Science.gov

Sample records for research articles focusing

  1. Focus Article: Replication in Second Language Writing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Graeme; Richards, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the meaning and range of replication in L2 research from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. In the first half of the paper, it will be argued that key quantitative studies need to be replicated to have their robustness and generalizability tested and that this is a requirement of scientific inquiry. Such research

  2. Focus Article: Replication in Second Language Writing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Graeme; Richards, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the meaning and range of replication in L2 research from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. In the first half of the paper, it will be argued that key quantitative studies need to be replicated to have their robustness and generalizability tested and that this is a requirement of scientific inquiry. Such research…

  3. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students’ Ability to Read Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Lacum, Edwin B. Van; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach—based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory—means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors’ arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students’ ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students’ evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. PMID:26086657

  4. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles.

    PubMed

    Van Lacum, Edwin B; Ossevoort, Miriam A; Goedhart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach-based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory-means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors' arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students' ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students' evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. PMID:26086657

  5. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lacum, Edwin B.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach--based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory--means that we teach students to read research articles by…

  6. [Reading research articles].

    PubMed

    van der Graaf, Yolanda; Zaat, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up with the latest developments is not easy, but neither is reading articles on research. There are too many medical journals that contain information that is irrelevant to clinical practice. From this mass of articles you have to decide which are important for your own clinical practice and which are not. Most articles naturally fall into the latter category as spectacular findings with important consequences for medical practice do not occur every week. The most important thing in a research article is the research question. If you begin with this, then you can put aside much scientific literature. The methodology section is essential; reading this can save you a lot of time. In this article we take you step-by-step through the process of reading research articles. The articles in our Methodology series can be used as background information. These articles have been combined in a tablet app, which is available via www.ntvg.nl/methodologie. PMID:26058770

  7. 'I/We Focus on...': A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Self-Mentions in Business Management Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mur Duenas, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Although research articles (RAs) have been frequently characterised by impersonal language, which entails the use of nominalisations and passive sentences, self-mentions, that is, explicit references to the RA author(s), are found to intermingle with those impersonal constructions. These self-references can be considered a rhetorical strategy that…

  8. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-06-30

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  9. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1998-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are isclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters.

  10. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…

  11. Research in focus.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Michele

    2016-01-01

    This section presents a brief review of articles on dental implants considered of special interest for the reader, in order to encourage the development of research, the interest for data analysis and the attention given to scientific publications. Your comments are welcome. Please contact Dr Michele Nieri at: michelenieri@gmail.com. PMID:27022641

  12. Research Focus. Section II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Bobbie J.; And Others

    Five papers, discussing research on nonwhite disabled persons, were presented at a 1984 conference on the needs of this population. In "Innovative Approaches and Research in Addressing the Needs of Nonwhite Disabled Persons," B. J. Atkins examines counseling approaches and research needs. In "The Role of Social Support in Disease Severity in…

  13. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  14. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly

  15. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article

  16. Introductions in Research Articles: Variation across Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' (1990), "Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings." Results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications.

  17. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  18. Introductions in Research Articles: Variation across Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' (1990), "Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings." Results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications.…

  19. Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girden, Ellen R.

    This book in intended to train students in reading a research report critically. It uses actual research articles as examples including both good and flawed studies in each category and provides interpretation and evaluation of the appropriateness of the statistical analyses in each study. Individual chapters usually include two sample studies and

  20. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  1. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of

  2. Focusing ecological research for conservation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Ecologists are increasingly actively involved in conservation. We identify five key topics from a broad sweep of ecology that merit research attention to meet conservation needs. We examine questions from landscape ecology, behavioral ecology, ecosystem dynamics, community ecology, and nutrient cycling related to key topics. Based on literature review and publication trend assessment, consultation with colleagues, and roundtable discussions at the 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology, focused research on the following topics could benefit conservation while advancing ecological understanding: 1. Carbon sequestration, requiring increased linkages to biodiversity conservation; 2. Ecological invasiveness, challenging our ability to find solutions to ecological aliens; 3. Individual variation, having applications in the conservation of rare species; 4. Movement of organisms, integrating ecological processes across landscapes and scales and addressing habitat fragmentation; and 5. Trophic-level interactions, driving ecological dynamics at the ecosystem-level. Addressing these will require cross-disciplinary research under the overarching framework of conservation ecology. PMID:23609103

  3. Ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromill and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-02-24

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  4. Ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromill and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1998-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are isclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters.

  5. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  6. Focus areas of cardiovascular medical device research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimhundu, Chipo; De Jager, Kylie; Douglas, Tania S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the focus of cardiovascular medical device research in South Africa over the 15-year period 2000 - 2014. Information drawn from journal articles was used for the analysis, with attention to articles describing a contribution to the development of a cardiovascular medical device, or a new application of an existing device. The findings suggest that research has focused on diagnostic and monitoring as well as prosthetic cardiovascular medical devices, with specific emphasis on vascular and valvular heart diseases. PMID:26792307

  7. Research Focus: Reviewing Recent Research on Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Chris

    2012-01-01

    There is perhaps no subject more contentious in schools than assessment and yet, often, at classroom, school and national level, inferences and decisions are made without much reference to research in this area. In fact, teachers often accept or interpret assessment requirements without question, feeling that assessment has to be approached in a…

  8. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  9. Family Literacy Research: A Review of Five Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rights, Mollie

    This paper reviews 5 articles published in 1995 on family literacy research. The articles reviewed are: (1) a study on literacy in Iceland by Ronald Taylor which examined how Icelandic families share language and reading related activities; (2) an article by Barbara Moss and Gay Fawcett which describes and comments on different home literacy…

  10. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  11. Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  12. The Schematic Structure of Computer Science Research Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posteguillo, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Presents a linguistic description of the schematic organization of 40 journal articles from three academic journals in computing research. Results indicate the introduction-methods-results-discussion research reporting pattern can not be applied to computer science articles, with the central part (methods- results) departing most from the…

  13. Criticism and Interpretation: Teaching the Persuasive Aspects of Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely…

  14. The Discourse Function of Collocation in Research Article Introductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gledhill, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Characterizes the phraseology of introductions from a corpus of 150 cancer research articles. Explains the fixedness and idiosyncratic nature of scientific phraseology in terms of discourse processes such as reformulation. Argues for the design of a representative and specialized corpus of the research article and a contextual approach to corpus…

  15. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2013-01-01

    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

  16. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2013-01-01

    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the

  17. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 8, Issue C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. Articles appearing in this issue are: (1)…

  18. US Naval Research Laboratory focus issue: introduction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Rather than concentrate on a single topic, this feature issue presents the wide variety of research in optics that takes place at a single institution, the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and is analogous to an NRL feature issue published in Applied Optics in 1967. NRL is the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps. It conducts a broadly based multidisciplinary program of scientific research and advanced technological development in the physical, engineering, space, and environmental sciences related to maritime, atmospheric, and space domains. NRL's research is directed toward new and improved materials, techniques, equipment, and systems in response to identified and anticipated Navy needs. A number of articles in this issue review progress in broader research areas while other articles present the latest results on specific topics. PMID:26560629

  19. Preparing Special Education Research Articles in APA Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan

    2002-01-01

    This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…

  20. Research Articles in Applied Linguistics: Structures from a Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiying, Yang; Allison, Desmond

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the main lines of a genre analysis of the macro-structures of research articles (RAs) in applied linguistics, an area that deserves more attention both for pedagogic and research reasons. The analysis is based upon a detailed study of a corpus of 40 RAs, selected as random sets of 10 drawn from four leading journals in the…

  1. Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…

  2. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  3. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an

  4. Focus issue articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review sums up the key findings of seventeen articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases that are designated for the July focus issue in Phytopathology. The emerging and re-emerging diseases discussed include those caused by three viral, six fungal, five oomycete, and four bacterial pa...

  5. Fifty most-cited articles in anterior cruciate ligament research.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Pramod B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Rotmil, Gayle; Freedman, Kevin B

    2015-04-01

    The number of times an article has been cited in the peer-reviewed literature is indicative of its impact on its respective medical specialty. No study has used citation analysis to determine the most influential studies pertaining to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The primary aims of this study were to identify the classic works in ACL research using citation analysis and to characterize these articles to determine which types of studies have had the most influence on the field. A systematic query of ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was performed for articles pertaining to the ACL, and the 50 most-cited articles were selected for evaluation. The following characteristics were determined for each article: number of citations, citation density, journal, publication year, country of origin, language, article type, article subtype, and level of evidence. The number of citations ranged from 219 to 1073 (mean, 326), and the citation densities ranged from 4.9 to 55.6 citations per year (mean, 18.2). All articles were published in 1 of 11 journals, with the most being published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (46%) and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American (30%). The most common decades of publication were the 1990s (34%), 1980s (28%), and 2000s (26%). The majority (68%) of articles originated from the United States, and all were written in English. By article type, 42% were basic science, and 58% were clinical. Of the clinical articles, 3% were Level I, 17% were Level II, 28% were Level III, and 52% were Level IV. The articles were heterogeneous with regard to article type, article subtype, and level of evidence and tended to have the following characteristics: high-impact journal of publication, recent publication year, US origin, English language, and low level of evidence. These works represent some of the most popular scientific contributions to ACL research. This list may aid residency and fellowship programs in the compilation of articles for trainee reading curriculums. PMID:25901623

  6. Focus group research and "the patient's view".

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Poland, Blake; Daudelin, Genevieve

    2006-10-01

    A clear emphasis on the patient's view is discernible in the health services research literature of the past decades. Such a switch to patients' perspectives has been greatly facilitated by a wider acceptance and use of qualitative methods. In particular, focus groups are often used to uncover the range and depth of experiences of health services users and chronically ill individuals. Although this method contributes to a better understanding of patients' perspectives and practices, a number of analytical considerations have been overlooked. The aim of this paper is to consider how to conceptualise and analyse interactions in focus group research. We argue that focus groups are social spaces in which participants co-construct the "patient's view" by sharing, contesting and acquiring knowledge. Focus groups conducted with home care patients in Quebec, Canada (on antibiotic intravenous therapy, parenteral nutrition, peritoneal dialysis and oxygen therapy) are used to illustrate three interactive processes at work in focus groups: (1) establishing oneself as experienced and knowledgeable; (2) establishing oneself as in search of information and advice; and (3) validating or challenging one another's knowledge claims. We develop an analytical template focused on the subtle dynamics underpinning the various and at times competing claims of patients. This template acknowledges the processes through which participants attribute authority to the claims of others, including the focus group moderator. We find that focus group research does not derive epistemological authority simply from the identity of its participants. Rather, an emerging consensus about what constitutes the patient's view is the result of context-dependent social interactions that need to be scrutinised. PMID:16797811

  7. New Group of Researchers Focuses on Scientific Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The author of this article reports in late January 2006, a group of scholars announced the formation of a federally-backed professional society that will focus solely on advancing scientifically rigorous studies in education. The society, which is known as Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, has caused ripples of controversy among…

  8. Communication Strategies in the Writing of Scientific Research Articles by Non-native Users of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sionis, Claude

    1995-01-01

    This article compares the communication strategies used by representatives of two generations of French scientists (pre- and postcommunicative language teaching) in the writing of research articles in English-language scientific journals. It focuses on the relationships between general argumentative language and hard-core mathematical language in…

  9. Anatomy of success: 100 most cited articles in diabetes research

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Juan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The number of citations an article receives is an important indication of its impact and its contribution to academia. There is a paucity of literature concerning top article citations in diabetes. The main objective of this investigation was to bridge this gap and to provide readers with a practical guide in evaluating diabetes literature. Methods: Scopus Library was searched to determine the citations of all published diabetes articles. A total of 100 articles were included in our investigation under the subject category ‘Diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and diabetics’. Two databases were used to extract citations. We did not apply any time restriction in our search. The top 100 cited articles were selected and analyzed by two independent investigators. We extracted immediacy index from ResearchGate. Results: The journal with the highest number of top 100 cited articles was The New England Journal of Medicine with 23, followed by 22 in Diabetes Care. The top article on the list received 17,779 citations. A statistically significant association was found between the journal impact factor and the number of top 100 cited articles (p < 0.005). The United States had the highest number of articles (59). Contrary to bibliometric analyses published in other medical fields, the largest subset of the diabetes articles (n = 54) were published in the 10-year period between 2000 and 2009. Conclusion: Our analysis provides an insight on the citation frequency of top cited articles published in diabetes to help recognize the quality of the works, discoveries and the trends steering the study of diabetes. PMID:26301066

  10. Critical evaluation of research articles in relation to informed consent.

    PubMed

    Biswas, B; Ahmad, R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of research bioethics arose and developed over the last three decades mainly in response to moral crisis created by rapidly advancing medical science and technology. Accordingly, reinterpretation of some fundamental principles of ethics is needed. At the heart of the ethical principle of respect for person, lies the informed consent process. Nuremberg Code, Helsinki Declaration of World Medical Association (WMA), Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines etc. demonstrated the importance of informed consent in biomedical research involving human subjects. This article was planned to evaluate the reflection of informed consent in the published research articles. Fifty-two articles published in national and international journals were studied among which informed consent was found to be taken only in 21(40.4%) occasions and the same was not taken in 31(59.6%) occasions. Study showed that out of 38 articles published in national journals, informed consent was taken from only in 12(31.6%) situations, while out of 14 articles published in international journals, informed consent was taken in 9(64.3%) situations. Out of 36 observational studies, informed consent (both written and verbal) was taken from only 27.8% cases, whereas out of 16 interventional experiments, informed consent was taken in 68.8% situations. PMID:17867274

  11. Crafting Qualitative Research Articles on Marriages and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research…

  12. Hedging and Boosting in English and Indonesian Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjaya, I Nyoman Suka

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary study was aimed at exploring the similarities and differences between English and Indonesian research articles from the disciplines of applied linguistics and chemistry in terms of frequency of usage of hedges (e.g. "perhaps," "may") and boosters (e.g. "clearly,"…

  13. Hedging and Boosting in English and Indonesian Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjaya, I Nyoman Suka

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary study was aimed at exploring the similarities and differences between English and Indonesian research articles from the disciplines of applied linguistics and chemistry in terms of frequency of usage of hedges (e.g. "perhaps," "may") and boosters (e.g. "clearly,"

  14. First-Year Students Benefit from Reading Primary Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenk, Laura; Tronsky, Loel

    2011-01-01

    Primary research articles discuss aspects of scientific inquiry that are important in understanding the nature of science. Yet, most introductory science courses use textbooks that ignore the scientific process; opportunities for explicit discussion of the nature of science are lost. In Hampshire College's science program, students read current

  15. First-Year Students Benefit from Reading Primary Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenk, Laura; Tronsky, Loel

    2011-01-01

    Primary research articles discuss aspects of scientific inquiry that are important in understanding the nature of science. Yet, most introductory science courses use textbooks that ignore the scientific process; opportunities for explicit discussion of the nature of science are lost. In Hampshire College's science program, students read current…

  16. Trends in Sociology Literature and Research: A Comparison of Characteristics of Journal Articles, 1968 and 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines characteristics of articles published in three sociology journals in 1968 and 1978 focusing on distinctive features which give librarians useful information about the communication system in sociology, and trends in types of research. Types of data used in published research studies are discussed. Twenty-nine references are provided. (EJS)

  17. Investigating the root causes of duplicate publication in research articles

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Payman; Kianpour, Maryam; Shirani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Duplicate publication is the republication of an article in which a lot of important parts overlap with the published copy. This issue is nearly at the top of the list of subjects, which medical journal editors discuss. this study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the publication patterns and determining it's root causes in research articles in the Isfahan University of Medical Science and to find a solution to prevent it. In a cross sectional study, All the discovered cases of duplicate publication, which were referred to the ethics committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Science during 2005–2008 were selected to be investigated through a descriptive method. After confirmation about the case of a duplicate publication, the requisite investigation was conducted through interviews and review of the correspondence and documentaries, and then, a radical line was charted. After investigating the cases and classifying the radical causes and incidents, categorization and definition of duplicate publication are presented. Eight out of nine republished articles belonged to the first category of Baily's index (copy publication) and one was in the third category (minimum publishable unit: Salami slicing). The results of the present article indicate that, the scientific community of the country is not yet familiar with the professional principles of scientific and research affairs. According to the results of this investigation, it is recommended to take official action against duplicate publication cases, violation of copyright, and also to have strict instructions against this unethical practice. PMID:25861659

  18. Focused ion beam in dental research.

    PubMed

    Ngo, H; Cairney, J; Munroe, P; Vargas, M; Mount, G

    2000-11-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) has been available for over 10 yrs but until recently its usage has been confined to the semiconductor industry. It has been developed as an important tool in defect analysis, circuit modification and recently transmission electron microscope sample preparation. This paper introduces FIB and demonstrates its application in dental research. Its ion and electron imaging modes complement the SEM while its ability to prepare TEM samples from a wide range of material will allow the study of new types of adhesive interface. As an example, its use is described in the characterization of the interface of resin to a tribochemically treated surface of an experimental fiber-reinforced resin-based composite. As with all new techniques, the initial learning curve was difficult to manage. This new instrument offers opportunities to expand research in dental materials to areas not possible before. PMID:11763915

  19. The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age.

    PubMed

    Vines, Timothy H; Albert, Arianne Y K; Andrew, Rose L; Débarre, Florence; Bock, Dan G; Franklin, Michelle T; Gilbert, Kimberly J; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Renaut, Sébastien; Rennison, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5, 6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data [8-11]. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time since publication. We therefore requested data sets from a relatively homogenous set of 516 articles published between 2 and 22 years ago, and found that availability of the data was strongly affected by article age. For papers where the authors gave the status of their data, the odds of a data set being extant fell by 17% per year. In addition, the odds that we could find a working e-mail address for the first, last, or corresponding author fell by 7% per year. Our results reinforce the notion that, in the long term, research data cannot be reliably preserved by individual researchers, and further demonstrate the urgent need for policies mandating data sharing via public archives. PMID:24361065

  20. Structural Patterns in Empirical Research Articles: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…

  1. Text-Organising Metatext in Research Articles: An English-Slovene Contrastive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterlin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a contrastive analysis focusing on the differences in the use of two selected metatext categories, previews and reviews, in English and Slovene research articles. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the use of the selected metatext categories is more restricted in Slovene academic writing than in English academic…

  2. Articles Published in Six School Psychology Journals from 2005-2009: Where's the Intervention Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; McCormick, Anita S.; Simek, Amber; Yoon, Hyunhee

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a content analysis of six school psychology journals spanning the years 2005-2009, with a particular focus on published intervention research. The analysis showed that (a) research articles were the most frequently published, with the largest category being descriptive research; (b) the percentage of intervention studies…

  3. Open Access to Research Articles and Data: Library Roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, a handful of key developments have caused scholars and researchers to rethink not only the way they conduct their work, but also the way in which they communicate it to others. The advent of the Internet has provided unprecedented opportunities for immediate, cost effective global connectivity, opening up new possibilities for collaboration and communication. This has resulted in scholarship increasingly being conducted in the online environment, and a vast amount of new digital information being generated and made widely available to those interested in using it. Additionally, the Internet is a dynamic environment, with new channels for producing and sharing information in a myriad of formats emerging frequently.In higher education, the momentum of the burgeoning movement towards "open" sharing of information of all kinds continues to gain traction. In particular, advancements in the areas of opening up access to articles and reserch data are increasingly visible. In both of these areas, academic and research libraries are playing important, central roles in promoting the awareness of the potential costs and benefits of a more open research environment, as well as defining new roles for libraries in this digital environment.As this push for grater openness continues, these fronts are intersecting in interesting and potentially transformative ways. The Open Access and Open Data movements share fundamental philosophical commonalities that make collaboration a natural outcome. Both movements place a premium on reducing barriers to discovering and accessing pertinent digital information. Perhaps even more significantly, both explicitly recognize that enabling productive use of digital information is key to unlocking its full value. As a result of these shared priorities, there are a wide variety of common strategies that libraries can take to help advance research, presenting new opportunities for deeper collaboration to take place.This talk will explore what is happening in these "open" movements from both a practical and policy standpoint; how this might directly impact academia, the research community, and especially, libraries.

  4. Articles on Peace Education. A Selective Bibliography with a Focus on the Last 25 Years. Peace Education Miniprints No. 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    This bibliography lists examples of journal articles and chapters in edited books dealing with peace education; some separate prints of article size also are included. The major focus of the bibliography is on materials in English, German, and the Scandinavian languages from the last 25 years. Titles of articles are given in the original language…

  5. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients

  6. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  7. Rhetorical Strategies in Engineering Research Articles and Research Theses: Advanced Academic Literacy and Relations of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsantoni, Dimitra

    2006-01-01

    Research articles and research theses constitute two key genres used by scientific communities for the dissemination and ratification of knowledge. Both genres are produced at advanced stages of individuals' enculturation in disciplinary communities present original research aim to persuade the academic community to accept new knowledge claims,…

  8. Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…

  9. NASA Airspace Systems Environmentally Focused Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation focuses on how the Next Generation Air Space System can assist in reducing environmental pollution and reduced fuel consumption. By modifying some of the current aviation practices such as the dive and drive descent and making more efficient air traffic flow, the new system can assist in noise reduction, emissions reductions and reduce delays in routing and improve operational efficiency

  10. A brief history of the evolution of the medical research article

    PubMed Central

    MARTA, MONICA MIHAELA

    2015-01-01

    Given the current importance of publishing medical research articles in high-impact international journals, this article briefly presents key moments in the evolution of this reporting genre for a better understanding of the diachronic changes that have shaped it into a highly useful tool for creating and spreading knowledge, as well as for establishing academic hierarchies at both individual and institutional level. Therefore, focus will be placed not only on the evolution of its structure and purpose, but also on issues such as knowledge construction, knowledge claims, writer-reader interaction and the appropriate writing conventions and rhetorical strategies required for successful scientific communication. PMID:26733758

  11. Education: Conference Focuses on Undergraduate Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes five speeches from the Second National Conference of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR). Probes the role of undergraduate institutions in improving precollege training and structuring student research programs. Discusses some current problems of science and science education. Considers the history and activities of the CUR. (YP)

  12. Interventions for Learning Disabilities: Does a Journal-Based Change in Focus and Article Type Reflect or Influence Legal Mandates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, Daniel F.; Rowlette, Emily Fuller; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Bain, Sherry K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether there was a noticeable shift in focus from general to specific learning disabilities, and in the types of articles (narrative or empirically based) in the Journal of Learning Disabilities (JLD) between 1995 to 2000. A pilot study had revealed an increase in empirically based articles and a shift toward specifically…

  13. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency, FDA may undertake focused regulatory research on critical rate-limiting aspects of the...

  14. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency, FDA may undertake focused regulatory research on critical rate-limiting aspects of the...

  15. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency, FDA may undertake focused regulatory research on critical rate-limiting aspects of the...

  16. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency, FDA may undertake focused regulatory research on critical rate-limiting aspects of the...

  17. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency, FDA may undertake focused regulatory research on critical rate-limiting aspects of the...

  18. The use of CPR data in fisheries research [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corten, A.; Lindley, J. A.

    2003-08-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by technological developments in fish detection, but the former has been the subject of continuing, and in recent years expanding use of the CPR data. Examples are presented of application of the data to studies on North Sea herring, cod, mackerel, blue whiting and redfish as well as more general plankton studies relevant to fisheries research. Variations in the migration patterns of herring as well as recruitment have been related to abundances and species composition of the plankton in the CPR survey. Extensive use has been made of the CPR data in relation to cod, particularly in the development and testing of the ‘match-mismatch’ hypothesis. Advection of sufficient numbers of Calanus from the core oceanic areas of its distribution into the areas where the cod stocks occur may partly determine the success of those stocks. The analysis of the distribution and abundances of mackerel larvae in the CPR survey have shown contrasting variations between the North Sea and Celtic Sea. The expansion of the horse mackerel fishery in the north-eastern North Sea since 1987 has been related to physical events and a ‘regime shift’ in the plankton, described from CPR data. The oceanic spawning areas of the blue whiting and redfish were highlighted by the expansion of the CPR survey into the north-eastern and north-western Atlantic respectively. These results helped to focus the attention of fisheries scientists on stocks that have subsequently become the targets for commercial exploitation. The results of the CPR survey, particularly those on Calanusfinmarchicus, the phytoplankton standing stock as measured by the CPR colour index, the overall patterns of trends in plankton abundance and distributions of indicator species have been used by fisheries scientists to interpret variations in fish stocks. Generally the CPR data can be used to determine whether changes in the distributions and growth rates of fish have resulted from changes in planktonic food, changes in strength of ocean currents and distribution of water masses and to identify trends in larval abundances. With the tightening regulation of fisheries to reduce overfishing, global climate change and changing anthropogenic inputs into the sea, the unique source of information on unexploited populations in the long-term time series of the CPR survey will be of increasing value to fisheries scientists in the study of natural variability.

