium-Containing Phycocyanin from Se-Enriched Spirulina platensis Reduces Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghui; Ling, Qinjie; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yibo; Hoffmann, Peter R; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in fine-tuning immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves hyperresponsive immunity of the digestive tract, and a low Se level might aggravate IBD progression; however, the beneficial effects of natural Se-enriched diets on IBD remain unknown. Previously, we developed high-yield Se-enriched Spirulina platensis (Se-SP) as an excellent organic nutritional Se source. Here we prepared Se-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) from Se-SP and observed that Se-PC administration effectively reduced the extent of colitis in mouse induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Supplementation with Se-PC resulted in significant protective effects, including mitigation of body weight loss, bloody diarrhea, and colonic inflammatory damage. The anti-inflammatory effects of Se-PC supplementation were found to involve modulation of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10. Mechanistically, Se-PC inhibited the activation of macrophages by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which is involved in the transcription of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results together suggest potential benefits of Se-PC as a functional Se supplement to reduce the symptoms of IBD. PMID:27223481

  11. Extra-virgin olive oil-enriched diets reduce indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Barranco, M D; Martín, M J; Herrerías, J; Motilva, V

    2002-12-01

    Olive oil, the main fat component of the Mediterranean diet, has been found to be protective against oxidative stress and could be beneficial in inflammatory and gastrointestinal disorders. First-pressed, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) has appreciable amounts of powerful antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds that prevent its autoxidation and are responsible for its high stability. The aim of the present study was to determine whether diets supplemented with EVOO could reduce the severity of indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative damage and also to study changes in the activities of certain oxidative stress-related enzymes such as xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase as a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation and possible modifications in gluthatione metabolism were also studied. Weanling rats were maintained on semisynthetic diet for 6 weeks; a standard diet containing 5% (w/w) of fat as control or EVOO supplemented diets (5% and 20% w/w). Gastric lesions were induced on the last day by oral administration of indomethacin (60 mg/kg body wt). In animals fed EVOO diets, gastric lesions were decreased significantly and in parallel with dietary fat, when compared to animals consuming a standard diet. These protective effects were related to a reduction of lipid peroxides generation, neutrophil infiltration, and xanthine oxidase activity. Superoxide dismutase, an important enzyme to scavenger of lipid peroxides, was unaffected by feeding conditions. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with EVOO significantly increased both glutathione peroxidase activity and total glutathione content. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that fat diets containing EVOO reduces indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats. This effect may be partly due not only to reducing oxidative stress and neutrophil-induced toxicity but also to enhancing the glutathione antioxidant defense system. PMID:12498302

  12. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  13. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

    PubMed

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Reville, Patrick K; Mace, Thomas A; Young, Gregory S; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may affect prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 patients with prostate cancer with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to two slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced TH1 (P = 0.028) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-associated cytokines (P = 0.035). TH2 and TH17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells but showed increased CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) was significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (P = 0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33(+)HLADR(neg)CD14(+)) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (P = 0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required. PMID:26276751

  14. Homocysteine enriched diet leads to prolonged QT interval and reduced left ventricular performance in telemetric monitored mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, D; Gargoum, R; Tyagi, N; Metreveli, N; Sen, U; Maldonado, C; Tyagi, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing, non-protein amino acid produced in the metabolic pathway of methionine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with cerebro- and cardiovascular disease in industrialized countries mostly resulting from protein rich diet and sedentary life style. Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in cardiac remodeling, leading to degradation of intercellular junctions, cardiac connexins and basement membranes. The study was designed to investigate the relationship between Hcy, cardiac remodeling, cardiac performance, and rhythm disturbances in an animal model of hyperhomocysteinemia. We tested the hypothesis that induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 leads to connexin 40, connexin 43, connexin 45 expression changes contributing to decreased cardiac performance and disturbed atrioventricular conduction. Methods and Results Hcy was added to drinking water of male C57/BL6J mice to achieve moderate Hcy blood levels. ECG was monitored in conscious mice with a telemetric ECG device; echocardiography was used for assessment of left ventricular function. Immunoblotting was used to evaluate matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, connexin 40, connexin 43, and connexin 45 expression in cardiac tissue. Animals fed Hcy showed significant prolongation of QRS, QTc, and PR intervals along with reduced left ventricular function. Western blotting showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and decreased expression of connexin 40, 43, and 45. Conclusion Hcy has been identified as a nutritional factor contributing to cardiovascular disease. Cardiac remodelling induced by matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and decreased expression of connexin 40, 43, and 45 appears to play a role in the pathomechansim of atrioventricular conduction delay and ventricular dilatation in hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:20227264

  15. Deferiprone reduces amyloid-β and tau phosphorylation levels but not reactive oxygen species generation in hippocampus of rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Prasanthi, Jaya R P; Schrag, Matthew; Dasari, Bhanu; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Dickson, April; Kirsch, Wolff M; Ghribi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein are major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The causes of AD are not well known but a number of environmental and dietary factors are suggested to increase the risk of developing AD. Additionally, altered metabolism of iron may have a role in the pathogenesis of AD. We have previously demonstrated that cholesterol-enriched diet causes AD-like pathology with iron deposition in rabbit brain. However, the extent to which chelation of iron protects against this pathology has not been determined. In this study, we administered the iron chelator deferiprone in drinking water to rabbits fed with a 2% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. We found that deferiprone (both at 10 and 50 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 as well as BACE1, the enzyme that initiates cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor to yield Aβ. Deferiprone also reduced the cholesterol diet-induced increase in phosphorylation of tau but failed to reduce reactive oxygen species generation. While deferiprone treatment was not associated with any change in brain iron levels, it was associated with a significant reduction in plasma iron and cholesterol levels. These results demonstrate that deferiprone confers important protection against hypercholesterolemia-induced AD pathology but the mechanism(s) may involve reduction in plasma iron and cholesterol levels rather than chelation of brain iron. We propose that adding an antioxidant therapy to deferiprone may be necessary to fully protect against cholesterol-enriched diet-induced AD-like pathology. PMID:22406440

  16. Identification of bacteria in enrichment cultures of sulfate reducers in the Cariaco Basin water column employing Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Cariaco Basin is characterized by pronounced and predictable vertical layering of microbial communities dominated by reduced sulfur species at and below the redox transition zone. Marine water samples were collected in May, 2005 and 2006, at the sampling stations A (10°30′ N, 64°40′ W), B (10°40′ N, 64°45′ W) and D (10°43’N, 64°32’W) from different depths, including surface, redox interface, and anoxic zones. In order to enrich for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), water samples were inoculated into anaerobic media amended with lactate or acetate as carbon source. To analyze the composition of enrichment cultures, we performed DNA extraction, PCR-DGGE, and sequencing of selected bands. Results DGGE results indicate that many bacterial genera were present that are associated with the sulfur cycle, including Desulfovibrio spp., as well as heterotrophs belonging to Vibrio, Enterobacter, Shewanella, Fusobacterium, Marinifilum, Mariniliabilia, and Spirochaeta. These bacterial populations are related to sulfur coupling and carbon cycles in an environment of variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. Conclusions In our studies, we found an association of SRB-like Desulfovibrio with Vibrio species and other genera that have a previously defined relevant role in sulfur transformation and coupling of carbon and sulfur cycles in an environment where there are variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. This study provides new information about microbial species that were culturable on media for SRB at anaerobic conditions at several locations and water depths in the Cariaco Basin. PMID:23981583

  17. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Souday, Vincent; Koning, Nick J.; Perez, Bruno; Grelon, Fabien; Mercat, Alain; Boer, Christa; Seegers, Valérie; Radermacher, Peter; Asfar, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN) breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression. Methods Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2) in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes). Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler. Results Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0–3.5] vs. 8 [4.5–10]; P < 0.001). Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217). Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively. Conclusion EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing. Trial Registration ISRCTN 31681480 PMID:27163253

  18. Enrichment of Functional Redox Reactive Proteins and Identification by Mass Spectrometry Results in Several Terminal Fe(III)-reducing Candidate Proteins in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Yang, Feng; Mottaz, Heather M.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2007-02-01

    Identification of the proteins directly involved in microbial metal-reduction is important to understanding the biochemistry involved in heavy metal reduction/immobilization and the ultimate cleanup of DOE contaminated sites. Although previous strategies for the identification of these proteins have traditionally required laborious protein purification/characterization of metal-reducing capability, activity is often lost before the final purification step, thus creating a significant knowledge gap. In the current study, subcellular fractions of S. oneidensis MR-1 were enriched for Fe(III)-NTA reducing proteins in a single step using several orthogonal column matrices. The protein content of eluted fractions that demonstrated activity were determined by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS). A comparison of the proteins identified from active fractions in all separations produced 30 proteins that may act as the terminal electron-accepting protein for Fe(III)-reduction. These include MtrA, MtrB, MtrC and OmcA as well as a number of other proteins not previously associated with Fe(III)-reduction. This is the first report of such an approach where the laborious procedures for protein purification are not required for identification of metal-reducing proteins. Such work provides the basis for a similar approach with other cultured organisms as well as analysis of sediment and groundwater samples from biostimulation efforts at contaminated sites.

  19. Tumorigenesis of nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells is reduced through differentiation and enrichment following transplantation in the infarcted rat heart.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Su, Dechun; Wang, Ke; Zhao, Yingjun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of nuclear transfer-derived (nt) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) transplanted into infarcted rat hearts. The nt‑mESCs were cultured using a bioreactor system to develop embryoid bodies, which were induced with 1% ascorbic acid to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. The nt‑mESC‑derived cardiomyocytes (nt‑mESCs‑CMs) were enriched using Percoll density gradient separation to generate nt‑mESCs‑percoll‑enriched (PE)‑CMs. Ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in female Sprague‑Dawley rats. Immunosuppressed rats (daily intraperitoneal injections of cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone) were randomly assigned to receive an injection containing 5x106 mESCs, nt‑mESCs, nt‑mESC‑CMs or nt‑mESC‑PE‑CMs. Analysis performed 8 weeks following transplantation revealed teratoma formation in 80, 86.67 and 33.33% of the rats administered with the mESCs, nt‑mESCs and nt‑mESC‑CMs, respectively, indicating no significant difference between the mESCs and nt‑mESCs; but significance (P<0.05) between the nt‑mESC‑CMs and nt‑mESCs. The mean tumor volumes were 82.72±6.52, 83.17±3.58 and 50.40±5.98 mm3, respectively (P>0.05 mESCs, vs. nt‑mESCs; P<0.05 nt‑mESC‑CMs, vs. nt‑mESCs). By contrast, no teratoma formation was detected in the rats, which received nt‑mESC‑PE‑CMs. Octamer‑binding transcription factor‑4, a specific marker of undifferentiated mESCs, was detected using polymerase chain reaction in the rats, which received nt‑mESCs and nt‑mESC‑CMs, but not in rats administered with nt‑mESC‑PE‑CMs. In conclusion, nt‑mESCs exhibited the same pluripotency as mESCs, and teratoma formation following nt‑mESC transplantation was reduced by cell differentiation and enrichment. PMID:27082733

  20. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  1. TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF FUEL PLATES FOR RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Wight; G.A. Moore; S.C. Taylor

    2008-10-01

    This paper discusses how candidate fuel plates for RERTR Fuel Development experiments are examined and tested for acceptance prior to reactor insertion. These tests include destructive and nondestructive examinations (DE and NDE). The DE includes blister annealing for dispersion fuel plates, bend testing of adjacent cladding, and microscopic examination of archive fuel plates. The NDE includes Ultrasonic (UT) scanning and radiography. UT tests include an ultrasonic scan for areas of “debonds” and a high frequency ultrasonic scan to determine the "minimum cladding" over the fuel. Radiography inspections include identifying fuel outside of the maximum fuel zone and measurements and calculations for fuel density. Details of each test are provided and acceptance criteria are defined. These tests help to provide a high level of confidence the fuel plate will perform in the reactor without a breach in the cladding.

  2. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments.

    PubMed

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Case, David H; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co

  3. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Case, David H.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-04-18

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range ofDeltaproteobacteriadiversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seepmore » sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. In addition, many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed

  4. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    PubMed Central

    Case, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co

  5. Analysis of the Reactor Physics of Low-Enrichment Fuel for the INL Advanced Test Reactor in support of RERTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mark DeHart; William Skerjanc; Sean Morrell

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of the performance of the ATR with a LEU fuel design shows promise in terms of a core design that will yield the same neutron sources in target locations. A proposed integral cladding burnable absorber design appears to meet power profile requirements that will satisfy power distributions for safety limits. Performance of this fuel design is ongoing; the current work is the initial evaluation of the core performance of this fuel design with increasing burnup. Results show that LEU fuel may have a longer lifetime that HEU fuel however, such limits may be set by mechanical performance of the fuel rather that available reactivity. Changes seen in the radial fuel power distribution with burnup in LEU fuel will require further study to ascertain the impact on neutron fluxes in target locations. Source terms for discharged fuel have also been studied. By its very nature, LEU fuel produces much more plutonium than is present in HEU fuel at discharge. However, the effect of the plutonium inventory appears to have little affect on radiotoxicity or decay heat in the fuel.

  6. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  7. Improving efficiency and reducing costs: Design of an adaptive, seamless, and enriched pragmatic efficacy trial of an online asthma management program☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mei; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward; Roblin, Douglas; Johnson, Dayna; Johnson, Christine Cole; Joseph, Christine L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are critical for medical decision-making, however, under the current paradigm, clinical trials are fraught with problems including low enrollment and high cost. Promising alternatives to increase trial efficiency and reduce costs include the use of (1) electronic initiatives that permit electronic remote data capture (EDC) for direct data collection at a site (2), electronic medical records (EMR) for patient identification and data collection, and (3) adaptive, enrichment designs with pragmatic approaches. We describe the design of a seamless, multi-site randomized Phase II/III trial to evaluate an asthma management intervention in urban adolescents with asthma. Patients are randomized, asked to access four online sessions of the intervention or control asthma management program, and are then followed for one year. The primary efficacy endpoint is self-reported asthma control as measured by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Comparative effectiveness parametric approaches are utilized to conduct the trial in a real world setting with reduced costs. Escalated electronic initiatives are implemented for patient identification, assent, enrollment and tracking. Patient enrollment takes place during primary care visits. A centralized database with EDC is used for CRF data collection with integration of EMR data. This Phase II/III trial plans to have a total sample size of 500 patients with an interim look at the completion of Phase II (n = 250), The interim analyses include an assessment of the intervention effect, marker(s) identification and the feasibility study of EMR data as the trial CRF data collection. Patient enrollment has begun and is ongoing. PMID:24607295

  8. Long-term treatment with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment reduces age-dependent impairment in discrimination and reversal learning in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W; Head, Elizabeth; Zicker, Steven C; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace; Murphey, Heather; Muggenberg, Bruce A; Siwak, Christina T; Tapp, P Dwight; Lowry, Stephen R; Cotman, Carl W

    2004-05-01

    The effects of long-term treatment with both antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment were studied as part of a longitudinal investigation of cognitive aging in beagle dogs. Baseline performance on a battery of cognitive tests was used to assign 48 aged dogs (9-12 years) into four cognitively equivalent groups, of 12 animals per group: Group CC (control food-control environment), group CE (control food-enriched environment); Group AC (antioxidant fortified food-control environment); Group AE (fortified food-enriched environment). We also tested a group of young dogs fed the control food and a second group fed the fortified food. Both groups of young dogs received a program of behavioral enrichment. To evaluate the effects of the interventions on cognition after 1 year, the dogs were tested on a size discrimination learning task and subsequently on a size discrimination reversal learning task. Both tasks showed age-sensitivity, with old dogs performing more poorly than young dogs. Both tasks were also improved by both the fortified food and the behavioral enrichment. However, in both instances the treatment effects largely reflected improved performance in the combined treatment group. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antioxidants in attenuating age-dependent cognitive decline is dependent on behavioral and environmental experience. PMID:15130670

  9. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  10. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Victor G.; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J.

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J; Roberts, Deborah J; Fox, George E

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  13. Designing job enrichment projects.

    PubMed

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects. PMID:23944880

  14. Recent improvements to steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis of research reactors in the RERTR Program at ANL.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A. P.; Kalimullah; Feldman, E. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-01

    Recent reactor conversion studies in the RERTR Program have required expansion or revision of modeling capabilities for steady state thermalhydraulic analysis. For example, some reactors operate in laminar flow, necessitating new correlations for Nusselt number and for friction loss. Others have single-sided heating of edge channels. And some have geometrical details that require new modeling approaches to either simulate or validate. Computational fluid dynamics was compared with the 2-dimensional approximation to heat flow used by the PLTEMP/ANL V3.0 code. A very systematic approach to hot channel factors is implemented. A closed-form solution is now used in flat-plate geometry to improve both speed and accuracy of the solution. Direct heating to clad and coolant is now included. The Groenveld table lookup method is now available for determination of CHF. Flow excursion prediction is updated. All of these improvements have been incorporated in the PLTEMP/ANL V3.0 code.

  15. A high-fat meal enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid reduces postprandial arterial stiffness measured by digital volume pulse analysis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Katie A; Sanders, Thomas A B; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] are associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but postprandial effects on vascular function are unknown. We investigated whether an EPA-enriched high-fat meal could improve postprandial vascular function. Seventeen healthy men ingested 2 test meals (51 g fat), 1 wk apart, in random order: 5 g EPA plus high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS) vs. HOS only. A second high-fat meal (44 g fat), the same on both study days, was provided 4 h later. Blood pressure and arterial function were measured using digital volume pulse (DVP) to derive a stiffness index (DVP-SI) and reflection index in fasting subjects at 3 and 6 h following the test meal. Blood samples were taken following the test meal for plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOx), glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid analysis. The plasma EPA concentration (mean +/- SD) reached a peak of 2.10 +/- 0.99 mmol/L following the EPA meal (5 h) and did not rise above 0.27 +/- 0.16 mmol/L 1 h following the placebo meal. DeltaDVP-SI did not differ between the 2 test meals at 3 h but was greater at 6 h following EPA (6 h -0.65 +/- 0.65 m/s) compared with placebo (6 h -0.33 +/- 1.26 m/s). Plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha concentrations increased by 48% at 6 h compared with baseline following the EPA meal and plasma NOx decreased following both meals, with no differences between the meals in the changes. Changes in other variables measured also did not differ after subjects consumed the 2 meals. In conclusion, adding EPA to a high-fat meal results in acute changes in vascular tone, independent of changes in oxidative stress. PMID:18203893

  16. A Blueberry-Enriched Diet Improves Renal Function and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome Animals: Potential Mechanism of TLR4-MAPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anand R.; Elks, Carrie M.; Vila, Jorge; Del Piero, Fabio; Paulsen, Daniel B.; Francis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of health factors that indicate a higher risk for cardio-renal diseases. Recent evidence indicates that antioxidants from berries are alternative to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that inflammation-induced renal damage is triggered by the activation of TLR4, and subsequent modulation of redox-sensitive molecules and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Methods Five-week old lean and obese Zucker rats (LZR and OZR) were fed a blueberry-enriched diet or an isocaloric control diet for 15 weeks. A glucose tolerance test and acute renal clearance experiments were performed. Gene and protein expression levels for TLR4, cytokines and phosphorylation of ERK and p38MAPK were measured. Kidney redox status and urinary albumin levels were quantified. Renal pathology was evaluated histologically. Results Control OZR exhibited lower glucose tolerance; exacerbated renal function parameters; increased oxidative stress. Gene and protein expression levels of TLR4 were higher and this was accompanied by increased renal pathology with extensive albuminuria and deterioration in antioxidant levels in OZR. In addition, OZR had increased phosphorylation of ERK and p38MAPK. Blueberry-fed OZR exhibited significant improvements in all these parameters compared to OZR. Conclusion TLR4-MAPK signaling pathway is a key to the renal structural injury and dysfunction in MetS and blueberry (BB) protect against this damage by inhibiting TLR4. Significance This is the first study to put forth a potential mechanism of TLR4-induced kidney damage in a model of MetS and to elucidate a downstream mechanism by which blueberry exert their reno-protective effects. PMID:25372283

  17. Long-term growth of soybean and maize at elevated [CO2] under free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) reduces soil moisture depletion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is lower when plants are grown at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient [CO2]. This is often assumed to reduce plant water use and ameliorate water stress by conserving soil moisture. However, under field conditions canopy size, canopy structure, microclimate and fluxes of wat...

  18. Early Low-Fat Diet Enriched With Linolenic Acid Reduces Liver Endocannabinoid Tone and Improves Late Glycemic Control After a High-Fat Diet Challenge in Mice.

    PubMed

    Demizieux, Laurent; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Troy-Fioramonti, Stephanie; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Borrino, Simona; Gresti, Joseph; Muller, Tania; Bellenger, Jerome; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Degrace, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that alterations of glucose and lipid homeostasis induced by obesity are associated with the elevation of endocannabinoid tone. The biosynthesis of the two main endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, which derive from arachidonic acid, is influenced by dietary fatty acids (FAs). We investigated whether exposure to n-3 FA at a young age may decrease tissue endocannabinoid levels and prevent metabolic disorders induced by a later high-fat diet (HFD) challenge. Three-week-old mice received a 5% lipid diet containing lard, lard plus safflower oil, or lard plus linseed oil for 10 weeks. Then, mice were challenged with a 30% lard diet for 10 additional weeks. A low n-6/n-3 FA ratio in the early diet induces a marked decrease in liver endocannabinoid levels. A similar reduction was observed in transgenic Fat-1 mice, which exhibit high tissue levels of n-3 FA compared with wild-type mice. Hepatic expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was concomitantly changed. Interestingly, some gene modifications persisted after HFD challenge and were associated with improved glycemic control. These findings indicate that early dietary interventions based on n-3 FA may represent an alternative strategy to drugs for reducing endocannabinoid tone and improving metabolic parameters in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27207550

  19. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. PMID:25902270

  20. Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline. PMID:16949888

  1. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  2. Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan preschool children.

