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Sample records for research catchment north

  1. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  2. Hydro-climatic control of stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) across northern catchments within the North-Watch program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Seibert, Jan; Soulsby, Chris; Carey, Sean; Buttle, Jim; McDonnell, Jeff; McGuire, Kevin; Caissie, Daniel; Shanley, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in understanding the regulating mechanisms of surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) the last decade. A majority of this recent work has been based on individual well characterized research catchments or on regional synoptic datasets combined with readily available landscape and climatic variables. However, as the production and transport of DOC primarily is a function of hydro-climatic conditions a better description of catchment hydrological functioning across large geographic regions would be favorable for moving the mechanistic understanding forward. To do this we report from a first assessment of catchment DOC within the international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch (http://www.abdn.ac.uk/northwatch/). North-Watch includes long-term research catchments ranging from northern temperate regions to the boreal and sub-arctic biomes with the aim to better understand the variable hydrological and biogeochemical responses in Northern catchments to climate change. The North-Watch catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the US (Sleepers River and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). The annual average DOC concentration in the nine catchments investigated were directly linked to hydro-climatic influences (e.g. temperature, water storage) and landscape configuration. In general, the DOC concentration followed a parabolic shape with temperature, where the highest concentrations were found in the boreal and near boreal sites and with the lowest concentrations in the temperate and sub-arctic catchments. The between catchment variability in DOC concentration could also be explained by catchment water storage and amount of wetlands in the catchment. Whereas there is a mechanistic link between long-term climatic conditions and the areal coverage of wetlands, the total catchment storage of water is more strongly linked to topography, parent material

  3. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  4. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Peach, D.; Binley, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins - the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater quality for several

  5. Participatory planning in river catchments, an innovative toolkit tested in Southern Africa and North West England.

    PubMed

    Tippett, J

    2005-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) offers an unparalleled opportunity for improving river basin management. Active participation is essential for its delivery. "End-of-pipe" solutions will not deliver the improvements needed to achieve its ambitious goals. This research tested DesignWays, a toolkit for participatory planning, as a mechanism for maximizing the long-term social and environmental benefits of such stakeholder and community participation. It examined the emerging role of "planning for sustainability" in the context of river catchments. Sustainable management of water requires integration, and recognition of interconnections between systems at different levels of scale. This is an endeavour in which systems thinking provides useful tools. The development of DesignWays was a conscious attempt to embed 'new paradigm' living systems metaphors into a practical planning tool. This paper begins with a description of DesignWays and its development in Southern Africa. An outline of the context of the action research in North-West England is followed by a description of the stages of the process, with highlights of the outcomes. This research had two major outcomes: a contribution to theory through an in-depth exploration of the theoretical basis of participatory, ecologically informed design; and a contribution to practice through investigating DesignWays' potential to meet key challenges of the WFD. This research points to the importance of understanding participatory planning as a societal process, aiming to make the process engaging and meaningful. It has pointed to the need to see participatory planning and education for sustainability as an integrated process. It demonstrated the benefits of an iterative process in which planning at the landscape level of scale informs, and is informed by, work at the site level. It has shown that an approach consistent with a living systems paradigm can contribute to the development of more integrated

  6. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  7. Combining stable isotopes and hydrometric data to investigate the stormflow response of a Mediterranean mountain catchment (Vallcebre Research Catchments, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latron, Jérôme; Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Llorens, Pilar; Gallart, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    The hydrological behaviour of Mediterranean mountain catchments has been investigated in the last two decades in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) using a twofold approach based on hydrometric measurements and modelling. Results obtained have shown the complexity of the rainfall-runoff relationship as well as the strong non-linearity of the catchment's hydrological response. The hydrological behaviour of the catchments is broadly similar to that observed in more humid regions during wet periods. On the contrary, during dry periods or during wetting up transitions, some runoff generation processes characteristic of humid conditions are temporarily absent, activating a different combination of hydrological processes. Water stable isotopes have been used in the last 3 years for determining the relative contribution of event and pre-event water in the stormflow response, with the aim of improving the understanding of the hydrological behaviour of these catchments. Even if the use of stable isotopes in seasonal Mediterranean catchments has been relatively limited so far compared to humid temperate catchments, results obtained in the Vallcebre Research Catchments showed that the information they provide was very helpful, when used in combination with detailed hydrometric data. Results obtained using stable isotopes were generally in line with previous finding in these catchments, even if the contribution of pre-event water was higher than expected in some conditions. Using a set of 10 stormflow events with different characteristics (antecedent conditions, rainfall depth and intensity, stormflow coefficient), two components hydrograph separations indicated that pre-event water accounted for 30% to almost 100% of the total runoff. The contribution of pre-event water depended more on rainfall characteristics than on antecedent wetness conditions. Moreover, a strong relationship was observed between the new water contribution and the suspended

  8. A decision support process to compare riparian revegetation options in Scheu Creek catchment in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M E; Harrison, S R

    2001-05-01

    While riparin vegetation can play a major role in protecting land, water and natural habitat in catchments, there are high costs associated with tree planting and establishment and in diverting land from cropping. The distribution of costs and benefits of riparian revegetation creates conflicts in the objectives of various stakeholder groups. Multicriteria analysis provides an appropriate tool to evaluate alternative riparian revegetation options, and to accommodate the conflicting views of various stakeholder groups. This paper discusses an application of multicriteria analysis in an evaluation of riparian revegetation policy options for Scheu Creek, a small sub-catchment in the Johnstone River catchment in north Queensland, Australia. Clear differences are found in the rankings of revegetation options for different stakeholder groups with respect to environmental, social and economic impacts. Implementation of a revegetation option will involve considerable cost for landholders for the benefits of society. Queensland legislation does not provide a means to require farmers to implement riparian revegetation, hence the need for subsidies, tax incentives and moral suasion. PMID:11400460

  9. Decadal changes in the frequency of major floods in near-natural catchments across North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Hannaford, Jamie; Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Fleig, Anne; Stahl, Kerstin; Renard, Benjamin; Korhonen, Johanna; Murphy, Conor; Crochet, Philippe; Wilson, Donna; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    Recent major floods in North America and Europe have received much press, with some concluding that these floods are more frequent in recent years as a result of anthropogenic warming. There has therefore been considerable scientific effort invested in establishing whether observed flood records show evidence of trends or variability in flood frequency, and to determine whether these patterns can be linked to climatic changes. However, the river catchments used in many published studies are influenced by direct human alteration such as reservoir regulation and urbanisation, which can confound the interpretation of climate-driven variability. Furthermore, a majority of previous studies have analysed changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at a national scale. Few studies are known that have analysed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year floods) on a continental scale. To fill this research gap, the current study is analysing flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges across a large study domain embracing North America and much of Europe. RHNs comprise gauging stations with minimally disturbed catchment conditions, which have a near-natural flow regime and provide good quality data; RHN analyses thus allow hydro-climatic variability to be distinguished from direct artificial disturbances or data inhomogeneities. One of the key innovations in this study is the definition of an RHN-like network on a continental scale. The network incorporates existing, well-established RHNs in Canada, the US, the UK, Ireland and Norway, alongside RHN-like catchments from Europe (France, Switzerland, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland), which have been incorporated in the network following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status of candidate gauges through consultation with local experts. As the aim of the study is to examine long-term variability in the number of major floods, annual exceedances of 25-, 50-, and 100-year

  10. Hydrologic responses of a tropical catchment in Thailand and two temperate/cold catchments in north America to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, T.Y.; Ahmad, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The hydrologic impact or sensitivities of three medium-sized catchments to global warming, one of tropical climate in Northern Thailand and two of temperate climate in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins of California, were investigated.

  11. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Brodie, J; Fraser, G; Bushell, J J; Holloway, C H; Faithful, J W; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    of ground cover are maintained. In contrast, sediment and nutrient loss under grazing on more erodable land types is cause for serious concern. Long-term empirical research and monitoring will be essential to quantify the impacts of changed land management on water quality in the spatially and temporally variable Burdekin River catchment. PMID:15757706

  12. Linking the runoff response at micro-plot and catchment scale following wildfire and terracing, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Rial-Rivas, María E.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio A.; Faria, Sílvia R.; Varela, María E. T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are known as one of the principal natural hazards affecting the Mediterranean region. This includes Portugal, where wildfires have affected some 100.000 ha of rural lands each year. The effects of wildfires on runoff generation and/or the associated soil (fertility) losses have been studied in Portugal for more than two decades. Some of these studies have reported strong and sometimes extreme hydrological responses in recently burnt areas. Forestry operations in such areas have increasingly come to include bench terracing in preparation of new eucalypt plantations. The hydrological impacts of bench terracing, however, have received little research attention so far and the few existing publications are limited to small spatial scales. The construction of terraces is commonly considered an effective practice for soil conservation on steep slopes, having been applied by mankind since early history. Nonetheless, the present authors have measured high rates of splash as well as inter-rill erosion on recently constructed terraces, and have regularly observed rill formation, including on forest tracks which typically constitute an extensive network in such bench terraced plantations. The present study was carried out in a 29-ha forest catchment in north-central Portugal that was burnt by a wildfire during the summer of 2010, logged during early winter 2010/11, and then bench terraced with bulldozers during late winter 2011, some 6 months after the wildfire. The catchment outlet was instrumented immediately after the fire with an automatic hydrometric station comprising two subsequent flumes with maximum discharge capacities of 120 and 1700 l sec-1. Within the catchment, rainfall was measured using several automatic and storage gauges and overland flow was monitored on two contrasting slopes using 3 micro-plots of approximately 0.25m2 on each slope.Overland flow was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals during the hydrological years of 2010/11 and 2011/12, i

  13. Assessing the Age of Particulate Organic Matter Exported from a Temperate Rainforest Catchment of the North American Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Ingalls, A. E.; Santos, G.; Keil, R. G.; Wefferling, L.; Jones, A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although temperate rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast contain a small proportion of the world's forests, they contain some of the highest densities of biomass of any terrestrial system, and they store large quantities of carbon in soil. Understanding the residence time of organic carbon in these watersheds is of ecological significance. Given that rivers can mobilize sediment (and associated carbon) from across the catchment, carefully deciphering the organic signatures found within riverine particles can be a powerful tool to inform our understanding of carbon cycling catchment-wide. Here we examine the lignin phenol content (lignin is a biomarker unique to vascular plants) and the radiocarbon age (Δ14C) of fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC) exported by the Queets River of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula over the course of one year, targeting winter storm events. This mountainous catchment is one of the largest and most pristine found on the Olympic Peninsula. The Δ14C of FPOC was quantified for each of the twelve sampling events, whereas the Δ14C of the individual lignin phenols was determined during a late-winter storm event. Sediments were enriched in lignin phenols at the end of the summer dry season and into the first storm of the fall, suggesting that surface soils were transported early on. The Δ14C of individual lignin phenols ranged from -161 to 26‰, with biomarkers for non-woody vegetation being most depleted. These results suggest that particulate lignin exported from temperate catchments is considerably aged, especially relative to the tropics. These findings are consistent with cool temperatures and abundant moisture limiting microbial decomposition, increasing the residence time of plant-derived organic carbon in temperate rainforests. We will compare the Δ14C content of lignin phenols to that of bulk organic matter to partition riverine FPOC amongst possible organic matter sources.

  14. Historical changes in the annual number of large floods in near-natural catchments across North America and Europe, 1931-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, Glenn; Whitfield, Paul; Hannaford, Jamie; Burn, Donald; Renard, Benjamin; Stahl, Kerstin; Fleig, Anne; Madsen, Henrik; Mediero, Luis; Korhonen, Johanna; Murphy, Conor; Crochet, Philippe; Wilson, Donna

    2014-05-01

    Previous investigations have analyzed historical changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at regional or national scales. These investigations often use catchments where streamflows have been influenced by human alterations such as reservoir regulation or urbanization. No known studies have analyzed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year return period floods) at a continental scale for near-natural catchments. To fill this research gap, this study analyzed flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges in North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland). RHNs are formally defined networks in several countries that comprise gauges with a natural or near-natural flow regime and that provide good quality data. Selected RHN-like gauges were included following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status through consultation with local experts. Some 1206 study gauges met near-natural and completeness criteria for 1961-2010 and 322 gauges met criteria for 1931-2010. Peak flows with recurrence intervals of 25, 50, and 100 years were estimated using the generalized extreme-value distribution and L-moments, and peak flows at each gauge that exceeded these flood thresholds in each year were compiled. Continental and regional trends over time in the annual number of large floods, including groups differentiated by catchment size and major Köppen-Geiger climate group, are being computed and will be presented at EGU. Plots will also show the decadal variability in the annual number of large floods. The unique dataset used for this study is an example of successful international collaboration on hydro-climatic data exchange, which is potentially a step towards establishing RHN or RHN-like networks and analyzing near-natural streamflows on a global scale.

  15. Predicting nutrient responses to mitigation at catchment to national scale: the UK research platform (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnes, P.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment of waters from land-based and atmospheric sources presents a significant management challenge, requiring effective stakeholder engagement and policy development, properly underpinned by robust scientific evidence. The challenge is complex, raising significant questions about the specific sources, apportionment and pathways that determine nutrient enrichment and the key priorities for effective management and policy intervention. This paper presents outputs from 4 major UK research programmes: the Defra Demonstration Test Catchments programme (DTC), the Environment Agency's Catchment Sensitive Farming monitoring and evaluation programme (CSF), Natural Resources Wales Welsh Catchment Initiative (WCI) and the NERC Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp). Funded to meet this challenge, they are delivering new understanding of the rates and sources of pollutant fluxes from land to water, their impacts on ecosystem goods and services, and likely trends under future climate and land use change from field to national scale. DTC, a 12m investment by the UK Government, has set up long-term, high resolution research platforms equipped with novel telemetered sensor networks to monitor stream ecosystem responses to on-farm mitigation measures at a representative scale for catchment management. Ecosystem structural and functional responses and bulk hydrochemistry are also being monitored using standard protocols. CSF has set up long-term, enhanced monitoring in 8 priority catchments, with monthly monitoring in a further 72 English catchments and 6 Welsh priority catchments, to identify shifts in pollutant flux to waters resulting from mitigation measures in priority areas and farming sectors. CSF and WCI have contributed to >50 million of targeted farm improvements to date, representing a significant shift in farming practice. Each programme has generated detailed evidence on stream ecosystem responses to targeted mitigation. However, to provide

  16. Overview of North American stored product research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major locations for stored product research in North America are in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Recent personnel changes and research areas are reviewed. One of the pressing research areas in the U.S. is reducing the need for fumigations in flour mills and evaluating alte...

  17. Response of sap flow to environmental factors in the headwater catchment of Miyun Reservoir in subhumid North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Qiang; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Liu, Yaping; Xu, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Since the headwater catchment of Miyun Reservoir is the main drinking water conservation area of Beijing, its water cycle is of importance for the regional water resource. Transpiration is an important component of water cycle, which can be estimated by sap flow. In this study, the dynamics of sap flow and its response to environmental factors and relationship with leaf area index (LAI) were analyzed. The field study was conducted in the Xitaizi Experimental Catchment, located in the headwater catchment of Miyun Reservoir in subhumid North China. The Aspen (Populus davidiana) and Epinette (Larix gmelinii) are the two dominant tree species. Sap flow in 15 Aspen (Populus davidiana) trees was monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP) during the growing season of 2013 and 2014, and sap flow in another 3 Epinette (Larix gmelinii) trees was also monitored during September and October in 2014 for comparative analysis. Physiological and biometric parameters of the selected trees and the environmental factors, including meteorological variables, soil moisture content and groundwater table depth were measured. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD), variable of transpiration (VT) and reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) were calculated using the measured environmental factors. The LAI, which is used to characterize phenophase, was calculated using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI product (MCD15A3). Correlation analysis for daily sap flow and air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, VPD, VT and ET0 under different soil moisture and groundwater table depth conditions was performed. Diurnal course and hysteresis of sap flow were analyzed as a function of air temperature, solar radiation, VPD and VT on the typical sunny, cloudy and rainy days under different soil moisture conditions. Correlation analysis between daily sap flow and LAI showed that LAI and phenophase significantly influence sap flow and restrict

  18. Mechanisms to improve integrative research at the science-policy interface for sustainable catchment manageme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J. A.; Blackstock, K. L.; Haygarth, P. M.

    2009-04-01

    There is a need for greater levels of integration between researchers and policy makers to provide an evidence base that is transparent, integrated, and adaptive to support the complexities of sustainable catchment management. Opening up and closing down mechanisms are equally important in creating and establishing such an evidence base. We provide examples of both types based on our recent research and knowledge transfer activities at the science-policy interface. Through our coordination role for the UK government we provide opening up forums for researchers and government science and policy staff to learn about and assess the gaps and uncertainties of the evidence base. Closing down mechanisms are also vital to policy making on sustainable catchment management, in that they distil what is known and what is unknown. The diffuse pollution user manual provides a valuable tool for policy and catchment management staff to assess the potential effectiveness of different combinations of remedial diffuse pollution mitigation methods. We argue that it is important that opening up and closing down mechanisms are iteratively linked given the complexity and uncertainty of the science and policy cycles. Advances in integrative research at the science-policy interface are vital if there is to be a move to more deliberative policy making.

  19. Testing fine sediment connectivity hypotheses using fallout radionuclide tracers in a small catchment with badlands. Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain), results obtained during over 20 years showed that badlands are the primary sources of sediments to the drainage network. Parent lutitic rocks are weathered during winter producing regoliths, which are eroded from badland surfaces mainly during summer intense rainstorms. Even if the produced sediments are mainly fine, due to the ephemeral nature of summer runoff events most of them are deposited on the stream beds, where they may remain during some time (months to years). Within the MEDhyCON project, a fallout radionuclides (FRNs) tracing experiment (i.e., excess lead 210 (Pbx-210) and beryllium 7 (Be-7)) is being carried out in order to investigate sediment connectivity. A simplified Pbx-210 balance model on badland surfaces suggested a seasonal sawtooth-like activity pattern: FRN being accumulated in regoliths from October to June and depleted in summer. Early summer erosion events would produce the sediments with the highest activity whereas late summer events would produce sediments with the lowest activity coming from the deeper regolith horizons. These findings lead us to launch two sediment transfer connectivity hypotheses analysing respectively the temporal and spatial variability of the Pb-210 activities within the fine sediments at the small catchment scale: (1) The temporal variability of suspended sediment activities at the gauging stations is a measure of sediment transfer immediacy, ergo connectivity. Hence, a high variability in suspended sediment activities, mimicking regolith activity temporal pattern would indicate high connectivity, whereas a low variability, meaning that sediments are mostly pooled in a large and slowly moving stock, would indicate low connectivity. (2) In a drainage system where fine sediments temporarily remain on the dry stream bed, the ratio between fine sediment activities at the sources and fine in-stream sediment activities downstream is a measure of sediment connectivity

  20. Spatio-temporal variability of shallow groundwater during rainfall-runoff events in a Mediterranean mountain catchment (Vallcebre Research Catchments, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of improving the knowledge of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountain areas, this work investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of the depth to water table during rainfall-runoff events in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). In combination with rainfall and runoff measurements, the depth to the water table was monitored at 13 locations within the Can Vila catchment (0.56 km2) during 19 rainfall-runoff events. The distribution of piezometers in the catchment allows examining the effect of topography and distance from the stream on the spatial and temporal distribution of depth to water table. On the other hand, the analysis of different rainfall-runoff events allows investigating the role of antecedent wetness conditions on the shallow groundwater dynamics associated to the streamflow response. Results show that the depth to water table did not rise in unison throughout the catchment during rainfall-runoff events. The shallow groundwater response was clearly different between locations near and far from the stream. However, this response was not clearly related to the topography. The antecedent wetness conditions were found as the most important control on the spatio-temporal variability of the groundwater response, which in turn affects the magnitude of the streamflow response. In dry conditions, a higher spatio-temporal variability of depth to water table as well as a much slower response of the groundwater was observed.

  1. The artificial catchment `Chicken Creek' (`Huehnerwasser') as a new research tool for hydrological and ecological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwin, W.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    The most important framework of many ecological studies are watersheds as landscape units for water and element budgets. However, internal structures of natural catchments are often not well known due to natural heterogeneity and difficult boundary conditions. Important information has to be extrapolated from point measurements or indirect exploration methods. In contrast, artificial watersheds have the advantage of better defined boundaries and internal structures. Both local boundary conditions, e.g. the accordance of the surface and the groundwater catchment or hydrologic parameters like drainage patterns, discharge points and stratification can be designed and precisely documented during site construction. A recently launched German-Swiss Collaborative Research Centre is investigating the 'Chicken Creek' watershed which can be seen as one of the largest artificially created catchments for scientific purposes worldwide. The main hypothesis of the Collaborative Research Centre is that initial structures define and shape the development of an ecosystem as well as its later stages. Against this background the artificial catchment was designed to offer manifold opportunities for hydrological oriented as well as ecological studies of an initial ecosystem. As internal structures are well known and the surface and subsurface boundaries are well defined compared to natural catchments the site offers high potentials for improving hydrological and ecological models. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was constructed as a 2-4 m layer of post-glacial sandy to loamy sediments overlying a 1-2 m layer of Tertiary clay that forms a shallow pan and seals the whole catchment at the base. No further measures of restoration like planting, amelioration or fertilization were carried out to allow natural succession and undisturbed development. At the bottom of the catchment a small lake with a diameter of 70 m and a

  2. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangen, B.; Finocchiaro, R. G.; Gleason, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased CH4 emissions associated with restoration may outweigh the potential sequestration benefits. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is characterized by millions of depressional wetlands and spans climate and land-use gradients that have potential to affect biotic and abiotic factors associated with the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of pothole wetland ecosystems. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments distributed throughout the U.S. portion of the PPR to assess the effects of land use and restoration practices on CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil properties.Results showed that the effects of land use on GHG fluxes and abiotic soil properties differed with respect to catchment zone (upland, wetland), wetland classification, geographic location, and year. CH4 fluxes were greater than previously reported for pothole wetlands, while N2O fluxes were comparable to previously reported values. Moreover, maximum cumulative CH4 fluxes were nearly 3 times as high as previously reported in North America.Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, but sequestration rates associated with restoration are variable. Further, when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH4 fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline; conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH4 fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of restoration when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N2O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall variability discovered by this study underscores the difficulty in quantifying the GHG balance of wetlands.

  3. Hydrological connectivity for catchment management: research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Ali, G.; Roy, A. G.; Smith, M. W.; Tetzlaf, D.; Wainwright, J.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of hydrological connectivity is an overarching framework for understanding runoff and runon that has come to the fore in the last decade. Catchment management is a vital end-use of research around hydrological connectivity. The purpose of management is usually to maintain appropriate (dis)connectivity for different niches (hydrological, ecological, geomorphological), especially to be able to deal with what happens when structures are perturbed. Thus, for effective management and intervention in catchments a process-based understanding of connectivity is required so that: i) the conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how managers interpret a system; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene successfully in catchment processes. Presently there is confusion around the structure: process dichotomy, shifting focus from understanding static indices influencing hydrological connectivity, to understanding the dynamics of process. Understanding different types and states of connections in catchments is helpful, but it is better to have an appreciation of processes to know that intervention is occurring in the most suitable way, or to prioritize limited resources. The aim of this presentation is to: i) evaluate the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discuss the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) explore what further research needs to be carried out to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity can be categorised as those: evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); understanding hillslope runoff patterns and processes (flow-process connectivity

  4. Measuring and monitoring snow deposition, properties and processes in mountain catchments of Western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of snow deposition, and the distribution of snow properties and processes in mountainous regions of Western North America are highly heterogeneous. Wind and topographic structure control snow deposition, causing tremendous spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of the snowcover and the ...

  5. Ecohydrological separation in a Mediterranean mountain environment (Vallcebre research catchments, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Pilar; Cayuela, Carles; Sánchez-Costa, Elisenda; Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Until very recently, a general paradigm in hydrology was that water is well mixed in the soil, and therefore groundwater, stream water and plant transpiration are all sourced by this well mixed pool. However, recent works (Brooks et al., 2010; Goldsmith et al., 2012) have shown the existence of different water pools in the soil, where tightly bound water, potentially used by plants, does not mix with mobile water that potentially contributes to groundwater and streamflow. This new "two water worlds hypothesis" of ecohydrological separation of water between streams and trees should however be verified in areas with different climates and land covers (McDonnell, 2014). With this objective, we examine this hypothesis in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) using the dual isotope-based approach combined with meteorological and hydrometric monitoring. Since May 2015, stable water-isotopes have been monitored in rainfall (2 locations), in throughfall and stemflow below Scots pines as well as in stream water at the Can Vila (0.56 km2) catchment outlet. Moreover, three spatially distributed sampling campaigns in different antecedent soil moisture conditions have been performed (May, August and November 2015) within the catchment. During the sampling campaigns soil samples (10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm) and xylem samples (3 Scots pines) were collected at 8 locations, with different topographic indices. Water in soil and xylem samples was extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation. This information was complemented with mobile soil water sampled in 3 lysimetric profiles (20, 50 and 100 cm) and in 13 piezometers (150-300 cm deep) distributed within the catchment. These campaigns were combined with a similar regular sampling, every 15 days (From May to December 2015) at one of the 8 locations. All the isotopic information, obtained by infrared spectroscopy, has been combined with continuous measurement of meteorological, soil moisture and potential

  6. Sediment connectivity in a small catchment with badlands: Testing connectivity indices using fallout radionuclide tracers at the Vallcebre Research Catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Estrany, Joan; Ferrer, Laura

    2015-04-01

    At the Vallcebre Research Catchments (South Eastern Pyrenees), results obtained during over 20 years showed that badlands are the primary sources of sediments to the drainage network. Parent lutitic rocks are weathered during winter producing regoliths, which are eroded from badland surfaces mainly during summer intense rainstorms. Even if the produced sediments are mainly fine, due to the ephemeral nature of summer runoff events most of them are deposited on the stream beds, where may remain during some time (months to years). Within the MEDhyCON project, a fallout radionuclides (FRNs) tracing experiment (i.e., excess lead 210 (Pbx-210) and beryllium 7 (Be-7)) is being carried out in order to investigate sediment connectivity. A simplified Pbx-210 balance model on badland surfaces suggested a seasonal sawtooth-like activity pattern: FRN would be accumulated in regoliths from October to June and depleted in summer. Early summer erosion events would produce the sediments with the highest activity whereas late summer events would produce sediments with the least activity coming from the deeper regolith horizons. These findings lead us to intend two sediment connectivity indices analysing respectively the temporal and spatial variability of the Pb-210 activities within the fine sediments: (1) The temporal variability of activities in suspended sediments at the gauging stations, being a measure of sediment transfer, ergo connectivity; a high variability mimicking regolith activity temporal pattern would represent high connectivity, whereas a low variability would involve that the sediments were pooled in a large and slowly moving stock. (2) The ratio between fine sediment activities at the sources and fine stream sediment activities downstream; fine stream sediment activities higher than those at their sources and increasing downstream (ratio lower than the unity) may indicate long-term permanence (low connectivity) of sediments in the stream beds, because once

  7. 12. View north of Tropic Chamber. Natick Research & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north of Tropic Chamber. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 2. View southwest of north facade elevation. Natick Research ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View southwest of north facade elevation. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  9. Hydrochemical responses among nested catchments of the Sleepers River Research Watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Boyer, E. W.; Shanley, J. B.; Kendall, C.

    2005-12-01

    We are probing chemical and isotopic tracers of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate over both space and time to determine how stream nutrient dynamics change with increasing basin size and differ with flow conditions. At the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA, 20 to 30 nested sub-basins that ranged in size from 3 to 11,000 ha were sampled repeatedly under baseflow conditions. These synoptic surveys showed a pattern of heterogeneity in headwaters that converged to a consistent response at larger basin sizes and is consistent with findings of other studies. In addition to characterizing spatial patterns under baseflow, we sampled rainfall and snowmelt events over a gradient of basin sizes to investigate scaling responses under different flow conditions. During high flow events, DOC and nitrate flushing responses varied among different basins where high-frequency event samples were collected. While the DOC and nitrate concentration patterns were similar at four headwater basins, the concentration responses of larger basins were markedly different in that the concentration patterns, flushing duration, and maximum concentrations were attenuated from headwaters to the largest basin. We are using these data to explore how flow paths and solute mixing aggregate. Overall, these results highlight the complexities of understanding spatial scaling issues in catchments and underscore the need to consider event responses of hydrology and chemistry among catchments.