  19. Brain Research Focuses on New Assays, Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Those attending the CIC/ACS (Chemical Institute of Canada /American Chemical Society) joint conference at Montreal heard about recent advances in brain chemistry research, the use of compartmental models for predicting pollution, the presence of carcinogens (N-Nitrosamines) in sidestream tobacco smoke, and the synthesis of sex attractants using…

  20. Brain Research Focuses on New Assays, Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Those attending the CIC/ACS (Chemical Institute of Canada /American Chemical Society) joint conference at Montreal heard about recent advances in brain chemistry research, the use of compartmental models for predicting pollution, the presence of carcinogens (N-Nitrosamines) in sidestream tobacco smoke, and the synthesis of sex attractants using

  1. Hungarian space research 1981-1985: Lectures and review articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benko, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This monograph presents an overview of Hungarian space research from 1981 to 1985. Topics discussed in the original report include the development of space research centers, the flight of the first Hungarian astronaut, Hungarian participation in international space programs such as the Vega/Halley's Comet mission and the BEALUCA materials science experiment, advances in astronomical research, and activities of the Cosmic Geodetic Observatory. Other topics discussed incude space biomedical studies, meteorological applications of space research, satellite communications, and satellite power supply systems.

  2. Building Action Focused Research in Social Care Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a model for action research in family practice. It reviews three research projects used by the authors over the past decade. Drawing on learning from each, the article discusses a model for undertaking ongoing, embedded action research in organisational settings. The contribution that action methods can make to the…

  3. Rethinking University Admission for the 21st Century: Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    How can one create a system for university admission that is equitable, valid, and representative of the broad range of abilities that students can bring to university settings? Conventional tests of abilities and achievements are narrow and do not measure the full range of abilities relevant to university and life success. In this article I…

  4. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  5. "The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

  6. A Contrastive Study of Determiner Usage in EST Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The determiners in English include three categories: predeterminers, central determiners, and postdeterminers. The focus of the present study is the central determiners because they comprise the largest group and because a minimum of one central determiner is required in the generation of any noun phrase. Furthermore, the central determiners have…

  7. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  8. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  9. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of

  10. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 9, Issue A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is a publication of the US Division of World Education, Inc. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to connecting research with practice, to…

  11. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 9, Issue B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is a publication of the U.S. Division of World Education, Inc. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to connecting research with practice, to…

  12. Review article: high intensity focused ultrasound--potential for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Hill, C R; ter Haar, G R

    1995-12-01

    The prospect of being able to use "minimally invasive" surgical techniques is of great interest today, particularly for reasons of health economics, patient acceptability and reduced morbidity. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has long been known to offer the potential of very precise "trackless lesioning" but has only recently, with the advent of high quality methods of medical imaging, become a practicable possibility. High intensity beams can readily be achieved using either bowel or lens focusing procedures and, by choice of a suitable acoustic frequency, regions of tissue destruction--"lesions"--can be induced at depths of up to at least 10 cm with exposure times of the order of 1 s. Theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that the primary mechanism of damage is thermal, i.e. "cooking" of the tissues. Both conventional cavitation and boiling of tissue water may complicate the situation. Furthermore, substantial non-linear behaviour is involved. On histological appearance the lesions have a spatially sharp demarcation between regions of normal and dead cells. When attempts are made to ablate a block of tissue, by creating an array of adjacent elementary lesions, a phenomenon is observed of inhibition of formation of a lesion whose placing is too close to that of a neighbour. Provided that this problem is dealt with, complete ablation of an extended block of tissue can be achieved. For animal tumours in particular, this observation is reinforced by evidence both of in vitro cell survival and of tumour growth delay experiments. Clinically, the sites accessible for HIFU treatment will be limited by the need for a suitably wide acoustic window that either is available naturally or can be provided by a relatively minor surgical procedure. Tumour sites which thus offer a realistic prospect for local control (and some of which are already the subject of phase 1 trials) include liver, bladder, kidney, prostate, breast and brain. There is also considerable interest in non-cancer applications in these and other sites. PMID:8777589

  13. Research Article Introductions in Chinese and English: A Comparative Genre-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loi, Chek Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of English and Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) framework of move analysis. A corpus of 40 research articles (20 Chinese and 20 English) was selected. The English research articles, written by first-language…

  14. Research Article Introductions in Chinese and English: A Comparative Genre-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loi, Chek Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of English and Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) framework of move analysis. A corpus of 40 research articles (20 Chinese and 20 English) was selected. The English research articles, written by first-language

  15. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  16. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  17. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364

  18. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 8, Issue A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to…

  19. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 6, Issue B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to…

  20. Rethinking the Focus Group in Media and Communications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Relates the history of the focus group as a research tool, explores its recent revival, and reappraises the method and its appropriateness for media and communications research. Argues that the focus group discussion should be regarded as a socially situated communication. Discusses the various relations this may bear toward different approaches…

  1. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 6, Issue A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to

  2. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  3. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South

  4. Brain Metastases Research 1990–2010: Pattern of Citation and Systematic Review of Highly Cited Articles

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca L.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases has been performed between 1990 and 2010. One of the major databases contains 2695 scientific articles that were published during this time period. Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this overview, article citation rate was chosen. Results. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on randomized clinical trials. Nine covered surgical or radiosurgical approaches and the remaining one a widely adopted prognostic score. Overall, 30 randomized clinical trials were published between 1990 and 2010, including those with phase II design and excluding duplicate publications, for example, after longer followup or with focus on secondary endpoints. Twenty of these randomized clinical trials were published before 2008. Their median number of citations was 110, range 13–1013, compared to 5-6 citations for all types of publications. Annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. Conclusions. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. PMID:23028253

  5. 25th anniversary article: a decade of organic/polymeric photovoltaic research.

    PubMed

    Dou, Letian; You, Jingbi; Hong, Ziruo; Xu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Street, Robert A; Yang, Yang

    2013-12-10

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology has been developed and improved from a fancy concept with less than 1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) to over 10% PCE, particularly through the efforts in the last decade. The significant progress is the result of multidisciplinary research ranging from chemistry, material science, physics, and engineering. These efforts include the design and synthesis of novel compounds, understanding and controlling the film morphology, elucidating the device mechanisms, developing new device architectures, and improving large-scale manufacture. All of these achievements catalyzed the rapid growth of the OPV technology. This review article takes a retrospective look at the research and development of OPV, and focuses on recent advances of solution-processed materials and devices during the last decade, particular the polymer version of the materials and devices. The work in this field is exciting and OPV technology is a promising candidate for future thin film solar cells. PMID:24105687

  6. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly

  7. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  8. A Methodological Review of the Articles Published in "Georgia Educational Researcher" from 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Griffin, Andrea E.; Zeiger, Samara R.; Falbe, Kristina N.; Freeman, Noreen A.; Taylor, Bridget E.; Westbrook, Amy F.; Lico, Cheryl C.; Starling, Cristy N.; Sprull, Nakiesha M.; Holt, Carolyn; Smith, Kristie; McAnespie, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Methodological reviews, reviews that concentrate on research methods rather than research outcomes, have been used in a variety of fields to improve research practice, inform debate, and identify islands of practice. In this article, we report on the results of a methodological review of all of the articles published in "Georgia Educational…

  9. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  10. Differences in Quality between Thai and International Research Articles in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut; Todd, Richard Watson; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Hall, David

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to explore potential problems of English Language Teaching (ELT) academics in Thailand in getting their research published in international journals. Using content analysis, the study analyzes and compares 100 research articles published by ELT academics in Thailand with 100 research articles published in international journals.…

  11. Differences in Quality between Thai and International Research Articles in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut; Todd, Richard Watson; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Hall, David

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to explore potential problems of English Language Teaching (ELT) academics in Thailand in getting their research published in international journals. Using content analysis, the study analyzes and compares 100 research articles published by ELT academics in Thailand with 100 research articles published in international journals.

  12. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr. PMID:22139770

  13. NASA Integrated Systems Research with an Environmental Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Collier, Fay

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) with a focus on the work being done on reduction of environmental impact from aeronautics. The focus of the ISRP is to Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment. The presentation reviews the criteria for an ISRP project, and discusses the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project, and the technical challenges.

  14. Remarks on the Communicative Functions of Hedging in Popular Scientific and Specialist Research Articles on Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varttala, Teppo

    1999-01-01

    A study of 15 popular scientific journal articles and 15 specialist medical-research articles indicates that in medical discourse hedging, the expression of tentativeness and possibility by epistemic devices, can be applied in less specialized English- for-Special-Purposes (ESP) texts such as popular scientific articles, but in different…

  15. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…

  16. Examining the Impact of Chemistry Education Research Articles from 2007 through 2013 by Citation Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Lewis, Scott E.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Oueini, Razanne

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of Chemistry Education Research articles has historically centered on the impact factor of the publishing journal. With the advent of electronic journal indices, it is possible to determine the impact of individual research articles by the number of citations it has received. However, in a relatively new discipline, such as…

  17. Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…

  18. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…

  19. LGBTQ Research in Higher Education: A Review of Journal Articles, 2000-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    A review of electronic databases identified 27 research-based articles concerning LGBTQ issues in higher education between 2000 and 2003. These articles are summarized into three categories: studies of campus climate, student life issues, and college teaching. Suggestions are provided for future research on postsecondary students; faculty;…

  20. Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141

  1. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Club Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on club drug research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1996 through 2002. Topics include the effects of ecstasy and methamphetamine on the brain and body,…

  2. Examining the Impact of Chemistry Education Research Articles from 2007 through 2013 by Citation Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Lewis, Scott E.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Oueini, Razanne

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of Chemistry Education Research articles has historically centered on the impact factor of the publishing journal. With the advent of electronic journal indices, it is possible to determine the impact of individual research articles by the number of citations it has received. However, in a relatively new discipline, such as

  3. Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

  4. The Textual Organisation of Research Article Introductions in Applied Linguistics: Variability within a Single Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ismet

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the degree of variability in the structure of research article introductions within a single discipline. It is an exploratory study based on the analysis of 20 research articles. The study investigates the differences between two subdisciplines of applied linguistics, namely second language acquisition and second language…

  5. Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Priscilla J.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate students need to understand the role of technical articles in research and to become familiar with the journal submission process. Although this knowledge is important to their careers, it is rarely included in coursework. To correct this, class discussion on the role of technical articles in research as well as the submission process has…

  6. Bush Research Budget again Focuses on Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hebel, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents compelling reasons why President George W. Bush decided to double federal funds for agencies supporting physical-science research. The biggest beneficiaries of Mr. Bush's plan for 2008 would be the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Those agencies, together with the National

  7. Bush Research Budget again Focuses on Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hebel, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents compelling reasons why President George W. Bush decided to double federal funds for agencies supporting physical-science research. The biggest beneficiaries of Mr. Bush's plan for 2008 would be the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Those agencies, together with the National…

  8. Research Required for the Effective Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Articles 9 and 10

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge. PMID:23024247

  9. Research required for the effective implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control, articles 9 and 10.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nigel; Borland, Ron

    2013-04-01

    This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge. PMID:23024247

  10. The top cited clinical research articles on sepsis: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the most highly cited clinical research articles published on sepsis. Methods A comprehensive list of citation classics in sepsis was generated by searching the database of Web of Science-Expanded (1970 to present) using keywords 'sepsis' or 'septic shock'. The top 50 cited clinical research papers were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. Each eligible article was reviewed for basic information, including country of origin, article type, journals, authors, and funding sources. Results A total of 2,151 articles were cited more than 100 times; the 50 top-cited clinical articles were published between 1974 and 2008. The number of citations ranged from 372 to 2,932, with a mean of 678 citations per article. These citation classics came from nine countries, of which 26 articles came from the United States. Rush University and the University of Pittsburgh lead the list of classics with six papers each. The 50 top-cited articles were published in 17 journals, with the New England Journal of Medicine and Journal of the American Medical Association topping the list. The top 50 articles consisted of 21 clinical trials and 29 observational studies. Conclusions Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress of clinical research on sepsis. Articles originating from the United States and published in high-impact journals are most likely to be cited in the field of sepsis research. PMID:22731930

  11. Gender Issues in Addictions Research: The Report of the Task Group on Gender-Focused Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto (Ontario).

    The Task Group on Gender-Focused Research was established to raise awareness and interest in gender as a variable in addictions research at the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Ontario (Canada). Recognizing that much of the research on substance abuse has focused on males, the Task Group was charged with providing a basis for the development…

  12. A comprehensive categorical and bibliometric analysis of published research articles on pediatric pain from 1975 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Caes, Line; Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Stinson, Jennifer; Birnie, Kathryn A; Parker, Jennifer A; Huguet, Anna; Jordan, Abbie; MacLaren Chorney, Jill; Schinkel, Meghan; Dol, Justine

    2016-02-01

    The field of pediatric pain research began in the mid-1970s and has undergone significant growth and development in recent years as evidenced by the variety of books, conferences, and journals on the topic and also the number of disciplines engaged in work in this area. Using categorical and bibliometric meta-trend analysis, this study offers a synthesis of research on pediatric pain published between 1975 and 2010 in peer-reviewed journals. Abstracts from 4256 articles, retrieved from Web of Science, were coded across 4 categories: article type, article topic, type and age of participants, and pain stimulus. The affiliation of the first author and number of citations were also gathered. The results suggest a significant increase in the number of publications over the time period investigated, with 96% of the included articles published since 1990 and most research being multiauthored publications in pain-focused journals. First authors were most often from the United States and affiliated with a medical department. Most studies were original research articles; the most frequent topics were pain characterization (39.86%), pain intervention (37.49%), and pain assessment (25.00%). Clinical samples were most frequent, with participants most often characterized as children (6-12 years) or adolescents (13-18 years) experiencing chronic or acute pain. The findings provide a comprehensive overview of contributions in the field of pediatric pain research over 35 years and offers recommendations for future research in the area. PMID:26529270

  13. Mental Models: A Research Focus for Interactive Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jih, Hueyching Janice; Reeves, Thomas Charles

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of user-friendly computer systems focuses on the use of learners' mental models to help in the design of interactive learning systems. Topics addressed include interactivity; human factors research; human-computer interface issues; individual differences, including learning styles and prior experience; cognitive load; measuring mental…

  14. [Clinical research. XIII. Research design contribution in the structured revision of an article].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    The quality of information obtained in accordance to research design is integrated to the revision structured in relation to the causality model, used in the article "Reduction in the Incidence of Nosocomial Pneumonia Poststroke by Using the 'Turn-mob' Program", which corresponds to a clinical trial design. Points to identify and analyze are ethical issues in order to safeguard the security and respect for patients, randomization that seek to create basal homogeneous groups, subjects with the same probability of receiving any of the maneuvers in comparison, with the same pre maneuver probability of adherence, and which facilitate the blinding of outcome measurement and the distribution between groups of subjects with the same probability of leaving the study for reasons beyond the maneuvers. Other aspects are the relativity of comparison, the blinding of the maneuver, the parallel application of comparative maneuver, early stopping, and analysis according to the degree of adherence. The analysis in accordance with the design is complementary, since it is done based on the architectural model of causality, and the statistical and clinical relevance consideration. PMID:23550410

  15. Culturally Responsible Research, Teacher Certification and Gifted Education Services: A Response to Persson's Target Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2012-01-01

    Persson's (2012a) target article calls for a cultural sensitive research paradigm in the science of giftedness. It charts the potential threats to research validity affected by cultural bias having implications on study and practice in gifted education. The eight recommendations heading under: (1) mindset and habits; (2) research skills; and (3)…

  16. Description of research design of articles published in four Brazilian physical therapy journals

    PubMed Central

    Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Oliveira, Ronaldo F.; Lopes, Alexandre D.; Moseley, Anne M.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective To describe the research design used in all articles published in Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. Method We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal), and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages). Results A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%), followed by level III (29%) and level I (10%). The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%), single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Conclusions Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice. PMID:24675913

  17. The Theoretical Research Article as a Reflection of Disciplinary Practices: The Case of Pure Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuteeva, Maria; McGrath, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an interest in the generic structure of empirical research articles across a variety of disciplines. However, significantly less attention has been given to theoretical articles. This study aims to begin to address this imbalance by presenting the results of an investigation into the organizational and rhetorical structure…

  18. A Corpus-Based Syntactic Study of Medical Research Article Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Bai, Yongquan

    2007-01-01

    English titles of medical research articles (RAs) are of great importance, the quality of which can, to a certain degree, affect impact factors of the articles, because many readers will make a decision as to whether to read on after reading titles. However, the special genre has not been extensively studied to date. This paper is designed to

  19. Using a Research Article to Facilitate a Deep Structure Understanding of Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordt, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    This article suggests ways in which a current research article on employment discrimination from the "American Sociological Review" can be used in the undergraduate classroom to facilitate deep structure learning (Roberts 1986, 2001, 2002). The exercises are designed for different levels of the undergraduate curriculum and adopt the strategies of…

  20. A Corpus-Based Syntactic Study of Medical Research Article Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Bai, Yongquan

    2007-01-01

    English titles of medical research articles (RAs) are of great importance, the quality of which can, to a certain degree, affect impact factors of the articles, because many readers will make a decision as to whether to read on after reading titles. However, the special genre has not been extensively studied to date. This paper is designed to…

  1. Building Consensus in Science: Resources for Intertextual Dialog in Biology Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Iliana A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the way article writers bring prior texts into biology research articles. It studies the functional moves in which citations occur and their formal features, providing a better understanding of the linguistic resources that are used to construct intertextuality in science. The results show the functions of citations were…

  2. An Exploration of a Genre Set: Research Article Abstracts and Introductions in Two Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Disciplinary variation in academic writing has been explored for the most part by comparing a particular genre, such as the research article, across different disciplines. However, genre theorists have not systematically studied relationships among related genres. It is argued in this article that a study of relationships among related genres from…

  3. An Exploration of a Genre Set: Research Article Abstracts and Introductions in Two Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Disciplinary variation in academic writing has been explored for the most part by comparing a particular genre, such as the research article, across different disciplines. However, genre theorists have not systematically studied relationships among related genres. It is argued in this article that a study of relationships among related genres from

  4. The Theoretical Research Article as a Reflection of Disciplinary Practices: The Case of Pure Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuteeva, Maria; McGrath, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an interest in the generic structure of empirical research articles across a variety of disciplines. However, significantly less attention has been given to theoretical articles. This study aims to begin to address this imbalance by presenting the results of an investigation into the organizational and rhetorical structure

  5. The focus group technique in library research: an introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Glitz, B

    1997-01-01

    The focus group technique is one example of a qualitative research methodology used to explore the opinions, knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of individuals in regard to a particular topic. The focus group typically involves six to ten individuals who have some knowledge of or experience with the topic. The group discussion is led by a moderator who guides participants through a series of open-ended questions. The information gathered can provide important clues to human attitudes and values as they relate to the topic. Such information can be extremely useful to libraries that are trying to gain a better understanding of their patrons' needs and thus make better management decisions to help satisfy those needs. The technique can also be used successfully in conjunction with other research tools, such as surveys, either to help develop a questionnaire or to explain specific survey results. This paper introduces the use of focus groups in library research, the skills needed to conduct groups, and their strengths and weaknesses. Examples of the use of focus groups in health sciences libraries are presented, including the results of a survey from these libraries. PMID:9431428

  6. [How do I write a scientific article--advice to a young researcher].

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Medical care should be based on the best available scientific evidence, and physicians are frequently engaged in research to contribute to the evidence base. Publishing is a prerequisite for science and publication record is an indicator of the merits of a scientist. The predominant format for publication of medical research is journal articles. Writing a journal article can be a daunting task for a neophyte, and the skill is usually adopted with learning by doing, with little formal training available. This review describes the general structure of an article and the essential contents of each section. PMID:26485939

  7. Research and development strategy and focuses of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-09-01

    With different astronomical and technological backgrounds, various of research and development (R&D) strategies are adopted by different Virtual Observatory (VO) projects. In the paper, R&D aims and focuses of several VO projects are introduced, pro and con for small VO projects including Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) are discussed. Based on available resource and technological background, China-VO will emphasize itself on portal and application in 5 key research fields: China-VO platform construction, integrated access of national and international datasets, VO integration of existing astronomical tools, VO integration of astronomical instruments, education and outreach based on VO.

  8. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and the presence of key methodological components in published reports. PMID:22092040

  9. THE REPORTING OF IRB REVIEW IN JOURNAL ARTICLES PRESENTING HIV RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

    PubMed Central

    KLITZMAN, ROBERT L.; KLEINERT, KELLY; RIFAI-BASHJAWISH, HODA; LEU, CHENG SHIUNG

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated how often journal articles reporting on human HIV research in four developing world countries mention any institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), and what factors are involved. Methods We examined all such articles published in 2007 from India, Nigeria, Thailand and Uganda, and coded these for several ethical and other characteristics. Results Of 221 articles meeting inclusion criteria, 32.1% did not mention IRB approval. Mention of IRB approval was associated with: biomedical (versus psychosocial) research (P=0.001), more sponsor-country authors (P=0.003), sponsor-country corresponding author (P=0.047), mention of funding (P<0.001), particular host-country involved (P=0.002), journals having sponsor-country editors (P<0.001), and journal stated compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (P=0. 003). Logistic regression identified 3 significant factors: mention of funding, journal having sponsor-country editors and research being biomedical. Conclusions One-third of articles still do not mention IRB approval. Mention varied by country, and was associated with biomedical research, and more sponsor country involvement. Recently, some journals have required mention of IRB approval, but allow authors to do so in cover letters to editors, not in the article itself. Instead, these data suggest, journals should require that articles document adherence to ethical standards. PMID:21794072

  10. Promotional (Meta)Discourse in Research Articles in Language and Literary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afros, Elena; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that self-promotion in academic discourse varies across disciplines. Whereas most analysts focus on publicization techniques in natural and social sciences, the humanities have received much less attention. This article investigates the strategies associated with promotional (meta)discourse in the humanities. In…

  11. Research on Mathematics Education in China in the Last Decade: A Review of Journal Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Binyan

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews literature on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the "Journal of Mathematics Education" and "Mathematics Instruction" were also…

  12. A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

  13. Using Propensity Score Analysis for Making Causal Claims in Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    The central role of the propensity score analysis (PSA) in observational studies is for causal inference; as such, PSA is often used for making causal claims in research articles. However, there are still some issues for researchers to consider when making claims of causality using PSA results. This summary first briefly reviews PSA, followed by…

  14. The Vocabulary Thresholds of Business Textbooks and Business Research Articles for EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    This research compiled two corpora, one for English-medium textbooks for business core courses (totaling 7.2 million running words) and the other for business research articles (7.62 million tokens), to form a basis of analysis. The results show that knowledge of the most frequent 3500 word families and 5000 word families plus proper nouns would…

  15. "Ideal-Problem-Solution" (IPS) Model: A Discourse Model of Research Article Introductions (RAIS) in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnan, Zifirdaus

    2011-01-01

    Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…

  16. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  17. Document Structure and Digital Libraries: How Researchers Mobilize Information in Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann Peterson

    1999-01-01

    Explores how academic researchers disaggregate and reaggregate scientific journal articles in both print and digital environments. Analyzes data gathered in the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) project at the University of Illinois to describe how components are mobilized in the work of researchers as they identify, retrieve, read…

  18. The Vocabulary Thresholds of Business Textbooks and Business Research Articles for EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    This research compiled two corpora, one for English-medium textbooks for business core courses (totaling 7.2 million running words) and the other for business research articles (7.62 million tokens), to form a basis of analysis. The results show that knowledge of the most frequent 3500 word families and 5000 word families plus proper nouns would

  19. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Katie D.; Bernabo, J. Christopher; Carter, Thomas B.; Jutro, Peter R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability—for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs—whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity.

  20. Research Priorities for FCTC Articles 20, 21, and 22: Surveillance/Evaluation and Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles 20, 21, and 22 call for strong monitoring and reporting of tobacco use and factors influencing use and disease (Articles 20 and 21) and for collaboration among the Parties and relevant organizations to share resources, knowledge, and expertise on all relevant tobacco control strategies (Article 22). Methods: This paper provides background information and discusses research strategies that would strengthen these efforts and better inform the Parties. By necessity, Articles 20 and 21 are discussed separately from Article 22, although 1 example that relates to both 20/21 and 22 is discussed at the end. Results: Twelve important research opportunities on surveillance and evaluation are recognized, along with 4 on collaboration. The authors believe that the 6 most important areas for research would study (a) possible underreporting of tobacco use among certain demographic groups in some countries, (b) measures of industry activities, (c) optimal sampling strategies, (d) sentinel surveillance, (e) networks of tobacco companies and their partners as they promote tobacco use and interfere with implementation of the FCTC, and (f) network/relationship factors that impact diffusion of knowledge and decision making on the implementation of the FCTC. In addition, we call for a review process of existing surveillance and evaluation strategies to coordinate activities to make optimal use of existing resources. This activity would involve networking as prescribed in Article 22. Conclusions: Studies and activities such as these would facilitate control of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:23335488

  1. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Sharpening the focus in EMF research. [Electric and Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T. )

    1992-03-01

    Research results have yet to settle whether or not exposure to magnetic fields can adversely affect human health, but recent studies have provided strong pointers to several fertile areas of inquiry. EPRI is planning new studies that will dig deeper into the mysteries of these key focus areas, including questions about what wire code classifications really represent as indicators of residential magnetic field exposure and whether they are appropriate surrogates for actual exposure measurements. Other questions surround the hypothesis that magnetic fields could suppress production of the hormone melatonin, representing a possible mechanism of biological interaction. In addition to health studies, EPRI is continuing work in other parts of its comprehensive EMF research program, which includes identification of significant field sources and investigation of potential field management methods.