    PubMed

    Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Moretti, Diego; Van den Briel, Natalie; Omusundi, Agnes M; Mwangi, Alice M; Kok, Frans J; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of fortification with iron-rich foods such as amaranth grain and multi-micronutrient powder (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool children. In a 16-wk intervention trial, children (n = 279; 12-59 mo) were randomly assigned to: unrefined maize porridge (control; 4.1 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 5:1); unrefined maize (30%) and amaranth grain (70%) porridge (amaranth group; 23 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 3:1); or unrefined maize porridge with MNP (MNP group; 6.6 mg iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 2.6:1; 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA). Primary outcomes were anemia and iron status with treatment effects estimated relative to control. At baseline, 38% were anemic and 30% iron deficient. Consumption of MNP reduced the prevalence of anemia [-46% (95% CI: -67, -12)], iron deficiency [-70% (95% CI: -89, -16)], and IDA [-75% (95% CI: -92, -20)]. The soluble transferrin receptor [-10% (95% CI: -16, -4)] concentration was lower, whereas the hemoglobin (Hb) [2.7 g/L (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1)] and plasma ferritin [40% (95% CI: 10, 95)] concentrations increased in the MNP group. There was no significant change in Hb or iron status in the amaranth group. Consumption of maize porridge fortified with low-dose, highly bioavailable iron MNP can reduce the prevalence of IDA in preschool children. In contrast, fortification with amaranth grain did not improve iron status despite a large increase in iron intake, likely due to high ratio of phytic acid:iron in the meal. PMID:22810982

  3. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David; Chandler, David; Cook, David; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant; Valentine, Jennifer

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Chandler, David; Cook, David Howard; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant K; Valentine, Jennifer R

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  6. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Anxiety by Differentially Activating Serotonergic and Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Ergic System in Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga): An Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The protective role of an enriched condition (EC) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. However, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of PTSD. In this study, we show that field mice (Mus booduga) housed under EC exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with mice housed under standard conditions (SC) during exposure to their natural predator (field rat Rattus rattus). Furthermore, we observed that EC mice displayed less anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark-box after exposure to the predator (7 hrs/7 days). In EC mice, predator exposure elevated the level of serotonin (5-Hydroxytrypamine, [5-HT]) in the amygdala as part of the coping response. Subsequently, the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptor were up-regulated significantly, but the same did not occur in the 5-HT2C receptor, which is associated with the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and a transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Our results show that predator exposure induced the activation of CaMKII/CREB, which is accompanied with increased levels of histone acetylation (H3, H4) and decreased histone deacetylases (HDAC1, 2). Subsequently, in the amygdala, the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor were up-regulated, whereas the Y2 receptor was down-regulated. Therefore, EC facilitated a coping response against a fear associated cue in a PTSD animal model and reduced anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and NPY-ergic systems. PMID:26016844

  7. Enrichment through Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Claire S.

    The CREST (Creative Resources Enriching Student Talents) Project, an enrichment approach for elementary gifted, talented, and creative students, is described. The project is explained to incorporate an interdisciplinary approach to instruction in art and science using resources within the community. Chapter 1 outlines the project philosophy,…

  8. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, R.

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  9. Uranium enrichment and nuclear-weapon proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Krass, Allan S.; Boskma, Peter; Elzen, Boeli; Smit, Wim A

    1983-01-01

    The authors review state-of-the-art enrichment technology, and evaluate the impact of this technology on the proliferation problem. They place the technological development into the context of the economic and institutional environment that has evolved around the enrichment industry, and suggest some measures which might be taken to reduce the proliferation dangers inherent in the industry. They specifically note the world excess of supply over demand which, coupled with the refusal of a number of countries with enrichment capability to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty, intensifies the weapons risk. 336 references, 52 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Environmental enrichment attenuates the age-related decline in the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes and reduces the methylation state of the steroid 5α-reductase type 1 gene in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, María F; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Moreno-Piovano, Guillermo S; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the effects of aging and environmental enrichment on the mRNA expression and DNA methylation state of steroidogenic enzymes in the hippocampus. The effects of aging were evaluated by comparing young adult (90-day-old) and middle-aged (450-day-old) female Wistar rats. To elucidate the effects of environmental enrichment, a subgroup of middle-aged rats exposed to sensory and social stimulation for 105 days was compared to rats housed under standard laboratory conditions. Aging decreased the transcription of neurosteroidogenic-related genes and increased the promoter methylation state of cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) and 5α-reductase-1. Exposure of middle-aged rats to environmental enrichment increased mRNA levels of 5α-reductase-1, 3α-HSD and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/c17,20-lyase and decreased the methylation state of the 5α-reductase-1 gene. Thus, sensory and social stimulation attenuate the age-related decline in the mRNA expression of hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Epigenetic mechanisms associated with differential promoter methylation could be involved. PMID:26021641

  11. The historical record of metal enrichment in two Florida estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R.; Smith, R.G. ); Calder, F.D.; Schropp, S.J. ); Windom H.L. )

    1993-12-01

    Historical profiles of metal accumulation have been generated for the lower St. Johns River and Hillsborough Bay, Florida, in cores representing approximately 50 yr of sediment and metal accumulation. These profiles demonstrate that Cd, Pb, and Zn are enriched in these Florida estuarine sediments. Pb enrichment has decreased since the mid 1970s because of reduced use of leaded gasoline. In the St. Johns River, most metals exhibit a trend of increasing enrichment with time. Cd enrichment significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975 as a result of reduced discharges into the river and control of aquatic vegetation. In Hillsborough Bay, enrichment factors for most metals are relatively high and show little change downcore. Cr, Cu, and Ni border on enrichment and Pb, Cd, and Zn are enriched. The results of this study are consistent with other studies of surficial-sediment metal concentration in other Florida estuaries. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Uranium reduction and resistance to reoxidation under iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Nayak, Dipti; Du, Xin; Criddle, Craig S

    2009-10-01

    Oxidation and mobilization of microbially-generated U(IV) is of great concern for in situ uranium bioremediation. This study investigated the reoxidation of uranium by oxygen and nitrate in a sulfate-reducing enrichment and an iron-reducing enrichment derived from sediment and groundwater from the Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Both enrichments were capable of reducing U(VI) rapidly. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of the two enrichments revealed that Desulfovibrio spp. are dominant in the sulfate-reducing enrichment, and Clostridium spp. are dominant in the iron-reducing enrichment. In both the sulfate-reducing enrichment and the iron-reducing enrichment, oxygen reoxidized the previously reduced uranium but to a lesser extent in the iron-reducing enrichment. Moreover, in the iron-reducing enrichment, the reoxidized U(VI) was eventually re-reduced to its previous level. In both, the sulfate-reducing enrichment and the iron-reducing enrichment, uranium reoxidation did not occur in the presence of nitrate. The results indicate that the Clostridium-dominated iron-reducing communities created conditions that were more favorable for uranium stability with respect to reoxidation despite the fact that fewer electron equivalents were added to these systems. The likely reason is that more of the added electrons are present in a form that can reduce oxygen to water and U(VI) back to U(IV). PMID:19651424

  13. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  14. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  15. Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a…

  16. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  17. Enrichments in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Paul W.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for enrichment materials in addition to laboratory and textbook work, particularly for interested and able students. Discusses the use of filmstrips, loop films, Innovations to Inquiry, BSCS pamphlets, newspapers, magazines and scientific periodicals, television, field trips, library resources, and programed units. (EB)

  18. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  19. Enriching Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  20. Anti-craving effects of environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Kenneth J.; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that environmental enrichment in rats may reduce cocaine-seeking behaviour elicited by cocaine-priming injections and by cocaine-associated cues. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine while housed in isolated conditions were then assigned to live in isolation or an enriched environment for 21 d of forced abstinence. Subsequently, extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour (operant responses without cocaine available) were assessed. Expt 1 showed that enrichment resulted in less cocaine-seeking behaviour during extinction and cue-elicited reinstatement compared to continued isolation housing, but had no effect on cocaine-primed reinstatement. A subsequent experiment, which included a pair-housed group to control for potential isolation stress, again demonstrated that enrichment attenuated cocaine seeking during extinction, but not cocaine-primed reinstatement, relative to both isolation and pair-housed conditions. The findings suggest that enrichment reduces the impact of cocaine-associated environmental stimuli, and hence it may be a useful intervention for attenuating cue-elicited craving in humans. PMID:19691875

  1. Anti-craving effects of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Neisewander, Janet L

    2009-10-01

    We hypothesized that environmental enrichment in rats may reduce cocaine-seeking behaviour elicited by cocaine-priming injections and by cocaine-associated cues. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine while housed in isolated conditions were then assigned to live in isolation or an enriched environment for 21 d of forced abstinence. Subsequently, extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour (operant responses without cocaine available) were assessed. Expt 1 showed that enrichment resulted in less cocaine-seeking behaviour during extinction and cue-elicited reinstatement compared to continued isolation housing, but had no effect on cocaine-primed reinstatement. A subsequent experiment, which included a pair-housed group to control for potential isolation stress, again demonstrated that enrichment attenuated cocaine seeking during extinction, but not cocaine-primed reinstatement, relative to both isolation and pair-housed conditions. The findings suggest that enrichment reduces the impact of cocaine-associated environmental stimuli, and hence it may be a useful intervention for attenuating cue-elicited craving in humans. PMID:19691875

  2. Enrichment Strategies in Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the phosphoproteome is heavily dependent on appropriate enrichment strategies that are most often, but not exclusively, carried out on the peptide level. In this chapter, I give an overview of the most widely used techniques. In addition to dedicated antibodies, phosphopeptides are enriched by their selective interaction with metals in the form of chelated metal ions or metal oxides. The negative charge of the phosphate group is also exploited in a variety of chromatographic fractionation methods that include different types of ion exchange chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and electrostatic repulsion HILIC (ERLIC) chromatography. Selected examples from the literature will demonstrate how a combination of these techniques with current high-performance mass spectrometry enables the identification of thousands of phosphorylation sites from various sample types. PMID:26584921

  3. Schoolwide Enrichment Model: Challenging All Children to Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes how the components of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model were used to dramatically reduce the achievement gap in a school with a high at-risk student population. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation replaced an existing remedial paradigm and a strength-based methodology was embraced by the school…

  4. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    Under the current long-term DOE policy and planning scenario, both the ATR and the ATRC will be reconfigured at an appropriate time within the next several years to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This will be accomplished under the auspices of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, administered by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). At a minimum, the internal design and composition of the fuel element plates and support structure will change, to accommodate the need for low enrichment in a manner that maintains total core excess reactivity at a suitable level for anticipated operational needs throughout each cycle while respecting all control and shutdown margin requirements and power distribution limits. The complete engineering design and optimization of LEU cores for the ATR and the ATRC will require significant multi-year efforts in the areas of fuel design, development and testing, as well as a complete re-analysis of the relevant reactor physics parameters for a core composed of LEU fuel, with possible control system modifications. Ultimately, revalidation of the computational physics parameters per applicable national and international standards against data from experimental measurements for prototypes of the new ATR and ATRC core designs will also be required for Safety Analysis Report (SAR) changes to support routine operations with LEU. This report is focused on reactor physics analyses conducted during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to support the initial development of several potential preconceptual fuel element designs that are suitable candidates for further study and refinement during FY-2013 and beyond. In a separate, but related, effort in the general area of computational support for ATR operations, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting a focused multiyear effort to introduce modern high-fidelity computational reactor physics software and associated validation protocols to replace

  5. Clogging the enrichment bypass

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The issue that has come to be known as the bypass is the latest dispute in the continuing saga of uranium trade between the United States and the Commonwealth of Indepenent States. Bypass deals now being conducted by US utilities have drawn heavy criticism from the US Department of Commerce but are perfectly legal under the terms of the Suspension Agreements. Urged on by the United States Enrichment Corporation, the US DOC intends to stop, or at least severely restrict, bypass deals. Using a recent agreement with Kazakhstan as a case study, this article reviews the implications of such bypass deals.

  6. KEA: kinase enrichment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Multivariate experiments applied to mammalian cells often produce lists of proteins/genes altered under treatment versus control conditions. Such lists can be projected onto prior knowledge of kinase–substrate interactions to infer the list of kinases associated with a specific protein list. By computing how the proportion of kinases, associated with a specific list of proteins/genes, deviates from an expected distribution, we can rank kinases and kinase families based on the likelihood that these kinases are functionally associated with regulating the cell under specific experimental conditions. Such analysis can assist in producing hypotheses that can explain how the kinome is involved in the maintenance of different cellular states and can be manipulated to modulate cells towards a desired phenotype. Summary: Kinase enrichment analysis (KEA) is a web-based tool with an underlying database providing users with the ability to link lists of mammalian proteins/genes with the kinases that phosphorylate them. The system draws from several available kinase–substrate databases to compute kinase enrichment probability based on the distribution of kinase–substrate proportions in the background kinase–substrate database compared with kinases found to be associated with an input list of genes/proteins. Availability: The KEA system is freely available at http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/lib/kea.jsp Contact: avi.maayan@mssm.edu PMID:19176546

  7. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively charged metal ions such as Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Al(3+), Zr(4+), and Ti(4+) has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from nonspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. This problem is mainly caused by highly acidic peptides that also share high binding affinity towards these metal ions. By lowering the pH of the loading buffer nonspecific binding can be reduced significantly, however with the risk of reducing specific binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10-11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers. Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe(3+) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide mixture. PMID:26584922

  8. After-school enrichment and the activity theory: How can a management service organization assist schools with reducing the achievement gap among minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Reagan D.

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support

  9. Overview of enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Wheeler, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship of enrichment plant safeguards to US nonproliferation objectives and to the operation and management of enrichment facilities is reviewed. During the review, the major components of both domestic and international safeguards systems for enrichment plants are discussed. In discussing domestic safeguards systems, examples of the technology currently in use to support nuclear materials accountability are described including the measurement methods, procedures and equipment used for weighing, sampling, chemical and isotopic analyses and nondestructive assay techniques. Also discussed is how the information obtained as part of the nuclear material accountancy task is useful to enrichment plant operations. International material accountancy verification and containment/surveillance concepts for enrichment plants are discussed, and the technologies presently being developed for international safeguards in enrichment plants are identified and the current development status is reported.

  10. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. City model enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  12. Work Enrichment for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Charles; Untawale, Mercedes

    1983-01-01

    Explores important quality of work life strategy--job redesign--and discusses job enlargement and job enrichment. A case study of academic library personnel demonstrates how introduction of automated systems at University of California, Berkeley led to restructuring and enrichment of jobs. References and list of selected resources are appended.…

  13. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  14. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  15. Comparing multistep immobilized metal affinity chromatography and multistep TiO2 methods for phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaoshan; Schunter, Alissa; Hummon, Amanda B

    2015-09-01

    Phosphopeptide enrichment from complicated peptide mixtures is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic studies to reduce sample complexity and ionization suppression effects. Typical methods for enriching phosphopeptides include immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads, which have selective affinity and can interact with phosphopeptides. In this study, the IMAC enrichment method was compared with the TiO2 enrichment method, using a multistep enrichment strategy from whole cell lysate, to evaluate their abilities to enrich for different types of phosphopeptides. The peptide-to-beads ratios were optimized for both IMAC and TiO2 beads. Both IMAC and TiO2 enrichments were performed for three rounds to enable the maximum extraction of phosphopeptides from the whole cell lysates. The phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment, unique to TiO2 enrichment, and identified with both IMAC and TiO2 enrichment were analyzed for their characteristics. Both IMAC and TiO2 enriched similar amounts of phosphopeptides with comparable enrichment efficiency. However, phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment showed a higher percentage of multiphosphopeptides as well as a higher percentage of longer, basic, and hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Also, the IMAC and TiO2 procedures clearly enriched phosphopeptides with different motifs. Finally, further enriching with two rounds of TiO2 from the supernatant after IMAC enrichment or further enriching with two rounds of IMAC from the supernatant TiO2 enrichment does not fully recover the phosphopeptides that are not identified with the corresponding multistep enrichment. PMID:26237447

  16. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. PMID:24715297

  17. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach

  18. Assessment of Nuclear Fuels using Radiographic Thickness Measurement Method

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Abir; Fahima Islam; Hyoung Koo Lee; Daniel Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The Convert branch of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) focuses on the development of high uranium density fuels for research and test reactors for nonproliferation. This fuel is aimed to convert low density high enriched uranium (HEU) based fuel to high density low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel for high performance research reactors (HPRR). There are five U.S. reactors that fall under the HPRR category, including: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR), the Missouri University Research Reactor (UMRR), the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). U-Mo alloy fuel phase in the form of either monolithic or dispersion foil type fuels, such as ATR Full-size In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR), are being designed for this purpose. The fabrication process1 of RERTR is susceptible to introducing a variety of fuel defects. A dependable quality control method is required during fabrication of RERTR miniplates to maintain the allowable design tolerances, therefore evaluating and analytically verifying the fabricated miniplates for maintaining quality standards as well as safety. The purpose of this work is to analyze the thickness of the fabricated RERTR-12 miniplates using non-destructive technique to meet the fuel plate specification for RERTR fuel to be used in the ATR.

  19. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  20. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  1. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  2. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  3. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  4. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  5. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  6. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  7. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  8. A Robust Infrastructure Design for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; Rowe, Nathan C; Garner, James R

    2012-01-01

    An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended

  9. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  10. Enrichment options for African painted dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Tammy L; Packard, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    Best practices for carnivore enrichment encourage the diversity of species-typical behaviors, increased activity, and reduced stereotypic behavior; ideally considering the life-history and behavior of each species. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), or painted dogs, are social carnivores that have large home ranges and complex pack dynamics (e.g., variation in group size, relatedness, etc.). As there are relatively few studies on painted dog enrichment, the goal of this study was to compile a list of enrichment options used by institutions participating in the species survival plan (SSP). Representatives were asked to describe social groups (n = 45), enclosures (n = 21), enrichment practices (options, delivery frequency, perceived success), and overall best practices. Respondents (61%, n = 23) reported using options for all six enrichment categories recommended by the Canid Taxon Advisory Group: environmental enrichment devices, habitat, sensory, food, behavioral, and social. Perceived success was significantly higher for the food category, followed by the sensory and behavioral categories. All respondents reported delivering enrichment at least multiple times a month, and most reported multiple times per week. Enclosure size did not differ significantly for mixed-sex groups (n = 28) compared to single-sex groups (n = 17). We discuss respondents' suggestions for best practices and the need to record data to compare perceived success with actual behavioral effects, controlling for variation in group size and composition. Overall, respondents recommended a flexible approach, since not all painted dogs and groups respond in the same way to the enrichment options. PMID:25138282

  11. Student Science Enrichment Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1990-12-31

    Funds are requested for the science enrichment training program (emphasis on chemistry and computer science), which will be held at Claflin College during the 1990 and 1991 summers, concomitant with summer school. The thirty participants will include high school students and some college freshmen; the students will come from rural South Carolina schools with limited science and computer facilities. Focus will be on high ability minority students.

  12. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented. PMID:27057585

  13. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  14. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  15. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk. PMID:24089056

  16. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. PMID:27059336

  17. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  18. Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

  19. A short and valid measure of work-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Crawford, Wayne S; Carlson, Dawn S; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    The stream of research concerning work-family enrichment has generated a significant body of research because it plays an important role in occupational health (Masuda, McNall, Allen, & Nicklin, 2012). work-family enrichment has been defined as "the extent to which experiences in one role improve the quality of life in the other role" (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006, p. 73). Within work-family enrichment, there are two directions: work to family and family to work. Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, and Grzywacz (2006) developed an 18-item scale to measure this construct. Although the scale has been shown to be both reliable and valid, it also requires work-family researchers to include a proportionally large number of items to capture this construct in a study. The goal of the current study was to isolate a subset of the items in this measure that produces results similar to the full version thereby providing a more streamlined scale for researchers. Using a five-sample study that follows the scale reduction procedures offered by Stanton, Sinar, Balzer, and Smith (2002), we provide evidence that scales containing only three items for each direction of enrichment produce results equivalent to the full scale with respect to reliability and discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity. Reducing the original scale by two thirds, without losing explanatory power, allows scholars to measure enrichment in the work and family domains more efficiently, which should help minimize survey time, lower refusal rates, and generate less missing data. PMID:24447219

  20. Impact of Environmental Enrichment Devices on NTP In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Sheba R; Morgan, Daniel L; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Gregory S; King-Herbert, Angela P

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the use of nesting material or polycarbonate shelters as enrichment devices would have an impact on end points commonly measured during the conduct of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 13-week studies. The study design was consistent with the NTP 13-week toxicity studies. Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and their offspring and B6C3F1/N mice were assigned to control (unenriched) and enriched experimental groups. Body weight, food and water consumption, behavioral observations, fecal content, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated. Enriched male mice and male and female rats exhibited decreased feed intake without a subsequent decrease in body weight; this may have been the result of the nesting material reducing the effect of cold stress, thereby allowing for more efficient use of feed. There were statistical differences in some hematological parameters; however, these were not considered physiologically relevant since all values were within the normal range. Gross pathology and histopathological findings were background changes and were not considered enrichment-related. Nesting material and shelters were used frequently and consistently and allowed animals to display species-typical behavior. There was no significant impact on commonly measured end points in HSD rats and B6C3F1/N mice given enrichment devices. PMID:26873679

  1. Cage-induced stereotypies, perseveration and the effects of environmental enrichment in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alexandra N; Richter, S Helene; Engel, A Katarina J; Würbel, Hanno

    2012-09-01

    When kept in barren and restrictive cages, animals frequently develop stereotypic behaviour patterns that are characterized by high repetition rates, conspicuous invariance and an apparent lack of function. Although millions of animals are affected, the underlying causes and mechanisms are still unclear. Growing evidence suggests that cage-induced stereotypies may reflect pathological dysfunction within basal ganglia circuitry expressed by perseverative behaviour. In order to assess whether variation in stereotypy performance and variation in perseverative behaviour may have a common cause in ICR CD-1 mice, we assessed the effects of environmental enrichment on both phenomena. We raised 48 female ICR CD-1 mice in standard or enriched cages from three weeks to either 6 or 11 months of age and measured stereotypy level in the home cage and perseveration on an extinction task. We further examined whether enriched rearing conditions (early enrichment) protect mice from the developing stereotypies later in life and whether stereotypies developed in barren cages would persist in an enriched environment (late enrichment) by transferring standard mice to enriched cages and vice versa for 14 weeks after completion of the extinction task. We found no evidence for a causal relation between stereotypy and perseveration in mice. However, transfer to enriched cages reduced stereotypy levels significantly both at 6 and 11 months of age indicating that stereotypies had not become established yet. Finally, we found that removing enrichments at both ages did not induce higher stereotypy levels, thereby confirming earlier reports of a neuroprotective effect of early enrichment. PMID:22721674

  2. The effect of feeding enrichment upon reported working ability and behavior of kenneled working dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Samantha A; Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2008-11-01

    It is widely recommended that kenneled dogs are provided with environmental enrichment such as toys or feeding devices. However, the adoption of enrichment for military working dogs is impeded by a widespread belief that it reduces their motivation to work. Handlers of 22 working German Shepherd dogs were asked to rate their dogs on 11 attributes pertaining to working ability, related behavioral traits, and health. Eight of the dogs were then provided with daily feeding enrichment for 4 months, while the remainder were given equivalent human attention. The same 11 traits were scored again following the enrichment period: 10 changed little over the period while handlers' reports of their dogs' Ability to learn from being rewarded increased significantly. Changes for all attributes were virtually identical in enriched and control dogs. We conclude that if correctly managed, feeding enrichment can be introduced to kenneled working dogs without any reported detrimental effects upon working ability, health, or behavior. PMID:18808374

  3. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a

  4. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  5. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  6. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Clark, Curtis; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Low-enrichment (U-235 < 20%) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing was comprised of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates that were tested in INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. Adjacent to the AA6061 cladding were Mg-rich precipitates, which was in close proximity to the region where Xe is observed to be enriched. In samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface were possible indications of porosity/debonding, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.

  7. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  8. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is studied. The feasibility is examined of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. Results are summarized.