  10. Residents' perceptions of water quality improvements following remediation work in the Pymme's Brook catchment, north London, UK.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, H; Green, A; Pellaumail, K; Weaver, T

    2001-07-01

    Residents' perceptions of water quality change following remediation work in the upper Pymme's Brook catchment (north London) were elicited by questionnaire and compared with monitored changes in Escherichia coli count and BMWP (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP)) score. The wider usefulness of consumer perception surveys was then discussed. Monthly data collected between 1990 and 1996 shows that both E. coli count and BMWP score improved following flushing of the foul sewerage system in 1992, but that only E. coli count improved following the subsequent completion of large-scale remedial engineering works. Local residents were surveyed regarding their awareness of the scheme, and the causes of pollution, together with their perceptions as to the effects of the engineering works and of the resulting water quality improvements. Most respondents selected and ranked indicators in a way that suggested they had an awareness of the significance of various indicators of pollution severity. Following completion of the remediation scheme, residents perceived the watercourse to contain less rubbish and sewage fungus, and to have an improved colour and smell, which corresponds favourably to the monitored improvements. However, respondents' perceptions were found to vary when the study population was sub-divided using a range of parameters. For instance, frequent observers of the brook were most likely to correctly identify sewage as the main form of pollution. These divergent perceptions suggest that there may be considerable difficulties when perception surveys are used to quantify 'benefits' following environmental improvement programmes. Nevertheless, the survey was clearly beneficial in enhancing residents' awareness of their environment and the role of their voice in its management. PMID:11475083

  11. The Skogaryd Research Catchment - an infrastructure to integrate terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemedtsson, Leif; Weslien, Per; Bastviken, David; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Wallin, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    The Skogaryd Research Catchment (SRC; 58°23'N, 12°09'E, hemiboreal) is part of the Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Science (SITES, www.fieldsites.se). SITES is a national coordinated infrastructure for terrestrial and limnological field research, consisting of nine research stations covering the different landscapes and climatic regions in Sweden. The SITES initiative is a long-term effort founded by the Swedish Research Council and the station owners. Researchers regardless of affiliation are welcome use the stations including the infrastructure in their research and perform experiments (after approval) or outsource tasks which are managed by the stations. Data collected in both background monitoring programs and previous and ongoing projects at the stations are also intended to support past, present and future research. Ecological, biogeochemical, and environmental research often focus on a specific ecosystem or have strict habitat boundaries. However, the growing awareness of systems interactions, feedbacks and large scale consequences calls for approaches that integrate across ecosystems and habitats to consider whole catchments, landscapes and regions. Thus there is an urgent need for long-term field sites that support integrative and cross-habitat-boundary research. Our aim at SRC is to develop methodologies to quantify GHG balances at the landscape scale in forested regions that include land-atmosphere, land-water, and water-atmosphere exchange of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Another aim is to promote investigations to elucidate the undelaying regulation of the biogeochemical processes. The SRC harbor several main habitats including mires, forests at different growth stages, lakes, and streams. The fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG) are measured to a large extent according to ICOS protocol for the Eddy Covariance (EC) methodology for CO2, H2O, and CH4, as well as axillary data for habitats where such protocols exist. For aquatic habitats lacking such protocols

  12. An Open Source Framework for Coupled Hydro-Hydrogeo-Chemical Systems in Catchment Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, J.; Sachse, A.; Gayler, S.; Grathwohl, P.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Klein, C.; Kolditz, O.; Maier, U.; Priesack, E.; Rink, K.; Selle, B.; Shao, H.; Singh, A. K.; Streck, T.; Sun, Y.; Wang, W.; Walther, M.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents an open-source framework designed to assist water scientists in the study of catchment hydraulic functions with associated chemical processes, e.g. contaminant degradation, plant nutrient turnover. The model successfully calculates the feedbacks between surface water, subsurface water and air in standard benchmarks. In specific model applications to heterogeneous catchments, subsurface water is driven by density variations and runs through double porous media. Software codes of water science are tightly coupled by iteration, namely the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for urban runoff, Expert-N for simulating water fluxes and nutrient turnover in agricultural and forested soils, and OpenGeoSys (OGS) for groundwater. The coupled model calculates flow of hydrostatic shallow water over the land surface with finite volume and difference methods. The flow equations for water in the porous subsurface are discretized in space with finite elements. Chemical components are transferred through 1D, 2D or 3D watershed representations with advection-dispersion solvers or, as an alternative, random walk particle tracking. A transport solver can be in sequence with a chemical solver, e.g. PHREEQ-C, BRNS, additionally. Besides coupled partial differential equations, the concept of hydrological response units is employed in simulations at regional scale with scarce data availability. In this case, a conceptual hydrological model, specifically the Jena Adaptable Modeling System (JAMS), passes groundwater recharge through a software interface into OGS, which solves the partial differential equations of groundwater flow. Most components of the modeling framework are open source and can be modified for individual purposes. Applications range from temperate climate regions in Germany (Ammer catchment and Hessian Ried) to arid regions in the Middle East (Oman and Dead See). Some of the presented examples originate from intensively monitored research sites of the

  13. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility. A test for the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Hochschild, Volker; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of a presence only approach, namely Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment, located in the north-eastern Sicily, Italy. This catchment has been recently exposed to three main meteorological extreme events, resulting in the activation of multiple fast landslides, which occurred on the 1st October 2009, 10th March 2010 and 1st March 2011. Differently from the 2009 event, which only marginally hit the catchment, the 2010 and 2011 storms fully involved the area of the Mili catchment. Detailed field data was collected to associate the thickness of mobilised materials at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes clustered into shallow failures for maximum depths of 0.5m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 0.5m. As the authors believed that the peculiar geomorphometry of this narrow and steep catchment played a fundamental role in generating two distinct patterns of landslide thicknesses during the initiation phase, a HRDEM was used to extract topographic attributes to express near-triggering geomorphological conditions. On the other hand, medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes were used as explanatory variables pertaining to a wider spatial neighbourhood, whilst a revised geological map, the land use from CORINE and a tectonic map were used to convey an even wider area connected to the slope instability. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing outstanding prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 20 randomly generated replicates. The validation phase produced indeed average AUC values of 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.03 for both the modelled landslide

  14. Fluvial responses to volcanism: resedimentation of the 1800a Taupo ignimbrite eruption in the Rangitaiki River catchment, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manville, Vern; Newton, Erin H.; White, James D. L.

    2005-02-01

    The potential for the generation of dangerous and damaging lahars and floods in response to the eruption of voluminous pyroclastic debris has become increasingly appreciated in recent years. The style and tempo of this response varies both between eruptions and between individual catchments impacted by a single eruption, so that an understanding of the factors controlling this variation is necessary for precise hazard assessment. The 1800a Taupo eruption from the Taupo Volcanic Centre in the central North Island of New Zealand devastated an area of 20,000 km 2 during eruption of a climactic ignimbrite, impacting the headwaters of all major rivers draining radially from this region. The Rangitaiki River, the subject of this paper, differs from other catchments in that the Taupo ignimbrite buried an essentially flat land surface inherited from a suite of welded ignimbrite sheets erupted between 320-340 and 230 ka. The middle reaches of the catchment are characterised by narrow, steep gorges alternating with low-gradient basins developed in tectonic half-grabens. Initially, remobilisation of pyroclastic material in the headwaters was dominated by hyperconcentrated sheet flows resulting in shallow reworking. In higher gradient areas, reintegration of drainage networks was achieved by incision of deep channels and gullies, assisted by breakouts from ephemeral lakelets developed in ignimbrite-dammed depressions. Braided, and later meandering, streams superseded this pattern as rill and gully systems stabilised and sediment yields fell leading to a decline in drainage density. Gorge reaches acted as efficient conduits for remobilised material while the basins acted as local depocentres for the temporary storage of volcaniclastic sediments, mediating the transfer of pyroclastic debris to the Bay of Plenty coast >100 km to the north. Reworking and resedimentation of pyroclastic debris began immediately after the eruption, peaking early and then rapidly declining so that

  15. ALASKA NORTH SLOPE OIL-FIELD RESTORATION RESEARCH STRATEGY (ANSORRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including...

  16. Indirect emissions and isotopologue signatures of N2O from agricultural drainage water of a Pleistocene lowland catchment in North-Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, D.; Well, R.; Kahle, P.; Tiemeyer, B.; Flessa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Artificial drainage of low- and wetlands is a common practice in many agricultural regions to facilitate crop production. Agricultural drainage water was shown to be supersaturated with nitrous oxide (N2O), a major greenhouse gas thought to contribute to global warming and to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Therefore, drainage of agricultural land has potential for indirect N2O emissions which are a highly uncertain component of the global N2O budget. This case study focuses on these emissions and further tries to unravel the source processes of N2O as well as the impact of its hydrological controls by applying an isotopologue approach. The research area was an intensively tile drained agricultural catchment embedded in the Pleistocene lowland of the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). Water sampling was conducted during the consecutive hydrological winter periods 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 by sampling a collector drain outlet and an adjacent drainage ditch. Besides concentrations of dissolved N2O and NO3- we determined the isotopologue signatures of N2O by measuring δ15Nbulk and δ18O as well as the 15N 'site preference', which characterizes the intramolecular distribution of the N isotopes within the asymmetric N2O molecule and is a promising tool to distinguish between the main source processes of N2O, nitrification and denitrification. The investigated hydrological winter periods varied considerably concerning the weather and hydrological conditions. During the comparatively wet winter period 2007/2008, indirect N2O emissions accounted for 0.17 kg N2O-N ha-1 a-1 and were thus higher than during the colder and comparatively dry 2008/2009 period, where we found 0.12 kg N2O-N ha-1 a-1. The emission factors for both sampling periods were 0.23 % and 0.17 % of the N input, respectively, and therefore in good agreement with the current IPCC default value of 0.25 %. The isotopologue signatures of N2O reflected the different hydrological

  17. Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Jacob Vigdor of Duke University reviews a teacher salary bonus program operating in North Carolina. Known officially as the ABC's of Public Education, the program awards teachers with…

  18. NORTH AMERICAN LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION (NALC): RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) project is a component of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Landsat Pathfinder program of experiments to study global change issues. he NALC program is funded principally by the U.S. Environmental Protect...

  19. North American berry industries and research areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The farm gate value of small fruit crops in North America has increased significantly in the last 10 years. Much of this increase is due to increased consumption for health benefits. Small fruits are rich in antioxidants which help prevent adverse effects of aging, cancer, and heart diseases. Acc...

  20. Estimation of diffuse and point source microbial pollution in the ribble catchment discharging to bathing waters in the north west of England.

    PubMed

    Wither, A; Greaves, J; Dunhill, I; Wyer, M; Stapleton, C; Kay, D; Humphrey, N; Watkins, J; Francis, C; McDonald, A; Crowther, J

    2005-01-01

    Achieving compliance with the mandatory standards of the 1976 Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) is required at all U.K. identified bathing waters. In recent years, the Fylde coast has been an area of significant investments in 'point source' control, which have not proven, in isolation, to satisfactorily achieve compliance with the mandatory, let alone the guide, levels of water quality in the Directive. The potential impact of riverine sources of pollution was first confirmed after a study in 1997. The completion of sewerage system enhancements offered the potential for the study of faecal indicator delivery from upstream sources comprising both point sources and diffuse agricultural sources. A research project to define these elements commenced in 2001. Initially, a desk study reported here, estimated the principal infrastructure contributions within the Ribble catchment. A second phase of this investigation has involved acquisition of empirical water quality and hydrological data from the catchment during the 2002 bathing season. These data have been used further to calibrate the 'budgets' and 'delivery' modelling and these data are still being analysed. This paper reports the initial desk study approach to faecal indicator budget estimation using available data from the sewerage infrastructure and catchment sources of faecal indicators. PMID:15850190

  1. A cross-site comparison of factors controlling streamwater carbon flux in western North American catchments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Condon, K.; Chorover, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Meixner, T.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing variability in climate is expected to alter the amount and form of terrestrial carbon in stream water both directly, through changes in the magnitude and timing of discharge, and indirectly through changes in land cover following disturbance (e.g. drought, fire, or insect driven mortality). Predicting how these changes will impact individual stream-catchment ecosystems however, is hampered by a lack of concurrent observations on both dissolved and particulate carbon flux across a range of spatial, temporal, and discharge scales. Because carbon is strongly coupled to most biogeochemical reactions within both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, this represents a critical unknown in predicting the response of catchment-ecosystems to concurrent changes in climate and land cover. This presentation will address this issue using a meta-analysis of dissolved organic, dissolved inorganic, and particulate organic carbon fluxes from multiple locations, including undisturbed sites along a climate gradient from desert rivers to seasonally snow-covered, forested mountain catchments, and sites disturbed by both fire and extensive, insect driven mortality. Initial analyses suggest that dissolved (organic and inorganic) and particulate fluxes respond differently to various types of disturbance and depend on interactions between changes in size of mobile carbon pools and changes in hydrologic routing of carbon to streamwater. Anomalously large fluxes of both dissolved and particulate organic matter are associated with episodic changes in hydrologic routing (e.g. storm floods; snowmelt) that connect normally hydrologically isolated carbon pools (e.g. surficial hillslope soils) with surface water. These events are often of short duration as the supply of mobile carbon is exhausted in short term flushing response. In contrast, disturbances that increase the size of the mobile carbon pool (e.g. widespread vegetation mortality) result smaller proportional increases in

  2. The necessity of field research in prescription of Environmental Flows - A case of the hydropower dominated Middle Zambezi Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelwa, Elenestina; Crosato, Alessandra; Wright, Nigel; Beevers, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The research work in the Middle Zambezi sub-catchment has the key objective to investigate the state of the river and its flood plain in terms of flow variation, river and flood plain morphological variation for both the pre and post hydropower schemes. From the rich biodiversity that this area supports, both Zambia and Zimbabwe has established National Parks with Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore safari areas being designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The habitat sustenance depend on the river channels and the associated morphological features with the flood and recession interaction whose modification can lead to negative environmental consequences. The research findings on the state of the sub-catchment flows and morphology will be outlined. Highlights will be given on the following findings: dominance of hydropower regulation in the water balance of the river reach, historical map analysis and related rates of river channel morphology changes associated to dam operating events and, bed load sediment characterisation and distribution. With the use of SOBEK-Rural (1D/2D) model, analysis of future state of the sub-catchment will be outlined, taking into account the following scenarios: no dam state of the river reach; continue with current water regulation and operations; modification in water regulation to take into account favorable changes and; climate related variation of droughts. The research deductions and implications for maintaining the current dam operation practices will be outline as relates to the sustainability of the hydro-morphology and ecosystem of the catchment which support a rich wildlife habitat. The research observed critical water needs form the basis for environmental flows prescription and recommendation. Whereas the restoration of regular flooding has been identified to be important, the most critical need however is the timing of flood gate regulation which has been observed as a trigger to loss of islands and bars

  3. Hydrological and erosion response at micro-plot to -catchment scale following forest wildfire, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Diana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Nunes, João. Pedro; Fernandes, Isabel; Ferreira, Raquel; Pereira, Luísa; Prats, Sergio; Ermitas Rial, María.; Eufemia Varela, María.

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires can have important impacts on hydrological and soil erosion processes, due to the destruction of vegetation cover and changes to soil properties. According to Shakesby and Doerr (2006), these wildfire effects are: i) much better known at small spatial scales (especially erosion plots) than at the scale of catchments; ii) much better studied with respect to overland flow and streamflow (and, then, especially peak discharges) than to soil erosion. Following up on a precursor project studying runoff generation and the associated soil losses from micro-plot to slope-scale in Portuguese eucalypt forests, the EROSFIRE-II project addresses the connectivity of these processes across hillslopes as well as within the channel network. This is done in the Colmeal study area in central Portugal, where the outlet of an entirely burnt catchment of roughly 10 ha was instrumented with a gauging station continuously recording water level and tubidity, and five slopes were each equipped with 4 runoff plots of < 0,5 m2 ("micro-plot") and 4 slope-scale plots as well as 1 slope-scale sediment fence. Starting one month after the August 2008 wildfire, the plots were monitored at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on the occurrence of rainfall. The gauging station became operational at the end of November 2008, since the in-situ construction of an H-flume required several weeks. A preliminary analysis of the data collected till the end of 2008, focusing on two slopes with contrasting slope lengths as well as the gauging station: revealed clear differences in runoff and erosion between: (i) the micro-plot and slope-scale plots on the same hillslope; (ii) the two slopes; (iii) an initial dry period and a subsequent much wetter period; (iv) the slopes and the catchment-scale, also depending on the sampling period. These results suggest that the different processes govern the hydrological and erosion response at different spatial scales as well as for different periods, with soil

  4. Hydrogeochemical modeling of alteration processes in the Ringelbach granitic research catchment (Vosges, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffhauser, Thiebaud; Lucas, Yann; Fritz, Bertrand; Clément, Alain; Ambroise, Bruno; Stille, Peter; Chabaux, François

    2014-05-01

    The main goal of this work is to better constrain the parameters that control weathering processes at a small catchment scale, focusing specifically on the role of hydrology. For this purpose, temporal and spatial variations of the chemical water composition of the Ringelbach catchment (Vosges, France) are studied. Several springs of this catchment whose basement is composed of a more or less intensively fractured granite, outcropping along an altitudinal profile, were monthly sampled over a period of two years. The additional interest of this site is that three deep boreholes (down to a maximal depth of 150 meters) allow the sampling of both deep rocks and waters. The connectivity of the different hydrological compartments is evaluated based on the geochemical interpretation of water samples. A schematic hydrological functioning is proposed based on a good knowledge of the geological context. The originality of this study lays also in the combination of the geochemical and modeling approaches using the KIRMAT code (Kinetic Reactions and Mass transport) which integrates geochemical reactions (dissolution/precipitation) and 1D mass transport equations. It allows to simulate the reactive transport of a fluid through a rock along a given water pathway. This modeling is based on the characterization of the mineralogical and physical properties of the rock, sampled along the boreholes and leads to the geochemical interpretation of the water composition. Thus, the modeling of the chemical composition of the spring waters and borehole waters enables to improve the understanding of weathering processes including the role of precipitated secondary phases. It also allows to better understand the interplay of parameters that control the chemical signatures of the waters at the catchment scale.

  5. Olive Mounds, Roman cisterns, erosion pins - potential to characterize erosion in a Mediterranean catchment in north Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a three years' time period of a PhD thesis it is luck to catch the "right" rain events for good general erosion approximations. Methods that (i) cover longer time periods, (ii) are not confined to constructed boundaries, and finally (iii) include all possible erosion processes are crucial for good average estimates of sediment yields from different landscapes. The aim of the study was to get a first understanding of erosion processes and sediment yields in a Mediterranean to semi-arid catchment in NW Jordan, wherefore different measurement methods were tested in the predominant landscape units: olive orchards (27%), fields (14%) and natural shrubs on steep slopes (~30%). One of the applied methods was the measurement of topographic olive mounds within 7 orchards with an average size of 800 m2 in synergy with tree-coring and age estimation of the orchards. Furthermore the OSL dating of deposited sediments in two roman cisterns adjacent to fields was conducted and the 9 erosion pin fields, each about 200m2 large, were installed on steep slopes with natural vegetation. The methods cover different time scales from 560 years for the fields, an average of 32 years for the olive orchards and up to two rainy seasons for the erosion pin fields. Results show that olive orchards on steep slopes (>10%) have the highest erosion potential in the region with 95±8 t ha-1year-1 followed by natural vegetated slopes with 37±4 t ha-1year-1 of dislocated material and fields with 1.22±0.06 t ha-1year-1 sediment yield. These spatially constrained outcomes are supported by geochemical sediment fingerprint results of lake sediments from the catchment and will be discussed in regard to the basic assumption that underlie the principle of measurement and the limitations of the methods.

  6. The Krycklan Catchment Study—A flagship infrastructure for hydrology, biogeochemistry, and climate research in the boreal landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Taberman, Ida; Å; gren, Anneli; Futter, Martyn; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Bishop, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    The Krycklan Catchment Study (KCS) provides a unique field infrastructure for hillslope to landscape-scale research on short- and long-term ecosystem dynamics in boreal landscapes. The site is designed for process-based research assessing the role of external drivers including forest management, climate change, and long-range pollutant transport on forests, mires, soils, streams, lakes, and groundwater. The overarching objectives of KCS are to (1) provide a state-of-the-art infrastructure for experimental and hypothesis-driven research, (2) maintain a collection of high-quality, long-term climatic, biogeochemical, hydrological, and environmental data, and (3) support the development of models and guidelines for research, policy, and management.

  7. The North: New Challenges for Creative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsson, Olafur Ragnar

    2000-01-01

    A Northern research forum of scholars from universities in Arctic countries will study issues raised by the end of the Cold War, including new political institutions and relationships instituted in Northern regions, the relationship between environmental protection and sustainable economic growth, the relevance of traditional international…

  8. Black raspberry phytochemical research in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research group has focused on developing black raspberries with improved disease resistance and phytochemical traits over the last seven years. Recent interest in the rich color of black raspberries, and their historical use as an effective dye, derive from their anthocyanin composition and cont...

  9. Bridging the Divide: understanding controls on nitrogen export by scaling from headwater catchments to eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, J. M.; Band, L. E.; Creed, I. F.; Duffy, C.; Green, M. B.; Groffman, P. M.; Tague, C.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    A major challenge in ecohydrology is the development of a predictive understanding of the roles of land use and climate on nitrogen (N) cycling and export at regional to continental scales. A dramatic increase in anthropogenic N loads to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has contributed to forest decline, acidification of freshwater systems, and eutrophication of coastal and estuarine environments. Watershed studies have been a hallmark of ecosystem research and over the last few decades this approach has been refined to hierarchically link terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as a continuum of water, carbon and nutrients along hydrologic flowpaths at multiple scales. We examine nested controls and feedbacks between biotic and abiotic processes controlling N cycling and export from watersheds within temperate forest biomes in eastern North America, a region that has undergone major changes in forest cover and structure as a result of historic logging, agricultural expansion then contraction, urbanization, N deposition, and climate change. Our conceptual model is that the controls on patterns of stream N concentrations and loads exported from watersheds emerge from a cascade of sources and sinks at multiple spatial and temporal scales that accumulate along converging flowpaths. This cascade integrates atmospheric, geologic, geomorphic, land use/land cover, water infrastructure and plant, soil and microbial responses. In order to synthesize controls at continental to patch (10-100 sq. m) scales, we must: (1) Understand how N is coupled to water and carbon cycling within reference forest ecosystems, broadly defined to including surface water drainage networks, across current climate, atmospheric N deposition, geologic, geomorphic and vegetation gradients; and (2) Develop a mechanistic understanding of how human activity alters the timing, magnitude and pattern of these coupled processes. Time series of N export patterns from long-term experimental watersheds across a

  10. Early North American research on lithium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G; Gershon, S

    1999-12-01

    Research and clinical interest in lithium in the USA lagged behind that in Europe, largely because of the experience of deaths due to lithium in cardiac patients. The first American report on lithium was published in 1960 by Sam Gershon, the Australian psychiatrist who had undertaken lithium studies in Melbourne in conjunction with the physiologist Trautner. Major USA clinical trials originated in the 1960s; and the clinical significance of lithium was recognised in a special section in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 1968. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of lithium for control of manic episodes was finally given in 1970. PMID:10622180

  11. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  12. Runoff generation processes in a small Mediterranean research catchment (Vallcebre, Eastern Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latron, J.; Gallart, F.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryThis paper analyses the runoff generation processes in a small Mediterranean catchment (Can Vila catchment, 0.56 km 2), using limited continuous data on water table and soil water potential dynamics along with rainfall and runoff data collected over 6 years. At daily scale, strong non-linearity between rainfall and runoff volume and the effect of the water table position on how rainfall and runoff volume relate were seen. The higher the water table, the greater the runoff for a given rainfall. The relationship between runoff and depth of water table was not straightforward: water table variations sometimes did not correlate with runoff changes, suggesting somewhat intricate hydrological behaviour. Soil water potential data alongside runoff and water table data showed the relatively frequent development of a perched saturation layer in the profile monitored. Examination of soil water potential and water table dynamics during a collection of representative floods helped to identify three types of characteristic hydrological behaviour during the year. Hydrographs corresponding to type 1 events (dry conditions), type 2 events (wetting-up transition) and type 3 events (wet conditions) had different characteristics: each was associated with different dominant runoff generation processes. Under dry conditions, runoff was generated essentially as infiltration excess runoff in low permeable areas, whereas saturation excess runoff dominated during wetting-up and wet conditions. During wetting-up transition, saturated areas resulted from the development of scattered perched water tables, whereas in wet conditions they were linked to the rise of the shallow water table.

  13. A critical re-evaluation of controls on spatial and seasonal variations in nitrate concentrations in river waters throughout the River Derwent catchment in North Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shaheen; Adnan, Muhammad; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2016-05-01

    Since mean nitrate concentration along single river channels increases significantly with percent arable land use upstream of sampling points and autumn/early winter flushes in nitrate concentration are widespread, it is generally concluded that farmers contribute most of the nitrate. For the River Derwent in North Yorkshire, the correlation between nitrate concentration and percent arable land use is much poorer when tributary data are included in the equation, because of greater variations in dilution by water draining upland areas and in other N input sources. For the whole river system therefore, percent upland moorland/rough grazing land cover is an appreciably better predictor than percent arable land use for nitrate concentration. Upland land use encompasses the higher precipitation and runoff in such areas, and the subsequent greater dilution downstream of both arable land runoff and effluent from treatment works, as well as an inverse correlation to percent arable land use. This is strongly supported by the observation that, for the Derwent, Meteorological Office rainfall data alone proved even better than percent moorland rough grazing for predicting nitrate concentration. The dilution effect is therefore substantial but highly seasonal; lower runoff and dilution in summer offset the lower leaching losses from arable land, and higher dilution and runoff in winter offset greater nitrate leaching losses from arable soils. Because of this, coupled to improved efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use, seasonality trends in nitrate concentrations that were pronounced a decade ago now have all but disappeared in the catchment. PMID:27102774

  14. Comparison of drought occurrence in selected Slovak and Czech catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Porubska, Diana; Hanel, Martin; Horacek, Stanislav; Martinkova, Marta; Vizina, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The presented study is focused on the analysis and comparison of hydrological drought occurrence, development and duration in six small to middle sized catchments in the Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia. The main questions to be answered are: (1) are there correlations between the physical conditions in the catchments and drought occurrence, and (2) does the spatial trend of drought occurrence exist. The Žitava catchment is located in the central western part of Slovakia having runoff dominated by rainfall with the contribution of snow melting during the spring period. The Belá River catchment is located on the contact of Západné and Vysoké Tatry Mts. in the north of Slovakia. The runoff is snow to snow-rain combined type. The Ľupčianka catchment is located on the northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts. in the northern part of the central Slovakia. The runoff regime is snow-rain combined in the upper part of the catchment, and of rain-snow type in the rest of catchment. The Rakovnický potok brook (CZ) has its spring in Rakovnická pahorkatina hilly land. Runoff is dominated by rainfall, quite heavily influenced by water uptakes in the catchment. The Teplá River (CZ) originates in peat meadows in the western part of the Czech Republic. Runoff is dominated by rainfall. The Metuje catchment (CZ) is formed by Adršsbach-Teplické stěny Upland. The headwater part is typical by deeply incest valleys, table mountains and pseudokarst caves. The discharge is fed dominantly by groundwater. The streamflow drought was characterized using discharge data, the groundwater drought using the base flow values. The local minimum method was used for base flow separation. The threshold level method (Q80, BF80) and the sequent peak algorithm were used for calculation of drought duration in discharge and base flow time series. The data of the same three decades of the common period (1971 - 1980, 1981 - 1990 and 1991 - 2000) were used. The resulting base flow values along with

  15. MANAGEMENT POLICY FOR THE ASSURANCE OF RESEARCH QUALITY, HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY, RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document presents policies, goals, and an organizational structure for the implementation of a management policy for the Quality Assurance program in the Health Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Directed toward functional managers, a system ...