  3. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  4. Evaluating Prior Scholarship in Literature Reviews of Research Articles: A Comparative Study of Practices in Two Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Becky S. C.; Chan, Hang; Lam, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Evaluations of prior scholarship play a crucial role in the literature review (LR) of a research article by showing how the boundary of an area of inquiry can be further advanced by the writer's work. Yet, many inexperienced writers find evaluating others' work a major challenge. Although the task has received some attention in research and…

  5. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research articles, and thereby break down present barriers to the discovery and re-use of information within traditional modes of scholarly communication. PMID:19381256

  6. Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.

    PubMed

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-04-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research articles, and thereby break down present barriers to the discovery and re-use of information within traditional modes of scholarly communication. PMID:19381256

  7. Beyond trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology: bridging research and practice with war-affected populations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Kulkarni, Madhur; Kushner, Hallie

    2006-10-01

    This article examines the centrality of trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology (TFPE) in research with war-affected populations. The authors question the utility of the dominant focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and other disorders of Western psychiatry, and they identify a set of critical research foci related to mental health work with communities affected by political violence. Core assumptions of TFPE and its roots in logical positivism and the biomedical model of contemporary psychiatry are explored. The authors suggest that an alternative framework--social constructivism--can serve as a bridge between researchers and practitioners by helping to refocus research efforts in ways that are conceptually and methodologically more attuned to the needs of war-affected communities and those working to address their mental health needs. PMID:17209709

  8. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices. Aubert et al introduce a novel technique of synthesizing composite nanomaterials and Cross and coworkers characterize Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films co-doped with Bi and Fe to enhance PZT capacitor ferroelectric properties. These articles are closely related to the global environmental load and energy issues that require solutions in modern ceramics technology. We hope that this focus issue will help advance not only ceramics-related but also other fields of materials science.

  9. How to Read Scientific Research Articles: A Hands-On Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…

  10. Evaluation of Research Article Abstracts in the narrative and Hard Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotesbury, Hilkka

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a study of evaluation in research article abstracts across disciplines. Results show differences in the manifestation, number, and type of explicit evaluations in the abstracts belonging to different disciplines in the field of the humanities, social and natural sciences. Also revealed differences in the rhetorical structure of the

  11. Commenting on Results in Published Research Articles and Masters Dissertations in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the ways writers comment on the results of their research. Making claims in the form of Commenting on Results is a key move in discussion of results sections. Using data drawn from published journal articles and master dissertations in Language Teaching, the study investigates how published academics and students writing…

  12. Review Article: Facing Two Ways? Reflections on Recent Research on Religious Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooling, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    In this article, author Trevor Cooling presents a review of three books that disseminate recent research on religious schools. The first, "Leadership and Religious Schools: International Perspectives and Challenges," edited by Michael T. Buchanan, is an edited volume of essays about leadership in religious schools. Editor Michael…

  13. A Genre-Based Investigation of Discussion Sections of Research Articles in Dentistry and Disciplinary Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Outwardly the rhetorical organisation of sections of research reports in different disciplines can appear similar. Close examination, however, may reveal subtle differences. Numerous studies have drawn on the genre-based approach developed by Swales (1990, 2004) to investigate the schematic structure of sections of articles in a range of…

  14. Rigor in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Strategies Used in Published Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most

  15. Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

    2013-01-01

    We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

  16. Discourse Research in Mathematics Education: A Critical Evaluation of 108 Journal Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There has been increased engagement in studying discourse in the field of mathematics education. But what exactly is a discourse, and how do researchers go about analyzing discourses? This study examines 108 articles from 6 international journals in mathematics education by asking questions such as these: In which traditions and in relation to…

  17. Rigor in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Strategies Used in Published Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…

  18. How to Read Scientific Research Articles: A Hands-On Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional

  19. Cognitive Genre Structures in Methods Sections of Research Articles: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus investigation of the Methods sections of research-reporting articles in academic journals. In published pedagogic materials, Swales and Feak [Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (2000). English in today's research…

  20. Personal and Impersonal Authorial References: A Contrastive Study of English and Italian Linguistics Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molino, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural approach is taken to analyse Linguistics research articles in English and Italian in terms of 1) the use of exclusive first-person subject pronouns in English and first-person inflected verbs in Italian, and 2) the passive voice in both languages and "si" constructions in Italian. The aim is to determine whether personal and…

  1. Evaluation of Research Article Abstracts in the narrative and Hard Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotesbury, Hilkka

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a study of evaluation in research article abstracts across disciplines. Results show differences in the manifestation, number, and type of explicit evaluations in the abstracts belonging to different disciplines in the field of the humanities, social and natural sciences. Also revealed differences in the rhetorical structure of the…

  2. Gender and Power: Male and Female Teachers' Interactions in Early Years Contexts. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This article presents research on female teachers exploring their perceptions and experiences of male teachers in the early years and it also examines the views of male teachers in relation to this environment. It considers the dominant UK public discourse calling for more men in primary teaching and it shows how this affects both male and female…

  3. Doctoral Students' Reasons for Reading Empirical Research Articles: A Mixed Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melissa L.; Benge, Cindy; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mallette, Marla H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about reading ability among doctoral students. Thus, we used a fully mixed concurrent equal status design (Leech & Onwuegbuzie, 2009) to examine 205 doctoral students in the College of Education and their reasons for reading research articles. A thematic analysis revealed 5 themes (subsumed by 2 meta-themes) explaining reasons…

  4. Rhetorical Variation across Research Article Abstracts in Environmental Science and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeeaw, Supachai; Tangkiengsirisin, Supong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking…

  5. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  6. Review Article: Facing Two Ways? Reflections on Recent Research on Religious Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooling, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    In this article, author Trevor Cooling presents a review of three books that disseminate recent research on religious schools. The first, "Leadership and Religious Schools: International Perspectives and Challenges," edited by Michael T. Buchanan, is an edited volume of essays about leadership in religious schools. Editor Michael

  7. Study on Lexical Cohesion in English and Persian Research Articles (A Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzapour, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research…

  8. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  9. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategy Training for Reading Research Articles in an ESP Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhieb-Henia, Nebila

    2003-01-01

    Reports on an investigation into the reading processes of English-as-a-Foreign-Language/English for Special purposes students with respect to research articles in their specialty area: Biology. Specially explored how metacognitive strategy training influenced a group of readers' declarative and procedural knowledge and their choice and use of…

  11. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free publication in the journal until the end of 2012. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full list of nominees can be found below (in alphabetical order). Nominees Achard F, DeFries R, Eva H, Hansen M, Mayaux P and Stibig H-J 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045022 Baccini A, Laporte N, Goetz S J, Sun M and Dong H 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 045011 Barona E, Ramankutty N, Hyman G and Coomes O T 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024002 Charpentier A D, Bergerson J A and MacLean H L 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014005 Chester M V and Horvath A 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024008 Cooley S R and Doney S C 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024007 Diffenbaugh N S, White M A, Jones G V and Ashfaq M 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 024024 Farrell A E and Brandt A R 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014004 Graham W M, Condon R H, Carmichael R H, D'Ambra I, Patterson H K, Linn L J and Hernandez F J Jr 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 045301 Hansen J E 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024002 Heinonen J and Junnila S 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Jackson R B et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 044006 Jiang M, Michael Griffin W, Hendrickson C, Jaramillo P, VanBriesen J and Venkatesh A 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034014 Koren I, Kaufman Y J, Washington R, Todd M C, Rudich Y, Martins J V and Rosenfeld D 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 Kummu M, Ward P J, de Moel H and Varis O 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 Lau W K M, Kim M-K, Kim K-M and Lee W-S 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 025204 Lindeboom H J et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 035101 Lowe J A, Huntingford C, Raper S C B, Jones C D, Liddicoat S K and Gohar L K 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 Möhler O, Benz S, Saathoff H, Schnaiter M, Wagner R, Schneider J, Walter S, Ebert V and Wagner S 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 025007 Menon S, Akbari H, Mahanama S, Sednev I and Levinson R 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 014005 Schneider A, Friedl M A and Potere D 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 044003 Sloan T and Wolfendale A W 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 024001 Tedesco M, Fettweis X, van den Broeke M R, van de Wal R S W, Smeets C J P P, van de Berg W J, Serreze M C and Box J E 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014005 Wang M, Wu M and Huo H 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024001 Zeng N, Yoon J H, Marengo J A, Subramaniam A, Nobre C A, Mariotti A and Neelin J D 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002

  12. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of

  13. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  14. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  15. Disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. METHODS: In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. RESULTS: The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. CONCLUSIONS: The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans. PMID:25968115

  16. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Discussion Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures. The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Summary Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics. PMID:24079609

  17. Research school for teachers focusing on Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredberg, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    The Swedish government has launched state funded research schools for teachers to improve the education and study results in schools. The research school for teachers focusing on Natural Hazards has brought together 12 teachers from all over Sweden to improve their knowledge and skills in geoscience parallel with their ordinary educational assignment. The different projects range over volcanoes, landslides, earthquakes and paleoclimatic changes. Involvement in the research process increases critical thinking and the goal is to bring a more scientific way of working back to our schools together with our specific knowledge in our research areas. The name of the ongoing project that I am working on is "Asian monsoon variability and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems in southern Thailand during the Holocene ". The Asian monsoon system is one of the most dynamic climate systems on Earth. It largely controls the climate in Asia and in the Indo-Pacific region. The main objective of this project is to reconstruct changes in the status of Nong Thale Prong in southern Thailand through the analysis of a sediment sequence. By means of this method we expect to be able to evaluate to what extent these changes are linked to known shifts in monsoon intensity and variability. The working hypothesis is that intervals dominated by intense summer monsoon and higher precipitation resulted in higher catchment run-off and an increased input of terrestrial plant material to the lakes. In contrast, open catchment vegetation and less input of terrestrial organic material are signs of a weaker summer monsoon and a stronger northeast monsoon.

  18. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  19. Translating social work research for social justice: focusing translational research on equity rather than the market.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Stephen Edward

    2014-01-01

    Management of the dissemination of effective interventions in social work is often uncertain, and even when attention is paid to diffusing effective, innovative interventions, the focus is often disproportionately on a marketplace orientation of increasing the market share of branded, manualized interventions and social service treatment products. Public health frameworks of dissemination can improve knowledge translation in social interventions by focusing dissemination efforts on achieving equity and increasing the availability of effective interventions to all those who can benefit from them rather than simply focusing on commercial processes. This article identifies three equity-focused translation frameworks that can aid the dissemination of effective social interventions at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24405139

  20. Glioblastoma research 2006-2010: pattern of citation and systematic review of highly cited articles.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Carsten; Astner, Sabrina T; Grosu, Anca L

    2012-11-01

    High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of glioblastoma has been performed between 2006 and 2010. Different measures of impact, visibility and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Articles were identified through systematic search of the abstract database PubMed followed by analyses of total number of citations and proportion of highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ≥100, 50-99, and 25-49 citations, respectively (citation database Scopus). Overall 5831 scientific articles on the subject were published during this time period. 1.5% of all articles accumulated at least 100 citations, 3.2% were cited between 50 and 99 times, and 7.5% were cited between 25 and 49 times. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on genomic analyses, molecular subclasses of glioblastoma and/or stem cells. Overall, 18 randomized clinical trials were published between 2006 and 2010, including those with phase II design. Thirty-nine percent of them accumulated at least 50 citations and 72% were cited at least 25 times. In general, annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved at least 25 citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. PMID:22516416

  1. [How to write a scientific article: how to get your research published].

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Rivera, Reyna Luca; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Into a new and even more competitive profession, doing research and being able to publish it can make a difference. Having the bases for writing a good article, which can efficiently and clearly transmit your discoveries, is essential. We pretend to offer a general guide about what constitutes the content of a publication, and which are the most frequently committed errors. Knowing this can be the difference between being or not published. PMID:17966370

  2. ARTICLES: Influence of radiation focusing and of surface finish of the optical system on the measurement of optical breakdown thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, V. G.; Glebov, L. B.; Efimov, O. M.; Migel', V. M.; Migel', L. I.; Petrovskiĭ, G. T.; Pimenov, Yu D.

    1987-01-01

    It was found that when laser radiation is focused into a spot having a size of the order of several wavelengths a strong dependence is observed of the threshold power required for the breakdown of transparent dielectrics on the focusing depth in a sample. This dependence can have different forms and is determined by the aberrations of the entire optical path, including the resonator mirrors and the sample under test. The absolute values of the threshold power density can be found by measuring the size of the central maximum in the focal region inside the sample and the fraction of the energy concentrated in it. The threshold radiation power density is then independent of the focusing depth in the sample.

  3. THE EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN THE U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRML-1126A Curran*, M.A. The Emerging Focus on Life-Cycle Assessment in the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 3rd Dixy Lee Ray memorial Sym, Washington, DC, 12/29-31/00. Techology: Journal of the Franklin Institute (Moghissi, A.A. (Ed.)) 8:287-290 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/239,...

  4. On What Diseases and Health Conditions Should New Economic Research on Health and Development Focus?

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Behrman, Julia A.; Perez, Nykia M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the public goods nature of research, economic research on health in developing countries is likely to have the highest returns by focusing, inter alia, on diseases and health conditions that are relatively widespread and costly and that are relatively rapidly growing. This article first summarizes the time patterns in economic research on diseases and health in developing countries for 1990–2005. It then compares those time patterns with the distribution of DALYS for diseases and health conditions in developing countries estimated for 2005 and for 2030. These comparisons suggest relatively overemphasis on HIV/AIDS and underemphasis on noncommunicable diseases. This opens the possibility for individuals or organizations initiating, re-evaluating or increasing their economic research on health and development to make a significant contribution by focusing particularly on the analysis of behaviour and policy choices related to non-communicable diseases. Careful consideration must, of course, be given to other demands, but on the basis of these two criteria, potential contributions are likely to be greatest from research with such a focus. PMID:19294633

  5. A Feminist Critique of Articles about Women Published in the Community College Journal of Research and Practice: 1990-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safarik, Lynn; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses 26 articles are either women centered articles or those that treat gender as a variable. Addresses to what extent these articles use feminist literature, frameworks, and methodologies. Concludes that such articles can empower female students and researchers in community colleges and integrate women's studies into graduate programs.…

  6. The 20,000 Article Problem: How a Structured Abstract Can Help Practitioners Sort out Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miech, Edward J.; Nave, Bill; Mosteller, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    This article describes what a structured abstract is and how a structured abstract can help researchers sort out information. Today over 1,000 education journals publish more than 20,000 articles in the English language each year. No systematic tool is available at present to get the research findings from these tens of thousands of articles to…

  7. Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability (GRAPH): recommendations to advance research communication.

    PubMed

    Quintana, D S; Alvares, G A; Heathers, J A J

    2016-01-01

    The number of publications investigating heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatry and the behavioral sciences has increased markedly in the last decade. In addition to the significant debates surrounding ideal methods to collect and interpret measures of HRV, standardized reporting of methodology in this field is lacking. Commonly cited recommendations were designed well before recent calls to improve research communication and reproducibility across disciplines. In an effort to standardize reporting, we propose the Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability (GRAPH), a checklist with four domains: participant selection, interbeat interval collection, data preparation and HRV calculation. This paper provides an overview of these four domains and why their standardized reporting is necessary to suitably evaluate HRV research in psychiatry and related disciplines. Adherence to these communication guidelines will help expedite the translation of HRV research into a potential psychiatric biomarker by improving interpretation, reproducibility and future meta-analyses. PMID:27163204

  8. Overview of the VA Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) and QUERI theme articles: QUERI Series

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Mittman, Brian S; Francis, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background Continuing challenges to timely adoption of evidence-based clinical practices in healthcare have generated intense interest in the development and application of new implementation methods and frameworks. These challenges led the United States (U.S.) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to create the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) in the late 1990s. QUERI's purpose was to harness VA's health services research expertise and resources in an ongoing system-wide effort to improve the performance of the VA healthcare system and, thus, quality of care for veterans. QUERI in turn created a systematic means of involving VA researchers both in enhancing VA healthcare quality, by implementing evidence-based practices, and in contributing to the continuing development of implementation science. The efforts of VA researchers to improve healthcare delivery practices through QUERI and related initiatives are documented in a growing body of literature. The scientific frameworks and methodological approaches developed and employed by QUERI are less well described. A QUERI Series of articles in Implementation Science will illustrate many of these QUERI tools. This Overview article introduces both QUERI and the Series. Methods The Overview briefly explains the purpose and context of the QUERI Program. It then describes the following: the key operational structure of QUERI Centers, guiding frameworks designed to enhance implementation and related research, QUERI's progress and promise to date, and the Series' general content. QUERI's frameworks include a core set of steps for diagnosing and closing quality gaps and, simultaneously, advancing implementation science. Throughout the paper, the envisioned involvement and activities of VA researchers within QUERI Centers also are highlighted. The Series is then described, illustrating the use of QUERI frameworks and other tools designed to respond to implementation challenges. Conclusion QUERI's simultaneous pursuit of improvement and research goals within a large healthcare system may be unique. However, descriptions of this still-evolving effort, including its conceptual frameworks, methodological approaches, and enabling processes, should have applicability to implementation researchers in a range of health care settings. Thus, the Series is offered as a resource for other implementation research programs and researchers pursuing common goals in improving care and developing the field of implementation science. PMID:18279503

  9. ARTICLES: Evolution of active-medium perturbations and the focusing of radiation from photodissociation lasers utilizing "slow" pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štirand, O.; Krejči, V.; Pekàrek, L.; Zuev, V. S.; Orlov, E. P.

    1987-03-01

    A theoretical investigation was made of the evolution of the radial gradient of the refractive index of the active medium in a photodissociation iodine laser amplifier of nanosecond pulses utilizing slow pumping. Two mechanisms were taken into account in discussing the appearance of an optical inhomogeneity in the medium: the excitation of acoustic waves in the laser cell during pumping in the interior and near the walls. It became clear that the amplitudes of both waves could be made to pass through a minimum simultaneously by choosing the composition of the active gaseous medium. It was concluded, on the basis of the results obtained, that if the pulse being amplified is applied at this moment of time there will be a negligible deterioration in the focusing of the beam.

  10. Developing and piloting an online graduate nursing course focused on experiential learning of qualitative research methods.

    PubMed

    Holtslander, Lorraine F; Racine, Louise; Furniss, Shari; Burles, Meridith; Turner, Hollie

    2012-06-01

    Despite the turmoil of a worldwide economic crisis, the health sector remains largely understaffed, and the nursing shortage represents a major issue that jeopardizes graduate nursing education. Access to education remains a challenge, particularly in rural and remote areas. This article reports the process of developing an asynchronous online qualitative research course. This online course was piloted among 16 interdisciplinary students. Participants agreed that experiential learning was useful to understand the intricacies of qualitative research. Within this constructivist approach, students were immersed in real-life experiences, which focused on the development of skills applicable to qualitative research. Based on the findings, we suggest that constructivism and the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model (a four-part approach for fostering the development of complex skills) represent valuable ontological and pedagogical approaches that can be used in online courses. Triangulating these two approaches is also congruent with the student-centered philosophy that underpins nursing graduate programs. PMID:22533499

  11. An Analysis of the Research Areas of the Articles Published in C&RL and JAL between 1990 and 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Xue-Ming

    2000-01-01

    Refereed articles from "College & Research Libraries" and "Journal of Academic Librarianship" between 1990 and 1999 were analyzed with respect to the research agenda developed by the Association of College and Research Libraries. The analysis found that articles on collections, services, staffing, and the Internet have taken up the major portion…

  12. Recommended Strain Gage Application Procedures for Various Langley Research Center Balances and Test Articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center uses more than 10000 strain gages per year in supporting its various research programs. The character of the testing at LaRC is such that the types of strain gage installations, the materials they are applied to, and the test environments encountered, require many varied approaches for installing strain gages. These installations must be accomplished in the most technically discerning and appropriate manner. This technical memorandum is offered as an assisting guide in helping the strain gage user to determine the appropriate approach for a given strain gage application requirement. Specifically, this document offers detailed recommendations for strain gaging the following: LaRC-Designed balances, LARC custom transducers, certain composite materials and alloys, high-temperature test articles, and selected non-typical or unique materials or test conditions.

  13. Researchers in Higher Education: A Neglected Focus of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, G.; Kubacki, K.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on higher education acknowledges the importance of context to the effective completion of research by postgraduate students but overlooks to study the importance of this factor for academics in higher education. The research reported here explores the extent to which academics in higher education sense that their research engages

  14. Researchers in Higher Education: A Neglected Focus of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, G.; Kubacki, K.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on higher education acknowledges the importance of context to the effective completion of research by postgraduate students but overlooks to study the importance of this factor for academics in higher education. The research reported here explores the extent to which academics in higher education sense that their research engages…

  15. Does cancer research focus on areas of importance to patients?

    PubMed Central

    Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Sangha, Amrit; Peckitt, Clare; Sanchez, Rodrigo; Lee, Martin; Pattison, Natalie; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research ideas are proposed by clinicians or scientists and little is currently known about which areas of research patients feel are important. We performed a 4 week pilot patient survey at the Royal Marsden (a specialist cancer centre) to investigate patients views on priorities for cancer research. A total of 780 patients completed the survey and the top research priorities were identified as: detection and prevention of cancer, scientific understanding, curative treatment and personalised treatment. The top research priorities were remarkably consistent across age, gender and a variety of tumour types. We believe that patients views should be considered alongside those of clinicians and researchers when devising research proposals and strategies. PMID:26823685

  16. Research and design for focusing device of secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, WeiYan; Zhang, DanDan; Lv, QunBo; Liu, YangYang; Pei, LinLin; Wang, JianWei

    2015-09-01

    The position of optical plane for a space remote sensing instrument will be changed in severe launching process and complex working thermal environments, which affects the imaging quality of the remote sensing instrument seriously. based on traditional R-C optical systems designed a new type of initiative thermal controlling focusing device, which was driver by the change of thermal according to the basic concepts of thermal expansion properties, the apparatus selectively adjusting the position of the secondary mirror to compensate for the amount of defocus, analysis the main factors of affecting the accuracy of focusing device, and using finite element analysis software for simulation data, while the device for the corresponding experimental verification according to the actual working environment .The results showed that the focusing device designed to meet the required shaking volume requirement 15."

  17. Threshold Concepts: A Point of Focus for Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Naomi; Carmichael, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participants with teaching and research experience across eight disciplinary areas were introduced to the idea of "threshold concepts" and were then invited to identify potential threshold concepts in their own disciplines through small-scale research activities. Participants conceptualized their involvement in different ways: for some it provided…

  18. Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.

  19. Research on the Submission, Acceptance and Publication Times of Articles Submitted to International Otorhinolaryngology Journals

    PubMed Central

    Kalcioglu, M. Tayyar; Ileri, Yavuz; Karaca, Servet; Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Kokten, Numan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to provide insight into the acceptance and publication times of articles submitted to international otolaryngology journals. Material and Methods: The study was carried out by examining the top 37 journal titles returned in an online search for otolaryngology journals published from 1999 to 2013 that have an international status based on their impact factor. Results: In total, 9,765 publications were examined. When journals were compared based on journal impact factor, statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were found. Comparisons of the acceptance and publication times for both original research and case reports revealed that these times have become shorter over the years. Discussion: Journals with higher impact factors likely have larger workloads in terms of articles, and consequently, their acceptance and publication times might be longer. An implication from this study finding that these periods have decreased over the years is that these processes can be expedited by more intensive use of the Internet and increases in journal capacity and number of issues published. Conclusion: The expedition of these processes over time might result from journals’ ability to use technology more intensively or from increases in journal’s capacity and number of issues published. PMID:26862250

  20. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION: A FOCUS ON EPA'S RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September of 1987 the United States, along with 26 other countries, signed a landmark treaty to limit and subsequently, through revisions, phase out the production of all significant ozone depleting substances. Many researchers suspected that these chemicals, especially chl...