  9. Phytoalexin-enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functional foods. This has led to the creation of functional foods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functional foods. These phytoalexin-enriched functional foods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods. PMID:19334749

  10. Diesel cogeneration plant using oxygen enriched air and emulsified fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, T.J.; Cole, R.L.; Sekar, R.R.; Stodolsky, F. ); Eustis, J.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of oxygen-enriched combustion of alternative fuels in diesel engines at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is based on information gathered from two previous Department of Energy programs. The first was the slow-speed diesel engine program which used fuels such as coal-water slurry and coal derived liquid fuels in a slow speed diesel engine. The second was the development of membrane oxygen separation equipment. The results of these programs indicated that using the new membrane oxygen enrichment technology with medium- and high-speed diesel engines would do two things. First, oxygen enrichment could reduce some emissions from stationary diesel engines, particularly smoke, particulates and hydrocarbons while significantly increasing power output. The second, was that it might be possible to use less expensive liquid fuels such as No. 4, No. 6 and residual oil emulsified with water in medium- to high-speed diesel engines. The water would (1) help to eliminate the undesirable increase in nitrogen oxide production when enriched oxygen is used, and (2) by reducing the viscosity of the heavier liquid fuels, make them easier to use in smaller industrial cogeneration applications. This program consists of four steps: preliminary feasibility study, exploratory experiments, system development, and demonstration and commercialization of an industrial cogeneration system. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Improving oxygenation at high altitude: acclimatization and O2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2003-01-01

    When lowlanders go to high altitude, the resulting oxygen deprivation impairs mental and physical performance, quality of sleep, and general well-being. This paper compares the effects of ventilatory acclimatization and oxygen enrichment of room air on the improvement of oxygenation as judged by the increase in the alveolar P(O2) and the reduction in equivalent altitude. The results show that, on the average, complete ventilatory acclimatization at an altitude of 5000 m increases the alveolar P(O2) by nearly 8 torr, which corresponds to a reduction in equivalent altitude of about 1000 m, although there is considerable individual variability. By comparison, oxygen enrichment to 27% at 5000 m can easily reduce the equivalent altitude to 3200 m, which is generally well tolerated. Because full ventilatory acclimatization at altitudes up to about 3600 m reduces the equivalent altitude to about 3000 m, oxygen enrichment is not justified for well-acclimatized persons. At an altitude of 4200 m, where several telescopes are located on the summit of Mauna Kea, full acclimatization reduces the equivalent altitude to about 3400 m, but the pattern of commuting probably would not allow this. Therefore, at this altitude, oxygen enrichment would be beneficial but is not essential. At higher altitudes such as 5050 m, where other telescopes are located or planned, the gain in oxygenation from acclimatization is insufficient to produce an adequate mental or physical performance for most work, and oxygen enrichment is highly desirable. Full ventilatory acclimatization requires at least a week of continuous exposure, although much of the improvement is seen in the first 2 days. PMID:14561244

  12. Effects of the antimicrobial sulfamethoxazole on groundwater bacterial enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, J.C.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Repert, D.A.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Smith, R.L.; Roane, T.M.; Barber, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of "trace" (environmentally relevant) concentrations of the antimicrobial agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on the growth, nitrate reduction activity, and bacterial composition of an enrichment culture prepared with groundwater from a pristine zone of a sandy drinking-water aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, were assessed by laboratory incubations. When the enrichments were grown under heterotrophic denitrifying conditions and exposed to SMX, noticeable differences from the control (no SMX) were observed. Exposure to SMX in concentrations as low as 0.005 ??M delayed the initiation of cell growth by up to 1 day and decreased nitrate reduction potential (total amount of nitrate reduced after 19 days) by 47% (p = 0.02). Exposure to 1 ??M SMX, a concentration below those prescribed for clinical applications but higher than concentrations typically detected in aqueous environments, resulted in additional inhibitions: reduced growth rates (p = 5 ?? 10-6), lower nitrate reduction rate potentials (p = 0.01), and decreased overall representation of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The reduced abundance of Pseudomonas sequences in the libraries was replaced by sequences representing the genus Variovorax. Results of these growth and nitrate reduction experiments collectively suggest that subtherapeutic concentrations of SMX altered the composition of the enriched nitrate-reducing microcosms and inhibited nitrate reduction capabilities. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  14. Nutrient Enrichment Coupled with Sedimentation Favors Sea Anemones over Corals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  15. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  16. IPNS enriched uranium booster target

    SciTech Connect

    Schulke, A.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Since startup in 1981, IPNS has operated on a fully depleted /sup 238/U target. With the booster as in the present system, high energy protons accelerated to 450 MeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron are directed at the target and by mechanisms of spallation and fission of the uranium, produce fast neutrons. The neutrons from the target pass into adjacent moderator where they slow down to energies useful for spectroscopy. The target cooling systems and monitoring systems have operated very reliably and safely during this period. To provide higher neutron intensity, we have developed plans for an enriched uranium (booster) target. HETC-VIM calculations indicate that the target will produce approx.90 kW of heat, with a nominal x5 gain (k/sub eff/ = 0.80). The neutron beam intensity gain will be a factor of approx.3. Thermal-hydraulic and heat transport calculations indicate that approx.1/2 in. thick /sup 235/U discs are subject to about the same temperatures as the present /sup 238/U 1 in. thick discs. The coolant will be light demineralized water (H/sub 2/O) and the coolant flow rate must be doubled. The broadening of the fast neutron pulse width should not seriously affect the neutron scattering experiments. Delayed neutrons will appear at a level about 3% of the total (currently approx.0.5%). This may affect backgrounds in some experiments, so that we are assessing measures to control and correct for this (e.g., beam tube choppers). Safety analyses and neutronic calculations are nearing completion. Construction of the /sup 235/U discs at the ORNL Y-12 facility is scheduled to begin late 1985. The completion of the booster target and operation are scheduled for late 1986. No enriched uranium target assembly operating at the projected power level now exists in the world. This effort thus represents an important technological experiment as well as being a ''flux enhancer''.

  17. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. PMID:26562657

  18. Efficacy of auditory enrichment in a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii).

    PubMed

    Hanbury, David B; Fontenot, M Babette; Highfill, Lauren E; Bingham, Willie; Bunch, David; Watson, Sheree L

    2009-04-01

    Research suggests that auditory environmental enrichment might reduce abnormal behavior in certain primate species. The authors evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to music in a prosimian primate (Garnett's bushbaby; Otolemur garnettii). They exposed bushbabies to a Mozart concerto for 15 min per day for 20 d (5 h exposure total), video-recorded them and subsequently analyzed the frequency of subjects' grooming and stereotypic behaviors. The authors compared the data with baseline behavioral data that had been recorded over a 20-d period before the experimental treatment. Neither stereotypy nor grooming behavior varied as a result of exposure to music. These results do not support the hypothesis that auditory enrichment in the form of exposure to music is an effective means of reducing stereotypic behavior in O. garnettii. PMID:19308062

  19. Microstructural Characterization of the U-9.1Mo Fuel/AA6061 Cladding Interface in Friction-Bonded Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated in the RERTR-6 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam; Medvedev, Pavel; Madden, James; Wachs, Dan; Clark, Curtis; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Low-enrichment (235U < 20 pct) U-Mo monolithic fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. The earliest design for this fuel that was investigated via reactor testing consisted of a nominally U-10Mo fuel foil encased in AA6061 (Al-6061) cladding. For a fuel design to be deemed adequate for final use in a reactor, it must maintain dimensional stability and retain fission products throughout irradiation, which means that there must be good integrity at the fuel foil/cladding interface. To investigate the nature of the fuel/cladding interface for this fuel type after irradiation, fuel plates were fabricated using a friction bonding process, tested in INL's advanced test reactor (ATR), and then subsequently characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results of this characterization showed that the fuel/cladding interaction layers present at the U-Mo fuel/AA6061 cladding interface after fabrication became amorphous during irradiation. Up to two main interaction layers, based on composition, could be found at the fuel/cladding interface, depending on location. After irradiation, an Al-rich layer contained very few fission gas bubbles, but did exhibit Xe enrichment near the AA6061 cladding interface. Another layer, which contained more Si, had more observable fission gas bubbles. In the samples produced using a focused ion beam at the interaction zone/AA6061 cladding interface, possible indications of porosity/debonding were found, which suggested that the interface in this location is relatively weak.

  20. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Ellis, Ronald James; Gehin, Jess C; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Sease, John D

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  1. Shenandoah elementary science enrichment program

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.

    1994-12-31

    Shenandoah Elementary School is a rural educational facility located in the farmlands of Indiana. The Elementary Science Enrichment Program was established to create a learning atmosphere that encourages scientific thinking and problem-solving. Its inception was founded on the belief that the concepts and process skills inherent in the teaching of science are critical to the early intellectual development of elementary students. The program was established through speaking engagements at the local and state level which resulted in the necessary support to insure its continuation. All students in grades K-5 meet for weekly science activities in our elementary lab to investigate many exciting curricular areas including planaria regeneration, star life cycles, and acid rain telecommunications. This allows for in-depth exploration of the science process skills which culminate in a variety of products including student portfolios, hands-on assessments, simulations and global data communications. These activities are extended through family science and the modeling of science instructional techniques for classroom educators.

  2. Nutraceutical enriched Indian traditional chikki.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Chetana; Pamisetty, Aruna; Reddy, Sunki Reddy Yella

    2015-08-01

    Chikki or peanut brittle, a traditional sweet snack was chosen as vehicle for enrichment with added natural nutraceuticals through herbs. The formulation and process for preparation of chikki with added herbs like ashwagandha (Withania somenifera), tulasi (Ocimumsanctum L.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi S.) were standardized. The polyphenol content of chikki with added herbs ranged 0.29-0.46 g/100 g. Among the herbs, ajwain showed more potent antioxidant activity followed by tulasi, whereas ashwagandha and product prepared with it showed the least activity. Total carotenoid contents of chikki with added herbs ranged between 1.5 and 4.3 mg/100 g. Storage studies showed that chikki prepared with tulasi and ajwain were sensorily acceptable up to 90 days, while rancid notes were observed in control and chikki with added ashwagandha at the end of 30 days. Thus chikki with added herbs in addition to containing natural nutraceuticals like polyphenols and carotenoids had improved storage stability compared to control. PMID:26243935

  3. Student science enrichment training program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  4. Simple Enrichment System for Hydrogen Producers ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tolvanen, Katariina E. S.; Mangayil, Rahul K.; Karp, Matti T.; Santala, Ville P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a simple enrichment system where gas pressure produced by microbes performs functions that are normally done by labor. The system was tested with Escherichia coli strains with different hydrogen production and growth capabilities. The results show that the system can enrich the best hydrogen producer. PMID:21531834

  5. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  6. Psychological Reactance in Marital Enrichment Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Ronald; And Others

    This investigation was the second in a series of empirical studies on marital enrichment training using the Training in Marital Enrichment (TIME) model. In addition to further study of the TIME model, interest was also directed in the current study to more fully clarifying the nature of change in the model by including a measure of the construct…

  7. Enrichment Monitor for 235U Fuel Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    2001-08-22

    This report describes the performance of this prototype y-monitor of 235 Uranium enrichment. In this proposed method y-rates associated with 235U and 232U are correlated with enrichment. Instrumentation for appraising fuel tubes with this method has been assembled and tested.

  8. The paradox of enrichment in metaecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Canard, Elsa; Guichard, Frédéric; Hauzy, Céline; Gravel, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    The paradox of enrichment has been studied almost exclusively within communities or metacommunities, without explicit nutrient dynamics. Yet local recycling of materials from enriched ecosystems may affect the stability of connected ecosystems. Here we study the effect of nutrient, detritus, producer, and consumer spatial flows-combined with changes in regional enrichment-on the stability of a metaecosystem model. We considered both spatially homogeneous and heterogeneous enrichment. We found that nutrient and detritus spatial flows are destabilizing, whereas producer or consumer spatial flows are either neutral or stabilizing. We noticed that detritus spatial flows have only a weak impact on stability. Our study reveals that heterogeneity no longer stabilizes well-connected systems when accounting for explicit representation of nutrient dynamics. We also found that intermediate consumer diffusion could lead to multiple equilibria in strongly enriched metaecosystems. Stability can emerge from a top-down control allowing the storage of materials into inorganic form, a mechanism never documented before. In conclusion, local enrichment can be stabilized if spatial flows are strong enough to efficiently redistribute the local excess of enrichment to unfertile ecosystems. However, high regional enrichment can be dampened only by intermediate consumer diffusion rates. PMID:25438175

  9. After-School Enrichment: Extending Learning Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Carla

    2011-01-01

    After-school programs can help show students how academics are relevant to their personal interests, and serve as training grounds for future teachers. This article features LA's BEST After School Enrichment Program whose mission is to provide a safe and supervised after school education, enrichment, and recreation program for children ages 5 to…

  10. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Contention Preparation; In the Matter of ( ), 74 FR 38052, 38054 (July 30, 2009) (CLI-09-15, 70 NRC 1, 7-8... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession,...

  11. Effect of environmental enrichment at two stages of development on belly nosing in piglets weaned at fourteen days.

    PubMed

    Bench, C J; Gonyou, H W

    2006-12-01

    The incidence of belly nosing-related behaviors was studied in 480 piglets weaned at 14 d and provided with environmental enrichment during preweaning, postweaning, or both. Pen enrichment was achieved by providing a foam rubber mat on the pen wall (nose), rubber nipples (suck), a Bite-Rite Tail Chew (bite), a soil-filled tray (root), or no enrichment (control). Instantaneous scan sampling observations, at 5-min intervals, were conducted for 8 h (i.e., 96 scans/observation day) at 3, 10, 19, 26, and 33 d. Observations during the preweaning phase were made to determine the number of piglets lying, standing, nursing, and interacting with environmental enrichment. During the postweaning phase, observations were made to determine the number of piglets belly nosing, belly sucking, other nosing and sucking (other), biting, eating, drinking, and interacting with enrichment. The time-course for belly nosing was confirmed, with the behavior rising by 19 d, peaking by 26 d, and decreasing by 33 d (P < 0.001). Only nosing enrichment was found to reduce the incidence of belly-nosing behavior (3.8%) compared with controls (6.6%; P < 0.001). Pigs provided root enrichment spent more time manipulating their enrichment devices (30.2%) compared with all other enrichment groups (P < 0.001). Providing enrichment relevant to a particular behavioral vice as it commences, or shortly afterward, may have the greatest effect on reducing the incidence of that vice during the nursery period. PMID:17093233

  12. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  13. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  14. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    PubMed

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents. PMID:18418753

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial holeboard discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Grimberg-Henrici, Charlotte G E; Vermaak, Paul; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, F Josef

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive performance of female conventional farm (growing) pigs in a spatial holeboard task. Ten pairs of littermates matched for weight were used. From each litter, one piglet was randomly assigned to a barren environment; the other was assigned to an enriched environment from 4 weeks of age. The enriched environment was double the size of the barren environment, had a floor covered with straw, a rooting area filled with peat, and one of the four different enrichment toys which were exchanged daily. Starting at 11 weeks of age, all pigs were tested in a spatial holeboard discrimination task in which 4 out of 16 holes were baited. Furthermore, basal salivary cortisol levels of all pigs were determined after the end of all testing. All pigs were able to acquire the pattern of baited holes (acquisition phase, 40 trials) and the diagonally mirrored pattern (reversal phase, 20 trials). During the acquisition phase, the reference memory performance of the enriched-housed pigs was better than that of their barren-housed littermates, i.e. they reduced visits to the unbaited set of holes. During the reversal phase, enriched-housed pigs had a better general working memory performance than the barren-housed pigs as indicated by reduced revisits to holes already visited during a trial, irrespective of whether they were of the baited or the unbaited set. The enriched-housed pigs also searched for the hidden bait faster during both phases. The environments did not affect basal salivary cortisol levels. In conclusion, environmental enrichment slightly improved the cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial learning task. We hypothesise that the long period of habituation to and testing in the holeboard acted as enrichment that partially reduced the effects of barren housing. PMID:26520648

  16. Oxidative stability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Perez, Tulia I; Zuidhof, Martin J; Renema, Robert A; Wu, Jianping

    2013-11-27

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs have a growing market share in the egg industry. This study examined the stability of n-3 PUFA enriched eggs fortified with antioxidants (vitamin E or organic Selenium [Sel-Plex] or both) following cooking and storage. The total fat content was not affected by cooking or simulated retail storage conditions, whereas, n-3 fatty acids were reduced. The content of n-3 fatty acids in boiled eggs was higher than in fried eggs. Lipid oxidation was significantly affected by the different cooking methods. Fried eggs contained higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, 2.02 μg/kg) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs, 13.58 μg/g) compared to boiled (1.44 and 10.15 μg/kg) and raw eggs (0.95 and 9.03 μg/kg, respectively, for MDA and COPs). Supplementation of antioxidants reduced the formation of MDA by 40% and COPs by 12% in fried eggs. Although the content of MDA was significantly increased after 28 days of storage, COPs were not affected by storage. Our study indicated that the n-3 PUFA in enriched eggs was relatively stable during storage and home cooking in the presence of antioxidants. PMID:24164329

  17. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  18. Development of an electrolysis system for tritium enrichment in superficial water samples.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, G; Magnoni, M; Bertino, S; Losana, M C

    2009-12-01

    Tritium present in the environment gradually decreased in the last decades and nowadays it has reached extremely low activity concentrations. The purpose of the present work is the implementation of a tritium enrichment system in water samples using electrolytic techniques and pure nickel and iron electrodes. In the present work a mean tritium enrichment factor of 13.0 +/- 3.2 was obtained. This result should allow to reach a minimum detectable activity of tritium in water samples of about 1 tritium unit (TU) or less. The present enrichment system necessitates further adjustments and improvements, such as a cooling system in order to reduce the tritium losses due to evaporation. PMID:19864330

  19. Nociceptor-Enriched Genes Required for Normal Thermal Nociception.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Ken; Mauthner, Stephanie E; Wang, Yu; Skene, J H Pate; Tracey, W Daniel

    2016-07-12

    Here, we describe a targeted reverse genetic screen for thermal nociception genes in Drosophila larvae. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analyses of nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons, we identified 275 nociceptor-enriched genes. We then tested the function of the enriched genes with nociceptor-specific RNAi and thermal nociception assays. Tissue-specific RNAi targeted against 14 genes caused insensitive thermal nociception while targeting of 22 genes caused hypersensitive thermal nociception. Previously uncategorized genes were named for heat resistance (i.e., boilerman, fire dancer, oven mitt, trivet, thawb, and bunker gear) or heat sensitivity (firelighter, black match, eucalyptus, primacord, jet fuel, detonator, gasoline, smoke alarm, and jetboil). Insensitive nociception phenotypes were often associated with severely reduced branching of nociceptor neurites and hyperbranched dendrites were seen in two of the hypersensitive cases. Many genes that we identified are conserved in mammals. PMID:27346357

  20. Isotopically enriched germanium detectors for astrophysical gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A study is presented of the instrumental background in astrophysical gamma-ray spectrometers using isotopically enriched germanium detectors. Calculations show that the beta-decay background, which is the largest component between approximately 0.1 and 1.0 MeV in balloonborne and satellite spectrometers, is dominated by the activation of Ge-74. This component can be reduced by an order of magnitude using detectors enriched to more than 80 percent in (Ge-70). The predicted reduction in the total background for current balloonborne instruments is more than a factor of 1.7 between 0.2 and 1.0 MeV. For future satellite instruments, the reduction in this energy range is by more than a factor of 5.

  1. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. PMID:26742623

  2. Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization

    DOEpatents

    Dubrin, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

  3. MHD performance calculations with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Staiger, P. J.; Seikel, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air on the generator and overall plant performance was studied for the ECAS-scale MHD/steam plants. A channel optimization technique is described and the results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented. Performance maps were generated to assess the impact of various generator parameters. Directly and separately preheated plant performance with varying O2 enrichment was calculated. The optimal level of enrichment was a function of plant type and preheat temperature. The sensitivity of overall plant performance to critical channel assumptions and oxygen plant performance characteristics was also examined.

  4. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  5. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  6. Management's Ecstasy and Disparity Over Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1976-01-01

    A case study analyzing job enrichment schemes and manager expectations of increased productivity is presented. It was found that it was the managers' expectations of increased productivity, not the reorganization of work, that led to higher productivity. (EC)

  7. Job Enrichment: How to Avoid the Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregoe, Benjamin B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    While many job enrichment programs fail, a program called Analytical Trouble Shooting has been successful in training people to increase their problem-solving capabilities and to communicate readily with persons in other areas and on different levels. (AG)

  8. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  9. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  10. U. S. forms uranium enrichment corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, R.

    1993-07-12

    After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel.