  16. Cleanup of the Western Research Institute North Site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project is to clean up the Western Research Institute`s North Site in an environmentally sound and cost-effective manner. Work is broken down into the following phases: Phase 1, definition of waste streams; Phase 2, disposal of hazardous wastes; Phase 3, disposal of nonhazardous materials; Phase 4, soil sampling and disposal of buried wastes; Phase 5, decontamination and disposal of equipment; Phase 5a, groundwater monitoring; and Phase 6, preparation of material inventory database.

  17. A new approach to modeling the sediment retention service (InVEST 3.0): Case study of the Cape Fear catchment, North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Perrine; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina

    2015-08-15

    There is a growing call for ecosystem services models that are both simple and scientifically credible, in order to serve public and private sector decision-making processes. Sediment retention receives particular interest given the impact of this service on water quality. We developed a new version of the sediment retention model for the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) tool to address previous limitations and facilitate model uncertainty assessment. We tested the model in the Cape Fear basin, North Carolina (NC), performing sensitivity analyses and assessing its ability to detect the spatial variability in sediment retention service for eight subcatchments. The main advantages of the revised model include the use of spatially-explicit, globally available input data, and the explicit consideration of hydrological connectivity in the landscape. The sensitivity analyses in the study catchment identified the erosivity and erodibility factors, together with the cover factor for agricultural land as the most influential parameter for sediment export. Relative predictions, representing the spatial variability in sediment exports, were correctly represented by the model. Absolute sediment exports were also highly correlated with observations, although their interpretation for socio-economic assessments is more uncertain without local knowledge of the dominant erosion processes. This work confirms that the sediment connectivity approach used in the revised InVEST model has great potential to quantify the sediment retention service. Although resources to conduct model calibration and testing are typically scarce, these practices should be encouraged to improve model interpretation and for confident application in different decision-making contexts. Without calibration, the InVEST sediment model still provides relevant information for ecosystem services assessments, especially in decision contexts that involve ranking of sediment export

  18. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, and that when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH4 fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline. Conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH4 fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of wetland restoration (drained, non-drained) when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N2O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall variability demonstrated by this study was consistent with findings of other wetland investigations and underscores the difficulty in quantifying the GHG balance of wetland systems.

  19. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter

    1991-11-01

    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  20. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Joseph A.; Jackman, Jennifer; Li, Naiyi; Osborne, Richard J.; Powell, Bob R.; Sklad, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  1. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed. PMID:14653632

  2. Landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility, a simple proxy for landslide hazard? A test in the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Mai, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This study implements a landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility approach in order to investigate the landslide scenario in the catchment of Mili, this being located in the north-easternmost sector of Sicily (Italy). From a detailed geomorphological campaign, thicknesses of mobilised materials at the triggering zone of each mass movement were collected and subsequently used as a dependent variable to be analysed in the framework of spatial predictive models. The adopted modelling methodology consisted of a presence-only learning algorithm which differently from classic presence-absence methods does not rely on stable conditions in order to derive functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. The dependent was pre-processed by reclassifying the crown thickness spectrum into a binary condition expressing thick (values equal or greater than 1m) and thin (values less than 1m) landslide crown classes. The explanatory variables were selected to express triggering-thickness dependency at different scales, these being in close proximity to the triggering point through primary and secondary attributes from a 2m-cell side Lidar HRDEM, at a medium scale through vegetation indexes from multispectral satellite images (ASTER) and a coarser scale through a geological, land use and tectonic maps. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. In addition, the role of each predictor was assessed for the two considered classes as relevant differences arose in terms of their contribution to the final models. In this regard, predictor importance, Jack-knife tests and response curves were used to assess the reliability of the models together with their geomorphological reasonability. This work attempts to capitalize on fieldwork data

  3. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  4. Impact of spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall inputs on urban hydrodynamic modelling outputs: A multi-catchment investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Rodriguez, Susana; Wang, Li-Pen; Gires, Auguste; Pina, Rui Daniel; Reinoso-Rondinel, Ricardo; Bruni, Guendalina; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gaitan, Santiago; Cristiano, Elena; van Assel, Johan; Kroll, Stefan; Murlà-Tuyls, Damian; Tisserand, Bruno; Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Onof, Christian; Willems, Patrick; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire

    2015-12-01

    Urban catchments are typically characterised by high spatial variability and fast runoff processes resulting in short response times. Hydrological analysis of such catchments requires high resolution precipitation and catchment information to properly represent catchment response. This study investigated the impact of rainfall input resolution on the outputs of detailed hydrodynamic models of seven urban catchments in North-West Europe. The aim was to identify critical rainfall resolutions for urban catchments to properly characterise catchment response. Nine storm events measured by a dual-polarimetric X-band weather radar, located in the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) of the Netherlands, were selected for analysis. Based on the original radar estimates, at 100 m and 1 min resolutions, 15 different combinations of coarser spatial and temporal resolutions, up to 3000 m and 10 min, were generated. These estimates were then applied to the operational semi-distributed hydrodynamic models of the urban catchments, all of which have similar size (between 3 and 8 km2), but different morphological, hydrological and hydraulic characteristics. When doing so, methodologies for standardising model outputs and making results comparable were implemented. Results were analysed in the light of storm and catchment characteristics. Three main features were observed in the results: (1) the impact of rainfall input resolution decreases rapidly as catchment drainage area increases; (2) in general, variations in temporal resolution of rainfall inputs affect hydrodynamic modelling results more strongly than variations in spatial resolution; (3) there is a strong interaction between the spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall input estimates. Based upon these results, methods to quantify the impact of rainfall input resolution as a function of catchment size and spatial-temporal characteristics of storms are proposed and discussed.

  5. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  6. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Millard, James D.; Nji, Theobald M.; Tantoh, William F.; Nyoh, Doris N.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Methods Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Results Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. Conclusion We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. PMID:25969503

  7. Studies in Teaching: 2002 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the of an annual educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 11, 2002. A table of contents and 27 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: Effects of the Earth/Environmental Science Requirement on High School Science Enrollment in North…

  8. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  9. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  10. The North Wyke Farm Platform, a UK national capability for research into sustainability of temperate agricultural grassland management: progress and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Paul; Dungait, Jennifer; Griffith, Bruce; Shepherd, Anita; Sint, Hadewij; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Goulding, Keith; Lee, Michael; Orr, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) at Rothamsted Research in the South-West of England, is a large, farm-scale experiment for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences; with the aim of addressing agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. The 63 ha NWFP site, captures the spatial and/or temporal data necessary to develop a better understanding of the dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms that can be used to model how agricultural grassland systems respond to different management inputs. Here, via beef and sheep production, the underlying principle is to manage each of three farmlets (each consisting of five man-made, hydrologically-isolated sub-catchments) in three contrasting ways: (i) improvement through use of mineral fertilizers; (ii) improvement through use of legumes; and (iii) improvement through innovation. The connectivity between the timing and intensity of the different management operations, together with the transport of nutrients and potential pollutants from the NWFP is evaluated using various data collection and data modelling exercises. The primary data collection strategy involves the use of a ground-based, wireless sensor network, where in each of the fifteen sub-catchments, water characteristics such as flow, turbidity and chemistry are measured at a flume laboratory that captures the sub-catchment's water drainage (via a system of directed French drains). This sensor network also captures: precipitation, soil moisture and soil temperature data for each sub-catchment; greenhouse gas data across key subsets of the fifteen sub-catchments; and meteorological data (other than precipitation) at a single site only (representative of the NWFP site, as a whole). Such high temporal resolution data sets (but with limited spatial resolution) are coupled with a secondary data collection strategy, for high spatial resolution data sets (but with limited temporal

  11. Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Seismic Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J L; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Ryall, F

    2003-07-14

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Database (SRDB) used for deriving seismic calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. In addition to an overview of select individual information products, we present an overview of our visualization, integration, validation, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRDB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 15 terabytes) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. The LLNL SRDB allows for the collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provides an interface for researchers to access data, provides a framework to store research results and integrate datasets, and supports assembly, integration and dissemination of datasets to the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The LLNL SRDB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources (both in-house-derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. In order to efficiently organize information within the LLNL SRDB, it was necessary to automate procedures needed to create and update database tables, but a large effort is still required by technicians and scientists to load special datasets, review results of automated processing and resolve quality issues. The LLNL SRDB currently has 3 million reconciled event origins and arrivals from several global, regional and local seismic bulletins and 30 million

  12. Quantitative catchment profiling to apportion faecal indicator organism budgets for the Ribble system, the UK's sentinel drainage basin for Water Framework Directive research.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Crowther, J; McDonald, A T; Kay, D; Greaves, J; Wither, A; Watkins, J; Francis, C; Humphrey, N; Bradford, M

    2008-06-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) 20/60/EC and the US Federal Water Pollution Control Act 2002 management of water quality within river drainage basins has shifted from traditional point-source control to a holistic approach whereby the overall contribution of point and diffuse sources of pollutants has to be considered. Consequently, there is a requirement to undertake source-apportionment studies of pollutant fluxes within catchments. The inclusion of the Bathing Water Directive (BWD), under the list of 'protected areas' in the WFD places a requirement to control sources of faecal indicator organisms within catchments in order to achieve the objectives of both the BWD (and its revision - 2006/7/EC) and the WFD. This study was therefore initiated to quantify catchment-derived fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters originating from both point and diffuse sources. The Ribble drainage basin is the single UK sentinel WFD research catchment and discharges to the south of the Fylde coast, which includes a number of high profile, historically non-compliant, bathing waters. Faecal indicator concentrations (faecal coliform concentrations are reported herein) were measured at 41 riverine locations, the 15 largest wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and 15 combined sewer overflows (CSOs) across the Ribble basin over a 44-day period during the 2002 bathing season. The sampling programme included targeting rainfall-induced high flow events and sample results were categorised as either base flow or high flow. At the riverine sites, geometric mean faecal coliform concentrations showed statistically significant elevation at high flow compared to base flow. The resultant faecal coliform flux estimates revealed that over 90% of the total organism load to the Ribble Estuary was discharged by sewage related sources during high flow events. These sewage sources were largely related to the urban areas to the south and east of the Ribble basin, with over half the

  13. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  14. Synergies between geomorphic hazard and risk and sediment cascade research fields: exploiting geomorphic processes' susceptibility analyses to derive potential sediment sources in the Oltet, river catchment, southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta-Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Identifying sediment sources and sediment availability represents a major problem and one of the first concerns in the field of sediment cascade. This paper addresses the on-site effects associated with sediment transfer, investigating the degree to which studies pertaining to the field of geomorphic hazard and risk research could be exploited in sediment budget estimations. More precisely, the paper investigates whether results obtained in assessing susceptibility to various geomorphic processes (landslides, soil erosion, gully erosion) could be transferred to the study of sediment sources within a basin. The study area is a medium-sized catchment (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which supply sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets. The susceptibility analyses are conducted separately for each type of the considered processes in a top-down framework, i.e. at two different scales, using scale-adapted methods and validation techniques in each case, as widely-recognized in the hazard and risk research literature. The analyses start at a regional scale, which has in view the entire catchment, using readily available data on conditioning factors. In a second step, the suceptibility analyses are carried out at a medium scale for selected hotspot-compartments of the catchment. In order to appraise the extent to which susceptibility results are relevant in interpreting sediment sources at catchment scale, scale-induced differences are analysed in the case of each process. Based on the amount of uncertainty revealed by each regional-scale analysis in comparison to the medium-scale ones, decisions are made on whether the first are acceptable to the aim of identifying potential sediment source areas or if they should be

  15. Issues/Higher Education/Institutional Research. NCAIR Proceedings. Fifth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (Asheville, North Carolina, November 2-3, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles I., Ed.

    Proceedings from the fifth annual meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (NCAIR) focus on issues affecting higher education and the relationship of these issues to the institutional research function. Included are general session addresses by Charles A. Lyons and Dick Robinson that discuss the implications of Judge…

  16. A new, catchment-scale model for simulating methyl and total mercury in soils and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futter, M. N.; Poste, A. E.; Whitehead, P. G.; Dillon, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent and persistent neurotoxin. It is subject to long-range atmospheric transport, accumulates in catchment soils, and can pose health risks to humans and animals both at the point of use as well as in remote locations. Elevated concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) in fish are related to atmospheric Hg deposition and have resulted in fish consumption advisories in many parts of North America and Fennoscandia. After more than 150 years of elevated Hg deposition in Europe and North America, there remains a large inventory of Hg in the terrestrial catchments of lakes, which continues to be exported to receiving waters despite decreasing atmospheric inputs. While a substantial Hg pool exists in boreal catchment soils, fluxes of Hg from catchments via stream runoff tend to be much lower than atmospheric Hg inputs. Terrestrial catchments receiving similar atmospheric Hg inputs can have markedly different patterns of Hg output in stream water. Considering the importance of catchment processes in determining Hg flux to lakes and subsequent MeHg concentrations in fish, there is a need to characterize Hg cycling and transport in boreal and temperate forest-covered catchments. We present a new, catchment-scale, process-based dynamic model for simulating Hg in soils and surface waters. The Integrated Catchments Model for Mercury (INCA-Hg) simulates transport of gaseous, dissolved and solid Hg and transformations between elemental (Hg0), ionic (Hg(II)) and MeHg in natural and semi-natural landscapes. The mathematical description represents the model as a series of linked, first-order differential equations describing chemical and hydrological processes in catchment soils and waters which control surface water Hg dynamics and subsequent fluxes to lakes and other receiving waters. The model simulates daily time series between one and one hundred years long and can be applied to catchments ranging in size from <1 to ~10000 km2. Here we present applications

  17. Analysing the role of abandoned agricultural terraces on flood generation in a set of small Mediterranean mountain research catchments (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The Vallcebre research catchments are located in NE Spain, in a middle mountain area with a Mediterranean sub-humid climate. Most of the bedrock consists of continental red lutites that are easily weathered into loamy soils. This area was intensely used for agriculture in the past when most of the sunny gentle hillslopes were terraced. The land was progressively abandoned since the mid-20th Century and most of the fields were converted to meadows or were spontaneously forested. Early studies carried out in the terraced Cal Parisa catchment demonstrated the occurrence of two types of frequently saturated areas, ones situated in downslope locations with high topographic index values, and the others located in the inner parts of many terraces, where the shallow water table usually outcrops due to the topographical modifications linked to terrace construction. Both the increased extent of saturated areas and the role of a man-made elementary drainage system designed for depleting water from the terraces suggested that terraced areas would induce an enhanced hydrological response during rainfall events when compared with non-terraced hillslopes. The response of 3 sub-catchments, of increasing area and decreasing percentage of terraced area, during a set of major events collected during over 15 years has been analysed. The results show that storm runoff depths were roughly proportional to precipitations above 30 mm although the smallest catchment (Cal Parisa), with the highest percentage of terraces, was able to completely buffer rainfall events of 60 mm in one hour without any runoff when antecedent conditions were dry. Runoff coefficients depended on antecedent conditions and peak discharges were weakly linked to rainfall intensities. Peak lag times, peak runoff rates and recession coefficients were similar in the 3 catchments; the first variable values were in the range between Hortonian and saturation overland flow and the two last ones were in the range of

  18. OVERVIEW OF THE NORTH AMERICAN RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR TROPOSPHERIC OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and related products of photochemical smog, have been the subject of repeated control attempts for nearly 30 years in portions of North America. hese trace gases are known to be harmful to humans, animals, vegetation, and materials. s growth and industrial...

  19. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  20. RESEARCH PROSPECTIVES FOR DOLPHIN MORTALITIES IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Second Gulf Breeze Symposium sponsored by EPA's Center for Marine and Estuarine Disease Research focused on scientific research related to dolphin mortalities. uring the symposium, four groups were formed to discuss and evaluate current scientific information, research strate...

  1. Topographical and Hydrological Influences on the Spatial Distribution of Mercury at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, T.; Converse, A.; Riscassi, A.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Inorganic forms of mercury (Hg) can be converted through natural processes into methylmercury, a highly potent neurotoxin that can bioaccumulate in food chains and pose a risk to human health. Although Hg can enter aquatic environments through direct deposition, the predominant source tends to be mobilized Hg deposited in nearby terrestrial systems. Therefore, understanding the complex intermediate Hg cycling in vegetation and soils is crucial to predicting its presence in water bodies and potential for bioaccumulation. While prior studies have revealed dependence of Hg distribution on forest types and soil characteristics, less attention has been given to the role of aspect and hydrological factors on Hg deposition and consequent spatial distribution within catchments. My research addresses this by conducting a litterfall and soil sampling study to assess Hg spatial distribution within two paired catchments: northwest-facing North Fork Dry Run and southeast-facing Hannah Run. Litterfall and soil samples collected through a random stratified sampling process were analyzed for total Hg concentrations using a Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry. An analysis of variance conducted on leaf litter and soil Hg concentrations revealed that: (1) Hg accumulation in soils was significantly greater in the northwest-facing catchment than in the south-east facing catchment, while Hg accumulation in leaves was not found to differ, and (2) within each catchment the likelihood of saturation was not found to play a significant role in governing Hg accumulation in soils. Higher Hg levels in the soils of North Forth Dry Run could be attributable to predominant wind direction from sources of Hg (i.e., coal-burning power plants). Within catchments, lack of appreciable Hg deposition resulted in statistically insignificant variation amongst topographic index classes. The results of this study reveal the potential implications of mountainous terrains in distributing Hg arising from

  2. Evaluating the Impacts of Unexpected Forest Disturbances on Paired Catchment Calibrations of Sediment Yield and Turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlein, K.; Silins, U.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Martens, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The paired catchment approach of studying the impacts of disturbance on catchment hydrology remains as perhaps the most powerful approach for direct verification of catchment scale impacts from disturbance. However, paired catchment studies are also dependent on the stability of the relationships between treated and reference catchments during calibration and evaluation periods. A long-term paired catchment study of forest harvest impacts on sediment yield and turbidity in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada has a robust 11-year pre-treatment data record. The study intends to evaluate three alternative logging practices: clear-cutting, strip-shelterwood, and partial cutting. 3 sub-catchments in Star Creek (1035 ha) underwent harvest treatments while North York Creek (865 Ha) serves as the reference. The objective of this particular study was to explore the potential effects of unplanned and unanticipated watershed changes in two watersheds during an 11-year calibration. Sediment yield (kg ha-1 d-1) and turbidity (NTU) were monitored throughout the calibration period (2004-2014) prior to the 2015 harvest in Star Creek. Two unanticipated disturbances including backcountry trail rehabilitation in North York (2010) followed by a >100 year storm event in both watersheds in June 2013 may have affected the sediment yield and turbidity calibration relationships. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of this trail rehabilitation and flooding by comparing the calibration relationships before and after these disturbances. Despite qualitative field observations of periodically affected sediment regimes, no impact on pre- or post- calibration relationships was observed. Backcountry trail rehabilitation in North York (p=0.904 and 0.416 for sediment yield and turbidity, respectively) or flooding in both watersheds (p=0.364 and 0.204 for sediment yield and turbidity, respectively) did not produce significant changes to the calibrations

  3. NCIP Manual. Manual for the North American Inventory of Research Library Collections. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Scott, Jutta

    The Association of Research Libraries' Office of Management Services (OMS), working with the Research Libraries Group, Inc. (RLG), began the North American Collections Inventory Project (NCIP) in July 1983 as a cooperative effort intended eventually to involve research libraries throughout the United States and Canada. The project's long-term goal…

  4. Adult Education Research: A Comparison of North American and British Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Finding that British researchers are believed to use qualitative methods while North Americans favor quantitative measurement in adult education enquiry, the author examines substantive research concerns and research publication in the United States, Britain, and Canada and concludes that there is some validity to the stereotype. (Availability:…

  5. NARVAL North - Remote Sensing of Postfrontal Convective Clouds and Precipitation over the North Atlantic with the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepp, Christian; Ament, Felix; Bakan, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Hagen, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Jansen, Friedhelm; Konow, Heike; Mech, Mario; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Schäfler, Andreas; Stevens, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The new German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) became recently available for measurement flights in atmospheric research. It's capacity of measuring from a high altitude vertical profiles of all components of atmospheric water - like vapor, liquid and ice, in both cloud and precipitation forms, as well as the aerosol particles upon which cloud droplets form - makes it a unique research platform. The aircraft, equipped with advanced radiometers, radar and lidar technology, the HALO Microwave Package (HAMP), is an initiative by German climate and environmental research institutions and is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). One of the first major missions to exploit the capabilities of HALO was conducted for the NARVAL project (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) during January 2014. After studying subtropical clouds one month before in the first NARVAL phase, the interest of NARVAL North focused on the study of cold air convection and precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Based at Keflavik airport (Iceland), several flights were conducted to examine the specific small-scale precipitation structures behind the backsides of cold fronts over the North Atlantic. This should help to narrow the gap in the understanding of substantial differences between satellite observations and model calculations in such situations. First data analysis of these measurements indicate promising results. The poster will describe the HALO instrument packages as well as the collected observations during the campaign and will present preliminary scientific findings.

  6. Studies in Teaching. 1995 Research Digest. Papers Presented at the Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    This is a collection of papers reporting student research projects at the Annual Research Forum, Department of Education, Wake Forest University (North Carolina). They include: "Student Interest in Studying World History in Relation to Current Events" (Conan Arthur); "Perceptions of High School Student Athletes and Athletics" (Edward Barrett);…

  7. An approach for aggregating upstream catchment information to support research and management of fluvial systems across large landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yin-Phan; Wieferich, Daniel; Fung, Kuolin; Infante, Dana M; Cooper, Arthur R

    2014-01-01

    The growing quality and availability of spatial map layers (e.g., climate, geology, and land use) allow stream studies, which historically have occurred over small areas like a single watershed or stream reach, to increasingly explore questions from a landscape perspective. This large-scale perspective for fluvial studies depends on the ability to characterize influences on streams resulting from throughout entire upstream networks or catchments. While acquiring upstream information for a single reach is relatively straight-forward, this process becomes demanding when attempting to obtain summaries for all streams throughout a stream network and across large basins. Additionally, the complex nature of stream networks, including braided streams, adds to the challenge of accurately generating upstream summaries. This paper outlines an approach to solve these challenges by building a database and applying an algorithm to gather upstream landscape information for digitized stream networks. This approach avoids the need to directly use spatial data files in computation, and efficiently and accurately acquires various types of upstream summaries of landscape information across large regions using tabular processing. In particular, this approach is not limited to the use of any specific database software or programming language, and its flexibility allows it to be adapted to any digitized stream network as long as it meets a few minimum requirements. This efficient approach facilitates the growing demand of acquiring upstream summaries at large geographic scales and helps to support the use of landscape information in assisting management and decision-making across large regions. PMID:25392769

  8. NASA/FAA North Texas Research Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    NTX Research Staion: NASA research assets embedded in an interesting operational air transport environment. Seven personnel (2 civil servants, 5 contractors). ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, 3 air carrier AOCs(American, Eagle and Southwest), and 2 major airports all within 12 miles. Supports NASA Airspace Systems Program with research products at all levels (fundamental to system level). NTX Laboratory: 5000 sq ft purpose-built, dedicated, air traffic management research facility. Established data links to ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, air carriers, airport and NASA facilities. Re-configurable computer labs, dedicated radio tower, state-of-the-art equipment.

  9. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  10. Spectral Analysis in Catchment Hydrology and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, J. W.; Feng, X.; Renshaw, C. E.; Neal, C.

    2001-12-01

    Spectral analysis of chemical tracer time series can be used to probe the internal workings of catchments. It has recently been shown that catchments act as fractal filters for inert chemical tracers like chloride, converting "white noise" rainfall chemistry inputs into fractal "1/f noise" runoff chemistry time series (Kirchner et al., 2000). This implies that catchments have long-tailed travel time distributions, and thus retain soluble contaminants for unexpectedly long timespans. Long-term monitoring data from North America, Britain, and Scandinavia show that this fractal behavior characterizes a wide array of catchments. How can this fractal scaling arise in such diverse settings? One can show that advection and dispersion of spatially distributed rainfall tracer inputs will generate fractal tracer time series, as long as the flow system is highly dispersive (Kirchner et al., in press). This implies that subsurface flow in small catchments is dominated by large conductivity contrasts, such as arise from macropores, fracture networks, and similar large-scale heterogeneities in subsurface conductivity. One can also use spectral methods to analyze long-term time series of water fluxes in rainfall and streamflow. Spectral analysis of hydrologic time series measures the downslope propagation of the hydraulic potential waves that mobilize runoff, whereas spectral analysis of tracer time series clocks the propagation of water itself through the catchment. Water fluxes in streamflow exhibit non-fractal scaling, instead of the fractal 1/f scaling shown by chemical tracers. These observations imply that hydrologic signals are transmitted downslope more rapidly, and with much less dispersion, than chemical tracer signals are. Thus small upland catchments transmit hydraulic potentials (which drive runoff) much less dispersively than they transport water itself. These observations provide important constraints for theoretical models of subsurface flow and transport in

  11. 2012 North Plains research field 12-200 limited irrigation corn production study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2012 represented the third sequential year of research regarding the limited irrigation 12-200 corn production assessment study at the North Plains Research Field (NPRF) with the yield results being improved from that of the 2011 season but less than of the 2010 season. The study's purpose was to ev...

  12. Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.

  13. Towards catchment classification by means of environmental tracers and landscape analysis: The Attert catchment in Luxembourg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.; Krein, A.; Fenicia, F.; Bogaard, T. A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2010-05-01

    Until recently hydrological research has been mainly focusing on detailed investigations at small spatial scales, resulting in a set of more and more complex physically-based and spatially distributed hydrologic models. While much of the research effort today is targeted to advance these hydrological model predictions at the catchment scale, shortcomings remain to adequately capture the dominating hydrological processes across a range of scales that translate into the rainfall-runoff response of a catchment. Thus, studies addressing the fundamental relations between catchment structure and function are urgently needed, as they help catchment classification by advancing our knowledge about suitable catchment signatures and controls at different spatial and temporal scales. In our study in the nested Attert catchment in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Europe) we investigate how environmental tracer dynamics, hydrological response behavior and landscape analysis can help to identify such dominating controls on runoff generation across multiple scales. Techniques to characterize landscape structure and hydrological processes are complementary applied to identify scales in which shifts of the dominant hydrological processes occur. These dominating controls in turn provide a more integrated perspective of catchment structure and functioning that can be used for catchment classification based on functional response.

  14. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  15. 2013 North Dakota Transgenic Barley Research and FHB Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research continues to develop and test new transgenic plants using genes provided by collaborators. As lines are developed in Golden Promise, they are crossed to Conlon for field testing. Transgenic lines developed in Conlon are being crossed to resistant lines developed by the breeding programs. ...

  16. Inferring the effect of catchment complexity on mesoscale hydrologic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FröHlich, Holger L.; Breuer, Lutz; Vaché, Kellie B.; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2008-09-01

    The effect of catchment complexity on hydrologic and hydrochemical catchment response was characterized in the mesoscale Dill catchment (692 km2), Germany. This analysis was developed using multivariate daily stream concentration and discharge data at the basin outlet, in connection with less frequently sampled catchment-wide end-member chemistries. The link between catchment-wide runoff sources and basin output was observed through a combination of concentration-discharge (C-Q) analysis and multivariate end-member projection. Subsurface stormflow, various groundwater and wastewater sources, as well as urban surface runoff emerged in catchment output chemistry. Despite the identification of multiple sources, several runoff sources observed within the catchment failed to display consistent links with the output chemistry. This failure to associate known source chemistry with outlet chemistry may have resulted from a lack of hydraulic connectivity between sources and basin outlet, from different arrival times of subbasin-scale runoff contributions, and also from an overlap of source chemistries that subsumed discrete runoff sources in catchment output. This combination of catchment heterogeneity and complexity simply suggests that the internal spatial organization of the catchment impeded the application of lumped mixing calculations at the 692 km2 outlet. Given these challenges, we suggest that in mesoscale catchment research, the potential effects of spatial organization should be included in any interpretation of highly integrated response signals, or when using those signals to evaluate numerical rainfall-runoff models.