  1. Recognizing speculative language in biomedical research articles: a linguistically motivated perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Bergler, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Background Due to the nature of scientific methodology, research articles are rich in speculative and tentative statements, also known as hedges. We explore a linguistically motivated approach to the problem of recognizing such language in biomedical research articles. Our approach draws on prior linguistic work as well as existing lexical resources to create a dictionary of hedging cues and extends it by introducing syntactic patterns. Furthermore, recognizing that hedging cues differ in speculative strength, we assign them weights in two ways: automatically using the information gain (IG) measure and semi-automatically based on their types and centrality to hedging. Weights of hedging cues are used to determine the speculative strength of sentences. Results We test our system on two publicly available hedging datasets. On the fruit-fly dataset, we achieve a precision-recall breakeven point (BEP) of 0.85 using the semi-automatic weighting scheme and a lower BEP of 0.80 with the information gain weighting scheme. These results are competitive with the previously reported best results (BEP of 0.85). On the BMC dataset, using semi-automatic weighting yields a BEP of 0.82, a statistically significant improvement (p <0.01) over the previously reported best result (BEP of 0.76), while information gain weighting yields a BEP of 0.70. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that speculative language can be recognized successfully with a linguistically motivated approach and confirms that selection of hedging devices affects the speculative strength of the sentence, which can be captured reasonably by weighting the hedging cues. The improvement obtained on the BMC dataset with a semi-automatic weighting scheme indicates that our linguistically oriented approach is more portable than the machine-learning based approaches. Lower performance obtained with the information gain weighting scheme suggests that this method may benefit from a larger, manually annotated corpus for automatically inducing the weights. PMID:19025686

  2. Media Articles Describing Advances in Scientific Research as a Vehicle for Student Engagement Fostering Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassell, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    "Records of Global Climate Change" enables students to fulfill the science component of an undergraduate distribution requirement in "Critical Approaches" at IU Bloomington. The course draws students from all disciplines with varying levels of understanding of scientific approaches and often limited familiarity with climate issues. Its discussion sessions seek to foster scientific literacy via an alternating series of assignments focused on a combination of exercises that involve either examination and interpretation of on-line climate data or consideration and assessment of the scientific basis of new discoveries about climate change contained in recently published media articles. The final assignment linked to the discussion sessions requires students to review and summarize the topics discussed during the semester. Their answers provide direct evidence of newly acquired abilities to assimilate and evaluate scientific information on a range of topics related to climate change. In addition, student responses to an end-of-semester survey confirm that the vast majority considers that their knowledge and understanding of climate change was enhanced, and unsolicited comments note that the discussion sessions contributed greatly to this advancement. Many students remarked that the course's emphasis on examination of paleoclimate records helped their comprehension of the unprecedented nature of present-day climate trends. Others reported that their views on the significance of climate change had been transformed, and some commented that they now felt well equipped to engage in discussions about climate change because they were better informed about its scientific basis and facts.

  3. Faculty at Work: Focus on Research, Scholarship, and Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study compared selected personal and environmental motivational variables in college faculty with allocation of work effort to research, scholarship, and service. Faculty were from eight liberal arts and sciences departments in a range of institution types. For all institutional types, self-valuation motivators significantly accounted for the…

  4. Stratospheric ozone depletion. A focus on EPA`s research

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1995-03-01

    The mission of EPA`s Office of Research and Development (ORD) includes identifying and quantifying the risks associated with stratospheric ozone depletion; working cooperatively with the private sector to catalyze development of safe alternative chemicals and technologies; and studying both natural and human-induced effects on the Earth`s atmosphere.

  5. PREVENTING WATERBORNE DISEASE - A FOCUS ON EPA'S RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although fatalities caused by waterborne pathogens have decreased in the United States during the 20th century, annual cases of water-related, microorganism-induced disease still number in the thousands. This brochure highlights the efforts of EPA's Office of Research and Develop...

  6. Crew interface analysis: Selected articles on space human factors research, 1987 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.

  7. Systematic and open identification of researchers and authors: focus on open researcher and contributor ID.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D

    2014-11-01

    Unique identifiers of researchers and authors can help all stakeholders of scientific communications improve their workflows. There have been several attempts to establish professional networks of scholars and list their scholarly achievements on digital platforms. Some of these platforms such as Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and PubMed are searched to pick relevant peer reviewers, assess authors' publication history or choose suitable candidates for research and academic projects. However, each of these hubs has its specific applications, limiting the universal use for permanent tagging of researcher profiles. The Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) initiative, launched in 2012, is aimed at registering scholarly contributors and averting the persistent ambiguity of recorded author names. The ORCID registry is growing fast and integrating with other ID-generating platforms, thereby increasing the functionality of the integrated systems. ORCID identifiers are increasingly used for selecting peer reviewers and acknowledging various scholarly contributions (e.g., published articles, reviewer comments, conference presentations). The initiative offers unique opportunities for transparent disclosures of author contributions and competing interests and improving ethical standards of research, editing, and publishing. PMID:25408574

  8. Systematic and Open Identification of Researchers and Authors: Focus on Open Researcher and Contributor ID

    PubMed Central

    Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Voronov, Alexander A.; Kitas, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Unique identifiers of researchers and authors can help all stakeholders of scientific communications improve their workflows. There have been several attempts to establish professional networks of scholars and list their scholarly achievements on digital platforms. Some of these platforms such as Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and PubMed are searched to pick relevant peer reviewers, assess authors' publication history or choose suitable candidates for research and academic projects. However, each of these hubs has its specific applications, limiting the universal use for permanent tagging of researcher profiles. The Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) initiative, launched in 2012, is aimed at registering scholarly contributors and averting the persistent ambiguity of recorded author names. The ORCID registry is growing fast and integrating with other ID-generating platforms, thereby increasing the functionality of the integrated systems. ORCID identifiers are increasingly used for selecting peer reviewers and acknowledging various scholarly contributions (e.g., published articles, reviewer comments, conference presentations). The initiative offers unique opportunities for transparent disclosures of author contributions and competing interests and improving ethical standards of research, editing, and publishing. PMID:25408574

  9. Arguing for Experimental "Facts" in Science: A Study of Research Article Results Sections in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dorothea K.

    1993-01-01

    Claims that the contextual nature of "results" sections in scientific articles remains largely unexplored. Examines scientific publications by biochemists. Identifies six rhetorical moves common to such articles. Demonstrates the rhetorical nature of science writing. (HB)

  10. Refocusing International Astronomy Education Research Using a Cognitive Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    For over 40 years, the international astronomy education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about astronomy, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has motivated the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to advance a new model that allowing us to operate on students' astronomical learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (e.g., phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g., spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in astronomy and the space sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in astronomy beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  11. Near minimum-time maneuvers of the advanced space structures technology research experiment (ASTREX) test article: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vadali, Srinivas R.; Carter, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory at the Edwards Air Force Base has developed the Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiment (ASTREX) facility to serve as a testbed for demonstrating the applicability of proven theories to the challenges of spacecraft maneuvers and structural control. This report describes the work performed on the ASTREX test article by Texas A&M University under contract NAS119373 as a part of the Control-Structure Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator Program. The focus of this work is on maneuvering the ASTREX test article with compressed air thrusters that can be throttled, while attenuating structural excitation. The theoretical foundation for designing the near minimum-time thrust commands is based on the generation of smooth, parameterized optimal open-loop control profiles, and the determination of control laws for final position regulation and tracking using Lyapunov stability theory. Details of the theory, mathematical modeling, model updating, and compensation for the presence of 'real world' effects are described and the experimental results are presented. The results show an excellent match between theory and experiments.

  12. Researchers Focus on Fire Clouds That Reach to the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Volcanic eruptions are not the only violent events that can inject smoke-colored and cauliflower-textured clouds into the stratosphere. Pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCB) storms can, too. These recently discovered phenomena are storms caused or aided by fire; they have many characteristics similar to thunderstorms, including lightning, hail, and extreme vertical height through the troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Common wisdom had held that “the only event that can explosively pollute the stratosphere is a volcanic eruption,” Michael Fromm, a meteorologist with the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C., said at a 9 August press briefing at the 2010 Meeting of the Americas in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. “Now we know that pyroCBs can do a version of this, thanks to the heat from fire.”

  13. Can We Talk? Focus Groups and Scholastic Journalism: A Research Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iorio, Sharon Hartin

    This paper explores the feasibility of using focus groups to assess how scholastic publications can better meet high school student bodies' readership wishes and requirements. The paper relates high school journalism to implications of a bibliographic summary of focus group research and explication of one focus group research project dealing with…

  14. [Skills Improvement Seminar for Submitting Articles to the Prosthodontic Research & Practice Journal. Part II. The manner to prepare and submit the scientific articles to English journal].

    PubMed

    Nikawa, Hiroki

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade, research on prosthodontics has progressed and several academic associations and/or societies have been established. The number of journals published by the academic societies has increased. Prosthodontic Research & Practice (PRP), an official journal of the Japan Prosthodontic Society, was launched in 2002 and will be published quarterly from 2006. Most of the presentations in the scientific meetings of the Japan Prosthodontic Society have been buried, although the scientific quality and/or clinical values of some of them are relatively high. On the other hand, the reviewers of the scientific journal tend to review critically and severely, to maintain the quality of the journal. There are few review systems to improve the quality of the articles. Hence, the editorial board tries to make comments to improve the quality of submitted articles. This paper summarizes 'How to prepare scientific papers in English' as presented in the 'PRP Skills Improvement Seminar' at the 114th Scientific Meeting of the Japan Prosthodontic Society (Niigata). PMID:16790956

  15. Illinois Precipitation Research: A Focus on Cloud and Precipitation Modification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Czys, Robert R.; Scott, Robert W.; Westcott, Nancy E.

    1991-05-01

    At the heart of the 40-year atmospheric research endeavors of the Illinois State Water Survey have been studies to understand precipitation processes in order to learn how precipitation is modified purposefully and accidentally, and to measure the physical and socio-economic consequences of cloud and precipitation modification. Major field and laboratory activities of past years or briefly treated as a basis for describing the key findings of the past ten years. Recent studies of inadvertent and purposeful cloud and rain modification and their effects are emphasized, including a 1989 field project conducted in Illinois and key findings from an on-going exploratory experiment addressing cloud and rain modification. Results are encouraging for the use of dynamic seeding on summer cumuliform clouds of the Midwest.Typical in-cloud results at 10°C reveal multiple updrafts that tend to be filled with large amounts of supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Natural ice production is vigorous, and initial concentrations are larger than expected from ice nuclei. However, natural ice production is not so vigorous as to preclude opportunities for seeding. Radar-based studies of such clouds reveal that their echo cores usually can be identified prior to desired seeding times, which is significant for the evaluation of their behavior. Cell characteristics show considerable variance under different types of meteorological conditions. Analysis of cell mergers reveals that under conditions of weak vertical shear, mid-level intercell flow at 4 km occurs as the reflectivity bridge between cells rapidly intensifies. The degree of intensification of single-echo cores after they merge is strongly related to the age and vigor of the cores before they join. Hence, cloud growth may be enhanced if seeding can encourage echo cores to merge at critical times. Forecasting research has developed a technique for objectively distinguishing between operational seeding and nonoperational days and for objectively predicting maximum cloud-top height and seeding suitability. An accuracy rate of up to 60% in predicting maximum echo-top height using four categories has been achieved and suggests its use as a covariate in future experimentation. Impact studies illustrate that sizable summer rain increases would be necessary to produce economically beneficial outcomes for Corn Belt agriculture. Increases of 25% in July rainfall across certain high-production crop districts of the Corn Belt would produce economic effects realized nationally.

  16. The Human Model: Changing Focus on Autism Research.

    PubMed

    Muotri, Alysson Renato

    2016-04-15

    The lack of live human brain cells for research has slowed progress toward understanding the mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorders. A human model using reprogrammed patient somatic cells offers an attractive alternative, as it captures a patient's genome in relevant cell types. Despite the current limitations, the disease-in-a-dish approach allows for progressive time course analyses of target cells, offering a unique opportunity to investigate the cellular and molecular alterations before symptomatic onset. Understanding the current drawbacks of this model is essential for the correct data interpretation and extrapolation of conclusions applicable to the human brain. Innovative strategies for collecting biological material and clinical information from large patient cohorts are important for increasing the statistical power that will allow for the extraction of information from the noise resulting from the variability introduced by reprogramming and differentiation methods. Working with large patient cohorts is also important for understanding how brain cells derived from diverse human genetic backgrounds respond to specific drugs, creating the possibility of personalized medicine for autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25861701

  17. A Comparison Study on the Rhetorical Moves of Abstracts in Published Research Articles and Master's Foreign-Language Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Hongwei; Li, Yuying

    2011-01-01

    The abstract of research papers is one of the first things that a reader will read to determine the value of the research. A well-written abstract will surely promote the text attached to it more effectively. By examining the rhetorical moves in the abstracts of Chinese Master's English theses and published research articles in applied…

  18. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching. PMID:19759997

  19. Deep Tremor as a Focus of Earthquake Forecasting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroza, G. C.

    2007-12-01

    The discovery of deep tremor has opened a new window into fault-zone processes and offers new possibilities for earthquake forecasting research. Locales where deep tremor has been extensively documented to date include the Nankai Trough, Cascadia, and Central California, which are all areas with considerable seismic potential. Deep tremor is observed to accompany slow slip, such that the combined phenomena have come to be known as episodic tremor and slip (ETS). The emerging view is that deep tremor is the seismic signature of slow slip that occurs episodically on the down-dip extension of seismogenic faults. The amount of slip in these slow slip episodes is approximately equal to the amount of slip that would have been accumulated during the time since the last ETS episode. This suggests that the tremor source may outline the down-dip edge of the locked, seismogenic zone, with the down-dip transition zone locked between ETS episodes, and relaxed during them. Thus, on faults on which tremor occurs, it should be possible to map precisely the down-dip extent of the locked zone, which is often a major source of uncertainty in assessing earthquake potential. Tremor may also prove useful for time-dependent earthquake forecasting. Due to it's strategic location, and episodic nature, deep episodic transients will accelerate stress accumulation on adjacent, shallower, locked portions of faults, which should in turn increase the likelihood of a large earthquake. Thus, tremor is a potentially important forecasting tool, though it might lead to only modest probability gains. With frequent tremor episodes, and infrequent large earthquakes, it will be difficult to test this hypothesis. A more fruitful approach may be to monitor the variation of micro-earthquake activity with respect to deep tremor, and perhaps to examine historical seismic data retrospectively for seismic tremor near the time of large earthquakes. The potential promise of this newly discovered phenomenon argues for enhanced monitoring in areas where tremor is known to occur, and in places where it is likely to occur, based on our understanding of the factors that control tremor occurrence.

  20. Part I: Advancing the Conversation. Just Scholarship! Publishing Academic Research with a Social Justice Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Rios, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This article provides support to academics who are committed to engaging in scholarly activities in ways that promote an explicit social justice focus. Moreover, this article provides a broad overview of how to pursue social justice purposes in the field of education throughout the process of scholarly production and dissemination.

  1. Negotiation on the Assessment of Research Articles with Academic Reviewers: Application of Peer-Review Approach of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…

  2. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  3. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively

  4. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  5. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  6. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  7. Results of research on causes of the defects of laser marking articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, V. V.; Lebedeva, L. I.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article describes technological aspects of the marking process using solid-state fibre laser. It presents the analysis of the technological modes and errors of the precise laser marking and establishes low density of the laser system as one of the causes of the poor quality of a laser seam. The article reviews the use of the following material laser marking is performed on - plastic with fine metal and conductive surface coating.

  8. A Country in Focus: Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in Germany--A Review of Empirical Research Literature from 2005 to 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Claudia; Olson, Agnes Madeleine; Friedrich, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on foreign language (FL) learning and teaching published between 2005 and 2010 in Germany. It focuses on the empirical studies that have attracted the greatest interest among researchers during this period of time. These include research on educational standards, teacher education, early FL…

  9. Letter to the editor concerning the article "Performance of gymnastics skill benefits from an external focus of attention" by Abdollahipour, Wulf, Psotta & Nieto (2015).

    PubMed

    Collins, Dave; Carson, Howie J; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Abdollahipour, Wulf, Psotta, and Nieto (2015) recently published data in the Journal of Sports Sciences to show that an external focus of attention promotes superior performance effects (gymnastics jump height and judged movement form score) when compared to internal or control foci during skill execution without an implement involved. While we do not contest the veracity of findings reported, nor others that have been used to support beneficial effects of an external focus of attention, in this Letter to the Editor we comment on considerable methodological limitations associated with this and previous studies that, we suggest, have resulted in serious theoretical oversights regarding the control of movement and, most crucially from our practitioner perspective, suboptimal recommendations for applied coaching practice. Specifically, we discuss the lack of consideration towards translational research in this area, the problematic nature of attentional focus cues employed, interpretation of findings in relation to other applied recommendations and coherence with mechanistic underpinning and, finally, the representative nature of task involved. In summary, while (laboratory) research evidence may appear to be conclusive, we suggest that the focus of attention effects are in need of more ecologically valid and rigorous testing as well as consideration of current coaching practices if it is to optimally serve the applied sporting domain that it purportedly aims to. PMID:26824823

  10. Enhancing Practitioner Knowledge through a Unique Abstracting Format Used with "Research on Social Work Practice" Journal Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holosko, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to bridge the long-standing schism between social work researchers and practitioners, "Research on Social Work Practice" ("RSWP") presents an additional structured abstract for inclusion in their published articles called the practitioner knowledge abstract (PKA). Its conceptualization and rationale are presented, as are some case…

  11. Stratification of Time to First Citation for Articles Published in the "Journal of Research in Music Education": A Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    The author examined the speed of research dissemination by determining the time elapsed from publication to first citation for 617 articles in the "Journal of Research in Music Education (JRME)". Google Scholar was used to create a unique data set of 6,930 references originating from journals in the arts, education, music, and other

  12. Stratification of Time to First Citation for Articles Published in the "Journal of Research in Music Education": A Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    The author examined the speed of research dissemination by determining the time elapsed from publication to first citation for 617 articles in the "Journal of Research in Music Education (JRME)". Google Scholar was used to create a unique data set of 6,930 references originating from journals in the arts, education, music, and other…

  13. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…

  14. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the

  15. Using Focus Groups in Community-Based Participatory Research: Challenges and Resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Christine Makosky; James, Aimee S.; Ulrey, Ezekiel; Joseph, Stephanie; Talawyma, Angelia; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Coe, M. Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A community-based participatory approach requires that community members be involved in all phases of the research process. We describe three focus group studies with American Indians in Kansas and Missouri, using a newly developed method of conducting and analyzing focus groups with community input (72 focus groups, 519 participants). We conducted two needs assessment studies focused on barriers to breast and colorectal cancer screening and one study focused on Internet use for gathering health information. Community members and researchers collaborated to develop guides for the focus group moderators. Community organizations and our community advisory board conducted recruitment, and we trained and employed community members as moderators, assistant moderators, and analysts. Our community partners also helped with dissemination of research findings to their constituents. The methodologic approach and data from these three studies will allow us to more appropriately address health disparities in the American Indian community, with full community support for our research. PMID:20154299

  16. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research and Practice. Volume 6, Issue D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), Harvard University, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is dedicated to…

  17. College Reading Research and Practice: Articles from "The Journal of College Literacy and Learning."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J., Ed.; Laine, Michaeline E., Ed.; Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.; Bullock, Terry L., Ed.

    This volume presents 27 articles from "The Journal of College Literacy and Learning," a peer-reviewed journal (formerly the "Forum for Reading") produced by the International Reading Association's College Literacy and Learning Special Interest Group. Following "Foreword" (Donna E. Alvermann) and "Introduction" (Eric J. Paulson; Michael E. Laine;…

  18. Research Quality: Critique of Quantitative Articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.; Borders, L. DiAnne; Boul, Steven; Horton, Evette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Quality concerns arose in regard to omissions of psychometric information of instruments, effect sizes, and statistical power. Type VI and II errors were found. Strengths included stated research…

  19. Academic Vocabulary in Agriculture Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Iliana A.; Beck, Silvia C.; Panza, Carolina B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent critical views on the usefulness of a general academic vocabulary have heightened the relevance of developing discipline specific academic wordlists to meet the needs of non-native English writers who must read and publish articles in English. Using Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List, we set out to identify the academic words in a corpus…

  20. Policy, Practice in Giftedness, and Research Methodologies: Response to Roland S. Persson's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dona J.

    2012-01-01

    The author finds the target article "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge Economy" to be a thoughtful exploration of an important topic for all social scientists, certainly including those who study gifted development and education. Roland S. Persson (2012a) raises many questions about policy and practice in giftedness…

  1. "At Home", Institutional Culture and Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaver, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    This article is a methodological scrutiny of the efficacy of the conceptual complex "home-at home", as a heuristic for understanding the nature of institutional culture as it articulates in higher education institutions. The approach adopted brings together a discussion on different conceptions of "home-at home", institutional culture in general,…

  2. Why Does My Cruorine Change Color? Using Classic Research Articles To Teach Biochemistry Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B., III

    2001-01-01

    Uses the spectroscopic study by G.G. Stokes of the reversible "oxidation and reduction" of hemoglobin to illustrate how a series of open-ended group assignments and associated classroom demonstrations can be built around a single article in a way that integrates and illuminates basic concepts. (Author/MM)

  3. Policy, Practice in Giftedness, and Research Methodologies: Response to Roland S. Persson's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dona J.

    2012-01-01

    The author finds the target article "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge Economy" to be a thoughtful exploration of an important topic for all social scientists, certainly including those who study gifted development and education. Roland S. Persson (2012a) raises many questions about policy and practice in giftedness

  4. Rainbow's End: Consciousness and Enactment in Social Justice Education. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis; Hemson, Crispin

    2007-01-01

    The article questions why experienced MEd students, on a course in pedagogy in social justice education, resorted to actions that clashed with this approach. Drawing on student and staff accounts of the course, the authors, teachers on this course, pose questions as to whether these reactions resulted from increased safety in the class, from…

  5. Interacting with the Reader: Politeness Strategies in Engineering Research Article Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salom, Luz Gil; Monreal, Carmen Soler

    2009-01-01

    The writer's strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997). Myers' studies (1989, 1992) on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness…

  6. This Is Not an Article: A Reflection on Creative Research Dialogues (This Is Not a Seminar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Lyndall; Kueh, Christopher; Newman-Storen, Renee; Ryan, John

    2015-01-01

    This is Not a Seminar (TINAS) is a multidisciplinary forum established in 2012 at Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Australia to support practice-led and practice-based Higher Degree by Research students. The Faculty of Education and Arts at ECU includes cohorts of postgraduate research students in, for example, performance, design, writing and…

  7. Stance and Engagement in Pure Mathematics Research Articles: Linking Discourse Features to Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…

  8. This Is Not an Article: A Reflection on Creative Research Dialogues (This Is Not a Seminar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Lyndall; Kueh, Christopher; Newman-Storen, Renee; Ryan, John

    2015-01-01

    This is Not a Seminar (TINAS) is a multidisciplinary forum established in 2012 at Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Australia to support practice-led and practice-based Higher Degree by Research students. The Faculty of Education and Arts at ECU includes cohorts of postgraduate research students in, for example, performance, design, writing and

  9. Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research: A Review Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Eric R.; Showalter, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Professors Richard J. Murnane and John B. Willett set out to capitalize on recent developments in education data and methodology by attempting to answer the following questions: How can new methods and data be applied most effectively in educational and social science research? What kinds of research designs are most appropriate? What kinds of…

  10. Promoting Practitioner Research in Early Childhood Education: A Collaborative Focus on Language, Development, and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espiritu, Evangeline; Meier, Daniel; Villazana-Price, Norma; Wong, Manuel Kichi

    This paper describes a 2-year project establishing an interpretive community of field-based teacher researchers and a university-based teacher researcher at four urban preschools in San Francisco, California. The primary research focus of the project is an examination of practical and theoretical connections between current notions of…

  11. What Should Autism Research Focus Upon? Community Views and Priorities from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members,…

  12. The 1991/92 graduate student researchers program, including the underrepresented minority focus component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) was expanded in 1987 to include the Underrepresented Minority Focus Component (UMFC). This program was designed to increase minority participation in graduate study and research, and ultimately, in space science and aerospace technology careers. This booklet presents the areas of research activities at NASA facilities for the GSRP and summarizes and presents the objectives of the UMFC.

  13. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  14. Research Focus and Methodological Choices in Studies into Students' Experiences of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews representative research into blended learning in universities, taking into account the methodology used, the focus of the research and the relationship between the two. In terms of methodology, most research was classifiable as case-studies, survey-based studies or comparative studies. A small number of studies take a…

  15. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research and Practice: Workplace Education, Volume 7, Issue B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue focuses on workplace education and includes the following articles: "After the Grant Is Over" (Connie Nelson); "Around to Stay" (Shirley Penn and Mary Zorn); "A Conversation with FOB: What Benefits Does Workplace Ed Offer the Provider?"; "Reading Work" (Tracy Defoe and Sue Folinsbee); "Much More than ABE" (Don Block and Lori…

  16. A Content and Methodological Analysis of 35 Years of Latino/a-Focused Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Salcedo, Jime; Rivera, Amanda L. Y.; Lopez, Mayra J.