  11. A resolution of the paradox of enrichment.

    PubMed

    Mougi, Akihiko; Nishimura, Kinya

    2007-09-01

    Theoretical studies have shown a paradoxical destabilizing response of predator-prey ecosystems to enrichment, but there is the gap between the intuitive view of nature and this theoretical prediction. We studied a minimal predator-prey system (a two predator-two prey system) in which the paradox of enrichment pattern can vanish; the destabilization with enrichment is reversed, leading to stabilization (a decrease in the amplitude of oscillation of population densities). For resolution of the paradox, two conditions must be met: (1) the same prey species must be preferred as a dietary item by both predator species, creating the potential for high exploitative competition between the predator species, and (2), while both predators are assumed to select their diet in accordance with optimal diet utilization theory, one predator must be a specialist and the other a generalist. In this system, the presence of a less profitable prey species can cause the increase in population oscillation amplitudes associated with increasing enrichment to be suppressed via the optimal diet utilization of the generalist predator. The resulting stabilization is explained by the mitigating effect of the less profitable prey showing better population growth with increasing enrichment on the destabilization underlying the specialist predator and prey relation, thus resolving the paradox of enrichment. PMID:17543997

  12. Microfluidic droplet enrichment for targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Huang, Yong; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Sciambi, Adam; Ptáček, Louis J.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted sequence enrichment enables better identification of genetic variation by providing increased sequencing coverage for genomic regions of interest. Here, we report the development of a new target enrichment technology that is highly differentiated from other approaches currently in use. Our method, MESA (Microfluidic droplet Enrichment for Sequence Analysis), isolates genomic DNA fragments in microfluidic droplets and performs TaqMan PCR reactions to identify droplets containing a desired target sequence. The TaqMan positive droplets are subsequently recovered via dielectrophoretic sorting, and the TaqMan amplicons are removed enzymatically prior to sequencing. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by generating an average 31.6-fold sequence enrichment across 250 kb of targeted genomic DNA from five unique genomic loci. Significantly, this enrichment enabled a more comprehensive identification of genetic polymorphisms within the targeted loci. MESA requires low amounts of input DNA, minimal prior locus sequence information and enriches the target region without PCR bias or artifacts. These features make it well suited for the study of genetic variation in a number of research and diagnostic applications. PMID:25873629

  13. Phosphopeptide enrichment using offline titanium dioxide columns for phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Rong; Veenstra, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Identification of phosphoproteins or phosphopeptides as cancer biomarkers is an emerging field in phosphoproteomics. Owing to the low stoichiometric nature of protein phosphorylation, phosphoproteins or phosphopeptides must be enriched prior to downstream mass spectrometry analysis. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been prevalently used to enrich phosphopeptides from complex proteome samples due to its high affinity for phosphopeptides, and the method is straightforward. In this protocol, an offline phosphopeptide enrichment procedure using TiO2 columns is described. Peptides from a proteome lysate are loaded onto a TiO2 column in an acidic environment, followed by column washing with aqueous, organic, and ammonium glutamate (NH4Glu) buffers at acidic conditions. Phosphopeptides are eluted using an ammonia solution at high pH. Use of NH4Glu significantly reduces nonspecific bindings while a high recovery rate (84 %) of phosphopeptides is retained. The method is optimized for large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis and phosphoprotein biomarker discovery starting from sub-milligram or milligrams of proteome samples. PMID:23625397

  14. Loss of Environmental Enrichment Increases Vulnerability to Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Joëlle; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Life experiences, especially during critical periods of maturation, such as adolescence, can dramatically affect vulnerability to diseases at adulthood. Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. However, whether or not exposure to EE during early stages of life would protect from addiction when, at adulthood, individuals may find themselves in non-enriched conditions has not been investigated. Here we show that switching mice from EE to non-enriched standard environments not only results in the loss of the preventive effects of EE but also increases the rewarding effects of cocaine. This enhanced vulnerability is associated with emotional distress and with increased levels in the mRNA levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as with increases in CREB phosphorylation in the BNST and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine is completely blocked by the CRF antagonist antalarmin, confirming a major role of the CRF system in the negative consequences of this environmental switch. These results indicate that positive life conditions during early stages of life, if they are not maintained at adulthood, may have negative emotional consequences and increase the risks to develop drug addiction. PMID:22334125

  15. Nutrient enrichment affects the mechanical resistance of aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lamberti-Raverot, Barbara; Puijalon, Sara

    2012-10-01

    For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. PMID:23028018

  16. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  17. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  18. Environmental enrichment modulates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine dynamics in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Irier, Hasan; Street, R. Craig; Dave, Ronak; Lin, Li; Cai, Catherine; Davis, Timothy Hayden; Yao, Bing; Cheng, Ying; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions mediated at the epigenetic level may provide an initial step in delivering an appropriate response to environmental changes. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a DNA base derived from 5-methylcytosine (5mC), accounts for ~40% of modified cytosine in brain and has been implicated in DNA methylation-related plasticity. To identify the role of 5hmC in gene-environment interactions, we exposed both young (6-week-old) and aged (18-month-old) mice to both an enriched environment and a standard environment. Exposure to EE significantly improves learning and memory in aged mice and reduces 5hmC abundance in mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, we mapped the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC and found that the alteration of 5hmC modification occurred mainly at gene bodies. In particular, genes involved in axon guidance are enriched among the genes with altered 5hmC modification. These results together suggest that environmental enrichment could modulate the dynamics of 5hmC in hippocampus, which could potentially contribute to improved learning and memory in aged animals. PMID:25205305

  19. The Proteome of Cholesteryl-Ester-Enriched Versus Triacylglycerol-Enriched Lipid Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Victor K.; Ahrends, Robert; Lin, Ye; Shen, Wen-Jun; Adams, Christopher M.; Roseman, Ann Nomoto; Cortez, Yuan; Teruel, Mary N.; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2014-01-01

    Within cells, lipids are stored in the form of lipid droplets (LDs), consisting of a neutral lipid core, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and an outer layer of protein. LDs typically accumulate either triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol or cholesteryl ester (CE), depending on the type of tissue. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the proteins that surround LDs. LD proteins have been found to be quite diverse, from structural proteins to metabolic enzymes, proteins involved in vesicular transport, and proteins that may play a role in LD formation. Previous proteomics analyses have focused on TAG-enriched LDs, whereas CE-enriched LDs have been largely ignored. Our study has compared the LD proteins from CE-enriched LDs to TAG-enriched LDs in steroidogenic cells. In primary rat granulosa cells loaded with either HDL to produce CE-enriched LDs or fatty acids to produce TAG-enriched LDs, 61 proteins were found to be elevated in CE-enriched LDs and 40 proteins elevated in TAG-enriched LDs with 278 proteins in similar amounts. Protein expression was further validated by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry (MS). SRM verified expression of 25 of 27 peptides that were previously detected by tandem mass tagging MS. Several proteins were confirmed to be elevated in CE-enriched LDs by SRM including the intermediate filament vimentin. This study is the first to compare the proteins found on CE-enriched LDs with TAG-enriched LDs and constitutes the first step in creating a better understanding of the proteins found on CE-enriched LDs in steroidogenic cells. PMID:25111084

  20. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched macaroni products. (a) Description. Enriched macaroni...

  1. Environmental Enrichment Protects the Retina from Early Diabetic Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Chianelli, Mónica S.; Fernandez, Diego C.; Sande, Pablo H.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats. PMID:25004165

  2. Can sediment total organic carbon and grain size be used to diagnose organic enrichment in estuaries?

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Marguerite C; Campbell, Daniel E; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Audette, Charles T; Detenbeck, Naomi E

    2011-03-01

    Eutrophication (i.e., nutrient enrichment, organic enrichment, and oxygen depletion) is one of the most common sources of impairment in Clean Water Act 303(d)-listed waters in the United States. Although eutrophication can eventually cause adverse effects to the benthos, it may be difficult to diagnose. Sediment organic carbon (OC) content has been used as an indicator of enrichment in sediments, but the amount of surface area available for carbon adsorption must be considered. We investigated the utility of the relationship between OC and sediment grain size as an indicator of eutrophication. Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program was used to test this relationship. However, anthropogenic contaminants are also capable of causing adverse effects to the benthos and often co-occur with elevated levels of OC. Contaminant analysis and toxicity tests were not consistently related to enrichment status as defined by relationship between total OC and grain size. Although variability in response occurred, reflecting the variance in the water column factors (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and nutrients) and limited sample sizes, the data supported the hypothesis that sites designated as enriched were eutrophied. Dissolved oxygen levels were reduced at enriched sites, whereas chlorophyll a and nutrients were higher at enriched sites. This suggests that the relationship of OC to grain size can be used as a screening tool to diagnose eutrophication. PMID:21298700

  3. Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Growth and Development of Impatiens hawkeri

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li; Huang, Zhi-Zhe; Zhu, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min; Teng, Nian-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO2 enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO2-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control) and 760 (CO2 enrichment) μmol·mol−1, respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO2 enrichment increased flower number and relative leaf area compared with the control. In addition, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble sugars and starch, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), but reduced chlorophyll content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, significant changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were observed at CO2 enrichment: an increased number of starch grains with an expanded size, and an increased ratio of stroma thylakoid to grana thylakoid. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment had positive effects on Impatiens, that is, it can improve the visual value, promote growth and development, and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:22536147

  4. Resource-dependent antagonistic coevolution leads to a new paradox of enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2016-05-01

    The classical, ecological, paradox of enrichment describes a phenomenon that resource enrichment destabilizes predator-prey systems by exacerbating population oscillations. Here we suggest a new, evolutionary, paradox of enrichment. Resource enrichment can lead to more asymmetrical predator-prey coevolution (i.e., extremely high levels of prey defenses against predators) that decreases predator abundances and increases predator extinction risk. A major reason for this is that high resource availability can reduce fitness costs associated with prey defenses. In our experiments with a bacterium and its lytic phage, nutrient-balanced resource enrichment led to patterns in population demography and coevolutionary dynamics consistent with this coevolution-based paradox of enrichment; in particular, phage population extinction events were observed under nutrient-rich, not nutrient-poor, conditions. Consistent with ecological studies, carbon-biased resource enrichment (with carbon availability disproportionately increased relative to other nutrients) did not destabilize dynamics, and the asymmetry of coevolution was not altered in this context. Our work highlights the importance of integrating ecological and evolutionary thinking for studies of the consequences of nutrient pollution and other types of environmental changes. PMID:27396019

  5. Nanoslit design for ion conductivity gradient enhanced dielectrophoresis for ultrafast biomarker enrichment in physiological media.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Ali; Varhue, Walter; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S

    2016-05-01

    Selective and rapid enrichment of biomolecules is of great interest for biomarker discovery, protein crystallization, and in biosensing for speeding assay kinetics and reducing signal interferences. The current state of the art is based on DC electrokinetics, wherein localized ion depletion at the microchannel to nanochannel interface is used to enhance electric fields, and the resulting biomarker electromigration is balanced against electro-osmosis in the microchannel to cause high degrees of biomarker enrichment. However, biomarker enrichment is not selective, and the levels fall off within physiological media of high conductivity, due to a reduction in ion concentration polarization and electro-osmosis effects. Herein, we present a methodology for coupling AC electrokinetics with ion concentration polarization effects in nanoslits under DC fields, for enabling ultrafast biomarker enrichment in physiological media. Using AC fields at the critical frequency necessary for negative dielectrophoresis of the biomarker of interest, along with a critical offset DC field to create proximal ion accumulation and depletion regions along the perm-selective region inside a nanoslit, we enhance the localized field and field gradient to enable biomarker enrichment over a wide spatial extent along the nanoslit length. While enrichment under DC electrokinetics relies solely on ion depletion to enhance fields, this AC electrokinetic mechanism utilizes ion depletion as well as ion accumulation regions to enhance the field and its gradient. Hence, biomarker enrichment continues to be substantial in spite of the steady drop in nanostructure perm-selectivity within physiological media. PMID:27462378

  6. Effect of Bungee-carcass enrichment on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two species of zoo-housed Felids.

    PubMed

    Ruskell, Amber D; Meiers, Susan T; Jenkins, Sean E; Santymire, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment can improve animal physiological and psychological well-being. This study sought to promote more natural felid behavior and prevent development or incidence of stereotypies through the use of a feeding enrichment. Our objectives are to use fecal glucocorticoid metabolites values and behavioral observations to quantify the effectiveness of the enrichment device for two species of large cats, Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris; n = 2) and cougar (Felis concolor; n = 2). The feeding enrichment, a white-tailed deer carcass flank securely attached to an AussieDog Products(©) Felid 120-cm bungee, was implemented twice for each individual separated by 1 month. Fecal samples were obtained from each felid and analyzed for pre- and post-enrichment fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) concentrations using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay. An ethogram with 12 mutual exclusive behavioral categories was utilized to record behavioral responses to the enrichment. Results demonstrate that: 1) there were no differences (P > 0.05) in FGMs for either species between pre- and post-enrichment; 2) pacing decreased (P = 0.025) and walking increased (P = 0.017) after exposure to enrichment in both cougars; and 3) tigers reduced (P = 0.025) 'other' behavioral category after the first enrichment exposure and laid down more (P = 0.025) after the second enrichment exposure. The neutral hormonal impact on the animals coupled with the behavioral changes indicates that this enrichment is successful at altering the animals' behavior without adding physiological stress to their environments. These findings, combined with the low cost and versatility of the enrichment, promote the use of this enrichment to enhance large felid enclosures. PMID:25492384

  7. Ejection of Supernova-enriched Gas from Dwarf Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragile, P. Chris; Murray, Stephen D.; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    2004-12-01

    We examine the efficiency with which supernova-enriched gas may be ejected from dwarf disk galaxies, using a methodology previously employed to study the self-enrichment efficiency of dwarf spheroidal systems. Unlike previous studies that focused on highly concentrated starbursts, in the current work we consider discrete supernova events spread throughout various fractions of the disk. We model disk systems having gas masses of 108 and 109 Msolar with supernova rates of 30, 300, and 3000 Myr-1. The supernova events are confined to the midplane of the disk but distributed over radii of 0%, 30%, and 80% of the disk radius, consistent with expectations for Type II supernovae. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that the enriched material from supernovae is largely lost when the supernovae are concentrated near the nucleus, as expected for a starburst event. In contrast, however, we find the loss of enriched material to be much less efficient when the supernovae occur over even a relatively small fraction of the disk. The difference is due to the ability of the system to relax following supernova events that occur over more extended regions. Larger physical separations also reduce the likelihood of supernovae going off within low-density ``chimneys'' swept out by previous supernovae. We also find that for the most distributed systems, significant metal loss is more likely to be accompanied by significant mass loss. A comparison with theoretical predictions indicates that when undergoing self-regulated star formation, galaxies in the mass range considered will efficiently retain the products of Type II supernovae.

  8. REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSION FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2006-07-01

    BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the emissions characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx reduction from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. Emission data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The reductions observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the

  9. Enrichment Determination of Uranium in Shielded Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Crye, Jason Michael; Hall, Howard L; McConchie, Seth M; Mihalczo, John T; Pena, Kirsten E

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods of determining the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by {sup 235}U. In some applications, the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of the 186 keV gamma fail because the gamma ray is shielded easily. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has previously measured the enrichment of shielded uranium metal using active neutron interrogation. The method consists of measuring the time distribution of fast neutrons from induced fissions with large plastic scintillator detectors. To determine the enrichment, the measurements are compared to a calibration surface that is created from Monte Carlo simulations where the enrichment in the models is varied. In previous measurements, the geometry was always known. ORNL is extending this method to situations where the geometry and materials present are not known in advance. In the new method, the interrogating neutrons are both time and directionally tagged, and an array of small plastic scintillators measures the uncollided interrogating neutrons. Therefore, the attenuation through the item along many different paths is known. By applying image reconstruction techniques, an image of the item is created which shows the position-dependent attenuation. The image permits estimating the geometry and materials present, and these estimates are used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations. As before, simulations predict the time distribution of induced fission neutrons for different enrichments. Matching the measured time distribution to the closest prediction from the simulations provides an estimate of the enrichment. This presentation discusses the method and provides results from recent simulations that show the importance of knowing the geometry and materials from the imaging system.

  10. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret.

    PubMed

    Poessel, Sharon A; Biggins, Dean E; Santymire, Rachel M; Livieri, Travis M; Crooks, Kevin R; Angeloni, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. PMID:21549121

  11. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, S.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Santymire, R.M.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  12. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, John E; Laughter, Mark D; March-Leuba, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  13. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Guida, Tracey

    2010-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  14. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  15. Enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J; Burow, Luke C; Lant, Paul; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-10-01

    The microorganisms responsible for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to denitrification have not been clearly elucidated. Three recent publications suggested it can be achieved by a denitrifying bacterium with or without the involvement of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. A key factor limiting the progress in this research field is the shortage of enrichment cultures performing denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO). In this study, DAMO cultures were enriched from mixed inoculum including sediment from a freshwater lake, anaerobic digester sludge and return activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. Two reactors, operated at 35°C and at 22°C, respectively, showed simultaneous methane oxidation and nitrate reduction after several months of operation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the 35°C enrichment showed the presence of an archaeon closely related to other DAMO archaea and a dominated bacterium belonging to the yet uncultivated NC10 phylum. This culture preferred nitrite to nitrate as the electron acceptor. The present study suggests that the archaea are rather methanotrophs than methanogens. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 2.35 mmol NO3 (-) -N gVSS(-1)  day(-1) . The culture enriched at 22°C contained the same NC10 bacterium observed in the culture enriched at 35°C but no archaea. PMID:23765890

  16. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be

  17. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Comparison of analytical values for enrichment nutrients in selected grain products to federal enrichment standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enriched grain products are required to have iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid added at specified levels (minimum and maximum) according to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). To provide up-to-date values for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, enriche...

  19. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing... 2010. E. Roy Hawkens, Chief Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING...

  20. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., ID, 76 FR 9054 (Feb. 16, 2011). In accord with Atomic Energy Act (AEA) section 274l, 42 U.S.C. Sec... Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR 38,052, 38,055 (Jul. 30, 2009) (CLI-09- 15, 70 NRC 1, 10-11 (2009... of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding), 75 FR 63,213 (Oct. 14, 2010), which was the subject...

  1. Enrich: software for analysis of protein function by enrichment and depletion of variants

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Douglas M.; Araya, Carlos L.; Gerard, Wayne; Fields, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Measuring the consequences of mutation in proteins is critical to understanding their function. These measurements are essential in such applications as protein engineering, drug development, protein design and genome sequence analysis. Recently, high-throughput sequencing has been coupled to assays of protein activity, enabling the analysis of large numbers of mutations in parallel. We present Enrich, a tool for analyzing such deep mutational scanning data. Enrich identifies all unique variants (mutants) of a protein in high-throughput sequencing datasets and can correct for sequencing errors using overlapping paired-end reads. Enrich uses the frequency of each variant before and after selection to calculate an enrichment ratio, which is used to estimate fitness. Enrich provides an interactive interface to guide users. It generates user-accessible output for downstream analyses as well as several visualizations of the effects of mutation on function, thereby allowing the user to rapidly quantify and comprehend sequence–function relationships. Availability and Implementation: Enrich is implemented in Python and is available under a FreeBSD license at http://depts.washington.edu/sfields/software/enrich/. Enrich includes detailed documentation as well as a small example dataset. Contact: dfowler@uw.edu; fields@uw.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22006916

  2. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

  3. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  4. A direct comparison of next generation sequencing enrichment methods using an aortopathy gene panel- clinical diagnostics perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aortopathies are a group of disorders characterized by aneurysms, dilation, and tortuosity of the aorta. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of diseases featuring aortopathy, molecular testing is often required for timely and correct diagnosis of affected individuals. In this setting next generation sequencing (NGS) offers several advantages over traditional molecular techniques. Methods The purpose of our study was to compare NGS enrichment methods for a clinical assay targeting the nine genes known to be associated with aortopathy. RainDance emulsion PCR and SureSelect RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment methods were directly compared by enriching DNA from eight samples. Enriched samples were barcoded, pooled, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Depth of coverage, consistency of coverage across samples, and the overlap of variants identified were assessed. This data was also compared to whole-exome sequencing data from ten individuals. Results Read depth was greater and less variable among samples that had been enriched using the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment method. In addition, samples enriched by hybridization capture had fewer exons with mean coverage less than 10, reducing the need for followup Sanger sequencing. Variants sets produced were 77% concordant, with both techniques yielding similar numbers of discordant variants. Conclusions When comparing the design flexibility, performance, and cost of the targeted enrichment methods to whole-exome sequencing, the RNA-bait hybridization capture enrichment gene panel offers the better solution for interrogating the aortopathy genes in a clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23148498

  5. Stable isotope enrichment in stratospheric nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, T.; Wahlen, M.

    1997-12-05

    Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that also plays a role in the cycling of stratospheric ozone. Air samples from the lower stratosphere exhibit {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O enrichment in nitrous oxide, which can be accounted for with a simple model describing an irreversible destruction process. The observed enrichments are quite large and incompatible with those determined for the main stratospheric nitrous oxide loss processes of photolysis and reaction with excited atomic oxygen. Thus, although no stratospheric source needs to be invoked, the data indicate that present understanding of stratospheric nitrous oxide chemistry is incomplete. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  7. Experimental studies of magmatic differentiation of phosphor enriched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Pavel; Bezmen, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    At 800oC and under 200 MPa pressure of the H-O-C fluid system in the moderate reducing conditions (stability of magnetite) in the phosphor enriched Li-F granite melts contained closely connected with natural concentrations of F, P2O5 and H2O the superliquidus nano-cluster cryptic and contrasting layering of Qz-Fsp type is generated. The Sn and W in the experimental samples as well as in the phosphor enriched Li-F granite system of the Podlesi, Czech Republic are concentrated in the melts enriched by F and P2O5.The experiments were carried out in the internally heated gas high pressure vessel. The initial charges were homogeneous glasses obtained by melting of Podlesi Li-F granite system middle composition. The improved Shaw membrane technique is useful to control in experiments the hydrogen content of the fluid phase. The hydrogen fugacity was controlled by an argon-hydrogen mixture in the Re-reactor and was 0.12 MPa. At the interaction of phosphorus and fluorine with Podlesi Li-F granite melt in the presence of H-O-C system fluid in the absence of the thermal gradient and constancy of all other thermodynamic parameters, these develop cryptic layering, a gradual alteration of liquid composition along the sample height and appearance of layers ("lenses") enriched by silica. The origin of heterogeneities is connected to the formation of fluctuating more ordered structures-nano-clusters, which exchange particles and energy with matrix of melt. The depolymerization of melt affects the cluster formation. The degree of silicate melt depolymerization is stipulated by dissolution in the latter of volatiles, specially of hydrogen, phosphorus and fluorine: their presence increases water solubility and depolymerization. The behaviour of clusters cannot be predicted by "classical" chemical principles: various studies on such diverse properties as ionization potentials and nearest neighbour distance has shown that the values for clusters of an element is intermediate between

  8. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Preparation, 75 FR 1819 (January 13, 2010). Documents related to this notice are available on the NRC's GE... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted...

  9. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... considering the issuance of a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use...

  10. Robotic design for an automated uranium solution enrichment system

    SciTech Connect

    Horley, E.C.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Biddle, R.S.; Bronisz, L.E.; Hansen, W.J.; Li, T.K.; Sampson, T.E.; Walton, G.

    1990-01-01

    A method to automate solution enrichment analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both passive and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses will be remotely performed to determine the amounts of {sup 235}U and total uranium in sample containers. A commercial laboratory robot will be used to process up to 40 batch and 8 priority samples in an unattended mode. Samples will be read by a bar-code reader to determine measurement requirements, then assayed by either or both of the gamma-ray and XRF instruments. The robot will be responsible for moving the sample containers and operating all shield doors and shutters. In addition to reducing hardware complexity, this feature will also allow manual operation of the instruments if the robot fails. This automated system will reduce personnel radiation exposure and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements.

  11. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yi; Wu, Si; Zhao, Rui; Zink, Erika M.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Meng, Da; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2013-06-05

    Enrichment of bacterial phosphopeptides is an essential step prior to bottom-up mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome, which is fundamental to understanding the role of phosphoproteins in cell signaling and regulation of protein activity. We developed an automated IMAC system to enrich strong cation exchange-fractionated phosphopeptides from the soluble proteome of Escherichia coli MG1655 grown on minimal medium. Initial demonstration of the system resulted in identification of 75 phosphopeptides covering 52 phosphoproteins. Consistent with previous studies, many of these phosphoproteins are involved in the carbohydrate portion of central metabolism. The automated system utilizes a large capacity IMAC column that can effectively enrich phosphopeptides from a bacterial sample by increasing peptide loading and reducing the wash time. An additional benefit of the automated IMAC system is reduced labor and associated costs.