  17. The Practice of Institutional Research. Proceedings of a Joint Conference of the Southern Association for Institutional Research and the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (Charlotte, North Carolina, October 29-30, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary P., Ed.; Staman, E. Michael, Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1981 joint conference sponsored by the Southern Association for Institutional Research (SAIR) and the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research are presented. The conference theme was the practice of institutional research. Contents include preconference workshop reports, speeches, abstracts of papers, and reports of…

  18. High-resolution monitoring of catchment nutrient response to the end of the 2011-2012 drought in England, captured by the demonstration test catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, F. N.; Lloyd, C.; Jonczyk, J.; Benskin, C. McW. H.; Grant, F.; Dorling, S. R.; Steele, C. J.; Collins, A. L.; Freer, J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Hiscock, K. M.; Johnes, P. J.; Lovett, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) project is a UK Government funded initiative to test the effectiveness of on-farm mitigation measures designed to reduce agricultural pollution without compromising farm productivity. Three distinct catchments in England have been chosen to test the efficacy of mitigation measures on working farms in small tributary sub-catchments equipped with continuous water quality monitoring stations. The Hampshire Avon in the south is a mixed livestock and arable farming catchment, the River Wensum in the east is a lowland catchment with predominantly arable farming and land use in the River Eden catchment in the north-west is predominantly livestock farming. One of the many strengths of the DTC as a national research platform is that it provides the ability to investigate catchment hydrology and biogeochemical response across different landscapes and geoclimatic characteristics, with a range of differing flow behaviours, geochemistries and nutrient chemistries. Although numerous authors present studies of individual catchment responses to storms, no studies exist of multiple catchment responses to the same rainfall event captured with in situ high-resolution nutrient monitoring at a national scale. This paper brings together findings from all three DTC research groups to compare the response of the catchments to a major storm event in April 2012. This was one of the first weather fronts to track across the country following a prolonged drought period affecting much of the UK through 2011-2012, marking an unusual meteorological transition when a rapid shift from drought to flood risk occurred. The effects of the weather front on discharge and water chemistry parameters, including nitrogen species (NO3-N and NH4-N) and phosphorus fractions (total P (TP) and total reactive P (TRP)), measured at a half-hourly time step are examined. When considered in the context of one hydrological year, flow and concentration duration curves reveal that

  19. Watershed Research at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed at Coshocton, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) at Coshocton, Ohio was established during the mid 1930s as one of the first watershed research locations in the US (other locations included Riesel, TX and Hastings, NE). The mission of the outdoor laboratory facility was to determine the effects ...

  20. Labor Market Returns to Community College: Evidence from North Carolina. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, we summarize our research on the wage returns to community college pathways in North Carolina. We use detailed individual and college transcript information on approximately 830,000 students who attended community college during the 2000s. This transcript data is matched with earnings data from Unemployment Insurance records. We…

  1. Runoff generation mechanism at two distinct headwater catchments - isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Michal; Votrubová, Jana; Šanda, Martin; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, Tomáš; Dušek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    Data from two headwater catchments indicate considerably different runoff formation mechanisms. The contributions of different surface and subsurface runoff mechanisms to the catchment discharge formation at these two small forested headwater catchments are studied with help of the natural isotopic signatures of the observed fluxes. The Uhlirska catchment (1.78 sq. km, Jizera Mts., Czech Republic) is situated in headwater area of Cerna Nisa stream. Deluviofluvial granitic sediments in the valley bottom areas (riparian zones/wetlands) are surrounded by gentle hillslopes with shallow soils developed on crystalline bedrock. The Liz catchment (0.99 sq. km, Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic) belongs to hillslope-type catchments without riparian zones situated in headwater area of Volynka River. The soil at Liz is developed on biotite paragneiss bedrock. Autocorrelation analysis of the measured catchment discharge rates reveals different hydrograph characteristics for each of the two catchments. Estimated autocorrelation lengths differ by an order of magnitude. Variations of oxygen-18 isotope concentrations in precipitation, groundwater and streamflow were analyzed. Several significant rainfall-runoff events at each of the two catchments were analyzed in detail. These events exhibit substantial difference in isotopic compositions of event and pre-event water, which facilitates hydrograph separation. Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteretic relationships between the stream discharge and its isotope concentration were identified. Results were confronted with the previously published concepts of the runoff formation at the catchments under study. The research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation, project No. 14-15201J.

  2. Studies in Teaching: 2013 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 18th Annual Research Forum held June 26, 2013, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 13 action research papers: (1) Developing Oral Language Ability in the Secondary Spanish Classroom Using the Interpersonal and Presentational Modes of Communication…

  3. Studies in Teaching: 2005 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 7, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    These Proceedings document an educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 7, 2005. Table of contents and 26 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: (1) Mathematical Reasoning in Multiple Representations: Connections and Confidence (Justin Allman); (2) The…

  4. Studies in Teaching: 2007 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 12, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    These Proceedings document an educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 12, 2007. Table of contents and 23 research studies of high school teaching are included. Each paper contains a literature review, methodology, results, conclusions, and references. Studies include: (1) Cultural…

  5. Studies in Teaching: 2012 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 29, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 17th Annual Research Forum held June 29, 2012, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included herein are the following 25 action research papers: (1) "Reading and Writing": A Study Comparing the Strengths of Peer Review and Visible Author Writing Strategies (Elizabeth Behar); (2)…

  6. Studies in Teaching: 2003 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 10, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of an annual educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 10, 2003. A table of contents and 31 research studies of high school teaching are included. The following studies are included: (1) No, Seriously: Humor Use by High School Social Studies Teachers…

  7. Studies in Teaching: 2015 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 25, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 20th Annual Research Forum held June 25, 2015, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 21 action research papers: (1) History Lives! The Use of Simulations in a High School Social Studies Classroom (Lydia Adkins); (2) Using Francophone Music in the High…

  8. Studies in Teaching: 2011 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 15, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of 16th Annual Research Forum held June 15, 2011, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included herein are the following 25 action research papers: (1) The Effects of Prompted Math Journaling on Algebra 1 Students' Achievement and Attitudes (Heidi I. Arnold); (2) Group Work and Attitude…

  9. Studies in Teaching: 2006 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 6, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    These Proceedings document an educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 6, 2006. Table of contents and 27 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: (1) A Study of Teachers' Perceptions of High School Mathematics Instructional Methods (Caroline Adkisson); (2)…

  10. Learning Journeys: Learners' Voice. North East Learners' Views on Progress and Achievement in Literacy and Numeracy. Summary Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregson, Maggie; Spedding, Trish; Banks, Andy; Stewart, Jennifer; Staley, Jim; Edmonds, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the processes and findings of a north east Learning and Skills Development Agency (LSDA) research project. This was a collaborative research study, which followed from a similar, much larger project in the north west, which looked into how learners view their own progress and achievement in the acquisition of literacy and…

  11. Phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon export during peak flow periods in three small homogenous catchments in eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benning, R.; Schwärzel, K.; Feger, K. H.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict both an overall increase in temperature and alterations in annual precipitation regimes. For large parts of Central Europe, climate change is expected to result in an increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer precipitation. In addition, an increase in extreme conditions, such as heat waves, prolonged drought periods, and heavy rainfall events are predicted. This research examines the potential impacts of increased heavy rainfall events on matter export from small catchment areas, and how different vegetation cover and land management options effects these exports. In order to evaluate the export of matter from different land-use types in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, NE Germany, 50° 48'18.06" North, 13° 36'24.54" East), study sites were established in three small catchments with homogeneous land-use. These study areas are each sub-catchments of the Ammelsdorf catchment, which provides inflow to the Lehnmühle reservoir (a major water supply for the city of Dresden). Each sub catchment represents one of the three main land-use types in the catchment area of the reservoir: crops (winter oilseed rape, winter wheat), grasslands, and forests (primarily spruce). Since November 2009 the discharge from these sub catchments has been continuously measured and water quality was analyzed on a weekly basis. During peak flow events, discharge was collected using automatic water samplers, which allowed for high temporal resolution analysis of matter export during these periods to be made. During the 2010 and 2011 hydrological years, several heavy rainfall events occurred which have been evaluated. During a 110-hour long precipitation event (P = 170 mm) between 37 and 81 water samples per sub catchment were collected and analyzed. The resulting export of dissolved phosphorus (ortho-PO4-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the sub catchments during this event is provided in the results. In

  12. Topic: Catchment system dynamics: Processes and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    In this meeting we can talk about my main expertise: the focus of my research ocus revolves around understanding catchment system dynamics in a holistic way by incorporating both processes on hillslopes as well as in the river channel. Process knowledge enables explanation of the impact of natural and human drivers on the catchment systems and which consequences these drivers have for water and sediment connectivity. Improved understanding of the catchment sediment and water dynamics will empower sustainable land and river management and mitigate soil threats like erosion and off-side water and sediment accumulation with the help of nature's forces. To be able to understand the system dynamics of a catchment, you need to study the catchment system in a holistic way. In many studies only the hillslopes or even plots are studied; or only the channel. However, these systems are connected and should be evaluated together. When studying a catchment system any intervention to the system will create both on- as well as off sites effects, which should especially be taken into account when transferring science into policy regulations or management decisions.

  13. Transit time estimation using tritium and stable isotopes in a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Stewart, Mike; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Water resources of Mediterranean regions mainly depend on runoff generated in mountain areas. Therefore, study of the time water spends travelling through Mediterranean mountains is important for water resources management as it reflects the ability of catchments to retain and release water. Natural isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes) have been used in different environments to quantify the ages of water within catchments. However, there are relatively few studies of water transit times in Mediterranean mountain regions. Additionally, tritium dating is more common in Southern Hemisphere streams because they were less affected by tritium produced mainly in the North Hemisphere by nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s. With the aim of improving knowledge of the hydrological catchment functioning of Mediterranean mountain areas, this work estimates water transit times in spring water, groundwater and stream water using tritium and stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) measurements in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). Tritium measurements from a previous study carried out in 1996-1998 (Herrmann et al., 1999) were supplemented by new samples collected on 3 November 2013. Difficulties with the age interpretation of the tritium measurements arise from the determination of the tritium input function, the different accuracies of the tritium measurements and the ambiguous ages resulting from past input of tritium from nuclear testing to the atmosphere. Water stable isotope samples were collected in rainfall, spring water, groundwater and streamwater at baseflow conditions every 15 days over a 27 month period. Detailed distributed hydrometric measurements (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, discharge and water table level) were obtained during the same period. Preliminary results using δ18O, δ2H and tritium show that mean transit times in the Cal Rodó catchment (4.2 km2) ranged between 1.3 and 11.6 years. The lowest mean

  14. IPY to Mark Expansion of Research Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, B. D.; Eicken, H.; Sheehan, G. W.; Glenn, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Barrow Global Climate Change Research Facility will open to researchers on the North Slope of Alaska during the 2007-08 anniversary of the first IPY. Between 1949 and 1980, arctic researchers were very active on the North Slope and in nearby waters largely because of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) at Barrow. NARL provided easy access, laboratories and logistical support. NARL was closed in 1981, but particularly during this past decade, Barrow-based arctic research projects have been back on the upswing. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) Barrow station was founded during the 1970s, and continues as part of NOAA's five station global network for monitoring atmospheric composition. The North Slope Borough's Department of Wildlife Management (DWM) has for the past 20 years conducted its own research. The DWM also served as logistical provider for growing numbers of arctic researchers without other logistical support. In the late 1990s, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM: DOE's principal climate change research effort) created a Cloud and Radiation Testbed on the North Slope with atmospheric instrumentation at Barrow and Atqasuk. It is now part of the ARM Climate Research Facility, a National User Facility. In response to growing researcher needs, the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC) was formed in the late 1990s as a non-profit logistical support and community coordinating organization, and received the endorsement of Ukpeagvik Inupiat Corporation (UIC), NSB and the local community college. BASC provides logistical support to National Science Foundation (NSF) researchers through a cooperative agreement, and to others on a fee for service basis. UIC also dedicated 11 square miles of its land as the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), and charged BASC with management of the BEO. This land that has been used for research for more

  15. Critical uncertainties and research needs for the restoration and conservation of native lampreys in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the literature, queried selected researchers, and drew upon our own experience to describe some critical uncertainties and research needs for the conservation and restoration of native lampreys in North America. We parsed the uncertainties and research needs into five general categories: (1) population status; (2) systematics; (3) passage at dams, screens, and other structures; (4) species identification in the field; and (5) geneal biology and ecology. For each topic, we describe why the subject is important for lampreys, briefly smmarize our current state of knowledge, and discuss the key data or information gaps.

  16. Characterizing streamflow generation in Alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Cano Paoli, Karina; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Developing effective hydrological models for streamflow generation in Alpine catchments is challenging due to the inherent complexity of the intertwined processes controlling water transfer from hillslopes to streams and along the river network. With water discharge as the sole observational variable it is impossible to differentiate between different streamflow sources, and modelling activity is often limited to simplified phenomenological rainfall-runoff models. This study focuses on quantifying streamflow sources at different temporal scales and the associated uncertainty by using natural tracer data (electrical conductivity, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes ratios) as observational variables supplementing streamflow measurements. We determine the spatial and temporal hydrological behavior and the mean residence time of water in the Vermigliana catchment, North-Eastern Italy and we separate contributions to streamflow originating from Presena and Presanella glaciers, both exerting a strong control on the hydrologic budget of the study site. Furthermore, we identify a seasonal control on the effect of storm events. The catchment responded rapidly to precipitation events in early autumn, it was unaffected by precipitation events in early spring, while runoff generation was enhanced by snow melting in late autumn. Air temperature is identified as the main controlling parameter, in addition to precipitation. Two-component mixing analysis showed that the relative contribution of new water, which can contribute up to 75% of total streamflow, is very rapid. Only two hours time-lag was observed between the beginning of the precipitation event and the emergence of a significant contribution of new water. These results evidence the relevance of mixing between pre-event and event water in the Vermigliana catchment, and in similar high elevation Alpine catchments. This study provides new insights on the dynamics of streamflow generation in Alpine catchments and a

  17. Stormflow generation: A meta-analysis of field evidence from small, forested catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthold, Frauke K.; Woods, Ross A.

    2015-05-01

    Combinations of runoff characteristics are commonly used to represent distinct conceptual models of stormflow generation. In this study, three runoff characteristics: hydrograph response, time source of runoff water, and flow path are used to classify catchments. Published data from the scientific literature are used to provide evidence from small, forested catchments. Each catchment was assigned to one of the eight conceptual models, depending on the combination of quick/slow response, old/new water, and overland/subsurface flow. A standard procedure was developed to objectively diagnose the predominant conceptual model of stormflow generation for each catchment and assess its temporal and spatial support. The literature survey yielded 42 catchments, of which 30 catchments provide a complete set of qualitative runoff characteristics resulting in one of the eight conceptual models. The majority of these catchments classify as subsurface flow path dominated. No catchments were found for conceptual models representing combinations of quick response-new water-subsurface flow (SSF), slow-new-SSF, slow-old-overland flow (OF) nor new-slow-OF. Of the 30 qualitatively classified catchments, 24 provide a complete set of quantitative measures. In summary, the field support is strong for 19 subsurface-dominated catchments and is weak for 5 surface flow path dominated catchments (six catchments had insufficient quantitative data). Two alternative explanations exist for the imbalance of field support between the two flow path classes: (1) the selection of research catchments in past field studies was mainly to explain quick hydrograph response in subsurface dominated catchments; (2) catchments with prevailing subsurface flow paths are more common in nature. We conclude that the selection of research catchments needs to cover a wider variety of environmental conditions which should lead to a broader, and more widely applicable, spectrum of resulting conceptual models and process

  18. What makes catchment management groups "tick"?

    PubMed

    Oliver, P

    2001-01-01

    The work of catchment management groups throughout Australia represents a significant economic and social investment in natural resource management. Institutional structures and policies, the role of on-ground coordinators, facilitation processes, citizen participation and social capital are critical factors influencing the success of catchment management groups. From a participant-researcher viewpoint, this paper signposts research directions and themes that are being pursued from the participant/coordinator, catchment group, and lead government/non-government agency perspective on the influence of these factors on the success of a catchment management group in the Pumicestone Region of Southeast Queensland, Australia. Research directions, themes and discussion/reflection points for practitioners include--the importance of understanding milieu; motivation; success; having fun; "networking networks"; involvement of "nontraditional" stakeholders; development of stakeholder/participant partnerships; learning from other practitioners; methods of stakeholder/participant representation; evaluation; the need for guiding principles or philosophy; the equivalence of planning, implementation, evaluation, and resourcing; catchments as fundamental units of Nature; continuity of support for groups; recognising a new role for government; working with existing networks; and the need for an eclectic approach to natural resource management. PMID:11424936

  19. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  20. A history of early geologic research in the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Deep River Triassic basin has one of the longest recorded histories of geologic research in North Carolina. A quick perusal of nineteenth century geologic literature in North Carolina reveals the Deep River basin has received a tremendous amount of attention, second only, perhaps, to the gold deposits of the Carolina slate belt. While these early researchers' primary interests were coal deposits, many other important discoveries, observations, and hypotheses resulted from their investigations. This article highlights many of the important advances made by these early geo-explorers by trying to include information from every major geologic investigation made in the Deep River basin from 1820 to 1955. This article also provides as thorough a consolidated history as is possible to preserve the exploration history of the Deep River basin for future investigators.

  1. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  2. Management of North American Culicoides Biting Midges: Current Knowledge and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Pfannenstiel, Robert S; Mullens, Bradley A; Ruder, Mark G; Zurek, Ludek; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Nayduch, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses impacting North American ruminants--bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). These viruses have been identified for over 60 years in North America, but we still lack an adequate understanding of the basic biology and ecology of the confirmed vector, Culicoides sonorensis, and know even less about other putative Culicoides vector species. The major gaps in our knowledge of the biology of Culicoides midges are broad and include an understanding of the ecology of juveniles, the identity of potential alternate vector species, interactions of midges with both pathogens and vertebrates, and the effectiveness of potential control measures. Due to these broad and numerous fundamental knowledge gaps, vector biologists and livestock producers are left with few options to respond to or understand outbreaks of EHD or BT in North America, or respond to emerging or exotic Culicoides-transmitted pathogens. Here we outline current knowledge of vector ecology and control tactics for North American Culicoides species, and delineate research recommendations aimed to fill knowledge gaps. PMID:26086558

  3. The Effect of Terrain Aspect on Interannual Variability of Hydrologic Response in Mountainous Catchments in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, X.; Troch, P. A.; McIntosh, J. C.; Broxton, P. D.; Brooks, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    The aspect of the land surface in mid and high latitudes control hydrological response through differences in energy fluxes, prevailing winds, snow processes, evaporation and transpiration. In the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) in northern New Mexico, recent research has shown that north facing terrains accumulate thicker snow packs, the snow cover duration is longer, the soil moisture content is higher and hillslopes have longer water transit times. These findings suggest that catchments with a predominant north facing aspect are expected to have more water available and consequently a different hydrological response than catchments characterized by a different land orientation. This poster presents four years (2008-2011) of hydrological data in the VCNP and shows the hydrological response to interannual climate variability in mountainous catchments draining along different aspects. This investigation focuses on three perennial catchments draining Redondo Peak (3435m): La Jara (LJ; 3.67 km2), History Grove (HG; 2.42 km2) and Upper Jaramillo (UJ; 3.06 km2). The three catchments range in elevation between 2680 m and 3429 m. They share similar topographic characteristics, climate, vegetation and a complex geology. The most predominant north facing catchment is UJ; HG and LJ have both a predominant east facing aspect. This study is based on empirical observations of basin response and it has been carried out by way of monitoring physical amount, intensity and timing of water entering and leaving the catchments using the available meteorological data in the region and the instrumented network installed by the Jemez River Basin and Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (http://www.czo.arizona.edu/). The climate in the region is semi-arid, continental and highly variable. For the water years (WY) 2008 and 2011 annual precipitation was 86% and 71% below the mean (P=711.5mm), and during WY 2009 and 2010, annual precipitation was 4% and 1% above the

  4. Estimating gully erosion contribution to large catchment sediment yield rate in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndomba, Preksedis Marco; Mtalo, Felix; Killingtveit, Aanund

    The objective of this paper is to report on the issues and proposed approaches in estimating the contribution of gully erosion to sediment yield at large catchment. The case study is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB) located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. Little has been done by other researchers to study and/or extrapolate gully erosion results from plot or field scale to large catchment. In this study multi-temporal aerial photos at selected sampling sites were used to estimate gully size and morphology changes over time. The laboratory aerial photo interpretation results were groundtruthed. A data mining tool, Cubist, was used to develop predictive gully density stepwise regression models using aerial photos and environment variables. The delivery ratio was applied to estimate the sediment yield rate. The spatial variations of gully density were mapped under Arc View GIS Environment. Gully erosion sediment yield contribution was estimated as a ratio between gully erosion sediment yield and total sediment yield at the catchment outlet. The general observation is that gullies are localized features and not continuous spatially and mostly located on some mountains’ foot slopes. The estimated sediment yield rate from gullies erosion is 6800 t/year, which is about 1.6% of the long-term total catchment sediment yield rate. The result is comparable to other study findings in the same catchment. In order to improve the result larger scale aerial photos and high resolution spatial data on soil-textural class and saturated hydraulic conductivity - are recommended.

  5. Land degradation trends in upper catchments and morphological developments of braided rivers in drylands: the case of a marginal graben of the Ethiopian Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Braided rivers have received relatively little attention in research and development activities in drylands. However, they strongly impact agroecology and agricultural activities and thereby local livelihoods. The Raya Graben (3750 km² including the escarpment) is a marginal graben of the Ethiopian Rift Valley located in North Ethiopia. In order to study the dynamics of braided rivers and the relationship with biophysical controls, 20 representative catchments were selected, ranging between 15 and 311 km². First, the 2005 morphology (length, area) of the braided rivers was related to biophysical controls (vegetation cover, catchment area and slope gradient in the steep upper catchments and gradient in the graben bottom). Second, the changes in length of the braided rivers were related to vegetation cover changes in the upper catchments since 1972. Landsat imagery was used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and to map vegetation cover and the total length of the braided rivers. Spot CNES imagery available from Google Earth was used to identify the total area of the braided rivers in 2005. A linear regression analysis revealed that the length of braided rivers was positively related to the catchment area (R²=0.32, p<0.01), but insignificantly related to vegetation cover in the upper catchments. However, there is an indication that it is an important factor in the relationship calculated for 2005 (R²=0.2, p=0.064). Similarly, the area occupied by the braided rivers was related to NDVI (R²=0.24, p<0.05) and upper catchment area (R²=0.447, p<0.01). Slope gradient is not an important explanatory factor. This is related to the fact that slope gradients are steep (average of 38.1%) in all upper and gentle (average of 3.4%) in graben bottom catchments. The vegetation cover in the upper catchments shows a statistically insignificant increasing trend (R²=0.73, p=0.067) over the last 40 years, whereas length of rivers in the graben bottom

  6. The Hydrologic Response of a Small Catchment to Clear Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, A.; Stieglitz, M.; Pan, F.; McKane, R. B.

    2006-12-01

    We simulated how a landscape disturbance (i.e., fire or clear-cutting) alters hillslope and catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, we simulated how the pattern and magnitude of tree removal in a catchment increases downslope transport of water and alters catchment soil moisture and discharge. The study site is the WS10 catchment of the HJ Andrews LTER, located in the Pacific NorthWest, USA. We used a spatially- explicit hydrologic model comprised of connected landscape units. We implicitly model biomass removal and the subsequent forest re-growth by manipulating evapotranspiration. We allow potential evapotranspiration to increase exponentially from zero at the onset of the disturbance to pre-disturbance values within a 40 years period. Simulations show that while soil moisture in the uplands increased in post-disturbance period, downslope flow increased only minimally. In this catchment, upland soil moisture stayed well below field capacity, and therefore, downslope lateral flow was not initiated. As such, midland and lowland soil moisture, as well as catchment discharge, remained near pre-disturbance values throughout the re-growth period. This behavior in catchment dynamics resulted primarily from the fact that seasonal temperatures and precipitations are out of phase in this region of the US.

  7. Geoscience Research Drilling Office Operations I: the North INYO Drilling Program, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1986-05-01

    The North Inyo Drilling Program was part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program/Thermal Regimes and it was put forth by the Department of Energy/Office of Basic Energy Sciences to explore roots of a 600 year old volcanic system which is found in the north-west corner of Long Valley Caldera, California. The responsibility of the Geoscience Research Drilling Office was to provide logistical support to the scientific drilling team. This support consisted of obtaining the necessary permits, obtaining a drilling contract and providing field services involving logging and core handling/laboratory facilities. The first portion of this program was successful when hole RDO-2b traversed the conduit which fed Obsidian Dome; the second portion succeeded when RDO-3a traversed the dike underlying the Inyo Chain of volcanoes.

  8. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    gathering of relevant literature; (2) synthesis and summary of the literature; and (3) identification and prioritization of information needs. To assist in gathering this information, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting, held in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006; this report presents a summary of that meeting. The meeting was the primary method used to gather input from stakeholders and identify information needs and priorities for future inventory, monitoring, and research related to potential leasing and oil and gas developments in the North Aleutian Basin.

  9. Monitoring post-fire erosion from plot- to catchment scale using a nested scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Rick A.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; P. D Walsh, Rory; Urbanek, Emilia; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2010-05-01

    Fire-induced erosion has been observed in many regions, in both wildfire and controlled fire settings. Erosion rates have in many cases been found to be scale-dependent, with erosion rates decreasing with increasing plot size. Most studies, however, have investigated fire-induced erosion at plot and hillslope scales, leaving the catchment scale largely ignored. Moreover, many studies lack pre-fire control data. Here, we present a unique study that combines the multi-scale approach of previous wildfire research with the experimental advantages of controlled fire studies. This study focuses on the 9-ha Valtorto catchment in north-central Portugal, monitored for 1.5 year and then burned by experimental fire in February 2009. During the fire, above- and belowground temperatures were monitored. Rainfall, interception, runoff and soil water repellency were monitored throughout the study period, and soils were characterized. In addition, vegetation regeneration and soil surface evolution were monitored using repeat-picture plots. Runoff and erosion were monitored by various methodologies from the small plot to the catchment scale in the years before and after the fire. At the small plot scale, sediment and organic matter losses were determined from rainfall simulations performed under dry and wet antecedent conditions. At the hillslope scale, sediment losses were determined using sediment fences with known contributing areas. Sediment trapped behind these fences was collected after major rainfall events. At the catchment scale, bedload and suspended sediment sampled in a flume installed at the catchment outlet indicated the character of sediment and nutrient losses. Post-fire runoff and erosion were compared with a 1 to 10-year pre-fire record, and with values determined from a nearby comparable unburned catchment that was used as a control. The nested-scale approach adopted in this study facilitates assessment of the effect of scale on runoff and erosion, while the use

  10. Magnitudes and Sources of Catchment Sediment: When A + B Doesn't Equal C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The export of land-based sediments to receiving waters can cause degradation of water quality and habitat, loss of reservoir capacity and damage to reef ecosystems. Predictions of sources and magnitudes generally come from simulations using catchment models that focus on overland flow processes at the expense of gully and channel processes. This is not appropriate for many catchments where recent research has shown that the dominant erosion sources have shifted from the uplands and fields following European Settlement, to the alluvial valleys today. Still, catchment models which fail to adequately address channel and bank processes are still the overwhelming choice by resource agencies to help manage sediment export. These models often utilize measured values of sediment load at the river mouth to "calibrate" the magnitude of loads emanating from uplands and fields. The difference between the sediment load at the mouth and the simulated upland loading is then proportioned to channel sources.Bank erosion from the Burnett River (a "Reef Catchment" in eastern Queensland) was quantified by comparisons of bank-top locations and by numerical modeling using BSTEM. Results show that bank-derived sediment contributes between 44 and 73% of the sediment load being exported to the Coral Sea. In comparison reported results from a catchment model showed bank contributions of 8%. In absolute terms, this is an increase in the reported average, annual rate of bank erosion from 0.175 Mt/y to 2.0 Mt/y.In the Hoteo River, New Zealand, a rural North Island catchment characterized by resistant cohesive sediments, bank erosion was found to contribute at least 48% of the total specific yield of sediment. Combining the bank-derived, fine-grained loads from some of the major tributaries gives a total, average annual loading rate for fine material of about 10,900 t/y for the studied reaches in the Hoteo River System. If the study was extended to include the lower reaches of the main stem

  11. Vegetation and topography effects on snowcover energetics in mountain catchments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountainous regions in Western North America are snow-dominated with little or no summer precipitation. Wind and topographic structure control snow deposition, causing tremendous spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of the snowcover and the delivery of melt water across mountain catchments. Th...