    2009-01-01

    Two separate studies were conducted to examine the contents and methodology of Latino/a-focused articles published during a period of 35 years in seven major journals used by counseling psychologists as well as the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences." Together, the two studies suggest that acculturation, academic achievement, assessment, and…

  17. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

  18. The Evolutionary Nature of Genre: An Investigation of the Short Texts Accompanying Research Articles in the Scientific Journal "Nature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Gael

    2008-01-01

    The present empirical analysis of the short texts accompanying research articles in the scientific journal "Nature" covering a period from 1991 to 2005, not only shows that these texts are significantly different from prescriptive models of abstracts, but that they have also recently undergone a further change. Up until 1996, in contrast to the…

  19. When Is It Acceptable to Make Prescriptive Statements in Educational Research Articles? Commentary on the Special Issue Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yussen, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The commentary considers when it is acceptable to make prescriptive statements in educational research articles. It begins with a consensus view, agreeing with the analysis offered by Marley and Levin (Educational Psychology Review, 2011), that experimental evidence is necessary. Other forms of evidence are considered (e.g., observational,…

  20. Research Article Abstracts in Two Subdisciplines of Business--Move Structure and Hedging between Management and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qian; Pramoolsook, Issra

    2015-01-01

    The importance of RA abstracts lies in their influence on the readers' decision about whether the accompanying article is worth reading. A number of studies have investigated the move structure of abstracts and have generated several influential models. However, little research has been conducted on subdisciplinary variations in move structure of…

  1. Genre Analysis: Structural and Linguistic Evolution of the English-Medium Medical Research Article (1985-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li-Juan; Ge, Guang-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based genre analysis of the structural and linguistic evolution of medical research articles (RAs) written in English. Towards that end, we analyzed the frequency of occurrence of the 11 moves identified by Nwogu (1997), of the three most frequently used verb tenses (simple past, simple present and present perfect) and…

  2. The Evolutionary Nature of Genre: An Investigation of the Short Texts Accompanying Research Articles in the Scientific Journal "Nature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Gael

    2008-01-01

    The present empirical analysis of the short texts accompanying research articles in the scientific journal "Nature" covering a period from 1991 to 2005, not only shows that these texts are significantly different from prescriptive models of abstracts, but that they have also recently undergone a further change. Up until 1996, in contrast to the

  3. A Genre-based Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Linguistic Feature of Personal Pronouns for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Zhen-ye

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of move structures and personal pronouns of fifty English RA (research article) abstracts based on the model of Bhatia (1990). It revealed that three other move patterns were ascertained besides ten out of the analyzed abstracts following his move order. The analysis of personal pronouns showed that…

  4. A Generic Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Use of Modal Verbs for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…

  5. The Reliability of Evidence Contained in the National Qualifications Framework Impact Study: A Critical Reflection--Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip; Keevy, James

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on the reliability of the evidence contained in the National Qualifications Framework Impact Study, a longitudinal comparative study conducted by the South African Qualifications Authority since 2002. In so doing, the veracity of evidence-based research in determining the impact of the South African Qualifications Framework

  6. From Dissertation to Publication: Converting Doctoral Research into a Peer-Reviewed Journal Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriquez-Kiino, Diane

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of Applied Research in the Community College" (JARCC) actively seeks scholarly submissions on community colleges that originate from doctoral dissertations. Understanding the scope and complexity of community and junior colleges nationally requires multiple vantage points. Newly minted doctorates and doctoral candidates can provide a…

  7. Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

  8. Method Sections of Management Research Articles: A Pedagogically Motivated Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jason Miin Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the voluminous literature devoted to research genres, more investigation needs to be conducted to demonstrate the pedagogical significance of studying linguistic features in relation to communicative functions. Motivated by a concern for the pedagogical applicability of genre analysis, this paper investigates the extent to which…

  9. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  10. Beyond Form-Focused Instruction: Reflections on Past, Present and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2011-01-01

    In 1997 I published a paper in Language Teaching entitled "Form-focused instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research". The paper reviewed the results of studies investigating the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning. It was organized around seven questions,…

  11. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  12. Invited Review Article: Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Grundt, Jessica E.

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used in a host of medical, military, and security applications. For example, THz systems are now being tested at international airports for security screening purposes, at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis, and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed explosives, drugs, and weapons. Recent advances in THz applications have stimulated renewed interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Biological effects studies are a valuable type of basic science research because they serve to enhance our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern THz interactions with biological systems. Such studies are also important because they often times lay the foundation for the development of future applications. In addition, from a practical standpoint, THz biological effects research is also necessary for accurate health hazard evaluation, the development of empirically-based safety standards, and for the safe use of THz systems. Given the importance and timeliness of THz bioeffects data, the purpose of this review is twofold. First, to provide readers with a common reference, which contains the necessary background concepts in biophysics and THz technology, that are required to both conduct and evaluate THz biological research. Second, to provide a critical review of the scientific literature.

  13. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  14. Research in the Middle Schools: Emerging from Its Own Awkward Adolescence (Focus on Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Joel I.

    1994-01-01

    Traces the development of research on the middle schools from its contemporary beginnings to the early 1990s. Points out some of the reasons why little research was done initially. Describes events that reflect an increased interest in middle school research. (RS)

  15. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  16. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  17. A Response to an Article Published in "Educational Research"'s Special Issue on Assessment (June 2009). What Can Be Inferred about Classification Accuracy from Classification Consistency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Background: A recent article published in "Educational Research" on the reliability of results in National Curriculum testing in England (Newton, "The reliability of results from national curriculum testing in England," "Educational Research" 51, no. 2: 181-212, 2009) suggested that: (1) classification accuracy can be calculated from…

  18. The appraisal of quantitative and qualitative trauma-focused research procedures among pregnant participants.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Kami L

    2009-12-01

    Despite the importance of studying the dynamics and consequences of trauma, there has been concern that trauma-focused questionnaires and interviews could further harm vulnerable participants, such as pregnant women who have suffered prior sexual trauma (e.g., rape, incest, sexual abuse). There has also been concern that employing personal interviews, rather than anonymous written questionnaires in trauma-focused research procedures may compromise participants' confidentiality. This exploratory study examined the methodological differences associated with perceived discomforts and benefits among pregnant women participants in a two-phase, trauma-focused research study. In Phase I, pregnant women (N = 109) completed anonymous, trauma-related questionnaires. In Phase II, a subsample of Phase I participants (N = 10) who reported a previous history of sexual trauma completed in-depth, personal interviews. Participants in both phases of the study rated their reaction to research participation using the Response to Research Participation Questionnaire Revised (RRPQ-R). Results suggest that both written survey and personal interview methods are well tolerated by pregnant women. Specific findings indicated that pregnant women with a sexual trauma history reported significantly higher "personal benefit" from participating in personal interview procedures compared to written questionnaires. Recommendations for conducting trauma-focused research with potentially high-risk or vulnerable populations are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research are outlined in an effort to further extend the ethical understanding of the benefits and costs of trauma-focused research. PMID:19919318

  19. A guide to the use of focus groups in health care research: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M; Greenwood, J

    2000-06-01

    Focus group interviewing is becoming a popular research method among nurses as well as allied health professionals. Prior to performing a focus group interview a novice must first search the literature to gain an understanding of the function, uses, preparation, conduct and analysis of this form of methodology. This paper has been compiled in an attempt to synthesise, condense and simplify the information from an extremely wide and varied focus group literature and provide a comprehensive review to assist nurses who are considering utilising this methodology in their research studies. The purpose of this paper was stimulated by one of the author's (MP) own experience learning about focus group methodology before commencing her first focus group. PMID:11855006

  20. Understanding the Early Years: Research Results for Five Pilot Communities. Research in Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Judith; Brinksults, Satya

    2003-01-01

    A 5-year Canadian study examined community factors that influence child development. Surveys of 13 communities found the most important family factors to be family income and mother's education. The most important community factors were social support, neighborhood safety, residential stability, and use of resources. Efforts should focus on…

  1. Focus on Cultural Issues in Research: Developing and Implementing Native American Postcolonial Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Joseph B.

    Indian country presents even the most seasoned and careful researcher with numerous methodological issues. Two of the most salient of these are appropriate understanding of postcolonial stress in tribal communities, and the use of participatory action research methods and models in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper explains postcolonial…

  2. Implications for Focusing Research in Career and Technical Education and Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Jeanea M.; Joerger, Richard M.; Elliot, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Education and educational research is shaped by philosophy, psychology, practice, and ever changing educational policies. Previous studies have expressed a need for a relevant and focused research agenda for career and technical education (CTE), workforce development education and career and technical education. A need for a relevant and timely…

  3. Ecosystem Services: New strategic focus for US EPAs Ecological Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPAs Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Research Program (ERP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality, and...

  4. Ecosystem Services: Priority strategic focus for U.S. EPAs Ecological Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPAs Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Research Program (ERP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality, and...

  5. Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

  6. The Present and Future of MFT Doctoral Education in Research-Focused Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral education is greatly impacted by context, and the large majority of marital and family therapy (MFT) doctoral programs are PhD programs in research-focused universities. I believe their primary mission is to equip students to become scientist-practitioners and do original research that will advance the science of the discipline, whereas…

  7. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AS A NEW STRATEGIC FOCUS FOR USEPA'S ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its ecological research program (ERP). Recognizing that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality and ov...

  8. Ecosystem Services: Developing strategic focus for U.S. EPA’s Ecological Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vit...

  9. Ecosystem Services: New strategic focus for US EPA’s Ecological Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Research Program (ERP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality, and...

  10. Ecosystem Services: Priority strategic focus for U.S. EPA’s Ecological Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has made ecosystem services the new strategic focus for its Ecological Research Program (ERP). Understanding that the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services can help maintain and improve human health, economic vitality, and...

  11. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    PubMed

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This component has also contributed to the basic social scientific literature on complex organizations and the self. PMID:25221375

  12. Impact of Histochemistry on Biomedical Research: Looking Through the Articles Published in a Long-established Histochemical Journal

    PubMed Central

    Pellicciari, C.

    2014-01-01

    Histochemistry provides the unique opportunity to detect single molecules in the very place where they exert their structural roles or functional activities: this makes it possible to correlate structural organization and function, and may be fruitfully exploited in countless biomedical research topics. Aiming to estimate the impact of histochemical articles in the biomedical field, the last few years citations of articles published in a long-established histochemical journal have been considered. This brief survey suggests that histochemical journals, especially the ones open to a large spectrum of research subjects, do represent an irreplaceable source of information not only for cell biologists, microscopists or anatomists, but also for biochemists, molecular biologists and biotechnologists. PMID:25578981

  13. Impact of Histochemistry on biomedical research: looking through the articles published in a long-established histochemical journal.

    PubMed

    Pellicciari, C

    2014-01-01

    Histochemistry provides the unique opportunity to detect single molecules in the very place where they exert their structural roles or functional activities: this makes it possible to correlate structural organization and function, and may be fruitfully exploited in countless biomedical research topics. Aiming to estimate the impact of histochemical articles in the biomedical field, the last few years citations of articles published in a long-established histochemical journal have been considered. This brief survey suggests that histochemical journals, especially the ones open to a large spectrum of research subjects, do represent an irreplaceable source of information not only for cell biologists, microscopists or anatomists, but also for biochemists, molecular biologists and biotechnologists. PMID:25578981

  14. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:24972259

  15. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  16. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmtzky, Anna; Krcken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative

  17. Have the Focus and Sophistication of Research in Health Education Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M.; Lindsay, Christopher A.; Shields, Eric C.; Stoddard, Julianne

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the types of research and the statistical methods used in three representative health education journals from 1994 through 2003. Editorials, commentaries, program/practice notes, and perspectives represent 17.6% of the journals' content. The most common types of articles are cross-sectional studies (27.5%), reviews (23.2%), and…

  18. Research Focus: Reflections on Science Education Research Presentations at ASE 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deb; Oversby, John; Woodhouse, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The original call for research papers went out in the summer of 2011 and, by September, there were over thirty abstracts returned for review, from many countries including Hong Kong, Nigeria, Poland, Jamaica, Malta, the United States, Japan, Ireland and, of course, Britain. Of the proposals reviewed and accepted, 21 were finally presented at

  19. Research Focus: Reflections on Science Education Research Presentations at ASE 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deb; Oversby, John; Woodhouse, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The original call for research papers went out in the summer of 2011 and, by September, there were over thirty abstracts returned for review, from many countries including Hong Kong, Nigeria, Poland, Jamaica, Malta, the United States, Japan, Ireland and, of course, Britain. Of the proposals reviewed and accepted, 21 were finally presented at…

  20. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  1. Citation Characteristics of Research Articles under the Center of Cleft Lip-Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Deformities, Khon Kaen University.

    PubMed

    Thanapaisal, Soodjai; Thanapaisal, Chaiwit; Thanapaisal, Sukhumal

    2015-08-01

    Center of Cleft Lip-Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Deformities, Khon Kaen University, has cooperated with the Medical Association of Thailand in publishing the special five issues of JMT (Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand) during the years 2010-2014 in order to promote research activities and working network of related fields in cleft lip-cleft palate and craniofacial deformities. This study aimed to examine the features of 106 research articles in terms of authors and disciplines, and analyze the citations considering sources, country and years after publication. The scope of study also included citations in the form of journal, which was presented as journal ranking compared with impact factors and Bradford's Law on journal citation. The results of study will be useful in developing multidisciplinary research activities of the center and especially assist in the acquisition of academic journals for essential sources of reference. PMID:26742377

  2. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  3. Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS research for maximum population impact.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Auerbach, Judith D

    2015-03-15

    Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos--defined by topic focus and by scientific discipline--be dissolved and that structural issues affecting the pipeline of new investigators and the ability of the Office of AIDS Research to fulfill its role of steward of the NIH HIV/AIDS research program be directly addressed. PMID:25422391

  4. America Needs a New National Research and Development Center Focused on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John

    2007-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. has had a national research and development (R&D) center focused on programs that help adults to improve their language, literacy, and numeracy skills; to acquire a General Educational Development (GED) or other high school certification; and to transition into postsecondary education or training. For the first five years,…

  5. Focus Group Discussions: Three Examples from Family and Consumer Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.; Monroe, Pamela A.; Sasser, Diane D.; Shaffer, Amy C.; Blalock, Lydia B.

    1999-01-01

    Gives examples of the focus group method in terms of question development, group composition and recruitment, interview protocols, and data analysis as applied to three family and consumer-sciences research projects: consumer behavior of working female adolescents, work readiness of adult males with low educational attainment, and definition of…

  6. Focus Groups as a Tool for Critical Social Research in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevern, Jennifer; Webb, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential of focus groups to address balance of power and empowerment issues in nursing research. Explains the need to involve diverse stakeholders in curriculum development, student evaluation, and appraisals of students' perceptions of their experiences. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

  7. Mainstreaming in Secondary Schools: Focus on Research. OATE-OACTE Monograph Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Patricia L., Ed.

    This monograph is intended to draw attention to the necessity for establishing research priorities which focus upon the problems specifically addressing the education of handicapped secondary school youth. Five studies addressing issues in this area are presented: (1) "An Analysis of Curriculum and Grading Formats Used by Regular Secondary…

  8. Tech Prep: Building a Framework for Future Research, Evaluation, and Program Practice. Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Barbara G.

    This document reports on three focus groups comprised of state officials, local practitioners and supporters, and researchers who were convened to provide input on strategies for assessing and validating the effects of tech prep. Part I provides a brief summary of the groups' discussions, including major points and broad themes in these four topic…

  9. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  10. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.

  11. Continuous quality improvement in contract research organizations--the customer focus.

    PubMed

    Sollecito, W A; Kaluzny, A D

    1999-01-01

    The challenge of quality improvement extends beyond traditional service delivery organizations. This is the first of a two-part series on the application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) to contract research organizations associated with the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The challenges and processes of clinical trials research, and the role of CQI within that process, are presented. The importance of customer focus, which is a key element of CQI, is described here as the foundation of the CQI process among contract research organizations (CROs) and as a major contributing factor to their success in recent years. PMID:10537463

  12. U.S. National Science Foundation Budget Proposal Focuses on Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2008-03-01

    The budget request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 focuses attention on basic research, establishes and supports several cross-foundation investment projects designed to have a transformative impact across science and engineering, and puts foundation activities back on track to double their research budgets by the next decade. The foundation's total proposed budget is US$6.85 billion, an increase of 13% over that enacted for FY 2008. Most of this funding increase goes to NSF's Research and Related Activities (R&RA) account, which, at $5.59 billion, is $772.5 million above the FY 2008 enacted amount.

  13. The present and future of MFT doctoral education in research-focused universities.

    PubMed

    Sprenkle, Douglas H

    2010-07-01

    Doctoral education is greatly impacted by context, and the large majority of marital and family therapy (MFT) doctoral programs are PhD programs in research-focused universities. I believe their primary mission is to equip students to become scientist-practitioners and do original research that will advance the science of the discipline, whereas the mission of the typical master's program is to produce strong practitioners who are research informed. It is the emphasis on the scientific method, not the content specialty area, that should be the hallmark of PhD programs in research-focused contexts. I describe metrics for success that include not only research productivity but also the development of a supportive, open, flexible, and generous program culture. The research mission of these programs has been only modestly helped by the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education process and the programs are largely not doing the programmatic intervention research that the field needs. As the universities that house these programs are also "raising the bar," the long-term viability of the programs themselves will likely hinge on success in this arena. PMID:20618575

  14. Focus on current topics in Air Force high-power microwave (HPM) research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Gaudet, John A.; Prather, William D.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes current projects in High Power Microwave (HPM) source development within the Air Force's basic research program managed by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate and at universities throughout the U.S. and the world. Studies are proceedings along two separate paths: narrow band high power microwave tubes and ultra-wide band sources. While these two paths invoke drastically different physical mechanisms that produce microwave radiation qualitatively distinct from each other, there are many common technical challenges. The focus of this report will be the active research in the Air Force ultra-wide band program, but many of the technical improvements being sought for improved materials, high voltage breakdown mitigation, and advanced design techniques will help the entire high power microwave program. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the future of HPM research.

  15. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  16. Research participants' opinions on genetic research and reasons for participation: a Jackson Heart Study focus group analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn R; Nelson, Cheryl R; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Thigpen, Darcel T; Puggal, Mona A; Sarpong, Daniel E; Smith, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) convened focus groups to engage the community in dialogue on participation in the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Resource (CARe) project. CARe, a genome wide association and candidate gene study, required the release of participant phenotypic and genotypic data with storage at NIH for widespread distribution to qualified researchers. The authors wanted to assess the willingness of an African American community to participate in the genetics research, given the past history of bioethical misconduct in ethnic minority communities. The discussion produced the following specific issues of interest: reasons for participants' interest in genetics research; participants' knowledge about the JHS; and participants' knowledge about genetics research and its advantages and disadvantages. Training on genetic issues was also developed for the JHS community and staff. PMID:25065069

  17. Research Article Abstracts and Introductions: A Comparative Genre-Based Study of Arabic and English in the Fields of Educational Psychology and Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alotaibi, Hmoud

    2013-01-01

    The genre of the research article has attracted the attention of researchers, particularly after the research conducted by Swales (1981). In 1990, Swales introduced the Create a Research Space (CARS) model which consists of three rhetorical moves (i.e. units): Move 1: creating a research territory, Move 2: establishing a niche, and Move 3:

  18. Research Article Abstracts and Introductions: A Comparative Genre-Based Study of Arabic and English in the Fields of Educational Psychology and Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alotaibi, Hmoud

    2013-01-01

    The genre of the research article has attracted the attention of researchers, particularly after the research conducted by Swales (1981). In 1990, Swales introduced the Create a Research Space (CARS) model which consists of three rhetorical moves (i.e. units): Move 1: creating a research territory, Move 2: establishing a niche, and Move 3:…

  19. Does a research article's country of origin affect perception of its quality and relevance? A national trial of US public health researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M; Macinko, J; Jimenez, G; Mahfoud, M; Anderson, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The source of research may influence one's interpretation of it in either negative or positive ways, however, there are no robust experiments to determine how source impacts on one's judgment of the research article. We determine the impact of source on respondents’ assessment of the quality and relevance of selected research abstracts. Design Web-based survey design using four healthcare research abstracts previously published and included in Cochrane Reviews. Setting All Council on the Education of Public Health-accredited Schools and Programmes of Public Health in the USA. Participants 899 core faculty members (full, associate and assistant professors) Intervention Each of the four abstracts appeared with a high-income source half of the time, and low-income source half of the time. Participants each reviewed the same four abstracts, but were randomly allocated to receive two abstracts with high-income source, and two abstracts with low-income source, allowing for within-abstract comparison of quality and relevance Primary outcome measures Within-abstract comparison of participants’ rating scores on two measures—strength of the evidence, and likelihood of referral to a peer (1–10 rating scale). OR was calculated using a generalised ordered logit model adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results Participants who received high income country source abstracts were equal in all known characteristics to the participants who received the abstracts with low income country sources. For one of the four abstracts (a randomised, controlled trial of a pharmaceutical intervention), likelihood of referral to a peer was greater if the source was a high income country (OR 1.28, 1.02 to 1.62, p<0.05). Conclusions All things being equal, in one of the four abstracts, the respondents were influenced by a high-income source in their rating of research abstracts. More research may be needed to explore how the origin of a research article may lead to stereotype activation and application in research evaluation. PMID:26719313

  20. ESCAP Expert Article: borderline personality disorder in adolescence: an expert research review with implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Speranza, Mario; Luyten, Patrick; Kaess, Michael; Hessels, Christel; Bohus, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has onset in adolescence, but is typically first diagnosed in young adulthood. This paper provides a narrative review of the current evidence on diagnosis, comorbidity, phenomenology and treatment of BPD in adolescence. Instruments available for diagnosis are reviewed and their strengths and limitations discussed. Having confirmed the robustness of the diagnosis and the potential for its reliable clinical assessment, we then explore current understandings of the mechanisms of the disorder and focus on neurobiological underpinnings and research on psychological mechanisms. Findings are accumulating to suggest that adolescent BPD has an underpinning biology that is similar in some ways to adult BPD but differs in some critical features. Evidence for interventions focuses on psychological therapies. Several encouraging research studies suggest that early effective treatment is possible. Treatment development has just begun, and while adolescent-specific interventions are still in the process of evolution, most existing therapies represent adaptations of adult models to this developmental phase. There is also a significant opportunity for prevention, albeit there are few data to date to support such initiatives. This review emphasizes that there can be no justification for failing to make an early diagnosis of this enduring and pervasive problem. PMID:26271454

  1. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  2. The role, focus, and funding of research in a department of surgery.

    PubMed

    Harken, A H

    2001-02-01

    The arduous process of selecting a surgical department chairperson focuses exclusively on qualities irrelevant to the job. Having been selected because he or she publishes in the fancy journals, the new chairperson must recruit a stable full of clinically active stallions. An active research program stimulates intellectual excitement, glues the surgical faculty together, and convinces even the most audacious master surgeon that an idea is more exciting than an accessible parking space. PMID:11177131

  3. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  4. Design guidelines for adapting scientific research articles: An example from an introductory level, interdisciplinary program on soft matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2013-01-01

    We present design guidelines for using Adapted Primary Literature (APL) as part of current interdisciplinary topics to introductory physics students. APL is a text genre that allows students to comprehend a scientific article, while maintaining the core features of the communication among scientists, thus representing an authentic scientific discourse. We describe the adaptation of a research paper by Nobel Laureate Paul Flory on phase equilibrium in polymer-solvent mixtures that was presented to high school students in a project-based unit on soft matter. The adaptation followed two design strategies: a) Making explicit the interplay between the theory and experiment. b) Re-structuring the text to map the theory onto the students' prior knowledge. Specifically, we map the theory of polymer-solvent systems onto a model for binary mixtures of small molecules of equal size that was already studied in class.

  5. Kiyoo Wadati and early research on deep focus earthquakes: Introduction to Special Section on Deep and Intermediate Focus Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1987-12-01

    This special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to Kiyoo Wadati. This paper evaluates his contribution to our knowledge of geophysics and, especially, deep earthquake phenomena. In at least three areas, Wadati wrote several papers before 1936 which profoundly influenced modern geophysics. First, his work provided the first convincing evidence that deep earthquakes existed. Second, he was a leader in the construction of travel time tables and the determination of mantle velocity structure. Finally, he published the first accurate description of the inclined planar zone of deep earthquakes which extends from trenches beneath volcanic island arcs. Wadati's work strongly influenced research of many other scientists both before and after World War II, particularly, Jeffreys, Gutenberg, and Benioff. Several of the questions raised by the research of Wadati and others before 1940 are still unanswered today.

  6. Global research, practice, and policy issues on the care of infants and young children at risk: the articles in context.

    PubMed

    McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Rygaard, Niels P

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems. PMID:25798514

  7. The Research Article as an Instrument of Active Learning for Teaching about Violence, Sexual Abuse, and Union Formation among Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvin, Diane M.; Kain, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    As noted by Goldsmid and Wilson a quarter of a century ago, a "curious gulf" exists between teaching and research in sociology. This article addresses this problem by suggesting ways in which a current research article from the American Sociological Review can be used in courses at three different levels of the undergraduate curriculum. The active…

  8. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  9. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  10. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in preparation for the Fusion Energy Age.