  12. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--HOME ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN HOME ECONOMICS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  13. Computer Enrichment Handbook [and] Supplement A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bonnie Roe, Ed.; And Others

    This handbook contains computer-related, classroom-tested ideas that were contributed by business education teachers and administrators to fuse computer information into computer and noncomputer courses. An alphabetical listing of contributors identifies the category/categories in which their enrichment idea can be found. The contributions are…

  14. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the high school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: applications of the microcomputer in mathematics; the fourth dimension and…

  15. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  16. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  17. American Indian Enrichment Activities. Mini-Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnick, Sally

    Focusing on American Indians, this annotated bibliography covers a variety of resources for enriching multicultural education in the elementary classroom and includes limited information about Mexican Americans, Blacks, and other cultural groups. Each of the 26 entries provides a descriptive annotation and indicates where the material can be…

  18. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  19. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  20. The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Diane; Raggi, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness (POWER's) unique and innovative curriculum recruits and sustains nontraditional students interested in preparing for employment or continued studies in an institution of higher education. The program specifically targets persons in mental health recovery. Students attend college during a regular…

  1. Creating Enrichment Trips for Your Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Robert M.; Parker, James L. F.

    The paper describes "enrichment trips" in which disadvantaged handicapped students travel to various parts of the country to broaden students' awareness. Students had to earn their way through regular attendance, appropriate school behavior, academic achievement, and active participation in fund raising for the trip. Students and teachers worked…

  2. The Effects of Early Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Ogston, Karen; Roberts, Gloria; Swenson, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Over two decades, six studies evaluated the effects of a home-based early language program on the development of 101 infants. Parents engaged in enrichment activities with their infants over a one-year period that began when the infants were between three and 13 months of age. Participants from families with varied levels of education were…

  3. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  4. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the middle school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: microcomputer programs; divisibility; magic squares; pentominoes; the…

  5. How to Enrich Geometry Using String Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Victoria

    This book presents activities developed for grades 6-10 in creating string designs on polygons and polyhedra. They are designed for use as enrichment materials, each having step-by-step instructions and are arranged from easiest to most difficult, and marked accordingly. The pages are punched and perforated. Many activities are followed by related…

  6. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  7. Enriched Career Search [and] Description of Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David

    Some problems encountered by gifted students in career counseling are discussed and a program, Enriched Career Search, is suggested for alleviating those problems. Noted among career search problems related to the gifted are career tests that are not geared to the multi-talented student's unconventional career aspirations and rejection of careers…

  8. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  9. On Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Hur, Meir, Ed.

    On the premise that all children can learn, Reuven Feuerstein developed a classroom curriculum designed to build the cognitive functions of students diagnosed by others as incapable of learning. His program, Instrumental Enrichment (IE), provides students with the concepts, skills, strategies, operations, and techniques necessary to become…

  10. Enrichment as a Part of Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldorf, Dale

    1984-01-01

    The program outlined in the article indicates how enrichment and gifted education can be combined to maximize the learning experiences and opportunities for bright and gifted learners. Four examples of pilot programs are offered, including one on water management in an urban wilderness park. (Author/CL)

  11. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  12. Drama in English: An Enriching Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Mitzi

    1998-01-01

    Examines the rationale behind using musical drama in English-as-a-Second-Language classes, explaining that it is an enjoyable experience that enriches students' English while they are relaxed, working as a team, and having fun with their imaginations. The article explains the process of putting on a play and evaluates the effect such a project had…

  13. Optimized construction of microsatellite-enriched libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The construction of simple sequence repeat (SSR) libraries is an indispensable tool to search for molecular markers as complete genome sequences are still not available for the majority of species of interest. Numerous protocols are available in the literature for the construction of SSR-enriched l...

  14. Environmental Enrichment Duration Differentially Affects Behavior and Neuroplasticity in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Leger, Marianne; Paizanis, Eleni; Dzahini, Kwamivi; Quiedeville, Anne; Bouet, Valentine; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Freret, Thomas; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Boulouard, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Environmental enrichment is a powerful way to stimulate brain and behavioral plasticity. However the required exposure duration to reach such changes has not been substantially analyzed. We aimed to assess the time-course of appearance of the beneficial effects of enriched environment. Thus, different behavioral tests and neurobiological parameters (such as neurogenesis, brain monoamines levels, and stress-related hormones) were concomitantly realized after different durations of enriched environment (24 h, 1, 3, or 5 weeks). While short enrichment exposure (24 h) was sufficient to improve object recognition memory performances, a 3-week exposure was required to improve aversive stimulus-based memory performances and to reduce anxiety-like behavior; effects that were not observed with longer duration. The onset of behavioral changes after a 3-week exposure might be supported by higher serotonin levels in the frontal cortex, but seems independent of neurogenesis phenomenon. Additionally, the benefit of 3-week exposure on memory was not observed 3 weeks after cessation of enrichment. Thus, the 3-week exposure appears as an optimal duration in order to induce the most significant behavioral effects and to assess the underlying mechanisms. Altogether, these results suggest that the duration of exposure is a keystone of the beneficial behavioral and neurobiological effects of environmental enrichment. PMID:24904072

  15. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study effects of O2-enriched intake air on performance and NO emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. Parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the O2-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of O2 enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in 13% increase in net engine power when intake air with 28 vol% O2 is used and fuel injection timing retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in only 4% improvement in power. If part of the higher exhaust enthalpies from the O2 enrichment is recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met. O2 enrichment with its higher combustion temperatures reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to 3 times at 26% O2 content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of O2 enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  16. Effective bioleaching of chromium in tannery sludge with an enriched sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Kida, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sulfur-oxidizing community was enriched from activated sludge generated in tannery wastewater treatment plants. Bioleaching of tannery sludge containing 0.9-1.2% chromium was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the enriched community, the effect of chromium binding forms on bioleaching efficiency, and the dominant microbes contributing to chromium bioleaching. Sludge samples inoculated with the enriched community presented 79.9-96.8% of chromium leaching efficiencies, much higher than those without the enriched community. High bioleaching efficiencies of over 95% were achieved for chromium in reducible fraction, while 60.9-97.9% were observed for chromium in oxidizable and residual fractions. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, the predominant bacteria in the enriched community, played an important role in bioleaching, whereas some indigenous heterotrophic species in sludge might have had a supporting role. The results indicated that A. thiooxidans-dominant enriched microbial community had high chromium bioleaching efficiency, and chromium binding forms affected the bioleaching performance. PMID:27434303

  17. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  18. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  19. Short-Term Feeding of Fibre-Enriched Biscuits: Protective Effect against Hepatotoxicity in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Adeboyejo, Folasade O; Oladunmoye, Olufunmilola O; Aliyu, Muhammad; Obode, Okukwe C; Olasehinde, Tosin; Elemo, Gloria N

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fibre-enriched biscuit on biomarkers associated with hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats were investigated. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. Treatment lasted for 14 days after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood serum was analyzed to determine hepatic function enzymes. The liver was also analyzed to determine hepatic lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. Induction of diabetes led to elevated levels of ALP, AST, and ALT. These were, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the fibre-enriched biscuit fed (treated) group. There was no significant difference in the serum bilirubin and total protein levels of the studied groups. Reduced albumin level was observed in the diabetic group; this was further lowered on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuits. Induction of diabetes led to increased hepatic level of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and HDL level. These were significantly (p < 0.05) reversed on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuit. This study portrays the protective effect of fibre-enriched biscuit on increased oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in hepatic tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:26713163

  20. Short-Term Feeding of Fibre-Enriched Biscuits: Protective Effect against Hepatotoxicity in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erukainure, Ochuko L.; Ebuehi, Osaretin A. T.; Adeboyejo, Folasade O.; Oladunmoye, Olufunmilola O.; Obode, Okukwe C.; Olasehinde, Tosin; Elemo, Gloria N.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fibre-enriched biscuit on biomarkers associated with hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats were investigated. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. Treatment lasted for 14 days after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood serum was analyzed to determine hepatic function enzymes. The liver was also analyzed to determine hepatic lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. Induction of diabetes led to elevated levels of ALP, AST, and ALT. These were, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the fibre-enriched biscuit fed (treated) group. There was no significant difference in the serum bilirubin and total protein levels of the studied groups. Reduced albumin level was observed in the diabetic group; this was further lowered on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuits. Induction of diabetes led to increased hepatic level of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and HDL level. These were significantly (p < 0.05) reversed on feeding with fibre-enriched biscuit. This study portrays the protective effect of fibre-enriched biscuit on increased oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in hepatic tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:26713163

  1. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  2. Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinjoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

  3. Degradation of dicamba by an anaerobic consortium enriched from wetland soil.

    PubMed Central

    Taraban, R H; Berry, D F; Berry, D A; Walker, H L

    1993-01-01

    The biodegradability of dicamba was investigated under anaerobic conditions with a consortium enriched from wetland soil. Degradation proceeded through an initial demethylation reaction, forming 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid, followed by reductive dechlorination, forming 6-chlorosalicylic acid. The consortium, consisting of a sulfate reducer, three methanogens, and a fermenter, was unable to mineralize the aromatic ring. PMID:8357265

  4. Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in captive cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C E; Rupniak, N M; Iversen, S D

    1988-01-01

    Autoaggression and stereotypies in individually housed cynomolgus monkeys were compared in a standard primate cage and an enriched playpen environment. Stereotypy and autoaggression were markedly reduced in the playpen, but reappeared on return to the home cage. Some of the various activities available in the playpen but not others engaged the animals' attention. PMID:3230581

  5. Stability Study of the RERTR Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Gan; Dennis Keiser; Brandon Miller; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    The irradiation stability of the interaction phases at the interface of fuel and Al alloy matrix as well as the stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice is believed to be very important to the U-Mo fuel performance. In this paper the recent result from TEM characterization of Kr ion irradiated U-10Mo-5Zr alloy will be discussed. The focus will be on the phase stability of Mo2-Zr, a dominated second phase developed at the interface of U-10Mo and the Zr barrier in a monolithic fuel plate from fuel fabrication. The Kr ion irradiations were conducted at a temperature of 200 degrees C to an ion fluence of 2.0E+16 ions/cm2. To investigate the thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice, a key microstructural feature in both irradiated dispersion U-7Mo fuel and monolithic U-10Mo fuel, a FIB-TEM sample of the irradiated U-10Mo fuel (3.53E+21 fission/cm3) was used for a TEM in-situ heating experiment. The preliminary result showed extraordinary thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice. The implication of the TEM observation from these two experiments on the fuel microstructural evolution under irradiation will be discussed.

  6. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ☉} and 2.36 M {sub ☉} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  7. High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

    2004-11-17

    The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  8. REEF: searching REgionally Enriched Features in genomes

    PubMed Central

    Coppe, Alessandro; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Background In Eukaryotic genomes, different features including genes are not uniformly distributed. The integration of annotation information and genomic position of functional DNA elements in the Eukaryotic genomes opened the way to test novel hypotheses of higher order genome organization and regulation of expression. Results REEF is a new tool, aimed at identifying genomic regions enriched in specific features, such as a class or group of genes homogeneous for expression and/or functional characteristics. The method for the calculation of local feature enrichment uses test statistic based on the Hypergeometric Distribution applied genome-wide by using a sliding window approach and adopting the False Discovery Rate for controlling multiplicity. REEF software, source code and documentation are freely available at . Conclusion REEF can aid to shed light on the role of organization of specific genomic regions in the determination of their functional role. PMID:17042935

  9. Development Issues on Linked Data Weblog Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rube, Iván; Cornejo, Carlos M.; Dodero, Juan Manuel; García, Vicente M.

    In this paper, we describe the issues found during the development of LinkedBlog, a Linked Data extension for WordPress blogs. This extension enables to enrich text-based and video information contained in blog entries with RDF triples that are suitable to be stored, managed and exploited by other web-based applications. The issues have to do with the generality, usability, tracking, depth, security, trustiness and performance of the linked data enrichment process. The presented annotation approach aims at maintaining web-based contents independent from the underlying ontological model, by providing a loosely coupled RDFa-based approach in the linked data application. Finally, we detail how the performance of annotations can be improved through a semantic reasoner.

  10. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of a marine bacterial community enriched with dimethylsulfoniopropionate.

    PubMed

    Vila-Costa, Maria; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M; Sun, Shulei; Sharma, Shalabh; Poretsky, Rachel; Moran, Mary Ann

    2010-11-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important source of reduced sulfur and carbon for marine microbial communities, as well as the precursor of the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). In this study, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to analyze gene expression profiles of a bacterial assemblage from surface waters at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station with and without a short-term enrichment of DMSP (25 nM for 30 min). An average of 303 143 reads were obtained per treatment using 454 pyrosequencing technology, of which 51% were potential protein-encoding sequences. Transcripts from Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased in relative abundance on DMSP addition, yet there was little change in the contribution of two bacterioplankton groups whose cultured members harbor known DMSP degradation genes, Roseobacter and SAR11. The DMSP addition led to an enrichment of transcripts supporting heterotrophic activity, and a depletion of those encoding light-related energy generation. Genes for the degradation of C3 compounds were significantly overrepresented after DMSP addition, likely reflecting the metabolism of the C3 component of DMSP. Mapping these transcripts to known biochemical pathways indicated that both acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA may be common entry points of this moiety into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In a short time frame (30 min) in the extremely oligotrophic Sargasso Sea, different gene expression patterns suggest the use of DMSP by a diversity of marine bacterioplankton as both carbon and sulfur sources. PMID:20463763

  12. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  13. Metal Enrichment in the Reionization Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Andrea

    Heavy elements are important constituents of the Universe predominantly produced by massive stars during their evolution. Massive stars are also considered to be primary sources of the ionizing radiation required to power cosmic reionization. Therefore, an intimate link between metal and ionizing photon production must exist. In this chapter, I elaborate on this concept, outlining the basic ingredients necessary to model metal enrichment and interpret experimental data. I conclude with a brief overview of recent theoretical and observational progresses in the field.

  14. [Enriched and functional foodstuffs: similarities and differences].

    PubMed

    Mazo, V K; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Zilova, I S

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of fortified and functional foods on such parameters as destination, food group, the principles of enrichment with vitamins and/or macro- and micronutrients, doses and forms of vitamins and minerals, hygienic regulations of micronutrients usage and content in the final product, regulatory and technical documentation, duration of application, effectiveness, labeling, information for consumers has been carried out. Insufficiency and the need to improve the regulatory framework for functional foods are noted. PMID:22642167

  15. Microbial Community Dynamics of Lactate Enriched Hanford Groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Drake, Meghan M.; Carroll, Susan L.; Yang, Zamin K.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Stephen D.; Podar, Mircea; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy site at Hanford, WA, has been historically impacted by U and Cr from the nuclear weapons industry. In an attempt to stimulate microbial remediation of these metals, in-situ lactate enrichment experiments are ongoing. In order to bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, we inoculated triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors with groundwater collected from well Hanford 100-H in order to obtain a stable, enriched community while selecting for metal-reducing bacteria. Each reactor was fed from a single carboy containing defined media with 30 mM lactate at a rate of 0.223 ml/min under continuous nitrogen flow at 9 ml/min. Cell counts, organic acids, gDNA (for qPCR and pyrosequencing) and gases were sampled during the experiment. Cell counts remained low (less than 1x107 cells/ml) during the first two weeks of the experiment, but by day 20, had reached a density greater than 1x108 cells/ml. Metabolite analysis showed a decrease in the lactate concentrations over time. Pyruvate concentrations ranged from 20-40 uM the first week of the experiment then was undetectable after day 10. Likewise, formate appeared in the reactors during the first week with concentrations of 1.48-1.65 mM at day 7 then the concentrations decreased to 0.69-0.95 on day 10 and were undetectable on day 15. Acetate was present in low amounts on day 3 (0.15-0.33 mM) and steadily increased to 3.35-5.22 mM over time. Similarly, carbon dioxide was present in low concentrations early on and increased to 0.28-0.35 mM as the experiment progressed. We also were able to detect low amounts of methane (10-20 uM) during the first week of the experiment, but by day 10 the methane was undetectable. From these results and pyrosequencing analysis, we conclude that a shift in the microbial community dynamics occurred over time to eventually form a stable and enriched microbial community. Comprehensive investigations such as these allow for the examination of not only which

  16. Enriching Earthdata by Improving Content Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwell, R.; Wong, M. M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the launch of Earthdata in the later part of 2011, there has been an emphasis on improving the user experience and providing more enriched content to the user, ultimately with the focus to bring the "pixels to the people" or to ensure that a user clicks the fewest amount of times to get to the data, tools, or information which they seek. Earthdata was founded to be a single source of information for Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) components and services as a conglomeration between over 15 different websites. With an increased focus on access to Earth science data, the recognition is now on transforming Earthdata from a static website to one that is a dynamic, data-driven site full of enriched content.In the near future, Earthdata will have a number of components that will drive the access to the data, such as Earthdata Search, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR), and a redesign of the Earthdata website. The focus on content curation will be to leverage the use of these components to provide an enriched content environment and a better overall user experience, with an emphasis on Earthdata being "powered by EOSDIS" components and services.

  17. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  18. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  19. Dissolution of oxygen-enriched Zircaloy-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarsson, M.; Ahlberg, E.; Pettersson, K.

    2001-10-01

    When metal is removed from oxidised Zircaloy specimens in order to study the morphology of the oxide at the metal-oxide interface needle-like features are frequently observed. Since similar features are not observed in cross-section TEM examinations it has been questioned whether or not the needles are a result of the dissolution process. In particular it has been proposed that reprecipitation of oxide may take place when the metal is enriched with oxygen. In the present work oxygen-enriched Zircaloy has been dissolved and the resulting structures examined. The results indicate that the needles are in fact artefacts of the specimen preparation procedure. However, there are no significant differences between oxygen-enriched and normal Zircaloy below an oxide layer grown in steam at about 400 °C. In view of the differences between the needle structure observed after metal removal with bromine or by electropolishing and removal by HF-HNO 3 pickling solution it is speculated that the needles consist of a hydrous zirconium oxide which is unstable in the pickling solution.

  20. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.

  1. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.H.; Yi, A.C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize `waverider` aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight. 5 refs.

  2. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for Heavy Element Enrichment in ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Amanda; Shingles, Luke; Doherty, Carolyn Louise; Lattanzio, John; Fabiola Marino, Anna; Nataf, David

    2015-08-01

    Globular clusters are now known to harbour helium-rich stellar populations. While the stars we see today are all low mass, there were once stars of all mass ranges born in clusters with helium mass fractions up to Y ≈ 0.40. However, the effect of helium enrichment on the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of evolved intermediate-mass stars is still relatively unexplored. We calculate evolutionary sequences of intermediate-mass stars of low metallicity (M=1.7 to 6M⊙, Z = 0.0006 or [Fe/H] = -1.4) at primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enhanced compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40).We find the following: 1) The lifetime of helium-enriched stars is reduced by up to 50% compared to their helium normal counterparts, allowing for low-mass AGB stars to contribute to the chemical evolution of globular clusters; 2) The stellar yields of carbon, and heavy-elements typicallyproduced by low-mass AGB stars (e.g., Ba, La) decrease by ~50% in helium enriched models. 3) The initial mass required for carbon burning (and the transition to super AGB stars with ONe cores) at this metallicity is reduced from Mup > 6M⊙ at Y = 0.24 to Mup = 4.5 ± 0.5M⊙ at Y = 0.40. This will reduce the minimum mass for core collapse supernovae and increase the number of neutron stars. 4) The stellar yields of the helium-rich intermediate-mass stars with proton capture nucleosynthesis at the base of the envelope also decreases, with the most massive 6M⊙ model with Y = 0.40 experiencing almost no third dredge-up. The one exception is the 3M⊙ models, which produce more Ba, La, Ce, and Pb at Y = 0.40 than at Y = 0.24 due to the doubling of the number of thermal pulses.In this talk we present some highlights of our results along with a discussion of the implications for the formation of massive globular clusters.

  4. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Benz, Jacob M.; Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2010-08-11

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has pioneered the use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology for use in personnel dosimetry and high dose radiation processing dosimetry. PNNL has developed and patented an alumina-based OSL dosimeter that is being used by the majority of medical X-ray and imaging technicians worldwide. PNNL has conceived of using OSL technology to passively measure the level of UF6 enrichment by attaching the prototype OSL monitor to pipes containing UF6 gas within an enrichment facility. The prototype OSL UF6 monitor utilizes a two-element approach with the first element open and unfiltered to measure both the low energy and high energy gammas from the UF6, while the second element utilizes a 3-mm thick tungsten filter to eliminate the low energy gammas and pass only the high energy gammas from the UF6. By placing a control monitor in the room away from the UF6 pipes and other ionizing radiation sources, the control readings can be subtracted from the UF6 pipe monitor measurements. The ratio of the shielded to the unshielded net measurements provides a means to estimate the level of uranium enrichment. PNNL has replaced the commercially available MicroStar alumina-based dosimeter elements with a composite of polyethylene plastic, high-Z glass powder, and BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor powder at various concentrations. The high-Z glass was added in an attempt to raise the average “Z” of the composite dosimeter and increase the response. Additionally, since BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor is optimally excited and emits light at different wavelengths compared to alumina, the commercially available MicroStar reader was modified for reading BaFBr:Eu in a parallel effort to increase reader sensitivity. PNNL will present the design and performance of our novel OSL uranium enrichment monitor based on a combination of laboratory and UF6 test loop measurements. PNNL will also report on the optimization effort to achieve the highest possible

  5. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can

  6. Impacts of CO2 Enrichment on Productivity and Light Requirements of Eelgrass.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, R. C.; Kohrs, D. G.; Steller, D. L.; Alberte, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    Seagrasses, although well adapted for submerged existence, are CO2-limited and photosynthetically inefficient in seawater. This leads to high light requirements for growth and survival and makes seagrasses vulnerable to light limitation. We explored the long-term impact of increased CO2 availability on light requirements, productivity, and C allocation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Enrichment of seawater CO2 increased photosynthesis 3-fold, but had no long-term impact on respiration. By tripling the rate of light-saturated photosynthesis, CO2 enrichment reduced the daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (Hsat) that is required for the maintenance of positive whole-plant C balance from 7 to 2.7 h, allowing plants maintained under 4 h of Hsat to perform like plants growing in unenriched seawater with 12 h of Hsat. Eelgrass grown under 4 h of Hsat without added CO2 consumed internal C reserves as photosynthesis rates and chlorophyll levels dropped. Growth ceased after 30 d. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll, and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity of CO2-enriched plants showed no acclimation to prolonged enrichment. Thus, the CO2-stimulated improvement in photosynthesis reduced light requirements in the long term, suggesting that globally increasing CO2 may enhance seagrass survival in eutrophic coastal waters, where populations have been devastated by algal proliferation and reduced water-column light transparency. PMID:12223828

  7. Systems approach used in the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rooks, W.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A requirement exists for effective and efficient transfer of technical knowledge from the design engineering team to the production work force. Performance-Based Training (PBT) is a systematic approach to the design, development, and implementation of technical training. This approach has been successfully used by the US Armed Forces, industry, and other organizations. The advantages of the PBT approach are: cost-effectiveness (lowest life-cycle training cost), learning effectiveness, reduced implementation time, and ease of administration. The PBT process comprises five distinctive and rigorous phases: Analysis of Job Performance, Design of Instructional Strategy, Development of Training Materials and Instructional Media, Validation of Materials and Media, and Implementation of the Instructional Program. Examples from the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) are used to illustrate the application of PBT.

  8. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) storage and disposition program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Arms, W.M.; Everitt, D.A.; O`Dell, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in international relations and other changes in national priorities have profoundly affected the management of weapons-usable fissile materials within the United States (US). The nuclear weapon stockpile reductions agreed to by the US and Russia have reduced the national security requirements for these fissile materials. National policies outlined by the US President seek to prevent the accumulation of nuclear weapon stockpiles of plutonium (Pu) and HEU, and to ensure that these materials are subjected to the highest standards of safety, security and international accountability. The purpose of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Storage and Disposition Program Plan is to define and establish a planned approach for storage of all HEU and disposition of surplus HEU in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Material Disposition Program. Elements Of this Plan, which are specific to HEU storage and disposition, include program requirements, roles and responsibilities, program activities (action plans), milestone schedules, and deliverables.