  12. How old is upland catchment water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  13. Institutional Research: New Challenges to an Evolving Role. Proceedings of the North East Association for Institutional Research Annual Conference (13th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 26-28, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylis, Bayard, Comp.

    New challenges facing the institutional research profession are covered in these 1986 conference proceedings of the North East Association for Institutional Research. Paper titles and authors include: "Institutional Research at Mercer County Community College: The Changing Role in the Eighties" (F. L. Edwards); "Course Placement and Academic…

  14. Tracer-based assessment of flow paths, storage and runoff generation in northern catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Buttle, Jim; Carey, Sean K.; McGuire, Kevin; Laudon, Hjalmar; Soulsby, Chris

    2015-04-01

    We examine how tracer studies have enhanced our understanding of flow paths, residence times and sources of stream flow in northern catchments. We define northern catchments as non-glacial sites in the temperate conifer/boreal/permafrost zone, focussing mainly on sites in North America and Europe. Improved empirical and theoretical understanding of hydrological functioning has advanced the analytical tools available for tracer-based hydrograph separations, derivation of transit time distributions and tracer-aided rainfall-runoff models that are better able to link hydrological response to storage changes. However, the lack of comprehensive tracer data sets still hinders development of a generalized understanding of how northern catchments will respond to change. This paucity of empirical data leads to many outstanding research needs, particularly in rapidly changing areas that are already responding to climatic warming and economic development. To continually improve our understanding of hydrological processes in these regions our knowledge needs to be advanced using a range of techniques and approaches. Recent technological developments for improved monitoring, distributed hydrological sensor systems, more economic analysis of large sample numbers in conjunction with novel, tracer-aided modelling approaches and the use of remote sensing have the potential to help understanding of northern hydrological systems as well as inform policy at a time of rapid environmental change.

  15. Coastal Ocean Research and Monitoring Program at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, F. M.; Moss, M. K.; Wilbur, A.; Posey, M.; Pietrafesa, L.; Mallin, M.; Leonard, L.; Lankford, T.; Grindlay, N.; Cooper, W.; Cahoon, L.; Durako, M.; Xie, L.; Alphin, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Coastal Ocean Research and Monitoring Program (CORMP) is a research program and observing system in the coastal ocean off the Carolinas. The program is funded by NOAA to provide an inter-disciplinary science-based framework that supports sound public policy, wise coastal use, sustainable fisheries and improved coastal ocean ecosystem health.\\Core variables of CORMP's monitoring efforts include: physical processes (meteorological and oceanographic), ocean color, water quality (e.g., nutrients, turbidity), irradiation, sediment types, benthic ecology and larval fish distribution. The program's observing system consists of monthly coordinated (multi-disciplinary) surface-based and underwater sampling transects, and a series of long-term moorings in Onslow Bay and Long Bay off North and South Carolina.

  16. Influence of vegetation on water isotope partitioning across different northern headwater catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, R. S.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; Mitchell, C. P. J.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrology of high latitude catchments is sensitive to small changes in temperature, and likely to be impacted by changes in climate. Vegetation water usage can play a large role in catchment hydrologic pathways, affecting how water is stored, released, and partitioned within a landscape. Thus a better understanding of how vegetation impacts water partitioning in northern catchments can help us understand how climate change will impact high-latitude hydrology. As part of the VeWa project, five catchments were chosen between 44oN and 64oN in Europe and North America, to compare the role of vegetation in the movement of water across northern landscapes. These catchments vary in aspect as well as extent of snowpack and their vegetative landscapes include heather moorland, coniferous and deciduous forests, mixed grass, and tundra landscapes. Importantly, all the catchments have records of stable isotopes in different waters of the system. An initial comparison of the water isotopes in these catchments demonstrates variation between the catchments, with the lower latitude sites showing more fractionation suggestive of evapotranspiration. While all catchments show a depletion of heavy isotopes in the spring, the depletion is most evident in catchments with a heavier snowpack. The vegetative growing season during the summer months shows the greatest impact of evapotranspiration on isotopes, indicating that an increased summer in a warmer climate would likely alter water partitioning and storage dynamics in these regions.

  17. Catchment classification and model parameter transfer with a view to regionalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Rita; Hellebrand, Hugo; Casper, Markus C.

    2013-04-01

    Physiographic and climatic catchment characteristics are responsible for catchment response behaviour, whereas hydrological model parameters describe catchment properties in such a way to transform input data (here: precipitation, evaporation) to runoff, hence describing the response behaviour of a catchment. In this respect, model parameters can thus be seen as catchment descriptors. A third catchment descriptor is runoff behaviour, depicted by indices derived from event runoff coefficients and Flow Duration Curves. In an ongoing research project founded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we investigate the interdependencies of these three catchment descriptors for catchment classification with a view to regionalisation. The study area comprises about 80 meso-scale catchments in western Germany. These catchments are classified by Self Organising Maps (SOM) based on a) runoff behaviour and b) physical and climatic properties. The two classifications show an overlap of about 80% for all catchments and indicate a direct connection between the two descriptors for a majority of the catchments. Next, all catchments are calibrated with a simple and parsimonious conceptual model, stemming from the Superflex model framework. In this study we test the interdependencies between the classification and the calibrated model parameters by parameter transfer within and between the classes established by SOM. The model simulates total discharge, given observed precipitation and pre-estimated potential evaporation. Simulations with a few catchments show encouraging results: all simulations with the calibrated model show a good fit, which is indicated by Nash Sutcliff coefficients of about 0.8. Most of the simulations of runoff time series for catchments with parameter sets belonging to their own class display good performances too, while simulated runoff with model parameter sets from other classes display significant lower performance. This indicates that there is a

  18. The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids on model estimates of lakewater acidification using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). Summary of research conducted during year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.; Cosby, B.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Hemond, H.F.; Charles, D.F.; Norton, S.A.

    1993-03-05

    A project for the US Department of Energy, entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and Testing of the Revised Model UsingIndependent Data Sources`` was initiated by E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. in March, 1992. Major components of the project include: improving the MAGIC model by incorporating a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, and testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of preindustrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway. The ongoing research in this project involves development of an organic acid representation to be incorporated into the MAGIC modeland testing of the improved model using three independent data sources. The research during Year 1 has included conducting two workshops to agree on an approach for the organic acid modeling, developing the organic subroutine and incorporating it into MAGIC (Task 1), conducing MAGIC hindcasts for Adirondack lakes and comparing the results with paleolimnological reconstructions (Task 2), and conducting site visits to the manipulation project sites in Maine and Norway. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the work that has been conducted on this project during Year 1. Tasks 1 and 2 have now been completed.

  19. Spatial-temporal rainfall input resolution requirements for urban drainage modelling: a multi-storm, multi-catchment investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Rodriguez, Susana; Wang, Li-Pen; Gires, Auguste; Pina, Rui; Reinoso-Rondinel, Ricardo; Bruni, Guendalina; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gaitan, Santiago; Cristiano, Elena; van Assel, Johan; Kroll, Stefan; Murlà-Tuyls, Damian; Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Willems, Patrick; Onof, Christian; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire

    2015-04-01

    Urban hydrological applications require high resolution precipitation and catchment information in order to well represent the spatial variability, fast runoff processes and short response times of urban catchments. Although fast progress has been made over the last few decades in high resolution measurement of rainfall at urban scales, including increasing use of weather radars, the resolution of the currently available rainfall estimates (typically 1 x 1 km2 in space and 5 min in time) may still be too coarse to meet the stringent spatial-temporal scales characteristic of urban catchments. In addition, current evidence is still insufficient to provide a concrete answer regarding rainfall input resolution requirements of urban hydrological applications. With the aim of providing further evidence in this regard, in the framework of the EU Interreg RainGain project a collaborative study was conducted which investigated the impact of rainfall estimates for a range of spatial and temporal resolution combinations on the outputs of operational semi distributed models of seven urban catchments in North-West Europe. Nine storm events measured by a dual polarimetric X-band weather radar, located in the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) of the Netherlands, were selected for analysis. Based on the original radar estimates, at 100 m and 1 min resolutions, 15 different combinations of coarser spatial and temporal resolutions, up to 3000 m and 10 min, were generated. These estimates were applied to the hydraulic models of the urban catchments, all of which have similar size (between 3 and 8 km2), but different morphological, hydrological and hydraulic characteristics. When doing so, methodologies for standardising model outputs and making results comparable were implemented. Results were analysed in the light of storm and catchment characteristics. Three main features were observed in the results: (1) the impact of rainfall input resolution decreases as

  20. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  1. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  2. Catchment Systems Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. F.; Wilkinson, M. E.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.

    2012-04-01

    within a catchment to take responsibility for the water quantity and quality that arises from the catchment. Further, any holistic solution requires a bottom up, problem solving agenda which is facilitated by policy makers and is underpinned by scientific knowledge. http:\\research.ncl.ac.ukproactive

  3. A methodological comparison of catchment storages in mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Markus; Staudinger, Maria; Stölzle, Michael; Seeger, Stefan; Seibert, Jan; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important functions of catchments is the temporary storage of water, which directly influences runoff dynamics, rainfall-runoff transformation, partitioning of evaporation and runoff fluxes, and accessibility of water to plants. Generally, a large catchment storage is considered beneficial and in particular increases the transit times and hence the buffer functioning related to water quality. Many different methods have been developed to assess catchment storage, however, there are hardly any direct comparisons of several of these methods. One challenge is the definition of water storage, while some methods allow estimation of the entire water storage in a catchment, other methods quantify only the dynamic storage. In addition, most studies focused more on lowland catchments with rain-dominated runoff regimes and observed groundwater fluctuations. Furthermore, these studies often focus on one or two catchments, but do not consider the influence of different climates on the relevance of water storage in the catchment. We applied a range of different methods to assess catchment storage characteristics in 18 catchments in the Swiss Alps, ranging from 500 to 2000m of mean elevation and hence from rainfall- to snowmelt dominated runoff regimes. The first method use only discharge information during recession periods and with varying approaches to extract discharge and storage changes between high flow and low flow, the dynamic catchment storage can be derived. In the next methods the conceptual hydrological model HBV is calibrated to the runoff dynamics and the dynamic and total catchment storages of the different compartments are being evaluated. The last methods are based on stable water isotope data analysis. We use the model TRANSEP to derive the dynamic storage as well as the total water storage of the catchment based on the transit times using several years of fortnightly isotope data in streamflow. The results show that the derived catchment

  4. Catchment controls on solute export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamics of solute export from catchments can be classified in terms of chemostatic and chemodynamic export regimes by an analysis of concentration-discharge relationships. Previous studies hypothesized that distinct export regimes emerge from the presence of solute mass stores within the catchment and their connectivity to the stream. However, so far a direct link of solute export to identifiable catchment characteristics is missing. Here we investigate long-term time series of stream water quality and quantity of nine neighboring catchments in Central Germany ranging from relatively pristine mountain catchments to agriculturally dominated lowland catchments, spanning large gradients in land use, geology, and climatic conditions. Given the strong collinearity of catchment characteristics we used partial least square regression analysis to quantify the predictive power of these characteristics for median concentrations and the metrics of export regime. We can show that median concentrations and metrics of the export regimes of major ions and nutrients can indeed be inferred from catchment characteristics. Strongest predictors for median concentrations were the share of arable land, discharge per area, runoff coefficient and available water capacity in the root zone of the catchments. The available water capacity in the root zone, the share of arable land being artificially drained and the topographic gradient were found to be the most relevant predictors for the metrics of export regime. These catchment characteristics can represent the size of solute mass store such as the fraction of arable land being a measure for the store of nitrate. On the other hand, catchment characteristics can be a measure for the connectivity of these solute stores to the stream such as the fraction of tile drained land in the catchments. This study demonstrates the potential of data-driven, top down analyses using simple metrics to classify and better understand dominant controls of

  5. A Research Study on the Projected Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Texas Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Albert; And Others

    This report estimates the number of recent immigrant students that would enroll in Texas public schools as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and recommends educational strategies to address the unique needs of recent immigrants. Research approaches included a review of existing research on immigration trends and…

  6. Studies in Teaching 1999 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    This publication presents a collection of research projects presented at the Annual Research Forum at Wake Forest University: "The Use of Group Work as an Effective Teaching Technique in Lower Level Spanish Classes" (James Blackburn); "What Are the Real Factors behind Student Motivation?" (Matthew Grey Burdick); "Can Students Communicate…

  7. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study: a collaborative multisite approach to prodromal schizophrenia research.

    PubMed

    Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert

    2007-05-01

    This article presents the rationale, design, and preliminary findings of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), a collaborative, multisite investigation into the earliest phase of psychotic illness. We describe how 8 independently conceived research projects were integrated methodologically, how diagnostic reliability was achieved across sites on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, and how baseline and follow-up data were aggregated for 888 at risk and comparison subjects. Data are presented describing the demographic, academic/work, and diagnostic characteristics of 3 relevant subgroups: persons at heightened clinical risk for psychosis, help-seeking comparison subjects, and nonpsychiatric controls. The NAPLS data set will be used to explore a series of questions related to prodromal psychosis, including the descriptive phenomenology of currently accepted diagnostic criteria, conversion rates over a 30-month period, predictors of psychosis onset and functional disability, and the impact of early treatment on the course of prodromal symptoms. PMID:17255119

  8. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  9. Runoff Variability in Field-scale Catchments and the Implications for Rainffall-Runoff Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shuster, W.

    2004-12-01

    In this study long-term rainfall runoff records for two agricultural catchments (ca. 0.5 ha) in the USDA - Agricultural Research Service North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (Coshocton, OH) network were used to address the inter-event and inter-catchment variability of field-scale runoff processes. Through analyses of flood frequency and flow duration, the adjacent fallowed watersheds (WS106 and WS121) were found to be similar in terms of annual flood peaks, but less so in terms of the distribution of their discharge rates. Further investigation was focused on event-scale variations of runoff response and whether these variations can be effectively captured by rainfall-runoff models, which included: a) TR-20 (a lumped model); b) EPA-SWMM (a semi-distributed model); and c) GSSHA (a grid-based, fully distributed model). Each model was used to simulate 41 selected runoff episodes recorded in each of the two catchments, and subsequently calibrated to yield parameter values that maximize the correlation between the simulated and observed runoff peaks. Our results indicate that, despite calibration, the hydrographs derived from all models deviated considerably from actual observations, and on the basis of inter-event fluctuations, which furthermore lacked a conspicuous dependence on the magnitude of runoff peaks. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of information on rainfall distribution and soil moisture, distributed models may not be superior to lumped ones in forecasting runoff responses of field scale catchments; and the correspondence between runoff mechanisms and model representations needs to be better understood and accounted for in order to limit the uncertainties of model predictions.

  10. Evolving the linkages between North American Monsoon Experiment research and services in the binational monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    Multi-year drought, high interannual precipitation variability, and rapid population growth present major challenges to water resources and land managers in the U.S. Southwest and binational monsoon region. The NAME strategy to improve warm season precipitation forecasts is paying off in the understanding of the system and its potential predictability, illustrated by a special issue of the Journal of Climate with about 25 articles and numerous other published papers (e.g. Higgins and Gochis et al. 2006; Gutzler et al. 2004, Higgins et al. 2003). NOAA now has set a goal to NAME and other initiatives also have the potential to provide key insights, such as historic information regarding onset and overall strength of the monsoon as it affects stakeholder interests in flooding, soil moisture, vegetation health, and summer water demand. However, the usual avenues for scientific output, such as peer-reviewed publications and web sites designed for use by climate and weather experts, do not adequately support the flow of knowledge to operational decisionmakers. A recent workshop on Monsoon Region climate Applications in Guaymas, Sonora identified several areas in which monsoon science might contribute to reducing societal vulnerability, as well as some research findings that are suited to transition into model development and operations at service providers including NOAA and SMN. They recommended that products are needed that interpret climate forecasts for water resource management applications, and developing new regionally-tailored climate information products. This presentation will discuss how to enhance the flow of monsoon information and predictions to stakeholders by linking user-oriented perspectives with research results from NAME and other programs, including a new effort for a North American Monsoon Forecast Forum which plans to develop periodic consolidated North American Monsoon outlooks.

  11. Exploring Research Contributions of the North American Carbon Program using Google Earth and Google Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; Wilcox, L. E.; Morrell, A.

    2009-12-01

    The central objective of the North American Carbon Program (NACP), a core element of the US Global Change Research Program, is to quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane in North America and adjacent ocean regions. The NACP consists of a wide range of investigators at universities and federal research centers. Although many of these investigators have worked together in the past, many have had few prior interactions and may not know of similar work within knowledge domains, much less across the diversity of environments and scientific approaches in the Program. Coordinating interactions and sharing data are major challenges in conducting NACP. The Google Earth and Google Map Collections on the NACP website (www.nacarbon.org) provide a geographical view of the research products contributed by each core and affiliated NACP project. Other relevant data sources (e.g. AERONET, LVIS) can also be browsed in spatial context with NACP contributions. Each contribution links to project-oriented metadata, or “project profiles”, that provide a greater understanding of the scientific and social context of each dataset and are an important means of communicating within the NACP and to the larger carbon cycle science community. Project profiles store information such as a project's title, leaders, participants, an abstract, keywords, funding agencies, associated intensive campaigns, expected data products, data needs, publications, and URLs to associated data centers, datasets, and metadata. Data products are research contributions that include biometric inventories, flux tower estimates, remote sensing land cover products, tools, services, and model inputs / outputs. Project leaders have been asked to identify these contributions to the site level whenever possible, either through simple latitude/longitude pair, or by uploading a KML, KMZ, or shape file. Project leaders may select custom icons to graphically categorize their

  12. Towards Creating an Inclusive Community of Researchers: The First Three Years of the North American Association for Environmental Education Research Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Ronald B.; Brody, Michael; Dillon, Justin; Hart, Paul; Krasny, Marianne; Monroe, Martha; Russell, Constance; Wals, Arjen

    2007-01-01

    This article uses a series of interlinked, personal vignettes to discuss the first three years of the North American Association for Environmental Education research symposium, from the perspectives of the key organizers. Seven challenges in the field of environmental education research are identified in a recent historical context, and we…

  13. Catchments of general practice in different countries– a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on catchment areas of private general practices in different developed countries because healthcare reform, including primary health care, has featured prominently as an important political issue in a number of developed countries. The debates around health reform have had a significant health geographic focus. Conceptually, GP catchments describe the distribution, composition and profile of patients who access a general practitioner or a general practice (i.e. a site or facility comprising one or more general practitioners). Therefore, GP catchments provide important information into the geographic variation of access rates, utilisation of services and health outcomes by all of the population or different population groups in a defined area or aggregated area. This review highlights a wide range of diversity in the literature as to how GP catchments can be described, the indicators and measures used to frame the scale of catchments. Patient access to general practice health care services should be considered from a range of locational concepts, and not necessarily constrained by their place of residence. An analysis of catchment patterns of general practitioners should be considered as dynamic and multi-perspective. Geographic information systems provide opportunities to contribute valuable methodologies to study these relationships. However, researchers acknowledge that a conceptual framework for the analysis of GP catchments requires access to real world data. Recent studies have shown promising developments in the use of real world data, especially from studies in the UK. Understanding the catchment profiles of individual GP surgeries is important if governments are serious about patient choice being a key part of proposed primary health reforms. Future health planning should incorporate models of GP catchments as planning tools, at the micro level as well as the macro level, to assist policies on the

  14. Moments of catchment storm area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.; Wang, Q.

    1985-01-01

    The portion of a catchment covered by a stationary rainstorm is modeled by the common area of two overlapping circles. Given that rain occurs within the catchment and conditioned by fixed storm and catchment sizes, the first two moments of the distribution of the common area are derived from purely geometrical considerations. The variance of the wetted fraction is shown to peak when the catchment size is equal to the size of the predominant storm. The conditioning on storm size is removed by assuming a probability distribution based upon the observed fractal behavior of cloud and rainstorm areas.

  15. Integrating the UAS in Undergraduate Teaching and Research - Opportunities and Challenges at University of North Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, J. B.; Hulsey, D.

    2014-11-01

    The University of North Georgia (UNG) has begun to evaluate both fixed and rotary UAS platforms across the departments to evaluate their potential for furthering both student learning experiences and undergraduate research. A research project of the Institute for Spatial Analysis (IESA) at UNG has acquired the fixed wing eBee UAS and is currently piloting its integration into the undergraduate geospatial science curriculum. Limited very low altitude, line of sight calibration runs within areas of our campus have help us understand the capabilities that this technology brings to learning and research opportunities at UNG. In our pilot area of study on the UNG Gainesville Campus, we will collect overlapping imagery and generate 3-D models. These models will be compared with models based on LiDAR data. Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) methods are essential to the analysis of voluminous high resolution UAS data and the associated computational and regulatory issues are discussed. Several future interdisciplinary projects are envisaged with the eBee UAS and this project helps establish their viability.

  16. Water Catchment and Storage Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruenig, Michael; Dunbabin, Matt; Moore, Darren

    2010-05-01

    Sensors and Sensor Networks technologies provide the means for comprehensive understanding of natural processes in the environment by radically increasing the availability of empirical data about the natural world. This step change is achieved through a dramatic reduction in the cost of data acquisition and many orders of magnitude increase in the spatial and temporal granularity of measurements. Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is undertaking a strategic research program developing wireless sensor network technology for environmental monitoring. As part of this research initiative, we are engaging with government agencies to densely monitor water catchments and storages, thereby enhancing understanding of the environmental processes that affect water quality. In the Gold Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia, we are building sensor networks to monitor restoration of rainforest within the catchment, and to monitor methane flux release and water quality in the water storages. This poster will present our ongoing work in this region of eastern Australia. The Springbrook plateau in the Gold Coast hinterland lies within a World Heritage listed area, has uniquely high rainfall, hosts a wide range of environmental gradients, and forms part of the catchment for Gold Coast's water storages. Parts of the plateau are being restored from agricultural grassland to native rainforest vegetation. Since April 2008, we have had a 10-node, multi-hop sensor network deployed there to monitor microclimate variables. This network will be expanded to 50-nodes in February 2010, and to around 200-nodes and 1000 sensors by mid-2011, spread over an area of approximately 0.8 square kilometers. The extremely dense microclimate sensing will enhance knowledge of the environmental factors that enhance or inhibit the regeneration of native rainforest. The final network will also include nodes with acoustic and image sensing capability for

  17. Downward approach at the catchment scale or at the catchment set scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, C.; Andréassian, V.; Le Moine, N.

    2009-04-01

    examples drawn from our past and current research activities based on large data sets. Surprisingly, the level of model complexity that could be achieved following this approach is quite low, which may indicate that the current understanding of the main features of hydrological catchment behaviour is not as good as many models may suggest (Michel et al., 2006). We hope that this communication will stimulate discussion on this issue and encourage more hydrologists to work on large sets of catchments (Andréassian et al., 2006). References: Andréassian, V., Hall, A., Chahinian, N., Schaake, J. (2006). Introduction and synthesis: Why should hydrologists work on a large number of basin data sets? IAHS Publication n° 307, 1-5. Klemes, V. (1983). Conceptualisation and scale in hydrology. Journal of Hydrology, 65, 1-23. Michel, C., Perrin, C., Andréassian, V. Oudin, L. and Mathevet, T. (2006). Has basin scale modelling advanced far beyond empiricism, IAHS Publication n° 307, 108-116. Sivakumar, B. (2008). Dominant processes concept, model simplification and classification framework in catchment hydrology, Stoch. Envrion. Res. Risk. Assess., 22, 737-748. Sivapalan, M., Blöschl, G., Zhang, L. and Vertessy, R. (2003). Downward approach to hydrological prediction. Hydrological Processes, 17, 2101-2111.

  18. Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

    2013-04-01

    Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by

  19. Studies in Teaching 2001 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    This collection of research projects includes: "What Types of Questions Do Mathematics Teachers Ask?" (Cynthia L. Adams); "Will Alternate Assessment Formats Create a Difference in Student Motivation to Study?" (Robyn J. Allen); "Factors Affecting the Motivation of Students" (Dejon J. Banks); "The Dynamics of English Classes with Gender Minorities"…

  20. Controls on suspended sediment, particulate and dissolved organic carbon export from two adjacent catchments with contrasting land-uses, Exmoor UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendell, M.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    The fluvial export of total organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) plays an important role in the transportation of organic carbon from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems, with implications for the understanding of the global carbon cycle and calculations of regional carbon budgets. The terrestrial biosphere contains large amounts of stored carbon in the soil and vegetation, thus a small change in the terrestrial carbon pool may have significant implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Since the onset of agriculture, human activities have accelerated soil erosion rates 10- to 100- fold above all estimated natural background levels, especially in the uplands and at lower latitudes, whilst increasing DOC concentrations over the past decades have been reported in rivers across Western Europe and North America, raising concerns about potential destabilisation of the terrestrial soil carbon pool. The increased input of fine sediment and organic carbon into aquatic environments is also an important factor in stream water quality, being responsible for direct ecological effects as well as transport of a range of contaminants. Many factors, such as topography, hydrological regime and vegetation are known to influence the fluvial export of carbon from catchments. However, most work to date has focused on DOC losses from either forested or peaty catchments, with only limited studies examining the controls and rates of TOC (dissolved and particulate) fluxes from agricultural catchments, particularly during flood events. This research aims to: • Quantify the fluxes of total suspended sediment, total dissolved and total particulate carbon in two adjacent catchments with contrasting land-uses and • Examine the controlling factors of total fluvial carbon fluxes in a semi-natural and agricultural catchment in order to assess the impact of agricultural land-use on fluvial carbon export. The two contrasting study catchments (the Aller and Horner), in south

  1. The "Teflon basin" myth: Snow-soil interactions in mountain catchments in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. W.; Cowie, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    In much of western North America, snow and snowmelt provide the primary means for storage of winter precipitation, effectively transferring water from the relatively wet winter season to the typically dry summers. A common assumption is that high-elevation catchments in the western United States behave like "Teflon basins" and that water released from seasonal storage in snow packs flows directly into streams with little or no interaction with underlying soils. Here I present information from a variety of catchments in the Colorado Front Range on snowmelt/soil interactions using isotopic, geochemical, nutrient and hydrometric data in 2- and 3- component hydrograph separations, along with end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). For most catchments we measured these parameters in weekly precipitation, the seasonal snowpack, snowmelt before contact with the ground, discharge, springs, soil solution, and groundwater. We ran EMMA at the catchment scale for catchments that represent the rain-snow transition zone in the montane forest, the seasonally snow covered sub-alpine to alpine transition zone, and a high-elevation alpine zone near the continental divide. In all catchments three end-members were the source waters for about 95% of discharge. Two end-members were the same in all catchments, snow and groundwater. For the alpine catchment talus springs was the third water source, while rain was the third water source in the two lower-elevation catchments. For all three catchments, soil solution plotted with stream waters along or near a line connecting the snow and groundwater end-members. Thus, for seasonally snow-covered catchments from montane to alpine ecosystems, snowmelt infiltrates underlying soils before snowmelt recharges groundwater reservoirs and contributes to surface flows. Seasonally snow-covered catchments are not Teflon basins. Rather, snowmelt infiltrates soils where solute concentrations are changed by biological and geochemical processes.