  11. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2011-01-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease. PMID:21552512

  12. Volume 8, Issue2 (April/June 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleBeyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2005-04-01

    It is widely recognised that public acceptability often poses a barrier towards renewable energy development. This article reviews existing research on public perceptions of wind energy, where opposition is typically characterized by the NIMBY (not in my back yard) concept. The objectives of the article are to provide a critical assessment of past research and an integrated, multidimensional framework to guide future work. Six distinct strands of research are identified, summarized and critiqued: public support for switching from conventional energy sources to wind energy; aspects of turbines associated with negative perceptions; the impact of physical proximity to turbines; acceptance over time of wind farms; NIMBYism as an explanation for negative perceptions; and, finally, the impact of local involvement on perceptions. Research across these strands is characterized by opinion poll studies of general beliefs and case studies of perceptions of specific developments. In both cases, research is fragmented and has failed to adequately explain, rather than merely describe, perceptual processes. The article argues for more theoretically informed empirical research, grounded in social science concepts and methods. A multidimensional framework is proposed that goes beyond the NIMBY label and integrates previous findings with social and environmental psychological theory. Copyright

  13. Interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in research studies focused on male BRCA carriers

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan; Kim, Jongphil; Xu, Yan; Friedman, Sue; Narod, Steven A.; Metcalfe, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Background Although men and women are equally likely to carry a mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes, the clinical significance of mutations in men remains incompletely defined. We sought evaluate interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in a research study focused on men from BRCA families. Methods Through an anonymous survey posted on the website of the BRCA patient advocacy organization, Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE), data was collected over a 21 month period (August 2010–June 2012) from members of BRCA families. Results The survey was completed by 405 individuals with known BRCA mutations, including 150 males and 232 females. The median age of survey respondents was 49 years (50 years for males and 48 years for females). Overall, 84% of survey respondents indicated prior BRCA mutation testing (95.2% females, 67.3% males). For the overall group of survey respondents, 84% (86% females, 84% males) indicated they would tell their male relatives about a research study focused on high risk men from BRCA families, and 53% (39% females, 74% males) thought that their male relatives would be interested in participating in such a study. Conclusion Despite limited studies focused on men from BRCA mutation positive families, our survey suggests that both male and female family members are highly interested in focused on male BRCA mutation carriers. The importance of further studying this topic is underscored by emerging literature that suggest cancer surveillance and treatment decisions may improve outcomes in men with BRCA mutations. PMID:23504063

  14. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The internal organization of the soil science discipline is not yet well tuned to the needs of inter- and transdisciplinary approaches.

  15. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the SDG's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arena's. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDG's focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDG's are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders two approaches are functional, following: (i) the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision, implementation and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science and (ii) the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impacts and responses to land-use change that affect the state of the land in past, present and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDG's and interdisciplinary studies on Ecosystem Services (ES) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ES, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDG's (2, 3, 6, 12, 13 and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDG's have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint-learning". The internal organization of the soil science discipline is not yet well - tuned to the needs of inter - and transdisciplinary approaches.

  16. InnoVision's focus areas for motion imagery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Kenneth E.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the role that the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) has in motion imagery research and development (RD). Motion imagery RD is ubiquitous. Commercial technology is strongly leveraged by the Department of Defense (DoD) and each component in DoD has unique needs that they invest RD dollars against. DoD Directive 5106.60 gives NGA full responsibility for geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), including a wide range of RD functions. InnoVision, NGA's RD component has specific areas of focus for motion imagery RD that are designed to complement and enhance service and industry efforts.

  17. Economics at the FTC: Cases and research, with a focus on petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Froeb, L.; Cooper, J.; Frankena, M.; Pautler, P.; Silvia, L.

    2005-11-01

    Economics at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) covers both the antitrust and consumer protection missions. In this year's essay, we focus mainly on the competition-side of the agency. Drawing on a wealth of recent research, we provide descriptive and analytical information about the petroleum industry. Mergers, as always, were a major preoccupation of the FTC, and we discuss a few oil industry mergers as well as one leading litigated case - Arch Coal's acquisition of Triton Coal. Finally, we review the empirical literature on the effects of vertical restraints, noting that the literature supporting an animus toward such restraints is surprisingly weak.

  18. Exploratory research on bioactive natural products with a focus on biological phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of new basic compounds holds the key for advancing material sciences. We have focused on the identification and characterization of natural key compounds that control biologically and physiologically intriguing phenomena. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of nature, should advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease. The structure and function of natural compounds are sometimes unexpectedly original. Based on our past experience and results, we have carried out research to find new directions for compound exploration by directly learning from dynamic biological phenomena in the field, and have succeeded in creating a new research field in biological molecular sciences. PMID:20228620

  19. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making). PMID:24559028

  20. Apoptosis as the focus of an authentic research experience in a cell physiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Shere K

    2016-06-01

    Curriculum-embedded independent research is a high-impact teaching practice that has been shown to increase student engagement and learning. This article describes a multiweek laboratory project for an upper-division undergraduate cell physiology laboratory using apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway as the overarching theme. Students did literature research on apoptotic agents that acted via the mitochondrial pathway. Compounds ranged from natural products such as curcumin to synthetic compounds such as etoposide. Groups of two to three students planned a series of experiments using one of three cultured cell lines that required them to 1) learn to culture cells; 2) determine treatment conditions, including apoptotic agent solubility and concentration ranges that had been reported in the literature; 3) choose two methods to validate/quantify apoptotic capacity of the reagent; and 4) attempt to "rescue" cells from undergoing apoptosis using one of several available compounds/methods. In essence, given some reagent and equipment constraints, students designed an independent experiment to highlight the effects of different apoptotic agents on cells in culture. Students presented their experimental designs as in a laboratory group meeting and their final findings as a classroom "symposium." This exercise can be adapted to many different types of laboratories with greater or lesser equipment and instrumentation constraints, incorporates several core cell physiology methods, and encourages key experimental design and critical thinking components of independent research. PMID:27231261

  1. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  2. Land Use and Climate Impacts on Fluvial Systems (LUCIFS): A PAGES - Focus 4 (PHAROS) research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearing, John; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    LUCIFS is a global research program which is concerned with understanding past interactions between climate, human activity and fluvial systems. Its focus is on evaluating the geomorphic impact of humans on landscapes, with a strong emphasis on geomorphological and sedimentological perspectives on mid- to long-term man-landscape interactions. Of particular relevance are aspects of sediment redistribution systems such as non-linear behaviour, the role of system configuration, scale effects, and emergent properties Over the last decade the LUCIFS program has been investigating both contemporary and long-term river response to global change with the principal aims of i)quantifying land use and climate change impacts of river-borne fluxes of water, sediment, C, N and P; ii) identification of key controls on these fluxes at the catchment scale; and iii) identification of the feedback on both human society and biogeochemical cycles of long-term changes in the fluxes of these materials The major scientific tasks of the LUCIFS-program are: • synthesising results of regional case studies • identify regional gaps and encouraging new case studies • addressing research gaps and formulating new research questions • organising workshops and conferences In this paper we present the LUCIFS program within the new PAGES structure. LUCIFS is located in the Focus 4 (PHAROS) dealing with how a knowledge of human-climate-ecosystem interactions in the past can help inform understanding and management today. In conjunction with the other working groups HITE (Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems), LIMPACS (Human Impacts on Lake Ecosystems) and IHOPE (Integrated History of People on Earth) PHAROS aims to compare regional-scale reconstructions of environmental and climatic processes using natural archives, documentary and instrumental data, with evidence of past human activity obtained from historical, paleoecological and archaeological records.

  3. An Empirical Research of Chinese Learners' Acquisition of the English Article System--Based on Syntactic Misanalysis Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Shi

    2013-01-01

    In the field of applied linguistics, the English article is the acknowledged teaching and learning difficulty and receives lots of attention in second language acquisition (SLA). This paper, based on the Syntactic Misanalysis Account (SMA) advocated by Trenkic in which L2 articles are analyzed as adjectives by L2ers, proposes the English article…

  4. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and believed the project will have positive implications for diverse vested entities. Gaining public and local leader support was considered crucial in fostering funding and favorable policies with respect to project goals. However, it was expected that certain target audiences will need to be better educated on ecological aspects of the project and convinced of its significance for this to be achieved. Suggested formats for the EESLR-NGOM research results included maps with precision and flexibility for adjustments over time, across geographic domains, and for different levels of user sophistication, as well as simplified presentations that can be readily shared. There was emphasis on visuals and demonstrations for accessibility and engagement by multiple audiences. While participants thought handouts, brochures, and graphical illustrations would be effective, they also advocated using new digital media. Further, participants advised that time frames and language be adjusted to resonate with target audiences, especially in communicating risk. Branding a unique identity for the EESLR-NGOM project/products was encouraged. Message consistency was considered key for optimal outcomes. The ongoing feedback has resulted in year-by-year refinements of the research process and scientific product development, which has been central to gaining confidence of the target audiences.

  5. Sexuality Research in Iran: A Focus on Methodological and Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    RAHMANI, Azam; MERGHATI-KHOEI, Effat; MOGHADDAM-BANAEM, Lida; ZAREI, Fatemeh; MONTAZERI, Ali; HAJIZADEH, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on sensitive topics, such as sexuality, could raise technical, methodological, ethical, political, and legal challenges. The aim of this paper was to draw the methodological challenges which the authors confronted during sexuality research with young population in the Iranian culture. Methods: This study was an exploratory mixed method one conducted in 2013–14. We interviewed 63 young women aged 18–34 yr in qualitative phase and 265 young women in quantitative phase in (university and non-university) dormitories and in an Adolescent Friendly Center. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews in the qualitative phase. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. To enhance the rigor of the data, multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied. Results: Five main themes emerged from the data: interaction with opposite sex, sexual risk, sexual protective, sex education, and sexual vulnerability. Challenges while conducting sex research have been discussed. These challenges included assumption of promiscuity, language of silence and privacy concerns, and sex segregation policy. Conclusion: We described the strategies applied in our study and the rationales for each strategy. Strategies applied in the present study can be employed in contexts with the similar methodological and moral concerns. PMID:26576376

  6. A Survey of Educational Research in the Second Decade of South Africa's Democracy: A Focus on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Grange, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I survey educational research conducted in South Africa based on articles published in the "South African Journal of Education" ("SAJHE") over the past five years. The themes that feature prominently in "SAJHE" over the past five years are: "Africanisation and indigenous knowledge," "assessment," "e-learning," "quality and quality…

  7. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  8. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  9. Health effects of carbon-containing particulate matter: focus on sources and recent research program results.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette; McDonald, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gas-, vapor-, and particulate-phase materials comprised of inorganic and organic species. Many of these components have been associated with adverse health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies, including a broad spectrum of carbonaceous atmospheric components. This paper reviews recent literature on the health impacts of organic aerosols, with a focus on specific sources of organic material; it is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all the available literature. Specific emission sources reviewed include engine emissions, wood/biomass combustion emissions, biogenic emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), resuspended road dust, tire and brake wear, and cooking emissions. In addition, recent findings from large toxicological and epidemiological research programs are reviewed in the context of organic PM, including SPHERES, NPACT, NERC, ACES, and TERESA. A review of the extant literature suggests that there are clear health impacts from emissions containing carbon-containing PM, but difficulty remains in apportioning responses to certain groupings of carbonaceous materials, such as organic and elemental carbon, condensed and gas phases, and primary and secondary material. More focused epidemiological and toxicological studies, including increased characterization of organic materials, would increase understanding of this issue. PMID:26635181

  10. Interleukin-21 and T follicular helper cells in HIV infection: research focus and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pahwa, Savita

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a member of the ? chain-receptor cytokine family along with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. The effects of IL-21 are pleiotropic, owing to the broad cellular distribution of the IL-21 receptor. IL-21 is secreted by activated CD4 T cells and natural killer T cells. Within CD4 T cells, its secretion is restricted mainly to T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and Th17 cells to a lesser extent. Our research focus has been on the role of IL-21 and more recently of Tfh in immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. This review focuses on first the influence of IL-21 in regulation of T cell, B cell, and NK cell responses and its immunotherapeutic potential in viral infections and as a vaccine adjuvant. Second, we discuss the pivotal role of Tfh in generation of antibody responses in HIV-infected persons in studies using influenza vaccines as a probe. Lastly, we review data supporting ability of HIV to infect Tfh and the role of these cells as reservoirs for HIV and their contribution to viral persistence. PMID:24242760

  11. Mineral and Rock Physics Focus Group Selects Kantor for 2008 Graduate Research Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    The Mineral and Rock Physics focus group has selected Innokenty Kantor as the recipient of the 2008 Graduate Research Award. Kantor pursued his Ph.D. in high-pressure mineral physics at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, Germany, under the supervision of Leonid Dubrovinsky and Catherine McCammon, and he successfully defended his thesis, entitled High-pressure and high-temperature structural and electronic properties of (Mg, Fe)O and FeO, in July 2007. Kantor came to Germany with a strong theoretical background after gaining a master's diploma with honors at Moscow State University, Russia. At the University of Bayreuth, he developed experimental experience by mastering the challenging techniques of diamond anvil cell experimentation, Mssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Highlights of Kantor's thesis research include the discovery that the rhombohedral distortion in iron oxide (FeO) and magnesium iron oxide ((Mg, Fe)O) does not coincide with the magnetic ordering transition (contrary to what had been assumed for many years); a full description of spin crossover in (Mg, Fe)O above 50 gigapascals including the effect of short-range order; and a new high-pressure monoclinic modification of FeO that may change the interpretation of the B1 ? B8 (rock salt to nickel arsenide structure) transition at high pressure and temperature. All of these results have had a significant impact on the research field and influenced models for the behavior of FeO and (Mg, Fe)O at high pressure. Kantor's achievements have been recognized by a number of other awards, most recently the E.ON Bayern Kulturpreis, awarded for one of the best doctoral theses in Bavaria across all research fields.

  12. Business Education Index, 1999. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published During the Year 1999. Volume 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This publication comprises an index of business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of business education periodicals and those related to business education published during 1999. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching over the broad business education spectrum. Subject entries (pages…

  13. Business Education Index 1992. Volume 53. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This index provides entries for business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of periodicals and yearbooks published during 1992. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum with emphasis on information systems (including business communications),…

  14. The change and development of statistical methods used in research articles in child development 1930-2010.

    PubMed

    Kppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and development of statistical methods used in articles published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical methods employed. The absence of statistical methods or use of simple methods had been eliminated. PMID:24584734

  15. Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part III: How to write a scientific paper.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew; McD Taylor, David; Babl, Franz E

    2012-08-01

    In this series we address key topics for clinicians who conduct research as part of their work in the ED. Analysis of research data does not represent the completion of a project as the findings need to be communicated to clinicians and other researchers in the field. In this section, we describe how to write up clinical research data for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We also describe the editorial and peer-review process. PMID:22862751

  16. No Easy Rider? "The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library" by Fremont Rider: A Review Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Fremont Rider's 1944 book, "The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library", had a major impact on research library thinking. The issues raised by Rider, such as research library economics, collection, acquisition and management policies, and library cooperation still resonate today, although his technology solutions have long since been…

  17. No Easy Rider? "The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library" by Fremont Rider: A Review Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Fremont Rider's 1944 book, "The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library", had a major impact on research library thinking. The issues raised by Rider, such as research library economics, collection, acquisition and management policies, and library cooperation still resonate today, although his technology solutions have long since been

  18. Establishing a Family Literacy Program with a Focus on Interactive Reading: The Role of Research and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Family literacy programs abound today, and many try to be all things to all participating families. Funding has eroded for programs of long length and shorter length programs need a specific focus to aim for a modicum of success. This article provides an overview of the importance of interactive reading for children's future success in school,…

  19. Superconductive articles

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    An article of manufacture including a substrate, a patterned interlayer of magnesium oxide, barium-titanium oxide or barium-zirconium oxide, the patterned interlayer material overcoated with a secondary interlayer material of yttria-stabilized zirconia or magnesium-aluminum oxide, upon the surface of the substrate whereby an intermediate article with an exposed surface of both the overcoated patterned interlayer and the substrate is formed, a coating of a buffer layer selected from the group consisting of oxides of Ce, Y, Cm, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, In, La, Mn, Lu, Nd, Pr, Pu, Sm, Tb, Tl, Tm, Y, and Yb over the entire exposed surface of the intermediate article, and, a ceramic superconductive material layer as an overcoat upon the buffer layer whereby the ceramic superconductive material situated directly above the substrate has a crystal structure substantially different than the ceramic superconductive material situated above the overcoated patterned interlayer.

  20. Public Trust In Higher Education and A Media Review Of Press Articles In California. Research & Occasional Paper Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Warren H.; Earl-Novell, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to better determine the level of general public trust in public higher education and the content of published articles in the press that may influence and reflect public confidence. By conducting a six-month media scan of four California newspapers, an overview is provided of the key concerns and issues facing higher…

  1. Education Resourcing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: The Impact of Finance Equity Reforms in Public Schooling: Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen

    2006-01-01

    Through an analysis of recent quantitative data on equity and school funding in South Africa, this article aims to explicate the patterns and typology of inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to deepen our understanding of the construct of equity. It also aims to understand the application of equity in the context of public schooling…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Distributed Leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory Development, Empirical Evidence and Future Research Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Meng; Risku, Mika; Collin, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a meta-analysis of research conducted on distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013. It continues the review of distributed leadership commissioned by the English National College for School Leadership (NCSL) ("Distributed Leadership: A Desk Study," Bennett et al., 2003), which identified two gaps in the research

  3. Second Language Research Forum Colloquia 2009: Colloquium--Measuring the Effectiveness of Focus on Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Focus on form, i.e. brief attention to language items within a larger meaning-focused context (Long 1991; Ellis 2001), occurs in a variety of L2 instructional contexts. Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of focus on form have found overall positive effects; however, these meta-analyses have commented on the small number of studies available for…

  4. Second Language Research Forum Colloquia 2009: Colloquium--Measuring the Effectiveness of Focus on Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Focus on form, i.e. brief attention to language items within a larger meaning-focused context (Long 1991; Ellis 2001), occurs in a variety of L2 instructional contexts. Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of focus on form have found overall positive effects; however, these meta-analyses have commented on the small number of studies available for

  5. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  6. It's an Interesting Article!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Karen

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that the combination of research methods used in Drummond and Hopper's article in this issue, "Back Channels Revisited," is appropriate. Factors that make for good social science research are discussed. (eight references) (LB)

  7. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  8. Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Alex, Lena; Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman; Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit

    2012-01-01

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus. PMID:22827730

  9. Clinical Research in Vulnerable Populations: Variability and Focus of Institutional Review Boards’ Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Nadine; Bürger, Friederike; Luntz, Steffen; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Bendszus, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Ries, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Children and patients with cognitive deficits may find it difficult to understand the implication of research. In the European Union (EU), clinical studies outside the EU directives concerning medicinal products or medical devices, i.e., “miscellaneous clinical studies”, have no legally mandated timelines for institutional review boards’ (IRB) decisions. Goal To evaluate the review process of IRBs for two different “miscellaneous” multicenter clinical research protocols involving vulnerable subjects (children and adult stroke patients). Methods Descriptive and comparative statistics. Protocol 1 is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional screening study of a symptomatic pediatric population at risk for Fabry disease involving genetic testing (NCT02152189). Protocol 2 is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint post-market study to evaluate the effectiveness of stent retrievers (NCT02135926). After having obtained positive initial IRB votes at the main study site, both protocols were subsequently submitted to the remaining IRBs. Results Protocol 1 was submitted to 19 IRBs. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to-final vote was 34 (IQR 10–65; range 0 to 130) days. Two IRBs accepted the coordinating center’s IRB votes without re-evaluation. Changes to the informed consent documents were asked by 7/19 IRBs, amendments to the protocol by 2. Protocol 2 was submitted to 16 IRBs. Fifteen decisions were made. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to final vote was 59 (IQR 10 to 65; range 0 to 128) days, which was not statistically significantly different compared with protocol 1 (Wilcoxon test). Two IRBs accepted a previous IRB decision and did not conduct an independent review. Eight/16 IRBs required changes to the informed consent documents; two IRBs recommended an amendment of the protocol. Conclusion Both clinical research protocols involving vulnerable populations were well accepted. IRB workflows and decision times varied substantially. Some IRBs accepted a previous IRB decision without the necessity of another reevaluation process. Requested changes were focused on the informed consent documents. A more standardized approach across jurisdictions is desirable. PMID:26275228

  10. A decade of research on health content in the media: the focus on health challenges and sociocultural context and attendant informational and ideological problems.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kimberly N

    2006-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the health and illness content of popular media in the domains of advertising, journalism, and entertainment. This article reviews the past 10 years of this research, describing the relationship between the health topics addressed in the research, the shifting focus of concerns about the media, and, ultimately, the variation in problems for health promotion. I suggest that research attending to topics related to bodily health challenges focused on whether popular media accurately or appropriately represented health challenges. The implication was that there is some consensus about more right or wrong, complete or incomplete ways of representing an issue; the problem was that the media are generally wrong. Alternatively, research addressing topics related to sociocultural context issues focused on how certain interests are privileged in the media. The implication was that competing groups are making claims on the system, but the problem was that popular media marginalizes certain interests. In short, popular media is not likely to facilitate understandings helpful to individuals coping with health challenges and is likely to perpetuate social and political power differentials with regard to health-related issues. I conclude by offering some possibilities for future health media content research. PMID:16546918

  11. What Does Research Say about the Ideal Condition for Students Learning Mathematics?--A "Baker's Dozen" Articles to Inform Secondary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.; Jones, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    In seeking to align the everyday decision-making and lesson delivery of secondary teachers to current research in mathematics education, this piece provides an application of theory into classroom practice. By focusing on a sample of 13 quantitative and qualitative research studies of pedagogical best practice published since 2000, a set of…

  12. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  13. Laminate article

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  14. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION: A FOCUS ON EPA'S RESEARCH (EPA/640/K-95/004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brochure describes the mechanisms of and problems associated with stratospheric ozone depletion as well as some of the Office ofResearch and Development's (ORD) associated research projects. The Office of Research and Development has pursued a multifacetedresearch program ...

  15. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Focused Overview for Children’s Environmental Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Andréa; Eubig, Paul A.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed childhood neurobehavioral disorder. Much research has been done to identify genetic, environmental, and social risk factors for ADHD; however, we are still far from fully understanding its etiology. In this review we provide an overview of diagnostic criteria for ADHD and what is known about its biological basis. We also review the neuropsychological functions that are affected in ADHD. The goal is to familiarize the reader with the behavioral deficits that are hallmarks of ADHD and to facilitate comparisons with neurobehavioral deficits associated with environmental chemical exposures. Data sources Relevant literature on ADHD is reviewed, focusing in particular on meta-analyses conducted between 2004 and the present that evaluated associations between measures of neuropsychological function and ADHD in children. Meta-analyses were obtained through searches of the PubMed electronic database using the terms “ADHD,” “meta-analysis,” “attention,” “executive,” and “neuropsychological functions.” Although meta-analyses are emphasized, nonquantitative reviews are included for particular neuropsychological functions where no meta-analyses were available. Data synthesis The meta-analyses indicate that vigilance (sustained attention), response inhibition, and working memory are impaired in children diagnosed with ADHD. Similar but somewhat less consistent meta-analytic findings have been reported for impairments in alertness, cognitive flexibility, and planning. Additionally, the literature suggests deficits in temporal information processing and altered responses to reinforcement in children diagnosed with ADHD. Findings from brain imagining and neurochemistry studies support the behavioral findings. Conclusions Behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical data indicate substantial differences in attention and executive functions between children diagnosed with ADHD and non-ADHD controls. Comparisons of the neurobehavioral deficits associated with ADHD and those associated with exposures to environmental chemicals may help to identify possible environmental risk factors for ADHD and/or reveal common underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:20829148

  16. A Focus on Offshore Safety: Recent Reports by The Marine Board of the National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    During the last three years, the Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) has published four study reports that focused on enhancing safety in offshore oil and gas activities and in the marine and maritime fields. The objective of these studies was to provide recommendations for actions that will reduce or eliminate deaths and injuries, reduce pollution from accidents and operations, and protect resources and structures from loss. Several recurring themes are woven through many of these reports. The themes deal with using technology already available and demonstrated, using risk analyses to establish priorities for use of resources (such as inspection facilities and personnel) despite the lack of data for decision making, using advanced tools for inspection and monitoring, and using long-term monitoring to gauge performance. One report about improving marine pipeline safety describes the safety challenges associated with designing, regulating, and monitoring over 20,000 miles of underwater pipelines in federal and state waters. The report on the restoration and protection of marine habitats comments on the institutional, regulatory, and managerial impediments to the wider application of the best engineering technologies and practices and the ways to deal with these impediments. The report on assessment techniques for removing offshore structures provides guidance on the use of technologies and their associated hazards and the development of strategies to mitigate environmental damage when offshore structures must be removed. One of the most recent reports describes a concept for using present undersea vehicles technology and systems to perform tasks that respond to the need to monitor the condition of offshore pipelines and seabed facilities. Two studies now underway continue several of the themes noted in aforementioned reports: one theme being a review of the uses of risk assessment opportunities in an effort to find useful experience from other industries. Another current study targets the introduction of human performance and organizational system theory and practice from other industries into the maritime and offshore industries.