  9. Association of Lifetime Intellectual Enrichment with Cognitive Decline in the Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Machulda, Mary; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Geda, Yonas E.; Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Intellectual lifestyle enrichment throughout life is increasingly viewed as a protective strategy against commonly observed cognitive decline in the elderly. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of lifetime intellectual enrichment with baseline cognitive performance and rate of cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population and to estimate difference (in years) associated with lifetime intellectual enrichment to the onset of cognitive impairment. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS Prospective analysis of subjects enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA), a longitudinal population-based study of cognitive aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We studied 1995 non-demented (1718 cognitively normal, 277 MCI) participants in MCSA who completed intellectual lifestyle measures at baseline and underwent at least one follow-up visit. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We studied the effect of lifetime intellectual enrichment by separating the variables into two non-overlapping principal components: education/occupation-score and mid/late-life cognitive activity measure based on self-report questionnaires. A global cognitive Z-score served as our summary cognition measure. We used linear mixed-effects models to investigate the associations of demographic and intellectual enrichment measures with global cognitive Z-score trajectories. RESULTS Baseline cognitive performance was lower in older subjects and in those with lower education/occupation, lower mid/late-life cognitive activity, apolipoprotein E4 (APOE) genotype, and in men. The interaction between the two intellectual enrichment measures was significant such that the beneficial effect of mid/late-life cognitive activity on baseline cognitive performance was reduced with increasing education/occupation. Only baseline age, mid/late-life cognitive activity, and APOE4 genotype were significantly associated with longitudinal change in cognitive performance from baseline. For APOE4 carriers with high

  10. Environmental enrichment attenuates nicotine behavioral sensitization in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Elliott, Brenda M; Berger, Sarah Shafer; Grunberg, Neil E

    2014-08-01

    Environmental enrichment decreases nicotine reactivity in male rats, but these effects have not been examined in females. This research was conducted to examine the effects of enrichment on nicotine behavioral sensitization (i.e., nicotine reactivity) in male and female rats. One hundred forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats (72 male, 72 female) were raised in isolation, social enrichment (groups of three rats [SE]), or combined physical enrichment and social enrichment (groups of three rats with novel toys [PESE]) housing conditions. As adults, they received daily subcutaneous injections of saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg) for 12 days; locomotor activity was measured on drug days 1, 5, 9, and 12. Before drug administration, PESE and SE decreased activity in males; only PESE decreased activity in females, F(2, 120) = 6.51, p < .01. In the drug phase, nicotine behavioral sensitization occurred, F(8.46, 341.04) = 20.71, p < .001, and was greater in females than males, F(8.340, 319.715) = 2.072, p < .05. Enrichment decreased nicotine behavioral sensitization in both sexes, F(16.91, 341.04) = 2.48, p < .01. In conclusion, nicotine behavioral sensitization occurred in male and female rats and was attenuated by environmental enrichment. This research has implications for treatment and prevention strategies in humans. Programs that incorporate aspects of social and environmental stimulation may have enhanced effectiveness in preventing and reducing cigarette smoking and may have implications for relapse prevention. PMID:24956172

  11. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272640

  12. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  13. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26883530

  14. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients.

    PubMed

    Fay, Philip A; Newingham, Beth A; Polley, H Wayne; Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere will continue to be enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming century. Carbon dioxide enrichment often reduces leaf transpiration, which in water-limited ecosystems may increase soil water content, change species abundances and increase the productivity of plant communities. The effect of increased soil water on community productivity and community change may be greater in ecosystems with lower precipitation, or on coarser-textured soils, but responses are likely absent in deserts. We tested correlations among yearly increases in soil water content, community change and community plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in experiments in a mesic grassland with fine- to coarse-textured soils, a semi-arid grassland and a xeric shrubland. We found no correlation between CO2-caused changes in soil water content and changes in biomass of dominant plant taxa or total community aboveground biomass in either grassland type or on any soil in the mesic grassland (P > 0.60). Instead, increases in dominant taxa biomass explained up to 85 % of the increases in total community biomass under CO2 enrichment. The effect of community change on community productivity was stronger in the semi-arid grassland than in the mesic grassland, where community biomass change on one soil was not correlated with the change in either the soil water content or the dominant taxa. No sustained increases in soil water content or community productivity and no change in dominant plant taxa occurred in the xeric shrubland. Thus, community change was a crucial driver of community productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in the grasslands, but effects of soil water change on productivity were not evident in yearly responses to CO2 enrichment. Future research is necessary to isolate and clarify the mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial variations in the linkages among soil water, community change and plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment. PMID

  15. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  16. Error reduction in gamma-spectrometric measurements of nuclear materials enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplatkina, D.; Semenov, A.; Tarasova, E.; Zakusilov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.

    2016-06-01

    The paper provides the analysis of the uncertainty in determining the uranium samples enrichment using non-destructive methods to ensure the functioning of the nuclear materials accounting and control system. The measurements were performed by a scintillation detector based on a sodium iodide crystal and the semiconductor germanium detector. Samples containing uranium oxide of different masses were used for the measurements. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the maximum enrichment error in a scintillation detector measurement can reach 82%. The bias correction, calculated from the data obtained by the semiconductor detector, reduces the error in the determination of uranium enrichment by 47.2% in average. Thus, the use of bias correction, calculated by the statistical methods, allows the use of scintillation detectors to account and control nuclear materials.

  17. DNA methylation outliers in normal breast tissue identify field defects that are enriched in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Gao, Yang; Jones, Allison; Ruebner, Matthias; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Wachter, David L.; Fasching, Peter A.; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular alterations in normal tissue adjacent to cancer is important for understanding cancer aetiology and designing preventive measures. Here we analyse the DNA methylome of 569 breast tissue samples, including 50 from cancer-free women and 84 from matched normal cancer pairs. We use statistical algorithms for dissecting intra- and inter-sample cellular heterogeneity and demonstrate that normal tissue adjacent to breast cancer is characterized by tens to thousands of epigenetic alterations. We show that their genomic distribution is non-random, being strongly enriched for binding sites of transcription factors specifying chromatin architecture. We validate the field defects in an independent cohort and demonstrate that over 30% of the alterations exhibit increased enrichment within matched cancer samples. Breast cancers highly enriched for epigenetic field defects, exhibit adverse clinical outcome. Our data support a model where clonal epigenetic reprogramming towards reduced differentiation in normal tissue is an important step in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26823093

  18. Hydrophilic modification of titania nanomaterials as a biofunctional adsorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailong; Yang, Tianyi; Dai, Junyong; Zhu, Jiayu; Li, Xiaoran; Wen, Rui; Yang, Xinghao

    2015-10-01

    TiO2-based metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) nanomaterials show high potential in phosphoproteome mass-spectrometric (MS) analysis. However, a drawback of TiO2 nanomaterials is poor water solubility, which greatly reduces the enrichment efficiency of phosphopeptides and eventually limits their use in phosphoproteome MS analysis. In this work, a hydrophilic TiO2 hybrid material (denoted as NH2@TiO2) is successfully designed with 1,6-hexanediamine modified on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles and applied as a biofunctional adsorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The novel TiO2 hybrid material with high hydrophilicity and biocompatibility is characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and its performance in selective enrichment of phosphopeptides is evaluated with the standard protein digests, human serum and the tryptic digests of nonfat milk. PMID:26299437

  19. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  20. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  1. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  2. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  3. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  4. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  5. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched noodle products. (a) Enriched noodle products are the class of...

  6. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  7. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  8. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  9. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  10. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  11. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  12. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term...

  13. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  14. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  15. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  16. Marriage and Family Enrichment--A New Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, David

    1979-01-01

    Examines the enrichment process to determine if marriage and family enrichment constitute a new field in education and counseling. Results suggest that progressive improvement in quality of education and counseling for marriage and family may unite the field as they merge into enrichment. The process is defined with its relevant programs. (BEF)

  17. Effects of environmental enrichment on the incubation of cocaine craving

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Claudia; Goldberg, Steven R.; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during withdrawal periods reduces the risks of relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In this study, we investigated whether EE could prevent the development of time-dependent increases in cocaine-seeking behavior (incubation of craving). In addition, we investigated whether EE could eliminate already developed incubation and whether the effects of EE would last when enrichment is discontinued. For this, we allowed rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 daily 6h sessions and measured cocaine seeking 1, 30 and 60 days after the last self-administration session. In between these tests, rats were kept in forced abstinence and housed either in EE or standard environments (SE). Between day 30 and 60 of withdrawal, half of the rats in each group were maintained in their original environmental condition and the other half was switched to the other environmental condition. We found that exposure to EE prevents development of incubation of cocaine craving and eliminates already developed incubation. In addition, contrary to our expectations, when EE was discontinued, its positive effects on incubation of craving disappeared. These results indicate that EE can reduce cocaine seeking but only temporarily and questions the hypothesis that EE can permanently eliminate the neural consequences of exposure to drugs of abuse. Therefore, stimulating environments could have positive effects on the treatment of cocaine addiction only if they are maintained for long periods of abstinence that encompass the time-frame during which addicts are most vulnerable to relapse. PMID:22634364

  18. Environmental enrichment effects on the neurobehavioral profile of selective outbred trait anxiety rats

    PubMed Central

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.; Byrnes, John J.; McInnis, Christine; Park, Jin Ho; Donaldson, S. Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment attenuates the response to psychostimulants and has been shown to reduce both anxiety and stress-related behaviors. Since stress is a major vulnerability factor for addiction, we investigated whether enrichment could reverse stress profiles in high anxious rats as well as reduce their amphetamine sensitivity. Using selectively-bred high and low anxiety males (filial 3) from enriched, social or isolated environments, we tested elevated plus maze exploration, novelty place preference and amphetamine (AMPH; 0.5 mg/kg, IP)-induced hyperactivity. We measured plasma corticosterone (CORT) response after forced novel object exposure, phosphorylation of the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (pTrkB) in the hippocampus and striatum, and dopamine (D2) receptor mRNA levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Results indicate that high anxiety animals reared in social or enriched environments spent more time on open arms of the EPM while low anxiety animals raised in enriched environments spent more time on open arms when compared to either isolated or social groups. There were no group differences or interactions found for novelty place preference. Enriched environments decreased the response to AMPH and stress-induced CORT regardless of trait but selectively decreased pTrkB and increased D2 mRNA levels in high anxiety animals. The results suggest that selectively-bred trait anxiety rats show state anxiety that is influenced by rearing environments, and D2 protein levels and BDNF/TrkB signaling may differentially contribute to integrating these effects. PMID:23727174

  19. Sex differences after environmental enrichment and physical exercise in rats when solving a navigation task.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, V D; Rodríguez, C A; Sánchez, J; Mármol, F

    2016-09-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) and voluntary wheel running on the preference for using a landmark or pool geometry when solving a simple spatial task in adult male and female rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in same-sex pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of these two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals, and males and females did not differ. Enriched rats also performed better on subsequent test trials without the platform with the cues individually presented (either pool geometry or landmark). However, on a preference test without the platform, a clear sex difference was found: Females spent more time in an area of the pool that corresponded to the landmark, whereas males spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool. The present EE protocol did not alter females' preference for the landmark cue. The results agree with the claim that environmental enrichment is a consequence of a reduced anxiety response (measured by thigmotaxis) during cognitive testing. A possible implication of ancestral selection pressures is discussed. PMID:26511132

  20. Environmental enrichment protects against functional deficits caused by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica M; Traver, Kyle L; Hoffman, Stuart W; Harrison, Catherine R; Herman, James P

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) increases cortical weight, neuronal density, dendritic branching, and angiogenesis, all of which may be critical for functional recovery following insult. Our study was designed to determine possible benefits of pre-exposure to EE in preventing functional deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the prefrontal cortex. To examine the benefit of EE, adult male rats were placed in an enriched environment for 15 days. Enrichment was provided through social interaction, exercise, olfactory stimulation, and new objects/toys to explore. Following enrichment, experimental and age-matched controls were subjected to a moderate medial prefrontal cortex injury via controlled cortical impact (CCI). After 1 week recovery, animals were behaviorally tested to assess memory, anxiety, and sensory neglect. Lesion-induced deficits in spatial memory [Morris water maze (MWM)] were significantly attenuated in EE pre-exposed rats 18-21 days following injury. In addition, TBI-induced sensory neglect was significantly reduced in EE rats relative to non-enriched animals. No differences in anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) were detected. The behavioral data suggest that EE is neuroprotective when applied prior to TBI, resulting in improved recovery following injury. PMID:23734108

  1. Environmental enrichment protects against functional deficits caused by traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica M.; Traver, Kyle L.; Hoffman, Stuart W.; Harrison, Catherine R.; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) increases cortical weight, neuronal density, dendritic branching, and angiogenesis, all of which may be critical for functional recovery following insult. Our study was designed to determine possible benefits of pre-exposure to EE in preventing functional deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the prefrontal cortex. To examine the benefit of EE, adult male rats were placed in an enriched environment for 15 days. Enrichment was provided through social interaction, exercise, olfactory stimulation, and new objects/toys to explore. Following enrichment, experimental and age-matched controls were subjected to a moderate medial prefrontal cortex injury via controlled cortical impact (CCI). After 1 week recovery, animals were behaviorally tested to assess memory, anxiety, and sensory neglect. Lesion-induced deficits in spatial memory [Morris water maze (MWM)] were significantly attenuated in EE pre-exposed rats 18–21 days following injury. In addition, TBI-induced sensory neglect was significantly reduced in EE rats relative to non-enriched animals. No differences in anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) were detected. The behavioral data suggest that EE is neuroprotective when applied prior to TBI, resulting in improved recovery following injury. PMID:23734108

  2. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  3. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  4. The relationship between job enrichment and abdominal obesity: a longitudinal field study of apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Fried, Yitzhak; Laurence, Gregory A; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in modern society. However, there is a paucity of research about how job context affects obesity. To enhance our knowledge we used a large, heterogeneous sample of apparently healthy employees (n = 1,949) across two time periods with an average of close to 3.5 years between measures. We tested a hypothesized curvilinear effect of job enrichment on changes in two stress related indicators of abdominal obesity over time: waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Job enrichment consisted of the job dimensions of variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback, and in our analysis we controlled for demographics and health related behaviors, including weekly sports activity, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and weekly alcohol consumption. The results supported the hypothesized U-shaped relationship between job enrichment and changes in both indicators of abdominal obesity over time, such that the level of abdominal obesity was reduced when job enrichment was moderate and was increased when job enrichment was either high or low. As expected, no such association was observed for the general obesity measure of body mass index (BMI). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results. PMID:24001329

  5. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  6. Enrichment of microbial communities tolerant to the ionic liquids tetrabutylphosphonium chloride and tributylethylphosphonium diethylphosphate.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sara; Ceballos, Shannon J; Harrold, Duff; Stannard, Whitney; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Thelen, Michael P; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify thermophilic microbial communities that degrade green waste in the presence of the ionic liquids (IL) tetrabutylphosphonium chloride and tributylethylphosphonium diethylphosphate and examine preservation methods for IL-tolerant communities. High-solids incubations with stepwise increases in IL concentration were conducted to enrich for thermophilic IL-tolerant communities that decomposed green waste. 16S rRNA sequencing of enriched communities revealed microorganisms capable of tolerating high levels of IL. Cryogenic preservation of enriched communities reduced the IL tolerance of the community and decreased the relative abundance of IL-tolerant organisms. The use of cryoprotectants did not have an effect on microbial activity on green waste of the stored community. A successful approach was developed to enrich communities that decompose green waste in thermophilic high-solids environments in the presence of IL. Alternative community storage and revival methods are necessary for maintenance and recovery of IL-tolerant communities. The enriched communities provide a targeted source of enzymes for the bioconversion of IL-pretreated green waste for conversion to biofuels. PMID:27102129

  7. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Reimold, Benjamin A; Ward, Steven L; Howell, John

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  8. Post-weaning environmental enrichment alters affective responses and interacts with behavioral testing to alter nNOS immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Fonken, Laura K; Gusfa, James; Kassouf, Kathleen M; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-11-01

    Challenging early life events can dramatically affect mental health and wellbeing. Childhood trauma and neglect can increase the risk for developing depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Early maternal separation in rodents has been extensively studied and induces long-lasting alterations in affective and stress responses. However, other developmental periods (e.g., the pubertal period) comprise a critical window whereby social and environmental complexity can exert lasting changes on the brain and behavior. In this study, we tested whether early life environmental complexity impacts affective responses, aggressive behaviors, and expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, in adulthood. Mice were weaned into social+nonsocial enrichment, social only enrichment, or standard (isolated) laboratory environments and were tested in open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and resident-intruder aggression tests 60 days later. Social+nonsocial enrichment reduced locomotor behavior and anxiety-like responses in the open field and reduced depressive-like responses in the forced swim test. Social housing increased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Both social+nonsocial enrichment and social housing only reduced aggressive behaviors compared with isolation. Social+nonsocial enrichment also increased body mass gain throughout the study. Finally, socially-housed mice had reduced corticosterone concentrations compared with social+nonsocial-enriched mice. Behavioral testing reduced nNOS-positive neurons in the basolateral amygdala and the ventral lateral septum, but not in the social+nonsocial-enriched mice, suggesting that environmental complexity may buffer the brain against some environmental perturbations. PMID:21777607

  9. Enriched domain detector: a program for detection of wide genomic enrichment domains robust against local variations

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Eivind; Oldenburg, Anja R.; Collas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lamins contact the genome at the nuclear periphery through large domains and are involved in chromatin organization. Among broad peak calling algorithms available to date, none are suited for mapping lamin–genome interactions genome wide. We disclose a novel algorithm, enriched domain detector (EDD), for analysis of broad enrichment domains from chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq data. EDD enables discovery of genomic domains interacting with broadly distributed proteins, such as A- and B-type lamins affinity isolated by ChIP. The advantages of EDD over existing broad peak callers are sensitivity to domain width rather than enrichment strength at a particular site, and robustness against local variations. PMID:24782521

  10. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other... Immediately) I AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES), has applied to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... February 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael F. Weber, Director, Office of...

  11. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Facility), 74 FR 38,052, 38,054 (July 30, 2009) (CLI-09-15, 70 NRC 1, 7-8 (2009)). \\2\\ After conducting a... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock... operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  12. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  13. Nitrogen enrichment regulates calcium sources in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hynicka, Justin D.; Pett-Ridge, Julie C; Perakis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient that shapes cycles of other essential elements in forests, including calcium (Ca). When N availability exceeds ecosystem demands, excess N can stimulate Ca leaching and deplete Ca from soils. Over the long term, these processes may alter the proportion of available Ca that is derived from atmospheric deposition vs. bedrock weathering, which has fundamental consequences for ecosystem properties and nutrient supply. We evaluated how landscape variation in soil N, reflecting long-term legacies of biological N fixation, influenced plant and soil Ca availability and ecosystem Ca sources across 22 temperate forests in Oregon. We also examined interactions between soil N and bedrock Ca using soil N gradients on contrasting basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock that differed 17-fold in underlying Ca content. We found that low-N forests on Ca-rich basaltic bedrock relied strongly on Ca from weathering, but that soil N enrichment depleted readily weatherable mineral Ca and shifted forest reliance toward atmospheric Ca. Forests on Ca-poor sedimentary bedrock relied more consistently on atmospheric Ca across all levels of soil N enrichment. The broad importance of atmospheric Ca was unexpected given active regional uplift and erosion that are thought to rejuvenate weathering supply of soil minerals. Despite different Ca sources to forests on basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock, we observed consistent declines in plant and soil Ca availability with increasing N, regardless of the Ca content of underlying bedrock. Thus, traditional measures of Ca availability in foliage and soil exchangeable pools may poorly reflect long-term Ca sources that sustain soil fertility. We conclude that long-term soil N enrichment can deplete available Ca and cause forests to rely increasingly on Ca from atmospheric deposition, which may limit ecosystem Ca supply in an increasingly N-rich world.

  14. Measurements of Low-Enriched Uranium Holdup.

    SciTech Connect

    Belian, A. P.; Reilly, T. D.; Russo, P. A.; Tobin, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    A recent effort determined uranium holdup at a large fuel fabrication facility abroad where low enriched ({approx} 3%) uranium (LEU) oxide feeds the pellet manufacturing process. Measurements taken with both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems include extensive data for the ventilation and vacuum systems. Equipment dimensions and the corresponding holdup deposit masses are large for LEU. Because deposits are infinitely thick to the 186 keV gamma ray in many locations in an LEU environment, measurements of both the 186 and 1001 keV gamma-rays were required, and self-attenuation was significant at 1001 keV in many cases. These wide-dynamic-range measruements used short count times, portable scintillator detectors, and portable MCAs. Because equipment is elevated above floor levels, most measurements were made with detectors mounted on extended telescoping poles. One of the main goals of this effort was to demonstrate and validate methods for measurement and quantitative analysis of LEU holdup using low-resolution detectors and the Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) techniques. The current GGH approach is applied elsewhere for holdup measurements of plutonium and high-enriched uranium. The recent experience is directly applicable to holdup measruements at LEU facilities such as the Paducah and Portmouth gaseous diffusion enrichment plants and elsewhere, including LEU sites where D and D is active. This report discusses the measurement methodology, calibration of the measurement equipment, measurement control, analysis of the data, and the global and local assay results including random and systematic uncertainties. It includes field-validation exercises (multiple calibrated systems that perform measruements on the same extended equipment) as well as quantitative validation results obtained on reference materials assembled to emulate the deposits in an extended vacuum line that was also measured by these techniques. The paper examines the differences

  15. The behavioral effects of enriched housing are not altered by serotonin depletion but enrichment alters hippocampal neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Galani, Rodrigue; Berthel, Marie-Camille; Lazarus, Christine; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Kelche, Christian; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-07-01

    To assess a possible role for serotonin in the mediation of the behavioral changes induced by enriched housing conditions (EC), adult female Long-Evans rats sustaining a serotonin depletion (150 microg of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, icv) and sham-operated rats were housed postoperatively for 30 days in enriched (12 rats/large cage containing various objects) or standard housing conditions (2 rats/standard laboratory cage). Thereafter, anxiety responses (elevated plus-maze), locomotor activity (in the home-cage), sensori-motor capabilities (beam-walking task), and spatial memory (eight-arm radial maze) were assessed. Monoamine levels were subsequently measured in the frontoparietal cortex and the hippocampus. Overall, EC reduced anxiety-related responses, enhanced sensori-motor performance and improved the memory span in the initial stage of the spatial memory task. Despite a substantial reduction of serotonergic markers in the hippocampus (82%) and the cortex (74%), these positive effects of EC were not altered by the lesion. EC reduced the serotonin levels in the ventral hippocampus (particularly in unlesioned rats: -23%), increased serotonin turnover in the entire hippocampus (particularly in lesioned rats: +36%) and augmented the norepinephrine levels in the dorsal hippocampus (+68% in unlesioned and +49% in lesioned rats); no such alterations were found in the frontoparietal cortex. Our data suggest that an intact serotonergic system is not a prerequisite for the induction of positive behavioral effects by EC. The neurochemical changes found in the hippocampus of EC rats, however, show that the monoaminergic innervation of the hippocampus is a target of EC. PMID:17493843

  16. Possibility of nuclear pumped laser experiment using low enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Obara, Toru; Takezawa, Hiroki

    2012-06-06

    Possibility to perform experiments for nuclear pumped laser oscillation by using low enriched uranium is investigated. Kinetic analyses are performed for two types of reactor design, one is using highly enriched uranium and the other is using low enriched uranium. The reactor design is based on the experiment reactor in IPPE. The results show the oscillation of nuclear pumped laser in the case of low enriched uranium reactor is also possible. The use of low enriched uranium in the experiment will make experiment easier.