  2. The topographic wetness index as a predictor for hot spots of DOC export from catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Tittel, Jörg; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the discharge of many catchments in Europe and North America are rising. This increase is of concern for the drinking water supply from reservoirs since high DOC concentrations cause additional costs in water treatment and potentially the formation of harmful disinfection by-products. A prerequisite for understanding this increase is the knowledge on the spatial distribution of dominant soil DOC sources within catchments and on mobilization as well as transfer processes to the surface water. A number of studies identified wetland soils as the dominant source with fast mobilization and short transit times to the receiving surface water. However, most studies have either focussed on smaller, hillslope and single catchment or on larger scale multi-catchment assessments. Moreover, information on the distribution of soil types in catchments is not always readily available. This study brings together both types of assessment in a data-driven top-down approach: (i) a detailed survey on DOC concentration and loads over the course of one year within two paired data-rich catchments discharging into a large drinking water reservoir in central Germany and (ii) a database of hydrochemistry and physio-geographic characteristics of 113 catchments draining into 58 reservoirs across Germany over the course of 16 years. The objective is to define hot spots of DOC export within the catchments for both types of assessments (i, ii) and to test the suitability of the topographic wetness index (TWI) as a proxy for well-connected wetland soils at various spatial scales. In the sub-catchments of assessment (i) the spatial variability of concentrations and loads was much smaller than expected. None of the studied sub-catchments was a predominant producer of the total DOC loads exported from the catchments. We found the mean concentrations and loads to be positively correlated with the share of groundwater-dominated soils in the sub-catchments

  3. Priorities for ecological research on energy crops in the north central states

    SciTech Connect

    Ugoretz, S.M.; Rineer, K.C.; Downing, M.

    1995-07-26

    Following the principles set by the National Biofuels Roundtable, a workshop was held in March 1995 which brought together a group of stakeholders and experts in the field of biomass energy and ecology. The mission of the workshop was to identify and set priorities for ecological research to ensure that large-scale biomass energy development in the North Central states occurs in an ecologically sound, sustainable manner. The workshop found that questions about the landscape-scale deployment of biomass plantations were most pressing. The workshop recommended that adaptive resource management principles be applied in a phased development of increasingly larger plantations. Each phase of development would help to answer questions about landscape-scale development; improving the design of subsequent phases. Principles of sustainable agriculture should also be applied to biomass plantations to minimize impact on soils and water quality, maintain productivity and benefit the rural economy. Results of the workshop will be helpful to natural resource and research agencies, as well as utilities and biomass energy developers.

  4. Gender Gaps in North American Research Productivity: Examining Faculty Publication Rates in Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator of…

  5. Attitudes of North Dakota Implement Dealership Managers towards a Continuing Management Education Program. Report of the Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleene, Marvin D.; Priebe, Donald W.

    Conducted as part of a Farm Management Education Research and Development Project which was examining the use of variations of the Farm Management Education Program in meeting the managerial needs of agribusinesses, the descriptive study reported here was done to determine attitudes of 359 farm implement dealership managers in North Dakota towards…

  6. Expansion of Economic Base Analysis: Labor Availability in North-Central New Mexico. Research Report No. 264.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; And Others

    Estimates of the number of persons willing to commute, at alternative wage rates, to job opportunities in north-central New Mexico have been based on results of basic research in the region and 1970 census data. Expressed willingness to commute and socio-economic characteristics data were accumulated from a regional survey of 643 households. The…

  7. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #12: U.S.-- CANADA SYMPOSIUM ON NORTH AMERICAN CLIMATE CHANGE AND WEATHER EXTREMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition reports on a U.S.-Canada Symposium onNorth American Climate Change and Weather Extremes that was held in Atlanta in October. This symposium was conducted by EPA's Global Change Research Program in partnership with Environment Canada and the U.S. National Weather Se...

  8. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  9. Multiple-method approaches for quantifying fine sediment dynamics in river catchments over contemporary timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the patterns and processes of contemporary fine sediment dynamics in river catchments constitutes a key research challenge for catchment scientists. Such knowledge has considerable value for the targeting of management resources to reduce excess fine sediment supply and its impacts on water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Many past studies tended to focus on a single compartment of the fine sediment cascade and utilised a limited range of research methods. For more holistic understanding, the use of multiple-method approaches is required to provide data on the sources, transfer, storage, and transit times of fine sediment in river catchments. Such approaches would allow scientists to better conceptualise catchment processes controlling the movement of fine sediment across a range of spatial scales. It may also enhance the scientific quality of catchment-scale studies through the acquisition of multiple lines of evidence concerning a particular research problem. The specific combination of fine sediment tracing and fingerprinting procedures with catchment sediment flux measurements and sediment budget modelling has considerable potential to enhance our knowledge of contemporary sediment dynamics. This combination of techniques offers complementary information and the opportunity to compare datasets, such as estimates of catchment sediment source contributions obtained using sediment tracers with direct measurements of sediment fluxes or catchment model outputs. This contribution explores the potential for such combinations of methods to yield distinctive insights not otherwise available from the use of only one of these techniques. It draws on published examples of multiple-method studies by the author from small agricultural and wildfire-affected forest catchments (1-2 km2) in south-east Australia and from larger agricultural river catchments (38-920 km2) in south-west England. It will also identify possible directions for catchment research based

  10. Fine-suspended sediment and water budgets for a large, seasonally dry tropical catchment: Burdekin River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Smithers, Scott G.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Henderson, Brent L.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2014-11-01

    The Burdekin River catchment (˜130,400 km2) is a seasonally dry tropical catchment located in north-east Queensland, Australia. It is the single largest source of suspended sediment to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Fine sediments are a threat to ecosystems on the GBR where they contribute to elevated turbidity (reduced light), sedimentation stress, and potential impacts from the associated nutrients. Suspended sediment data collected over a 5 year period were used to construct a catchment-wide sediment source and transport budget. The Bowen River tributary was identified as the major source of end-of-river suspended sediment export, yielding an average of 530 t km-2 yr-1 during the study period. Sediment trapping within a large reservoir (1.86 million ML) and the preferential transport of clays and fine silts downstream of the structure were also examined. The data reveal that the highest clay and fine silt loads—which are of most interest to environmental managers of the GBR—are not always sourced from areas that yield the largest total suspended sediment load (i.e., all size fractions). Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating particle size into catchment sediment budget studies undertaken to inform management decisions to reduce downstream turbidity and sedimentation. Our data on sediment source, reservoir influence, and subcatchment and catchment yields will improve understandings of sediment dynamics in other tropical catchments, particularly those located in seasonally wet-dry tropical savannah/semiarid climates. The influence of climatic variability (e.g., drought/wetter periods) on annual sediment loads within large seasonally dry tropical catchments is also demonstrated by our data.

  11. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 2008-09. Research Report 01-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    The University of North Carolina presents the forty-first annual "Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina." This abstract covers the breadth of higher education activities in the State in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among…

  12. Assessing the role of urban developments on storm runoff response through multi-scale catchment experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Owen, Gareth; Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality issues with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). In particular for mixed rural and urban catchments where the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological responses is high, there remains a key research challenge in evaluating the timing and magnitude of storage and flow pathways at multiple scales. This is of crucial importance for appropriate catchment management, for example to aid the design of Green Infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the risk of flooding, among other multiple benefits. The aim of this work was to (i) explore spatio-temporal storm runoff generation characteristics in multi-scale catchment experiments that contain rural and urban land use zones, and (ii) assess the (preliminary) impact of Sustainable Drainage (SuDs) as GI on high flow and flood characteristics. Our key research catchment, the Ouseburn in Northern England (55km2), has rural headwaters (15%) and an urban zone (45%) concentrated in the lower catchment area. There is an intermediate and increasingly expanding peri-urban zone (currently 40%), which is defined here as areas where rural and urban features coexist, alongside GIs. Such a structure is typical for most catchments with urban developments. We monitored spatial precipitation and multiscale nested (five gauges) runoff response, in addition to the storage dynamics in GIs for a period of 6 years (2007-2013). For a range of events, we examined the multiscale nested runoff characteristics (lag time and magnitude) of the rural and urban flow components, assessed how these integrated with changing land use and increasing scale, and discussed the implications for flood management in the catchment. The analyses indicated three distinctly different

  13. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  14. Bridges to the Future: Building Linkages for Institutional Research. North East Association for Institutional Research Annual Conference Proceedings (27th, Pittsburgh, PA, November 4-7, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This document contains papers, summaries of panel presentations, and work share meetings from the annual conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research. The papers are: (1) "The Influence of Personality Traits, Pre-College Characteristics, and Co-Curricular Experiences on College Outcomes" (Karen W. Bauer); (2) "Threading the…

  15. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yeneneh, Asressa; Kebede, Hassen; Fentahun, Tewodros; Chanie, Mersha

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39) and Fogera breed (n=345) of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83%) followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%), and Schistosomosis (9.89%). The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97%) than Fogera breed (44.35%). However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection. PMID:25653752

  16. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The North Denmark Bacteremia Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Schønheyder, Henrik C; Søgaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Improving prevention and treatment requires better knowledge of the disease and its prognosis. However, in order to study the entire spectrum of bacteremia patients, we need valid sources of information, prospective data collection, and complete follow-up. In North Denmark Region, all patients diagnosed with bacteremia have been registered in a population-based database since 1981. The information has been recorded prospectively since 1992 and the main variables are: the patient’s unique civil registration number, date of sampling the first positive blood culture, date of admission, clinical department, date of notification of growth, place of acquisition, focus of infection, microbiological species, antibiogram, and empirical antimicrobial treatment. During the time from 1981 to 2008, information on 22,556 cases of bacteremia has been recorded. The civil registration number makes it possible to link the database to other medical databases and thereby build large cohorts with detailed longitudinal data that include hospital histories since 1977, comorbidity data, and complete follow-up of survival. The database is suited for epidemiological research and, presently, approximately 60 studies have been published. Other Danish departments of clinical microbiology have recently started to record the same information and a population base of 2.3 million will be available for future studies. PMID:20865114

  17. The North Alabama Severe Thunderstorm Observations, Research, and Monitoring Network (STORMnet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.; Boccippio, D.; Koshak, W.; Bailey, J.; Hall, J.; Bateman, M.; McCaul, E.; Buechler, D.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Severe Thunderstorm Observations, Research, and Monitoring network (STORMnet) became operational in 2001 as a test bed to infuse new science and technologies into the severe and hazardous weather forecasting and warning process. STORMnet is collaboration among NASA scientists, National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters, emergency managers and other partners. STORMnet integrates total lightning observations from a ten-station 3-D VHF regional lightning mapping array, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), real-time regional NEXRAD Doppler radar, satellite visible and infrared imagers, and a mobile atmospheric profiling system to characterize storms and their evolution. The storm characteristics and life-cycle trending are accomplished in real-time through the second generation Lightning Imaging Sensor Demonstration and Display (LISDAD II), a distributed processing system with a JAVA-based display application that allows anyone, anywhere to track individual storm histories within the Tennessee Valley region of north Alabama and Tennessee, a region of the southeastern U.S. well known for abundant severe weather.

  18. The Annual North American Dendroecological Fieldweek: A workweek in applied tree-ring research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.M.; Krusic, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Trees record many events or processes that influence annual growth patterns. Dendrochronology is concerned with how environment and physiology affect tree growth as recorded within tree rings. The most basic principle of dendrochronology is that of crossdating, in which calendrical years are assigned to individual rings within a tree. Once crossdated, each ring is then a reflection of the climate or other environmental conditions that influenced that tree for that year. The Annual North American Dendroecological Fieldweek is a workweek in applied tree-ring research, designed to give both beginners to the discipline an introduction to its basic methodology and applications and more experienced users a change to work with and learn from others in the field in an informal group setting. The Fieldweek has had an outstanding history to date, with almost 250 participants in the five Fieldweeks from 1990 to 1994. The 6th Fieldweek is scheduled for 30 June to 8 July, 1995, at the Kananaskis Field Station in the Canadian Rockies near Calgary, Alberta.

  19. North-South Partnership in Training and Education in Space Research and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, E.

    tackled by capturing the interest of young people in science, by appealing to space science. This is an area of cooperation in which complementarities of experience, stemming from different cultural origins can yield positive results. Researches into the utilization of space-based observation to monitor and control environmental resources (forests, oceans, atmosphere etc.) and climate change, are other examples of areas in which North-South Space Research and Application partnership can be established and sustained. Another area of partnership is in the development of space-based experiments, especially in the area of Communication Satellites, Earth threatening Asteroids and Comets, Global Navigation Satellites Systems, and the promotion of public awareness in space science and technology applications. Such activities will encourage mutual exchange of ideas and intellectual input by both partners in the progress, as opposed to a unilateral transfer of ideas from one partner to the other. Collaborative projects between partners from the North and South should involve university systems, the polytechnics, elementary and secondary school systems, colleges of education, research centers and organizations, corporate enterprise training, the Internet, and all those institutions whose responsibilities are to manage education and training in the developing world. Partnership in space science and technology, if nurtured in these institutions, can in the long run become one of mutual interaction, and can be sustained for a very long time.

  20. North-South Partnership in Training and Education in Space Research and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, E.

    tackled by capturing the interest of young people in science, by appealing to space science. This is an area of cooperation in which complementarities of experience, stemming from different cultural origins can yield positive results. Researches into the utilization of space-based observation to monitor and control environmental resources (forests, oceans, atmosphere etc.) and climate change, are other examples of areas in which North-South Space Research and Application partnership can be established and sustained. Another area of partnership is in the development of space-based experiments, especially in the area of Communication Satellites, Earth threatening Asteroids and Co mets, Global Navigation Satellites Systems, and the promotion of public awareness in space science and technology applications. Such activities will encourage mutual exchange of ideas and intellectual input by both partners in the progress, as opposed to a unilateral transfer of ideas from one partner to the other. Collaborative projects between partners from the North and South should involve university systems, the polytechnics, elementary and secondary school systems, colleges of education, research centers and organizations, corporate enterprise training, the Internet, and all those institutions whose responsibilities are to manage education and training in the developing world. Partnership in space science and technology, if nurtured in these institutions, can in the long run become one of mutual interaction, and can be sustained for a very long time.

  1. Transient Hydraulic Tomography at the North Campus Research Site, University of Waterloo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S. J.; Illman, W. A.

    2009-12-01

    Delineating the subsurface distribution of hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) is of great importance in many areas of hydrogeology, especially for water supply and contaminant transport investigations. However, acquiring reliable distributions of such hydraulic parameters is often difficult and expensive. Hydraulic tomography has recently been proposed as an alternative to traditional geostatistical methods for imaging subsurface K and Ss distributions. The technique has been tested by various researchers using synthetic simulations and laboratory experiments. It has also been evaluated in the field at a number of sites in different geologic settings. Recently, we conducted transient hydraulic tomography (THT) at the North Campus Research Site (NCRS) situated at the University of Waterloo in a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial aquifer-aquitard sequence. A plot measuring 15 m by 15 m and approximately 18 m deep was instrumented with four, 7-channel Continuous Multichannel Tubing (CMT) wells consisting of a total of 28 observation ports. Each observation port was instrumented with a pressure transducer to record the response of the system to pumping. These 4 CMT wells were situated in a square pattern with a multi-screen pumping well (eight pumping screens, one every two meters) located in the center. To date, 7 intervals along the center well have been pumped using a straddle-packer system. We interpreted 3 of the 7 pumping tests using two different approaches. In the first approach, the 3 pumping tests were analyzed via THT to obtain the K and Ss distributions (or tomograms) without including any available K measurements from the permeameter analysis of core samples for purposes of conditioning. In the second approach, we conducted the THT analysis by conditioning the K and Ss tomograms with available small scale data. Results to date show that K and Ss tomograms are consistent with site geology and other small scale measurements from the site.

  2. Perceptions of cancer clinical research among African American men in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, Laurel C.; Carpenter, William R; DiMartino, Lisa D.; White, Brandolyn; Green, Melissa; Teal, Randall; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Godley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The problem of cancer health disparities is substantial. Clinical trials are widely advocated as a means of reducing disparities and bringing state-of-the-art care to the broader community, where most cancer care is delivered. This study sought to develop a better understanding of why disproportionately few African American men enroll in clinical trials given their substantial cancer burden. Design This study applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to design and conduct four focus groups of African American male cancer survivors and their caregivers in North Carolina. Results Among major themes, participants expressed confusion about the relationship between clinical trials, treatment, and research, signifying patient confusion and misinterpretation of common clinical trial terminology. Social norms including gender barriers and generational differences remain problematic; participants often reported that men do not talk about health issues, are unwilling to go to the doctor, and exhibit misapprehension and distrust regarding trials. Participants perceived this as detrimental to community health and expressed the need for more clarity in clinical trials information and a more fundamental social openness and communication about cancer detection and treatment. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of clinical trials education in both traditional provider referral to trials and also in general patient navigation. To dispel pervasive misapprehension regarding placebos, clinical trials information should emphasize the role of standard care in modern cancer treatment trials. Many participants described willingness to participate in a trial upon physician recommendation, suggesting merit in improving patient-physician communication through culturally competent terminology and trial referral systems. PMID:26113749

  3. Tidal fluxes of dissolved oxygen at the North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. R.; Kjerfve, B.; Petrecca, D. M.

    2006-04-01

    Advective, dispersive and total dissolved oxygen (DO) fluxes from 1297 complete tidal cycles were analyzed to test the "outwelling" hypothesis as it pertains to DO. A 910 day time series of meteorological and water quality data (approximately 35,000 half-hourly observations) was used to assess DO fluxes and dynamics at Crab Haul Creek, a small (1.1 km 2) tidal salt marsh basin at North Inlet, South Carolina, within the North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. A basin storage curve, derived from water velocity measurements made across a permanent transect in the tidal creek every half hour for eight semidiurnal tidal cycles, enabled water discharges to be estimated from tide height readings in the 910 day time series. The discharges along with DO concentration measurements were used to calculate DO fluxes for each tidal cycle in the series. The long-term mean dispersive and advective DO fluxes were -0.281 g O 2 s -1 and -0.375 g O 2 s -1, respectively. Based on " t" tests both means are significantly less than zero ( p < 0.02), indicating exports. Furthermore a significant correlation was found between the dispersive DO export and the tidal mean solar radiation, indicating that photosynthesis is the principal process driving the dispersive export of DO. On the other hand no significant correlations were found between the advective export of DO and solar radiation or between the dispersive fluxes of DO and salt. The absence of such correlations indicates that the advective export of DO is simply an artifact of a slight ebb sampling bias in our computation of the tidal mean discharge. On a unit area basis the average annual dispersive export of DO is 8.9 g m -2 yr -1 or 0.28 mol DO m -2 yr -1. This is a small fraction of the oxygen produced in the basin by phytoplankton (18 mol DO m -2 yr -1) and its contribution to the DO resources of the receiving waters is far exceeded by the oxygen demand associated with the concurrent export of dissolved

  4. Atmospheric Research and Public Outreach Activities at Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, B.; Pope, J.; Kelly, G.; Sherman, J. P.; Taubman, B.

    2012-12-01

    Promoting scientific and public understanding of mountain meteorological processes, particularly in the context of climate variability and change, remains a formidable challenge. Mountain environments present considerable difficulties in the collection of surface and atmospheric observations due to complex topography and resulting high spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric processes. A collaborative partnership between Appalachian State University (ASU) and the Grandfather Mountain Stewardship Foundation (GMSF) in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina has provided an outstanding opportunity to integrate atmospheric research and outreach activities. The NASA-funded Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach (CAN-DOO) project directly supports the research and education activities and places them in the context of climate variability and change. This paper introduces the manual observations and citizen science activities, automated meteorological measurements, and public outreach initiatives on Grandfather Mountain and presents preliminary findings. In support of project objectives, GMSF staff makes daily measurements of precipitation, snow water equivalent, snow depth, and aerosol optical depth, while also encouraging citizen scientists to participate in the daily meteorological measurements. Team members have developed real-time displays of meteorological conditions for the two main visitor's centers and website, and have also created interactive climate science public displays. ASU scientists and GMSF staff have worked together to install and operate two research-quality meteorological stations at 1609 m asl that measure temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, pressure, precipitation, and present weather. Preliminary results of research activities suggest that extreme wind gusts >50 m s -1 and severe icing due to riming and freezing rain are a frequent occurrence on Grandfather Mountain

  5. USGS research on geohazards of the North Pacific: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M. K.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The disastrous earthquakes and tsunamis of Sumatra in 2004 and Tohoku in 2011 have driven re-examination of where and how such events occur. Particular focus is on the North Pacific. Of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, 50% occurred along the line of subduction from the Kuril Islands to the southern Alaska mainland. This region has seen monstrous volcanic eruptions (Katmai-Novarupta, 1912), destructive tsunamis (Severo-Kurilsk, 1952), and one of Earth's largest instrumentally-recorded earthquakes (M9.2 Alaska, 1964). Only the modest populations in these frontier towns half a century ago kept losses to a minimum. Impact of any natural disaster to population, vital infrastructure, and sea and air transportation would be magnified today. While USGS had a presence in Alaska for more than a century, the great Alaska earthquake of 1964 ushered in the first understanding of the area's risks. This was the first mega-thrust earthquake properly interpreted as such, and led to re-examination of the 1960 Chilean event. All modern conceptions of mega-thrust earthquakes and tsunamis derive some heritage from USGS research following the 1964 event. The discovery of oil in the Alaska Arctic prompted building a pipeline from the north slope of Alaska to the ice-free port of Valdez. The USGS identified risks from crossing permafrost and active faults. Accurate characterization of these hazards informed innovative designs that kept the pipeline from rupturing due to ground instability or during the M7.9 Denali earthquake of 2002. As a large state with few roads, air travel is common in Alaska. The frequent ash eruptions of volcanoes in the populous Cook Inlet basin became a serious issue, highlighted by the near-crash of a large passenger jet in 1989. In response, the USGS and its partners developed and deployed efficient seismic networks on remote volcanoes and initiated regular satellite surveillance for early warning of ash eruptions. Close collaboration

  6. On the advantage of a dynamic evaluation of catchment models - two Swedish case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Ilaria; Seibert, Jan; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Lyon, Steve; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2010-05-01

    In two different case studies we illustrate how the application of a "dynamic identifiability analysis" approach can be a useful tool both for identifying model deficiencies, and thus guiding model improvement, and for detecting changes of catchments characteristics over time. This type of analysis consists of evaluating a hydrological model in a moving time window, which allows the assessment of time-variable parameter values. Here, the analysis was performed using the SuperFlex modeling framework, which is a hydrological modeling tool that allows the generation of multiple alternative model structures. The first case study consists of applying the analysis on the Krycklan catchment, situated in the north-east of Sweden. The available hydrological data series cover a period of ten years (1997-2007) during which no significant changes occurred in the catchment. In the second case-study, the approach was applied to the sub-arctic Abiskojokken catchment located in northern Sweden. The available time series range from 1918 to 2007 and previous investigations indicated a time-change of catchment characteristics due to changing permafrost. In the first case study, the dynamic analysis helped identifying deficiencies in the model structure, which could subsequently be improved. In the second case study, the analysis contributed to evaluating changes of catchment characteristics and functioning. Time variable model parameters could be associated to time changing catchment characteristics. Overall, this study demonstrated how the dynamic model evaluation is a powerful diagnostic tool that can increase the understanding of catchment behavior.

  7. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  8. Assimilation of Freeze-Thaw Observations into the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, L.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The land surface freeze/thaw (F/T) state plays a key role in the hydrological and carbon cycles and thus affects water and energy exchanges and net primary productivity at the land surface. To support the level 4 soil moisture and carbon products (value-added, i.e. using a combination of remote sensing data and modeling) for the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, an F/T assimilation algorithm is developed for the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) modeling and assimilation framework. The algorithm includes a newly developed observation operator that diagnoses the landscape F/T state in the GEOS-5 Catchment land surface model. A rule-based approach that incorporates model and observational errors is developed and used for assimilating the categorical F/T measurements into the land surface model (F/T analysis). An Observing System Simulation Experiment is conducted using synthetically generated measurements of the F/T state for a region in North America (90-110oW longitude, 45-55oN latitude). The synthetic 'truth' is generated using the NASA Catchment land surface model forced with surface meteorological fields from the Modern-Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). To generate synthetic measurements, the true categorical F/T state is corrupted with a prescribed amount of F/T classification error. The assimilation experiment employs the same Catchment model except that forcing errors (relative to truth) are introduced via the application of meteorological forcing fields from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The effect of the F/T analysis and classification error on land surface temperature and soil temperature predictions is examined in this research.

  9. Comparison of three statistical downscaling methods for precipitation in the Hérault and Ebro catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassonde, Sylvain; Vrac, Mathieu; Ruelland, Denis; Dezetter, Alain

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the GICC project "REMedHE" (http://www.remedhe.org) is to evaluate and compare the evolution of water supply capacity under climatic and anthropogenic changes by 2050 on two Mediterranean catchments: the Hérault (South of France) and the Ebro (North East of Spain) catchments. Indeed, the Mediterranean region has been identified as a "hot spot" of climate change, especially for precipitation which is expected to globally decrease while water needs should continue to increase. To perform such a study, it is then necessary to simulate future water flows with hydrological models fed by high-resolution precipitation data representative of the future climate. To generate high-resolution climate simulations, three different statistical downscaling approaches have been applied. The first one consists in a deterministic transfer function based on a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). The second method involves a Stochastic Weather Generator (SWG), simulating local values from probability density functions conditioned by large-scale predictors. The third approach belongs to the "Model Output Statistics" (MOS) family, in bias correcting the large-scale distributions with respect to the local-scale ones, through the Cumulative Distribution Function transform CDFt approach. These statistical downscaling models were calibrated and cross-validated using the SAFRAN dataset (for Hérault catchment), a dataset compiled by HydroSciences Montpellier (for Ebro catchment) as local-scale reference and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis outputs as predictors, over two time periods 1959-1984 and 1985-2010. Cross-validation analysis shows that the inter-annual variability of the yearly sum of precipitation from GAM is close to that from SAFRAN. However, daily variability and occurrence frequency are badly represented by GAM. On the opposite, SWG and one version of CDFt allow both the inter-annual and

  10. Switching the poles in sexual and reproductive health research: implementing a research capacity-strengthening network in West and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Dossou, Jean-Paul; Assarag, Bouchra; Delamou, Alexandre; Van der Veken, Karen; Belaid, Loubna; Ouédraogo, Moctar; Khalfallah, Sonia; Aouras, Hayet; Diadhiou, Mohamed; Fassassi, Raïmi; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Health research capacities have been improved in Africa but still remain weak as compared to other regions of the World. To strengthen these research capacities, international collaboration and networking for knowledge and capacity transfer are needed. In this commentary, we present the Network for Scientific Support in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health in West and North Africa, its priority research topics and discuss its implementation process. Established in January 2014, the Network aims at generating human rights and gender-based research fully carried out and driven by South based institutions. It is composed of 12 institutions including the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium) and 11 institutions from eight Francophone West and North African countries. The key areas of interest of this network are health policies analysis and health system research in family planning, HIV prevention among vulnerable groups, quality of care and breast cancers. Since it started, seventeen research proposals based on locally relevant research questions have been developed. Among the seventeen proposals, eleven have been implemented. Several research institutions enhanced linkages with local representations of international partners such as UNFPA. The network is committed to strengthening methodological research capacities and soft skills such as fundraising, advocacy and leadership. Such competencies are strongly needed for developing an effective South-based leadership in Sexual and Reproductive Health research, and for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27502593

  11. Vegetation impact on mean annual evapotranspiration at a global catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peel, Murray C.; McMahon, Thomas A.; Finlayson, Brian L.