  17. Adolescent Girls' Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk," (b) "factors…

  18. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  19. Community Voice: Focus Group Research with Adult Learners in Worcestershire and Herefordshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsdale, Julia

    Focus groups of adult learners and some nonlearners in the English counties of Worcestershire and Herefordshire were convened to gather information about local adults' attitudes toward and experiences of further education courses. The focus groups examined how people hear about courses, why they join courses, what factors prevent people from…

  20. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…

  1. Making a Difference in Research and Practice: A Commentary on "Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools," an Article by Joseph E. Zins and Robert J. Illback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaspohler, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Zins and Illback observed in 1995 that planned organizational change processes were neglected in practice, training, and research. In the decade following publication of their article, implementation of processes and structures of planned organizational change increased dramatically. Schools and school districts continue to face increased…

  2. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  3. Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2012-01-01

    The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and

  4. Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2012-01-01

    The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…

  5. From One "I" to Another: Discursive Construction of Self-Representation in English and Castilian Spanish Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The notion that academic writing is not only a conventional entity but also carries the representation of the writer has been supported by several researchers. Few studies have explored identity representation in language across two written cultures, such as English and Spanish, although Spanish might be a language of interest for non-native…

  6. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  7. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Long, Christopher M.; Bunn, William B.; Lapin, Charles A.; McClellan, Roger O.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in “New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)” from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the “traditional diesel exhaust” (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to'lung overload."The species specificity of the rat lung response to overload, and its occurrence with other particle types, is now well-understood. It is thus generally accepted that the rat bioassay for inhaled particles under conditions of lung overload is not predictive of human lung cancer hazard. Overall, despite an abundance of epidemiologic and experimental data, there remain questions as to whether TDE exposure causes increased lung cancers in humans. An abundance of emissions characterization data, as well as preliminary toxicological data, support NTDE as being toxicologically distinct from TDE. Currently, neither epidemiologic data nor animal bioassay data yet exist that directly bear on NTDE carcinogenic potential. A chronic bioassay of NTDE currently in progress will provide data on whether NTDE poses a carcinogenic hazard, but based on the significant reductions in PM mass emissions and the major changes in PM composition, it has been hypothesized that NTDE has a low carcinogenic potential. When the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reevaluates DE (along with GEE and nitroarenes) in June 2012, it will be the first authoritative body to assess DE carcinogenic health hazards since the emergence of NTDE and the accumulation of data differentiating NTDE from TDE. PMID:22663144

  8. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Bunn, William B; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Valberg, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in "New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)" from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to "lung overload." The species specificity of the rat lung response to overload, and its occurrence with other particle types, is now well-understood. It is thus generally accepted that the rat bioassay for inhaled particles under conditions of lung overload is not predictive of human lung cancer hazard. Overall, despite an abundance of epidemiologic and experimental data, there remain questions as to whether TDE exposure causes increased lung cancers in humans. An abundance of emissions characterization data, as well as preliminary toxicological data, support NTDE as being toxicologically distinct from TDE. Currently, neither epidemiologic data nor animal bioassay data yet exist that directly bear on NTDE carcinogenic potential. A chronic bioassay of NTDE currently in progress will provide data on whether NTDE poses a carcinogenic hazard, but based on the significant reductions in PM mass emissions and the major changes in PM composition, it has been hypothesized that NTDE has a low carcinogenic potential. When the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reevaluates DE (along with GEE and nitroarenes) in June 2012, it will be the first authoritative body to assess DE carcinogenic health hazards since the emergence of NTDE and the accumulation of data differentiating NTDE from TDE. PMID:22663144

  9. Adaptive and fast focusing technology research based on configurational entropy for high resolution satellites in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linghua

    2014-11-01

    Due to the complex launch condition, dynamic space environment, and up to 0.1" high-resolution imaging requirements, automatic focus (AF) technology in orbit has become one of the key technologies to obtain high-quality images for high-resolution imaging satellite, especially for the long focal length, large diameter optical remote sensor. This paper analyzes the focusing criterion theory of the smallest image entropy. For high-resolution optical imaging satellites, we have proposed innovatively an AF method based on configuration entropy focusing criterion. Data show that configurational entropy focusing criterion is more suitable for low-contrast celestial observation targets. For diffraction limited focal ratio and space optical remote sensor with F#=39, focal length detection sensitivity reaches 0.1mm. Configurational entropy focusing technology improves the efficiency of image processing 22k times, which dramatically reduces the number of focusing movements. Adaptive AF with high speed and high precision satisfies imaging requirements of low-contrast targets for space exploration.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Distributed Leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory Development, Empirical Evidence and Future Research Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Meng; Risku, Mika; Collin, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a meta-analysis of research conducted on distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013. It continues the review of distributed leadership commissioned by the English National College for School Leadership (NCSL) ("Distributed Leadership: A Desk Study," Bennett et al., 2003), which identified two gaps in the research…

  11. Left Brain/Right Brain: Research and Learning. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppele, Ruth

    This 27-item bibliography represents the variety of articles added to the ERIC database from 1983 through 1988 on left-brain/right-brain research, theory, and application as it relates to classroom incorporation. Included are conflicting opinions as to the usefulness of left-brain/right-brain studies and their application in the learning…

  12. Focus on Basics Connecting Research & Practice: Modes of Delivery, Volume 7, Issue C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains 12 articles on modes of delivery in adult basic education. They include: "Teaching for Communicative Competence" (Donna Moss); "Sustained Silent Reading: A Useful Model" (Susanne Campagna); " A Slow Conversion to Reading Groups" (Susan Watson); "Differentiated Instruction" (Mary Ann Corley); "Differentiating Instruction for a…

  13. Views of Academic and Community Partners Regarding Participant Protections and Research Integrity: A Pilot Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    When community partners have direct interaction with human research participants, it is important to consider potential threats to participant protections and research integrity. Few studies have directly compared the views of academic and community partners. This pilot focus group study explores the views of academic partners (APs) and community partners (CPs) regarding challenges to the protection of research participants and research integrity in community-engaged research (CEnR). Data are analyzed to understand how APs and CPs define and think about ethical problems and how meaning and analysis may differ between the two groups. Findings have implications for the development of research ethics training materials for academic-community research partnerships and IRBs; best practices for CEnR; and future research on ethical issues in CEnR. PMID:23485668

  14. Provision of Research Support Services to ODL Learners by Tutors: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University's Bachelor of Education (Educational Management) Research Students' Supervision Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapolisa, Tichaona

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the ODL learners' perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University's (ZOU) Bachelor of Education (Educational Management) research students' experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the…

  15. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access

  16. Organizational Culture--A Focus on Contemporary Theory/Research in Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotirin, Patricia J.

    Defining organizational culture as the amalgam of beliefs, mythology, values, and rituals that, even more than its products, differentiates it from other organizations, this paper demonstrates its utility as a synthesizing focus on current ideas about communication in organizations. Modes of thought, dominant paradigms, perspectives on…

  17. ASR Application in Climate Change Adaptation: The Need, Issues and Research Focus

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on four key points: (a) Aquifer storage and recovery: a long-held practice offering a potential tool for climate change adaptation, (b) The drivers: 1) hydrological perturbations related to climate change, 2) water imbalance in both Qand Vbetween wat...

  18. Canada's International Education Strategy: Focus on Scholarships. CBIE Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embleton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey of approximately 40 professionals involved in various disciplines associated with international education across Canada, this study examines Canada's (federal, provincial, and territorial government) offering of scholarships to international students. Focused at the university level, the study elaborates on relevant…

  19. Early Interventionists' Reports of Authentic Assessment Methods through Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Bonnie; LaRocco, Diana J.; Casell, Faye Bankler

    2009-01-01

    Authentic assessments are naturalistic methods to obtain functional, contextual information relevant to learning in routine activities. Seven focus groups were conducted with 73 practicing Part C early interventionists to gather their reports on authentic assessments. Participants reported various ways of applying authentic assessment methods,…

  20. Guidance on Performing Focused Ethnographies with an Emphasis on Healthcare Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbottom, Gina M. A.; Pillay, Jennifer J.; Boadu, Nana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Focused ethnographies can have meaningful and useful application in primary care, community, or hospital healthcare practice, and are often used to determine ways to improve care and care processes. They can be pragmatic and efficient ways to capture data on a specific topic of importance to individual clinicians or clinical specialties. While…

  1. Research of the automatic imaging focusing measurement for off-axis Fresnel digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xun; Nie, Liang; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Xu

    2008-09-01

    Digital holography technology, which adopt CCD digital camera to record holograph, can get amplitude and phase information of the sample tested respectively through processing the image. Re-focus of the sample image can be realized by calculating complex amplitude information obtained. However, digital holograph reproduction system can't offer any criterion which determine whether reproduction image achieve fixed-focus state when reproduction image stands in the optimum position. Digital holography reproduction process need add an exterior criterion function, which implement automatic focus as normal imaging system. Aimed to digital imaging automatic focusing problem of off-axis Fresnel holography, image gradient energy method, image Laplace energy method, image shade of gray variance method are compared from two points of theory and practice view, and present the advanced measurement method based on spectrum band-stop filter. Experiment shows that the algorithm has some adaptability, especially image Laplace energy method based on spectrum band-stop filter has non-skewness, monotonicity, unimodality, kurtosis and robust.

  2. Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Research on Females in Educational Administration: Focusing on "The Numbers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.; McNeely, Sonja R.

    Theoretical and methodological problems in researching the number of females in educational administration and changes in their numbers over time are examined in this review of pertinent studies. The studies are cited for problems that they illuminate, rather than for any possible inadequacies. The research problems fall into two broad categories:

  3. Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 157.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II, Ed.; Dennis, Rutledge M., Ed.

    The contributions in this volume examine the array of methods used in quantitative, qualitative, and comparative and historical research to show how research sensitive to ethnic issues can best be conducted. Rethinking and revising traditional methodologies and applying new ones can portray racial and ethnic issues as they really exist. The…

  4. Design Research on Inquiry-Based Multivariable Calculus: Focusing on Students' Argumentation and Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh Nam; Bae, Younggon; Oh, Kuk Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers design and implement an inquiry based multivariable calculus course in a university which aims at enhancing students' argumentation in rich mathematical discussions. This research aims to understand the characteristics of students' argumentation in activities involving proof constructions through mathematical…

  5. Reshaping the Forces That Perpetuate the Research-Practice Gap: Focus on New Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbeck, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the research/practice gap in higher education suggests the importance of considering the forces influencing new faculty and researchers, including tenure and promotion policies and practices, institutional socialization, disciplinary culture, journal editors, and senior scholars. Offers suggestions for bridging the gap between new…

  6. Predictors of High Motivation Score for Performing Research Initiation Fellowship, Master 1, Research Master 2, and PhD Curricula During Medical Studies: A Strobe-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Feigerlova, Eva; Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Antonelli, Arnaud; Hadjadj, Samy; Marechaud, Richard; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Roblot, Pascal; Braun, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Translational research plays a crucial role in bridging the gap between fundamental and clinical research. The importance of integrating research training into medical education has been emphasized. Predictive factors that help to identify the most motivated medical students to perform academic research are unknown. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 315 medical students, residents and attending physicians, using a comprehensive structured questionnaire we assessed motivations and obstacles to perform academic research curricula (ie, research initiation fellowship, Master 1, Research Master 2, and PhD). Independent predictive factors associated with high "motivation score" (top quartile on motivation score ranging from 0 to 10) to enroll in academic research curricula were derived using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing Master 1 curriculum were: "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.49-9.59; P = 0.005) and "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.01-6.47; P < 0.0001). Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing Research Master 2 curriculum were: "attending physician" (OR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.86-11.37; P = 0.001); "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.51-11.23; P = 0.006); "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.91-6.46; P = 0.0001); and "male gender" (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.25; P = 0.04). Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing PhD curriculum were: "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 5.94; 95% CI, 2.33-15.19; P = 0.0002) and "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.46-4.77; P = 0.001). This is the first study that has identified factors determining motivations and barriers to carry out academic research curricula among undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Improving these 2 areas will certainly have an impact on a better involvement of the next generation of physicians in translational medicine. PMID:26844478

  7. Adolescent Girls’ Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    PubMed Central

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) in order to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women’s understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) types of sexual risk; (b) factors that moderate sexual risk; and (c) strategies for managing sexual risk. Collectively, participants identified many risks but distanced themselves from these by claiming that girls’ susceptibility is largely a function of personal factors and therefore avoidable given the right traits, values, and skills. We consider this reliance on other-blaming and self-exemption, as well as instances in which individual participants diverged from this group discourse, in the context of neoliberalism. PMID:21860537

  8. Tobacco Packaging and Mass Media Campaigns: Research Needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). Methods: A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Results: Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. Conclusion: A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up. PMID:23042986

  9. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing stations networks in the Northern Pan-Eurasian region.

  10. Extending Reading Research with a Focus on Cultural Understanding and Research on Intercultural Communication: An Empirical Investigation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    The work presented here is an empirical study of how advanced learners of English as a foreign language in Argentina access and understand the culture-specific dimensions of literary narrative texts. It has three purposes. First, to extend research into reading in a foreign language to take account of the culture-specific content of texts. Second,…

  11. Policy and Excellent Teaching: Focus for a National Research Center. Center Description and Synopsis of Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, Seattle, WA.

    A new national research consortium, the Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy (CTP), is designed to investigate the relation between excellent teaching and policymaking at the national, state, and local levels. Policy efforts to produce excellence in teaching must: (1) attract, recruit, and retain capable teachers; (2) develop teachers'…

  12. Risk of Bias in Reports of In Vivo Research: A Focus for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, Malcolm R.; Lawson McLean, Aaron; Kyriakopoulou, Aikaterini; Serghiou, Stylianos; de Wilde, Arno; Sherratt, Nicki; Hirst, Theo; Hemblade, Rachel; Bahor, Zsanett; Nunes-Fonseca, Cristina; Potluru, Aparna; Thomson, Andrew; Baginskitae, Julija; Egan, Kieren; Vesterinen, Hanna; Currie, Gillian L.; Churilov, Leonid; Howells, David W.; Sena, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of experimental findings depends on the rigour of experimental design. Here we show limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in a random sample of life sciences publications, significantly lower reporting of randomisation in work published in journals of high impact, and very limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in publications from leading United Kingdom institutions. Ascertainment of differences between institutions might serve both as a measure of research quality and as a tool for institutional efforts to improve research quality. PMID:26460723

  13. A Call for Training the Trainers: Focus on Mentoring to Enhance Diversity in Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Cardenas, Veronica; Lebowitz, Barry; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    There is a widening disparity between the proportion of ethnic minority Americans in the population and the number of researchers from these minority groups. One major obstacle in this arena relates to a dearth of mentors for such trainees. The present academic settings are not optimal for development and sustenance of research mentors, especially for mentees from underrepresented minority ethnic groups. Mentoring skills can and should be evaluated and enhanced. Universities, medical schools, and funding agencies need to join hands and implement national- and local-level programs to help develop and reward mentors of junior scientists from ethnic minority groups. PMID:19246662

  14. Academic-correctional health partnerships: preparing the correctional health workforce for the changing landscape-focus group research results.

    PubMed

    Hale, Janet Fraser; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Jones, Judy L; Brennan, Allyson; Brewer, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Providing health care in corrections is challenging. Attracting clinicians can be equally challenging. The future holds a shortage of nurses and primary care physicians. We have a unique opportunity, now, to develop and stabilize our workforce, create a positive image, and enhance quality before the health care landscape changes even more dramatically. Focus groups were conducted with 22 correctional health care professionals divided into three groups: physicians (6), nurses (4), and nurse practitioners/physician assistants (12). Content focused on curricular themes, but additional themes emerged related to recruitment and retention. This article describes recruitment challenges, strategic themes identified, and the proposed initiatives to support a stable, high-quality correctional health workforce. PMID:25559632

  15. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology, epidemiology, and public health. Our review of data from these disciplines found that, despite a complete understanding of pathoetiology, studies continue to accumulate and point toward evidence of a causal association for FGD. For some FGDs, Bradford Hill’s criteria for causality yield more certainty than other criteria. In addition, the growing recognition of the impact of acute foodborne illness on economics and society is leading to exploration of the potential long-term health effects and disease burden of PI-FGDs, although a paucity of data exist in terms of pathogen-specific risk, disability duration, and relevant disability weights. Lastly, the understanding of PI-FGDs is changing the way research is approached and suggests a need for a more expansive exploration of biologic mechanisms and how FGDs are categorized. Areas of research priorities are catalogued in this paper and will hopefully provide inspiration for future studies and contributions to the field of gastroenterology. PMID:23961264

  16. Television and Social Behavior; An Annotated Bibliography of Research Focusing on Television's Impact on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K., Ed.; And Others

    Approximately 300 annotated references to research on the impact of television and other visual media on the behavior and development of children are presented in three sections of this bibliography. The first section consists of reports about the type of fare offered to the public and the values and picture of life it presents. Literature in the

  17. A Framework for Teaching Practice-Based Research with a Focus on Service Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Michael J.; Isokuortti, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice in social work education and agency practice is both complex and challenging. The analysis presented here builds upon the classic social work generalist framework (engagement, assessment, service planning and implementation, service evaluation, and termination) by developing a three-part framework to

  18. Focus on Academic and Research Libraries: Librarians Speak Out to Journal Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Dick

    2009-01-01

    What is the economic situation in libraries these days? What are academic and research libraries doing with regard to making the resources in their collections more discoverable? Are they involved in institutional repository (IR) projects? And how do IRs and the availability of open access journals affect library purchasing decisions? Those were…

  19. A survey of the state of the art and focused research in range systems, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, K.

    1986-01-01

    Contract generated publications are compiled which describe the research activities for the reporting period. Study topics include: equivalent configurations of systolic arrays; least squares estimation algorithms with systolic array architectures; modeling and equilization of nonlinear bandlimited satellite channels; and least squares estimation and Kalman filtering by systolic arrays.

  20. Strategic Marketing Evaluation: A Focus Area for Institutional Research. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Edward M.; Gackenbach, Rusty

    The level of awareness, knowledge, and current practices regarding strategic marketing within institutional research (IR) offices were studied for colleges in the Rocky Mountain region. Of the 18 responding offices, 9 indicated that their institutions utilized a marketing approach to planning. Of these 9 offices, 56 percent reported formal…

  1. Researching the Effects of Frame-Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, Elena; Burmistrova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In the context of globalization, the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical form-oriented practice) does not meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language…

  2. Postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders: a focus on epidemiology and research agendas.

    PubMed

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L; Porter, Chad K; Riddle, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology, epidemiology, and public health. Our review of data from these disciplines found that, despite a complete understanding of pathoetiology, studies continue to accumulate and point toward evidence of a causal association for FGD. For some FGDs, Bradford Hill's criteria for causality yield more certainty than other criteria. In addition, the growing recognition of the impact of acute foodborne illness on economics and society is leading to exploration of the potential long-term health effects and disease burden of PI-FGDs, although a paucity of data exist in terms of pathogen-specific risk, disability duration, and relevant disability weights. Lastly, the understanding of PI-FGDs is changing the way research is approached and suggests a need for a more expansive exploration of biologic mechanisms and how FGDs are categorized. Areas of research priorities are catalogued in this paper and will hopefully provide inspiration for future studies and contributions to the field of gastroenterology. PMID:23961264

  3. Developing a Research Agenda: Contributing New Knowledge via Intent and Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Glazewski, Krista D.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that new PhD graduates begin their first faculty positions having already outlined a research agenda that will guide their work during the next several years of their careers. Yet very little guidance is provided regarding how to accomplish this important task. In fact, little explanation is provided about what, exactly, a…

  4. A Framework for Teaching Practice-Based Research with a Focus on Service Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Michael J.; Isokuortti, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice in social work education and agency practice is both complex and challenging. The analysis presented here builds upon the classic social work generalist framework (engagement, assessment, service planning and implementation, service evaluation, and termination) by developing a three-part framework to…

  5. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon sequestration, energy efficiency, and other energy security research projects that are being conducted under the LDRD Program at the DOE/NNSA national laboratories and under the Site Directed Research and Development Program (SDRD) at the Nevada Test Site. Speakers from DOE/NNSA, other federal agencies, the NNSA laboratories, and the private sector will provide their insights into the national security implications of emerging energy and environmental issues, and the LDRD investments in energy security at the national laboratories. Please take this opportunity to reflect upon the science and engineering needs of our country's energy demands, including those issues posed by climate change, paying attention to the innovative contributions that LDRD is providing to the nation.

  6. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. PMID:24374910

  7. Implementation and Research Priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16: Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship and Sales to and by Minors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS), and Article 16 calls for prohibition of tobacco sales to and by minors. Although these mandates are based on sound science, many countries have found provision implementation to be rife with challenges. Objective: This paper reviews the history of tobacco marketing and minor access restrictions in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, identifying past challenges and successes. We consider current challenges to FCTC implementation, how these barriers can be addressed, and what research is necessary to support such efforts. Specifically, we identify implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16. Discussion: Although a solid evidence base underpins the FCTC’s call for TAPS bans and minor access restrictions, we know substantially less about how best to implement these restrictions. Drawing on the regulatory experiences of high-, middle-, and low-income countries, we discern several implementation and research priorities, which are organized into 4 categories: policy enactment and enforcement, human capital expertise, the effects of FCTC marketing and youth access policies, and knowledge exchange and transfer among signatories. Future research should provide detailed case studies on implementation successes and failures, as well as insights into how knowledge of successful restrictions can be translated into tobacco control policy and practice and shared among different stakeholders. Conclusion: Tobacco marketing surveillance, sales-to-minors compliance checks, enforcement and evaluation of restriction policies, and capacity building and knowledge transfer are likely to prove central to effective implementation. PMID:23291641

  8. The strengths and weaknesses of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with particular focus on metabolomics research.

    PubMed

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have evolved as the most common techniques in metabolomics studies, and each brings its own advantages and limitations. Unlike MS spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy is quantitative and does not require extra steps for sample preparation, such as separation or derivatization. Although the sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy has increased enormously and improvements continue to emerge steadily, this remains a weak point for NMR compared with MS. MS-based metabolomics provides an excellent approach that can offer a combined sensitivity and selectivity platform for metabolomics research. Moreover, different MS approaches such as different ionization techniques and mass analyzer technology can be used in order to increase the number of metabolites that can be detected. In this chapter, the advantages, limitations, strengths, and weaknesses of NMR and MS as tools applicable to metabolomics research are highlighted. PMID:25677154

  9. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

  10. Focusing Research in Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Annual Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education (47th, St. Louis, Missouri, March 6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J., Comp.; Schumacher, Leon G., Comp.

    A conference proceedings on agricultural education research included: "Focusing for Excellence" (Jordan); "Factors Related to the Integration of International Agricultural Concepts into the Secondary Agricultural Education (AE) Curriculum" (Ibezim, McCracken); "Perceptions of State Vocational Education (VE) Administrators Relevant to AE in the…

  11. Journal ratings as predictors of articles quality in Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences: an analysis based on the Italian Research Evaluation Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Cicero, Tindaro; Ferrara, Antonio; Malgarini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand whether the probability of receiving positive peer reviews is influenced by having published in an independently assessed, high-ranking journal: we eventually interpret a positive relationship among peer evaluation and journal ranking as evidence that journal ratings are good predictors of article quality. The analysis is based on a large dataset of over 11,500 research articles published in Italy in the period 2004-2010 in the areas of architecture, arts and humanities, history and philosophy, law, sociology and political sciences. These articles received a score by a large number of externally appointed referees in the context of the Italian research assessment exercise (VQR); similarly, journal scores were assigned in a panel-based independent assessment, which involved all academic journals in which Italian scholars have published, carried out under a different procedure. The score of an article is compared with that of the journal it is published in: more specifically, we first estimate an ordered probit model, assessing the probability for a paper of receiving a higher score, the higher the score of the journal; in a second step, we concentrate on the top papers, evaluating the probability of a paper receiving an excellent score having been published in a top-rated journal. In doing so, we control for a number of characteristics of the paper and its author, including the language of publication, the scientific field and its size, the age of the author and the academic status. We add to the literature on journal classification by providing for the first time a large scale test of the robustness of expert-based classification. PMID:26309731

  12. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses. PMID:18375029

  13. A survey of the state-of-the-art and focused research in range systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, Yao; Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    In this one-year renewal of NASA Contract No. 2-304, basic research, development, and implementation in the areas of modern estimation algorithms and digital communication systems have been performed. In the first area, basic study on the conversion of general classes of practical signal processing algorithms into systolic array algorithms is considered, producing four publications. Also studied were the finite word length effects and convergence rates of lattice algorithms, producing two publications. In the second area of study, the use of efficient importance sampling simulation technique for the evaluation of digital communication system performances were studied, producing two publications.