  17. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  18. Flight opportunities for science teacher enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devore, Edna; Gillespie, Carlton, Jr.; Hull, Garth; Koch, David

    1995-01-01

    NASA Astrophysics Division supports a pre-college teacher program to provide Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER). To date, forty-five teachers are participating, and the program will expand nation-wide to serve fifty teachers per year on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. In the future, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will bring more than one-hundred teachers per year on board for astronomical research mission. FOSTER is supported by a grant to the SETI Institute from the NASA Astrophysics Division, NAGW-3291.

  19. SOLUBLE POISONS FOR SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Ketzlach, N.

    1957-05-01

    A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

  20. Mineralization of trichloroethylene by heterotrophic enrichment cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, T.J.; Ringelberg, D.; Mikell, A.T.; White, D.C. |; Fliermans, C.B.

    1988-12-31

    Microbial consortia capable of aerobically degrading greater than 99% of 50 mg/l exogenous trichloroethylene (TCE) have been enriched from TCE contaminated subsurface sediments. Concentrations of TCE greater than 300 mg/l were not degraded nor was TCE used as a sole energy source. Successful electron donors for growth included tryptone-yeast extract, methanol, methane or propane. The optimum temperature for growth was 22--37 C and the ph optimum was 7.0--8.1. Utilization of TCE occurred only after apparent microbial growth had ceased. The major end products recovered were hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Minor products included dichloroethylene, vinylidine chloride and possibly chloroform.

  1. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements.

  2. Hydrogen-enrichment-concept preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    A hydrogen-enriched fuels concept for automobiles is described and evaluated in terms of fuel consumption and engine exhaust emissions through multicylinder (V-8) automotive engine/hydrogen generator tests, single cylinder research engine (CFR) tests, and hydrogen-generator characterization tests. Analytical predictions are made of the fuel consumption and NO/sub x/ emissions which would result from anticipated engine improvements. The hydrogen-gas generator, which was tested to quantify its thermodynamic input-output relationships was used for integrated testing of the V-8 engine and generator.

  3. History-Enriched Spaces for Shared Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konomi, Shin'ichi; Sezaki, Kaoru; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    We discuss "history-enriched spaces" that use historical data to support shared encounters. We first examine our experiences with DeaiExplorer, a social network display that uses RFID and a historical database to support social interactions at academic conferences. This leads to our discussions on three complementary approaches to addressing the issues of supporting social encounters: (1) embedding historical data in embodied interactions, (2) designing for weakly involved interactions such as social navigation, and (3) designing for privacy. Finally, we briefly describe a preliminary prototype of a proxemics-based awareness tool that considers these approaches.

  4. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis

    PubMed Central

    Dar, B. N.; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Kaur, Gurkirat

    2014-01-01

    Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. PMID:26904644

  5. Effects of N and P enrichment on competition between phytoplankton and benthic algae in shallow lakes: a mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Mei, Xueying; Gulati, Ramesh D; Liu, Zhengwen

    2015-03-01

    Competition for resources between coexisting phytoplankton and benthic algae, but with different habitats and roles in functioning of lake ecosystems, profoundly affects dynamics of shallow lakes in the process of eutrophication. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined enrichment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) would be a greater benefit to phytoplankton than benthic algae. The growth of phytoplankton and benthic algae was measured as chlorophyll a (Chl a) in 12 shallow aquatic mesocosms supplemented with N, P, or both. We found that enrichment with N enhanced growth of benthic algae, but not phytoplankton. P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algal growth, and no effect on the growth of phytoplankton. N+P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algae, but enhanced the growth of phytoplankton, thus reducing the proportion of benthic algae contributing to the combined biomass of these two groups of primary producers. Thus, combined N+P enrichment is more favorable to phytoplankton in competition with benthic algae than enrichment with either N or P alone. Our study indicates that combined enrichment with N+P promotes the dominance of phytoplankton over benthic algae, with consequences for the trophic dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems. PMID:25304240

  6. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal. PMID:27238898

  7. Enrichment of xanthohumol in the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Sascha; Zürcher, Achim; Back, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a component of hops, is lost in significant quantities in the conventional brewing process. In commercial beers less than 0.2 mg XN/L are found. In order to increase the yield of XN in the brewing process, the parameters of XN recovery were studied. During wort boiling, XN is largely isomerised to isoxanthohumol. Further losses are owing to the precipitation and absorption of XN to yeast cells and haze particles and by filtration. The use of XN-enriched hop products combined with a late hop dosage during wort boiling proved to be effective in increasing the XN content in beer. The yield was further raised by a low-pitching rate and the abnegation of beer stabilisation. The use of dark malts had a positive effect on the XN recovery. Investigations of roasted malt extracts revealed several high-molecular substances that are able to form complexes with XN. These complexes proved to be stable in the brewing process. Depending on the addition of roasted malt or special XN-enriched roasted malt extracts, dark beers with more than 10 mg XN/L were achieved. Results obtained led to a brewing technology that produced on an industrial scale pale wheat beer with more than 1 mg XN/L. PMID:16097021

  8. Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, W.S.

    1994-07-12

    The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. During the processing period of interest (4/82-4/87), waste was fed to the 2H Evaporator from Tank 43H, and the evaporator bottoms were sent to Tank 41H where the bottoms were allowed to cool (resulting in the formation of salt deposits in the tank). As Tank 41H was filled with concentrate, the supernate left after salt formation was recycled back to Tank 43H and reprocessed through the evaporator along with any additional waste which had been added to Tank 43H. As Tank 41 H filled with salt, this recycle took place with increasing frequency because it took less time to fill the decreased volume with evaporator concentrate. By determining which of the sampled waste tanks were receiving fresh waste from the canyons at the time the tanks were sampled (from published transfer records), it was possible to deduce which samples were likely representative of fresh canyon waste. The processing that was being carried out in the Separation canyons when these tanks were sampled, should be comparable to the processing while Tank 41H was being filled.

  9. Physicochemical properties of cookies enriched with xylooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, P; Abirami, A; Anbuvahini, N A; Tamil Kumaran, P S; Naresh, M; Malathi, D; Antony, Usha

    2016-07-01

    The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 ± 2℃). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%). PMID:26644158

  10. Enrichment processes of arsenic in oxidic sedimentary rocks - from geochemical and genetic characterization to potential mobility.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Rüde, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentary marine iron ores of Jurassic age and Tertiary marine sandy sediments containing iron hydroxides concretions have been sampled from boreholes and outcrops in two study areas in Germany to examine iron and arsenic accumulation processes. Samples were analyzed for bulk rock geochemistry (INAA/ICP-OES), quantitative mineralogy (XRD with Rietveld analysis), element distribution (electron microprobe) and arsenic fractionation (sequential extraction). Bulk Jurassic ores contain an average arsenic content of 123 μg g(-1) hosted in mainly goethite ooids which slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. Enrichment occurred syndepositionally and is therefore characterized as primary. Iron concretions in Tertiary sediments mainly consist of goethite and yield arsenic up to 1860 μg g(-1). The accumulation process is secondary as it took place in the course of oxidation of the originally reduced marine sediments under terrestrial conditions, leading to element redistribution and local enrichment in the near-surface part. The scale of enrichment was assessed calculating Enrichment Factors, indicating that arsenic accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants. In spite of higher bulk arsenic contents in the oxidic rocks, the mainly pyrite-hosted As pool within the reduced deeper part of the Tertiary sediments is shown to have a higher potential for remobilization and creation of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater. PMID:20561664

  11. Brevibacterium daeguense sp. nov., a nitrate-reducing bacterium isolated from a 4-chlorophenol enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingshun; Kang, Myung-Suk; Woo, Sung-Geun; Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Park, Joonhong; Lee, Myungjin; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic actinobacterial strain (2C6-41(T)) was isolated from the activated sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment plant in Daegu, South Korea. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, closest phylogenetic relatives to strain 2C6-41(T) were Brevibacterium pityocampae DSM 21720(T) (97.2 %), Brevibacterium salitolerans KCTC 19616(T) (96.7 %), Brevibacterium album KCTC 19173(T) (96.2 %) and Brevibacterium samyangense KCCM 42316(T) (96.2 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 2C6-41(T) was 66.4 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data, which included MK-8(H(2)) as the major menaquinone; meso-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid and alanine as cell-wall amino acids; ribose, mannose and glucose as major cell-wall sugars; and anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0) as major fatty acids, supported the affiliation of strain 2C6-41(T) to the genus Brevibacterium. The aromatic ring cleavage enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was not detected in strain 2C6-41(T), but catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was detected. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, and the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to the closest phylogenetic relative enabled strain 2C6-41(T) to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from recognized species of the genus Brevibacterium. The isolate is therefore considered to represent a novel species in the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium daeguense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2C6-41(T) (=KCTC 19800(T) = JCM 17458(T)). PMID:22368170

  12. Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

  13. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  14. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ivy N.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G.; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  15. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Dual Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2009-07-01

    The rapid global expansion of nuclear energy is motivating the expedited development of new safeguards technology to mitigate potential proliferation threats arising from monitoring gaps within the uranium enrichment process. Current onsite enrichment level monitoring methods are limited by poor sensitivity and accuracy performance. Offsite analysis has better performance, but this approach requires onsite hand sampling followed by time-consuming and costly post analysis. These limitations make it extremely difficult to implement comprehensive safeguards accounting measures that can effectively counter enrichment facility misuse. In addition, uranium enrichment by modern centrifugation leads to a significant proliferation threat, since the centrifuge cascades can quickly produce a significant quantity of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an engineered safeguards approach having continuous aerosol particulate collection and uranium isotope analysis to provide timely detection of HEU production in a low enriched uranium facility. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy, to characterize the 235U/238U isotopic ratio by subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths arising from differences in each isotope’s nuclear mass, volume, and spin (hyperfine structure for 235U). Environmental sampling media is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes a 10 to 20-µm sample diameter. The ejected plasma forms a plume of atomic vapor. A plume for a sample containing uranium has atoms of the 235U and 238U isotopes present. Tunable diode lasers are directed through the plume to selectively excite each isotope and their presence is detected by monitoring absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. Single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and abundance uncertainty

  16. Enrichment of anodophilic nitrogen fixing bacteria in a bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pan Yu; Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David C; Ginige, Maneesha P

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated the ability of a bio-anode to fix dinitrogen (N2), and confirmed that diazotrophs can be used to treat N-deficient wastewater in a bioelectrochemical system (BES). A two-compartment BES was fed with an N-deficient medium containing glucose for >200 days. The average glucose and COD removal at an anodic potential of +200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl was 100% and 76%, respectively. Glucose removal occurred via fermentation under open circuit (OC), with acetate as the key byproduct. Closing circuit remarkably reduced acetate accumulation, suggesting the biofilm could oxidise acetate under N-deficient conditions. Nitrogen fixation required an anode and glucose; removing either reduced N2 fixation significantly. This suggests that diazotroph utilised glucose directly at the anode or indirectly through syntrophic interaction of an N2-fixing fermenter and an anodophile. The enriched biofilm was dominated (68%) by the genus Clostridium, members of which are known to be electrochemically active and capable of fixing N2. PMID:25043795

  17. CHEERS: The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Plaa, J.; Mernier, F.; Kaastra, J.; Pinto, C.; Werner, N.; Cheers Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample (CHEERS) is aimed to be a sample of the most optimal clusters of galaxies for observation with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton. It consists of 1.6 Ms of deep cluster observations of 11 objects obtained through a very large program and archival observations of 33 clusters and groups. The main goal is to measure chemical abundances in the hot Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) of clusters to provide constraints on chemical evolution models. Especially the origin and evolution of type Ia supernovae is still poorly known and X-ray observations could contribute to constrain models regarding the SNIa explosion mechanism. With this sample of deep XMM-Newton observations, also other topics can be addressed. Within the CHEERS collaboration, we also study the turbulence and thermal properties of the hot ICM in the clusters. In this talk, we discuss the aims and the first results of the CHEERS project.

  18. Ultraheavy element enrichment in impulsive solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-10-10

    Particle acceleration by cascading Alfvén wave turbulence was suggested as being responsible for energetic particle populations in {sup 3}He-rich solar flares. In particular, it was noted that the damping of the turbulence by the tail of the particle distribution in rigidity naturally leads to the dramatic enhancement of a pre-accelerated species—as {sup 3}He is posited to be—and superheavy elements. The subsequent detection of large enrichment of ultraheavies, relative to iron, has apparently confirmed this prediction, lending support to the original idea. It is shown here that this picture could be somewhat sharpened by progress in understanding the three-dimensional geometrical details of cascading Alfvén turbulence. The mechanism may be relevant in other astrophysical environments where the source of turbulence is nonmagnetic, such as clusters of galaxies.

  19. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

  20. Surface enrichment driven by polymer topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicane, Giuseppe; Megnidio-Tchoukouegno, Mireille; Mola, Genene T.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-05-01

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of free-standing films of a blend of linear and cyclic polymer chains. We find that the composition of linear chains at the interface is enhanced relative to their bulk value for short chains but is depleted for long chains. Our findings are in agreement with recent experimental evidence reported for blends of short linear and cyclic polystyrene chains and highlight the genuine surface behavior in the short chain-length regime where theoretical predictions are more difficult. We highlight surface enrichment at low-energy surfaces as the result of competition between different entropic and enthalpic contributions to the interfacial free energy of the system.

  1. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities. PMID:16982725

  2. Gene set enrichment; a problem of pathways

    PubMed Central

    Meaburn, Emma L.; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    Gene Set Enrichment (GSE) is a computational technique which determines whether a priori defined set of genes show statistically significant differential expression between two phenotypes. Currently, the gene sets used for GSE are derived from annotation or pathway databases, which often contain computationally based and unrepresentative data. Here, we propose a novel approach for the generation of comprehensive and biologically derived gene sets, deriving sets through the application of machine learning techniques to gene expression data. These gene sets can be produced for specific tissues, developmental stages or environments. They provide a powerful and functionally meaningful way in which to mine genomewide association and next generation sequencing data in order to identify disease-associated variants and pathways. PMID:20861160

  3. Acoustically enriching, large-depth aquatic sampler.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jonas; Ogden, Sam; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-05-01

    In marine biology, it is useful to collect water samples when exploring the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in underwater environments. In order to provide, e.g., a miniaturized submersible explorer with the capability of collecting microorganisms, a compact sample enrichment system has been developed. The sampler is 30 mm long, 15 mm wide, and just a few millimetres thick. Integrated in a multilayer steel, polyimide and glass construction is a microfluidic channel with piezoelectric transducers, where microorganism and particle samples are collected and enriched, using acoustic radiation forces for gentle and labelless trapping. High-pressure, latchable valves, using paraffin as the actuation material, at each end of the microfluidic channel keep the collected sample pristine. A funnel structure raised above the surface of the device directs water into the microfluidic channel as the vehicle propels itself or when there is a flow across its hull. The valves proved leak proof to a pressure of 2.1 MPa for 19 hours and momentary pressures of 12.5 MPa, corresponding to an ocean depth of more than 1200 metres. By reactivating the latching mechanism, small leakages through the valves could be remedied, which could thus increase the leak-less operational time. Fluorescent particles, 1.9 μm in diameter, were successfully trapped in the microfluidic channel at flow rates up to 15 μl min(-1), corresponding to an 18.5 cm s(-1) external flow rate of the sampler. In addition, liquid-suspended GFP-marked yeast cells were successfully trapped. PMID:22422039

  4. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-03-30

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF{sub 6} gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques.

  5. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  6. Optimization criteria and biological process enrichment in homologous multiprotein modules.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Luqman; Karp, Richard M

    2013-06-25

    Biological process enrichment is a widely used metric for evaluating the quality of multiprotein modules. In this study, we examine possible optimization criteria for detecting homologous multiprotein modules and quantify their effects on biological process enrichment. We find that modularity, linear density, and module size are the most important criteria considered, complementary to each other, and that graph theoretical attributes account for 36% of the variance in biological process enrichment. Variations in protein interaction similarity within module pairs have only minor effects on biological process enrichment. As random modules increase in size, both biological process enrichment and modularity tend to improve, although modularity does not show this upward trend in modules with size at most 50 proteins. To adjust for these trends, we recommend a size correction based on random sampling of modules when using biological process enrichment or other attributes to evaluate module boundaries. Characteristics of homologous multiprotein modules optimized for each of the optimization criteria are examined. PMID:23757502

  7. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation in the brain through environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Gaurav; Jaehne, Emily J.; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on environmental enrichment (EE) have shown cytokines, cellular immune components [e.g., T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells], and glial cells in causal relationship to EE in bringing out changes to neurobiology and behavior. The purpose of this review is to evaluate these neuroimmune mechanisms associated with neurobiological and behavioral changes in response to different EE methods. We systematically reviewed common research databases. After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 328 articles remained for this review. Physical exercise (PE), a form of EE, elicits anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects through interaction with several immune pathways including interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from muscle fibers, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors on monocytes and macrophages, reduced secretion of adipokines, modulation of hippocampal T cells, priming of microglia, and upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in central nervous system. In contrast, immunomodulatory roles of other enrichment methods are not studied extensively. Nonetheless, studies showing reduction in the expression of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to enrichment with novel objects and accessories suggest anti-inflammatory effects of novel environment. Likewise, social enrichment, though considered a necessity for healthy behavior, results in immunosuppression in socially defeated animals. This has been attributed to reduction in T lymphocytes, NK cells and IL-10 in subordinate animals. EE through sensory stimuli has been investigated to a lesser extent and the effect on immune factors has not been evaluated yet. Discovery of this multidimensional relationship between immune system, brain functioning, and EE has paved a way toward formulating environ-immuno therapies for treating psychiatric illnesses with minimal use of pharmacotherapy. While the immunomodulatory role of PE has been evaluated extensively, more research

  8. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  9. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  10. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  11. Confronting the Paradox of Enrichment to the Metacommunity Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hauzy, Céline; Nadin, Grégoire; Canard, Elsa; Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Ebenman, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Resource enrichment can potentially destabilize predator-prey dynamics. This phenomenon historically referred as the "paradox of enrichment" has mostly been explored in spatially homogenous environments. However, many predator-prey communities exchange organisms within spatially heterogeneous networks called metacommunities. This heterogeneity can result from uneven distribution of resources among communities and thus can lead to the spreading of local enrichment within metacommunities. Here, we adapted the original Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model, built to study the paradox of enrichment, to investigate the effect of regional enrichment and of its spatial distribution on predator-prey dynamics in metacommunities. We found that the potential for destabilization was depending on the connectivity among communities and the spatial distribution of enrichment. In one hand, we found that at low dispersal regional enrichment led to the destabilization of predator-prey dynamics. This destabilizing effect was more pronounced when the enrichment was uneven among communities. In the other hand, we found that high dispersal could stabilize the predator-prey dynamics when the enrichment was spatially heterogeneous. Our results illustrate that the destabilizing effect of enrichment can be dampened when the spatial scale of resource enrichment is lower than that of organismss movements (heterogeneous enrichment). From a conservation perspective, our results illustrate that spatial heterogeneity could decrease the regional extinction risk of species involved in specialized trophic interactions. From the perspective of biological control, our results show that the heterogeneous distribution of pest resource could favor or dampen outbreaks of pests and of their natural enemies, depending on the spatial scale of heterogeneity. PMID:24358242

  12. Confronting the paradox of enrichment to the metacommunity perspective.

    PubMed

    Hauzy, Céline; Nadin, Grégoire; Canard, Elsa; Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Ebenman, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Resource enrichment can potentially destabilize predator-prey dynamics. This phenomenon historically referred as the "paradox of enrichment" has mostly been explored in spatially homogenous environments. However, many predator-prey communities exchange organisms within spatially heterogeneous networks called metacommunities. This heterogeneity can result from uneven distribution of resources among communities and thus can lead to the spreading of local enrichment within metacommunities. Here, we adapted the original Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model, built to study the paradox of enrichment, to investigate the effect of regional enrichment and of its spatial distribution on predator-prey dynamics in metacommunities. We found that the potential for destabilization was depending on the connectivity among communities and the spatial distribution of enrichment. In one hand, we found that at low dispersal regional enrichment led to the destabilization of predator-prey dynamics. This destabilizing effect was more pronounced when the enrichment was uneven among communities. In the other hand, we found that high dispersal could stabilize the predator-prey dynamics when the enrichment was spatially heterogeneous. Our results illustrate that the destabilizing effect of enrichment can be dampened when the spatial scale of resource enrichment is lower than that of organismss movements (heterogeneous enrichment). From a conservation perspective, our results illustrate that spatial heterogeneity could decrease the regional extinction risk of species involved in specialized trophic interactions. From the perspective of biological control, our results show that the heterogeneous distribution of pest resource could favor or dampen outbreaks of pests and of their natural enemies, depending on the spatial scale of heterogeneity. PMID:24358242

  13. Specific Enrichment of Phosphoproteins Using Functionalized Multivalent Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Leekyoung; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Cai, Wenxuan; Valeja, Santosh G.; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of protein phosphorylation remains a significant challenge due to the low abundance of phosphoproteins and the low stoichiometry of phosphorylation, which requires effective enrichment of phosphoproteins. Here we have developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) whose surface is functionalized by multivalent ligand molecules that specifically bind to the phosphate groups on any phosphoproteins. These NPs enrich phosphoproteins from complex cell and tissue lysates with high specificity as confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis with a phosphoprotein-specific stain and mass spectrometry analysis of the enriched phosphoproteins. This method enables universal and effective capture, enrichment, and detection of intact phosphoproteins towards a comprehensive analysis of the phosphoproteome. PMID:25655481

  14. Bacterial production in subarctic peatland lakes enriched by thawing permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Bethany N.; Crevecoeur, Sophie; Matveev, Alex; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2016-08-01

    feature of all of the northern lakes sampled, including other thaw lakes and shallow rock-basin lakes (average ± SE of 25 ± 6 %). However, a distinguishing feature of the peatland thaw lakes was significantly higher bacterial specific growth rates, which averaged 4 to 7 times higher values than in the other lake types. The in situ enrichment experiment showed no difference between organic carbon or phosphorus enrichment treatments at day 5 relative to the control, however there was an apparent increase in bacterial growth rates between days 1 and 5 in the soil and the carbon plus phosphorus enrichments. Collectively these results indicate that particles, nutrients and carbon are released by degrading permafrost peatland soils into their associated thermokarst lakes, creating favorable conditions for production by particle-based as well as free-living aquatic bacterial communities. The reduced bacterial concentrations despite high cellular growth rates imply that there is control of their population size by loss-related factors such as grazing and viral lysis.