    2010-09-01

    Research into the role of catchment vegetation within the hydrologic cycle has a long history in the hydrologic literature. Relationships between vegetation type and catchment evapotranspiration and runoff were primarily assessed through paired catchment studies during the 20th century. Results from over 200 paired catchment studies from around the world have been reported in the literature. Two constraints on utilizing the results from paired catchment studies in the wider domain have been that the catchment areas studied are generally (1) small (<10 km2) and (2) from a narrow range of climate types. The majority of reported paired catchment studies are located in the USA (˜47%) and Australia (˜27%) and experience mainly temperate (Köppen C) and cold (Köppen D) climate types. In this paper we assess the impact of vegetation type on mean annual evapotranspiration through a large, spatially, and climatically diverse data set of 699 catchments from around the world. These catchments are a subset of 861 unregulated catchments considered for the analysis. Spatially averaged precipitation and temperature data, in conjunction with runoff and land cover information, are analyzed to draw broad conclusions about the vegetation impact on mean annual evapotranspiration. In this analysis any vegetation impact signal is assessed through differences in long-term catchment average actual evapotranspiration, defined as precipitation minus runoff, between catchments grouped by vegetation type. This methodology differs from paired catchment studies where vegetation impact is assessed through streamflow responses to a controlled, within catchment, land cover change. The importance of taking the climate type experienced by the catchments into account when assessing the vegetation impact on evapotranspiration is demonstrated. Tropical and temperate forested catchments are found to have statistically significant higher median evapotranspiration, by about 170 mm and 130 mm

  12. Progress in the identification of catchments with co-existent multiple steady states and finite resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Western, A. W.; Thyer, M. A.; Frost, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrology has implicitly assumed that catchments are infinitely resilient to droughts and floods. No matter the magnitude of the climatic disturbance, almost all hydrological models simulate full recovery and hence assume infinite resilience. Recent research shows that catchments can undergo fundamental change during major droughts and this change in behavior is not captured by rainfall-runoff models. To date, the field of hydrological resilience has relied on theoretical deterministic models or vague resilience concepts, with the identification of catchments with multiple steady states (henceforth, attractors) remaining elusive. This is primarily due to the challenges stochastic forcing introduces into quantifying disturbance and recovery, and because resilience theory does not adequately address stochastic forcing. Drawing from recent hydrological resilience theory on catchment disturbance and recovery, a data-driven hidden Markov model is proposed for identifying recovery to a different hydrological state following major climatic disturbances. Application to selected unregulated catchments within Victoria, Australia, shows that after the Millennium Drought (~1995-2010) some catchments are yet to recover and have persisted within a functionally different hydrological state compared to that prior to the drought. Conversely, some catchments fully recovered at the cessation of the drought. This provides the first known field evidence that some catchments may have multiple attractors. Additionally, catchments are shown to differ in their resistance to the drought, with some catchments switching to a drought state at the commencement of the meteorological drought while other catchments taking ~10 years to switch to a hydrological drought state. In addition to separating hydrological droughts from meteorological droughts, this research provides a pathway for quantifying catchment resilience and resistance to climatic disturbances.

  13. Human-Landscape interaction in cultivated lowland catchments (Louroux catchment, Loire Valley, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Gay, Aurore; Salvador Blanes, Sébastien; Evrard, Olivier; Desmet, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Change of land use or agricultural practices are known to have high impacts on sediment transfer in catchments and rivers. Numerous studies have particularly illustrated these effects in sloping land in tropical areas undergoing deforestation. Much less attention has been paid to lowland humid areas, where permanent land uses have been plowed more recently. However recent studies reported significant erosion rates in these environments despite the gentle topography and the temperate climate. In order to quantify these changing fluxes of sediment, several instrumentation and historical database analyses were carried out in various catchments of the Loire Valley, France. More particularly, a multiparameter analysis was conducted on sedimentary deposits of a pond created in the 11th century in a catchment representative of cultivated and drained lowland environments where an intensification of agricultural practices has occurred during the last 60 years. The results showed that the initial land consolidation period (1954-1960) was characterized by a dominance of allochtonous material input to the pond. This input represents an erosion of 1900 to 2300 t.km-².yr-1 originating from the catchment. Then, between 1970-1990, terrigenous material flow decreased progressively and tended to stabilize, whereas eutrophication and associated primary production increased in the pond. In addition to these temporal changes, material input across the pond during the last 10 years corresponds to a loss of material in the catchment ranging between 90 and 102 t.km-2.yr-1. While a strong decrease is observed, it still represents a 60-fold increase of the sediment fluxes to the pond compared to the preintensification period. Subsequent research monitoring studies permitted to differentiate between the different sources of sediment and highlight the importance of surface erosion during flood events and of bank erosion during low flows. The increased export of the sediment is primarily due

  14. Inter-comparison of hydro-climatic regimes across northern catchments: Synchronicity, resistance and resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, S.K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Seibert, J.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J.; McGuire, K.; Caissie, D.; Shanley, J.; Kennedy, M.; Devito, K.; Pomeroy, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are particularly sensitive to climate change as small differences in temperature determine frozen ground status, precipitation phase, and the magnitude and timing of snow accumulation and melt. An international inter-catchment comparison program, North-Watch, seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to climate change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical responses. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). This briefing presents the initial stage of the North-Watch program, which focuses on how these catchments collect, store and release water and identify 'types' of hydro-climatic catchment response. At most sites, a 10-year data of daily precipitation, discharge and temperature were compiled and evaporation and storage were calculated. Inter-annual and seasonal patterns of hydrological processes were assessed via normalized fluxes and standard flow metrics. At the annual-scale, relations between temperature, precipitation and discharge were compared, highlighting the role of seasonality, wetness and snow/frozen ground. The seasonal pattern and synchronicity of fluxes at the monthly scale provided insight into system memory and the role of storage. We identified types of catchments that rapidly translate precipitation into runoff and others that more readily store water for delayed release. Synchronicity and variance of rainfall-runoff patterns were characterized by the coefficient of variation (cv) of monthly fluxes and correlation coefficients. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed clustering among like catchments in terms of functioning, largely controlled by two components that (i) reflect temperature and precipitation gradients and the correlation of monthly precipitation and discharge and (ii

  15. Modeller's attitude in catchment modelling: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Ten modellers have been invited to predict, independently from each other, the discharge of the artificial Chicken Creek catchment in North-East Germany for simulation period of three years, providing them only soil texture, terrain and meteorological data. No data concerning the discharge or other sources of state variables and fluxes within the catchment have been provided. Modellers had however the opportunity to visit the experimental catchment and inspect areal photos of the catchments since its initial development stage. This study has been a unique comparative study focussing on how different modellers deal with the key issues in predicting the discharge in ungauged catchments: 1) choice of the model structure; 2) identification of model parameters; 3) identification of model initial and boundary conditions. The first general lesson learned during this study was that the modeller is just part of the entire modelling process and has a major bearing on the model results, particularly in ungauged catchments where there are more degrees of freedom in making modelling decisions. Modellers' attitudes during the stages of the model implementation and parameterisation have been deeply influenced by their own experience from previous modelling studies. A common outcome was that modellers have been mainly oriented to apply process-based models able to exploit the available data concerning the physical properties of the catchment and therefore could be more suitable to cope with the lack of data concerning state variables or fluxes. The second general lesson learned during this study was the role of dominant processes. We believed that the modelling task would have been much easier in an artificial catchment, where heterogeneity were expected to be negligible and processes simpler, than in catchments that have evolved over a longer time period. The results of the models were expected to converge, and this would have been a good starting point to proceed for a model

  16. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M. D.; Verlinde, J.; Richardson, S.; Zak, B.; Zirzow, J.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides scientific infrastructure and data archives to the international Arctic research community through a national user facility, the ARM Climate Research Facilities (ACRF). One of three fixed ARM Climate Research Facilities is located on the North Slope of Alaska. Since 1998, these facilities near the communities of Barrow and Atqasuk have provided data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are used to refine models and parameterizations related to the Arctic. Data records from the instruments at these facilities and data products are available through web- accessible archives. The ACRF's role is to provide infrastructure support for climate research, including Arctic research, to the global scientific community. DOE's climate research programs, with a focus on clouds and aerosols and their impact on the radiative budget, define the research scope supported by the Facility. In addition to a set of baseline instruments at the two fixed North Slope ACRF locations, temporary or guest instruments are operated as required to support field campaigns. Recent field campaigns have included over-flights by aircraft with cloud and aerosol-sampling instrumentation. To support proposed deployments of unmanned aerial vehicle and unmanned aerial systems on the North Slope of Alaska and over the Arctic Ocean, permissions are being obtained and access arranged for use of a runway and nearby ground support facilities at Oliktok Point, Alaska. In addition to the fixed facilities, ARM Mobile Facilities may be used for high-latitude deployments. Deployments for the ARM Mobile Facilities are selected through a formal process that includes peer review of science-focused proposals. The first ARM Mobile Facility is nearing the end of a deployment in China. Design and development of a second ARM Mobile Facility will begin in late calendar year 2008. This paper discusses the scientific infrastructure, data streams and

  17. Multivariate analysis of a small pleistocene catchment: tracing hydrological change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Steven; Merz, Christoph; Dannowski, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The water budget of catchments in north-east Germany has decreased considerably over the last decades. Especially small catchments are affected due to the small amount of water stored within. Climate projections for the next decades hint to even more negative impacts on the water budgets of these catchments. Therefore, a new concept of water resource management for this region must be developed, including counter measures to extreme events such as low and high flow conditions. In order to manage a hydrological system one needs to know the typical behavior and be able to effectively counteract if needed. Within the network activity INKA-BB (Inovationsnetzwerk Klimaanpassung Brandenburg Berlin) dealing with possible adaptation measures to climate change in the Brandenburg and Berlin region, this study aims at identifying the typical hydraulic behavior of the Fredersdorfer Mühlenfließ catchment located north-east of Berlin as a basis for a sustainable water resource management concept. Established schemes are followed, including the application of numerical geochemical and hydraulic models as well as chemical graphical interpretation approaches. A common problem is the sparse spatial as well as temporal resolution of the data at hand. Here, these schemes are too inflexible and vague with respect to analyzing and parameterization of complex features used for identifying operative hydraulic-geochemical processes including intensive non-linear interactions. Hence, methods must be applied that are able to effectively utilize the limited information available. Ordination methods such as the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) or the non-linear Isometric Feature Mapping (Isomap) can provide such a tool. Ordination methods are used in order to derive a meaningful low-dimensional representation of a high-dimensional input data set. The approach is based on the hypothesis, that the amount of processes which explain the variance of the data is relative low although the

  18. Detecting non-stationary hydrologic model parameters in a paired catchment system using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiraja, S.; Marshall, L.; Sharma, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2016-08-01

    Non-stationarity represents one of the major challenges facing hydrologists. There exists a need to develop modelling systems that are capable of accounting for potential catchment changes, in order to provide useful predictions for the future. Such changes may be due to climatic temporal variations or human induced changes to land cover. Extensive research has been undertaken on the impacts of land-use change on hydrologic behaviour, however, few studies have examined this issue in a predictive modelling context. In this paper, we investigate whether a time varying model parameter estimation framework that uses the principles of Data Assimilation can improve prediction for two pairs of experimental catchments in Western Australia. All catchments were initially forested, but after three years one catchment was fully cleared whilst another had only 50% of its area cleared. Their adjacent catchments remained unchanged as a control. Temporal variations in parameters were detected for both treated catchments, with no comparable variations for the control catchments. Improved streamflow prediction and representation of soil moisture dynamics were also seen for the time varying parameter case, compared to when a time invariant parameter set from the calibration period was used. While we use the above mentioned catchments to illustrate the usefulness of the approach, the methods are generic and equally applicable in other settings. This study serves as an important validation step to demonstrate the potential for time varying model structures to improve both predictions and modelling of changing catchments.

  19. Disaster Down East: Using Participatory Action Research to Explore Intimate Partner Violence in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Pamela York; Belton, Leigh; Hooten, Elizabeth; Campbell, Marci Kramish; DeVellis, Brenda; Benedict, Salli; Carrillo, Carla; Gonzalez, Pam; Kelsey, Kristine; Meier, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd in 1999, a Community Advisory Committee requested assistance from its university partners (University of North Carolina) to address stress and increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Collected from 12 study work sites, baseline data indicated that IPV rates were higher among blue-collar women in…

  20. Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of two important viruses infecting North American ruminants: bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHDV). While these viruses have been identified for over 60 years, we still lack an adequate understanding of t...

  1. 2010 North Plains Research Field 12-200 Limited Irrigation Corn Production Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD) in the Texas High Plains embarked on a demonstration program to illustrate if the region could produce 200 bushels and acres of corn using just 12 inches of irrigation water (named the 12-200 Project). This report is a summary of the first y...

  2. Model Store Curriculum. A Developmental Model for North Dakota Schools. Final Report. Research Series No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goschen, Todd; Warcup, Dennis

    The final report evaluates the activities of the first nine weeks of a project designed to develop a curriculum guide for a school-model store at a North Dakota high school. The program combines the favorable aspects of both the school store and the model store, providing "live" experiences as well as simulated ones. The Distributive Education One…

  3. Transmission and Epidemiology of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in North America: Current Perspectives, Research Gaps, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Lysyk, Timothy J; Stallknecht, David E; Foil, Lane D; Johnson, Donna J; Chase, Christopher C; Dargatz, David A; Gibbs, E Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are arthropod-transmitted viruses in the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. These viruses infect a variety of domestic and wild ruminant hosts, although the susceptibility to clinical disease associated with BTV or EHDV infection varies greatly among host species, as well as between individuals of the same species. Since their initial detection in North America during the 1950s, these viruses have circulated in endemic and epidemic patterns, with occasional incursions to more northern latitudes. In recent years, changes in the pattern of BTV and EHDV infection and disease have forced the scientific community to revisit some fundamental areas related to the epidemiology of these diseases, specifically in relation to virus-vector-host interactions and environmental factors that have potentially enabled the observed changes. The aim of this review is to identify research and surveillance gaps that obscure our understanding of BT and EHD in North America. PMID:26086556

  4. On using TRMM data and rainfall forecasts from meteorological models in data-scarce transboundary catchments - an example of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Tohidul Islam, Md.

    2014-05-01

    This research focuses on the flood risk of the Haor region in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh. The prediction of the hydrological variables at different spatial and temporal scales in the Haor region is dependent on the influence of several upstream rivers in the Meghalaya catchment in India. Limitation in hydro-meteorological data collection and data sharing issues between the two countries dominate the feasibility of hydrological studies, particularly for near-realtime predictions. One of the possible solutions seems to be in making use of the variety of satellite based and meteorological model products for rainfall. The abundance of a variety of rainfall products provides a good basis of hydrological modelling of a part of the Ganges and Brahmaputra basin. In this research the TRMM data and rainfall forecasts from ECMWF have been compared with the scarce rain gauge data from the upstream Meghalaya catchment. Subsequently, the TRMM data and rainfall forecasts from ECMWF have been used as the meteorological input to a rainfall-runoff model of the Meghalaya catchment. The rainfall-runoff model of Meghalaya has been developed using the DEM data from SRTM. The generated runoff at the outlet of Meghalaya has been used as the upstream boundary condition in the existing rainfall-runoff model of the Haor region. The simulation results have been compared with the existing results based on simulations without any information of the rainfall-runoff in the upstream Meghalaya catchment. The comparison showed that the forecasting lead time has been substantially increased. As per the existing results the forecasting lead time at a number of locations in the catchment was about 6 to 8 hours. With the new results the forecasting lead time has gone up, with different levels of accuracy, to about 24 hours. This additional lead time will be highly beneficial in managing flood risk of the Haor region of Bangladesh. The research shows that satellite based rainfall products and

  5. Characterizing Runoff and Water Yield from Headwater Catchments in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safeeq, M.; Hunsaker, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    In a mediterranean climate where much of the annual precipitation falls during winter, the snow-capped Sierra Nevada serves as the primary source of dry season runoff that supports agriculture, industries, urban, and other ecosystems. Increased warming has led to significant reductions in mountain snowpack accumulation and earlier snowmelt throughout the western United States where most of the snow accumulates at temperatures near the freezing point. As a result, declines in dry season runoff magnitude, earlier runoff timing, and altered flood risk have been reported across the region. An important question in this context is, how to best manage forested catchments for water and other ecosystem services? We depict the differences in hydrologic response of ten catchments in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds (KREW) research project using continuous precipitation, snow, and runoff data during 2004-2014. The size of these catchments ranges from 50 to 475 ha, and they span a 600-m elevation range in the rain snow transitional zone. In terms of soil, Shaver and Gerle-Cagwin dominate the lower elevation Providence catchments, and Cagwin soils dominate the higher elevation Bull catchments. The majority of these catchments have southwest aspect, moderate average slope (i.e. <25%), and a well-developed drainage network with drainage density ranging from 4.6 to 10.1 km/km2. Bull catchments, on average, have higher runoff than the Providence catchments across all hydrologic signatures extracted from daily hydrographs. Mean annual runoff ranges between 281 to 408 mm in Providence and 436 to 656 mm in Bull catchments despite no significant difference in precipitation among KREW's four meteorological stations. However, high elevation Bull catchments receive significantly more precipitation as snow than the low elevation Providence catchments. The average runoff ratio ranges from 18% to as high as 43% among different catchments, indicating that the catchment

  6. Relative influence of upland and lowland headwaters on the isotope hydrology and transit times of larger catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Hrachowitz, M.; Speed, M.

    2011-04-01

    SummaryWeekly variation of δ 18O was measured over 2 years in precipitation and river water in four relatively large catchments in north east Scotland. The River Dee (1712 km 2) is predominantly upland, with impermeable geology and hydrologically responsive soils. The headwaters of the River North Esk (732 km 2) are similar, but the lower third of the catchment is underlain by a major sandstone aquifer and is lowland (i.e. <300 m altitude) in nature. The upper 20% of the River Don catchment (1273 km 2) is upland, but the remainder is lowland with freely draining soils recharging significant groundwater reservoirs in superficial drifts. The River Ythan catchment (662 km 2) is entirely lowland and similar to the lower Don. The hydrological responsiveness of the catchments was directly related to their upland area, with the Dee and the North Esk generating the highest specific discharges during high flow events. Conversely, the Don and Ythan had more subdued hydrological regimes, but higher specific discharge under baseflows. Despite broadly similar δ 18O variation in precipitation inputs, the variability of stream waters was increasingly damped in the order Ythan > Don > North Esk > Dee. Convolution integral models were used to estimate Mean Transit Times (MTTs) for the four catchments from the isotope data. These were reasonably well-constrained at around 2 years for the Dee and 3 years for the North Esk. Estimates for the Don and Ythan were poorly constrained and therefore highly uncertain, but are both likely to exceed 10 years. MTTs in upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands are relatively short (ca. 2 months-4 years) and have been shown to be strongly correlated with soil hydrology, topographic indices and precipitation intensity. However, these relationships change in lowland areas as catchments become less surface water dominated and greater groundwater storage and deeper mixing processes result in much higher MTTs. Nevertheless, a close correlation

  7. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  8. Phosphorus fluxes in headwater streams draining non-research poultry-pasture operations in north-central Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeis, J. J.; Jackson, C. R.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Risse, M. L.; Bryant, J.

    2007-12-01

    Poultry production is the largest agricultural commodity in Georgia, USA. Due to inefficient utilization of the phosphorus (P) in poultry feed, the manure contains high concentrations of P. When used as fertilizer for crops and pasture, poultry manure may be washed from the soil surface and increase eutrophication risks to downstream lakes and reservoirs. Long term application of poultry manure may result in P saturation of the soils. In the upper Etowah River basin in north-central Georgia, a long history of poultry farming has resulted in high P levels in soils receiving regular poultry manure applications. Few studies to date have been performed on the estimation of P fluxes from operational commercial poultry farms in Georgia. In Fall 2006, a 20-month surface water quality monitoring program was completed that was aimed at estimating P and suspended sediment fluxes in nine headwater streams draining poultry-pasture operations in the upper Etowah River basin. The nine catchments differed in terms of land use history, soil P levels, best management practices and other factors. An additional three streams draining U.S. National Forest were also monitored to provide reference concentrations and loads. Monitoring data included continuous (5-minute) streamflow, rainfall, and water quality samples. Water quality samples included biweekly grab samples plus storm samples collected using conventional autosamplers. Storm sampling using autosamplers included collection of discrete samples and composite samples. In particular instances, the two types of storm sample were collected simultaneously. Discrete storm sampling methods enabled collection of both rising and falling hydrograph limb samples to identify potential hysteretic water quality effects. Water samples were analyzed for total P, filterable reactive P, and total suspended solids. We are using this data to compare different flux estimation methods with emphasis on regression models that utilize laboratory results

  9. Collaborative Research: Climate Sensitivity of Thaw Lake Systems on the Alaska North Slope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Tingjun; Jeffries, Martin O.

    2001-01-01

    There are thousands of thaw (thermokarst) lakes on the North Slope of Alaska, where they cover as much as 40% of the land area. Their very name recognizes the fact that they owe their origin to the impact they have on the ground thermal regime, but there have been few quantitative studies of the impact of the lakes on atmosphere-land interactions in this tundra region.

  10. Optimization of precipitation inputs for SWAT modeling in mountainous catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuo, Ye; Chiogna, Gabriele; Disse, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is often the most important input data in hydrological models when simulating streamflow in mountainous catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a widely used hydrological model, only makes use of data from one precipitation gauging station which is nearest to the centroid of each subcatchment, eventually corrected using the band elevation method. This leads in general to inaccurate subcatchment precipitation representation, which results in unreliable simulation results in mountainous catchment. To investigate the impact of the precipitation inputs and consider the high spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, we first interpolated 21 years (1990-2010) of daily measured data using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. Averaged IDW daily values have been calculated at the subcatchment scale to be further supplied as optimized precipitation inputs for SWAT. Both datasets (Measured data and IDW data) are applied to three Alpine subcatchments of the Adige catchment (North-eastern Italy, 12100 km2) as precipitation inputs. Based on the calibration and validation results, model performances are evaluated according to the Nash Sutchliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2). For all three subcatchments, the simulation results with IDW inputs are better than the original method which uses measured inputs from the nearest station. This suggests that IDW method could improve the model performance in Alpine catchments to some extent. By taking into account and weighting the distance between precipitation records, IDW supplies more accurate precipitation inputs for each individual Alpine subcatchment, which would as a whole lead to an improved description of the hydrological behavior of the entire Adige catchment.

  11. BIOLOGICAL SINKS FOR N ADDITIONS TO A FORESTED CATCHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of our research is to identify and quantify sinks for experimental Nitrogen (N) additions to a forested catchment at the Bear Brooks Watershed in Maine (BBWM) where background N deposition rates are low (< 4 kg ha-1 yr1). itrogen is added bimonthly to an experimental cat...

  12. Action research: the revision of services at one mental health rehabilitation unit in the north of England.

    PubMed

    Leighton, K

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports the experiences of people in one mental health rehabilitation unit in the north of England, where conventional individualized approaches have repeatedly failed, leading to bed blocking and inertia. An action research approach has been used to identify the key problems concerned, construct appropriate goals and formulate problem-solving plans, leading to the development of an alternative therapeutic regime. The new facility is based on a society-centred, recovery approach which emphasizes the principles of community involvement, social responsibility and meaningful occupation of time. This approach may be of transferable interest to others in the field. The paper outlines the history of the unit, describes the action research process, and presents the philosophy of care, nursing model, admission criteria and main assessment tool now being used. It concludes with an open review of the research process, exploring both positive and negative aspects. PMID:15876246

  13. North-South Partnership in Water Resource Education and Research - Lessons learnt from U.S.-Ethiopia Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, Ethiopian and U.S. universities formed partnership to train critical mass of Ethiopians in modern water resources tools, techniques, skills and knowledge, and to strengthen the institutional capacity of Ethiopian universities to establish graduate-level programs in Ethiopia. The partnership established Ethiopia's first water resource research institute, two graduate-level programs (water resource engineering and management, water and health) that are currently training about 100 students at M.S. and Ph.D. levels, summer undergraduate outreach program that provided community-based research experience in water resource for undergraduate students, and short-term trainings to practitioners and policy makers. The design, implementation and impact of these programs have had limitations and successes. In this presentation, I will provide lessons learnt from this partnership, and suggestions of elements required for successful North-South partnership in higher education and research.

  14. Interventions to Promote Energy Balance and Cancer Survivorship: European and North American Priorities for Research and Care

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Catherine M.; Molfino, Alessio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The growing population of cancer survivors worldwide and the growing epidemics of obesity and physical inactivity have brought increased attention to the role that interventions to promote exercise and a healthy body weight might play in mitigating the chronic and late effects of cancer. In this light, we describe the similarities and differences in research and clinical priorities related to energy balance interventions among post-treatment cancer survivors in Europe vs. North America. We review the randomized, controlled trials targeting nutrition, exercise, and weight to affect survivorship outcomes. We discuss the interventions focused on improving prognosis or survival, as well as the emerging literature on interventions targeting pathways and mechanisms of prognosis or survival. We describe current North American and European guidelines for diet, exercise, and weight control among cancer survivors and discuss implications of the current state of this science for clinical care. Finally, we delineate future European and American priorities for research and care involving energy balance among survivors. We hope that this dialogue launches an international conversation that will lead to better research and care for all post-treatment cancer survivors. PMID:23695926

  15. On the value of data for catchment modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; McDonnell, J. J.; Savenije, H. H.; Pfister, L.

    2006-12-01

    The dialogue between experimentalist and modeller in catchment hydrology continues to be minimal, despite the clear need for this to quantify and reduce uncertainty in our predictions. Experimentalists often instrument catchments to measure key diagnostic properties and variables that, from their perspective, characterize catchment behaviour. Typically, after some years, the research switches to the hands of the catchment modeller who uses these data to support model development or to constrain a model's degrees of freedom. Often there is frustration on the part of the modeller because only a small part of the collected information can be actually used for the set-up, calibration and evaluation of the hydrological model. Much of the field data turns out to be of little use for modelling, for problems that may be related to the disparity between the scale of measurements and the scale of model components. This happens not only because of a lack of communication between modellers and experimentalists, but also because the information requirements of a model are seldom treated as a scientific issue. We use the well-studied Maimai catchment to explore what types of measurements, what length of time series and what resolution in time and space is best suited for modellers, in a way that it can be processed into simple, integrative evaluative data that constrain the model so as to represent the hydrological processes realistically. We discuss the marginal value of different data sources and the tradeoffs between time spent completing time series for a few variables and locations to spatially distributed snapshots of different variables aimed at increasing data complementarity. A first direct application of this study will be to orientate future field research on the experimental catchments operating in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

  16. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  17. Evaluation of TOPLATS on three Mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizu, Javier; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    Physically based hydrological models are complex tools that provide a complete description of the different processes occurring on a catchment. The TOPMODEL-based Land-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (TOPLATS) simulates water and energy balances at different time steps, in both lumped and distributed modes. In order to gain insight on the behavior of TOPLATS and its applicability in different conditions a detailed evaluation needs to be carried out. This study aimed to develop a complete evaluation of TOPLATS including: (1) a detailed review of previous research works using this model; (2) a sensitivity analysis (SA) of the model with two contrasted methods (Morris and Sobol) of different complexity; (3) a 4-step calibration strategy based on a multi-start Powell optimization algorithm; and (4) an analysis of the influence of simulation time step (hourly vs. daily). The model was applied on three catchments of varying size (La Tejeria, Cidacos and Arga), located in Navarre (Northern Spain), and characterized by different levels of Mediterranean climate influence. Both Morris and Sobol methods showed very similar results that identified Brooks-Corey Pore Size distribution Index (B), Bubbling pressure (ψc) and Hydraulic conductivity decay (f) as the three overall most influential parameters in TOPLATS. After calibration and validation, adequate streamflow simulations were obtained in the two wettest catchments, but the driest (Cidacos) gave poor results in validation, due to the large climatic variability between calibration and validation periods. To overcome this issue, an alternative random and discontinuous method of cal/val period selection was implemented, improving model results.

  18. Population dynamics of the major north American needle-eating budworms. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    The report includes data from six western States provided 1,251 life tables representing western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis. These data provided projection capabilities for defoliation and successive budworm densities, as well as a basis for comparing survival rates among the three principal North American needle-eating budworms (western and eastern spruce budworms, and the jack pine budworm). Several modifications are suggested in current methods for managing budworm susceptible forests, and suggestions are provided for further studies on the budworm life systems.