  14. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium. PMID:26165565

  15. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; Mcdougall, Graham J.; Fick, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative’s purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium. PMID:26165565

  16. Focus on China: should clinicians engage in research? and lessons from other countries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Winston, Gavin P.; Zhao, Hai-Tao; Oei, Edwin H.G.; Ai, Qiyong; Loffroy, Romaric; Lin, Ting; Shen, Yaxing; Ng, Chin K.; Liu, Hua; Civelek, A. Cahid; Han, Zhijun; He, Yong-Ming; Ji, Ling-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Following tremendous economic progress, society in China is also undergoing fundamental changes, as is the healthcare system. Currently the training of Chinese young doctors and their future work placement are all undergoing re-structuring. We compiled some thoughts and opinions on the topic of ‘should clinicians in China engage in research?’, and publish them as a special report in this issue of Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery (QIMS). The contributors included some editorial members of this journal, and a few personal friends. Besides a few minor linguistic corrections, opinions from the contributors have not been edited, as we want authors’ to write their own independent views. However, it is possible there is a selection bias of the contributors of this paper; more likely those who are interested in the medical research are selected and therefore the views of the contributors may not be generalizable. To compare the structure and funding of China with other countries, authors from UK, The Netherlands, France, and USA are also invited. PMID:25392826

  17. Mechanisms of vitamin E regulation: research over the past decade and focus on the future.

    PubMed

    Parks, E; Traber, M G

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the developments in human vitamin E research since 1990. New methodologies such as the use of stable isotopes, advances in vitamin E measurements, and isolation and cloning of specific alpha-tocopherol binding proteins have facilitated investigation of alpha-tocopherol absorption, metabolism, and transport in humans in vivo. Changes in food production in the United States and dietary intake impacted vitamin E availability and intake. Epidemiologic and therapeutic studies have pointed to its role in disease prevention and in healing processes. Specific molecular functions of alpha-tocopherol have been the most recent and surprising new findings and are an important area for future experimentation. Given the aging of the American population and the potential role for alpha-tocopherol in preventive medicine, the study of the molecular functions of vitamin E promises to provide some of the most exciting discoveries of the next decade. PMID:11229354

  18. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393

  19. Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393

  20. English Water Meadows: historic relics or focus for environmental management and inter-disciplinary research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Hadrian

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated water meadows are found across Europe, from southern Scandinavia to Spain and in the Alpine regions and Italy. While the practice of engineering 'floated' meadow land for deliberate irrigation on hillsides and floodplains is widespread and ancient, since about 1600 AD the practice was widely adopted on floodplains in southern England where they improved the timing and productivity of grazing land and produced hay crops. They also became a part of English consciousness through art and literature. To some, water meadows are a relic of an agrarian past, to others they are the object of a range of foci for conservation, education, sustainable grass production, community engagement and recent research suggests water returned from meadow irrigation is beneficial to river water quality. Historically floodplain 'bedwork' water meadows grew from, and were integral in, the farming system of 'Wessex' involving sheep which produced dung for arable land and later supporting dairy and beef production, as well as hay. Where systems remain, this is largely due to the whim of individuals, the outcome of agri-environmental schemes. Water meadows may be managed by public, voluntary or private sector bodies. What is needed is a fresh look at how land owners, or communities, might micro-target them for heritage, habitat and grassland management. There are therefore interesting questions concerning their future: Who might invest in their restoration and maintenance? How might they be integrated into commercial farming? Are they of sufficient interest to restore en masse to become (once more) a major feature of the English chalk stream valleys? Do they provide a way into academic and public perception, combining environmental science, history, cultural heritage and environmental management? How might restoration and management become vehicles for public engagement? While each of these questions represents a major topic for discussion, this paper is an attempt to consolidate what we know and frame such questions. It is concluded that these curious, but once widespread features of English floodplains do in reality provide for a range of interests. These include: outside laboratories for floodplain process research, an arena for democratic public engagement and for the spread of social learning and (with co-productive policy development in mind) sustainable conservation practice for soil, water and agriculture for this and for subsequent generations. Key words: Water meadows, irrigation, chalk valleys, landscape, habitat diversification, public participation, floodplain management Selected Publications Cook, H.F., Cutting, R.L. and Valsami-Jones, E. (in press). Impacts of meadow irrigation on temperature, oxygen, phosphorus and sediment relations for a river J Flood Risk Management Cook, H., Inman, A. (2012). The voluntary sector and conservation for England: Achievements, expanding roles and uncertain future J. Env.Man.112 (2012) 170-177. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.013 Cook, H.F., D. Benson, A. Inman, A. Jordan and L. Smith (2012). Community-based catchment management groups in England and Wales extent, roles and influences. Water and Environment Journal 26 (1) 47-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2011.00262.x Cook, H.F.(2007). Soil Nutrient and Sediment Dynamics on the Kentish Stour. Water and Environmental Journal 21 (2007) 173-181 Cook, H.F.(2010). Floodplain agricultural systems: functionality, heritage and conservation Journal of Flood Risk Management 3, 1-9 DOI:10.1111/j.1753-318X.2010.01069.x Cook, H.F. and T. Williamson (eds.) (2007): Water Meadows: History, Ecology and Conservation Windgather Press, 152 pp. Stearne, K. & Cook H.(2013). Water Meadow Management in Wessex: Dynamics of Change from 1800 to the Present Day, Landscape Research, DOI: 10.1080/01426397.2013.818109

  1. Supporting Research at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Through Focused Education and Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F.; Closs, J.

    2003-12-01

    NASA research scientists work closely with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI) personnel at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on a large variety of education and public outreach (E/PO) initiatives. This work includes assistance in conceptualizing E/PO plans, then carrying through in the development of materials, publication, cataloging, warehousing, and product distribution. For instance, outreach efforts on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura-still in development-EOS missions, as well as planetary and visualization programs, have been coordinated by SSAI employees. E/PO support includes convening and taking part in sessions at professional meetings and workshops. Also included is the coordination of exhibits at professional meetings such as the AGU, AAAS, AMS and educational meetings such as the National Science Teachers Association. Other E/PO efforts include the development and staffing of booths; arranges for booth space and furnishings; shipping of exhibition materials and products; assembling, stocking, and disassembling of booths. E/PO personnel work with organizations external to NASA such as the Smithsonian museum, Library of Congress, U.S. Geological Survey, and associations or societies such as the AGU, American Chemical Society, and National Science Teachers Association to develop products and programs that enhance NASA mission E/PO efforts or to provide NASA information for use in their programs. At GSFC, E/PO personnel coordinate the efforts of the education and public outreach sub-committees in support of the Space and Earth Sciences Data Analysis (SESDA) contract within the GSFC Earth Sciences Directorate. The committee acts as a forum for improving communication and coordination among related Earth science education projects, and strives to unify the representation of these programs among the science and education communities. To facilitate these goals a Goddard Earth Sciences Directorate Education and Outreach Portal has been developed to provide a repository and clearinghouse for upcoming education events, and a speaker's bureau. The committees are planning a series of workshops in the near future to expand participation, and further leverage respective Earth science education and outreach efforts through cooperative work with other NASA centers. Founded in 1977 as a minority, women-owned business, SSAI's staff includes a large and varied pool of scientists, E/PO employees covering a broad range of training and talents. SSAI provides support on a number of NASA related projects at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland ranging from science research to data acquisition, storage, and distribution.

  2. An Engine Research Program Focused on Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Wyzykowski, John; Chiapetta, Santo; Adamczyk, John

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive test program was performed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland Ohio using a highly instrumented Pratt and Whitney Canada PW 545 turbofan engine. A key objective of this program was the development of a high-altitude database on small, high-bypass ratio engine performance and operability. In particular, the program documents the impact of altitude (Reynolds Number) on the aero-performance of the low-pressure turbine (fan turbine). A second objective was to assess the ability of a state-of-the-art CFD code to predict the effect of Reynolds number on the efficiency of the low-pressure turbine. CFD simulation performed prior and after the engine tests will be presented and discussed. Key findings are the ability of a state-of-the art CFD code to accurately predict the impact of Reynolds Number on the efficiency and flow capacity of the low-pressure turbine. In addition the CFD simulations showed the turbulent intensity exiting the low-pressure turbine to be high (9%). The level is consistent with measurements taken within an engine.

  3. A guide to writing a scientific paper: a focus on high school through graduate level student research.

    PubMed

    Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described. PMID:23094692

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species, Vascular Noxs, and Hypertension: Focus on Translational and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Montezano, Augusto C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that are important in physiological processes, including host defense, aging, and cellular homeostasis. Increased ROS bioavailability and altered redox signaling (oxidative stress) have been implicated in the onset and/or progression of chronic diseases, including hypertension. Recent Advances: Although oxidative stress may not be the only cause of hypertension, it amplifies blood pressure elevation in the presence of other pro-hypertensive factors, such as salt loading, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and sympathetic hyperactivity, at least in experimental models. A major source for ROS in the cardiovascular-renal system is a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxs), including the prototypic Nox2-based Nox, and Nox family members: Nox1, Nox4, and Nox5. Critical Issues: Although extensive experimental data support a role for increased ROS levels and altered redox signaling in the pathogenesis of hypertension, the role in clinical hypertension is unclear, as a direct causative role of ROS in blood pressure elevation has yet to be demonstrated in humans. Nevertheless, what is becoming increasingly evident is that abnormal ROS regulation and aberrant signaling through redox-sensitive pathways are important in the pathophysiological processes which is associated with vascular injury and target-organ damage in hypertension. Future Directions: There is a paucity of clinical information related to the mechanisms of oxidative stress and blood pressure elevation, and a few assays accurately measure ROS directly in patients. Such further ROS research is needed in humans and in the development of adequately validated analytical methods to accurately assess oxidative stress in the clinic. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 164–182. PMID:23600794

  5. Understanding the role of gender in body image research settings: participant gender preferences for researchers and co-participants in interviews, focus groups and interventions.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Drummond, Murray

    2013-09-01

    Participant gender preferences for body image researchers, interventionists and focus group and intervention co-participants have been largely ignored, despite recognition that such characteristics can influence the nature and quality of data collected and intervention effects. To address this, Australian women (n=505) and men (n=220) completed a questionnaire about their preferences for interviewers and focus group facilitators, for teachers delivering school-based interventions, and for co-participants in these settings. Women predominantly preferred female interviewers and teachers, and mixed-sex co-participants, but most had no preference for focus group facilitators. Body dissatisfied women were more likely to prefer female researchers and single-sex co-participants. Most men did not have specific preferences, however, body dissatisfied men were more likely to report a gender preference for interviewers and teachers. Professional capabilities, personal qualities and appearance were regarded as important researcher characteristics. These findings have important implications for body image research, particularly among high-risk groups. PMID:23876877

  6. Library Research, Luxury or Necessity? Comments on the Original Article by Carmel Maguire, "Library Research, Luxury or Necessity?" "The Australian Library Journal", 22 No. 4: 152-157, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    I am grateful to the Editor for giving me excuse to delve into the fossil record. I confidently hope that my article was written before most of The Australian Library Journal's present readership was born. I am happy to stay with my pragmatic attempt at a definition of research as an intensified search undertaken with the hope of finding something…

  7. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…

  8. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way

  9. Correlation between serum 25(OH)D values and lupus disease activity: an original article and a systematic review with meta-analysis focusing on serum VitD confounders.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Nabavi, N; Salehi, M

    2014-10-01

    Notwithstanding that several original studies and some systematic reviews have been undertaken on the subject "correlation between serum values of vitamin D (VitD) and lupus disease activity," there is still no consensus on the importance of sectional measurement of serum VitD in the prediction of disease activity and important confounders in estimation of serum VitD. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched from 1995 to 2013. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and/or text words were used: "Vitamin D" OR "25OHD" OR "25(OH)D" combined with "systemic lupus erythematosus" OR "lupus" OR "SLE." References cited in the identified articles were also manually searched. Human studies in any language were included. Original research on this topic was also carried out on 82 lupus patients, considering important VitD confounders according to our systematic review and we included them in the meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies were registered for this study. Only 11 of these pointed to this correlation by Pearson test. The pooled Pearson correlation (r) of associations between disease activity and VitD was -0.365 (95% CI: -0.536, -0.165) with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.001 I (2 )= 93%). Sensitivity analysis resulted in no significant differences. The most important adjustable confounders considered by researchers were drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and supplementary VitD, body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria or renal function. Only proteinuria was reported to influence VitD concentration strongly. BMI was another probable influencing factor. Our original research presented no correlation between VitD and SLEDAI (p = 0.68, r s = 0.003). This meta-analysis demonstrated that most of the studies on the relationship between VitD and lupus disease activity that found no correlation did not present the details of the statistics. However, analyzing 11 studies, most of which found a reverse correlation and reported it in detail, and our study found a weak reverse correlation between those two items. Systematic review of confounders showed that BMI, medications and kidney involvement were the most remarkable ones reported by researchers. PMID:24961748

  10. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  11. Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault segmentation in the SCSZ. CG will also provide educational materials and resources to the public regarding environmental restoration and earthquake hazards. All research conducted through CG will be published to a publicly accessible digital archive. Education and outreach activities include the student grant program, a digital public archive (maps, reports, geospatial data, guidebooks, MS theses, etc), web-based resources, bi-monthly publications, and annual reports. We invite all types of earth scientists to help support student field research and join us in promoting collaboration, communication, and cooperation with Cascadia GeoSciences.

  12. Integrated research into the nanoparticle-protein corona: a new focus for safe, sustainable and equitable development of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; White, John; Matthaei, Klaus I

    2008-12-01

    Much contemporary nanotoxicology, nanotherapeutic and nanoregulatory research has been characterized by a focus on investigating how delivery of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to cells is dictated primarily by components of the ENP surface. An alternative model, some implications of which are discussed here, begins with fundamental physicochemical research into the interaction of a dynamic nanoparticle-protein corona (NPC) with biological systems. The proposed new model also requires, however, that any such fresh NPC physicochemical research approach should involve integration and targeted collaboration from the earliest stages with nanotoxicology, nanotherapeutics and nanoregulatory expertise. The justification for this integrated approach, we argue, relates not just to efficiency and promotion of innovation but to an acknowledgement that public-funded basic physicochemical research in particular should now be accepted to incorporate strong higher order public-goods elements from its inception, not merely after product development at the technology-transfer stage. Issues, such as university-research cooperation, commercialization and intellectual property protection, safety and cost-effectiveness regulatory assessment, as well as technology transfer should not be viewed as second tier considerations, even in a 'blue sky' NPC basic research agenda. PMID:19025459

  13. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal practice presentation session. At the end of the six week program, students present to all SARP program focus groups, mentors, professors, and, in addition, NSERC and NASA airborne science and education program directors and personnel.

  14. Challenges and rewards of involving community in research: an overview of the "Focus on Kids" HIV Risk Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, J; Ricardo, I; Stanton, B; Black, M; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L

    1996-08-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues to be a significant concern for adolescents, especially in minority populations. There is a scarcity of knowledge of the cultural context of sexual behavior in this age group and the influences that lead to early initiation of sex and unsafe sex. Few efforts targeting young adolescents have been community based, although there has been an increased awareness of the need for such research and intervention programs. Four key processes have been defined in gaining community participation in health education programs: (a) defining the community and reaching the community; (b) recognizing tensions among service, research, and community participation; (c) involving community residents; and (d) considering cultural differences in a community. These processes are used to describe the "Focus on Kids" project, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention that resulted in significant increases in condom use demonstrated by a randomized controlled trial. PMID:8841821

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 22: Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is the creation of a generally accepted, systematically developed and implemented, but user focused, research agenda for the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) and the Technical Information Panel (TIP) member countries. Information use seldom exists as an isolated incident. Information use usually takes place within organizational and interpersonal contexts. Therefore, it should not be studied in isolation, but rather in an holistic environment. Once implemented, this research agenda could be completed within 3 to 5 years. The results would be generalizable to AGARD member nations, would form the basis for the development of theory based practice, and would form a significant body of knowledge that can be used by AGARD information professionals for policy, practice, product, and systems development.

  16. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. PMID:24894063

  17. SPICE-NIRS Microbeam: a focused vertical system for proton irradiation of a single cell for radiobiological research

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Suya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Alisa; Shiomi, Naoko; Kodama, Kumiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Isono, Mayu; Hieda, Kotaro; Uchihori, Yukio; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate the nuclei of adhesive mammalian cells with a defined number of 3.4 MeV protons. The approximately 2-μm diameter proton beam is focused with a magnetic quadrupole triplet lens and traverses the cells contained in dishes from bottom to top. All procedures for irradiation, such as cell image capturing, cell recognition and position calculation, are automated. The most distinctive characteristic of the system is its stability and high throughput; i.e. 3000 cells in a 5 mm × 5 mm area in a single dish can be routinely irradiated by the 2-μm beam within 15 min (the maximum irradiation speed is 400 cells/min). The number of protons can be set as low as one, at a precision measured by CR-39 detectors to be 99.0%. A variety of targeting modes such as fractional population targeting mode, multi-position targeting mode for nucleus irradiation and cytoplasm targeting mode are available. As an example of multi-position targeting irradiation of mammalian cells, five fluorescent spots in a cell nucleus were demonstrated using the γ-H2AX immune-staining technique. The SPICE performance modes described in this paper are in routine use. SPICE is a joint-use research facility of NIRS and its beam times are distributed for collaborative research. PMID:23287773

  18. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal. PMID:26245439

  19. A focused strategic plan for outcomes evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stonestreet, J S; Prevost, S S

    1997-09-01

    This article describes how organizations devise strategic directions. The process of focused strategic or hoshin planning is introduced and reviewed. This model illustrates how a nursing department planned a focused strategic direction for outcomes evaluation. This discussion includes the dedication of resources, the focusing of research priorities and a summary of the outcomes evaluation program, and the method used for implementation of the priorities. Finally, benefits of both the focused planning process and the outcomes evaluation program are discussed. PMID:9254644

  20. Using a creativity-focused science program to foster general creativity in young children: A teacher action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani

    The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful learning experiences, experiential learning opportunities, critical thinking and problem solving activities, and an emphasis on freedom, independence, and autonomy on the part of the learner. These elements, when combined with an integrated science curriculum, can foster creativity in young children.

  1. Health Services Research and Health Economy – Quality Care Training in Gynaecology, with Focus On Gynaecological Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lux, M. P.; Fasching, P. A.; Loehberg, C. R.; Jud, S. M.; Schrauder, M. G.; Bani, M. R.; Thiel, F. C.; Hack, C. C.; Hildebrandt, T.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    In the era of cost increases and reduced resources in the German healthcare system, the value of health services research and health economics is increasing more and more. Health services research attempts to develop concepts for the most effective ways to organise, manage, finance and deliver high-quality care and evaluates the implementation of these concepts with regard to daily routine conditions. Goals are the assessment of benefits and the economic advantages and disadvantages of new and established diagnostic methods, drugs and vaccines. Regarding these goals, it is clear that health services research goes hand in hand with health economics, which evaluates the benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in relation to the costs. Both scientific fields have focus principally on gynaecology and particularly on gynaecological oncology in Germany, as can be seen by numerous publications. These present several advantages compared with clinical trials – they uncover gaps in health care, question the material, staffing and consequently the financial resources required and they allow the estimation of value and the comparison of different innovations to identify the best options for our patients. PMID:26640282

  2. Focus. Volume 26, Number 2, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Emma, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of "Focus" is to provide coverage of poverty-related research, events, and issues, and to acquaint a large audience with the work of the Institute for Research on Poverty by means of short essays on selected pieces of research. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Changing poverty and changing antipoverty policies (Maria…

  3. Focus. Volume 27, Number 2, Winter 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Emma, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Focus" is to provide coverage of poverty-related research, events, and issues, and to acquaint a large audience with the work of the Institute for Research on Poverty by means of short essays on selected pieces of research. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Progress toward Improving the U.S. Poverty Measure:…

  4. Focus. Volume 27, Number 2, Winter 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Emma, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Focus" is to provide coverage of poverty-related research, events, and issues, and to acquaint a large audience with the work of the Institute for Research on Poverty by means of short essays on selected pieces of research. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Progress toward Improving the U.S. Poverty Measure:

  5. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main outcome measures Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Results Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. PMID:26888726

  6. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    PubMed

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. PMID:25420669

  7. Database citation in full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services. PMID:23734176

  8. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…

  9. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap

  10. A Review and Critique of Rural Development Research in the Land-Grant System Since 1970--with Focus upon the South. SRDC Series 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Voth, Donald E.

    An overview of rural development research in the United States Department of Agriculture's land grant environment focuses on southern 1862 and 1890 institutions. Although important to agricultural experiment stations, rural development research has received limited funding. A heterogeneous research program including human resources development,…

  11. Using a Research Article to Foster Moral Reflection and Global Awareness in Teaching about Religion and Politics, Theory Testing, and Democracy in the Muslim World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy J.; Robinson, Robert V.

    2006-01-01

    Encouraging students to reflect on their ethical principles and to develop a global outlook have been identified as key pedagogical goals in recent national reports on higher education. This article shows how instructors can use a current article from the "American Sociological Review (ASR)" to facilitate moral reflection and global awareness. The

  12. Using a Research Article to Foster Moral Reflection and Global Awareness in Teaching about Religion and Politics, Theory Testing, and Democracy in the Muslim World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy J.; Robinson, Robert V.

    2006-01-01

    Encouraging students to reflect on their ethical principles and to develop a global outlook have been identified as key pedagogical goals in recent national reports on higher education. This article shows how instructors can use a current article from the "American Sociological Review (ASR)" to facilitate moral reflection and global awareness. The…

  13. The National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) in Germany: An Overview of Design, Research Options and Access, with a Focus on Lower-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strietholt, Rolf; Naujokat, Kerstin; Mai, Tobias; Kretschmer, Sara; Jarsinski, Stephan; Goy, Martin; Frahm, Sarah; Kanders, Michael; Bos, Wilfried; Blatt, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). This German longitudinal study produces a vast amount of data for the scientific community, and researchers all around Europe are invited to use the data to address various research questions empirically. Therefore, the authors provide information about the purpose as well as the…

  14. Principles for defining adverse events in behavioral intervention research: lessons from a family-focused adolescent drug abuse trial

    PubMed Central

    Horigian, Viviana E; Robbins, Michael S; Dominguez, Roberto; Ucha, Jessica; Rosa, Carmen L

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioral intervention research has lagged behind biomedical research in developing principles for defining, categorizing, identifying, reporting, and monitoring adverse events and unanticipated problems. Purpose In this article we present a set of principles for defining adverse events and how they were applied in a large national multi-site family therapy study for substance-using adolescents, The Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) Effectiveness Study. Methods The BSFT Effectiveness study tested how BSFT compares to Treatment as Usual (TAU) for the treatment of drug-abusing adolescents. During protocol development, experts in the BSFT intervention, medical safety officers, ethicists and senior investigators defined the procedures for identifying, tracking and reporting adverse events for drug using adolescents as well as their family members. During this process the team identified five key guiding principles. Results The five guiding principles that were used for defining adverse events in this behavioral trial were that that the adverse events should be validated and plausible, and that monitoring systems should assess relatedness, be systematic, and are a shared responsibility. The following non-serious adverse events were identified: arrest, school suspension and drop out, runaway, kicked out of home and violence. The serious adverse events in this study for the identified adolescent participant and all other consented family members were physical or sexual abuse, suicidal behavior, homicidal behavior, hospitalization (drug related or psychiatric related only) and death. The methods used in categorizing, identifying and reporting adverse events in the BSFT trial are outlined. More than 50% of the adolescent population (277/481 = 57.5 %) experienced an adverse event during the trial. Family members experienced less adverse events, (61/1338 = 4.5%). The most common event for the adolescent group was arrest (164/277= 59.2%), followed by school suspension/dropout (143/277 = 51.6%), and runaway (79/277= 28.5 %). For the family member group, the most common event was violence (25/61 = 40.9%) followed by arrest (13/61 = 21.3%). There was a significant difference in the presence of adverse events in family members that were randomized to BSFT 44/721 (6.1%) when compared to Treatment as Usual 17/617 (2.8%) (p = 0.004). A probable explanation for this is that there were more opportunities to identify adverse events for family members assigned to BSFT because family members attended therapy sessions. This difference may also represent the risk for family members that participate in an evidence-based family intervention like BSFT. Limitations The utility of the principles outside of the BSFT trial is unknown. Conclusions Based on the events reported in this trial, the efforts for monitoring and categorizing adverse events appeared justified and appropriate. The strategies and principles described in this paper may be useful for those developing safety plans for behavioral intervention research, and to family therapy researchers for assessing the safety of behavioral family interventions. PMID:20156957

  15. Environmental Flux and Locally Focused College Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepley, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews insights from place-based education and ecological models of writing to show how these theories can work together to shape locally focused composition pedagogies. From place-based education, the researcher takes an emphasis on physical specificity, and from ecological models of writing, the researcher takes an emphasis on…

  16. EPA's new research focus on ecosystem services, with a study of biofuels expansion in the Midwestern U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Ecological Research Program is initiating new research to characterize ecosystem services and to enable their routine consideration in environmental management and policy. Research will be organized around two foci: ecosystem type (wetlands and coral reefs will be studied) ...

  17. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of…

  18. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of

  19. Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Research Consortium from the Perspective of Academics and Community Service Providers Focused on Child Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivik, Jayne R.; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    A process evaluation of a consortium of academic researchers and community-based service providers focused on the health and well-being of children and families provides empirical and practice-based evidence of those factors important for community-based participatory research (CBPR). This study draws on quantitative ratings of 33 factors

  20. Research of the on-orbit self-adaptive focusing technology base on the configurational entropy for high resolution satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linghua

    Complex emission state, dynamic orbit space environment, and the imaging requirement of high resolution up to 0.1" for low-contrast targets, make “on-orbit automatic focusing technique" become one of the key technique of the high quality image acquisition for high resolution satellites, especially for long focal length and the large aperture optical remote sensors. Based on the minimum entropy auto-focus (AF) theory, this paper proposed an on-orbit automatic focusing method of configurational entropy criterion for high resolution satellites. The image processing efficiency can be increased by begin{math} 2^2^k times using such technique. On-orbit automatic focusing technique base on configurational entropy reduces the times of focusing movement, it has the character of fast self-adaptive AF speed, high precision, and it can meet the space-exploration acquirement of low-contrast targets.