  15. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  16. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  17. A Robust and Flexible Design for GCEP Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring: An OLEM Collection Node Network

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; March-Leuba, Jose A; Garner, James R

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laoratory (ORNL) has engineered an on-line enrichment monitor (OLEM) to continuously measure U-235 emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) as a component of the International Atomic Energy Agency s (IAEA) new generation of technology to support enrichment plant safeguards1. In contrast to other enrichment monitoring approaches, OLEM calibrates and corrects for the pressure and temperature dependent UF6 gas-density without external radiation sources by using the inherent unit header pipe pressure dynamics and combining U-235 gamma-ray spectrometery using a shielded NaI detector with gas pressure and temperature data near the spectrum measurement point to obtain the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. From a safeguards perspective, OLEM can provide early detection of a GCEP being misused for production of highly enriched uranium, but would not detect directly the isolation and use of a cascade within the production unit to produce HEU. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and, if coupled with load cell monitoring, could support isotope mass balance verification and unattended cylinder verification. The earlier paper presented OLEM as one component along with shared load cells and unattended cylinder verification, in the IAEA emering toolbox for unattended instruments at GCEPs1 and described the OLEM concept and how previous modeling studies and field measurements helped confirm the viability of a passive on-line enrichment monitor for meeting IAEA objectives and to support the development of performance targets. Phase I of the United States Support Program (USSP) OLEM project completed a preliminary hardware, software and communications design; phase II will build and test field prototypes in controlled laboratory settings and then at an operational facility. That paper also discussed many of the OLEM collection node commercial off the

  18. Chronic nitrate enrichment decreases severity and induces protection against an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, Willow; Cable, Jo; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Excessive fertilisation is one of the most pernicious forms of global change resulting in eutrophication. It has major implications for disease control and the conservation of biodiversity. Yet, the direct link between nutrient enrichment and disease remains largely unexplored. Here, we present the first experimental evidence that chronic nitrate enrichment decreases severity and induces protection against an infectious disease. Specifically, this study shows that nitrate concentrations ranging between 50 and 250mgNO3(-)/l reduce Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection intensity in two populations of Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, and that the highest nitrate concentration can even clean the parasites from the fish. This added to the fact that host nitrate pre-exposure altered the fish epidermal structure and reduced parasite intensity, suggests that nitrate protected the host against the disease. Nitrate treatments also caused fish mortality. As we used ecologically-relevant nitrate concentrations, and guppies are top-consumers widely used for mosquito bio-control in tropical and often nutrient-enriched waters, our results can have major ecological and social implications. In conclusion, this study advocates reducing nitrate level including the legislative threshold to protect the aquatic biota, even though this may control an ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26995268

  19. Modeling the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in half Fraser broth; impact of pooling and the duration of enrichment on the detection of L. monocytogenes in food.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ells, Timothy; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Gnanou Besse, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    A stochastic model describing the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in half Fraser was developed for the purpose of estimating the effects of modifications to the first enrichment step of the EN ISO 11290-1 detection method. Information pertaining to the variability of growth rates, physiological state of the cell, and the behavior of individual cells contaminating the food were obtained from previously published studies. We used this model to investigate the impact of pooling enrichment broths (wet pooling) on the performance of the standard method. For validation of the model, the numbers of L. monocytogenes occurring in 88 naturally contaminated foods following pre-enrichment were compared to model-simulated microbial counts. The model was then used to perform simulations representative of the natural contamination observed for smoked salmon in the European baseline survey of 2010-2011. The model-estimated L. monocytogenes levels following individual enrichment or following the pooling of five broths where only one would be contaminated were compared. The model indicated a 10% loss of method sensitivity resulting from wet pooling. The model also predicted a 5% decrease in the sensitivity of the method when the duration of the enrichment was reduced from 24 to 22 h. PMID:27554154

  20. Hybrid Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station: FY10 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing the concept of an automated UF6 cylinder verification station that would be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until the arrival of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. At the center of this unattended system is a hybrid enrichment assay technique that combines the traditional enrichment-meter method (based on the 186 keV peak from 235U) with non-traditional neutron-induced high-energy gamma-ray signatures (spawned primarily by 234U alpha emissions and 19F(alpha, neutron) reactions). Previous work by PNNL provided proof-of-principle for the non-traditional signatures to support accurate, full-volume interrogation of the cylinder enrichment, thereby reducing the systematic uncertainties in enrichment assay due to UF6 heterogeneity and providing greater sensitivity to material substitution scenarios. The work described here builds on that preliminary evaluation of the non-traditional signatures, but focuses on a prototype field system utilizing NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) spectrometers, and enrichment analysis algorithms that integrate the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Results for the assay of Type-30B cylinders ranging from 0.2 to 4.95 wt% 235U, at an AREVA fuel fabrication plant in Richland, WA, are described for the following enrichment analysis methods: 1) traditional enrichment meter signature (186 keV peak) as calculated using a square-wave convolute (SWC) algorithm; 2) non-traditional high-energy gamma-ray signature that provides neutron detection without neutron detectors and 3) hybrid algorithm that merges the traditional and non-traditional signatures. Uncertainties for each method, relative to the declared enrichment for each cylinder, are calculated and compared to the uncertainties from an attended

  1. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  2. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  3. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  4. Invited review: Environmental enrichment of dairy cows and calves in indoor housing.

    PubMed

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Klement, E; Nicol, C J

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of farmers are choosing to keep their cows indoors throughout the year. Indoor housing of cows allows farmers to provide high-yielding individuals with a nutritionally balanced diet fit for their needs, and it has important welfare benefits for both cows and their calves, such as protection from predators, parasites, and exposure to extreme weather conditions. However, it also confronts cows and calves with a wide range of environmental challenges. These include abiotic environmental sources of stress (e.g., exposure to loud and aversive sound) and confinement-specific stressors (e.g., restricted movement and maintenance in abnormal social groups). Cows and calves that live indoors are also faced with the challenge of occupying long periods with a limited range of possible behavioral patterns. Environmental enrichment can improve biological functioning (measured as increased lifetime reproductive success, increased inclusive fitness, or a correlate of these such as improved health), help animals to cope with stressors in their surroundings, reduce frustration, increase the fulfillment of behavioral needs, and promote more positive affective states. Here, we review recent findings on the effect of social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional enrichment on dairy cows and calves, and we assess the appropriateness and practicality of implementing different enrichment practices on commercial dairy farms. Some of the enrichment methods reviewed here may also be applied to those more extensive cattle-raising systems, where similar challenges occur. PMID:26774729

  5. Short environmental enrichment in adulthood reverses anxiety and basolateral amygdala hypertrophy induced by maternal separation

    PubMed Central

    Koe, A S; Ashokan, A; Mitra, R

    2016-01-01

    Maternal separation during early childhood results in greater sensitivity to stressors later in adult life. This is reflected as greater propensity to develop stress-related disorders in humans and animal models, including anxiety and depression. Environmental enrichment (EE) reverses some of the damaging effects of maternal separation in rodent models when provided during peripubescent life, temporally proximal to the separation. It is presently unknown if EE provided outside this critical window can still rescue separation-induced anxiety and neural plasticity. In this report we use a rat model to demonstrate that a single short episode of EE in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviour in maternally separated rats. We further show that maternal separation resulted in hypertrophy of dendrites and increase in spine density of basolateral amygdala neurons in adulthood, long after initial stress treatment. This is congruent with prior observations showing centrality of basolateral amygdala hypertrophy in anxiety induced by stress during adulthood. In line with the ability of the adult enrichment to rescue stress-induced anxiety, we show that enrichment renormalized stress-induced structural expansion of the amygdala neurons. These observations argue that behavioural plasticity induced by early adversity can be rescued by environmental interventions much later in life, likely mediated by ameliorating effects of enrichment on basolateral amygdala plasticity. PMID:26836417

  6. Assessment of the latest NGS enrichment capture methods in clinical context.

    PubMed

    García-García, Gema; Baux, David; Faugère, Valérie; Moclyn, Mélody; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment capture methods for NGS are widely used, however, they evolve rapidly and it is necessary to periodically measure their strengths and weaknesses before transfer to diagnostic services. We assessed two recently released custom DNA solution-capture enrichment methods for NGS, namely Illumina NRCCE and Agilent SureSelect(QXT), against a reference method NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice on a similar gene panel, sharing 678 kb and 110 genes. Two Illumina MiSeq runs of 12 samples each have been performed, for each of the three methods, using the same 24 patients (affected with sensorineural disorders). Technical outcomes have been computed and compared, including depth and evenness of coverage, enrichment in targeted regions, performance in GC-rich regions and ability to generate consistent variant datasets. While we show that the three methods resulted in suitable datasets for standard DNA variant discovery, we describe significant differences between the results for the above parameters. NimbleGen offered the best depth of coverage and evenness, while NRCCE showed the highest on target levels but high duplicate rates. SureSelect(QXT) showed an overall quality close to that of NimbleGen. The new methods exhibit reduced preparation time but behave differently. These findings will guide laboratories in their choice of library enrichment approach. PMID:26864517

  7. Assessment of the latest NGS enrichment capture methods in clinical context

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Gema; Baux, David; Faugère, Valérie; Moclyn, Mélody; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment capture methods for NGS are widely used, however, they evolve rapidly and it is necessary to periodically measure their strengths and weaknesses before transfer to diagnostic services. We assessed two recently released custom DNA solution-capture enrichment methods for NGS, namely Illumina NRCCE and Agilent SureSelectQXT, against a reference method NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice on a similar gene panel, sharing 678 kb and 110 genes. Two Illumina MiSeq runs of 12 samples each have been performed, for each of the three methods, using the same 24 patients (affected with sensorineural disorders). Technical outcomes have been computed and compared, including depth and evenness of coverage, enrichment in targeted regions, performance in GC-rich regions and ability to generate consistent variant datasets. While we show that the three methods resulted in suitable datasets for standard DNA variant discovery, we describe significant differences between the results for the above parameters. NimbleGen offered the best depth of coverage and evenness, while NRCCE showed the highest on target levels but high duplicate rates. SureSelectQXT showed an overall quality close to that of NimbleGen. The new methods exhibit reduced preparation time but behave differently. These findings will guide laboratories in their choice of library enrichment approach. PMID:26864517

  8. Human interaction as environmental enrichment for pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Verdi, Nicolle T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-01-01

    Private nonhuman animal sanctuaries are often financially limited in their ability to implement traditional environmental enrichment strategies. One possible solution may be to provide socialized animals with human interaction sessions. However, the merit of human interaction as enrichment has received little empirical attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate whether human interaction could be enriching for socialized, pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses at a private sanctuary. Observations of each subject were conducted in a reversal design to measure species-typical affiliation, activity levels, and aberrant behaviors when caretakers were both present and absent. The results demonstrate significantly higher levels of conspecific-directed affiliation and activity levels and reduced aberrant behavior when human interaction was available. Social play also increased when caregivers were present, supporting the hypothesis that play among conspecifics may be maintained by positive changes in an animal's environment. The potential for human interaction to be established as a scientifically validated, cost-effective enrichment strategy is supported by these findings. PMID:24484310

  9. Enriching early adult environment affects the copulation behaviour of a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Aluja, Martín

    2009-07-01

    Early adult experiences in enriched environments favours animal brain and behavioural development ultimately resulting in an increased fitness. However, measuring the effect of environmental enrichment in animal behaviour in nature is often a complicated task, considering the complexity of the natural environment. We expanded previous studies to evaluate how early experience in an enriched environment affects copulation behaviour when animals are confronted with a complex semi-natural environment. Anastrepha ludens flies are an ideal model system for studying these effects because their natural habitats differ significantly from the cage environments in which these flies are reared for biological control purposes. For example, in the field, males form leks of up to six individuals. Each male defends a territory represented by a tree leaf whereas in rearing cages, territories are completely reduced because of the high population density. In a series of three experiments, we observed that male density represented the most influential stimulus for A. ludens male copulation success. Males that experienced lower densities in early adulthood obtained the highest proportion of copulations. By contrast, female copulation behaviour was not altered by female density. However, exposure to natural or artificial leaves in cages in which flies were kept until tested influenced female copulation behaviour. Females that were exposed to enriched environments exhibited a shorter latency to mate and shorter copulation durations with males than females reared in poor environments. We discuss the influence of early experience on male copulation success and female-mating choosiness. PMID:19525439

  10. Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment — Implications for community recovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villnäs, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

  11. Captive coyotes compared to their counterparts in the wild: does environmental enrichment help?

    PubMed

    Shivik, John A; Palmer, Gemma L; Gese, Eric M; Osthaus, Britta

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to determine the effects of environment (captive or wild) and a simple form of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of a nonhuman animal. Specifically, analyses first compared behavioral budgets and stereotypic behavior of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) in kennels and pens to their counterparts in the wild. Second, experiments examined the effect of a simple form of environmental enrichment for captive coyotes (food-filled bones) on behavioral budgets, stereotypies, and corticosteroid levels. Overall, behavioral budgets of captive coyotes in both kennels and pens were similar to those observed in the wild, but coyotes in captivity exhibited significantly more stereotypic behavior. Intermittently providing a bone generally lowered resting and increased foraging behaviors but did not significantly reduce stereotypic behavior or alter corticosteroid levels. Thus, coyote behavior in captivity can be similar to that exhibited in the wild; in addition, although enrichment can affect proportions of elicited behaviors, abnormal behaviors and corticosteroid levels may require more than a simple form of environmental enrichment for their reduction. PMID:20183476

  12. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Gisela; Rogers, Lesley J.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them. PMID:25071994

  13. Phosphopeptide enrichment: Development of magnetic solid phase extraction method based on polydopamine coating and Ti(4+)-IMAC.

    PubMed

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Ferraris, Francesca; Samperi, Roberto; Ventura, Salvatore; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-25

    Protein post translational modifications currently represent one of the main challenges with proteomic analysis, due to the important biological role they play within cells. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important, with several approaches developed for phosphopeptides enrichment and analysis, essential for comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis. However, the development of new materials for phosphopeptides enrichment may overcome previous drawbacks and improve enrichment of such peptides. In this regard, new magnetic stationary phases based on polydopamine coating and Ti(4+) immobilization exploit the potential of IMAC enrichment and couple it with the versatility of magnetic solid phase extraction. In this work the use of such stationary phase was extended from the MALDI proof of concept stage with the development of an optimized method for phosphopeptides enrichment compatible with typical shotgun proteomics experimental workflows. Different loading and elution buffers were tested to improve phosphopeptides recovery and enrichment selectivity. Finally, the analysis of isolated peptides pointed out that polydopamine alone is an ideal support matrix for polar post translational modifications because it enables to reduce unspecific binding and preferentially binds hydrophilic peptides. PMID:26851086

  14. Nitrilotriacetic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles as affinity probes for enrichment of histidine-tagged proteins and phosphorylated peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Ya-Shiuan; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Cheng-Tai; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2007-10-01

    We herein demonstrate superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with nitrilotriacetic acid derivative (NTA) that can bind with different immobilized metal ions are capable of probing diverse target species. Immobilized Ni(II) on the surfaces of the NTA-magnetic nanoparticles have the capability of selectively trapping histidine (His)-tagged proteins such as a mutated streptopain tagged with 6x His, i.e., C192S (MW approximately 42 kDa), from cell lysates. Enrichment was achieved by vigorously mixing the sample solution and the nanoparticles by pipetting in and out of a sample vial for only 30 s. After enrichment, the probe-target species could be readily isolated by magnetic separation. We also characterized the proteins enriched on the affinity probes using on-probe tryptic digestion under microwave irradiation for only 2 min, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Using this enrichment and tryptic digestion, the target species can be rapidly enriched and characterized, reducing the time required for carrying out the complete analysis to less than 10 min. Furthermore, when either Zr(IV) or Ga (III) ions are immobilized on the surfaces of the NTA-magnetic nanoparticles, the nanoparticles have the capability of selectively enriching phosphorylated peptides from tryptic digests of alpha-, beta-caseins, and diluted milk. The detection limit for the tryptic digests of alpha- and beta-caseins is approximately 50 fmol. PMID:17784733

  15. Enriching screening libraries with bioactive fragment space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhao, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    By deconvoluting 238,073 bioactive molecules in the ChEMBL library into extended Murcko ring systems, we identified a set of 2245 ring systems present in at least 10 molecules. These ring systems belong to 2221 clusters by ECFP4 fingerprints with a minimum intracluster similarity of 0.8. Their overlap with ring systems in commercial libraries was further quantified. Our findings suggest that success of a small fragment library is driven by the convergence of effective coverage of bioactive ring systems (e.g., 10% coverage by 1000 fragments vs. 40% by 2million HTS compounds), high enrichment of bioactive ring systems, and low molecular complexity enhancing the probability of a match with the protein targets. Reconciling with the previous studies, bioactive ring systems are underrepresented in screening libraries. As such, we propose a library of virtual fragments with key functionalities via fragmentation of bioactive molecules. Its utility is exemplified by a prospective application on protein kinase CK2, resulting in the discovery of a series of novel inhibitors with the most potent compound having an IC50 of 0.5μM and a ligand efficiency of 0.41kcal/mol per heavy atom. PMID:27311891

  16. Metal enrichment processes in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study discusses metal enrichment in oceanic sediments resulting from remobilization, scavenging, pollution and hydrothermal inputs in the Mississippi River-Gulf of Mexico and Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26/sup 0/N. Suspended particles collected from the Mississippi River during mean water and suspended-sediment discharge have metal concentrations which vary by <5% for Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and approx.10% for Mn. The massive sediment load carried by the Mississippi River is rapidly deposited on the Mississippi Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. Aluminum and Fe concentrations in Mississippi Delta sediments are similar to those of average Mississippi River suspended matter throughout the delta. In contrast, the Cu/Al ratio in surficial sediments (0-1 cm) decreases from 4.1 x 10/sup -4/ for average suspended matter to 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ about 45 km from the mouth of Southwest Pass. Copper lost from delta sediments can be traced to the deep Gulf of Mexico where concentrations average 50-70 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ compared with 33 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ for Mississippi River suspended matter. The observed increase in offshore sediments in linked to scavenging of Cu by particles. A similar scenario can be presented for Mn.

  17. EASI--enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms.

    PubMed

    Venables, Julian P; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This directly purifies the single-stranded regions of heteroduplexes between alternative splices formed in the PCR, enabling direct sequencing of all the rare alternative splice forms of any gene. As a proof of principle the alternative transcripts of three tumour suppressor genes, TP53, MLH1 and MSH2, were isolated from testis cDNA. These contain missing exons, cryptic splice sites or include completely novel exons. EASI beads are stable for months in the fridge and can be easily combined with standard protocols to speed the cloning of novel transcripts. PMID:16951290

  18. Deuterium enrichment of the interstellar grain mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichments of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH3, CH2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 104 cm-3), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜106 cm-3), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverages of CO, CO2, O2 and O3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water. Effects of various types of energy barriers are also studied. Moreover, we allow grain mantles to interact with various charged particles (such as H+, Fe+, S+ and C+) to study the stopping power and projected range of these charged particles on various target ices.

  19. Influence of hexavalent chromium on lactate-enriched Hanford groundwater microbial communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Podar, Mircea; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin Koo; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction and immobilization of chromate (Cr(VI)) is a plausible bioremediation strategy. However, higher Cr(VI) concentrations may impose stress on native Cr-reducing communities. We sought to determine if Cr(VI) would influence the lactate enriched native microbial community structure and function in groundwater from the Cr contaminated site at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were amended with lactate and Cr(VI) (0.0, 0.1 and 3.0 mg/L). Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI) concentrations, 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition in bioreactors were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and some differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) was reduced in the bioreactors. With lactate enrichment, the native communities did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. Native bacterial communities were diverse, whereas after lactate enrichment, Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., were the most predominant groups in all bioreactors. Similarly, the Archaea diversity significantly decreased from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%), Halobacteriales (12%), Methanoregula (8%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%) after lactate enrichment. Composition of several key functional genes was distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant probes (chrA), Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result the 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not appear to give chromate reducing strains a competitive advantage for proliferation or for increasing Cr-reduction.

  20. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... proteinase enzymes papain or pepsin to reduce substantially the time required for cooking. In such treatment papain or pepsin, in an amount not to exceed 0.1 percent by weight, is added to the farina, which...

  1. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165 Section 139.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  2. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable macaroni products. 139.135 Section 139.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  3. Enrichment and activation of smectite-poor clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarceviča, Inese; Kostjukovs, Juris; Actiņš, Andris

    2011-06-01

    A new method of smectite clay enrichment has been developed. The method is based on dispersing clay in a phosphate solution and sequential coagulation. The product of enrichment is characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. Sorption of methylene blue and hexadecylpyridinium bromide on raw and purified clays was studied.

  4. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  5. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  6. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  7. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  8. Enrichment of DNRA bacteria in a continuous culture.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Eveline M; van Dongen, Udo; Abbas, Ben; van Loosdrecht, Mark Cm

    2015-10-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are competing microbial nitrate-reduction processes. The occurrence of DNRA has been shown to be effected qualitatively by various parameters in the environment. A more quantitative understanding can be obtained using enrichment cultures in a laboratory reactor, yet no successful DNRA enrichment culture has been described. We showed that a stable DNRA-dominated enrichment culture can be obtained in a chemostat system. The enrichment was based on the hypothesis that nitrate limitation is the dominant factor in selecting for DNRA. First, a conventional denitrifying culture was enriched from activated sludge, with acetate and nitrate as substrates. Next, the acetate concentration in the medium was increased to obtain nitrate-limiting conditions. As a result, conversions shifted from denitrification to DNRA. In this selection of a DNRA culture, two important factors were the nitrate limitation and a relatively low dilution rate (0.026 h(-1)). The culture was a highly enriched population of Deltaproteobacteria most closely related to Geobacter lovleyi, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing (97% similarity). We established a stable and reproducible cultivation method for the enrichment of DNRA bacteria in a continuously operated reactor system. This enrichment method allows to further investigate the DNRA process and address the factors for competition between DNRA and denitrification, or other N-conversion pathways. PMID:25909972

  9. Enrichment Materials in Home Economics for Gifted and Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Designed to provide the home economics teacher with a resource of enrichment materials for gifted/talented students, this manual consists of information to assist home economics teachers and students in designing enrichment materials to supplement classroom learning and suggested learning activities in five home economics areas. Part 1 of the…

  10. Enriched Video Semantic Metadata: Authorization, Integration, and Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Marchionini, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents an enriched video metadata framework including video authorization using the Video Annotation and Summarization Tool (VAST)-a video metadata authorization system that integrates both semantic and visual metadata-- metadata integration, and user level applications. Results demonstrated that the enriched metadata were seamlessly…

  11. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality. PMID:23904655

  12. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  17. Use of the affinity/HPLC method for quantitative estimation of folic acid enriched cereal grain products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1998, mandatory fortification of enriched cereal-grain products with folic acid was introduced in the United States to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. As a consequence, substantial amounts of folic acid, the synthetic form of folate, were added to the American diet and the ability t...

  18. New GO-PEI-Au-L-Cys ZIC-HILIC composites: synthesis and selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liang, Yu; Wu, Qi; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Peng, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-06-01

    GO-PEI-Au-L-Cys composites were synthesized via loading gold nanoparticles on a GO surface using polyethylenimine as reducing and stabilizing reagents, followed by L-cysteine immobilization through an Au-S bond. The composites were applied as a kind of novel ZIC-HILIC material to achieve highly selective enrichment of glycopeptides from biological samples. PMID:24752239

  19. Facile synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongna; Hu, Junjie; Cai, Zongwei; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-02-01

    A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid

  20. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.