  19. Hydrological Controls on Nutrient Concentrations and Fluxes in Agricultural Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petry, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2002-12-01

    This investigation into diffuse agricultural pollution and the hydrological controls that exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes, was conducted in an intensively farmed lowland catchment in north-east Scotland. The study focuses on spatial and seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations and fluxes at the catchment scale, over a 15-month period. The water quality of the 14.5 km2 Newmills Burn catchment has relatively high nutrient levels with mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N at 6.09 mg/l and 0.28 mg/l respectively. Average PO4-P concentrations are 0.06 mg/l. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilised by overland flow in riparian areas, where soils have been compacted by livestock or machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, produces a marked increase in NO3-N (6.9 mg/l) concentrations on the hydrograph recession limb. A more detailed insight into the catchment response to storm events, and in particular the response of the hydrological pathways which provide the main sources of runoff during storm events, was gained by sampling stream water at 2-hourly intervals during 5 events. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) was carried out using event specific end-member chemistries to differentiate three catchment-scale hydrological pathways (overland flow, subsurface storm flow, groundwater flow) on the basis of observed Si and NO3-N concentrations in sampled source waters. Results show that overland flow generally dominates the storm peak and provides the main flow path by which P is transferred to stream channels during storm events, whilst subsurface storm flows usually dominate the storm hydrograph volumetrically and route NO3-rich soil water to the stream. The study shows that altering hydrological pathways in a catchment can have implications for nutrient management. Whilst buffer

  20. Watershed scale spatial variability in dissolved and total organic and inorganic carbon in contrasting UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumberland, S.; Baker, A.; Hudson, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    ) Recent investigations into carbon fluxes in British rivers have focused on long term increases in DOC in rural and predominantly upland catchments. Our results suggest that research is needed into understanding long term variations in inorganic carbon concentration, as well as total (organic and inorganic) carbon fluxes from British rivers, to obtain total carbon loads. In particular, we provide evidence that DIC concentrations may be greater in urbanized catchments compared to equivalent non-urban catchments, with the implication that increasing urbanization in the future will see increases in riverine DIC and a decrease in the strength of any DOC DIC anti correlation. Further studies of urban catchment DIC sources, within stream processing, long term trends, and potential ecological impacts, are required.

  1. The relative influence of climate and catchment properties on hydrological drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Koffler, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    high elevation, steep slopes, a high percentage of crystalline rock, bare rock and glacier. The conclusion of our research is that it is not straightforward to separate the effects of climate and catchment properties on drought, since they are interrelated. This is especially true for mountainous regions where temperature and precipitation are strongly dependent on altitude. We did however see that the duration of drought is more related to catchment storage (catchment properties) and the severity of drought (represented by the drought deficit) is more related to catchment wetness (climate). Van Loon, A.F., and Van Lanen, H.A.J.: A process-based typology of hydrological drought, Hydrology and Earth System Science, 16, p. 1915-1946, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-1915-2012, 2012

  2. Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technology Research and Field Test in Liuzan North Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanshi; Luo, Pingya; Sun, Lei; Fu, Zhijun

    2014-12-01

    The fault roots of Liuzan north block in Jidong oilfield of China have been long-term explored by solution gas drive. Recently, oil production declined rapidly because of shortage of formation energy and needing high water injection pressure. Carbon dioxide injection pressure is found to be generally low, and CO2 has good solubility in crude oil to supply formation energy and achieve high oil recovery efficiency. In this work, a pilot program of CO2 EOR technology was carried out. The slim tube test results showed that the minimal miscible pressure of Liuzan north block was 28.28 MPa. The injection parameters were optimized by numerical simulation method: the injection method was continuous, the slug size was 0.2 HCPV and the EOR efficiency was 7.23%. After two months of gas injection field test, the formation pressure of two gas injectors just increased by 14.02 MPa and 2.98 MPa, respectively, indicating that carbon dioxide could supply the formation energy effectively. 16 months after gas injection, the CO2 injection amount was 14640 t, and the oil increment was 16424 t. The present work demonstrates the potential applicability of CO2 flooding technology from high water injection reservoirs.

  3. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  4. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee`s annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. The North American Fetal Therapy Network (NAFTNet): a new approach to collaborative research in fetal diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark Paul

    2010-02-01

    In August 2004, the National Institutes of Health organized a 'Workshop on Fetal Therapy' to develop a plan for the maternal-fetal, surgical, and neonatal evaluation and treatment of pregnancies that might benefit from in-utero therapy. At the completion of the workshop several recommendations were made, foremost of which was the 'formation of a cooperative group of clinical investigators to help set a national agenda for research and clinical progress in the field of fetal therapy'. Somewhat by coincidence, a multidisciplinary 'Fetal Therapy Working Group' that had been formed earlier in the year was well-positioned to accept this national mandate and proposed development of a North American Fetal Therapy Network (NAFTNet) to foster collaborative research between active fetal diagnosis and treatment centers in both the USA and Canada, develop a peer review mechanism for study proposals, explore ways to centralize data collection and study development, and establish an educational agenda for medical professionals and the public as well as training of future leaders in the field. NAFTNet represents a new paradigm and approach to international collaborative research. Early success has resulted in the recognition of the power of collaborative research efforts in studying rare congenital anomalies and intervention strategies to improve outcomes and survivals in such limited populations. By abandoning 'competitive research' for a cooperative, collaborative environment of research partnership, NAFTNet strives to be more responsible and effective in using limited resources and improving care for pregnancies and children born with congenital anomalies. PMID:19556173

  6. Coevolution of volcanic catchments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takeo; Troch, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Present-day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment coevolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma) in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density and slope-area relationship) as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow-duration curves) and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index). We found a significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The intra-annual flow variability was also significantly related to catchments age. Younger catchments tended to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibited more flashy runoff. The decrease in baseflow with catchment age is consistent with the existing hypothesis that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways change over time from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in a set of similar, but younger volcanic catchments in the Oregon Cascades, in which drainage density increased with age. In that case, older catchments were thought to show more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths. Our results suggests two competing hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in mature catchments. One is that as catchments continue to age, the hydrologically active channels retreat

  7. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Six Rivers, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Rogue River, and Toiyabe National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality , and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  8. From Heart Health to Brain Health: Legacy of the North Karelia Project for Dementia Research.

    PubMed

    Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment is very common in advanced age, with dementia representing the main cause of disability in older adults. Over the past 20 years, several modifiable risk factors have been identified for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are shared with cardiovascular diseases. Given that the pathologic changes leading to dementia may start decades before dementia is diagnosed, it is crucial to adopt a life course approach when investigating risk factors for dementia. The CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) study is one of the first and still very few existing observational studies to have investigated the role of midlife risk factors for the subsequent development of dementia and AD in late life. The CAIDE study is built on the North Karelia Project, enabling risk factor assessment 20 to 30 years before the dementia diagnosis. The CAIDE study has revealed that late-life dementia and AD are heterogeneous and multifactorial disorders, suggesting that multidomain interventions targeting several risk factors simultaneously may be needed for optimal preventive effects. The FINGER (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability) study is the first large long-term multidomain lifestyle intervention showing effect on prevention of cognitive impairment in at-risk elderly people. The study is conducted within the existing framework and builds on multidisciplinary prevention expertise following the North Karelia Project and CAIDE study. The FINGER study will, together with the ongoing multinational preventive initiatives, pave the way for pragmatic prevention programs and integrated interventions to facilitate healthy brain aging. This paper summarizes major findings on risk and protective factors for dementia and AD, and reviews key aspects and future directions in preventative strategies. PMID:27242093

  9. Recent research on the hydrodynamics of the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta and north San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burau, J.R.; Monismith, S.G.; Stacey, M.T.; Oltmann, R.N.; Lacy, J.R.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of recent findings from hydrodynamic research on circulation and mixing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) (Figure 1) and North San Francisco Bay (North Bay) (Figure 2). For the purposes of this article, North Bay includes San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay. The findings presented are those gained from field studies carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP), and Stanford University beginning about 1993. The premise behind these studies was that a basic understanding of circulation and mixing patterns in the Bay and Delta is an essential part of understanding how biota and water quality are affected by natural hydrologic variability, water appropriation, and development activities. Data collected for the field studies described in this article have significantly improved our understanding of Bay and Delta hydrodynamics. Measured flows ,in the Delta have provided valuable information on how water moves through the Delta's network of channels and how export pumping affects flows. Studies of the shallows and shallow-channel exchange processes conducted in Honker Bay have shown that the water residence time in Honker Bay is much shorter than previously reported (on the order of hours to several tidal cycles instead ofweeks). Suisun Bay studies have provided data on hydrodynamic transport and accumulation mechanisms that operate primarily in the channels. The Suisun Bay studies have caused us to revise our understanding of residual circulation in the channels of North Bay and of "entrapment" mechanisms in the low salinity zone. Finally, detailed tidal and residual (tidally averaged) time-scale studies of the mechanisms that control gravitational circulation in the estuary show that density-driven transport in the channels is governed by turbulence time-scale (seconds) interactions between the mean flow and stratification. The hydrodynamic research

  10. Changes in catchment hydrology in relation to vegetation recovery: a comparative modelling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana-Renault, Noemí; Karssenberg, Derek; Latron, Jérôme; Serrano, Mā Pilar; Regüés, David; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean mountains have been largely affected by land abandonment and subsequent vegetation recovery, with a general expansion of shrubs and forests. Such a large scale land-cover change has modified the hydrological behavior of these areas, with significant impact on runoff production. Forecasting the trend of water resources under future re-vegetation scenarios is of paramount importance in Mediterranean basins, where water management relies on runoff generated in these areas. With this purpose, a modelling experiment was designed based on the information collected in two neighbouring research catchments with a different history of land use in the central Spanish Pyrenees. One (2.84 km2) is an abandoned agricultural catchment subjected to plant colonization and at present mainly covered by shrubs. The other (0.92 km2) is a catchment covered by dense natural forest, representative of undisturbed environments. Here we present the results of the analysis of the hydrological differences between the two catchments, and a description of the approach and results of the modelling experiment. In a statistical analysis of the field data, significant differences were observed in the streamflow response of the two catchments. The forested catchment recorded fewer floods per year compared to the old agricultural catchment, and its hydrological response was characterised by a marked seasonality, with autumn and spring as the only high flow periods. Stormflow was generally higher in the old agricultural catchment, especially for low to intermediate size events; only for large events the stormflow in the forested catchment was sometimes greater. Under drier conditions, the relative differences in the stormflow between the two catchments tended to increase whereas under wet conditions they tended to be similar. The forested catchment always reacted more slowly to rainfall, with lower peakflows (generally one order of magnitude lower) and longer recession limbs. The modelling

  11. Using stable isotopes to estimate and compare mean residence times in contrasting geologic catchments (Attert River, NW Luxembourg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Fenicia, F.; Frentress, J.; Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, stable isotopes have been increasingly used to characterize important aspects of catchment hydrological functioning, such as water storage dynamics, flow pathways and water sources. These characteristics are often synthesized by the Mean Residence Time (MRT), which is a simple catchment descriptor that employ the relation of distinct stable isotopic signatures in the rainfall input and streamflow output of a catchment that are significantly dampened through sub-surface propagation. In this preliminary study, MRT was estimated in the Attert River catchment (NW Luxembourg), where previous studies have shown that lithology exerts a major control on runoff generation. The Attert catchment lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology: the Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the south of the catchment. As a consequence of differing lithologic characteristics, hydrological processes change across scales. The schistose catchments exhibit a delayed shallow groundwater component, sandstone catchments have slow-responding year-round groundwater component, whereas flashy runoff regimes prevails in the marly catchments. Under these circumstances, the MRTs are expected to vary significantly according to lithology, and provide additional understanding in internal catchment processes and their scale dependencies. In order to test this, bi-weekly monitoring of rainfall and discharge stable water isotope composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium) has been carried out since 2007 in 10 nested sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.4 to 247 km2 in the Attert catchment. MRT was estimated using different lumped convolution integral models and sine wave functions with varying transit times distributions (TTDs). TTDs were evaluated through calibration. Further research efforts will deal with the application of conceptual models to simulate and compare TTD, using

  12. Impacts of climate and land use changes on regional nutrient export in the South Saskatchewan River catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate and land use changes modify the physical functioning of river catchments and, in particular, influence the transport of nutrients from land to water. In large-scale catchments, where a variety of climates, topographies, soil types and land uses co-exist to form a highly heterogeneous environment, a more complex nutrient dynamic is imposed by climate and land use changes. This is the case of the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) that, along with the North Saskatchewan River, forms the largest river system in western Canada. In the past years changes in the land use and new industrial developments in the SSR area have heightened serious concerns about the future of water quality in the catchment and downstream waters. Agricultural activities have increased the supply of manure and fertilizer for cropping. Oil and gas exploitation has also increased the risk of surface water and groundwater contamination. The rapid population growth not only leads to increments in water consumption and wastewater, but in the construction of roads, railways and the expansion of new urban developments that impose hydraulic controls on the catchment hydrology and therefore the sediment and nutrient transport. Consequences of the actual anthropogenic changes have been notorious in reservoirs where algal blooms and signs of eutrophication have become common during certain times of the year. Although environmental agencies are constantly improving the mechanisms to reduce nutrient export into the river and ensure safe water quality standards, further research is needed in order to identify major nutrient sources and quantify nutrient export and also, to assess how nutrients are going to vary as a result of future climate and land use change scenarios. The SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed (SPARROW) model is therefore implemented to assess water quality regionally, in order to describe spatial and temporal patterns to identify those factors and processes that affect water

  13. Understanding fine sediment and phosphorous delivery in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, M. T.; Reaney, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The uplands of UK are heavily impacted by land management including; farming and forestry operations, moorland burning, peat extraction, metal mining, artificial drainage and channelisation. It has been demonstrated that such land management activity may modify hillslope processes, resulting in enhanced runoff generation and changing the spatial distribution and magnitude of erosion. Resultantly, few upland river systems of the UK are operating in a natural state, with land management activity often resulting in increased fluxes of suspended sediment (< 2 mm) and associated pollutants (such as phosphorous). Most recent Environment Agency (EA) data reveals that 60% of monitored water bodies within upland areas of the UK are currently at risk of failing the Water Framework Directive (WFD) due to poor ecological status. In order to prevent the continual degradation of many upland catchments, riverine systems and their diverse ecosystems, a range of measures to control diffuse pollution will need to be implemented. Future mitigation options and measures in the UK may be tested and targeted through the EA's catchment pilot scheme; DEFRA's Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programmes and through the catchment restoration fund. However, restoring the physical and biological processes of past conditions in inherently sensitive upland environments is extremely challenging requiring the development of a solid evidence base to determine the effectiveness of resource allocation and to enable reliable and transparent decisions to be made about future catchment operations. Such evidence is rarely collected, with post-implementation assessments often neglected. This paper presents research conducted in the Morland sub-catchment of the River Eden within Cumbria; UK. 80% of this headwater catchment is in upland areas and is dominated by improved grassland and rough grazing. The catchment is heavily instrumented with a range of hydro-meteorological equipment. A high-tech monitoring

  14. Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment ANGELIDIS, C.1, STERLING, S.1, BREEN, A.2, BIAGI, K.1., and CLAIR, T.A.1 1Dalhousie University, christine.angelidis@dal.ca, 2Bluenose Coastal Action Foundation, andrew@coastalaction.org Southwestern Nova Scotia has some of the most acidic freshwaters in North America due to its location downwind of the major emission sources in eastern Canada and the US and due to a resistant geology which offers little acid buffering capacity (Clair et al. 2007). Because of the poor buffering and regionally high runoff values, hydrological events such as snowmelt and rain storms are frequent and can cause sudden changes in water chemistry which can have devastating effects on freshwater biota due to increases in acidity and metals (Dennis and Clair in press). Clair et al. (2001) have estimated the potential frequency of acidic episodes in this region based on a number of hydrological factors, though the technology available at the time to monitor short-term changes was not dependable. Recent advances in equipment have made the assessment of the frequency and severity of acidic episodes easier and more accurate, allowing better interpretation and prediction of hydrogeochemical changes with variations in weather and deposition patterns. Here we take advantage of these recent advances to monitor water chemistry in an experimental catchment, and explore the response to catchment liming. Catchment liming is one way of mitigating the effects of acid deposition in sensitive areas. We limed a 50 ha catchment at a rate of 5 t/ha in the Gold River watershed of southwest Nova Scotia to examine the interactions between application of lime with the geological and climatological conditions of this region and acid episode frequency. In order to assess changes of episode frequency caused by liming, we established two mobile environmental monitoring platforms in the catchment: a control site

  15. An Investigation of Distance Education in North American Research Literature Using Co-Word Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Stewart, Michelle; Smith, Patryce; Barron, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    The field of distance education is composed of a multiplicity of topics leading to a vast array of research literature. However, the research does not provide a chronological picture of the topics it addresses, making it difficult to develop an overview of the evolution and trends in the literature. To address this issue, a co-word analysis was…

  16. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  17. The future of cardiovascular clinical research in North America and beyond-addressing challenges and leveraging opportunities through unique academic and grassroots collaborations.

    PubMed

    Roe, Matthew T; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Alexander, John H; Goodman, Shaun G; Hernandez, Adrian; Temple, Tracy; Berdan, Lisa; Califf, Robert M; Harrington, Robert A; Peterson, Eric D; Armstrong, Paul W

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments have highlighted the challenges facing cardiovascular clinical research in global contemporary practice, particularly in North America, including shifting priorities for drug development targets, increasing regulatory requirements, and expensive operational approaches for conducting randomized clinical trials. Nonetheless, emerging trends such as the consolidation of practices and hospitals into integrated health systems, the integration of electronic health records from thousands of practices into large data repositories to support prospective research studies, and streamlined operational approaches such as registry-based trials and risk-based monitoring have created numerous opportunities to disrupt the clinical research paradigm. Within this context, academic research organizations around the globe, particularly a strengthened collaboration of 3 established academic research organizations in North America, are uniquely positioned to promote and develop grassroots collaborations across all types of clinical practices, to delineate successful solutions to obstacles that limit clinical research initiatives, and to guide the future of cardiovascular research in the global research environment. PMID:26027610

  18. Opinions of fisheries researchers, managers, and anglers towards recreational fishing issues: an exploratory analysis for North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hasler, Caleb T.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Rapp, Tobias; Jamieson, Elizabeth; Bellehumeur, Karyne; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-02

    There is a need to better understand the perspectives of various recreational fishing stakeholder groups regarding key issues related to fisheries sustainability. To provide a first snapshot and to inform future human dimension studies in this area, we distributed a Web-based open-access survey to fisheries researchers, fisheries managers, and anglers in North America. Attitudes of these respondents towards issues such as overharvest, impacts of catch and release, recreational fisheries management, and research priorities for the future were assessed. We found similar opinions and perspectives by the responding recreational anglers, managers,and researchers on a number of issues, such as the perceived impact of commercial fishing contributing to fish stock declines, the perceived importance of using and promoting gear that minimizes stress and injury to individual fish when fish are to be released, and the belief that conflicts among stakeholders is growing as is the global anti-fishing movement based on animal rights thinking. Differences among responding groups included that researchers tended to be more concerned than anglers and managers with the potential of recreational angling contributing to fish stock declines. Responding anglers were also less content with their involvement in the fisheries management process than were responding managers and researchers, and these anglers also indicated a greater desire for more human dimensions research on understanding angler attitudes and behavior than was evident for responding managers and researchers. This preliminary survey revealed some variation in attitudes among recreational fisheries stakeholders. However, due to lack of random sampling, the study results cannot be extrapolated to the population level. We nevertheless conclude that improved communication and better understanding about the different perspectives among fisheries researchers, managers, and anglers and intrasectorally among different angling

  19. Nitrogen Concentrations and Exports in Baseflow and Stormflow from Three Small Urban Catchments in Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J.; Hochmuth, G.; Clark, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Export of nitrogen from different watersheds across the United States is receiving increasing attention due to the impairment of water quality in receiving water bodies. Researchers have indicated that different land uses exerted a substantial influence on the water quality. Nitrogen loadings on the watershed scale are being studied in many large ecosystems, such as the Baltimore Ecosystem and Arizona Ecosystem, but only a few focuses in a smaller scale such as catchment scale. Characterization of the land use in catchment scale can better explain the observed environmental phenomena under the watershed scale and enrich the related watershed studies. Nitrogen fluxes have been studied at Lake Alice watershed in Gainesville, Florida with a focus on the rarely studied catchments such as sports fields with intensive fertilization management (SFC), urban area with reclaimed water irrigation (RWC) and urban area without irrigation (CC). The entire study started from May 2013. Discharge was monitored in the three catchments by transducers every 5 minutes. Regular biweekly grab samples in the three catchments were used to estimate the baseflow N loads, composite samples in 13 storms were collected to estimate the stormflow N loads. The results showed that in the baseflow, the average NO3-N concentration in SFC was 12.19 mg/l, which was significantly different from the urban catchments. Also there was a significant difference between the NO3-N concentrations in RWC (1.17 mg/l on average) and CC (0.60 mg/l on average). A separate log-log relationship was developed between discharge and N loads to estimate the baseflow N loads and stormflow N loads. It showed that baseflow contributed more N loads than stormflow in the three catchments in the annual N load. In conclusion, the recreational catchment received the greatest N load compared to the other catchments, so it should be the priority catchment when it comes to adopting nutrient management practices in the Lake Alice

  20. Frito-Lay North America/NREL CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-176

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2013-06-01

    Frito Lay North America (FLNA) requires technical assistance for the evaluation and implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in production facilities and distribution centers across North America. Services provided by NREL do not compete with those available in the private sector, but rather provide FLNA with expertise to create opportunities for the private sector renewable/efficiency industries and to inform FLNA decision making regarding cost-effective projects. Services include: identifying the most cost-effective project locations based on renewable energy resource data, utility data, incentives and other parameters affecting projects; assistance with feasibility studies; procurement specifications; design reviews; and other services to support FNLA in improving resource efficiency at facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) establishes the terms and conditions under which FLNA may access capabilities unique to the laboratory and required by FLNA. Each subsequent task issued under this umbrella agreement would include a scope-of-work, budget, schedule, and provisions for intellectual property specific to that task.

  1. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu)

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16–21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry. PMID:24804035

  2. The Evaluation of Educational Programmes: Methods, Uses and Benefits. Part A, Volume 24. Report of the Educational Research Workshop (North Berwick, Scotland, November 22-25, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Council for Research in Education.

    An introductory report, six commissioned papers, and four selected background reports presented at the North Berwick Workshop, one of a series of educational research meetings sponsored by the Council of Europe, are provided. The Workshop brought together research workers and educational administrators from different countries to: review…

  3. Fieldwork challenges: lessons learned from a north-south public health research partnership.

    PubMed

    Casale, Marisa A J; Flicker, Sarah; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2011-09-01

    The value of collaborative international research in addressing global public health challenges is increasingly recognized. However, little has been written about lessons learned regarding fieldwork to help guide future collaborative efforts. Through a research partnership between two Northern universities, one Southern university, and a Southern faith-based organization, we evaluated a school-based HIV prevention intervention with South African adolescents. In this article, we highlight the seven key fieldwork-related challenges experienced and identify the lessons learned. The underlying theme is that of reconciling a structured and reasoned "desk" planning process with the more fluid and unpredictable reality of conducting fieldwork. This concern is particularly significant in resource-deprived environments and/or contexts that are less familiar to Northern partners. Fieldwork is unpredictable, but obstacles can be minimized through meaningful participation in both planning and field research. Sharing practical lessons from the field can prove a useful resource for both researchers and practitioners. PMID:21422255

  4. Assessment of surface water resources availability using catchment modeling and the results of tracer studies in the meso-scale Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyaneza, O.; Mukubwa, A.; Maskey, S.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the last couple of years, different hydrological research projects were undertaken in the Migina catchment (243.2 km2), a tributary of the Kagera river in Southern Rwanda. These projects were aimed to understand hydrological processes of the catchment using analytical and experimental approaches and to build a pilot case whose experience can be extended to other catchments in Rwanda. In the present study, we developed a hydrological model of the catchment, which can be used to inform water resources planning and decision making. The semi-distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS (version 3.5) was used with its soil moisture accounting, unit hydrograph, liner reservoir (for base flow) and Muskingum-Cunge (river routing) methods. We used rainfall data from 12 stations and streamflow data from 5 stations, which were collected as part of this study over a period of two years (May 2009 and June 2011). The catchment was divided into five sub-catchments each represented by one of the five observed streamflow gauges. The model parameters were calibrated separately for each sub-catchment using the observed streamflow data. Calibration results obtained were found acceptable at four stations with a Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency of 0.65 on daily runoff at the catchment outlet. Due to the lack of sufficient and reliable data for longer periods, a model validation (split sample test) was not undertaken. However, we used results from tracer based hydrograph separation from a previous study to compare our model results in terms of the runoff components. It was shown that the model performed well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and base flow. We observed considerable disparities in the parameters (e.g. groundwater storage) and runoff components across the five sub-catchments, that provided insights into the different hydrological processes at sub-catchment scale. We conclude that such disparities justify the need

  5. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    Most of the climate models projections for the Mediterranean basin have showed that the region will likely to experience a general tendency towards drier climate conditions with decreases in total precipitation, increases in temperature, alterations in the rainfall extreme events and droughts frequency (IPCC, 2007; Giorgi and Lionello, 2008; López-Moreno et al., 2011). The region is already suffering from water resources scarcity and vulnerability which are expected to amplify in the next century (Ludwig et al., 2011; Schneider et al., 2013). Therefore, assessing the impact of climate change on the hydrologic regime of Mediterranean catchments is with a major concern not only to scientist but also to water resources policy makers and general public. However, most of the climate change impact studies focus on the flow regime on global or regional scale rather than on the catchment scale which is more useful and more appropriate to guide practical mitigation and adaptation policy. This is because hydro-climate modeling at the local scale is confronted to the variability in climate, topography, geology, lack of observations and anthropogenic activities within the catchment. Furthermore, it is well recognized that hydrological and climate models forecasts are always affected with uncertainty making the assessment of climate change impact on Mediterranean catchment hydrology more challenging. This work aims to assess the impact of climate change on a Mediterranean catchment located in North Africa (the Chiba catchment in northeast Tunisia) through a conjunctive use of physically based hydrological model (SWAT) driven with four climate models*. Quantification of the impact of climate change has been conducted by means of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (Richter et al., 1996) which are also ecologically meaningful. By comparing changes in these indicators in the reference period (1971-2000) to the projected ones in the future (2041-2070), it was possible to draw

  6. Institutional Research and Planning in the Next Decade. Proceedings from the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (10th, Hershey, Pennsylvania, October 16-18, 1983). Tenth Anniversary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    Proceedings of the 1983 conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research are presented. The contribution of institutional research to university decision making and the topics of student outcomes assessment, retention/attrition studies, marketing/market research, departmental studies, computer and technological applications, and…

  7. A Catchment-Based Land Surface Model for GCMs and the Framework for its Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducharen, A.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M. J.; Kumar, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new GCM-scale land surface modeling strategy that explicitly accounts for subgrid soil moisture variability and its effects on evaporation and runoff is now being explored. In a break from traditional modeling strategies, the continental surface is disaggregated into a mosaic of hydrological catchments, with boundaries that are not dictated by a regular grid but by topography. Within each catchment, the variability of soil moisture is deduced from TOP-MODEL equations with a special treatment of the unsaturated zone. This paper gives an overview of this new approach and presents the general framework for its off-line evaluation over North-America.

  8. A small Internet controllable observatory for research and education at the University of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardersen, P. S.; de Silva, S.; Reddy, V.; Cui, P.; Kumar, S.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    One of the challenges in astronomy education today is to introduce college students to the real-world practice and science of observational astronomy. Along with a good theoretical background, college students can gain an earlier, deeper understanding of the astronomy profession through direct observational and data reduction experience. However, building and managing a modest observatory is still too costly for many colleges and universities. Fortunately, advances in commercial astronomical hardware and software now allow universities to build and operate small Internet controllable observatories for a modest investment. The advantages of an Internet observatory include: 1) remote operation from a comfortable location, 2) immediate data access, 3) telescope control via a web browser, and 4) allowing both on-campus and distance education students the ability to conduct a variety of observing projects. Internet capabilities vastly expand the number of students who will be able to use the observatory, thus exposing them to astronomy as a science and as a potential career. In September 2005, the University of North Dakota (UND) Department of Space Studies began operating a small, recently renovated Internet controllable observatory. Housed within a roll-off roof 10 miles west of UND, the observatory includes a Meade 16-inch, f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, an SBIG STL-6303e CCD with broadband filters, ACP observatory control software, focuser, and associated equipment. The observatory cost \\25,000 to build in 1996; 2005 renovation costs total \\28,000. An observatory operator prepares the telescope for use each night. Through remote operation, the roof is opened and the telescope/CCD power is turned on. The telescope is then aligned and focused before allowing students to access the observatory. Students communicate with the observatory operator via an online chat room and via telephone, if necessary, to answer questions and resolve any problems. Additional

  9. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  10. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on